WorldWideScience

Sample records for european large area

  1. The European Large Area ISO Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliver, S.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Alexander, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS). ELAIS was the largest single Open Time project conducted by ISO, mapping an area of 12 deg(2) at 15 mu m with ISOCAM and at 90 mu m with ISOPHOT. Secondary surveys in other ISO bands were undertaken by the ELAIS team within the fields of the...

  2. The European Large-Area ISO Survey (ELAIS): the final band-merged catalogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowan-Robinson, M.; Lari, C.; Perez-Fournon, I.

    2004-01-01

    We present the final band-merged European Large-Area ISO Survey (ELAIS) Catalogue at 6.7, 15, 90 and 175 mum, and the associated data at U, g', r', i', Z, J, H, K and 20 cm. The origin of the survey, infrared and radio observations, data-reduction and optical identifications are briefly reviewed...

  3. The European Large Area ISO Survey - IV. The preliminary 90-mu m luminosity function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serjeant, S.; Efstathiou, A.; Oliver, S.

    2001-01-01

    We present the luminosity function of 90-mum-selected galaxies from the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS), extending to z = 0.3. Their luminosities are in the range 10(9)

  4. The European large area ISO survey - III. 90-mu m extragalactic source counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efstathiou, A.; Oliver, S.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    2000-01-01

    We present results and source counts at 90 mum extracted from the preliminary analysis of the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS). The survey covered about 12 deg(2) of the sky in four main areas and was carried out with the ISOPHOT instrument onboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO...... or small groups of galaxies, suggesting that the sample may include a significant fraction of luminous infrared galaxies. The source counts extracted from a reliable subset of the detected sources are in agreement with strongly evolving models of the starburst galaxy population....

  5. Swift delineation of flood-prone areas over large European regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares da Costa, Ricardo; Castellarin, Attilio; Manfreda, Salvatore; Samela, Caterina; Domeneghetti, Alessio; Mazzoli, Paolo; Luzzi, Valerio; Bagli, Stefano

    2017-04-01

    According to the European Environment Agency (EEA Report No 1/2016), a significant share of the European population is estimated to be living on or near a floodplain, with Italy having the highest population density in flood-prone areas among the countries analysed. This tendency, tied with event frequency and magnitude (e.g.: the 24/11/2016 floods in Italy) and the fact that river floods may occur at large scales and at a transboundary level, where data is often sparse, presents a challenge in flood-risk management. The availability of consistent flood hazard and risk maps during prevention, preparedness, response and recovery phases are a valuable and important step forward in improving the effectiveness, efficiency and robustness of evidence-based decision making. The present work aims at testing and discussing the usefulness of pattern recognition techniques based on geomorphologic indices (Manfreda et al., J. Hydrol. Eng., 2011, Degiorgis et al., J Hydrol., 2012, Samela et al., J. Hydrol. Eng., 2015) for the simplified mapping of river flood-prone areas at large scales. The techniques are applied to 25m Digital Elevation Models (DEM) of the Danube, Po and Severn river watersheds, obtained from the Copernicus data and information funded by the European Union - EU-DEM layers. Results are compared to the Pan-European flood hazard maps derived by Alfieri et al. (Hydrol. Proc., 2013) using a set of distributed hydrological (LISFLOOD, van der Knijff et al., Int. J. Geogr. Inf. Sci., 2010, employed within the European Flood Awareness System, www.efas.eu) and hydraulic models (LISFLOOD-FP, Bates and De Roo, J. Hydrol., 2000). Our study presents different calibration and cross-validation exercises of the DEM-based mapping algorithms to assess to which extent, and with which accuracy, they can be reproduced over different regions of Europe. This work is being developed under the System-Risk project (www.system-risk.eu) that received funding from the European Union

  6. A European Research Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, R.

    2001-01-01

    This article is a summary of the presentation of the European Commissioner, Philippe Busquen, to the European Parliament (beginning of year 2000) with the proposal and method for a revival of the Research and Development in this wider sense in the European Union. The starting point of his thesis is that Europe performs less, and more disorderly, activities in this field that her main competitors. USA and Japan. His basic proposal is a larger coordination among the european research projects, with a previous phase of informatics intoxicator among the european research centres and the cross-linked participation, real of virtual in the experiments and projects. (Author)

  7. Climate change threatens European conservation areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastos Araujo, Miguel; Alagador, Diogo; Cabeza, Mar

    2011-01-01

    Europe has the world's most extensive network of conservation areas. Conservation areas are selected without taking into account the effects of climate change. How effectively would such areas conserve biodiversity under climate change? We assess the effectiveness of protected areas and the Natura...... 2000 network in conserving a large proportion of European plant and terrestrial vertebrate species under climate change. We found that by 2080, 58 ± 2.6% of the species would lose suitable climate in protected areas, whereas losses affected 63 ± 2.1% of the species of European concern occurring...

  8. European Extremely Large Telescope: progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, R.; Spyromilio, J.

    2014-07-01

    The European Extremely Large Telescope is a project of the European Southern Observatory to build and operate a 40-m class optical near-infrared telescope. The telescope design effort is largely concluded and construction contracts are being placed with industry and academic/research institutes for the various components. The siting of the telescope in Northern Chile close to the Paranal site allows for an integrated operation of the facility providing significant economies. The progress of the project in various areas is presented in this paper and references to other papers at this SPIE meeting are made.

  9. Sprawl in European urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prastacos, Poulicos; Lagarias, Apostolos

    2016-08-01

    In this paper the 2006 edition of the Urban Atlas database is used to tabulate areas of low development density, usually referred to as "sprawl", for many European cities. The Urban Atlas database contains information on the land use distribution in the 305 largest European cities. Twenty different land use types are recognized, with six of them representing urban fabric. Urban fabric classes are residential areas differentiated by the density of development, which is measured by the sealing degree parameter that ranges from 0% to 100% (non-developed, fully developed). Analysis is performed on the distribution of the middle to low density areas defined as those with sealing degree less than 50%. Seven different country groups in which urban areas have similar sprawl characteristics are identified and some key characteristics of sprawl are discussed. Population of an urban area is another parameter considered in the analysis. Two spatial metrics, average patch size and mean distance to the nearest neighboring patch of the same class, are used to describe proximity/separation characteristics of sprawl in the urban areas of the seven groups.

  10. Small area detectors at the European XFEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcato, M.; Gessler, P.; Hauf, S.; Kuster, M.; Meyer, M.; Nordgren, J.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Youngman, C.

    2014-05-01

    The detectors to be used at the European XFEL have to deal with the unique time structure of the machine, delivering up to 2700 pulses, with a repetition rate of 4.5 MHz, ten times per second, the very high photon flux and the need to combine single-photon sensitivity and a large dynamic range. This represents a challenge not only for the large-area 2D imaging detectors but also for the smaller-area detectors and makes the use of standard commercial devices impossible. Dedicated solutions are therefore envisaged for small imaging- or strip-detectors. In this contribution the focus is put on two particular small-area detector solutions which are planned to be used at the European XFEL, a strip detector for hard X-rays (with energy 3 < E < 25 keV) and an imaging detector for soft X-rays (0.25 < E < 3 keV). Hard X-rays photon-beam diagnostics as well as hard X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy at the European XFEL make use of strip detectors as detectors for beam spectrometers or as energy-dispersive detectors in combination with an energy-dispersive element. The European XFEL is establishing cooperation with the Paul Scherrer Institute in Villigen to develop a new version of the Gotthard detector best suited to the European XFEL needs. The use case and the required detector specifications are illustrated. Starting from the present detector version, the modifications planned to adapt it to the European XFEL running conditions are described. These include the capability of running at an increased rate and to provide a veto signal to the large 2D imaging detectors, in order to be able to remove non-interesting images already at early stages of the DAQ system. In another particular application, resonant inelastic X-ray scattering, a Micro-Channel Plate detector matched to a delay-line readout is foreseen to be used. In this case the European XFEL is aiming for a highly customized solution provided by the German company Surface Concept. The use case is described

  11. Large area bulk superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dean J.; Field, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    A bulk superconductor having a thickness of not less than about 100 microns is carried by a polycrystalline textured substrate having misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.; the bulk superconductor may have a thickness of not less than about 100 microns and a surface area of not less than about 50 cm.sup.2. The textured substrate may have a thickness not less than about 10 microns and misorientation angles at the surface thereof not greater than about 15.degree.. Also disclosed is a process of manufacturing the bulk superconductor and the polycrystalline biaxially textured substrate material.

  12. Large area and flexible electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Caironi, Mario

    2015-01-01

    From materials to applications, this ready reference covers the entire value chain from fundamentals via processing right up to devices, presenting different approaches to large-area electronics, thus enabling readers to compare materials, properties and performance.Divided into two parts, the first focuses on the materials used for the electronic functionality, covering organic and inorganic semiconductors, including vacuum and solution-processed metal-oxide semiconductors, nanomembranes and nanocrystals, as well as conductors and insulators. The second part reviews the devices and applicatio

  13. Design of a lighting system with high-power LEDs, large area electronics, and light management structure in the LUMENTILE European project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, L.; Simonetta, M.; Benetti, G.; Tramonte, A.; Capelli, G.; Benedetti, M.; Randone, E. M.; Ylisaukko-oja, A.; Keränen, K.; Facchinetti, T.; Giuliani, G.

    2017-02-01

    LUMENTILE (LUMinous ElectroNic TILE) is a project funded by the European Commission with the goal of developing a luminous tile with novel functionalities, capable of changing its color and interact with the user. Applications include interior/exterior tile for walls and floors covering, high-efficiency luminaries, and advertising under the form of giant video screens. High overall electrical efficiency of the tile is mandatory, as several millions of square meters are foreseen to be installed each year. Demand is for high uniformity of the illumination of the top tile surface, and for high optical extraction efficiency. These features are achieved by smart light management, using a new approach based on light guiding slab and spatially selective light extraction obtained using both diffusion and/or reflection from the top and bottom interfaces of the optical layer. Planar and edge configurations for the RGB LEDs are considered and compared. A square shape with side length from 20cm to 60cm is considered for the tiles. The electronic circuit layout must optimize the electrical efficiency, and be compatible with low-cost roll-to-roll production on flexible substrates. LED heat management is tackled by using dedicated solutions that allow operation in thermally harsh environment. An approach based on OLEDs has also been considered, still needing improvement on emitted power and ruggedness.

  14. Large-area photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, Tilmann; Spahn, Peter; Hellmann, Gotz P.; Winkler, Holger

    2004-09-01

    Materials with a periodically modulated refractive index, with periods on the scale of light wavelengths, are currently attracting much attention because of their unique optical properties which are caused by Bragg scattering of the visible light. In nature, 3d structures of this kind are found in the form of opals in which monodisperse silica spheres with submicron diameters form a face-centered-cubic (fcc) lattice. Artificial opals, with the same colloidal-crystalline fcc structure, have meanwhile been prepared by crystallizing spherical colloidal particles via sedimentation or drying of dispersions. In this report, colloidal crystalline films are introduced that were produced by a novel technique based on shear flow in the melts of specially designed submicroscopic silica-polymer core-shell hybrid spheres: when the melt of these spheres flows between the plates of a press, the spheres crystallize along the plates, layer by layer, and the silica cores assume the hexagonal order corresponding to the (111) plane of the fcc lattice. This process is fast and yields large-area films, thin or thick. To enhance the refractive index contrast in these films, the colloidal crystalline structure was inverted by etching out the silica cores with hydrofluoric acid. This type of an inverse opal, in which the fcc lattice is formed by mesopores, is referred to as a polymer-air photonic crystal.

  15. Large area CMOS image sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turchetta, R; Guerrini, N; Sedgwick, I

    2011-01-01

    CMOS image sensors, also known as CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APS) or Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), are today the dominant imaging devices. They are omnipresent in our daily life, as image sensors in cellular phones, web cams, digital cameras, ... In these applications, the pixels can be very small, in the micron range, and the sensors themselves tend to be limited in size. However, many scientific applications, like particle or X-ray detection, require large format, often with large pixels, as well as other specific performance, like low noise, radiation hardness or very fast readout. The sensors are also required to be sensitive to a broad spectrum of radiation: photons from the silicon cut-off in the IR down to UV and X- and gamma-rays through the visible spectrum as well as charged particles. This requirement calls for modifications to the substrate to be introduced to provide optimized sensitivity. This paper will review existing CMOS image sensors, whose size can be as large as a single CMOS wafer, and analyse the technical requirements and specific challenges of large format CMOS image sensors.

  16. LYCORIS - A Large Area Strip Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Krämer, U; Stanitzki, M; Wu, M

    2018-01-01

    The LYCORIS Large Area Silicon Strip Telescope for the DESY II Test Beam Facility is presented. The DESY II Test Beam Facility provides elec- tron and positron beams for beam tests of up to 6 GeV. A new telescope with a large 10 × 20 cm2 coverage area based on a 25 μm pitch strip sensor is to be installed within the PCMAG 1 T solenoid. The current state of the system is presented.

  17. Large area damage testing of optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheehan, L.; Kozlowski, M.; Stolz, C.

    1996-01-01

    The damage threshold specifications for the National Ignition Facility will include a mixture of standard small-area tests and new large-area tests. During our studies of laser damage and conditioning processes of various materials we have found that some damage morphologies are fairly small and this damage does not grow with further illumination. This type of damage might not be detrimental to the laser performance. We should therefore assume that some damage can be allowed on the optics, but decide on a maximum damage allowance of damage. A new specification of damage threshold termed open-quotes functional damage thresholdclose quotes was derived. Further correlation of damage size and type to system performance must be determined in order to use this measurement, but it is clear that it will be a large factor in the optics performance specifications. Large-area tests have verified that small-area testing is not always sufficient when the optic in question has defect-initiated damage. This was evident for example on sputtered polarizer and mirror coatings where the defect density was low enough that the features could be missed by standard small- area testing. For some materials, the scale-length at which damage non-uniformities occur will effect the comparison of small-area and large-area tests. An example of this was the sub-aperture tests on KD*P crystals on the Beamlet test station. The tests verified the large-area damage threshold to be similar to that found when testing a small-area. Implying that for this KD*P material, the dominate damage mechanism is of sufficiently small scale-length that small-area testing is capable of determining the threshold. The Beamlet test station experiments also demonstrated the use of on-line laser conditioning to increase the crystals damage threshold

  18. Large Area Sputter Coating on Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Yoshihito

    Large glass has been used for commercial buildings, housings and vehicles for many years. Glass size for flat displays is getting larger and larger. The glass for the 8th generation is more than 5 m2 in area. Demand of the large glass is increasing not only in these markets but also in a solar cell market growing drastically. Therefore, large area coating is demanded to plus something else on glass more than ever. Sputtering and pyrolysis are the major coating methods on large glass today. Sputtering process is particularly popular because it can deposit a wide variety of materials in good coating uniformity on the glass. This paper describes typical industrial sputtering system and recent progress in sputtering technology. It also shows typical coated glass products in architectural, automotive and display fields and comments on their functions, film stacks and so on.

  19. Large catchment area recharges Titan's Ontario Lacus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Rajani D.; Barnes, Jason W.; Yanites, Brian J.; Kirk, Randolph L.

    2018-01-01

    We seek to address the question of what processes are at work to fill Ontario Lacus while other, deeper south polar basins remain empty. Our hydrological analysis indicates that Ontario Lacus has a catchment area spanning 5.5% of Titan's surface and a large catchment area to lake surface area ratio. This large catchment area translates into large volumes of liquid making their way to Ontario Lacus after rainfall. The areal extent of the catchment extends to at least southern mid-latitudes (40°S). Mass conservation calculations indicate that runoff alone might completely fill Ontario Lacus within less than half a Titan year (1 Titan year = 29.5 Earth years) assuming no infiltration. Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) observations of clouds over the southern mid and high-latitudes are consistent with precipitation feeding Ontario's large catchment area. This far-flung rain may be keeping Ontario Lacus filled, making it a liquid hydrocarbon oasis in the relatively dry south polar region.

  20. Quantitative Mapping of Large Area Graphene Conductance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Bøggild, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We present quantitative mapping of large area graphene conductance by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and micro four point probe. We observe a clear correlation between the techniques and identify the observed systematic differences to be directly related to imperfections of the graphene sheet...

  1. Stability of large-area molecular junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Hylke B.; Kronemeijer, Auke J.; Harkema, Jan; van Hal, Paul A.; Smits, Edsger C. P.; de Leeuw, Dago M.; Blom, Paul W. M.

    The stability of molecular junctions is crucial for any application of molecular electronics. Degradation of molecular junctions when exposed to ambient conditions is regularly observed. In this report the stability of large-area molecular junctions under ambient conditions for more than two years

  2. A large area plastic Cherenkov detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabei, R.; Bidoli, V.; Zorzi, G. de; Biagio, A. di

    1978-01-01

    A large area Cherenkov counter has been built up using as a radiator a sheet of Pilot 425 plastic, (180x20)cm 2 x2.5 cm. Experimental tests performed with a pion beam in order to measure the average number of photoelectrons collected by photomultipliers and the scintillation to Cherenkov light ratio. (Auth.)

  3. Noise Pulses in Large Area Optical Modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiello, Sebastiano; Leonora, Emanuele; Giordano, Valentina

    2013-06-01

    A great number of large area photomultipliers are widely used in neutrino and astro-particle detector to measure Cherenkov light in medium like water or ice. The key element of these detectors are the so-called 'optical module', which consist in photodetectors closed in a transparent pressure-resistant container to protect it and ensure good light transmission. The noise pulses present on the anode of each photomultiplier affect strongly the performance of the detector. A large study was conducted on noise pulses of large area photomultipliers, considering time and charge distributions of dark pulses, prepulses, delayed pulses, and after pulses. The contribution to noise pulses due to the presence of the external glass spheres was also studied, even comparing two vessels of different brands. (authors)

  4. Progress on large area GEMs (VCI 2010)

    CERN Document Server

    Villa, Marco; Alfonsi, Matteo; Brock, Ian; Croci, Gabriele; David, Eric; de Oliveira, Rui; Ropelewski, Leszek; Taureg, Hans; van Stenis, Miranda

    2011-01-01

    The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) manufacturing technique has recently evolved to allow the production of large area GEMs. A novel approach based on single mask photolithography eliminates the mask alignment issue, which limits the dimensions in the traditional double mask process. Moreover, a splicing technique overcomes the limited width of the raw material. Stretching and handling issues in large area GEMs have also been addressed. Using the new improvements it was possible to build a prototype triple-GEM detector of ~ 2000 cm2 active area, aimed at an application for the TOTEM T1 upgrade. Further refinements of the single mask technique give great control over the shape of the GEM holes and the size of the rims, which can be tuned as needed. In this framework, simulation studies can help to understand the GEM behavior depending on the hole shape.

  5. Chemical Vapour Deposition of Large Area Graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Benjamin Barbour Spanget

    Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) is a viable technique for fabrication of large areas of graphene. CVD fabrication is the most prominent and common way of fabricating graphene in industry. In this thesis I have attempted to optimize a growth recipe and catalyst layer for CVD fabrication of uniform......, single layer, and high carrier mobility large area graphene. The main goals of this work are; (1) explore the graphene growth mechanics in a low pressure cold-wall CVD system on a copper substrate, and (2) optimize the process of growing high quality graphene in terms of carrier mobility, and crystal...... structure. Optimization of a process for graphene growth on commercially available copper foil is limited by the number of aluminium oxide particles on the surface of the catalyst. By replacing the copper foil with a thin deposited copper film on a SiO2/Si or c-plane sapphire wafer the particles can...

  6. Population-Area Relationship for Medieval European Cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Cesaretti

    Full Text Available Medieval European urbanization presents a line of continuity between earlier cities and modern European urban systems. Yet, many of the spatial, political and economic features of medieval European cities were particular to the Middle Ages, and subsequently changed over the Early Modern Period and Industrial Revolution. There is a long tradition of demographic studies estimating the population sizes of medieval European cities, and comparative analyses of these data have shed much light on the long-term evolution of urban systems. However, the next step-to systematically relate the population size of these cities to their spatial and socioeconomic characteristics-has seldom been taken. This raises a series of interesting questions, as both modern and ancient cities have been observed to obey area-population relationships predicted by settlement scaling theory. To address these questions, we analyze a new dataset for the settled area and population of 173 European cities from the early fourteenth century to determine the relationship between population and settled area. To interpret this data, we develop two related models that lead to differing predictions regarding the quantitative form of the population-area relationship, depending on the level of social mixing present in these cities. Our empirical estimates of model parameters show a strong densification of cities with city population size, consistent with patterns in contemporary cities. Although social life in medieval Europe was orchestrated by hierarchical institutions (e.g., guilds, church, municipal organizations, our results show no statistically significant influence of these institutions on agglomeration effects. The similarities between the empirical patterns of settlement relating area to population observed here support the hypothesis that cities throughout history share common principles of organization that self-consistently relate their socioeconomic networks to structured

  7. Population-Area Relationship for Medieval European Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaretti, Rudolf; Lobo, José; Bettencourt, Luís M A; Ortman, Scott G; Smith, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Medieval European urbanization presents a line of continuity between earlier cities and modern European urban systems. Yet, many of the spatial, political and economic features of medieval European cities were particular to the Middle Ages, and subsequently changed over the Early Modern Period and Industrial Revolution. There is a long tradition of demographic studies estimating the population sizes of medieval European cities, and comparative analyses of these data have shed much light on the long-term evolution of urban systems. However, the next step-to systematically relate the population size of these cities to their spatial and socioeconomic characteristics-has seldom been taken. This raises a series of interesting questions, as both modern and ancient cities have been observed to obey area-population relationships predicted by settlement scaling theory. To address these questions, we analyze a new dataset for the settled area and population of 173 European cities from the early fourteenth century to determine the relationship between population and settled area. To interpret this data, we develop two related models that lead to differing predictions regarding the quantitative form of the population-area relationship, depending on the level of social mixing present in these cities. Our empirical estimates of model parameters show a strong densification of cities with city population size, consistent with patterns in contemporary cities. Although social life in medieval Europe was orchestrated by hierarchical institutions (e.g., guilds, church, municipal organizations), our results show no statistically significant influence of these institutions on agglomeration effects. The similarities between the empirical patterns of settlement relating area to population observed here support the hypothesis that cities throughout history share common principles of organization that self-consistently relate their socioeconomic networks to structured urban spaces.

  8. European research school on large scale solar thermal – SHINE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bales, Chris; Forteza, Pau Joan Cortés; Furbo, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The Solar Heat Integration NEtwork (SHINE) is a European research school in which 13 PhD students in solar thermal technologies are funded by the EU Marie-Curie program. It has five PhD course modules as well as workshops and seminars dedicated to PhD students both within the project as well...... as outside of it. The SHINE research activities focus on large solar heating systems and new applications: on district heating, industrial processes and new storage systems. The scope of this paper is on systems for district heating for which there are five PhD students, three at universities and two...

  9. Imaging extrasolar planets with the European Extremely Large Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolissaint L.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT is the most ambitious of the ELTs being planned. With a diameter of 42 m and being fully adaptive from the start, the E-ELT will be more than one hundred times more sensitive than the present-day largest optical telescopes. Discovering and characterising planets around other stars will be one of the most important aspects of the E-ELT science programme. We model an extreme adaptive optics instrument on the E-ELT. The resulting contrast curves translate to the detectability of exoplanets.

  10. Very large area multiwire spectroscopic proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; Boccaccini, L.; Mastropietro, M.; La Padula, C.D.; Patriarca, R.; Polcaro, V.F.

    1981-01-01

    As a result of a five year development program, a final prototype of a Very Large Area Spectroscopic Proportional Counter (VLASPC), to be employed in space borne payloads, was produced at the Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale, Frascati. The instrument is the last version of a new generation of Multiwire Spectroscopic Proportional Counters (MWSPC) succesfully employed in many balloon borne flights, devoted to hard X-ray astronomy. The sensitive area of this standard unit is 2700 cm 2 with an efficiency higher than 10% in the range 15-180 keV (80% at 60 keV). The low cost and weight make this new type of VLASPC competitive with Nal arrays, phoswich and GSPC detectors in terms of achievable scientific results. (orig.)

  11. Very large area multiwire spectroscopic proportional counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; Boccaccini, L.; Mastropietro, M.; La Padula, C.D.; Patriarca, R.; Polcaro, V.F. (Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale, Frascati (Italy))

    1981-07-01

    As a result of a five year development program, a final prototype of a Very Large Area Spectroscopic Proportional Counter (VLASPC), to be employed in space borne payloads, was produced at the Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale, Frascati. The instrument is the last version of a new generation of Multiwire Spectroscopic Proportional Counters (MWSPC) successfully employed in many balloon borne flights, devoted to hard X-ray astronomy. The sensitive area of this standard unit is 2700 cm/sup 2/ with an efficiency higher than 10% in the range 15-180 keV (80% at 60 keV). The low cost and weight make this new type of VLASPC competitive with Nal arrays, phoswich and GSPC detectors in terms of achievable scientific results.

  12. Supernova Remnants with Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caragiulo M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Large Area Telescope (LAT, on-board the Fermi satellite, proved to be, after 8 years of data taking, an excellent instrument to detect and observe Supernova Remnants (SNRs in a range of energies running from few hundred MeV up to few hundred GeV. It provides essential information on physical processes that occur at the source, involving both accelerated leptons and hadrons, in order to understand the mechanisms responsible for the primary Cosmic Ray (CR acceleration. We show the latest results in the observation of Galactic SNRs by Fermi-LAT.

  13. Measles among migrants in the European Union and the European Economic Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, G.A.; Bacci, S.; Shadwick, R.; Tillmann, T.; Rechel, B.; Noori, T.; Suk, J.E.; Odone, A.; Ingleby, J.D.; Mladovsky, P.; McKee, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Progress towards meeting the goal of measles elimination in the EU and the European Economic Area (EEA) by 2015 is being obstructed, as some children are either not immunized on time or never immunized. One group thought to be at increased risk of measles is migrants; however, the extent to

  14. Perspectives for food research and European collaboration in the European Research Area and the new Framework Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, L

    2001-08-01

    Since 1987, successive framework programmes have contributed to strengthen European food research through the establishment of networks between research institutions, universities and companies from various European countries. In the FAIR programme (1994-1998), 118 research projects comprising nearly 1,000 participants from the European Union and Associated States have been supported in the food area with a European funding of about [symbol: see text] 108 million. Within the Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources programme (1998-2002), food research is mostly supported within the key action 'food, nutrition and health' with a budget of [symbol: see text] 290 million. After the first four deadlines, 735 eligible research proposals have already been received. Further to their evaluation by a panel of independent experts, 108 proposals have been funded or selected for funding representing a total contribution of about [symbol: see text] 168 million. Among those, several clusters of projects are now running on important topics such as probiotics, coeliac diseases, mycotoxins, GMO, safety and food for the elderly. In addition, technology stimulation measures are largely benefiting SMEs to foster their innovation potential. In January 2000, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "Towards the European Research Area (ERA)" with the objective to contribute to developing better framework conditions for research in Europe. On 21 February 2001, the Commission adopted proposals to be submitted to the European Parliament and Council for the next framework programme for research and innovation (2002-2006). The new framework programme that is becoming one of the financial instruments of the ERA aims at catalysing the integration of European research by: strengthening of links between the Community research effort and national and regional research policies; concentrating on a limited number of priority fields or research to which activities at the

  15. Large area solid target neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, J.C.; Bauer, W.

    1974-01-01

    A potentially useful neutron source may result from the combination of a solid deuterium-tritium loaded target with the large area, high energy ion beams from ion sources being developed for neutral beam injection. The resulting neutron source would have a large radiating area and thus produce the sizable experimental volume necessary for future studies of bulk and synergistic surface radiation effects as well as experiments on engineering samples and small components. With a 200 keV D + T + beam and 40 kW/cm 2 power dissipation on a 200 cm 2 target spot, a total neutron yield of about 4 x 10 15 n/sec may be achieved. Although the useable neutron flux from this source is limited to 1 to 2 x 10 13 n/cm 2 /sec, this flux can be produced 3 cm in front of the target and over about 300 cm 3 of experimental volume. Problems of total power dissipation, sputtering, isotopic flushing and thermal dissociation are reviewed. Neutron flux profiles and potential experimental configurations are presented and compared to other neutron source concepts. (U.S.)

  16. Reduction in undiagnosed HIV infection in the European Union/European Economic Area, 2012 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sighem, Ard; Pharris, Anastasia; Quinten, Chantal; Noori, Teymur; Amato-Gauci, Andrew J

    2017-11-01

    It is well-documented that early HIV diagnosis and linkage to care reduces morbidity and mortality as well as HIV transmission. We estimated the median time from HIV infection to diagnosis in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) at 2.9 years in 2016, with regional variation. Despite evidence of a decline in the number of people living with undiagnosed HIV in the EU/EEA, many remain undiagnosed, including 33% with more advanced HIV infection (CD4 < 350 cells/mm3).

  17. Charge reconstruction in large-area photomultipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, M.; Montuschi, M.; Baldoncini, M.; Mantovani, F.; Ricci, B.; Andronico, G.; Antonelli, V.; Bellato, M.; Bernieri, E.; Brigatti, A.; Brugnera, R.; Budano, A.; Buscemi, M.; Bussino, S.; Caruso, R.; Chiesa, D.; Corti, D.; Dal Corso, F.; Ding, X. F.; Dusini, S.; Fabbri, A.; Fiorentini, G.; Ford, R.; Formozov, A.; Galet, G.; Garfagnini, A.; Giammarchi, M.; Giaz, A.; Insolia, A.; Isocrate, R.; Lippi, I.; Longhitano, F.; Lo Presti, D.; Lombardi, P.; Marini, F.; Mari, S. M.; Martellini, C.; Meroni, E.; Mezzetto, M.; Miramonti, L.; Monforte, S.; Nastasi, M.; Ortica, F.; Paoloni, A.; Parmeggiano, S.; Pedretti, D.; Pelliccia, N.; Pompilio, R.; Previtali, E.; Ranucci, G.; Re, A. C.; Romani, A.; Saggese, P.; Salamanna, G.; Sawy, F. H.; Settanta, G.; Sisti, M.; Sirignano, C.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Strati, V.; Verde, G.; Votano, L.

    2018-02-01

    Large-area PhotoMultiplier Tubes (PMT) allow to efficiently instrument Liquid Scintillator (LS) neutrino detectors, where large target masses are pivotal to compensate for neutrinos' extremely elusive nature. Depending on the detector light yield, several scintillation photons stemming from the same neutrino interaction are likely to hit a single PMT in a few tens/hundreds of nanoseconds, resulting in several photoelectrons (PEs) to pile-up at the PMT anode. In such scenario, the signal generated by each PE is entangled to the others, and an accurate PMT charge reconstruction becomes challenging. This manuscript describes an experimental method able to address the PMT charge reconstruction in the case of large PE pile-up, providing an unbiased charge estimator at the permille level up to 15 detected PEs. The method is based on a signal filtering technique (Wiener filter) which suppresses the noise due to both PMT and readout electronics, and on a Fourier-based deconvolution able to minimize the influence of signal distortions—such as an overshoot. The analysis of simulated PMT waveforms shows that the slope of a linear regression modeling the relation between reconstructed and true charge values improves from 0.769 ± 0.001 (without deconvolution) to 0.989 ± 0.001 (with deconvolution), where unitary slope implies perfect reconstruction. A C++ implementation of the charge reconstruction algorithm is available online at [1].

  18. Can only poorer European countries afford large carnivores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojola, Ilpo; Hallikainen, Ville; Helle, Timo; Swenson, Jon E

    2018-01-01

    One of the classic approaches in environmental economics is the environmental Kuznets curve, which predicts that when a national economy grows from low to medium levels, threats to biodiversity conservation increase, but they decrease when the economy moves from medium to high. We evaluated this approach by examining how population densities of the brown bear (Ursus arctos), gray wolf (Canis lupus), and Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) were related to the national economy in 24 European countries. We used forest proportions, the existence of a compensation system, and country group (former socialist countries, Nordic countries, other countries) as covariates in a linear model with the first- and the second-order polynomial terms of per capita gross domestic product (GDP). Country group was treated as a random factor, but remained insignificant and was ignored. All models concerning brown bear and wolf provided evidence that population densities decreased with increasing GDP, but densities of lynx were virtually independent of GDP. Models for the wolf explained >80% of the variation in densities, without a difference between the models with all independent variables and the model with only GDP. For the bear, the model with GDP alone accounted for 10%, and all three variables 33%, of the variation in densities. Wolves exhibit a higher capacity for dispersal and reproduction than bear or lynx, but still exists at the lowest densities in wealthy European countries. We are aware that several other factors, not available for our models, influenced large carnivore densities. Based on the pronounced differences among large carnivore species in their countrywide relationships between densities and GDP, and a strikingly high relationship for the gray wolf, we suggest that our results reflected differences in political history and public acceptance of these species among countries. The compensation paid for the damages caused by the carnivores is not a key to higher carnivore

  19. Large area electron beam diode development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helava, H.; Gilman, C.M.; Stringfield, R.M.; Young, T.

    1983-01-01

    A large area annular electron beam diode has been tested at Physics International Co. on the multi-terawatt PITHON generator. A twelve element post hole convolute converted the coaxial MITL into a triaxial arrangement of anode current return structures both inside and outside the cathode structure. The presence of both inner and outer current return paths provide magnetic pressure balance for the beam, as determined by diode current measurements. X-ray pinhole photographs indicated uniform emission with intensity maxima between the post positions. Current losses in the post hole region were negligible, as evidenced by the absence of damage to the aluminum hardware. Radial electron flow near the cathode ring however did damage the inner anode cylinder between the post positions. Cutting away these regions prevented further damage of the transmission lines

  20. Large-area mapping of biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J.M.; Jennings, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    The age of discovery, description, and classification of biodiversity is entering a new phase. In responding to the conservation imperative, we can now supplement the essential work of systematics with spatially explicit information on species and assemblages of species. This is possible because of recent conceptual, technical, and organizational progress in generating synoptic views of the earth's surface and a great deal of its biological content, at multiple scales of thematic as well as geographic resolution. The development of extensive spatial data on species distributions and vegetation types provides us with a framework for: (a) assessing what we know and where we know it at meso-scales, and (b) stratifying the biological universe so that higher-resolution surveys can be more efficiently implemented, coveting, for example, geographic adequacy of specimen collections, population abundance, reproductive success, and genetic dynamics. The land areas involved are very large, and the questions, such as resolution, scale, classification, and accuracy, are complex. In this paper, we provide examples from the United States Gap Analysis Program on the advantages and limitations of mapping the occurrence of terrestrial vertebrate species and dominant land-cover types over large areas as joint ventures and in multi-organizational partnerships, and how these cooperative efforts can be designed to implement results from data development and analyses as on-the-ground actions. Clearly, new frameworks for thinking about biogeographic information as well as organizational cooperation are needed if we are to have any hope of documenting the full range of species occurrences and ecological processes in ways meaningful to their management. The Gap Analysis experience provides one model for achieving these new frameworks.

  1. Electromagnetic surface waves for large-area RF plasma productions between large-area planar electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonaka, S.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, large-area plasma production has been tested by means of a 13.56 MHz radio-frequency (RF) discharge between a pair of large-area planar electrodes, approximately 0.5 m x 1.4 m, as one of the semiconductor technologies for fabrication of large-area amorphous silicon solar cells in the ''Sunshine Project'' of the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology in Japan. We also confirmed long plasma production between a pair of long electrodes. In this paper, normal electromagnetic (EM) waves propagating in a region between a planar waveguide with one plasma and two dielectric layers are analyzed in order to study the feasibility of large-area plasma productions by EM wave-discharges between a pair of large-area RF electrodes larger than the half-wavelength of RF wave. In conclusion, plasmas higher than an electron plasma frequency will be produced by an odd TMoo surface mode. (author) 4 refs., 3 figs

  2. Tuberculosis among migrant populations in the European Union and the European Economic Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odone, Anna; Tillmann, Taavi; Sandgren, Andreas; Williams, Gemma; Rechel, Bernd; Ingleby, David; Noori, Teymur; Mladovsky, Philipa; McKee, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Although tuberculosis (TB) incidence has been decreasing in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) in the last decades, specific subgroups of the population, such as migrants, remain at high risk of TB. This study is based on the report 'Key Infectious Diseases in Migrant Populations in the EU/EEA' commissioned by The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. We collected, critically appraised and summarized the available evidence on the TB burden in migrants in the EU/EEA. Data were collected through: (i) a comprehensive literature review; (ii) analysis of data from The European Surveillance System (TESSy) and (iii) evidence provided by TB experts during an infectious disease workshop in 2012. In 2010, of the 73,996 TB cases notified in the EU/EEA, 25% were of foreign origin. The overall decrease of TB cases observed in recent years has not been reflected in migrant populations. Foreign-born people with TB exhibit different socioeconomic and clinical characteristics than native sufferers. This is one of the first studies to use multiple data sources, including the largest available European database on infectious disease notifications, to assess the burden and provide a comprehensive description and analysis of specific TB features in migrants in the EU/EEA. Strengthened information about health determinants and factors for migrants' vulnerability is needed to plan, implement and evaluate targeted TB care and control interventions for migrants in the EU/EEA. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  3. EFEDA - European field experiment in a desertification-threatened area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolle, H.-J.; Andre, J.-C.; Arrue, J. L.; Barth, H. K.; Bessemoulin, P.; Brasa, A.; De Bruin, H. A. R.; Cruces, J.; Dugdale, G.; Engman, E. T.

    1993-01-01

    During June 1991 more than 30 scientific teams worked in Castilla-La Mancha, Spain, studying the energy and water transfer processes between soil, vegetation, and the atmosphere in semiarid conditions within the coordinated European research project EFEDA (European Field Experiment in Desertification-threatened Areas). Measurements were made from the microscale (e.g., measurements on single plants) up to a scale compatible with the grid size of global models. For this purpose three sites were selected 70 km apart and heavily instrumented at a scale in the order of 30 sq km. Aircraft missions, satellite data, and movable equipment were deployed to provide a bridge to the larger scale. This paper gives a description of the experimental design along with some of the preliminary results of this successful experiment.

  4. BAEA Becoming Adult Educators in the European Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Per; Farinelli, Fiorella; Gross, Marin

    , especially among potential adult educators for whom specialised studied in the field are restricted - if not absent - or who may not consider entering a professional career in this field, due to its relatively low socio-economic status. It also calls policymakers, researchers and practitioners to improve......This report presents the results from a comparative study, Becoming Adult Educators in the European Area (BAEA), aimed at investigating how prospective adult educators qualify for their jobs before entering the profession. The empirical evidence gathered in four European countries (i.e. Denmark......, Estonia, Italy and Sweden) shows a strong political focus on labour market needs and relevance, when it comes to adult education provisions. This is paralleled by scarce attention paid to the role played by adult educators and their qualifications in supporting learning processes among the adult...

  5. Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selwyn, Gary S.; Henins, Ivars; Babayan, Steve E.; Hicks, Robert F.

    2001-01-01

    Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two planar, parallel electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the volume therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly spacing the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, there is a negligible density of ions surviving for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike the situation for low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  6. Fossil fuel power generation within the European Research Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-10

    The report is the first in a series of three produced by the PowerClean Thematic Network that looks at and defines future requirements for research and development of fossil fuel power generation in the European Union. It makes the case for fossil fuel R & D with emphasis on the need for clean coal technologies (to increased efficiency and other CO{sub 2} capture and storage) For satisfying future energy demands of the enlarged European Union between now and 2030. The report concludes that affirmative R, D and D action is needed to support the EU power industry, working together on a Europe-wide basis, to establish the use of coal and other fossil fuels in near-zero emissions power plant. The role model would be the European Research Area, as in the Sixth Framework Programme (FP6), but with a more comprehensive range of technical objectives recognising the importance of fossil fuels. Section headings are: introduction; current energy use; future needs and requirements; the future for clean fossil fuel energy in Europe; comparison with approaches adopted elsewhere (USA Vision 21 and FutureGen programmes, Japan); and responsibilities for EU coal R, D & D. 14 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE FIRST SOURCE CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Antolini, E.; Bonamente, E.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bisello, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Belli, F.

    2010-01-01

    We present a catalog of high-energy gamma-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), during the first 11 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. The First Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL) contains 1451 sources detected and characterized in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV range. Source detection was based on the average flux over the 11 month period, and the threshold likelihood Test Statistic is 25, corresponding to a significance of just over 4σ. The 1FGL catalog includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and power-law spectral fits as well as flux measurements in five energy bands for each source. In addition, monthly light curves are provided. Using a protocol defined before launch we have tested for several populations of gamma-ray sources among the sources in the catalog. For individual LAT-detected sources we provide firm identifications or plausible associations with sources in other astronomical catalogs. Identifications are based on correlated variability with counterparts at other wavelengths, or on spin or orbital periodicity. For the catalogs and association criteria that we have selected, 630 of the sources are unassociated. Care was taken to characterize the sensitivity of the results to the model of interstellar diffuse gamma-ray emission used to model the bright foreground, with the result that 161 sources at low Galactic latitudes and toward bright local interstellar clouds are flagged as having properties that are strongly dependent on the model or as potentially being due to incorrectly modeled structure in the Galactic diffuse emission.

  8. Analytical Chemistry in the European Higher Education Area European Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    the more specialized degree of the Euromaster. The aim of the process, as a part of the fulfilment of the Bologna Declaration, is to propose a syllabus for education at the highest level of competence in academia. The proposal is an overarching framework that is supposed to promote mobility and quality......A Eurobachelor degree of Chemistry was endorsed by the EuCheMS division of analytical chemistry in 2004, and it has since then been adopted by many European universities. In the second stage of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) process of harmonization, there is now focus on developing...... hold positions where analytical chemistry is the primary occupation. The education within the EHEA offers subjects related to chemical analysis but not all universities offer courses on analytical chemistry as an independent scientific discipline. Accordingly, the recent development of the analytical...

  9. Stochastic structure of annual discharges of large European rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojković Milan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Water resource has become a guarantee for sustainable development on both local and global scales. Exploiting water resources involves development of hydrological models for water management planning. In this paper we present a new stochastic model for generation of mean annul flows. The model is based on historical characteristics of time series of annual flows and consists of the trend component, long-term periodic component and stochastic component. The rest of specified components are model errors which are represented as a random time series. The random time series is generated by the single bootstrap model (SBM. Stochastic ensemble of error terms at the single hydrological station is formed using the SBM method. The ultimate stochastic model gives solutions of annual flows and presents a useful tool for integrated river basin planning and water management studies. The model is applied for ten large European rivers with long observed period. Validation of model results suggests that the stochastic flows simulated by the model can be used for hydrological simulations in river basins.

  10. Wind Data Analysis and Wind Flow Simulation Over Large Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terziev Angel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the share of renewable energy sources is one of the core policies of the European Union. This is because of the fact that this energy is essential in reducing the greenhouse gas emissions and securing energy supplies. Currently, the share of wind energy from all renewable energy sources is relatively low. The choice of location for a certain wind farm installation strongly depends on the wind potential. Therefore the accurate assessment of wind potential is extremely important. In the present paper an analysis is made on the impact of significant possible parameters on the determination of wind energy potential for relatively large areas. In the analysis the type of measurements (short- and long-term on-site measurements, the type of instrumentation and the terrain roughness factor are considered. The study on the impact of turbulence on the wind flow distribution over complex terrain is presented, and it is based on the real on-site data collected by the meteorological tall towers installed in the northern part of Bulgaria. By means of CFD based software a wind map is developed for relatively large areas. Different turbulent models in numerical calculations were tested and recommendations for the usage of the specific models in flows modeling over complex terrains are presented. The role of each parameter in wind map development is made. Different approaches for determination of wind energy potential based on the preliminary developed wind map are presented.

  11. ISABELLE. Volume 3. Experimental areas, large detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This section presents the papers which resulted from work in the Experimental Areas portion of the Workshop. The immediate task of the group was to address three topics. The topics were dictated by the present state of ISABELLE experimental areas construction, the possibility of a phased ISABELLE and trends in physics and detectors

  12. Preserving Medieval Farm Mounds in a Large Stormwater Retention Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorenhout, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Netherlands has denoted large areas as stormwater retention areas. These areas function as temporary storage locations for stormwater when rivers cannot cope with the amount of water. A large area, the Onlanden — 2,500 hectares — was developed as such a storage area between 2008 and 2013. This

  13. ENSAR, a Nuclear Science Project for European Research Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turzó, Ketel; Lewitowicz, Marek; Harakeh, Muhsin N.

    2015-01-01

    During the period from September 2010 to December 2014, the European project European Nuclear Science and Applications Research (ENSAR) coordinated research activities of the Nuclear Physics community performing research in three major subfields: Nuclear Structure, Nuclear Astrophysics, and Nuclear

  14. Surveillance perspective on Lyme borreliosis across the European Union and European Economic Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Wijngaard, Cees C; Hofhuis, Agnetha; Simões, Mariana; Rood, Ente; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Zeller, Herve; Van Bortel, Wim

    2017-07-06

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in Europe. Erythema migrans (EM), an early, localised skin rash, is its most common presentation. Dissemination of the bacteria can lead to more severe manifestations including skin, neurological, cardiac, musculoskeletal and ocular manifestations. Comparison of LB incidence rates in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) and Balkan countries are difficult in the absence of standardised surveillance and reporting procedures. We explored six surveillance scenarios for LB surveillance in the EU/EEA, based on the following key indicators: (i) erythema migrans, (ii) neuroborreliosis, (iii) all human LB manifestations, (iv) seroprevalence, (v) tick bites, and (vi) infected ticks and reservoir hosts. In our opinion, neuroborreliosis seems most feasible and useful as the standard key indicator, being one of the most frequent severe LB manifestations, with the possibility of a specific case definition. Additional surveillance with erythema migrans as key indicator would add value to the surveillance of neuroborreliosis and lead to a more complete picture of LB epidemiology in the EU/EEA. The other scenarios have less value as a basis for EU-level surveillance, but can be considered periodically and locally, as they could supply complementary insights. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  15. Legal Developments and Problems of the Bologna Process within the European Higher Education Area and European Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cippitani, Roberto; Gatt, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    2010 sees the end of the process of establishing the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). Although not all countries may have achieved all the objectives, many are those countries and universities who have implemented many of the targets set. Within the Bologna Process, there have been many developments such as: European Credit Transfer and…

  16. Teaching mathematics online in the European Area of Higher Education: an instructor's point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Angel A.; Steegmann, Cristina; Huertas, Antonia; Martinez, M. Jesus; Simosa, J.

    2011-03-01

    This article first discusses how information technologies are changing the way knowledge is delivered at universities worldwide. Then, the article reviews some of the most popular learning management systems available today and some of the most useful online resources in the areas of Mathematics and Statistics. After that, some long-term experiences regarding the teaching of online courses in those areas at the Open University of Catalonia are discussed. Finally, the article presents the results of a large-scale survey performed in Spain that aims to reflect instructors' opinions and feelings about potential benefits and challenges of teaching mathematics online, as well as the role of emergent technologies in the context of the European Area of Higher Education. Therefore, this article contributes to the existing literature as an additional reference point, one based on our long-term experience in a large-scale online environment, for discussions involving mathematical e-learning.

  17. Childhood tuberculosis in the European Union/European Economic Area, 2000 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandgren, A; Hollo, V; Quinten, C; Manissero, D

    2011-03-24

    Childhood tuberculosis (TB) has been neglected for decades as a key component of TB control. However, ensuring proper monitoring of childhood TB has recently been given renewed emphasis. A descriptive analysis of surveillance data was performed to assess burden and trends of paediatric TB in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) between 2000 and 2009. From 2000 to 2009, 39,695 notified paediatric (defined as 0–14 years of age) TB cases were reported by the 27 EU countries plus Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein. These paediatric cases accounted for 4.3% of all notified cases. However, across the EU/EEA Member States, paediatric case notification rates ranged from 29.6 per 100,000 to 0.3 per 100,000 for the latest reporting year, 2009. Overall,though, these rates dropped from 5.5 per 100,000 in 2000 to 4.2 per 100,000 in 2009. The EU/EEA average annual percent changes (AAPC) in paediatric notification rates decreased between 2000 and 2004 by 1.3%and between 2005 and 2009 by 2.4%, with an overall decrease between 2000 and 2009 of 2.8%. Of all paediatric cases reported from 2000 to 2009, only 16.9%were culture-confirmed, amongst which the overall treatment success was 80.5% for all culture-confirmed pulmonary paediatric TB cases. Childhood TB in the EU/EEA remains a public health issue. Due attention should be paid to assessing paediatric trends as they could provide an insight in recent transmission. Whilst the primary aim of further reducing TB rates among children is paramount, better rates of appropriate diagnosis should also be achieved, along with a further improvement of therapeutic success rates.

  18. Urban regeneration in European social housing areas, Chapter 11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droste, C.; Lelevrier, C.; Wassenberg, F.

    2008-01-01

    Many European countries have policies to renew cities and neighbourhoods. This paper examines the policies of France, the Netherlands and Germany. In these, as in most Western European countries, the social housing sector forms an important part of regeneration schemes. Social housing is both actor

  19. Survey of surveillance systems and select prevention activities for hepatitis B and C, European Union/European Economic Area, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffell, E F; van de Laar, M J

    2015-04-02

    Hepatitis B and C viral infections are leading causes of hepatic cirrhosis and cancer. The incidence and prevalence of both hepatitis B and C varies across European countries. European wide surveillance data help to understand the dynamic epidemiology of hepatitis B and C, which is important for the implementation and effectiveness of prevention and control activities.Comparison of surveillance data between countries in Europe is hampered by the differences in national healthcare and reporting systems. This report presents the results of a survey in 2009 which was undertaken to collect baseline information on surveillance systems and core prevention programmes for hepatitis B and C in individual European Union/ European Economic Area countries. The results provide key information to aid the interpretation of surveillance data, and while indicating heterogeneity in national surveillance systems and programmes, they highlight the potential of these systems. This resource has supported the implementation of a standardised European enhanced surveillance programme.

  20. Realizing the European Higher Education Area: Berlin Conference of European Higher Education Ministers

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Bologna Declaration of June 1999 has put in motion a series of reforms needed to make European higher education more compatible and comparable, more competitive and attractive for European citizens and for citizens and scholars from other continents. In Prague, in May 2001, the ministers took note of the progress so far and added three new…

  1. Legal developments and problems of the Bologna process within the European higher education area and European integration

    OpenAIRE

    Cippitani, Roberto; Gatt, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    2010 sees the end of the process of establishing the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). Although not all countries may have achieved all the objectives, many are those countries and universities who have implemented many of the targets set. Within the Bologna Process, there have been many developments such as: European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) for the transfer of period of study abroad; joint degrees; and quality assurance aspects among others. Guidelines for Quality...

  2. Neutral processes forming large clones during colonization of new areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafajlović, M; Kleinhans, D; Gulliksson, C; Fries, J; Johansson, D; Ardehed, A; Sundqvist, L; Pereyra, R T; Mehlig, B; Jonsson, P R; Johannesson, K

    2017-08-01

    In species reproducing both sexually and asexually clones are often more common in recently established populations. Earlier studies have suggested that this pattern arises due to natural selection favouring generally or locally successful genotypes in new environments. Alternatively, as we show here, this pattern may result from neutral processes during species' range expansions. We model a dioecious species expanding into a new area in which all individuals are capable of both sexual and asexual reproduction, and all individuals have equal survival rates and dispersal distances. Even under conditions that favour sexual recruitment in the long run, colonization starts with an asexual wave. After colonization is completed, a sexual wave erodes clonal dominance. If individuals reproduce more than one season, and with only local dispersal, a few large clones typically dominate for thousands of reproductive seasons. Adding occasional long-distance dispersal, more dominant clones emerge, but they persist for a shorter period of time. The general mechanism involved is simple: edge effects at the expansion front favour asexual (uniparental) recruitment where potential mates are rare. Specifically, our model shows that neutral processes (with respect to genotype fitness) during the population expansion, such as random dispersal and demographic stochasticity, produce genotype patterns that differ from the patterns arising in a selection model. The comparison with empirical data from a post-glacially established seaweed species (Fucus radicans) shows that in this case, a neutral mechanism is strongly supported. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons ltd on Behalf of European Society for Evolutionary Biology.

  3. Convergence and Distributions of Income in Large European Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Kruszka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is an empirical analysis of the convergence process in the years 1993–2008 and the impact of economic growth on income distribution in selected European Union countries. Considering this fact one can state that research was conducted from the perspective of EU citizens. The crucial hypothesis of this paper is statement that convergence is differently perceived in terms of entire economies, and gives a different picture from the perspective of the single citizen of the selected country. The analysis was carried out in several stages. Initially, the authors referred to the classical convergence hypotheses (unconditional β and σ convergence within the EU-27, then the same assumptions were examined taking into account population – weighted indicators. However, the main aim of research undertaken in this study was to investigate the individual within – country distribution of income for the initial and final period, which allowed to answer the question whether faster growth of the ‘new EU’ was accompanied by reduction of inequalities within analyzed economic systems.

  4. Spatial variation in nitrogen dioxide in three European areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewne, Marie; Bellander, Tom; Cyrys, Josef; Gehring, Ulrike; Heinrich, Joachim; Meliefste, Kees; Hoek, Gerard; Brauer, Michael; Brunekreef, Bert; Fischer, Paul

    2004-01-01

    In order to estimate the spatial variation within well-defined study areas, nitrogen dioxide was measured with diffusion samplers (Palmes tube) in 40-42 sites each in Germany (Munich), the Netherlands and Sweden (Stockholm County). Each site was measured over four 2-week periods during 1 year (spring 1999 to summer 2000). In each country, one reference site was measured during all periods and the results were used to adjust for seasonal variability, to improve the estimates of the annual average. Comparisons between the chemiluminescence method (European reference method) and Palmes tube measurement indicated a good agreement in Germany (with a ratio of 1.0 for Palmes tube/chemiluminescence) but underestimation for Palmes tube measurement in the Netherlands and Sweden (0.8 for both countries). The r 2 values were between 0.86 and 0.90 for all three countries.The annual average values for NO 2 for different sampling sites were between 15.9 and 50.6 (mean 28.8 μg/m 3 ) in Germany, between 12.1 and 50.8 (mean 28.9 μg/m 3 ) in the Netherlands and between 6.1 and 44.7 (mean 18.5 μg/m 3 ) in Sweden. Comparing spatial variation between similar sites in the three countries, we did not find any significant differences between annual average levels for urban traffic sites. In Sweden, annual average levels in urban background and suburban backgrounds sites were about 8 μg/m 3 lower than comparable sites in Germany and the Netherlands. Comparing site types within each country only urban traffic sites and suburban background sites differed in Germany. In the Netherlands and Sweden, the urban traffic sites differed from all other sites and in Sweden also the urban background sites differed from the other background sites. The observed contribution from local traffic was similar in the Netherlands and Sweden (10 and 8 μg/m 3 , corresponding to 26-27% of the NO 2 concentration found in the urban traffic sites). In Germany, the contribution from local traffic was only 3

  5. 76 FR 52543 - European Larch Canker; Expansion of Regulated Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ...-2011-0029, Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS, Station 3A-03.8, 4700 River Road Unit 118... Road Unit 26, Riverdale, MD 20737; (301) 734-0917. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background European larch... kill mature and immature species of the genus Larix (larch) and Pseudolarix (Golden larch). In parts of...

  6. The European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP)--a sentinel approach in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteri, Gianfranco; Cole, Michelle; Unemo, Magnus; Hoffmann, Steen; Ison, Catherine; van de Laar, Marita

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is monitored in the European Union/European Economic Area through the European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP) coordinated by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Euro-GASP includes a sentinel surveillance programme which aims to detect in a timely manner changes in resistance patterns and inform treatment guidelines. The programme aims to test a representative number of isolates from each European Union/European Economic Area member state per year for a range of therapeutically relevant antimicrobials through a biannual hybrid centralised/decentralised system. Testing is supported by an External Quality Assurance programme and a laboratory training programme. Participation in the programme has increased to 21 countries in 2012. Euro-GASP has been able to detect the rapid spread of isolates with decreased susceptibility to cefixime across Europe in 2010 and 2011. Results from the programme have informed changes in European treatment guidelines for gonorrhoea and led to the development of the 'Response plan to control and manage the threat of multidrug resistant gonorrhoea in Europe'. Future challenges for Euro-GASP include supporting countries to participate in Euro-GASP through decentralised testing, improving timeliness and epidemiological data quality, and increasing participation from Eastern Europe.

  7. Seroprevalence and susceptibility to hepatitis A in the European Union and European Economic Area: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Santisteve, Paloma; Tavoschi, Lara; Severi, Ettore; Bonfigli, Sandro; Edelstein, Michael; Byström, Emma; Lopalco, Pierluigi

    2017-10-01

    Most of the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) is considered a region of very low hepatitis A virus (HAV) endemicity; however, geographical differences exist. We did a systematic review with the aim of describing seroprevalence and susceptibility in the general population or special groups in the EU and EEA. We searched databases and public health national institutes websites for HAV seroprevalence records published between Jan 1, 1975, and June 30, 2014, with no language restrictions. An updated search was done on Aug 10, 2016. We defined seroprevalence profiles (very low, low, and intermediate) as the proportion of the population with age-specific anti-HAV antibodies at age 15 and 30 years, and susceptibility profiles (low, moderate, high, and very high) as the proportion of susceptible individuals at age 30 and 50 years. We included 228 studies from 28 of 31 EU and EEA countries. For the period 2000-14, 24 countries had a very low seroprevalence profile, compared with five in 1975-89. The susceptibility among adults ranged between low and very high and had a geographical gradient, with three countries in the low susceptibility category. Since 1975, EU and EEA countries have shown decreasing seropositivity; however, considerable regional variability exists. The main limitations of this study are that the studies retrieved for analysis might not be representative of all EU and EEA publications about HAV and might have poor national representativeness. A large proportion of EU and EEA residents are now susceptible to HAV infection. Our Review supports the need to reconsider specific prevention and control measures, to further decrease HAV circulation while providing protection against the infection in the EU and EEA, and could be used to inform susceptible travellers visiting EU and EEA countries with different HAV endemicity levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Large-Area Visually Augmented Navigation for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eustice, Ryan M

    2005-01-01

    ...., unstructured terrain, low-overlap imagery, moving light source). Our large area SLAM algorithm recursively incorporates relative-pose constraints using a view-based representation that exploits exact sparsity in the Gaussian canonical...

  9. Diagnose of large area electron beam with faraday cup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Ying; Qian Hang; Yi Aiping; Huang Xin; Yu Li; Liu Jingru; Su Jiancang; Ding Zhenjie; Ding Yongzhong; Yu Jianguo

    2008-01-01

    In the experiment of gas laser pumped by electron beam, large area uniform electron beam is important to generate high efficiency laser output. This paper introduces Faraday cup is used in the diagnose experiment on the uniformity of large area e-beam generated by SPG-200 pulsed power generator. Construction of Faraday cup and the results of calibration are presented in detail. The uniformity of velvet emission is given, and the results of experiment are analyzed. (authors)

  10. Mapping the Teaching of Laboratory Animal Science and Medicine in the European Union and European Free Trade Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iatridou, Despoina; Nagy, Zsuzsanna; De Briyne, Nancy; Saunders, Jimmy; Bravo, Ana

    2018-06-13

    Developing a common market and allowing free movement of goods, services, and people is one of the main objectives of the European Union (EU) and the European Free Trade Area. In the field of scientific research, Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes aims to improve the welfare of laboratory animals by following the principle of the 3Rs (replacement, reduction, and refinement). Each breeder, supplier, and user must appoint a designated veterinarian to advise on the well-being and treatment of the animals. In our report we investigate how the undergraduate veterinary curriculum prepares future veterinarians for the role of designated veterinarian, by analyzing data from 77 European veterinary education establishments. Over 80% of them provide training in laboratory animal science and medicine in their curriculum. All countries in the EU and the European Free Trade Area, having national veterinary schools, include such training in the curriculum of at least one of their establishments. Laboratory animal science and medicine courses can be obligatory or elective and are often part of more than one subject in the veterinary curricula. Post-graduate courses or programs are available at more than 50% of those veterinary schools. Most authorities in the European region consider graduate veterinarians ready to seek the role as designated veterinarian immediately after graduation.

  11. Spatially explicit shallow landslide susceptibility mapping over large areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dino Bellugi; William E. Dietrich; Jonathan Stock; Jim McKean; Brian Kazian; Paul Hargrove

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in downscaling climate model precipitation predictions now yield spatially explicit patterns of rainfall that could be used to estimate shallow landslide susceptibility over large areas. In California, the United States Geological Survey is exploring community emergency response to the possible effects of a very large simulated storm event and to do so...

  12. Large area modules based on low band gap polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Eva; Krebs, Frederik C

    2010-01-01

    The use of three low band gap polymers in large area roll-to-roll coated modules is demonstrated. The polymers were prepared by a Stille cross coupling polymerization and all had a band gap around 1.6 eV. The polymers were first tested in small area organic photovoltaic devices which showed...

  13. Pneumatic radiator of transition radiation for large working area arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikhlyarov, K.K.; Gavalyan, V.G.

    1993-01-01

    An unconventional approach to the constructions of large area regular radiator of X-rays transition radiation is proposed based on the use of a pack of hermetically sealed bags, in which elastic helium layers are formed. A prototype of such a radiator of about 1m 2 area was made for test of the proposed device. 9 refs

  14. Seafloor mapping of large areas using multibeam system - Indian experience

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kodagali, V.N.; KameshRaju, K.A; Ramprasad, T.

    averaged and merged to produce large area maps. Maps were generated in the scale of 1 mil. and 1.5 mil covering area of about 2 mil. sq.km in single map. Also, depth contour interval were generated. A computer program was developed to convert the depth data...

  15. The potential of military training areas for bird conservation in a central European landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bušek, Ondřej; Reif, Jiří

    2017-10-01

    European biodiversity has suffered from serious declines during the past few decades, with alterations of land use practices resulting in a loss of fine-scale habitat heterogeneity being a dominant driver. This heterogeneity was maintained by extensive landscape management, which has gradually been replaced by either intensive exploitation or land abandonment. It has been suggested that military training can generate habitat heterogeneity that may support the existence of species of conservation concern, but studies rigorously testing the real importance of military training areas for biodiversity are lacking. Here we address this issue by analyses of two datasets. First, we compared land cover classes between all large military training areas (MTAs) and surrounding control areas (CAs) of the same size in the Czech Republic using multivariate redundancy analysis. We found that the difference in land cover between MTAs and CAs was significant and represented the strongest gradient in land cover classes: from various farmland and artificial habitats typical for CAs to forest and scrubland-grassland mosaic typical for MTAs. Second, we selected one of these areas and compared bird species richness between the MTA and the nearby CA using generalized linear mixed effects models. We found that the number of species of conservation concern was significantly higher in the MTA than in the CA. With respect to habitats, bird species richness was significantly higher in the MTA than in the CA for open habitats, but not for forest habitats. Our results are thus consistent with the view that military training creates areas that are different from the surrounding landscape in terms of land cover, and that this difference translates to a suitability for species of conservation concern. It is remarkable that the positive influence of military training is confined to open habitats, which are subject to the most intensive military activities and also suffer the highest degree of

  16. Large-area OLED lightings and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J W; Shin, D C; Park, S H

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we review the key issues related to the fabrication of large-area organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) for lighting applications. We discuss the origin of a short-circuit problem, luminance non-uniformity, hot spot, efficiency reduction (power loss), and heat generation and present the way of suppressing them. We also introduce three different application areas of large-area OLED lighting panels. They can be integrated with a solar cell for power recycling or inorganic LEDs for emotional lightings. The feasibility of using OLEDs for the application of visible-light communications is also reviewed

  17. Exploring integration of care for children living with complex care needs across the European union and European economic area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenner, Maria; O’Shea, Miriam; Larkin, Philip J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this paper is to report on the development of surveys to explore integration of care for children living with complex care needs across the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA). Theory and methods: Each survey consists of a vignette and questions adapted...... from the Standards for Systems of Care for Children and Youth with Special Health Care Needs and the Eurobarometer Survey. A Country Agent in each country, a local expert in child health services, will obtain data from indigenous sources. Results: We identified ‘in-principle’ complex problems...

  18. Do Large Companies Have Lower Effective Corporate Tax Rates? A European Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Gaëtan Nicodème

    2007-01-01

    The current debate in corporate taxation is focusing on leveling the tax playing field within the European Union for companies operating across-countries. However, tax burdens could also vary with the size of companies within the same country, raising the question whether large companies pay their share of the burden. This paper uses firm-level data for 21 European countries between 1992 and 2004. The paper finds a robust negative correlation between the number of employees and the effective ...

  19. A method for developing a large-scale sediment yield index for European river basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delmas, Magalie; Cerdan, Olivier; Garcin, Manuel [BRGM ARN/ESL, Orleans (France); Mouchel, Jean-Marie [UMR Sisyphe, Univ. P and M Curie, Paris (France)

    2009-12-15

    Background, aim, and scope: Sediment fluxes within continental areas play a major role in biogeochemical cycles and are often the cause of soil surface degradation as well as water and ecosystem pollution. In a situation where a high proportion of the land surface is experiencing significant global land use and climate changes, it appears important to establish sediment budgets considering the major processes forcing sediment redistribution within drainage areas. In this context, the aim of this study is to test a methodology to estimate a sediment yield index at a large spatial resolution for European river basins. Data and methods: Four indicators representing processes respectively considered as sources (mass movement and hillslope erosion), sinks (deposits), and transfers of sediments (drainage density) are defined using distributed data. Using these indicators we propose a basic conceptual approach to test the possibility of explaining sediment yield observed at the outlet of 29 selected European river basins. We propose an index which adds the two sources and transfers, and subsequently subtracts the sink term. This index is then compared to observed sediment yield data. Results: With this approach, variability between river basins is observed and the evolution of each indicator analyzed. A linear regression shows a correlation coefficient of 0.83 linking observed specific sediment yield (SSY) with the SSY index. Discussion: To improve this approach at this large river basin scale, basin classification is further refined using the relation between the observed SSY and the index obtained from the four indicators. It allows a refinement of the results. Conclusions: This study presents a conceptual approach offering the advantages of using spatially distributed data combined with major sediment redistribution processes to estimate the sediment yield observed at the outlet of river basins. Recommendations and perspectives: Inclusion of better information on

  20. Charities' response to the European Commission call of interest for their involvement in the European Research Area

    CERN Document Server

    Sessano, D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an exploratory study to investigate what could be the role of the charities concerned with scientific research in the European Research Area (ERA). The analysis particularly concentrates on UK and Italy. The questions on which the exploratory study was developed are: 1. “In what specific areas of the ERA did the European Commission (EC) for the involvement of charities? And could there be other areas in which charities might participate?” 2. “Given the role and situation of charities in UK and Italy, what role, if any, could they be willing to play in the ERA? Is it the same as the one proposed by the Commission or not?” In order to answer these questions, the following discussion will focus at first on a short overview of the charity sector, both at the general level and at the national level in UK and Italy. Then a brief presentation of the European Research Area will be given. The hypotheses of the study will then be presented, followed by a methodological section. Results wi...

  1. Mapping the electrical properties of large-area graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Peter; Mackenzie, David; Whelan, Patrick Rebsdorf

    2017-01-01

    The significant progress in terms of fabricating large-area graphene films for transparent electrodes, barriers, electronics, telecommunication and other applications has not yet been accompanied by efficient methods for characterizing the electrical properties of large-area graphene. While......, and a high measurement effort per device. In this topical review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the issues that need to be addressed by any large-area characterisation method for electrical key performance indicators, with emphasis on electrical uniformity and on how this can be used to provide...... a more accurate analysis of the graphene film. We review and compare three different, but complementary approaches that rely either on fixed contacts (dry laser lithography), movable contacts (micro four point probes) and non-contact (terahertz time-domain spectroscopy) between the probe and the graphene...

  2. Optical fabrication of large area photonic microstructures by spliced lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wentao; Song, Meng; Zhang, Xuehua; Yin, Li; Li, Hong; Li, Lin

    2018-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a convenient approach to fabricate large area photorefractive photonic microstructures by a spliced lens device. Large area two-dimensional photonic microstructures are optically induced inside an iron-doped lithium niobate crystal. The experimental setups of our method are relatively compact and stable without complex alignment devices. It can be operated in almost any optical laboratories. We analyze the induced triangular lattice microstructures by plane wave guiding, far-field diffraction pattern imaging and Brillouin-zone spectroscopy. By designing the spliced lens appropriately, the method can be easily extended to fabricate other complex large area photonic microstructures, such as quasicrystal microstructures. Induced photonic microstructures can be fixed or erased and re-recorded in the photorefractive crystal.

  3. Plasma and Ion Sources in Large Area Coatings: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre

    2005-02-28

    Efficient deposition of high-quality coatings often requires controlled application of excited or ionized particles. These particles are either condensing (film-forming) or assisting by providing energy and momentum to the film growth process, resulting in densification, sputtering/etching, modification of stress, roughness, texture, etc. In this review, the technical means are surveyed enabling large area application of ions and plasmas, with ion energies ranging from a few eV to a few keV. Both semiconductortype large area (single wafer or batch processing with {approx} 1000 cm{sup 2}) and in-line web and glass-coating-type large area (> 10{sup 7} m{sup 2} annually) are considered. Characteristics and differences between plasma and ion sources are explained. The latter include gridded and gridless sources. Many examples are given, including sources based on DC, RF, and microwave discharges, some with special geometries like hollow cathodes and E x B configurations.

  4. Comparative analysis of harmonized forest area stimates for European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seebach, Lucia Maria; Strobl, P.; Miguel-Ayanz, J. San

    2011-01-01

    Harmonized forest area information provides an important basis for environmental modelling and policy-making at both national and international levels. Traditionally, this information has been provided by national forest inventory statistics but is now increasingly complemented with remote sensing...

  5. Charge-carrier transport in large-area epitaxial graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisslinger, Ferdinand; Popp, Matthias; Weber, Heiko B. [Lehrstuhl fuer Angewandte Physik, Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg (FAU), Erlangen (Germany); Jobst, Johannes [Huygens-Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium, Leiden Institute of Physics, Leiden University (Netherlands); Shallcross, Sam [Lehrstuhl fuer theoretische Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg (FAU), Erlangen (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    We present an overview of recent charge carrier transport experiments in both monolayer and bilayer graphene, with emphasis on the phenomena that appear in large-area samples. While many aspects of transport are based on quantum mechanical concepts, in the large-area limit classical corrections dominate and shape the magnetoresistance and the tunneling conductance. The discussed phenomena are very general and can, with little modification, be expected in any atomically thin 2D conductor. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Manufacture of axially insulated large-area diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Weiyi; Zhou Kungang; Wang Youtian; Zhang Dong; Shan Yusheng; Wang Naiyan

    1999-01-01

    The author describes the design and construction of the axially insulated large-area diodes used in the 'Heaven-1'. The four axially insulated large-area diodes are connected to the 10 ohm pulse transmission lines via the vacuum feed through tubes. The experimental results with the diodes are given. The diodes can steadily work at the voltage of 650 kV, and the diode current density is about 80 A per cm 2 with a pulse width of 220 ns. The electron beams with a total energy of 25 kJ are obtained

  7. Large-area metallic photonic lattices for military applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luk, Ting Shan

    2007-11-01

    In this project we developed photonic crystal modeling capability and fabrication technology that is scaleable to large area. An intelligent optimization code was developed to find the optimal structure for the desired spectral response. In terms of fabrication, an exhaustive survey of fabrication techniques that would meet the large area requirement was reduced to Deep X-ray Lithography (DXRL) and nano-imprint. Using DXRL, we fabricated a gold logpile photonic crystal in the <100> plane. For the nano-imprint technique, we fabricated a cubic array of gold squares. These two examples also represent two classes of metallic photonic crystal topologies, the connected network and cermet arrangement.

  8. Material balance areas and frequencies for large reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, T.

    1994-01-01

    It has long been recognized that facilities with a large nuclear material throughput will probably not meet the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) goal for detecting trickle diversion of plutonium over periods of about one year. The reason is that measurement errors for plutonium concentration and for liquid volume are often approximately relative over a fairly wide range of true values. Therefore, large throughput facilities will tend to have large uncertainties assigned to their annual throughput. By the same argument, if frequent balances are performed over small material balance areas, then the uncertainty associated with each balance period for each balance area will be small. However, trickle diversion would still be difficult to detect statistically. Because the IAEA will soon be faced with safeguarding a new large-scale reprocessing plant in Japan, it is timely to reconsider the advantages and disadvantages of performing frequent material balances over small balance areas (individual tanks where feasible). Therefore, in this paper the authors present some simulation results to study the effect of balance frequency on loss detection probability, and further simulation results to study possibilities introduced by choosing small balance areas. They conclude by recommending frequent balances over small areas

  9. Large area high-speed metrology SPM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapetek, P; Valtr, M; Martinek, J; Picco, L; Payton, O D; Miles, M; Yacoot, A

    2015-01-01

    We present a large area high-speed measuring system capable of rapidly generating nanometre resolution scanning probe microscopy data over mm 2 regions. The system combines a slow moving but accurate large area XYZ scanner with a very fast but less accurate small area XY scanner. This arrangement enables very large areas to be scanned by stitching together the small, rapidly acquired, images from the fast XY scanner while simultaneously moving the slow XYZ scanner across the region of interest. In order to successfully merge the image sequences together two software approaches for calibrating the data from the fast scanner are described. The first utilizes the low uncertainty interferometric sensors of the XYZ scanner while the second implements a genetic algorithm with multiple parameter fitting during the data merging step of the image stitching process. The basic uncertainty components related to these high-speed measurements are also discussed. Both techniques are shown to successfully enable high-resolution, large area images to be generated at least an order of magnitude faster than with a conventional atomic force microscope. (paper)

  10. Large area high-speed metrology SPM system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapetek, P.; Valtr, M.; Picco, L.; Payton, O. D.; Martinek, J.; Yacoot, A.; Miles, M.

    2015-02-01

    We present a large area high-speed measuring system capable of rapidly generating nanometre resolution scanning probe microscopy data over mm2 regions. The system combines a slow moving but accurate large area XYZ scanner with a very fast but less accurate small area XY scanner. This arrangement enables very large areas to be scanned by stitching together the small, rapidly acquired, images from the fast XY scanner while simultaneously moving the slow XYZ scanner across the region of interest. In order to successfully merge the image sequences together two software approaches for calibrating the data from the fast scanner are described. The first utilizes the low uncertainty interferometric sensors of the XYZ scanner while the second implements a genetic algorithm with multiple parameter fitting during the data merging step of the image stitching process. The basic uncertainty components related to these high-speed measurements are also discussed. Both techniques are shown to successfully enable high-resolution, large area images to be generated at least an order of magnitude faster than with a conventional atomic force microscope.

  11. Technique investigation on large area neutron scintillation detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jiabin

    2006-12-01

    The detailed project for developing Large Area Neutron Scintillation Detector Array (LaNSA) to be used for measuring fusion fuel area density on Shenguang III prototype is presented, including experimental principle, detector working principle, electronics system design and the needs for target chamber etc. The detailed parameters for parts are given and the main causes affecting the system function are analyzed. The realization path is introduced. (authors)

  12. Semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN

    2011-03-15

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, large-area, triaxially textured, single-crystal or single-crystal-like, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  13. Mapping regional patterns of large forest fires in Wildland-Urban Interface areas in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modugno, Sirio; Balzter, Heiko; Cole, Beth; Borrelli, Pasquale

    2016-05-01

    Over recent decades, Land Use and Cover Change (LUCC) trends in many regions of Europe have reconfigured the landscape structures around many urban areas. In these areas, the proximity to landscape elements with high forest fuels has increased the fire risk to people and property. These Wildland-Urban Interface areas (WUI) can be defined as landscapes where anthropogenic urban land use and forest fuel mass come into contact. Mapping their extent is needed to prioritize fire risk control and inform local forest fire risk management strategies. This study proposes a method to map the extent and spatial patterns of the European WUI areas at continental scale. Using the European map of WUI areas, the hypothesis is tested that the distance from the nearest WUI area is related to the forest fire probability. Statistical relationships between the distance from the nearest WUI area, and large forest fire incidents from satellite remote sensing were subsequently modelled by logistic regression analysis. The first European scale map of the WUI extent and locations is presented. Country-specific positive and negative relationships of large fires and the proximity to the nearest WUI area are found. A regional-scale analysis shows a strong influence of the WUI zones on large fires in parts of the Mediterranean regions. Results indicate that the probability of large burned surfaces increases with diminishing WUI distance in touristic regions like Sardinia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, or in regions with a strong peri-urban component as Catalunya, Comunidad de Madrid, Comunidad Valenciana. For the above regions, probability curves of large burned surfaces show statistical relationships (ROC value > 0.5) inside a 5000 m buffer of the nearest WUI. Wise land management can provide a valuable ecosystem service of fire risk reduction that is currently not explicitly included in ecosystem service valuations. The results re-emphasise the importance of including this ecosystem service

  14. Building the European Research Area in nuclear fission pioneering steps in actinide science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsstroem, Hans

    2004-01-01

    The concept of the European Research Area (ERA) aims at closer development of research policies in Europe and closer networking of research capacities, to reduce fragmentation of research in Europe. The goal is to make European research more effective and competitive. Several approaches are made to create ERA. The European Research Framework Programme is one tool in this context, with the introduction of the new instruments, Integrated Projects, Networks of Excellence and Integrated Infrastructure Initiatives. Actinide science is one area that could benefit from better coordination and more effective use of the research capacities, both human and physical. The European Commission is thus funding a Network of Excellence (ACTINET-6) and an Integrated Project (EUROPART) in this area within the sixth EURATOM Framework Programme. (author)

  15. HIV Infection in Migrant Populations in the European Union and European Economic Area in 2007-2012: An Epidemic on the Move.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, Victoria; Alvárez-del Arco, Débora; Alejos, Belén; Monge, Susana; Amato-Gauci, Andrew J; Noori, Teymur; Pharris, Anastasia; del Amo, Julia

    2015-10-01

    Migrants are considered a key group at risk for HIV infection. This study describes the epidemiology of HIV and the distribution of late HIV presentation among migrants within the European Union/European Economic Area during 2007-2012. HIV cases reported to European Surveillance System (TESSy) were analyzed. Migrants were defined as people whose geographical origin was different than the reporting country. Multiple logistic regression was used to model late HIV presentation. Overall, 156,817 HIV cases were reported, of which 60,446 (38%) were migrants. Of these, 53% were from Sub-Saharan Africa, 12% from Latin America, 9% from Western Europe, 7% from Central Europe, 5% from South and Southeast Asia, 4% from East Europe, 4% from Caribbean, and 3% from North Africa and Middle East. Male and female migrants from Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America had higher odds of late HIV presentation than native men and women. Migrants accounted for 40% of all HIV notifications in 2007 versus 35% in 2012. HIV cases in women from Sub-Saharan Africa decreased from 3725 in 2007 to 2354 in 2012. The number of HIV cases from Latin America peaked in 2010 to decrease thereafter. HIV diagnoses in migrant men who have sex with men increased from 1927 in 2007 to 2459 in 2012. Migrants represent two-fifths of the HIV cases reported and had higher late HIV presentation. HIV epidemic in migrant populations in European Union/European Economic Area member states is changing, probably reflecting the global changes in the HIV pandemic, the impact of large-scale ART implementation, and migration fluctuations secondary to the economic crisis in Europe.

  16. Identifying Corridors among Large Protected Areas in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Travis Belote

    Full Text Available Conservation scientists emphasize the importance of maintaining a connected network of protected areas to prevent ecosystems and populations from becoming isolated, reduce the risk of extinction, and ultimately sustain biodiversity. Keeping protected areas connected in a network is increasingly recognized as a conservation priority in the current era of rapid climate change. Models that identify suitable linkages between core areas have been used to prioritize potentially important corridors for maintaining functional connectivity. Here, we identify the most "natural" (i.e., least human-modified corridors between large protected areas in the contiguous Unites States. We aggregated results from multiple connectivity models to develop a composite map of corridors reflecting agreement of models run under different assumptions about how human modification of land may influence connectivity. To identify which land units are most important for sustaining structural connectivity, we used the composite map of corridors to evaluate connectivity priorities in two ways: (1 among land units outside of our pool of large core protected areas and (2 among units administratively protected as Inventoried Roadless (IRAs or Wilderness Study Areas (WSAs. Corridor values varied substantially among classes of "unprotected" non-core land units, and land units of high connectivity value and priority represent diverse ownerships and existing levels of protections. We provide a ranking of IRAs and WSAs that should be prioritized for additional protection to maintain minimal human modification. Our results provide a coarse-scale assessment of connectivity priorities for maintaining a connected network of protected areas.

  17. Large area imaging of forensic evidence with MA-XRF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langstraat, K.; Knijnenberg, A.; Edelman, G.; van de Merwe, L.; van Loon, A.; Dik, J.; van Asten, A.

    2017-01-01

    This study introduces the use of macroscopic X-ray fluorescence (MA-XRF) for the detection, classification and imaging of forensic traces over large object areas such as entire pieces of clothing and wall paneling. MA-XRF was sufficiently sensitive and selective to detect human biological traces

  18. Large area imaging of forensic evidence with MA-XRF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langstraat, Kirsten; Knijnenberg, Alwin; Edelman, Gerda; Van De Merwe, Linda; van Loon, A.; Dik, J.; van Asten, Arian C.

    2017-01-01

    This study introduces the use of macroscopic X-ray fluorescence (MA-XRF) for the detection, classification and imaging of forensic traces over large object areas such as entire pieces of clothing and wall paneling. MA-XRF was sufficiently sensitive and selective to detect human biological traces

  19. Large area, low cost solar cell development and production readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, D.

    1982-01-01

    A process sequence for a large area ( or = 25 sq. cm) silicon solar cell was investigated. Generic cell choice was guided by the expected electron fluence, by the packing factors of various cell envelope designs onto each panel to provide needed voltage as well as current, by the weight constraints on the system, and by the cost goals of the contract.

  20. Beam test of a large area silicon drift detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castoldi, A.; Chinnici, S.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Palma, F.; Sampietro, M.; Rehak, P.; Ballocchi, G.; Kemmer, J.; Holl, P.; Cox, P.T.; Giacomelli, P.; Vacchi, A.

    1992-01-01

    The results from the tests of the first large area (4 x 4 cm 2 ) planar silicon drift detector prototype in a pion beam are reported. The measured position resolution in the drift direction is (σ=40 ± 10)μm

  1. A European collaboration research programme to study and test large scale base isolated structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renda, V.; Verzeletti, G.; Papa, L.

    1995-01-01

    The improvement of the technology of innovative anti-seismic mechanisms, as those for base isolation and energy dissipation, needs of testing capability for large scale models of structures integrated with these mechanisms. These kind experimental tests are of primary importance for the validation of design rules and the setting up of an advanced earthquake engineering for civil constructions of relevant interest. The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission offers the European Laboratory for Structural Assessment located at Ispra - Italy, as a focal point for an international european collaboration research programme to test large scale models of structure making use of innovative anti-seismic mechanisms. A collaboration contract, opened to other future contributions, has been signed with the national italian working group on seismic isolation (Gruppo di Lavoro sull's Isolamento Sismico GLIS) which includes the national research centre ENEA, the national electricity board ENEL, the industrial research centre ISMES and producer of isolators ALGA. (author). 3 figs

  2. European Wintertime Windstorms and its Links to Large-Scale Variability Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Befort, D. J.; Wild, S.; Walz, M. A.; Knight, J. R.; Lockwood, J. F.; Thornton, H. E.; Hermanson, L.; Bett, P.; Weisheimer, A.; Leckebusch, G. C.

    2017-12-01

    Winter storms associated with extreme wind speeds and heavy precipitation are the most costly natural hazard in several European countries. Improved understanding and seasonal forecast skill of winter storms will thus help society, policy-makers and (re-) insurance industry to be better prepared for such events. We firstly assess the ability to represent extra-tropical windstorms over the Northern Hemisphere of three seasonal forecast ensemble suites: ECMWF System3, ECMWF System4 and GloSea5. Our results show significant skill for inter-annual variability of windstorm frequency over parts of Europe in two of these forecast suites (ECMWF-S4 and GloSea5) indicating the potential use of current seasonal forecast systems. In a regression model we further derive windstorm variability using the forecasted NAO from the seasonal model suites thus estimating the suitability of the NAO as the only predictor. We find that the NAO as the main large-scale mode over Europe can explain some of the achieved skill and is therefore an important source of variability in the seasonal models. However, our results show that the regression model fails to reproduce the skill level of the directly forecast windstorm frequency over large areas of central Europe. This suggests that the seasonal models also capture other sources of variability/predictability of windstorms than the NAO. In order to investigate which other large-scale variability modes steer the interannual variability of windstorms we develop a statistical model using a Poisson GLM. We find that the Scandinavian Pattern (SCA) in fact explains a larger amount of variability for Central Europe during the 20th century than the NAO. This statistical model is able to skilfully reproduce the interannual variability of windstorm frequency especially for the British Isles and Central Europe with correlations up to 0.8.

  3. Motivation for the European Union to support large solar power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brakmann, Georg

    1997-01-01

    An invited article discusses the opportunities for large, electricity generating solar thermal plants in the European Union. It is claimed that although it is currently not competitive with current oil prices, it is cheaper than photovoltaics. Topics covered include CO 2 emission reduction, likely subsidies required, job creation and taxation. (UK)

  4. The Central European, Tarim and Siberian Large Igneous Provinces, Late Palaeozoic orogeny and coeval metallogeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boorder, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/098199056

    2014-01-01

    The formation of the Central European and Tarim Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) in the Early Permian coincided with the demise of the Variscan and the Southern Tianshan orogens, respectively. The Early Triassic Siberian LIP was formed in the wake of the Western Altaid orogeny in the Late Permian.

  5. Corporate Governance and the Value of Excess Cash Holdings of Large European Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.J. Schauten (Marc); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick); J-P. van der Waal (Jan-Paul)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWe examine the relation between the quality of corporate governance and the value of excess cash for large European firms (FTSEurofirst 300 Index). We use Deminor ratings for Shareholder rights, Takeover defences, Disclosure and Board as proxies for the quality of corporate governance.

  6. Corporate Governance and the Value of Excess Cash Holdings of Large European Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schauten, M.B.J.; van Dijk, D.J.C.; van der Waal, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the relation between the quality of corporate governance and the value of excess cash for large publicly listed European firms from common-law and civil-law countries. Besides different law origins, we distinguish different dimensions of corporate governance by using ratings for the

  7. Large Deployable Reflector Technologies for Future European Telecom and Earth Observation Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, A.; Breunig, E.; Dadashvili, L.; Migliorelli, M.; Scialino, L.; van't Klosters, K.; Santiago-Prowald, J.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents requirements, analysis and design results for European large deployable reflectors (LDR) for space applications. For telecommunications, the foreseeable use of large reflectors is associated to the continuous demand for improved performance of mobile services. On the other hand, several earth observation (EO) missions can be identified carrying either active or passive remote sensing instruments (or both), in which a large effective aperture is needed e.g. BIOMASS. From the European point of view there is a total dependence of USA industry as such LDRs are not available from European suppliers. The RESTEO study is part of a number of ESA led activities to facilitate European LDR development. This paper is focused on the structural-mechanical aspects of this study. We identify the general requirements for LDRs with special emphasis on launcher accommodation for EO mission. In the next step, optimal concepts for the LDR structure and the RF-Surface are reviewed. Regarding the RF surface, both, a knitted metal mesh and a shell membrane based on carbon fibre reinforced silicon (CFRS) are considered. In terms of the backing structure, the peripheral ring concept is identified as most promising and a large number of options for the deployment kinematics are discussed. Of those, pantographic kinematics and a conical peripheral ring are selected. A preliminary design for these two most promising LDR concepts is performed which includes static, modal and kinematic simulation and also techniques to generate the reflector nets.

  8. AlpArray - technical strategies for large-scale European co-operation in broadband seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisbourne, A.; Clinton, J.; Hetenyi, G.; Pequegnat, C.; Wilde-Piorko, M.; Villasenor, A.; Comelli, P.; AlpArray Working Group

    2012-04-01

    AlpArray is a new initiative to study the greater Alpine area with a large-scale broadband seismological network. The interested parties (currently 32 institutes in 12 countries) plan to combine their existing infrastructures into an all-out transnational effort that includes data acquisition, processing, imaging and interpretation. The experiment will encompass the greater Alpine area, from the Black Forest in the north to the Northern Apennines in the south and from the Pannonian Basin in the east to the French Massif Central in the west. We aim to cover this region with high-quality broadband seismometers by combining the ~400 existing permanent stations with an additional 400+ instruments from mobile pools. In this way, we plan to achieve homogeneous and high resolution coverage while also deploying densely spaced stations along swaths across key parts of the Alpine chain. These efforts on land will be combined with deployments of ocean bottom seismometers in the Mediterranean Sea. Significant progress has already been made in outlining the scientific goals and funding strategy. A brief overview of these aspects of the initiative will be presented here. However, we will concentrate on the technical aspects: How efficient large-scale integration of existing infrastructures can be achieved. Existing permanent station coverage within the greater Alpine area has been collated and assessed for data availability, allowing strategies to be developed for network densification to ensure a robust backbone network: An anticipated deployment strategy has been drawn up to optimise array coverage and data quality. The augmented backbone network will be supplemented by more densely spaced temporary arrays targeting more specific scientific questions. For these temporary arrays, a strategy document has been produced to outline standards for station installation, data acquisition, processing, archival and dissemination. All these operations are of course vital. However, data

  9. Fabrication of large area flexible nanoplasmonic templates with flow coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qian; Devetter, Brent M.; Roosendaal, Timothy; LaBerge, Max; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Alvine, Kyle J.

    2017-07-01

    We describe the development of a custom-built two-axis flow coater for the deposition of polymeric nanosphere monolayers that could be used in the fabrication of large area nanoplasmonic films. The technique described here has the capability of depositing large areas (up to 7 in. × 10 in.) of self-assembled monolayers of polymeric nanospheres onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films. Here, three sets of films consisting of different diameters (ranging from 100 to 300 nm) of polymeric nanospheres were used to demonstrate the capabilities of this instrument. To improve the surface wettability of the PET substrates during wet-deposition, we enhanced the wettability by using a forced air blown-arc plasma treatment system. Both the local microstructure, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, describing monolayer and multilayer coverage, and the overall macroscopic uniformity of the resultant nanostructured film were optimized by controlling the relative stage to blade speed and nanosphere concentration. We also show using a smaller nanoparticle template that such monolayers can be used to form nanoplasmonic films. As this flow-coating approach is a scalable technique, large area films such as the ones described here have a variety of crucial emerging applications in areas such as energy, catalysis, and chemical sensing.

  10. Experimental study on generation of large area uniform electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Ying; Yi Aiping; Liu Jingru; Qian Hang; Huang Xin; Yu Li; Su Jiancang; Ding Zhenjie; Ding Yongzhong; Yu Jianguo

    2007-01-01

    In the experiment of gas laser pumped by electron beam, large area uniform electron beam is important to generate high efficiency laser output. The experimental study on generation of large area uniform electron beam with SPG-200 pulsed power generator is introduced. SPG-200 is an all-solid-state components pulsed power generator based on SOS, and its open voltage is more than 350 kV. The cathode have the area of 24 mm x 294 mm, and the anode-cathode(A-C)gap spacing is adjustable from 0 to 49 mm. The electron beam of cathode emission is transported to the laser chamber through the diode pressure foil, which sepa-rates the vacuum chamber from the laser chamber. Velvet and graphite cathodes are studied, each generates large area electron beam. The diode parameters are presented, and the uniformity of e-beam is diagnosed. The experimental results show that the diode voltage of the graphite cathode is 240-280 kV, and the diode current is 0.7-1.8 kA. The diode voltage of the velvet cathode is 200-250 kV, and the diode current is 1.5-1.7 kA. The uniformity of the velvet cathode emission is better than that of the graphite cathode. (authors)

  11. Regulations and Strategy for a Loss of Large Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Heok-soon [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued 10 CFR 50.54(hh) that requires licensees to develop guidance and strategies for addressing the loss of large areas of the plant due to explosions or fires from a beyond-design basis event through the use of readily available resources and by identifying potential practicable areas for the use of beyond-readily-available resources. These strategies would address licensee response to events that are beyond the design basis of the facility. This paper illustrates overview of Regulations and some important Strategy for a Loss of Large Area of an advanced nuclear power plant. Regulations and Strategy for Loss of Large Area Analysis could be overlooked during the development stage of Physical Protection System. KHNP was done the project of Physical Protection System design including LOLA to meet the criteria of U.S. NRC and IAEA requirements in INFCIRC/225/Rev.5. The New Reactor should meet the regulatory requirements for LOLA. In the future, the results of project will expect to apply new NPPs.

  12. Exploring Integration of Care for Children Living with Complex Care Needs across the European Union and European Economic Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Maria; O'Shea, Miriam; J Larkin, Philip; Kamionka, Stine Lundstroem; Berry, Jay; Hiscock, Harriet; Rigby, Michael; Blair, Mitch

    2017-04-24

    The aim of this paper is to report on the development of surveys to explore integration of care for children living with complex care needs across the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA). Each survey consists of a vignette and questions adapted from the Standards for Systems of Care for Children and Youth with Special Health Care Needs and the Eurobarometer Survey . A Country Agent in each country, a local expert in child health services, will obtain data from indigenous sources. We identified 'in-principle' complex problems and adapted surveys to capture care integration. We expect to get rich data to understand perceptions and to inform actions for a number of complex health issues. The study has the potential to make a wide contribution to individual countries of the EU/EEA to understand their own integration of services mapped against responses from other member states. Early results are expected in Spring 2017.

  13. Large-scale movements in European badgers: has the tail of the movement kernel been underestimated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Andrew W; Quinn, John L; O'Keeffe, James J; Green, Stuart; Sleeman, D Paddy; Martin, S Wayne; Davenport, John

    2014-07-01

    Characterizing patterns of animal movement is a major aim in population ecology, and yet doing so at an appropriate spatial scale remains a major challenge. Estimating the frequency and distances of movements is of particular importance when species are implicated in the transmission of zoonotic diseases. European badgers (Meles meles) are classically viewed as exhibiting limited dispersal, and yet their movements bring them into conflict with farmers due to their potential to spread bovine tuberculosis in parts of their range. Considerable uncertainty surrounds the movement potential of badgers, and this may be related to the spatial scale of previous empirical studies. We conducted a large-scale mark-recapture study (755 km(2); 2008-2012; 1935 capture events; 963 badgers) to investigate movement patterns in badgers, and undertook a comparative meta-analysis using published data from 15 European populations. The dispersal movement (>1 km) kernel followed an inverse power-law function, with a substantial 'tail' indicating the occurrence of rare long-distance dispersal attempts during the study period. The mean recorded distance from this distribution was 2.6 km, the 95 percentile was 7.3 km and the longest recorded was 22.1 km. Dispersal frequency distributions were significantly different between genders; males dispersed more frequently than females, but females made proportionally more long-distance dispersal attempts than males. We used a subsampling approach to demonstrate that the appropriate minimum spatial scale to characterize badger movements in our study population was 80 km(2), substantially larger than many previous badger studies. Furthermore, the meta-analysis indicated a significant association between maximum movement distance and study area size, while controlling for population density. Maximum long-distance movements were often only recorded by chance beyond the boundaries of study areas. These findings suggest that the tail of the badger

  14. Spatially explicit shallow landslide susceptibility mapping over large areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellugi, Dino; Dietrich, William E.; Stock, Jonathan D.; McKean, Jim; Kazian, Brian; Hargrove, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in downscaling climate model precipitation predictions now yield spatially explicit patterns of rainfall that could be used to estimate shallow landslide susceptibility over large areas. In California, the United States Geological Survey is exploring community emergency response to the possible effects of a very large simulated storm event and to do so it has generated downscaled precipitation maps for the storm. To predict the corresponding pattern of shallow landslide susceptibility across the state, we have used the model Shalstab (a coupled steady state runoff and infinite slope stability model) which susceptibility spatially explicit estimates of relative potential instability. Such slope stability models that include the effects of subsurface runoff on potentially destabilizing pore pressure evolution require water routing and hence the definition of upslope drainage area to each potential cell. To calculate drainage area efficiently over a large area we developed a parallel framework to scale-up Shalstab and specifically introduce a new efficient parallel drainage area algorithm which produces seamless results. The single seamless shallow landslide susceptibility map for all of California was accomplished in a short run time, and indicates that much larger areas can be efficiently modelled. As landslide maps generally over predict the extent of instability for any given storm. Local empirical data on the fraction of predicted unstable cells that failed for observed rainfall intensity can be used to specify the likely extent of hazard for a given storm. This suggests that campaigns to collect local precipitation data and detailed shallow landslide location maps after major storms could be used to calibrate models and improve their use in hazard assessment for individual storms.

  15. Rabi-like splitting from large area plasmonic microcavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Hosseini Alast

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rabi-like splitting was observed from a hybrid plasmonic microcavity. The splitting comes from the coupling of cavity mode with the surface plasmon polariton mode; anti-crossing was observed alongside the modal conversional channel on the reflection light measurement. The hybrid device consists of a 10x10 mm2 ruled metal grating integrated onto the Fabry-Perot microcavity. The 10x10 mm2 ruled metal grating fabricated from laser interference and the area is sufficiently large to be used in the practical optical device. The larger area hybrid plasmonic microcavity can be employed in polariton lasers and biosensors.

  16. Large-area, laterally-grown epitaxial semiconductor layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jung; Song, Jie; Chen, Danti

    2017-07-18

    Structures and methods for confined lateral-guided growth of a large-area semiconductor layer on an insulating layer are described. The semiconductor layer may be formed by heteroepitaxial growth from a selective growth area in a vertically-confined, lateral-growth guiding structure. Lateral-growth guiding structures may be formed in arrays over a region of a substrate, so as to cover a majority of the substrate region with laterally-grown epitaxial semiconductor tiles. Quality regions of low-defect, stress-free GaN may be grown on silicon.

  17. Uniformity studies in large area triple-GEM based detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akl, M. Abi [Science Program, Texas A& M University at Qatar, PO Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Bouhali, O., E-mail: othmane.bouhali@qatar.tamu.edu [Science Program, Texas A& M University at Qatar, PO Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Qatar Computing Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, PO Box 5825, Doha (Qatar); Castaneda, A.; Maghrbi, Y.; Mohamed, T. [Science Program, Texas A& M University at Qatar, PO Box 23874, Doha (Qatar)

    2016-10-01

    Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) based detectors have been used in many applications since their introduction in 1997. Large areas, e.g. exceeding 30×30 cm{sup 2}, of GEM detectors are foreseen in future experiments which puts stringent requirements on the uniformity of response across the detection area. We investigate the effect of small variations of several parameters that could affect the uniformity. Parameters such as the anode pitch, the gas gap, the size and the shape of the holes are investigated. Simulation results are presented and compared to previous experimental data.

  18. Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, R.C.; Quigley, G.P.

    1996-12-17

    Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source is disclosed. A contamination-free VUV light source having a 225 cm{sup 2} emission area in the 240-340 nm region of the electromagnetic spectrum with an average output power in this band of about 2 J/cm{sup 2} at a wall-plug efficiency of approximately 5% is described. Only ceramics and metal parts are employed in this surface discharge source. Because of the contamination-free, high photon energy and flux, and short pulse characteristics of the source, it is suitable for semiconductor and flat panel display material processing. 3 figs.

  19. Large-area smart glass and integrated photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampert, C.M. [Star Science, 8730 Water Road, Cotati, CA 94931-4252 (United States)

    2003-04-01

    Several companies throughout the world are developing dynamic glazing and large-area flat panel displays. University and National Laboratory groups are researching new materials and processes to improve these products. The concept of a switchable glazing for building and vehicle application is very attractive. Conventional glazing only offers fixed transmittance and control of energy passing through it. Given the wide range of illumination conditions and glare, a dynamic glazing with adjustable transmittance offers the best solution. Photovoltaics can be integrated as power sources for smart windows. In this way a switchable window could be a completely stand alone smart system. A new range of large-area flat panel display including light-weight and flexible displays are being developed. These displays can be used for banner advertising, dynamic pricing in stores, electronic paper, and electronic books, to name only a few applications. This study covers selected switching technologies including electrochromism, suspended particles, and encapsulated liquid crystals.

  20. Dwell time considerations for large area cold plasma decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konesky, Gregory

    2009-05-01

    Atmospheric discharge cold plasmas have been shown to be effective in the reduction of pathogenic bacteria and spores and in the decontamination of simulated chemical warfare agents, without the generation of toxic or harmful by-products. Cold plasmas may also be useful in assisting cleanup of radiological "dirty bombs." For practical applications in realistic scenarios, the plasma applicator must have both a large area of coverage, and a reasonably short dwell time. However, the literature contains a wide range of reported dwell times, from a few seconds to several minutes, needed to achieve a given level of reduction. This is largely due to different experimental conditions, and especially, different methods of generating the decontaminating plasma. We consider these different approaches and attempt to draw equivalencies among them, and use this to develop requirements for a practical, field-deployable plasma decontamination system. A plasma applicator with 12 square inches area and integral high voltage, high frequency generator is described.

  1. An insulating grid spacer for large-area MICROMEGAS chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, D.; Delagrange, H.; D'Enterria, D.G.; Guay, M.L.M. Le; Martinez, G.; Mora, M.J.; Pichot, P.; Roy, D.; Schutz, Y.; Gandi, A.; Oliveira, R. de

    2002-01-01

    We present a novel design for large-area gaseous detectors based on the MICROMEGAS technology. This technology incorporates an insulating grid, sandwiched between the micro-mesh and the anode-pad plane, which provides a uniform 200 μm amplification gap. The uniformity of the amplification gap thickness has been verified. The gain performances of the detector are presented and compared to the values obtained with detectors using cylindrical micro spacers. The new design presents several technical and financial advantages

  2. Large area avalanche MRS-photodiodes for nuclear spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermalitski, F A; Zalesski, V B

    1996-12-31

    Problems of application of avalanche photodiodes (APD) in readout systems of nuclear spectrometers are considered. APD`s with a large sensitive area of a diameter 1-5 mm and a high multiplication coefficient 200-1000 are created. MPS-photodiodes provide for the energy resolution 80% at temperature 231 K for detecting gamma-quanta with energy 662 keV. 4 refs.

  3. Gravure printing of graphene for large-area flexible electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, Ethan B; Lim, Sooman; Zhang, Heng; Frisbie, C Daniel; Francis, Lorraine F; Hersam, Mark C

    2014-07-09

    Gravure printing of graphene is demonstrated for the rapid production of conductive patterns on flexible substrates. Development of suitable inks and printing parameters enables the fabrication of patterns with a resolution down to 30 μm. A mild annealing step yields conductive lines with high reliability and uniformity, providing an efficient method for the integration of graphene into large-area printed and flexible electronics. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Mapping the electrical properties of large-area graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøggild, Peter; Mackenzie, David M. A.; Whelan, Patrick R.; Petersen, Dirch H.; Due Buron, Jonas; Zurutuza, Amaia; Gallop, John; Hao, Ling; Jepsen, Peter U.

    2017-12-01

    The significant progress in terms of fabricating large-area graphene films for transparent electrodes, barriers, electronics, telecommunication and other applications has not yet been accompanied by efficient methods for characterizing the electrical properties of large-area graphene. While in the early prototyping as well as research and development phases, electrical test devices created by conventional lithography have provided adequate insights, this approach is becoming increasingly problematic due to complications such as irreversible damage to the original graphene film, contamination, and a high measurement effort per device. In this topical review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the issues that need to be addressed by any large-area characterisation method for electrical key performance indicators, with emphasis on electrical uniformity and on how this can be used to provide a more accurate analysis of the graphene film. We review and compare three different, but complementary approaches that rely either on fixed contacts (dry laser lithography), movable contacts (micro four point probes) and non-contact (terahertz time-domain spectroscopy) between the probe and the graphene film, all of which have been optimized for maximal throughput and accuracy, and minimal damage to the graphene film. Of these three, the main emphasis is on THz time-domain spectroscopy, which is non-destructive, highly accurate and allows both conductivity, carrier density and carrier mobility to be mapped across arbitrarily large areas at rates that by far exceed any other known method. We also detail how the THz conductivity spectra give insights on the scattering mechanisms, and through that, the microstructure of graphene films subject to different growth and transfer processes. The perspectives for upscaling to realistic production environments are discussed.

  5. High Energy Astrophysics with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the findings of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi Observatory. It includes information about the LAT, and the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM), detection of the quiet sun and the moon in gamma rays, Pulsars observed by the observatory, Globular Star Clusters, Active Galactic Nucleus, and Gamma-Ray Bursts, with specific information about GRB 080916C.

  6. Large scale solar thermal power for the European Union{exclamation_point}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-06-01

    Southern Europe, on the edge of the sunbelt, represents the ideal location for solar thermal generated power. Last year. SAWIE reported on the THESEUS project, a proposed 50 MWe solar thermal power plant for Frangokastello, southern Crete, which was submitted for support under the European Union`s THERMIE Programme. Funding was approved for the design phase for this innovative power plant, the first large-scale SEGS-style plant on European soil, at the end of last year. However, the THERMIE Programme also provided support for another Southern European plant, proposed by Colon Solar for Huelva in Southern Spain. Whilst hurdles remain to be overcome before both plants are built and commissioned, there is an excellent chance that by the start of the new Millennium, the solar collectors from these two plants could be generating over half a million MWh of energy a year. SAWIE compares the two projects. (author)

  7. Advanced Large Area Plastic Scintillator Project (ALPS): Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, David V.; Reeder, Paul L.; Todd, Lindsay C.; Warren, Glen A.; McCormick, Kathleen R.; Stephens, Daniel L.; Geelhood, Bruce D.; Alzheimer, James M.; Crowell, Shannon L.; Sliger, William A.

    2008-02-05

    The advanced Large-Area Plastic Scintillator (ALPS) Project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory investigated possible technological avenues for substantially advancing the state-of-the-art in gamma-ray detection via large-area plastic scintillators. The three predominant themes of these investigations comprised the following: * Maximizing light collection efficiency from a single large-area sheet of plastic scintillator, and optimizing hardware event trigger definition to retain detection efficiency while exploiting the power of coincidence to suppress single-PMT "dark current" background; * Utilizing anti-Compton vetoing and supplementary spectral information from a co-located secondary, or "Back" detector, to both (1) minimize Compton background in the low-energy portion of the "Front" scintillator's pulse-height spectrum, and (2) sharpen the statistical accuracy of the front detector's low-energy response prediction as impelmented in suitable energy-windowing algorithms; and * Investigating alternative materials to enhance the intrinsic gamma-ray detection efficiency of plastic-based sensors.

  8. Advanced Large Area Plastic Scintillator Project (ALPS): Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, David V.; Reeder, Paul L.; Todd, Lindsay C.; Warren, Glen A.; McCormick, Kathleen R.; Stephens, Daniel L.; Geelhood, Bruce D.; Alzheimer, James M.; Crowell, Shannon L.; Sliger, William A.

    2008-01-01

    The advanced Large-Area Plastic Scintillator (ALPS) Project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory investigated possible technological avenues for substantially advancing the state-of-the-art in gamma-ray detection via large-area plastic scintillators. The three predominant themes of these investigations comprised the following: * Maximizing light collection efficiency from a single large-area sheet of plastic scintillator, and optimizing hardware event trigger definition to retain detection efficiency while exploiting the power of coincidence to suppress single-PMT 'dark current' background; * Utilizing anti-Compton vetoing and supplementary spectral information from a co-located secondary, or 'Back' detector, to both (1) minimize Compton background in the low-energy portion of the 'Front' scintillator's pulse-height spectrum, and (2) sharpen the statistical accuracy of the front detector's low-energy response prediction as implemented in suitable energy-windowing algorithms; and * Investigating alternative materials to enhance the intrinsic gamma-ray detection efficiency of plastic-based sensors

  9. Characterization and Calibration of Large Area Resistive Strip Micromegas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Losel, Philipp Jonathan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Resisitve strip Micromegas detectors behave discharge tolerant. They have been tested extensively as smaller detectors of about 10 x 10 cm$^2$ in size and they work reliably at high rates of 100\\,kHz/cm$^2$ and above. Tracking resolutions well below 100\\,$\\mu$m have been observed for 100 GeV muons and pions. Micromegas detectors are meanwhile proposed as large area muon precision trackers of 2-3\\,m$^2$ in size. To investigate possible differences between small and large detectors, a 1\\,m$^2$ detector with 2048 resistive strips at a pitch of 450 $\\mu$m was studied in the LMU Cosmic Ray Facility (CRF) using two 4 $\\times$ 2.2 m$^2$ large Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers for cosmic muon reference tracking. Segmentation of the resistive strip anode plane in 57.6\\,mm x 95\\,mm large areas has been realized by the readout of 128 strips with one APV25 chip each and by 11 95\\,mm broad trigger scintillators placed along the readout strips.\\\\ This allows for mapping of homogenity in pulse height and efficiency, deter...

  10. Characterization and Calibration of Large Area Resistive Strip Micromegas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00389527; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Resistive strip Micromegas detectors are discharge tolerant. They have been tested extensively as small detectors of about 10 x 10 cm$^2$ in size and they work reliably at high rates of 100 kHz/cm$^2$ and above. Tracking resolution well below 100 $\\mu$m has been observed for 100 GeV muons and pions. Micromegas detectors are meanwhile proposed as large area muon precision trackers of 2-3 m$^2$ in size. To investigate possible differences between small and large detectors, a 1 m$^2$ detector with 2048 resistive strips at a pitch of 450 $\\mu$m was studied in the LMU Cosmic Ray Measurement Facility (CRMF) using two 4 $\\times$ 2.2 m$^2$ large Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers for cosmic muon reference tracking. A segmentation of the resistive strip anode plane in 57.6 mm x 93 mm large areas has been realized by the readout of 128 strips with one APV25 chip each and by eleven 93 mm broad trigger scintillators placed along the readout strips. This allows for mapping of homogeneity in pulse height and efficiency, d...

  11. Large-area high-efficiency flexible PHOLED lighting panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Huiqing; Mandlik, Prashant; Levermore, Peter A.; Silvernail, Jeff; Ma, Ruiqing; Brown, Julie J.

    2012-09-01

    Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) provide various attractive features for next generation illumination systems, including high efficiency, low power, thin and flexible form factor. In this work, we incorporated phosphorescent emitters and demonstrated highly efficient white phosphorescent OLED (PHOLED) devices on flexible plastic substrates. The 0.94 cm2 small-area device has total thickness of approximately 0.25 mm and achieved 63 lm/W at 1,000 cd/m2 with CRI = 85 and CCT = 2920 K. We further designed and fabricated a 15 cm x 15 cm large-area flexible white OLED lighting panels, finished with a hybrid single-layer ultra-low permeability single layer barrier (SLB) encapsulation film. The flexible panel has an active area of 116.4 cm2, and achieved a power efficacy of 47 lm/W at 1,000 cd/m2 with CRI = 83 and CCT = 3470 K. The efficacy of the panel at 3,000 cd/m2 is 43 lm/W. The large-area flexible PHOLED lighting panel is to bring out enormous possibilities to the future general lighting applications.

  12. Large-area photogrammetry based testing of wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poozesh, Peyman; Baqersad, Javad; Niezrecki, Christopher; Avitabile, Peter; Harvey, Eric; Yarala, Rahul

    2017-03-01

    An optically based sensing system that can measure the displacement and strain over essentially the entire area of a utility-scale blade leads to a measurement system that can significantly reduce the time and cost associated with traditional instrumentation. This paper evaluates the performance of conventional three dimensional digital image correlation (3D DIC) and three dimensional point tracking (3DPT) approaches over the surface of wind turbine blades and proposes a multi-camera measurement system using dynamic spatial data stitching. The potential advantages for the proposed approach include: (1) full-field measurement distributed over a very large area, (2) the elimination of time-consuming wiring and expensive sensors, and (3) the need for large-channel data acquisition systems. There are several challenges associated with extending the capability of a standard 3D DIC system to measure entire surface of utility scale blades to extract distributed strain, deflection, and modal parameters. This paper only tries to address some of the difficulties including: (1) assessing the accuracy of the 3D DIC system to measure full-field distributed strain and displacement over the large area, (2) understanding the geometrical constraints associated with a wind turbine testing facility (e.g. lighting, working distance, and speckle pattern size), (3) evaluating the performance of the dynamic stitching method to combine two different fields of view by extracting modal parameters from aligned point clouds, and (4) determining the feasibility of employing an output-only system identification to estimate modal parameters of a utility scale wind turbine blade from optically measured data. Within the current work, the results of an optical measurement (one stereo-vision system) performed on a large area over a 50-m utility-scale blade subjected to quasi-static and cyclic loading are presented. The blade certification and testing is typically performed using International

  13. THE EUROPEAN COUNCIL AND ITS ROLE IN PROMOTING AND DEFENDING HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE EUROPEAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion, POPESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Council of Europe advocates freedom of expression and of the media, freedom of assembly, equality, and the protection of minorities. It has launched campaigns on issues such as child protection, online hate speech, and the rights of the Roma, Europe's largest minority. The Council of Europe helps member states fight corruption and terrorism and undertake necessary judicial reforms. Its group of constitutional experts, known as the Venice Commission, offers legal advice to countries throughout the world. The Council of Europe promotes human rights through international conventions, such as the Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence and the Convention on Cybercrime. It monitors member states' progress in these areas and makes recommendations through independent expert monitoring bodies. All Council of Europe member states have abolished the death penalty.

  14. Priority areas for large mammal conservation in Equatorial Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Mizuki; Ruffler, Heidi; Berlemont, Antoine; Campbell, Genevieve; Esono, Fidel; Agbor, Anthony; Mbomio, Domingo; Ebana, Agustín; Nze, Antonio; Kühl, Hjalmar S

    2013-01-01

    Hunting is one of the main driving forces behind large mammal density distribution in many regions of the world. In tropical Africa, urban demand for bushmeat has been shown to dominate over subsistence hunting and its impact often overrides spatial-ecological species characteristics. To effectively protect remaining mammal populations the main factors that influence their distribution need to be integrated into conservation area prioritisation and management plans. This information has been lacking for Río Muni, Equatorial Guinea, as prior studies have been outdated or have not systematically covered the continental region of the country. In this study we evaluated: 1) the relative importance of local vs. commercial hunting; 2) wildlife density of protected vs. non-protected areas; and 3) the importance of ecological factors vs. human influence in driving mammal density distribution in Río Muni. We adopted a systematic countrywide line transect approach with particular focus on apes and elephants, but also including other mammal species. For analysis of field data we used generalised linear models with a set of predictor variables representing ecological conditions, anthropogenic pressure and protected areas. We estimate that there are currently 884 (437-1,789) elephants and 11,097 (8,719-13,592) chimpanzees and gorillas remaining in Río Muni. The results indicate strong hunting pressures on both local and commercial levels, with roads demonstrating a negative impact on elephants and overall mammal body mass. Protected areas played no role in determining any of the mammal species distributions and significant human hunting signs were found inside these protected areas, illustrating the lack of environmental law enforcement throughout the country. Río Muni is currently under-represented in conservation efforts in Western Equatorial Africa, and we recommend a focus on cross-boundary conservation, in particular in the Monte Alén-Monts de Cristal and Río Campo

  15. Application issues for large-area electrochromic windows incommercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, D.L.

    2000-05-01

    Projections of performance from small-area devices to large-area windows and enterprise marketing have created high expectations for electrochromic glazings. As a result, this paper seeks to precipitate an objective dialog between material scientists and building-application scientists to determine whether actual large-area electrochromic devices will result in significant performance benefits and what material improvements are needed, if any, to make electrochromics more practical for commercial building applications. Few in-situ tests have been conducted with large-area electrochromic windows applied in buildings. This study presents monitored results from a full-scale field test of large-area electrochromic windows to illustrate how this technology will perform in commercial buildings. The visible transmittance (Tv) of the installed electrochromic ranged from 0.11 to 0.38. The data are limited to the winter period for a south-east-facing window. The effect of actual device performance on lighting energy use, direct sun control, discomfort glare, and interior illumination is discussed. No mechanical system loads were monitored. These data demonstrate the use of electrochromics in a moderate climate and focus on the most restrictive visual task: computer use in offices. Through this small demonstration, we were able to determine that electrochromic windows can indeed provide unmitigated transparent views and a level of dynamic illumination control never before seen in architectural glazing materials. Daily lighting energy use was 6-24 percent less compared to the 11 percent-glazing, with improved interior brightness levels. Daily lighting energy use was 3 percent less to 13 percent more compared to the 38 percent-glazing, with improved window brightness control. The electrochromic window may not be able to fulfill both energy-efficiency and visual comfort objectives when low winter direct sun is present, particularly for computer tasks using cathode-ray tube (CRT

  16. Large area optical mapping of surface contact angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Guilherme; Canning, John; Padden, Whayne; Martelli, Cicero; Dligatch, Svetlana

    2017-09-04

    Top-down contact angle measurements have been validated and confirmed to be as good if not more reliable than side-based measurements. A range of samples, including industrially relevant materials for roofing and printing, has been compared. Using the top-down approach, mapping in both 1-D and 2-D has been demonstrated. The method was applied to study the change in contact angle as a function of change in silver (Ag) nanoparticle size controlled by thermal evaporation. Large area mapping reveals good uniformity for commercial Aspen paper coated with black laser printer ink. A demonstration of the forensic and chemical analysis potential in 2-D is shown by uncovering the hidden CsF initials made with mineral oil on the coated Aspen paper. The method promises to revolutionize nanoscale characterization and industrial monitoring as well as chemical analyses by allowing rapid contact angle measurements over large areas or large numbers of samples in ways and times that have not been possible before.

  17. Dark Matter Searches with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meurer, Christine

    2008-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, successfully launched on June 11th, 2008, is the next generation satellite experiment for high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. The main instrument, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT), with a wide field of view (>2 sr), a large effective area (>8000 cm 2 at 1 GeV), sub-arcminute source localization, a large energy range (20 MeV-300 GeV) and a good energy resolution (close to 8% at 1 GeV), has excellent potential to either discover or to constrain a Dark Matter signal. The Fermi LAT team pursues complementary searches for signatures of particle Dark Matter in different search regions such as the galactic center, galactic satellites and subhalos, the milky way halo, extragalactic regions as well as the search for spectral lines. In these proceedings we examine the potential of the LAT to detect gamma-rays coming from Weakly Interacting Massive Particle annihilations in these regions with special focus on the galactic center region.

  18. Amplifiers dedicated for large area SiC photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroz, P.; Duk, M.; Korwin-Pawlowski, M. L.; Borecki, M.

    2016-09-01

    Large area SiC photodiodes find applications in optoelectronic sensors working at special conditions. These conditions include detection of UV radiation in harsh environment. Moreover, the mentioned sensors have to be selective and resistant to unwanted signals. For this purpose, the modulation of light at source unit and the rejection of constant current and low frequency component of signal at detector unit are used. The popular frequency used for modulation in such sensor is 1kHz. The large area photodiodes are characterized by a large capacitance and low shunt resistance that varies with polarization of the photodiode and can significantly modify the conditions of signal pre-amplification. In this paper two pre-amplifiers topology are analyzed: the transimpedance amplifier and the non-inverting voltage to voltage amplifier with negative feedback. The feedback loops of both pre-amplifiers are equipped with elements used for initial constant current and low frequency signals rejections. Both circuits are analyzed and compared using simulation and experimental approaches.

  19. Multimodality treatment of large AVMs in eloquent areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Hiroshi K.; Naitou, Isao

    2004-01-01

    Our treatment of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) with Gamma Knife Radiosurgery (optimal dose treatment) showed 88.4% total obliteration in small AVMs less than 10 ml after the first treatment and very low morbidity (1.7%) in long-term follow-up (5 to 12 years). These results indicate that combined treatment is a good strategy for large AVMs in eloquent areas. Therefore, we evaluated larger AVMs treated with direct surgery including feeder clipping and/or intravascular embolization prior to radiosurgery for further development of radiosurgery of large AVMs. Fifty of 171 patients had combined treatment (embolization: 27, direct surgery: 19, both: 4) and were followed more than 4 years and 6 months. Mean volume at the time of radiosurgery was smallest in the surgery group. Total obliteration was obtained in 94.4% of small AVMs less than 10 ml (surgery: 100%, embolization: 88.9%), although larger AVMs still have a lower obliteration rate. No lethal hemorrhages appeared after combination treatment up to date. We concluded that radiosurgery combined with surgery and/or embolization is a safe and effective treatment for large AVMs in eloquent areas. (author)

  20. Edge field emission of large-area single layer graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleshch, Victor I., E-mail: klesch@polly.phys.msu.ru [Department of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Bandurin, Denis A. [Department of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Orekhov, Anton S. [Department of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); A.V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, RAS, Moscow 119333 (Russian Federation); Purcell, Stephen T. [ILM, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 et CNRS, UMR 5586, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Obraztsov, Alexander N. [Department of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu 80101 (Finland)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Stable field emission was observed from the edge of large-area graphene on quartz. • A strong hysteresis in current–voltage characteristics was observed. • The hysteresis was explained by mechanical peeling of graphene edge from substrate. • Reversible peeling of graphene edge may be used in microelectromechanical systems. - Abstract: Field electron emission from the edges of large-area (∼1 cm × 1 cm) graphene films deposited onto quartz wafers was studied. The graphene was previously grown by chemical vapour deposition on copper. An extreme enhancement of electrostatic field at the edge of the films with macroscopically large lateral dimensions and with single atom thickness was achieved. This resulted in the creation of a blade type electron emitter, providing stable field emission at low-voltage with linear current density up to 0.5 mA/cm. A strong hysteresis in current–voltage characteristics and a step-like increase of the emission current during voltage ramp up were observed. These effects were explained by the local mechanical peeling of the graphene edge from the quartz substrate by the ponderomotive force during the field emission process. Specific field emission phenomena exhibited in the experimental study are explained by a unique combination of structural, electronic and mechanical properties of graphene. Various potential applications ranging from linear electron beam sources to microelectromechanical systems are discussed.

  1. A Large Scale Problem Based Learning inter-European Student Satellite Construction Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Alminde, Lars; Bisgaard, Morten

    2006-01-01

    that electronic communication technology was vital within the project. Additionally the SSETI EXPRESS project implied the following problems it didn’t fit to a standard semester - 18 months for the satellite project compared to 5/6 months for a “normal” semester project. difficulties in integrating the tasks......A LARGE SCALE PROBLEM BASED LEARNING INTER-EUROPEAN STUDENT SATELLITE CONSTRUCTION PROJECT This paper describes the pedagogical outcome of a large scale PBL experiment. ESA (European Space Agency) Education Office launched January 2004 an ambitious project: Let students from all over Europe build....... The satellite was successfully launched on October 27th 2005 (http://www.express.space.aau.dk). The project was a student driven project with student project responsibility adding at lot of international experiences and project management skills to the outcome of more traditional one semester, single group...

  2. LLNL large-area inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source: Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, R.A.; Egan, P.O.; Benjamin, R.D.

    1995-05-01

    We describe initial experiments with a large (76-cm diameter) plasma source chamber to explore the problems associated with large-area inductively coupled plasma (ICP) sources to produce high density plasmas useful for processing 400-mm semiconductor wafers. Our experiments typically use a 640-nun diameter planar ICP coil driven at 13.56 MHz. Plasma and system data are taken in Ar and N 2 over the pressure range 3-50 mtorr. RF inductive power was run up to 2000W, but typically data were taken over the range 100-1000W. Diagnostics include optical emission spectroscopy, Langmuir probes, and B probes as well as electrical circuit measurements. The B and E-M measurements are compared with models based on commercial E-M codes. Initial indications are that uniform plasmas suitable for 400-mm processing are attainable

  3. Background simulations for the Large Area Detector onboard LOFT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campana, Riccardo; Feroci, Marco; Ettore, Del Monte

    2013-01-01

    and magnetic fields around compact objects and in supranuclear density conditions. Having an effective area of similar to 10 m(2) at 8 keV, LOFT will be able to measure with high sensitivity very fast variability in the X-ray fluxes and spectra. A good knowledge of the in-orbit background environment...... is essential to assess the scientific performance of the mission and optimize the design of its main instrument, the Large Area Detector (LAD). In this paper the results of an extensive Geant-4 simulation of the instrumentwillbe discussed, showing the main contributions to the background and the design...... an anticipated modulation of the background rate as small as 10 % over the orbital timescale. The intrinsic photonic origin of the largest background component also allows for an efficient modelling, supported by an in-flight active monitoring, allowing to predict systematic residuals significantly better than...

  4. Method of manufacturing a large-area segmented photovoltaic module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenox, Carl

    2013-11-05

    One embodiment of the invention relates to a segmented photovoltaic (PV) module which is manufactured from laminate segments. The segmented PV module includes rectangular-shaped laminate segments formed from rectangular-shaped PV laminates and further includes non-rectangular-shaped laminate segments formed from rectangular-shaped and approximately-triangular-shaped PV laminates. The laminate segments are mechanically joined and electrically interconnected to form the segmented module. Another embodiment relates to a method of manufacturing a large-area segmented photovoltaic module from laminate segments of various shapes. Other embodiments relate to processes for providing a photovoltaic array for installation at a site. Other embodiments and features are also disclosed.

  5. An insulating grid spacer for large-area MICROMEGAS chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, D; D'Enterria, D G; Le Guay, M; Martínez, G; Mora, M J; Pichot, P; Roy, D; Schutz, Y; Gandi, A; De Oliveira, R

    2002-01-01

    We present an original design for large area gaseous detectors based on the MICROMEGAS technology. This technology incorporates an insulating grid, sandwiched between the micro-mesh and the anode-pad plane, which provides an uniform 200 $\\mu$m amplification gap. The uniformity of the amplification gap thickness has been verified under several experimental conditions. The gain performances of the detector are presented and compared to the values obtained with detectors using cylindrical micro spacers. The new design presents several technical and financial advantages.

  6. Development of large area resistive electrodes for ATLAS NSW Micromegas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Atsuhiko

    2018-02-01

    Micromegas with resistive anodes will be used for the NSW upgrades of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. Resistive electrodes are used in MPGD devices to prevent sparks in high-rate operation. Large-area resistive electrodes for Micromegas have been developed using two different technologies: screen printing and carbon sputtering. The maximum resistive foil size is 45 × 220 cm with a printed pattern of 425-μm pitch strips. These technologies are also suitable for mass production. Prototypes of a production model series have been successfully produced. In this paper, we report the development, the production status, and the test results of resistive Micromegas.

  7. Position reconstruction in large-area scintillating fibre detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahata, K. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)], E-mail: kmahata@barc.gov.in; Johansson, H.T. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Department of Fundamental Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, S-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Paschalis, S. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Simon, H.; Aumann, T. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2009-09-11

    A new analysis procedure has been developed for the large-area scintillating fibre detectors with position-sensitive photomultiplier (PSPM) readout used for heavy ions in the LAND set-up at GSI. It includes gain matching of the PSPM, calibration of the PSPM fibre mask and hit reconstruction. This procedure allows for a quasi-online calibration of this tracking device. It also allows for a precise determination of the position close to the intrinsic detector resolution of 1 mm pitch together with careful treatment of individual event accuracies.

  8. Large area nuclear particle detectors using ET materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    The purpose of this SBIR Phase 1 feasibility effort was to demonstrate the usefulness of Quantex electron-trapping (ET) materials for spatial detection of nuclear particles over large areas. This demonstration entailed evaluating the prompt visible scintillation as nuclear particles impinged on films of ET materials, and subsequently detecting the nuclear particle impingement information pattern stored in the ET material, by means of the visible-wavelength luminescence produced by near-infrared interrogation. Readily useful levels of scintillation and luminescence outputs are demonstrated

  9. Investigation of electrically exploded large area foil for current switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyshev, V.K.; Boyko, A.M.; Kostyukov, V.N.; Kuzyaev, A.I.; Kulagin, A.A.; Mamyshev, V.I.; Mezhevov, A.B.; Nechaev, A.I.; Petrukhin, A.A.; Protasov, M.S.; Shevtsov, V.I.; Yakubov, V.B.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility of microsecond ∼40 MA current switching from EMG into a quasiconstant inductive load by an electrically exploded foil is investigated. The copper foil of large area, S ∼ 10 4 cm 2 , was placed between thin-walled insulators into a coaxial transmission line (TL). This paper shows a conceptual device scheme. To feed a foil opening switch (FOS), a disc explosive magnetic generator (DEMG) with 20 μs current rise time was employed. An inductive coaxial load was connected to a FOS at a moment, that was close to the foil vaporization start by means of an axisymmetric explosive current commutator (ECC)

  10. Fermi Large Area Telescope Bright Gamma-ray Source List

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, Aous A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Ackermann, M.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Ajello, M.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U., OKC /Stockholm U.; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Band, D.L.; /NASA, Goddard /NASA, Goddard; Barbiellini, Guido; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, Denis; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Bechtol, K.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bignami, G.F.; /Pavia U.; Bloom, Elliott D.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Burnett, Thompson H.; /Washington U., Seattle /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /IASF, Milan /IASF, Milan /DAPNIA, Saclay /ASDC, Frascati /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /George Mason U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /NASA, Goddard /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Montpellier U. /Sonoma State U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /Stockholm U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /ASDC, Frascati /NASA, Goddard /Maryland U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /INFN, Trieste /Pavia U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /UC, Santa Cruz /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Montpellier U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /NASA, Goddard; /more authors..

    2009-05-15

    Following its launch in 2008 June, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) began a sky survey in August. The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on Fermi in three months produced a deeper and better resolved map of the {gamma}-ray sky than any previous space mission. We present here initial results for energies above 100 MeV for the 205 most significant (statistical significance greater than {approx}10{sigma}) {gamma}-ray sources in these data. These are the best characterized and best localized point-like (i.e., spatially unresolved) {gamma}-ray sources in the early mission data.

  11. Large area x-ray detectors for cargo radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, C.; Albagli, D.; Bendahan, J.; Castleberry, D.; Gordon, C.; Hopkins, F.; Ross, W.

    2007-04-01

    Large area x-ray detectors based on phosphors coupled to flat panel amorphous silicon diode technology offer significant advances for cargo radiologic imaging. Flat panel area detectors provide large object coverage offering high throughput inspections to meet the high flow rate of container commerce. These detectors provide excellent spatial resolution when needed, and enhanced SNR through low noise electronics. If the resolution is reduced through pixel binning, further advances in SNR are achievable. Extended exposure imaging and frame averaging enables improved x-ray penetration of ultra-thick objects, or "select-your-own" contrast sensitivity at a rate many times faster than LDAs. The areal coverage of flat panel technology provides inherent volumetric imaging with the appropriate scanning methods. Flat panel area detectors have flexible designs in terms of electronic control, scintillator selection, pixel pitch, and frame rates. Their cost is becoming more competitive as production ramps up for the healthcare, nondestructive testing (NDT), and homeland protection industries. Typically used medical and industrial polycrystalline phosphor materials such as Gd2O2S:Tb (GOS) can be applied to megavolt applications if the phosphor layer is sufficiently thick to enhance x-ray absorption, and if a metal radiator is used to augment the quantum detection efficiency and reduce x-ray scatter. Phosphor layers ranging from 0.2-mm to 1-mm can be "sandwiched" between amorphous silicon flat panel diode arrays and metal radiators. Metal plates consisting of W, Pb or Cu, with thicknesses ranging from 0.25-mm to well over 1-mm can be used by covering the entire area of the phosphor plate. In some combinations of high density metal and phosphor layers, the metal plate provides an intensification of 25% in signal due to electron emission from the plate and subsequent excitation within the phosphor material. This further improves the SNR of the system.

  12. Aerial radiation survey techniques for efficient characterization of large areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sydelko, T.; Riedhauser, S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Accidental or intentional releases of radioactive isotopes over potentially very large surface areas can pose serious health risks to humans and ecological receptors. Timely and appropriate responses to these releases depend upon rapid and accurate characterization of impacted areas. These characterization efforts can be adversely impacted by heavy vegetation, rugged terrain, urban environments, and the presence of unknown levels of radioactivity. Aerial survey techniques have proven highly successful in measuring gamma emissions from radiological contaminates of concern quickly, efficiently, and safely. Examples of accidental releases include the unintentional distribution of uranium mining ores during transportation, the loss of uranium processing and waste materials, unintentional nuclear power plant emissions into the atmosphere, and the distribution of isotopes during major flooding events such as the one recently occurring in New Orleans. Intentional releases have occurred during the use of deleted uranium ammunition test firing and war time use by military organizations. The threat of radiological dispersion device (dirty bomb) use by terrorists is currently a major concern of many major cities worldwide. The U.S. Department of Energy, in cooperation with its Remote Sensing Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory, has developed a sophisticated aerial measurement system for identifying the locations, types, and quantities of gamma emitting radionuclides over extremely large areas. Helicopter mounted Nal detectors are flown at low altitude and constant speed along parallel paths measuring the full spectrum of gamma activity. Analytical procedures are capable of distinguishing between radiological contamination and changes in natural background emissions. Mapped and tabular results of these accurate, timely and cost effective aerial gamma radiation surveys can be used to assist with emergency response actions, if necessary, and to focus more

  13. MILDOS-AREA: An enhanced version of MILDOS for large-area sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Y.C.; Wang, J.H.C.; Zielen, A.

    1989-06-01

    The MILDOS-AREA computer code is a modified version of the MILDOS code, which estimates the radiological impacts of airborne emissions from uranium mining and milling facilities or any other large-area source involving emissions of radioisotopes of the uranium-238 series. MILDOS-AREA is designed for execution on personal computers. The modifications incorporated in the MILDOS-AREA code provide enhanced capabilities for calculating doses from large-area sources and update dosimetry calculations. The major revision from the original MILDOS code is the treatment of atmospheric dispersion from area sources: MILDOS-AREA substitutes a finite element integration approach for the virtual-point method (the algorithm used in the original MILDOS code) when specified by the user. Other revisions include the option of using Martin-Tickvart dispersion coefficients in place of Briggs coefficients for a given source, consideration of plume reflection, and updated internal dosimetry calculations based on the most recent recommendations of the International Commission on Radiation Protection and the age-specific dose calculation methodology developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report also discusses changes in computer code structure incorporated into MILDOS-AREA, summarizes data input requirements, and provides instructions for installing and using the program on personal computers. 15 refs., 9 figs., 26 tabs

  14. Comfort Study of Office Buildings with Large Glazed Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Motuzienė

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the buildings with large glazed areas the biggest problem is the space overheating during the warm season. This causes increased energy demand for cooling. The survey was carried out during the warm and cold seasons in two office buildings with large glazed areas. The methodology was prepared for evaluating indoor climate parameters using objective and subjective evaluation. The measurements have shown that there are problems with lighting in workplaces of both buildings during both the warm and cold seasons. The biggest problem is too dry air during the cold period, an acceptable temperature is also not always in the building No. 2. The survey has shown that some employees are dissatisfied with the indoor climate in the workplace, the bigger dissatisfaction is in building No. 2. Assessing according to the O. Fanger methodology was obtained that the number of PPD is in the normal range during the cold period, whereas close to the limit when the building can not be operated in the warm period.

  15. An advanced open path atmospheric pollution monitor for large areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, L.; Suhre, D.; Mani, S. [and others

    1996-12-31

    Over 100 million gallons of radioactive and toxic waste materials generated in weapon materials production are stored in 322 tanks buried within large areas at DOE sites. Toxic vapors occur in the tank headspace due to the solvents used and chemical reactions within the tanks. To prevent flammable or explosive concentration of volatile vapors, the headspace are vented, either manually or automatically, to the atmosphere when the headspace pressure exceeds preset values. Furthermore, 67 of the 177 tanks at the DOE Hanford Site are suspected or are known to be leaking into the ground. These underground storage tanks are grouped into tank farms which contain closely spaced tanks in areas as large as 1 km{sup 2}. The objective of this program is to protect DOE personnel and the public by monitoring the air above these tank farms for toxic air pollutants without the monitor entering the tanks farms, which can be radioactive. A secondary objective is to protect personnel by monitoring the air above buried 50 gallon drums containing moderately low radioactive materials but which could also emit toxic air pollutants.

  16. Reactive dual magnetron sputtering for large area application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struempfel, J.

    2002-01-01

    Production lines for large area coating demand high productivity of reactive magnetron sputtering processes. Increased dynamic deposition rates for oxides and nitrides were already obtained by using of highly powered magnetrons in combination with advanced sputter techniques. However, besides high deposition rates the uniformity of such coatings has to be carefully considered. First the basics of reactive sputtering processes and dual magnetron sputtering are summarized. Different methods for process stabilization and control are commonly used for reactive sputtering. The Plasma Emission Monitor (PE M) offers the prerequisite for fast acting process control derived from the in-situ intensity measurements of a spectral line of the sputtered target material. Combined by multiple Plasma Emission Monitor control loops segmented gas manifolds are able to provide excellent thin film uniformity at high deposition rates. The Dual Magnetron allows a broad range of processing by different power supply modes. Medium frequency, DC and pulsed DC power supplies can be used for high quality layers. Whereas the large area coating of highly isolating layers like TiO 2 or SiO 2 is dominated by MF sputtering best results for coating with transparent conductive oxides are obtained by dual DC powering of the dual magnetron arrangement. (Author)

  17. Electrothermal Simulation of Large-Area Semiconductor Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Kirsch

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The lateral charge transport in thin-film semiconductor devices is affected by the sheet resistance of the various layers. This may lead to a non-uniform current distribution across a large-area device resulting in inhomogeneous luminance, for example, as observed in organic light-emitting diodes (Neyts et al., 2006. The resistive loss in electrical energy is converted into thermal energy via Joule heating, which results in a temperature increase inside the device. On the other hand, the charge transport properties of the device materials are also temperature-dependent, such that we are facing a two-way coupled electrothermal problem. It has been demonstrated that adding thermal effects to an electrical model significantly changes the results (Slawinski et al., 2011. We present a mathematical model for the steady-state distribution of the electric potential and of the temperature across one electrode of a large-area semiconductor device, as well as numerical solutions obtained using the finite element method.

  18. Simulations of Large-Area Electron Beam Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanekamp, S. B.; Friedman, M.; Ludeking, L.; Smithe, D.; Obenschain, S. P.

    1999-11-01

    Large area electron beam diodes are typically used to pump the amplifiers of KrF lasers. Simulations of large-area electron beam diodes using the particle-in-cell code MAGIC3D have shown the electron flow in the diode to be unstable. Since this instability can potentially produce a non-uniform current and energy distribution in the hibachi structure and lasing medium it can be detrimental to laser efficiency. These results are similar to simulations performed using the ISIS code.(M.E. Jones and V.A. Thomas, Proceedings of the 8^th) International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams, 665 (1990). We have identified the instability as the so called ``transit-time" instability(C.K. Birdsall and W.B. Bridges, Electrodynamics of Diode Regions), (Academic Press, New York, 1966).^,(T.M. Antonsen, W.H. Miner, E. Ott, and A.T. Drobot, Phys. Fluids 27), 1257 (1984). and have investigated the role of the applied magnetic field and diode geometry. Experiments are underway to characterize the instability on the Nike KrF laser system and will be compared to simulation. Also some possible ways to mitigate the instability will be presented.

  19. The GLAST Large Area Telescope Detector Performance Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgland, A.W.; Charles, E.; SLAC

    2007-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) is one of two instruments on board the Gamma-ray Large Area Telescope (GLAST), the next generation high energy gamma-ray space telescope. The LAT contains sixteen identical towers in a four-by-four grid. Each tower contains a silicon-strip tracker and a CsI calorimeter that together will give the incident direction and energy of the pair-converting photon in the energy range 20 MeV - 300 GeV. In addition, the instrument is covered by a finely segmented Anti-Coincidence Detector (ACD) to reject charged particle background. Altogether, the LAT contains more than 864k channels in the trackers, 1536 CsI crystals and 97 ACD plastic scintillator tiles and ribbons. Here we detail some of the strategies and methods for how we are planning to monitor the instrument performance on orbit. It builds on the extensive experience gained from Integration and Test and Commissioning of the instrument on ground

  20. Large area nanoimprint by substrate conformal imprint lithography (SCIL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuuren, Marc A.; Megens, Mischa; Ni, Yongfeng; van Sprang, Hans; Polman, Albert

    2017-06-01

    Releasing the potential of advanced material properties by controlled structuring materials on sub-100-nm length scales for applications such as integrated circuits, nano-photonics, (bio-)sensors, lasers, optical security, etc. requires new technology to fabricate nano-patterns on large areas (from cm2 to 200 mm up to display sizes) in a cost-effective manner. Conventional high-end optical lithography such as stepper/scanners is highly capital intensive and not flexible towards substrate types. Nanoimprint has had the potential for over 20 years to bring a cost-effective, flexible method for large area nano-patterning. Over the last 3-4 years, nanoimprint has made great progress towards volume production. The main accelerator has been the switch from rigid- to wafer-scale soft stamps and tool improvements for step and repeat patterning. In this paper, we discuss substrate conformal imprint lithography (SCIL), which combines nanometer resolution, low patterns distortion, and overlay alignment, traditionally reserved for rigid stamps, with the flexibility and robustness of soft stamps. This was made possible by a combination of a new soft stamp material, an inorganic resist, combined with an innovative imprint method. Finally, a volume production solution will be presented, which can pattern up to 60 wafers per hour.

  1. Distribution of Mytilus taxa in European coastal areas as inferred from molecular markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijewski, T.; Zmietanka, B.; Zbawicka, M.; Gosling, E.; Hummel, H.; Wenne, R.

    2011-01-01

    The genetic constitution of mussels (Mytilus spp.) was studied by means of three nuclear (Me 15/16, EF-bis, ITS) and one mtDNA (ND2-COIII) marker on a large European scale. In addition to a sharp cline between Atlantic and Mediterranean M. galloprovincialis, we observed a clear genetic distinction

  2. Characterization of new hexagonal large area Geiger Avalanche Photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccone, V.; Aguilar, J.A.; Della Volpe, D.; Christov, A.; Montaruli, T.; Rameez, M.; Basili, A.

    2013-06-01

    Photomultipliers (PMTs) are the standard detector for construction of the current generation of imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs). Despite impressive improvements in QE and reliability in the last years, these devices suffer from the limitation of being unable to operate in the partially illuminated sky (during full or partial moon periods) as the excess light leads to a significant increase in the rate of ageing of the devices themselves and consequently limit the life of the camera. A viable alternative is the large area Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (G-APDs also known as Silicon Photomultipliers or SiPMs) that are commercially available from different producers in various types and dimensions. The sufficiency of the maturity of this technology for application to Cherenkov Astronomy has already been demonstrated by the FACT telescope. One of the camera designs under study for the 4 m Davies Cotton Telescope foresees the utilization of a large area G-APDs coupled to non imaging light concentrators. In collaboration with Hamamatsu and deriving from their current technology, we have designed a new hexagonal shaped large area G-APD HEX S12516 which when coupled to a Winston cone of 24 degrees cutting angle allows for a pixel angular resolution of 0.25 degrees for a f/D 1.4 telescope with a diameter of 4 m. The device, available in 2 different cell size configurations (50 μm and 100 μm), is divided into 4 different channels powered in common cathode mode. A temperature sensor was included for a better temperature evaluation in the characterization phase. The first 3 prototypes were fully characterized and the results are compared to the larger area devices commercially available such as the S10985-050C (2x2 array of 3x3 mm 2 G-APDs). The photo-detection efficiency is measured applying the Poisson statistics method using pulsed LED at 7 different wavelengths from 355 to 670 nm and for different bias over-voltages (V ov ). Optical crosstalk and

  3. Educating Geographers in Spain: Geography Teaching Renewal by Implementing the European Higher Education Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel González, Rafael; de Lázaro y Torres, Maria Luisa

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the current state of the geography discipline in Spanish Universities after putting into action the European Higher Education Area. After decades of geography teaching, following theoretical and expository discourse models, the so-called "Bologna Process" has been a great opportunity to reflect what geography…

  4. The European higher education area between critical reflections and future policies

    CERN Document Server

    Matei, Liviu; Pricopie, Remus; Salmi, Jamil; Scott, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Bridging the gap between higher education research and policy making was always a challenge, but the recent calls for more evidence-based policies have opened a window of unprecedented opportunity for researchers to bring more contributions to shaping the future of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA).

  5. From Quality Assurance to Quality Enhancement in the European Higher Education Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, Irakli

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on recent trends in quality assurance initiatives, analyses how the European Higher Education Area promotes quality enhancement mechanisms and their implications for quality cultures in universities. It presents and discusses two approaches towards quality enhancement both at the institutional and programme level: 1. Quality…

  6. Large area UV light source with a semiconductor cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamov, B. G.; Ciftci, Y. Oe.; Colakoglu, K.

    2002-01-01

    The light emission (LE) in the UV and visible (blue) range generated by a planar gas discharge system (PGDS) with a semiconductor cathode (SC) are studied. New light source offer high-intensity narrow-band emission at various UV and visible wavelengths (330 - 440 nm). Spectra in N 2 is presented, as well as intensity vs pressure curves for the main peaks of the spectrum. The use of source offers several advantages: PGDS can be extremely efficient energy converters transforming and amplifying a relatively low-powered photon flux incident on the receiving surface of the SC into a flux of high-energy particles over extended areas, i.e. electron, ions, photons. Thus, extremely bright UV and visible sources can be built. LE characteristics of the space in the PGDS are complex, depending on the emitting medium and species. By using the IR light to excite the SC of the system, we have shown that the discharge light emission (DLE) of the device with the N 2 in the gap can serve as an efficient source of the UV radiation if gas pressure and electric field are sufficiently high. This is realized due to the effect of the stabilisation of the spatially homogeneous mode of the discharge in a narrow gap with a large emitting area of SC. Special features of DLE render it highly promising for the development of sources with a large area of the emitting surface, high spatial uniformity of UV radiation, and fast dynamics of these devices. This low cost, high power light sources can provide an interesting alternative to conventional UV lamps

  7. Surveillance and laboratory detection for non-polio enteroviruses in the European Union/European Economic Area, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvala, Heli; Jasir, Aftab; Penttinen, Pasi; Pastore Celentano, Lucia; Greco, Donato; Broberg, Eeva

    2017-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EVs) cause severe outbreaks of respiratory and neurological disease as illustrated by EV-D68 and EV-A71 outbreaks, respectively. We have mapped European laboratory capacity for identification and characterisation of non-polio EVs to improve preparedness to respond to (re)-emerging EVs linked to severe disease. An online questionnaire on non-polio EV surveillance and laboratory detection was submitted to all 30 European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) countries. Twenty-nine countries responded; 26 conducted laboratory-based non-polio EV surveillance, and 24 included neurological infections in their surveillance. Eleven countries have established specific surveillance for EV-D68 via sentinel influenza surveillance (n = 7), typing EV-positive respiratory samples (n = 10) and/or acute flaccid paralysis surveillance (n = 5). Of 26 countries performing non-polio EV characterisation/typing, 10 further characterised culture-positive EV isolates, whereas the remainder typed PCR-positive but culture-negative samples. Although 19 countries have introduced sequence-based EV typing, seven still rely entirely on virus isolation. Based on 2015 data, six countries typed over 300 specimens mostly by sequencing, whereas 11 countries characterised under 50 EV-positive samples. EV surveillance activity varied between EU/EEA countries, and did not always specifically target patients with neurological and/or respiratory infections. Introduction of sequence-based typing methods is needed throughout the EU/EEA to enhance laboratory capacity for the detection of EVs. PMID:29162204

  8. Priority areas for large mammal conservation in Equatorial Guinea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuki Murai

    Full Text Available Hunting is one of the main driving forces behind large mammal density distribution in many regions of the world. In tropical Africa, urban demand for bushmeat has been shown to dominate over subsistence hunting and its impact often overrides spatial-ecological species characteristics. To effectively protect remaining mammal populations the main factors that influence their distribution need to be integrated into conservation area prioritisation and management plans. This information has been lacking for Río Muni, Equatorial Guinea, as prior studies have been outdated or have not systematically covered the continental region of the country. In this study we evaluated: 1 the relative importance of local vs. commercial hunting; 2 wildlife density of protected vs. non-protected areas; and 3 the importance of ecological factors vs. human influence in driving mammal density distribution in Río Muni. We adopted a systematic countrywide line transect approach with particular focus on apes and elephants, but also including other mammal species. For analysis of field data we used generalised linear models with a set of predictor variables representing ecological conditions, anthropogenic pressure and protected areas. We estimate that there are currently 884 (437-1,789 elephants and 11,097 (8,719-13,592 chimpanzees and gorillas remaining in Río Muni. The results indicate strong hunting pressures on both local and commercial levels, with roads demonstrating a negative impact on elephants and overall mammal body mass. Protected areas played no role in determining any of the mammal species distributions and significant human hunting signs were found inside these protected areas, illustrating the lack of environmental law enforcement throughout the country. Río Muni is currently under-represented in conservation efforts in Western Equatorial Africa, and we recommend a focus on cross-boundary conservation, in particular in the Monte Alén-Monts de Cristal

  9. Nitrogen large area proportional counter with gas regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leidner, L.; Sadri, E.

    1984-10-01

    A nitrogen large area proportional chamber with gas regeneration is introduced to measure alpha and beta/gamma activites. In contrast to the flow counters used till now the new detector is independent of an external gas supply. The gas amplification factor of nitrogen keeps constant up to an impurity of 2% of O 2 . Oxygen diffusing through unavoidable leakages into the counting gas is removed by an activated catalyzer using low temperature copper oxidation. Humidty is adsorbed by a molecular sieve. The closed counter consists of three components: the actual detector, a gas purification cartridge and a gas circulating pump. Finally, the report describes long run experiments being carried out with prototypes. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Exposure-rate calibration using large-area calibration pads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, E.F.

    1988-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Remedial Action and Waste Technology established the Technical Measurements Center (TMC) at the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) in Grand Junction, Colorado, to standardize, calibrate, and compare measurements made in support of DOE remedial action programs. A set of large-area, radioelement-enriched concrete pads was constructed by the DOE in 1978 at the Walker Field Airport in Grand Junction for use as calibration standards for airborne gamma-ray spectrometer systems. The use of these pads was investigated by the TMC as potential calibration standards for portable scintillometers employed in measuring gamma-ray exposure rates at Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) project sites. Data acquired on the pads using a pressurized ionization chamber (PIC) and three scintillometers are presented as an illustration of an instrumental calibration. Conclusions and recommended calibration procedures are discussed, based on the results of these data

  11. Digital radiography with large-area flat-panel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotter, E.; Langer, M.

    2002-01-01

    Large-area flat-panel detectors with active readout mechanisms have been on the market for the past 2 years. This article describes different detector technologies. An important distinction is made between detectors with direct and those with indirect conversion of X-rays into electrical charges. Detectors with indirect conversion are built with unstructured or structured scintillators, the latter resulting in less lateral diffusion of emitted light. Some important qualities of flat-panel detectors are discussed. The first phantom and clinical studies published report an image quality at least comparable to that of screen-film systems and a potential for dose reduction. The available studies are summarised in this article. (orig.)

  12. Coating and Patterning Functional Materials for Large Area Electrofluidic Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Industrialization of electrofluidic devices requires both high performance coating laminates and efficient material utilization on large area substrates. Here we show that screen printing can be effectively used to provide homogeneous pin-hole free patterned amorphous fluoropolymer dielectric layers to provide both the insulating and fluidic reversibility required for devices. Subsequently, we over-coat photoresist using slit coating on this normally extremely hydrophobic layer. In this way, we are able to pattern the photoresist by conventional lithography to provide the chemical contrast required for liquids dosing by self-assembly and highly-reversible electrofluidic switching. Materials, interfacial chemistry, and processing all contribute to the provision of the required engineered substrate properties. Coating homogeneity as characterized by metrology and device performance data are used to validate the methodology, which is well-suited for transfer to high volume production in existing LCD cell-making facilities.

  13. Small larvae in large rivers: observations on downstream movement of European grayling Thymallus thymallus during early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, C H A; Dokk, T; Haugen, T O; Kiffney, P M; Museth, J

    2017-06-01

    Behaviour of early life stages of the salmonid European grayling Thymallus thymallus was investigated by assessing the timing of larval downstream movement from spawning areas, the depth at which larvae moved and the distribution of juvenile fish during summer in two large connected river systems in Norway. Trapping of larvae moving downstream and electrofishing surveys revealed that T. thymallus larvae emerging from the spawning gravel moved downstream predominantly during the night, despite light levels sufficient for orientation in the high-latitude study area. Larvae moved in the water mostly at the bottom layer close to the substratum, while drifting debris was caught in all layers of the water column. Few young-of-the-year still resided close to the spawning areas in autumn, suggesting large-scale movement (several km). Together, these observations show that there may be a deliberate, active component to downstream movement of T. thymallus during early life stages. This research signifies the importance of longitudinal connectivity for T. thymallus in Nordic large river systems. Human alterations of flow regimes and the construction of reservoirs for hydropower may not only affect the movement of adult fish, but may already interfere with active movement behaviour of fish during early life stages. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. A large area detector for x-ray applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodricks, B.; Huang, Qiang; Hopf, R.; Wang, Kemei.

    1993-01-01

    A large area detector for x-ray synchrotron applications has been developed. The front end of this device consist of a scintillator coupled to a fiber-optic taper. The fiber-optic taper is comprised of 4 smaller (70 mm x 70 mm) tapers fused together in a square matrix giving an active area of 140 mm x 140 mm. Each taper has a demagnification of 5.5 resulting in four small ends that are 12 mm diagonally across. The small ends of each taper are coupled to four microchannel-plate-based image intensifiers. The output from each image intensifier is focused onto a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) detector. The four CCDs are read out in parallel and are independently controlled. The image intensifiers also act as fast (20 ns) electronic shutters. The system is capable of displaying images in real time. Additionally, with independent control on the readout of each row of data from the CCD, the system is capable of performing high speed imaging through novel readout manipulation

  15. Optimization of Performance Parameters for Large Area Silicon Photomultipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Kathryn

    2008-10-01

    The goal of the GlueX experiment is to search for exotic hybrid mesons as evidence of gluonic excitations in an effort to better understand confinement. A key component of the GlueX detector is the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter (BCAL) located immediately inside a superconducting solenoid of approximately 2.5T. Because of this arrangement, traditional vacuum photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) which are affected significantly by magnetic fields cannot be used on the BCAL. The use of Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) as front-end detectors has been proposed. While the largest SiPMs that have been previously employed by other experiments are 1x1 mm^2, GlueX proposes to use large area SiPMs each composed of 16 - 3x3 mm^2 cells in a 4x4 array. This puts the GlueX collaboration in the unique position of driving the technology for larger area sensors. In this talk I will discuss tests done in Regina regarding performance parameters of prototype SiPM arrays delivered by SensL, a photonics research and development company based in Ireland, as well as sample 1x1 mm^2 and 3x3 mm^2 SiPMs.

  16. Large area diamond-like carbon coatings by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, A.R.; Proctor, G.; Jones, A.M.; Bull, S.J.; Chivers, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Diamond-like Carbon (DLC) coatings have been deposited onto large geometry components in the Harwell Blue Tank ion implantation facility. To modify the substrate surface and to crack the low vapour pressure oil which is evaporated and condensed onto the surface, a 40 Kev nitrogen ion bucket ion source is used. The coating of areas up to 1 metre in diameter is common and with component manipulation larger areas may be coated. Since the component temperature never exceeds 80 o C during the process, a wide range of materials may be coated including specialist tool steels and even certain high density polymers. In order to produce hard wear resistant coatings with extremely low coefficients of friction (0.02-0.15) and a range of mechanical and electrical properties, various oil precursors have been investigated. The production and assessment of such coatings, including measurements of their tribiological performance, is presented. Applications for wear resistance, corrosion protection and electrically conducting coatings are discussed with examples drawn from engineering, electronics and biomedicine. (7 figures, 13 references). (UK)

  17. Characterising large area silicon drift detectors with MOS injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonvicini, V.; Rashevsky, A.; Vacchi, A.

    1999-01-01

    In the framework of the INFN DSI project, the first prototypes of a large-area Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) have been designed and produced on 5'' diameter wafers of Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) silicon with a resistivity of 3000 Ω·cm. The detector is a 'butterfly' bi-directional structure with a drift length of 32 mm and the drifting charge is collected by two arrays of anodes having a pitch of 200 μm. The high-voltage divider is integrated on-board and is realised with p + implantations. For test and calibration purposes, the detector has a new type of MOS injector. The paper presents results obtained to injecting charge at the maximum drift distance (32mm) from the anodes by means of the MOS injecting structure, As front-end electronics, the authors have used a 32-channels low-noise bipolar VLSI circuit (OLA, Omni-purpose Low-noise Amplifer) specifically designed for silicon drift detectors. The uniformity of the drift time in different regions of the sensitive area and its dependence on the ambient temperature are studied

  18. Addressing Criticisms of Large-Scale Marine Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Natalie C; Fernandez, Miriam; Friedlander, Alan M; García-Borboroglu, Pablo; Golbuu, Yimnang; Guidetti, Paolo; Harris, Jean M; Hawkins, Julie P; Langlois, Tim; McCauley, Douglas J; Pikitch, Ellen K; Richmond, Robert H; Roberts, Callum M

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Designated large-scale marine protected areas (LSMPAs, 100,000 or more square kilometers) constitute over two-thirds of the approximately 6.6% of the ocean and approximately 14.5% of the exclusive economic zones within marine protected areas. Although LSMPAs have received support among scientists and conservation bodies for wilderness protection, regional ecological connectivity, and improving resilience to climate change, there are also concerns. We identified 10 common criticisms of LSMPAs along three themes: (1) placement, governance, and management; (2) political expediency; and (3) social–ecological value and cost. Through critical evaluation of scientific evidence, we discuss the value, achievements, challenges, and potential of LSMPAs in these arenas. We conclude that although some criticisms are valid and need addressing, none pertain exclusively to LSMPAs, and many involve challenges ubiquitous in management. We argue that LSMPAs are an important component of a diversified management portfolio that tempers potential losses, hedges against uncertainty, and enhances the probability of achieving sustainably managed oceans. PMID:29731514

  19. Methods for Finding Legacy Wells in Large Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammack, Richard W. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Veloski, Garret A. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Hodges, D. Greg [Fugro Airborne Surveys, Mississauga, ON (Canada); White, Jr., Curt M. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2016-06-16

    United States. When abandoned, many wells were not adequately sealed and now provide a potential conduit for the vertical movement of liquids and gases. Today, groundwater aquifers can be contaminated by surface pollutants flowing down wells or by deep, saline water diffusing upwards. Likewise, natural gas, carbon dioxide (CO2), or radon can travel upwards via these wells to endanger structures or human health on the surface. Recently, the need to find and plug wells has become critical with the advent of carbon dioxide injection into geologic formations for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) or carbon storage. The potential for natural gas or brine leakage through existing wells has also been raised as a concern in regions where shale resources are hydraulically fractured for hydrocarbon recovery. In this study, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) updated existing, effective well finding techniques to be able to survey large areas quickly using helicopter or ground-vehicle-mounted magnetometers, combined with mobile methane detection. For this study, magnetic data were collected using airborne and ground vehicles equipped with two boom-mounted magnetometers, or on foot using a hand-held magnetometer with a single sensor. Data processing techniques were employed to accentuate well-casing-type magnetic signatures. To locate wells with no magnetic signature (wells where the steel well casing had been removed), the team monitored for anomalous concentrations of methane, which could indicate migration of volatile compounds from deeper sedimentary strata along a well or fracture pathway. Methane measurements were obtained using the ALPIS DIfferential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) sensor for helicopter surveys and the Apogee leak detection system (LDS) for ground surveys. These methods were evaluated at a 100-year-old oilfield in Wyoming, where a helicopter magnetic survey accurately located 93% of visible wells. In addition, 20% of the wells found by the survey were

  20. Methods for Finding Legacy Wells in Large Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammack, Richard [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Veloski, Garret [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Hodges, D. Greg [Fugro Airborne Surveys, Mississauga, ON (Canada); White, Jr., Charles E. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2016-06-16

    More than 10 million wells have been drilled during 150 years of oil and gas production in the United States. When abandoned, many wells were not adequately sealed and now provide a potential conduit for the vertical movement of liquids and gases. Today, groundwater aquifers can be contaminated by surface pollutants flowing down wells or by deep, saline water diffusing upwards. Likewise, natural gas, carbon dioxide (CO2), or radon can travel upwards via these wells to endanger structures or human health on the surface. Recently, the need to find and plug wells has become critical with the advent of carbon dioxide injection into geologic formations for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) or carbon storage. The potential for natural gas or brine leakage through existing wells has also been raised as a concern in regions where shale resources are hydraulically fractured for hydrocarbon recovery. In this study, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) updated existing, effective well finding techniques to be able to survey large areas quickly using helicopter or ground-vehicle-mounted magnetometers, combined with mobile methane detection. For this study, magnetic data were collected using airborne and ground vehicles equipped with two boom-mounted magnetometers, or on foot using a hand-held magnetometer with a single sensor. Data processing techniques were employed to accentuate well-casing-type magnetic signatures. To locate wells with no magnetic signature (wells where the steel well casing had been removed), the team monitored for anomalous concentrations of methane, which could indicate migration of volatile compounds from deeper sedimentary strata along a well or fracture pathway. Methane measurements were obtained using the ALPIS DIfferential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) sensor for helicopter surveys and the Apogee leak detection system (LDS) for ground surveys. These methods were evaluated at a 100-year-old oilfield in Wyoming, where a helicopter magnetic

  1. Large-area landslide susceptibility with optimized slope-units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvioli, Massimiliano; Marchesini, Ivan; Reichenbach, Paola; Rossi, Mauro; Ardizzone, Francesca; Fiorucci, Federica; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2017-04-01

    A Slope-Unit (SU) is a type of morphological terrain unit bounded by drainage and divide lines that maximize the within-unit homogeneity and the between-unit heterogeneity across distinct physical and geographical boundaries [1]. Compared to other terrain subdivisions, SU are morphological terrain unit well related to the natural (i.e., geological, geomorphological, hydrological) processes that shape and characterize natural slopes. This makes SU easily recognizable in the field or in topographic base maps, and well suited for environmental and geomorphological analysis, in particular for landslide susceptibility (LS) modelling. An optimal subdivision of an area into a set of SU depends on multiple factors: size and complexity of the study area, quality and resolution of the available terrain elevation data, purpose of the terrain subdivision, scale and resolution of the phenomena for which SU are delineated. We use the recently developed r.slopeunits software [2,3] for the automatic, parametric delineation of SU within the open source GRASS GIS based on terrain elevation data and a small number of user-defined parameters. The software provides subdivisions consisting of SU with different shapes and sizes, as a function of the input parameters. In this work, we describe a procedure for the optimal selection of the user parameters through the production of a large number of realizations of the LS model. We tested the software and the optimization procedure in a 2,000 km2 area in Umbria, Central Italy. For LS zonation we adopt a logistic regression model implemented in an well-known software [4,5], using about 50 independent variables. To select the optimal SU partition for LS zonation, we want to define a metric which is able to quantify simultaneously: (i) slope-unit internal homogeneity (ii) slope-unit external heterogeneity (iii) landslide susceptibility model performance. To this end, we define a comprehensive objective function S, as the product of three

  2. IoT European Large-Scale Pilots – Integration, Experimentation and Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Guillén, Sergio Gustavo; Sala, Pilar; Fico, Giuseppe; Arredondo, Maria Teresa; Cano, Alicia; Posada, Jorge; Gutierrez, Germán; Palau, Carlos; Votis, Konstantinos; Verdouw, Cor N.; Wolfert, Sjaak; Beers, George; Sundmaeker, Harald; Chatzikostas, Grigoris; Ziegler, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    The IoT European Large-Scale Pilots Programme includes the innovation consortia that are collaborating to foster the deployment of IoT solutions in Europe through the integration of advanced IoT technologies across the value chain, demonstration of multiple IoT applications at scale and in a usage context, and as close as possible to operational conditions. The programme projects are targeted, goal-driven initiatives that propose IoT approaches to specific real-life industrial/societal challe...

  3. Detections of millisecond pulsars with the FERMI Large Area Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemot, L.

    2009-09-01

    The Fermi observatory was launched on June 11, 2008. It hosts the Large Area Telescope (LAT), sensitive to gamma-ray photons from 20 MeV to over 300 GeV. When the LAT began its activity, nine young and energetic pulsars were known in gamma ray range. At least several tens of pulsar detections by the LAT were predicted before launch. The LAT also allowed the study of millisecond pulsars (MSPs), never firmly detected in gamma ray range before Fermi. This thesis first presents the pulsar timing campaign for the LAT, in collaboration with large radio telescopes and X-ray telescopes, allowing for high sensitivity pulsed searches. Furthermore, it lead to quasi-homogeneous coverage of the galactic MSPs, so that the search for pulsations in LAT data for this population of stars was not affected by an a-priori bias. We present a search for pulsations from these objects in LAT data. For the first time, eight galactic MSPs have been detected as sources of pulsed gamma-ray emission over 100 MeV. In addition, a couple of good candidates for future detection are seen. A similar search for globular cluster MSPs was not successful so far. Comparison of the phase-aligned gamma-ray and radio light curves, as well as the spectral shapes, leads to the conclusion that their gamma-ray emission is similar to that of normal pulsars, and is probably produced in the outer-magnetosphere. This discovery suggests that many unresolved gamma-ray sources are unknown MSPs. (author)

  4. Nano/biosensors based on large-area graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducos, Pedro Jose

    Two dimensional materials have properties that make them ideal for applications in chemical and biomolecular sensing. Their high surface/volume ratio implies that all atoms are exposed to the environment, in contrast to three dimensional materials with most atoms shielded from interactions inside the bulk. Graphene additionally has an extremely high carrier mobility, even at ambient temperature and pressure, which makes it ideal as a transduction device. The work presented in this thesis describes large-scale fabrication of Graphene Field Effect Transistors (GFETs), their physical and chemical characterization, and their application as biomolecular sensors. Initially, work was focused on developing an easily scalable fabrication process. A large-area graphene growth, transfer and photolithography process was developed that allowed the scaling of production of devices from a few devices per single transfer in a chip, to over a thousand devices per transfer in a full wafer of fabrication. Two approaches to biomolecules sensing were then investigated, through nanoparticles and through chemical linkers. Gold and platinum Nanoparticles were used as intermediary agents to immobilize a biomolecule. First, gold nanoparticles were monodispersed and functionalized with thiolated probe DNA to yield DNA biosensors with a detection limit of 1 nM and high specificity against noncomplementary DNA. Second, devices are modified with platinum nanoparticles and functionalized with thiolated genetically engineered scFv HER3 antibodies to realize a HER3 biosensor. Sensors retain the high affinity from the scFv fragment and show a detection limit of 300 pM. We then show covalent and non-covalent chemical linkers between graphene and antibodies. The chemical linker 1-pyrenebutanoic acid succinimidyl ester (pyrene) stacks to the graphene by Van der Waals interaction, being a completely non-covalent interaction. The linker 4-Azide-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzoic acid, succinimidyl ester (azide

  5. Innovation policy of European chemical companies with special focus on large companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyo Das

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available According to Arora et alii (1998, the chemical industry is one of the largest and most R&D-intensive manufacturing sectors in all the advanced economies, and its innovative patterns and productivity growth processes can have profound impacts on economic growth as a whole. The European chemical industry supplies virtually all sectors of the economy and accounts for 17.8% of the total sales of chemicals in the world. This paper gives an overview of the European chemical industry and the changing scenario of the world chemical industry by focusing on the top fifteen chemical companies in Europe. It describes the current problems this industry is facing in Europe especially after the economic crisis and shows that the region and the top companies are investing in R&D to bring about innovation and overcome the current challenges. It shows that R&D spending in absolute terms has hardly changed over the years and that the industry is still globally the largest investor in R&D activities. In terms of R&D, BASF has made the greatest investment followed by Bayer and Syngenta, while R&D intensity is highest for Syngenta and Bayer. BASF and Bayer have made most patent applications and have also had the highest number of patents granted. The quality of research in most chemical companies is very high and most of the large European companies make their first patent application in Europe rather than elsewhere. All the large chemical companies use Merger & Acquisition (M&A to gain access to innovation. Industry-academia collaboration is one way to generate innovation in the chemical industry in Europe. Chemical clusters and the geographical distribution of chemical companies play a significant role in generating innovation.

  6. Searches for Dark Matter with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The nature of dark matter is a longstanding enigma of physics; it may consist of particles beyond the Standard Model that are still elusive to experiments. Among indirect search techniques, which look for stable products from the annihilation or decay of dark matter particles, or from axions coupling to high-energy photons, observations of the gamma-ray sky have come to prominence over the last few years, because of the excellent sensitivity and full-sky coverage of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope mission. The LAT energy range from 20 MeV to above 300 GeV is particularly well suited for searching for products of the interactions of dark matter particles. In this talk I will describe targets studied for evidence of dark matter with the LAT, and review the status of searches performed with up to six years of LAT data. I will also discuss the factors that determine the sensitivities of these searches, including the magnitudes of the signals and the relevant backgrounds, c...

  7. Assessing trade-offs in large marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Tammy E; Epstein, Graham; Aguilera, Stacy E; Brooks, Cassandra M; Cox, Michael; Evans, Louisa S; Maxwell, Sara M; Nenadovic, Mateja; Ban, Natalie C

    2018-01-01

    Large marine protected areas (LMPAs) are increasingly being established and have a high profile in marine conservation. LMPAs are expected to achieve multiple objectives, and because of their size are postulated to avoid trade-offs that are common in smaller MPAs. However, evaluations across multiple outcomes are lacking. We used a systematic approach to code several social and ecological outcomes of 12 LMPAs. We found evidence of three types of trade-offs: trade-offs between different ecological resources (supply trade-offs); trade-offs between ecological resource conditions and the well-being of resource users (supply-demand trade-offs); and trade-offs between the well-being outcomes of different resource users (demand trade-offs). We also found several divergent outcomes that were attributed to influences beyond the scope of the LMPA. We suggest that despite their size, trade-offs can develop in LMPAs and should be considered in planning and design. LMPAs may improve their performance across multiple social and ecological objectives if integrated with larger-scale conservation efforts.

  8. Calibration of large area Micromegas using cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loesel, Philipp; Biebel, Otmar; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Flierl, Bernhard; Hertenberger, Ralf; Mueller, Ralph [LMU Muenchen (Germany); Zibell, Andre [JMU Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The high luminosity upgrade of the LHC storage ring implies an upgrade of the Muon Spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment. The presently installed detectors of the inner end-cap region cannot cope with the increased background situation and will be replaced by Micromegas and sTGC detectors. Before installation at CERN, the 2 m{sup 2} sized Micromegas quadruplets (SM2) built in Germany will be calibrated. The LMU Cosmic Ray Measurement Facility (CRF) consists of two Monitored Drift Tube chambers (MDT) with an active area of about 9 m{sup 2} for muon tracking and two trigger hodoscopes with sub-ns time-resolution and with additional position information along the wires of the MDTs. With an angular acceptance of -30 to +30 the CRF allows for centroidal or μTPC position determination and thus for calibration in three dimensions. Of particular interest are potential deviations in the micro pattern readout structures or potential deformations of the whole detector. The Performance of the CRF is presently investigated using a telescope of a 1 m{sup 2} and three 100 cm{sup 2} resistive strip Micromegas. We report on the differences in performance between large and small detectors, report on homogeneity of efficiency and pulse height, and present results on deformation and performance of the 1 m{sup 2} Micromegas.

  9. Fermi Large Area Telescope Operations: Progress Over 4 Years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, Robert A.; /SLAC

    2012-06-28

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope was launched into orbit in June 2008, and is conducting a multi-year gamma-ray all-sky survey, using the main instrument on Fermi, the Large Area Telescope (LAT). Fermi began its science mission in August 2008, and has now been operating for almost 4 years. The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory hosts the LAT Instrument Science Operations Center (ISOC), which supports the operation of the LAT in conjunction with the Mission Operations Center (MOC) and the Fermi Science Support Center (FSSC), both at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The LAT has a continuous output data rate of about 1.5 Mbits per second, and data from the LAT are stored on Fermi and transmitted to the ground through TDRS and the MOC to the ISOC about 10 times per day. Several hundred computers at SLAC are used to process LAT data to perform event reconstruction, and gamma-ray photon data are subsequently delivered to the FSSC for public release with a few hours of being detected by the LAT. We summarize the current status of the LAT, and the evolution of the data processing and monitoring performed by the ISOC during the first 4 years of the Fermi mission, together with future plans for further changes to detected event data processing and instrument operations and monitoring.

  10. Large-Area, Ensemble Molecular Electronics: Motivation and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilan, Ayelet; Aswal, Dinesh; Cahen, David

    2017-03-08

    We review charge transport across molecular monolayers, which is central to molecular electronics (MolEl), using large-area junctions (NmJ). We strive to provide a wide conceptual overview of three main subtopics. First, a broad introduction places NmJ in perspective to related fields of research and to single-molecule junctions (1mJ) in addition to a brief historical account. As charge transport presents an ultrasensitive probe for the electronic perfection of interfaces, in the second part ways to form both the monolayer and the contacts are described to construct reliable, defect-free interfaces. The last part is dedicated to understanding and analyses of current-voltage (I-V) traces across molecular junctions. Notwithstanding the original motivation of MolEl, I-V traces are often not very sensitive to molecular details and then provide a poor probe for chemical information. Instead, we focus on how to analyze the net electrical performance of molecular junctions, from a functional device perspective. Finally, we point to creation of a built-in electric field as a key to achieve functionality, including nonlinear current-voltage characteristics that originate in the molecules or their contacts to the electrodes. This review is complemented by a another review that covers metal-molecule-semiconductor junctions and their unique hybrid effects.

  11. Large area CNT-Si heterojunction for photodetection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aramo, C., E-mail: aramo@na.infn.it [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia 2, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Ambrosio, M.; Bonavolontà, C. [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia 2, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Boscardin, M.; Crivellari, M. [Centro per Materiali e i Microsistemi Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Via Sommarive 18, Povo di Trento, 38123 Trento (Italy); Lisio, C. de [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia 2, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Dip. Scienze Fisiche, Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Via Cintia 2, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Grossi, V. [INFN, Sezione di L' Aquila and Dip. Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, Università degli Studi dell' Aquila, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Maddalena, P. [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia 2, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Dip. Scienze Fisiche, Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Via Cintia 2, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Passacantando, M. [INFN, Sezione di L' Aquila and Dip. Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, Università degli Studi dell' Aquila, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Valentino, M. [CNR-SPIN UOS di Napoli, Via Cintia 2, 80126 Napoli (Italy)

    2017-02-11

    Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) consist of multiple layers of graphite sheets arranged in concentric cylinders, from two to many tens. These systems are closely related to graphite layers but in some features, MWCNTs behave quite differently from graphite. In particular, their ability to generate a photocurrent in a wide wavelength range has been demonstrated either without or with the application of a draining voltage. In addition, the photocurrent signal has been found to reproduce the optical absorbance of MWCNTs, showing a maximum in the near UV region. In this paper main characteristics of a novel large area photodetector featuring low noise, high linearity and efficiency are reported. This detector has been obtained by coupling the optoelectronic characteristics of MWCNTs with the well-known properties of silicon. MWCNTs are growth on n-doped silicon layer by chemical vapour deposition creating a p–n heterojunction with high sensitivity to the radiation from UV to IR. An additional MIS junction is obtained with a metallic conductive layer deposited on the back of silicon substrate. Moreover, first results on the signals generated by pulsed laser are also reported.

  12. A Prototype Large Area Detector Module for Muon Scattering Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steer, C.A.; Boakes, J.; Burns, J.; Snow, S.; Stapleton, M.; Thompson, L.F.; Quillin, S. [AWE Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    Abstract-Shielded special nuclear materials (SNM) are of concern as some fissile isotopes have low gamma and neutron emission rates. These materials are also easily shielded to the point where their passive emissions are comparable to background. Consequently, shielded SNM is very challenging for passive radiation detection portals which scan cargo containers. One potential solution for this is to utilise the natural cosmic ray muon background and examine how these muons scatter from materials inside the container volume, terms; the muon scattering tomography (MST) technique measures the three-dimensional localised scattering at all points within a cargo container, providing a degree of material discrimination. There is the additional benefit that the MST signal increases with the presence of more high density shielding materials, in contrast to passive radiation detection. Simulations and calculations suggest that the effectiveness of the technique is sensitive to the tracking accuracy amongst other parameters, motivating the need to develop practical detector systems that are capable of tracking cosmic ray muons. To this end, we have constructed and tested a 2 m by 2 m demonstration module based on gaseous drift chambers and triggered by a large area scintillator-based detector, which is readout by wavelength shifting fibres. We discuss its design, construction, characterisation and operational challenges. (authors)

  13. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATION OF SUPERNOVA REMNANT S147

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuta, J.; Uchiyama, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Tajima, H.; Bechtol, K.; Funk, S.; Lande, J. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universite Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Hanabata, Y. [Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Lemoine-Goumard, M. [Universite Bordeaux 1, CNRS/IN2p3, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, 33175 Gradignan (France); Takahashi, T., E-mail: katsuta@slac.stanford.edu, E-mail: uchiyama@slac.stanford.edu [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

    2012-06-20

    We present an analysis of gamma-ray data obtained with the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in the region around supernova remnant (SNR) S147 (G180.0-1.7). A spatially extended gamma-ray source detected in an energy range of 0.2-10 GeV is found to coincide with SNR S147. We confirm its spatial extension at >5{sigma} confidence level. The gamma-ray flux is (3.8 {+-} 0.6) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, corresponding to a luminosity of 1.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 34} (d/1.3 kpc){sup 2} erg s{sup -1} in this energy range. The gamma-ray emission exhibits a possible spatial correlation with the prominent H{alpha} filaments of SNR S147. There is no indication that the gamma-ray emission comes from the associated pulsar PSR J0538+2817. The gamma-ray spectrum integrated over the remnant is likely dominated by the decay of neutral {pi} mesons produced through the proton-proton collisions in the filaments. The reacceleration of the pre-existing cosmic rays and subsequent adiabatic compression in the filaments is sufficient to provide the energy density required of high-energy protons.

  14. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE VELA PULSAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Bartelt, J.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bogart, J. R.; Atwood, W. B.; Bagagli, R.; Baldini, L.; Bellardi, F.; Bellazzini, R.; Ballet, J.; Band, D. L.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Bisello, D.; Baughman, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    The Vela pulsar is the brightest persistent source in the GeV sky and thus is the traditional first target for new γ-ray observatories. We report here on initial Fermi Large Area Telescope observations during verification phase pointed exposure and early sky survey scanning. We have used the Vela signal to verify Fermi timing and angular resolution. The high-quality pulse profile, with some 32,400 pulsed photons at E ≥ 0.03 GeV, shows new features, including pulse structure as fine as 0.3 ms and a distinct third peak, which shifts in phase with energy. We examine the high-energy behavior of the pulsed emission; initial spectra suggest a phase-averaged power-law index of Γ = 1.51 +0.05 -0.04 with an exponential cutoff at E c = 2.9 ± 0.1 GeV. Spectral fits with generalized cutoffs of the form e -(E/E c ) b require b ≤ 1, which is inconsistent with magnetic pair attenuation, and thus favor outer-magnetosphere emission models. Finally, we report on upper limits to any unpulsed component, as might be associated with a surrounding pulsar wind nebula.

  15. Large area self-powered gamma ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeVert, F.E.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a large area self-powered gamma detector (LASPGD) capable of detecting the movement of sealed radiation sources into and out of industrial radiographic units and to construct a prototype source position monitor (SPM) for these units utilizing the LASPGD. Prototype isotropic and directional LASPGDs, with solid and inert gas dielectrics, were developed and extensively tested using calibrated gamma sources (i.e., Cs-137, and Co-60). The sensitivities of the isotropic detectors, with inert gas dielectrics, were found to be approximately a factor of ten greater than those measured for the solid dielectric LASPGDs. Directionally sensitive self-powered detectors were found to exhibit a forward-to-back hemispherical sensitivity ratio of approximately 2 to 1. Industrial radiographic units containing Ir-192 sources with different activities were used to test the performance of the SPM. The SPM, which utilized a gas dielectric LASPGD, performed as designed. That is, the current generated in the LASPGD was converted to a voltage, amplified and used to control the on/off state of an incandescent lamp. The incandescent lamp, which functions as the source/out warning indicator, flashes at a rate of one flash per second when the source is in use (i.e. out of its shield)

  16. Large area imaging of forensic evidence with MA-XRF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langstraat, Kirsten; Knijnenberg, Alwin; Edelman, Gerda; van de Merwe, Linda; van Loon, Annelies; Dik, Joris; van Asten, Arian

    2017-11-08

    This study introduces the use of macroscopic X-ray fluorescence (MA-XRF) for the detection, classification and imaging of forensic traces over large object areas such as entire pieces of clothing and wall paneling. MA-XRF was sufficiently sensitive and selective to detect human biological traces like blood, semen, saliva, sweat and urine on fabric on the basis of Fe, Zn, K, Cl and Ca elemental signatures. With MA-XRF a new chemical contrast is introduced for human stain detection and this can provide a valuable alternative when the evidence item is challenging for conventional techniques. MA-XRF was also successfully employed for the chemical imaging and classification of gunshot residues (GSR). The full and non-invasive elemental mapping (Pb, Ba, Sr, K and Cl) of intact pieces of clothing allows for a detailed shooting incident reconstruction linking firearms and ammunition to point of impact and providing information on the shooting angle. In high resolution mode MA-XRF can even be used to provide information on the shooting order of different ammunition types. Finally, by using the surface penetration of X-rays we demonstrate that the lead signature of a bullet impact can be easily detected even if covered by multiple layers of wall paint or human blood.

  17. Radiation processing in some Central-East European countries: an area report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1990-01-01

    The area report presents the state of art and the hard-ware status of radiation processing in some Central-East European countries. Only sources exceeding 1.85 PBq (50 kCi) of the isotope and 0.5 kW beam power electron accelerators have been taken into account, operating in the first half of 1989. Trends of development are discussed. (author)

  18. European wind integration study (EWIS). Towards a successful integration of large scale wind power into European electricity grids. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, W.

    2010-03-15

    Large capacities of wind generators have already been installed and are operating in Germany (26GW) and Spain (16GW). Installations which are as significant in terms of proportion to system size are also established in Denmark (3.3GW), the All Island Power System of Ireland and Northern Ireland (1.5GW), and Portugal (3.4GW). Many other countries expect significant growth in wind generation such that the total currently installed capacity in Europe of 68GW is expected to at least double by 2015. Yet further increases can be expected in order to achieve Europe's 2020 targets for renewable energy. The scale of this development poses big challenges for wind generation developers in terms of obtaining suitable sites, delivering large construction projects, and financing the associated investments from their operations. Such developments also impact the networks and it was to address the immediate transmission related challenges that the European Wind Integration Study (EWIS) was initiated by Transmission System Operators (TSOs) with the objective of ensuring the most effective integration of large scale wind generation into Europe's transmission networks and electricity system. The challenges anticipated and addressed include: 1) How to efficiently accommodate wind generation when markets and transmission access arrangements have evolved for the needs of traditional controllable generation. 2) How to ensure supplies remain secure as wind varies (establishing the required backup/reserves for low wind days and wind forecast errors as well as managing network congestion in windy conditions). 3) How to maintain the quality and reliability of supplies given the new generation characteristics. 4) How to achieve efficient network costs by suitable design and operation of network connections, the deeper infrastructure including offshore connections, and crossborder interconnections. EWIS has focused on the immediate network related challenges by analysing detailed

  19. MONITORING OF LARGE INSTABLE AREAS: system reliability and new tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leandro, G.; Mucciarelli, M.; Pellicani, R.; Spilotro, G.

    2009-04-01

    The monitoring of unstable or potentially unstable areas is a necessary operation every time you can not remove the conditions of risk and apply to mitigation measures. In Italian Apennine regions there are many urban or extra-urban areas affected by instability, for which it is impracticable to remove hazard conditions, because of size and cost problems. The technological evolution exportable to the field of land instability monitoring is particularly lively and allows the use of warning systems unthinkable just few years ago. However, the monitoring of unstable or potentially unstable areas requires a very great knowledge of the specific problems, without which the reliability of the system may be dangerously overestimated. The movement may arise, indeed, in areas not covered by instrumentation, or covered with vegetation that prevents the acquisition of both reflected signals in the multi-beam laser techniques and radar signals. Environmental conditions (wind, concentrated sources of light, temperature changes, presence of animals) may also invalidate the accuracy of the measures, by introducing modulations or disturbance at a level well above the threshold of alarm signal, leading consequently to raise the values of the warning threshold. The Authors have gained long experience with the observation and monitoring of some large landslides in the Southern Apennine (Aliano, Buoninventre, Calciano, Carlantino, etc.) and unstable areas also at regional scale. One of the most important experiences is about the case of landslides of extensive areas, where unstable and stables zones coexist along transverse and longitudinal axis. In many of these cases you need the accurate control of the movement at selected points to evaluate the trend of displacement velocity, which can be achieved by means of a single-beam laser. The control of these movements, however, does not provide information on stress pattern into the stable areas. Among the sensitive precursors, acoustic

  20. Exploring Milkyway Halo Substructures with Large-Area Sky Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ting [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Over the last two decades, our understanding of the Milky Way has been improved thanks to large data sets arising from large-area digital sky surveys. The stellar halo is now known to be inhabited by a variety of spatial and kinematic stellar substructures, including stellar streams and stellar clouds, all of which are predicted by hierarchical Lambda Cold Dark Matter models of galaxy formation. In this dissertation, we first present the analysis of spectroscopic observations of individual stars from the two candidate structures discovered using an M-giant catalog from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey. The follow-up observations show that one of the candidates is a genuine structure which might be associated with the Galactic Anticenter Stellar Structure, while the other one is a false detection due to the systematic photometric errors in the survey or dust extinction in low Galactic latitudes. We then presented the discovery of an excess of main sequence turn-off stars in the direction of the constellations of Eridanus and Phoenix from the first-year data of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) – a five-year, 5,000 deg2 optical imaging survey in the Southern Hemisphere. The Eridanus-Phoenix (EriPhe) overdensity is centered around l ~ 285° and b ~ -60° and the Poisson significance of the detection is at least 9σ. The EriPhe overdensity has a cloud-like morphology and the extent is at least ~ 4 kpc by ~ 3 kpc in projection, with a heliocentric distance of about d ~ 16 kpc. The EriPhe overdensity is morphologically similar to the previously-discovered Virgo overdensity and Hercules-Aquila cloud. These three overdensities lie along a polar plane separated by ~ 120° and may share a common origin. In addition to the scientific discoveries, we also present the work to improve the photometric calibration in DES using auxiliary calibration systems, since the photometric errors can cause false detection in first the halo substructure. We present a detailed description of the two

  1. LOCAL ACTION GROUPS - THE EUROPEAN INTEGRATION CATALYST FOR THE ROMANIAN RURAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosora Liviu - Cosmin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Romania has the highest share of European Union rural areas (44.9% in 2009, which generates and maintains a long series of regional disparities. Because of these disparities, the economy faces a number of elements that undermine the quality of human and social capital and reduces the potential for growth: precarious social and economic infrastructure, reduced access to markets and thus to goods, a low level of both economic cohesion and living standards, and a difficult access to education and training (leading to the underutilization of labor in rural areas, while major shortages in the labor market and increased migration phenomenon manifests.\\r\

  2. A large area cooled-CCD detector for electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faruqi, A.R.; Andrews, H.N.; Raeburn, C.

    1994-01-01

    Large area cooled-CCDs are an excellent medium for (indirectly) recording electron images and electron diffraction patterns in real time and for use in electron tomography; real-time imaging is extremely useful in making rapid adjustments in the electron microscope. CCDs provide high sensitivity (useful for minimising dosage to radiation-sensitive biological specimen), good resolution, stable performance, excellent dynamic range and linearity and a reasonably fast readout.We have built an electron imaging device based on the EEV 1152 by 814 pixel CCD which is controlled from a unix based SUN Sparcstation operating under X-Windows. The incident 100 kV electrons are converted to visible light in a 0.5 mm thick YAG single crystal which is imaged through a lens on to the CCD.The CCD electronics is designed to be as flexible as possible and allows a wide variation in the readout speed to cater for the relatively fast application where readout noise is less critical and low readout noise applications where the extra few seconds of readout time are not significant. The CCD electronics is built in VME format which is controlled through a S-bus to VME driver. With two parallel channels of readout the whole image can be read out in similar 1 s (using the faster readout speed) with 16 bit precision and the image is displayed under X-Windows in a few seconds. The present readout works at 500 kHz and has a noise of similar 30 e rms per pixel. With a Peltier cooling device we can operate the CCD at similar -40 circle C which reduces the dark current adequately to allow exposures of up to several minutes. Several examples of patterns collected with the system on a Philips CM12 microscope will be presented. ((orig.))

  3. Evaluating biodiversity conservation around a large Sumatran protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkie, Matthew; Smith, Robert J; Zhu, Yu; Martyr, Deborah J; Suedmeyer, Beth; Pramono, Joko; Leader-Williams, Nigel

    2008-06-01

    Many of the large, donor-funded community-based conservation projects that seek to reduce biodiversity loss in the tropics have been unsuccessful. There is, therefore, a need for empirical evaluations to identify the driving factors and to provide evidence that supports the development of context-specific conservation projects. We used a quantitative approach to measure, post hoc, the effectiveness of a US$19 million Integrated Conservation and Development Project (ICDP) that sought to reduce biodiversity loss through the development of villages bordering Kerinci Seblat National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Indonesia. We focused on the success of the ICDP component that disbursed a total of US$1.5 million through development grants to 66 villages in return for their commitment to stop illegally clearing the forest. To investigate whether the ICDP lowered deforestation rates in focal villages, we selected a subset of non-ICDP villages that had similar physical and socioeconomic features and compared their respective deforestation rates. Village participation in the ICDP and its development schemes had no effect on deforestation. Instead, accessible areas where village land-tenure had been undermined by the designation of selective-logging concessions tended to have the highest deforestation rates. Our results indicate that the goal of the ICDP was not met and, furthermore, suggest that both law enforcement inside the park and local property rights outside the park need to be strengthened. Our results also emphasize the importance of quantitative approaches in helping to inform successful and cost-effective strategies for tropical biodiversity conservation.

  4. International and European law on protected areas and climate change: need for adaptation or implementation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliquet, A

    2014-10-01

    The protection and management of protected areas must be adapted to the effects of climate change. An important question is if the law on protected areas is capable of dealing with the required changes. In general, both international nature conventions and European Union nature conservation law do not contain any specific provisions on climate change and protected areas. Attention has been paid to this link in non-binding decisions and policy documents. In order to adapt the law to increased dynamics from climate change, more flexibility is needed. This flexibility should not be understood as "legal" flexibility, in the sense of the weakening nature conservation provisions. Scientific uncertainties on the effects of climate change might conflict with the need for legal certainties. In order to adapt to the effects of climate change, the two crucial elements are the strengthening of core protected areas and connectivity between the core areas. At the international level, both elements can be found in non-binding documents. International law enables the required adaptation; however, it often lacks concrete obligations. A stronger legal framework can be found at the level of the European Union. The Birds and Habitats Directives contain sufficient tools to deal with the effects of climate change. The Directives have been insufficiently implemented so far. Especially the central goals of reaching a favorable conservation status and connectivity measures need to be addressed much more in the future.

  5. CO2 emission inventories for Chinese cities in highly urbanized areas compared with European cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Wei; Pagani, Roberto; Huang Lei

    2012-01-01

    The international literature has paid significant attention to presenting China as the largest emitter of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the world, despite having much lower per-capita emissions than the global average. In fact, the imbalance of economic development leads to diversity in GHG emissions profiles in different areas of China. This paper employs a common methodology, consistent with the Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP) approved by the Covenant of Mayors (CoM), to estimate CO 2 emissions of four Chinese cities in highly urbanized areas from 2004 to 2010. The results show that the CO 2 emissions of all four cities are still rising and that secondary industries emit the most CO 2 in these cities. By comparing these data with the inventory results of two European cities, this paper further reveals that Chinese cities in highly urbanized areas contribute much higher per-capita emissions than their European competitors. Furthermore, the per-capita CO 2 emissions of the residential sector and private transport in these Chinese cities are growing rapidly, some of them approaching the levels of European cities. According to these findings, several policy suggestions considering regional disparities are provided that aim to reduce the CO 2 emissions of highly urbanized areas in China. - Highlights: ► An exemplary study of GHG emission inventory for Chinese cities. ► Estimate CO 2 emissions of Chinese city in highly urbanized areas from 2004 to 2010. ► The studied Chinese cities contribute higher per-capita emissions than European’s. ► Emissions of residential sector and private transport in China are growing rapidly. ► Several policy suggestions considering regional disparities are provided.

  6. Challenges for EURATOM research and training in the frame of the European 'Higher Education' And 'Research' areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethem, G. Van

    2009-01-01

    The paper is intended to answer two major questions of the modern society: 1) What are the challenges for EURATOM Research and Training in the frame of the European 'Higher Education' and 'Research' areas? (main stakeholders); 2) What kind of response is offered by the EURATOM RD and DD and E and T programmes in nuclear fission and radiation protection? (scientific and societal impact). The actions of the research policy in the EU are not conducted for the sake of acquiring Knowledge as a goal per se, but as a support to other EU policies, in particular, the Energy policy. In the area of fission and radiation protection, this Community policy implies the co-operation of all stakeholders (most of them participate in the EURATOM programmes), that is: research organisations (public and private, power and medical applications, etc); systems suppliers (e.g. nuclear vendors, engineering companies, etc); energy providers (e.g. electric utilities, heat and/or hydrogen vendors, etc); nuclear regulatory bodies and associated technical safety organizations (TSO); education and training (E and T) institutions, and, in particular, universities; civil society and the international institutional framework (IAEA and OECD/NEA). The emphasis in the paper is on the improvements all along the history of nuclear fission power (Generations I, II and III) as well as on the visionary innovation proposed by the 'Generation IV International Forum' (GIF). International research (in particular, EURATOM), in this area is guided by the four 'GIF Technology Goals for industry and society', namely: sustainability: e.g. enhanced fuel utilisation and optimal waste management; economics: e.g. minimisation of costs of MWe installed and MWh generated; safety and reliability: e.g. robust safety architecture, no need for off-site measures; proliferation resistance and physical protection: e.g. absence of separated Pu. EURATOM research and training is presented in the broader context of the new EU policy

  7. [Connecting biobanks of large European cohorts (EU Project BBMRI-LPC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Klaus A; Bild, Raffael; Anton, Gabriele; Schuffenhauer, Simone; Wichmann, H-Erich

    2016-03-01

    In addition to the Biobanking and BioMolecular resources Research Initiative (BBMRI), which is establishing a European research infrastructure for biobanks, a network for large European prospective cohorts (LPC) is being built to facilitate transnational research into important groups of diseases and health care. One instrument for this is the database "LPC Catalogue," which supports access to the biomaterials of the participating cohorts. To present the LPC Catalogue as a relevant tool for connecting European biobanks. In addition, the LPC Catalogue has been extended to establish compatibility with existing Minimum Information About Biobank data Sharing (MIABIS) and to allow for more detailed search requests. This article describes the LPC Catalogue, its organizational and technical structure, and the aforementioned extensions. The LPC Catalogue provides a structured overview of the participating LPCs. It offers various retrieval possibilities and a search function. To support more detailed search requests, a new module has been developed, called a "data cube". The provision of data by the cohorts is being supported by a "connector" component. The LPC Catalogue contains data on 22 cohorts and more than 3.8 million biosamples. At present, data on the biosamples of three cohorts have been acquired for the "cube," which is continuously being expanded. In the BBMRI-LPC, tendering for scientific projects using the data and samples of the participating cohorts is currently being carried out. In this context, several proposals have already been approved. The LPC Catalogue is supporting transnational access to biosamples. A comparison with existing solutions illustrates the relevance of its functionality.

  8. Vrancea Vineyard: A Rural Area with a European Comparative Advantage –The Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA CHICOŞ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to disseminate the partial results of a work that lasted more than three years and involved a substantial number of resources at both national and international level within the COHESION Project, implemented under the C.I.P. Interreg IIIB CADSES Neighbourhood Program. The Vrancea vineyard was the pilot area for the Romanian study and the main activities of the Romanian team (Urbanproiect Bucuresti, Partner Project no.13 within the project has been focused on this area.The COHESION (Integrated COncepts EnHancing CohESion of EurOpeaN Space Project aimed at enforcing the cohesion of the CADSES area, through developing policies to meet the problems of the European rural space. To this context, the project developed during 2003-2005 applied a methodology focused on increasing competitiveness of areas. An indicative product (wine, in which the involved areas provide a comparative advantage, has been targeted and integrated development pilot projects have been implemented in the participating areas. The Project's area of intervention consisted in the territories of Karditsa, Achaia and Nemea in Greece, the territory of Steirisches Vulkanland in Austria, Meissen in Germany, Appennino Reggiano in Italy, Northwest Bohemia in Czech Republic, and Vrancea in Romania.The aim of the project was “to investigate the development process in remote agricultural areas from practical point of view, i.e. locate the factors that hamper or promote local development in the remote agricultural zones of the CADSES area, and provide this information to other local development actors, so as to facilitate their action and thus contribute to accelerating convergence of the space in question and cohesion of the European territory” (PINDOS Strategic Planning Centre, 2006. The approach planned and applied by COHESION was the bottom up approach. Parallel and similar development projects (pilot activities were generated in a number of the areas involved and

  9. Increasing large scale windstorm damage in Western, Central and Northern European forests, 1951-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregow, H.; Laaksonen, A.; Alper, M. E.

    2017-04-01

    Using reports of forest losses caused directly by large scale windstorms (or primary damage, PD) from the European forest institute database (comprising 276 PD reports from 1951-2010), total growing stock (TGS) statistics of European forests and the daily North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, we identify a statistically significant change in storm intensity in Western, Central and Northern Europe (17 countries). Using the validated set of storms, we found that the year 1990 represents a change-point at which the average intensity of the most destructive storms indicated by PD/TGS > 0.08% increased by more than a factor of three. A likelihood ratio test provides strong evidence that the change-point represents a real shift in the statistical behaviour of the time series. All but one of the seven catastrophic storms (PD/TGS > 0.2%) occurred since 1990. Additionally, we detected a related decrease in September-November PD/TGS and an increase in December-February PD/TGS. Our analyses point to the possibility that the impact of climate change on the North Atlantic storms hitting Europe has started during the last two and half decades.

  10. On the occurrence of cyclones with low central pressures in the Atlantic-European area from 1930 to 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schinke, H.

    1992-01-01

    Large natural disasters increased dramatically in the last three decades, both with regard to number and damage scale. Large storm events contribute considerably to this. In the context of climate changes it is of interest whether the frequency and/or the regional and temporal distribution of storm cyclones of the temperate latitudes are also subject to specific changes. The definition of storm cyclones with the aid of weather maps which served as basis of investigation is only possible with considerable time expenditure. All low-pressure areas with central pressures equal to, or less than 990 hPa were therefore included in the investigation. The wind velocities were not analyzed. The investigation area covers the area from the 60th degree of easter longitude to the 60th degree of western longitude and from the 30th degree of northern latitude to the North Pole. It comprises the hole of the European mainland as well as large parts of the North Atlantic. The period of 1930 to 1991 is considered. (orig./KW) [de

  11. THE SPITZER -HETDEX EXPLORATORY LARGE-AREA SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papovich, C.; Shipley, H. V.; Mehrtens, N.; Lanham, C.; DePoy, D. L.; Kawinwanichakij, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX, 77843-4242 (United States); Lacy, M. [North American ALMA Science Center, NRAO Headquarters, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Ciardullo, R.; Gronwall, C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Finkelstein, S. L.; Drory, N.; Gebhardt, K.; Hill, G. J.; Jogee, S. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Bassett, R. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, University of Western Australia, 7 Fairway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Behroozi, P. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Blanc, G. A. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino del Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Jong, R. S. de [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Gawiser, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Hopp, U., E-mail: papovich@physics.tamu.edu, E-mail: papovich@tamu.edu [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85741, Garching (Germany); and others

    2016-06-01

    We present post-cryogenic Spitzer imaging at 3.6 and 4.5 μ m with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) of the Spitzer /HETDEX Exploratory Large-Area (SHELA) survey. SHELA covers ≈24 deg{sup 2} of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey “Stripe 82” region, and falls within the footprints of the Hobby–Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) and the Dark Energy Survey. The HETDEX blind R ∼ 800 spectroscopy will produce ∼200,000 redshifts from the Ly α emission for galaxies in the range 1.9 <  z  < 3.5, and an additional ∼200,000 redshifts from the [O ii] emission for galaxies at z  < 0.5. When combined with deep ugriz images from the Dark Energy Camera, K -band images from NEWFIRM, and other ancillary data, the IRAC photometry from Spitzer will enable a broad range of scientific studies of the relationship between structure formation, galaxy stellar mass, halo mass, the presence of active galactic nuclei, and environment over a co-moving volume of ∼0.5 Gpc{sup 3} at 1.9 <  z  < 3.5. Here, we discuss the properties of the SHELA IRAC data set, including the data acquisition, reduction, validation, and source catalogs. Our tests show that the images and catalogs are 80% (50%) complete to limiting magnitudes of 22.0 (22.6) AB mag in the detection image, which is constructed from the weighted sum of the IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μ m images. The catalogs reach limiting sensitivities of 1.1  μ Jy at both 3.6 and 4.5 μ m (1 σ , for R = 2″ circular apertures). As a demonstration of the science, we present IRAC number counts, examples of highly temporally variable sources, and galaxy surface density profiles of rich galaxy clusters. In the spirit of the Spitzer Exploratory programs, we provide all of the images and catalogs as part of the publication.

  12. THE SPITZER -HETDEX EXPLORATORY LARGE-AREA SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papovich, C.; Shipley, H. V.; Mehrtens, N.; Lanham, C.; DePoy, D. L.; Kawinwanichakij, L.; Lacy, M.; Ciardullo, R.; Gronwall, C.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Drory, N.; Gebhardt, K.; Hill, G. J.; Jogee, S.; Bassett, R.; Behroozi, P.; Blanc, G. A.; Jong, R. S. de; Gawiser, E.; Hopp, U.

    2016-01-01

    We present post-cryogenic Spitzer imaging at 3.6 and 4.5 μ m with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) of the Spitzer /HETDEX Exploratory Large-Area (SHELA) survey. SHELA covers ≈24 deg 2 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey “Stripe 82” region, and falls within the footprints of the Hobby–Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) and the Dark Energy Survey. The HETDEX blind R ∼ 800 spectroscopy will produce ∼200,000 redshifts from the Ly α emission for galaxies in the range 1.9 <  z  < 3.5, and an additional ∼200,000 redshifts from the [O ii] emission for galaxies at z  < 0.5. When combined with deep ugriz images from the Dark Energy Camera, K -band images from NEWFIRM, and other ancillary data, the IRAC photometry from Spitzer will enable a broad range of scientific studies of the relationship between structure formation, galaxy stellar mass, halo mass, the presence of active galactic nuclei, and environment over a co-moving volume of ∼0.5 Gpc 3 at 1.9 <  z  < 3.5. Here, we discuss the properties of the SHELA IRAC data set, including the data acquisition, reduction, validation, and source catalogs. Our tests show that the images and catalogs are 80% (50%) complete to limiting magnitudes of 22.0 (22.6) AB mag in the detection image, which is constructed from the weighted sum of the IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μ m images. The catalogs reach limiting sensitivities of 1.1  μ Jy at both 3.6 and 4.5 μ m (1 σ , for R = 2″ circular apertures). As a demonstration of the science, we present IRAC number counts, examples of highly temporally variable sources, and galaxy surface density profiles of rich galaxy clusters. In the spirit of the Spitzer Exploratory programs, we provide all of the images and catalogs as part of the publication.

  13. Patient-reported causes of heart failure in a large European sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, Ivy; Denollet, Johan; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2018-01-01

    ), psychosocial (35%, mainly (work-related) stress), and natural causes (32%, mainly heredity). There were socio-demographic, clinical and psychological group differences between the various categories, and large discrepancies between prevalence of physical risk factors according to medical records and patient...... distress (OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 0.94–2.51, p = 0.09), and behavioral causes and a less threatening view of heart failure (OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.40–1.01, p = 0.06). Conclusion: European patients most frequently reported comorbidities, smoking, stress, and heredity as heart failure causes, but their causal......Background: Patients diagnosed with chronic diseases develop perceptions about their disease and its causes, which may influence health behavior and emotional well-being. This is the first study to examine patient-reported causes and their correlates in patients with heart failure. Methods...

  14. RE-Europe, a large-scale dataset for modeling a highly renewable European electricity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Tue V.; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-11-01

    Future highly renewable energy systems will couple to complex weather and climate dynamics. This coupling is generally not captured in detail by the open models developed in the power and energy system communities, where such open models exist. To enable modeling such a future energy system, we describe a dedicated large-scale dataset for a renewable electric power system. The dataset combines a transmission network model, as well as information for generation and demand. Generation includes conventional generators with their technical and economic characteristics, as well as weather-driven forecasts and corresponding realizations for renewable energy generation for a period of 3 years. These may be scaled according to the envisioned degrees of renewable penetration in a future European energy system. The spatial coverage, completeness and resolution of this dataset, open the door to the evaluation, scaling analysis and replicability check of a wealth of proposals in, e.g., market design, network actor coordination and forecasting of renewable power generation.

  15. Neutron Star Astronomy in the era of the European Extremely Large Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignani, Roberto P.

    2011-01-01

    About 25 isolated neutron stars (INSs) are now detected in the optical domain, mainly thanks to the HST and to VLT-class telescopes. The European Extremely Large Telescope(E-ELT) will yield ∼100 new identifications, many of which from the follow-up of SKA, IXO, and Fermi observations. Moreover, the E-ELT will allow to carry out, on a much larger sample, INS observations which still challenge VLT-class telescopes, enabling studies on the structure and composition of the NS interior, of its atmosphere and magnetosphere, as well as to search for debris discs. In this contribution, I outline future perspectives for NS optical astronomy with the E-ELT.

  16. RE-Europe, a large-scale dataset for modeling a highly renewable European electricity system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Tue V; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-11-28

    Future highly renewable energy systems will couple to complex weather and climate dynamics. This coupling is generally not captured in detail by the open models developed in the power and energy system communities, where such open models exist. To enable modeling such a future energy system, we describe a dedicated large-scale dataset for a renewable electric power system. The dataset combines a transmission network model, as well as information for generation and demand. Generation includes conventional generators with their technical and economic characteristics, as well as weather-driven forecasts and corresponding realizations for renewable energy generation for a period of 3 years. These may be scaled according to the envisioned degrees of renewable penetration in a future European energy system. The spatial coverage, completeness and resolution of this dataset, open the door to the evaluation, scaling analysis and replicability check of a wealth of proposals in, e.g., market design, network actor coordination and forecasting of renewable power generation.

  17. Index-antiguided planar waveguide lasers with large mode area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanye

    The on-going research and application interests with high power large-mode-area (LMA) waveguide lasers, especially in fiber geometry, at the beginning of this century drive the development of many novel waveguide designs. Index antiguiding, proposed by Siegman in 2003, is among one of them. The goal for index antiguiding is to introduce transversal modal loss with the relative simple waveguide design while maintain single transverse mode operation for good beam quality. The idea which is selectively support of fundamental mode is facilitated by involving certain level of signal regeneration inside the waveguide core. Since the modal loss is closed associated with waveguide design parameters such as core size and refractive index, the amount of gain inside the core provides active control of transverse modes inside index-antiguiding waveguide. For example, fundamental transverse mode inside such waveguide can be excited and propagate lossless when sufficient optical gain is provided. This often requires doped waveguide core and optical pumping at corresponding absorption band. However, the involvement of optical pumping also has its consequences. Phenomena such as thermal-optic effect and gain spatial hole-burning which are commonly found in bulk lasers request attention when scaling up output power with LMA index-antiguided waveguide amplifiers and resonators. In response, three key challenges of index-antiguided planar waveguide lasers, namely, guiding mechanism, power efficiency and transverse mode discrimination, are analyzed theoretically and experimentally in this dissertation. Experiments are based on two index-antiguided planar waveguide chips, whose core thickness are 220 microm and 400 microm respectively. The material of waveguide core is 1% Neodymium-doped Yttrium Aluminium garnet, or Nd:YAG while the cladding is made from Terbium Gallium garnet, or TGG. Due to the face pumping and limited pump power, it is found, with 220 microm-thick-core chip, that

  18. Pushing the boundaries of high power lasers: low loss, large area CVD diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, Benjamin; Schoofs, Frank; Olsson-Robbie, Stefan; Bennett, Andrew; Balmer, Richard

    2018-02-01

    Synthetic CVD diamond has exceptional properties, including broad spectral transmission, physical and chemical robustness, and the highest thermal conductivity of any known material, making diamond an attractive material for medium to high power optical and laser applications, minimizing the detrimental effects of thermal lensing and radiation damage. Example applications include ATR prisms, Raman laser crystals, extra- and intra-cavity laser cooling. In each case the demands on the fundamental material properties and fabrication routes are slightly different. In recent years, there has been good progress in the development of low-loss, single crystal diamond, suitable for higher power densities, higher pulse rates and more demanding intra- and extra-cavity thermal management. The adoption of single crystal diamond in this area has however, been hindered by the availability of large area, low birefringence plates. To address this, we report a combination of CVD growth and processing methods that have enabled the manufacture of large, low defect substrates. A final homoepitaxial, low absorption synthesis stage has produced plates with large area (up to 16 mm edge length), low absorption (α<0.005 cm-1 at 1064 nm), and low birefringence (Δn <10-5), suitable for double-sided intra-cavity cooling. We demonstrate the practical advances in synthesis, including increasing the size while reducing in-use losses compared to previous generations of single crystal material, and practical developments in processing and implementation of the single crystal diamond parts, optimizing them for use in a state-of-the-art femto-second pulsed Ti:Sa thin disk gain module, all made in collaboration with the wider European FP7 funded Ti:Sa TD consortium.

  19. A practice-theory approach of homeowners’ energy retrofits in four European areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartiaux, Franise Bartiaux; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Fonseca, Paula

    2014-01-01

    This article examines whether and how energy retrofitting of owner-occupied dwellings can be understood within the framework of social practice theories. Practice theories help to shift the focus towards more collective approaches and practices, rather than towards individuals. In addressing...... this question, energy retrofits are described and their variability compared in four European areas: Denmark, Latvia, the Coimbra area in Portugal and Wallonia in Belgium. Although these areas have different geographical, cultural and housing contexts, the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD......) provides a common form of regulation. As a policy, its main underlying intention is to promote the opportunities for energy retrofitting. Based on an analysis of 60 in-depth interviews with homeowners, it is found that energy retrofitting is not an integrative practice in 2010, despite the EPBD and other...

  20. Plan for support of large-plant (post-CRBR) needs in large-leak sodium-water reaction area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whipple, J.C.

    1980-03-01

    Work in the large leak test and analysis area of steam generator development has been carried out at GE-ARSD under 189a SG037 since 1973. The currently planned master schedule for the SG037 program is shown. Principal activities are the large leak testing program being carried out at the Large Leak Test Rig and the analysis methods development. The plan for supporting the large plant (post-CRBR) needs in the large leak sodium-water reaction area is outlined. Most of the needs will be answered in the current SG037 large leak program

  1. The State of Ethical Learning of Students in the Spanish University System: Considerations for the European Higher Education Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxarrais, Maria Rosa; Esteban, Francisco; Mellen, Teodor

    2015-01-01

    With the establishment of the European higher education area (EHEA), the ethical learning of students is a matter of central importance in European universities. This paper examines the current state of ethical learning of students in the Spanish university system. We present the results of a descriptive survey, which used a training model for…

  2. Energy consumption across European Union farms: Efficiency in terms of farming output and utilized agricultural area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinho, Vítor João Pereira Domingues

    2016-01-01

    Energy consumption is a global concern, namely due to the limited availability of energy sources and the consequences in terms of gas emissions, with its implications upon greenhouse gas emissions. In the agricultural sector this question bears an additional concern, considering that it is an economic activity which is sensitive to the dimension of the costs associated with production factors. In this way, the objective of the study presented here is to analyze, the efficiency of energy consumption, for the twelve former European Union countries, at farm level, in terms of farming output and utilized agricultural area, over the period 1989–2009 and for the years 2004–2012, with data available in the Farm Accountancy Data Network. On the other hand, the implications of energy consumption in farms' economic performance were analyzed, through econometric techniques (time series, panel data and generalized method of moments) and models based on the Kaldor developments. As a main conclusion, to stress the decrease in efficiency related with energy consumption by farms in the twelve former European Union countries. - Highlights: • It was analyzed the efficiency of energy consumption. • It was considered data for the twelve former European Union states at farm level. • They were evaluated the implications of energy consumption in farms performance. • The conclusions stress the decrease in efficiency of the farms energy consumption.

  3. Current legal issues of European integration in the area of peaceful uses of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handrlica, Jakub

    2009-01-01

    The main issues of current discussions concerning the status of European integration in the area of peaceful uses of nuclear energy are described with focus on the present and future of the EURATOM Treaty. The basic features of the EURATOM Treaty are highlighted and those issues which are currently subject to discussion in foreign literature (e.g. EURATOM's legitimacy, specification of competencies, obsolete provisions, etc.) are pointed out. The major attempts to reform the wording of the EURATOM Treaty and the relevance of the Treaty to its Member States in the future, in relation to the 'Nuclear New Build' in particular, are also described. (orig.)

  4. Definitions of urban areas feasible for examining urban health in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Patterson, Lesley; Scharlach, Martina; Hellmeier, Wolfgang; Verma, Arpana

    2017-05-01

    As part of the EU-funded project, European Urban Health Indicator System (EURO-URHIS), a definition of urban areas (UAs) and of urban populations was needed to be able to identify comparable UAs in all member states. A literature review on existing definitions, as well as those used by other relevant projects, was performed. A survey of national experts in public health or land planning was also conducted. An algorithm was proposed to find UAs, which were feasible for the focus of EURO-URHIS. No unique general definition of UAs was found. Different fields of research define UAs differently. None of the definitions found were feasible for EURO-URHIS. All of them were found to have critical disadvantages when applied to an urban health project. An ideal definition for this type of project needs to provide a description of the situation without recourse to administrative boundaries yet inform the collection of routine data for urban health monitoring. These requirements were found to contradict each other and were not met in any existing definition. An algorithm was developed for the definition of UAs for the purpose of this study whereby national experts would select regions which are urban as an agglomeration or as a metropolitan area and which are potentially interesting in terms of public health; identify the natural boundaries, where countryside ends and residential or commercial areas of the region begin (e.g. by aerial photos); identify local government boundaries or other official boundaries used for routine data collection purposes which approximate the natural UA as closely as possible and list all administrative areas which are contained in the larger UA. The aggregation of all administrative areas within the original region formed the UA which was used in the project. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary fat, fat subtypes and hepatocellular carcinoma in a large European cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Salles, Talita; Fedirko, Veronika; Stepien, Magdalena; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Laursen, Anne Sofie Dam; Hansen, Louise; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; His, Mathilde; Boeing, Heiner; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elissavet; Kritikou, Maria; Masala, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Sieri, Sabina; Ricceri, Fulvio; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Peeters, Petra H; Hjartåker, Anette; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Ardanaz, Eva; Bonet, Catalina; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, J Ramón; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ohlsson, Bodil; Sjöberg, Klas; Wennberg, Maria; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth C; Wareham, Nick; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Romieu, Isabelle; Cross, Amanda J; Gunter, Marc; Lu, Yunxia; Jenab, Mazda

    2015-12-01

    The role of amount and type of dietary fat consumption in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poorly understood, despite suggestive biological plausibility. The associations of total fat, fat subtypes and fat sources with HCC incidence were investigated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, which includes 191 incident HCC cases diagnosed between 1992 and 2010. Diet was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. A single 24-hr diet recall from a cohort subsample was used for measurement error calibration. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated from Cox proportional hazard models. Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV/HCV) status and biomarkers of liver function were assessed separately in a nested case-control subset with available blood samples (HCC = 122). In multivariable calibrated models, there was a statistically significant inverse association between total fat intake and risk of HCC (per 10 g/day, HR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.65-0.99), which was mainly driven by monounsaturated fats (per 5 g/day, HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.55-0.92) rather than polyunsaturated fats (per 5 g/day, HR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.68-1.25). There was no association between saturated fats (HR = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.88-1.34) and HCC risk. The ratio of polyunsaturated/monounsaturated fats to saturated fats was not significantly associated with HCC risk (per 0.2 point, HR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.73-1.01). Restriction of analyses to HBV/HCV free participants or adjustment for liver function did not substantially alter the findings. In this large prospective European cohort, higher consumption of monounsaturated fats is associated with lower HCC risk. © 2015 UICC.

  6. Four large coastal upwelling areas are created by eastern boundary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    large deep-water hake Merluccius paradoxus, 2.7% small M. paradoxus, 1.3% ... hake in the Benguela region, the shallow-water species. Merluccius capensis .... sharks are not included in the estimate, and neither is the proportion of sharks ...

  7. Irradiation of large area Mylar membrane and characterization of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    of its energy in areas away from the trajectory or just de- excites in time depending on the type of material. In insu- lators electronic excitation can induce extended defects along the ion path due to the secondary ionization (Mehta. 1996). Many polymers are able to recover the track halo up to a certain limit of the order of a ...

  8. SARNET integrated European Severe Accident Research-Conclusions in the source term area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haste, T., E-mail: tim.haste@irsn.f [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Giordano, P. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, BP 3, F-13115 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Herranz, L. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medio Ambientales y Tecnologica, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Girault, N.; Dubourg, R. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, BP 3, F-13115 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Sabroux, J.-C. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, Saclay Research Centre, BP 68, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Cantrel, L. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, BP 3, F-13115 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Bottomley, D. [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Transuranium Institute, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Parozzi, F. [ENEA - Ricerca sul Sistema Elettrico (ERSE) SpA., Via Rubattino 54, I-20134 Milano (Italy); Auvinen, A. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT Espoo (Finland); Dickinson, S. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Harwell Business Centre, Didcot, OX11 0QJ (United Kingdom); Lamy, J.-C. [Electricite de France, 12-14 avenue Dutrievoz, F-69100 Villeurbanne (France); Weber, G. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Forschungsgelaende, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Albiol, T. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, BP 3, F-13115 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2009-12-15

    The overall aim of the SARNET (Severe Accident Research NETwork), in the EU 6th Framework programme was to integrate in a sustainable manner the research capabilities of fifty-one European organisations from eighteen member states of the European Union (EU) plus the Joint Research Centres, with one Canadian company, to resolve important remaining uncertainties and safety issues concerning existing and future nuclear plant, especially water-cooled reactors, under hypothetical severe accident conditions. It emphasised integrating activities, spreading of excellence (including knowledge transfer) and jointly executed research, with the knowledge gained being encapsulated in the European severe accident modelling code ASTEC. This paper summarises the achievements over the whole project in the Source Term Topic, which dealt with potential radioactive release to the environment, covering release of fission products and structural materials from the core, their transport in the primary circuit, and their behaviour in the containment. The main technical areas covered, as emphasised by the earlier EURSAFE project, were the effect of oxidative conditions on fission product release and transport (especially the behaviour of the highly radiotoxic ruthenium under air ingress conditions), iodine volatility in the primary circuit, control rod aerosol release (Ag-In-Cd) that affects iodine transport, containment by-pass in the case of steam generator tube rupture, aerosol retention in containment cracks, aerosol remobilisation in the circuit, and iodine/ruthenium behaviour in the containment especially concerning the volatile fraction in the atmosphere. The studies also covered performance of new experiments, analysis of existing data, and formulation and improvement of theoretical models. Significant progress was made in each area. Looking to the future, the 7th Framework successor project SARNET2 covers the remaining issues concerning iodine and ruthenium, including practical

  9. The European nuclear safety and radiation protection area: steps and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillet, G.

    2010-01-01

    Launched with enthusiasm and determination in 1957, The European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC - EURATOM), which aimed to promote the development of a 'powerful nuclear industry' in Europe, has not ultimately fulfilled the wishes of its founding fathers. Rapidly, and on a topic as strategic as the peaceful use of the atom, national reflexes prevailed. The Chernobyl disaster, in 1986, also substantially slowed down the use of nuclear energy in Europe. Nuclear safety and radiation protection have followed two different paths. Backed by Chapter III of the EURATOM treaty, over time the EAEC has developed a substantial legislative corpus on radiation protection. Meanwhile, and strange as it may seem, nuclear safety has remained the poor relation, on the grounds that the treaty does not grant EURATOM competence in the area. It is true that legislation was adopted in reaction to Chernobyl, but for a long time there was no specific regulation of nuclear safety in the EU. The European nuclear safety and radiation protection area owes its construction to Community mechanisms as well as to informal initiatives by safety authorities. Today, more than ever, this centre provides consistency, an overall balance which should both strengthen it and impose it as an international reference. Progress can now be expected on waste management, radiation protection and the safety objectives of new reactors. (author)

  10. THE ROLE OF ECONOMIC POLICIES FOR EXTERNAL CROSSBORDER AREAS IN SHAPING THE NEW EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Șlusarciuc

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As history proves, any enlargement of an overstate structure produces disarticulation and an increase of pressure on the borders of it. On the other side the economy produces integrative effects along the border despite of the original significance of separation that a border has. The crossborder policies of the European Union as regional player are meant to contribute to the economic structure building and enhance the stability inside and outside the Union area. Setting up the normative framework for crossborder relations is a very present-day field, being subject of study and research in all Union bodies, in the Member States governments, candidate countries or beneficiaries of the relations with the Union as well. This normative framework is meant to propel the economic increase and the raise of the daily life conditions in the neighbor countries. Alongside the border there are happening complex phenomena, some of them easy to be quantified, such as economic ones, some of them more difficult that cannot be controlled but only sociologically researched, such as cultural-identity-emotional ones. The paper aims to draw the guiding marks of the European Union external crossborder areas and the crossborder cooperation frame for Romania, to identify already visible and potential effects of the enlargement on the external borders and to make an inventory of policies that should integrate the crossborder economy.

  11. Incidence of multiple sclerosis among European Economic Area populations, 1985-2009: the framework for monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A debate surrounding multiple sclerosis epidemiology has centred on time-related incidence increases and the need of monitoring. The purpose of this study is to reassess multiple sclerosis incidence in the European Economic Area. Methods We conducted a systematic review of literature from 1965 onwards and integrated elements of original research, including requested or completed data by surveys authors and specific analyses. Results The review of 5323 documents yielded ten studies for age- and sex-specific analyses, and 21 studies for time-trend analysis of single data sets. After 1985, the incidence of multiple sclerosis ranged from 1.12 to 6.96 per 100,000 population, was higher in females, tripled with latitude, and doubled with study midpoint year. The north registered increasing trends from the 1960s and 1970s, with a historic drop in the Faroe Islands, and fairly stable data in the period 1980-2000; incidence rose in Italian and French populations in the period 1970-2000, in Evros (Greece) in the 1980s, and in the French West Indies in around 2000. Conclusions We conclude that the increase in multiple sclerosis incidence is only apparent, and that it is not specific to women. Monitoring of multiple sclerosis incidence might be appropriate for the European Economic Area. PMID:23758972

  12. Association between short-term exposure to ultrafine particles and mortality in eight European urban areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stafoggia, Massimo; Schneider, Alexandra; Cyrys, Josef

    2017-01-01

    urban areas of Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Spain, and Greece, between 1999 and 2013. We applied city-specific time-series Poisson regression models and pooled them with random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: We estimated a weak, delayed association between particle number concentration...... and particulate matter (PM) and daily mortality in eight European urban areas. METHODS: We collected daily data on non-accidental and cardio-respiratory mortality, particle number concentrations (as proxy for ultrafine particle number concentration), fine and coarse PM, gases and meteorologic parameters in eight...... and non-accidental mortality, with mortality increasing by approximately 0.35% per 10,000 particles/cm increases in particle number concentration occurring 5 to 7 days before death. A similar pattern was found for cause-specific mortality. Estimates decreased after adjustment for fine particles (PM2...

  13. Calculating the consequences of recovery, a European model for inhabited areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charnock, T.W.; Jones, J.A.; Singer, L.N.

    2009-01-01

    The European Model for Inhabited Areas (ERMIN) was developed to allow a user to explore different recovery options following the contamination of an urban environment with radioactive material and to refine an appropriate strategy for the whole region affected. The input data include a description......, the contamination on urban surfaces, the activity concentration in air from resuspension, the doses to workers undertaking the recovery work, the quantity and activity of waste generated and the cost and work required to implement the countermeasure. ERMIN has been designed to be implemented as a tool that supports...... the approach of decision-makers and allows the area to be broken down into smaller regions where different conditions prevail and different countermeasure packages are enacted....

  14. Avian surveys of large geographical areas: A systematic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J.M.; Jacobi, J.D.; Ramsey, F.L.

    1981-01-01

    A multidisciplinary team approach was used to simultaneously map the distribution of birds, selected food items, and major vegetation types in 34,000- to 140,000-ha tracts in native Hawaiian forests. By using a team approach, large savings in time can be realized over attempts to conduct similar surveys of smaller scope, and a systems approach to management problems is made easier. The methods used in survey design, training observers, and documenting bird numbersand habitat descriptions are discussed in detail.

  15. Performance of the Antares large area cold cathode electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosocha, L.A.; Mansfield, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    The performance of the electron gun which supplies ionization for the Antares high-power electron-beam-sustained CO 2 -laser power amplifier is described. This electron gun is a coaxial cylindrical cold cathode vacuum triode having a total electron aperture area of approximately 9 m 2 . Electrons are extracted from the gun in pulses of 3 to 6 μs duration, average current densities of 40 to 60 mA/cm 2 , and electron energies of 450 to 500 keV. The main areas of discussion in this paper are the performance in terms of grid control, current-density balance, and current runaway due to breakdown limitations. Comparison of the experimental results with the predictions of a theoretical model for the electron gun are also presented

  16. Performance of the Antares large area cold cathode electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosocha, L.A.; Mansfield, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    The performance of the electron gun which supplies ionization for the Antares high power electron beam sustained CO 2 laser power amplifier is described. This electron gun is a coaxial cylindrical cold cathode vacuum triode having a total electron aperture area of approximately 9 m 2 . Electrons are extracted from the gun in pulses of 3-6 μs duration, average current densities of 40-60 ma/cm2, and electron energies of 450-500 keV. The main areas of discussion in this paper are the performance in terms of grid control, current density balance, and current runaway due to breakdown limitations. Comparison of the experimental results with the predictions of a theoretical model for the electron gun will also be presented

  17. Monitoring gamma radioactivity over large land areas using portable equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mac Mahon, T.D.; Gray, P.W.; Eer, A.M. D'; Naboulsi, A.H.; Koutsoyannopoulos, C.

    1990-01-01

    The principal objective of this research has been to provide information on cost-effective techniques to detect localized areas of gamma-emitting radionuclides. This objective has been achieved by determining the time required to scan unit area as a function of depth of the gamma source below the site surface, the activity of the gamma source, the energy of the emitted gamma-ray, and the gamma transport properties of the site material. A comparison between survey and sampling techniques is made, and the advantages of using survey techniques to detect localized gamma-ray sources are discussed. A survey technique based on an adaptive moving array detector system is described. A field experiment has been carried out to verify the results of calculations of the sensitivity of the techniques described

  18. A large area transition radiation detector for the NOMAD experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassompierre, G.; Bermond, M.; Berthet, M.; Bertozzi, T.; Détraz, C.; Dubois, J.-M.; Dumps, L.; Engster, C.; Fazio, T.; Gaillard, G.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gouanère, M.; Manola-Poggioli, E.; Mossuz, L.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Nédélec, P.; Palazzini, E.; Pessard, H.; Petit, P.; Petitpas, P.; Placci, A.; Sillou, D.; Sottile, R.; Valuev, V.; Verkindt, D.; Vey, H.; Wachnik, M.

    1998-02-01

    A transition radiation detector to identify electrons at 90% efficiency with a rejection factor against pions of 10 3 on an area of 2.85 × 2.85 m 2 has been constructed for the NOMAD experiment. Each of its 9 modules includes a 315 plastic foil radiator and a detector plane of 176 vertical straw tubes filled with a xenon-methane gas mixture. Details of the design, construction and operation of the detector are given.

  19. A large area transition radiation detector for the NOMAD experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bassompierre, Gabriel; Berthet, M; Bertozzi, T; Détraz, C; Dubois, J M; Dumps, Ludwig; Engster, Claude; Fazio, T; Gaillard, G; Gaillard, Jean-Marc; Gouanère, M; Manola-Poggioli, E; Mossuz, L; Mendiburu, J P; Nédélec, P; Palazzini, E; Pessard, H; Petit, P; Petitpas, P; Placci, Alfredo; Sillou, D; Sottile, R; Valuev, V Yu; Verkindt, D; Vey, H; Wachnik, M

    1997-01-01

    A transition radiation detector to identify electrons at 90% efficiency with a rejection factor against pions of 10 3 on an area of 2.85 × 2.85 m 2 has been constructed for the NOMAD experiment. Each of its 9 modules includes a 315 plastic foil radiator and a detector plane of 176 vertical straw tubes filled with a xenon-methane gas mixture. Details of the design, construction and operation of the detector are given.

  20. Public Policies for ICT Update In Business: Some Key Indicators for Spain in the European Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Vázquez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—Based on the new face of business in the twenty first century, this general review is aimed at analyzing the use of information and communication technologies (ICT as social technologies by Spanish enterprises in the European context, as a result of recent policy frameworks set at communitarian and national levels.Design/methodology/approach—The paper reviews the guidelines marked by European common policies with regards to ICT update in business, just as the translation of such standards in the Spanish area. From this framework, implications of ICT adoption in the social relationships with consumers, employees, business partners and public authorities are analyzed by providing some figures in the Spanish context in comparison with the European average.Findings—The analysis supports a positive effect of national policies on Spanish enterprises’ use of social technologies in the interactions with their internal and external stakeholders, while some differences can be reported attending size and sector criteria. In this respect, ICT penetration seems to be widespread in Spanish enterprises longer than ten employees, specially within informatics, telecommunications and audiovisuals, whereas automation of interactions is moderated in micro-enterprises in the manufacture, building, retailing, and transportation sectors.Research limitations/implications—The paper offers a general overview of the use of ICT as social technologies in Spanish enterprises based on public reports. However, further research should be oriented to analyze more in deep the impact of public policies on ICT adoption and usage in business, by explaining their determining factors and comparing different clusters of counties and major regions of the world.Practical implications—The analysis reported point to the need of reinforcing the Spanish positioning in the ICT European sector in the long term. In this sense, future policy measures should be devoted to

  1. Public Policies for ICT Update In Business: Some Key Indicators for Spain in the European Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lanero

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—Based on the new face of business in the twenty first century, this general review is aimed at analyzing the use of information and communication technologies (ICT as social technologies by Spanish enterprises in the European context, as a result of recent policy frameworks set at communitarian and national levels. Design/methodology/approach—The paper reviews the guidelines marked by European common policies with regards to ICT update in business, just as the translation of such standards in the Spanish area. From this framework, implications of ICT adoption in the social relationships with consumers, employees, business partners and public authorities are analyzed by providing some figures in the Spanish context in comparison with the European average.Findings—The analysis supports a positive effect of national policies on Spanish enterprises’ use of social technologies in the interactions with their internal and external stakeholders, while some differences can be reported attending size and sector criteria. In this respect, ICT penetration seems to be widespread in Spanish enterprises longer than ten employees, specially within informatics, telecommunications and audiovisuals, whereas automation of interactions is moderated in micro-enterprises in the manufacture, building, retailing, and transportation sectors.Research limitations/implications—The paper offers a general overview of the use of ICT as social technologies in Spanish enterprises based on public reports. However, further research should be oriented to analyze more in deep the impact of public policies on ICT adoption and usage in business, by explaining their determining factors and comparing different clusters of counties and major regions of the world.Practical implications—The analysis reported point to the need of reinforcing the Spanish positioning in the ICT European sector in the long term. In this sense, future policy measures should be devoted to

  2. Development of large area, high efficiency amorphous silicon solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, K.S.; Kim, S.; Kim, D.W. [Yu Kong Taedok Institute of Technology (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-02-01

    The objective of the research is to develop the mass-production technologies of high efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells in order to reduce the costs of solar cells and dissemination of solar cells. Amorphous silicon solar cell is the most promising option of thin film solar cells which are relatively easy to reduce the costs. The final goal of the research is to develop amorphous silicon solar cells having the efficiency of 10%, the ratio of light-induced degradation 15% in the area of 1200 cm{sup 2} and test the cells in the form of 2 Kw grid-connected photovoltaic system. (author) 35 refs., 8 tabs., 67 figs.

  3. Progress in amorphous silicon based large-area multijunction modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, D. E.; Arya, R. R.; Bennett, M.; Chen, L.-F.; Jansen, K.; Li, Y.-M.; Maley, N.; Morris, J.; Newton, J.; Oswald, R. S.; Rajan, K.; Vezzetti, D.; Willing, F.; Yang, L.

    1996-01-01

    Solarex, a business unit of Amoco/Enron Solar, is scaling up its a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H tandem device technology for the production of 8 ft2 modules. The current R&D effort is focused on improving the performance, reliability and cost-effectiveness of the tandem junction technology by systematically optimizing the materials and interfaces in small-area single- and tandem junction cells. Average initial conversion efficiencies of 8.8% at 85% yield have been obtained in pilot production runs with 4 ft2 tandem modules.

  4. Fully low voltage and large area searching scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Zongqiang; Wang, Jihui; Lu, Qingyou

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel scanning tunneling microscope (STM), which allows the tip to travel a large distance (millimeters) on the sample and take images (to find microscopic targets) anywhere it reaches without losing atomic resolution. This broad range searching capability, together with the coarse approach and scan motion, is all done with only one single piezoelectric tube scanner as well as with only low voltages (<15 V). Simple structure, low interference and high precision are thus achieved. To this end, a pillar and a tube scanner are mounted in parallel on a base with one ball glued on the pillar top and two balls glued on the scanner top. These three balls form a narrow triangle, which supports a triangular slider piece. By inertial stepping, the scanner can move the slider toward the pillar (coarse approach) or rotate the slider about the pillar (travel along sample surface). Since all the stepping motions are driven by the scanner's lateral bending which is large per unit voltage, high voltages are unnecessary. The technology is also applicable to scanning force microscopes (SFM) such as atomic force microscopes (AFM), etc

  5. High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider A description for the European Strategy Preparatory Group

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, L

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the largest scientific instrument ever built. It has been exploring the new energy frontier since 2009, gathering a global user community of 7,000 scientists. It will remain the most powerful accelerator in the world for at least two decades, and its full exploitation is the highest priority in the European Strategy for Particle Physics, adopted by the CERN Council and integrated into the ESFRI Roadmap. To extend its discovery potential, the LHC will need a major upgrade around 2020 to increase its luminosity (rate of collisions) by a factor of 10 beyond its design value. As a highly complex and optimized machine, such an upgrade of the LHC must be carefully studied and requires about 10 years to implement. The novel machine configuration, called High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), will rely on a number of key innovative technologies, representing exceptional technological challenges, such as cutting-edge 13 tesla superconducting magnets, very compact and ultra-precise superconduc...

  6. 102(ℎ/2π)k Large Area Atom Interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiow, Sheng-wey; Kovachy, Tim; Chien, Hui-Chun; Kasevich, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate atom interferometers utilizing a novel beam splitter based on sequential multiphoton Bragg diffractions. With this sequential Bragg large momentum transfer (SB-LMT) beam splitter, we achieve high contrast atom interferometers with momentum splittings of up to 102 photon recoil momenta (102(ℎ/2π)k). To our knowledge, this is the highest momentum splitting achieved in any atom interferometer, advancing the state-of-the-art by an order of magnitude. We also demonstrate strong noise correlation between two simultaneous SB-LMT interferometers, which alleviates the need for ultralow noise lasers and ultrastable inertial environments in some future applications. Our method is intrinsically scalable and can be used to dramatically increase the sensitivity of atom interferometers in a wide range of applications, including inertial sensing, measuring the fine structure constant, and detecting gravitational waves.

  7. Large area spark counters with fine time and position resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, A.; Atwood, W.B.; Fujiwara, N.; Pestov, Yu.N.; Sugahara, R.

    1983-10-01

    Spark counters trace their history back over three decades but have been used in only a limited number of experiments. The key properties of these devices include their capability of precision timing (at the sub 100 ps level) and of measuring the position of the charged particle to high accuracy. At SLAC we have undertaken a program to develop these devices for use in high energy physics experiments involving large detectors. A spark counter of size 1.2 m x 0.1 m has been constructed and has been operating continuously in our test setup for several months. In this talk I will discuss some details of its construction and its properties as a particle detector. 14 references

  8. A comprehensive inventory of ship traffic exhaust emissions in the European sea areas in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Jalkanen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Emissions originating from ship traffic in European sea areas were modelled using the Ship Traffic Emission Assessment Model (STEAM, which uses Automatic Identification System data to describe ship traffic activity. We have estimated the emissions from ship traffic in the whole of Europe in 2011. We report the emission totals, the seasonal variation, the geographical distribution of emissions, and their disaggregation between various ship types and flag states. The total ship emissions of CO2, NOx, SOx, CO, and PM2.5 in Europe for year 2011 were estimated to be 121, 3.0, 1.2, 0.2, and 0.2 million tons, respectively. The emissions of CO2 from the Baltic Sea were evaluated to be more than a half (55 % of the emissions of the North Sea shipping; the combined contribution of these two sea regions was almost as high (88 % as the total emissions from ships in the Mediterranean. As expected, the shipping emissions of SOx were significantly lower in the SOx Emission Control Areas, compared with the corresponding values in the Mediterranean. Shipping in the Mediterranean Sea is responsible for 40 and 49 % of the European ship emitted CO2 and SOx emissions, respectively. In particular, this study reported significantly smaller emissions of NOx, SOx, and CO for shipping in the Mediterranean than the EMEP inventory; however, the reported PM2.5 emissions were in a fairly good agreement with the corresponding values reported by EMEP. The vessels registered to all EU member states are responsible for 55 % of the total CO2 emitted by ships in the study area. The vessels under the flags of convenience were responsible for 25 % of the total CO2 emissions.

  9. LSSA large area silicon sheet task continuous Czochralski process development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, S. N.

    1978-01-01

    A Czochralski crystal growing furnace was converted to a continuous growth facility by installation of a premelter to provide molten silicon flow into the primary crucible. The basic furnace is operational and several trial crystals were grown in the batch mode. Numerous premelter configurations were tested both in laboratory-scale equipment as well as in the actual furnace. The best arrangement tested to date is a vertical, cylindrical graphite heater containing small fused silicon test tube liner in which the incoming silicon is melted and flows into the primary crucible. Economic modeling of the continuous Czochralski process indicates that for 10 cm diameter crystal, 100 kg furnace runs of four or five crystals each are near-optimal. Costs tend to asymptote at the 100 kg level so little additional cost improvement occurs at larger runs. For these conditions, crystal cost in equivalent wafer area of around $20/sq m exclusive of polysilicon and slicing was obtained.

  10. Electron Emission from Ultra-Large Area MOS Electron Emitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lasse Bjørchmar; Nielsen, Gunver; Vendelbo, Søren Bastholm

    2009-01-01

    Ultralarge metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices with an active oxide area of 1 cm2 have been fabricated for use as electron emitters. The MOS structures consist of a Si substrate, a SiO2 tunnel barrier (~5 nm), a Ti wetting layer (3–10 Å), and a Au top layer (5–60 nm). Electron emission from...... layer is varied from 3 to 10 Å which changes the emission efficiency by more than one order of magnitude. The apparent mean free path of ~5 eV electrons in Au is found to be 52 Å. Deposition of Cs on the Au film increased the electron emission efficiency to 4.3% at 4 V by lowering the work function....... Electron emission under high pressures (up to 2 bars) of Ar was observed. ©2009 American Vacuum Society...

  11. Large-area sheet task advanced dendritic web growth development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    The thermal models used for analyzing dendritic web growth and calculating the thermal stress were reexamined to establish the validity limits imposed by the assumptions of the models. Also, the effects of thermal conduction through the gas phase were evaluated and found to be small. New growth designs, both static and dynamic, were generated using the modeling results. Residual stress effects in dendritic web were examined. In the laboratory, new techniques for the control of temperature distributions in three dimensions were developed. A new maximum undeformed web width of 5.8 cm was achieved. A 58% increase in growth velocity of 150 micrometers thickness was achieved with dynamic hardware. The area throughput goals for transient growth of 30 and 35 sq cm/min were exceeded.

  12. SCALES: SEVIRI and GERB CaL/VaL area for large-scale field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Belda, Fernando; Bodas, Alejandro; Crommelynck, Dominique; Dewitte, Steven; Domenech, Carlos; Gimeno, Jaume F.; Harries, John E.; Jorge Sanchez, Joan; Pineda, Nicolau; Pino, David; Rius, Antonio; Saleh, Kauzar; Tarruella, Ramon; Velazquez, Almudena

    2004-02-01

    The main objective of the SCALES Project is to exploit the unique opportunity offered by the recent launch of the first European METEOSAT Second Generation geostationary satellite (MSG-1) to generate and validate new radiation budget and cloud products provided by the GERB (Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget) instrument. SCALES" specific objectives are: (i) definition and characterization of a large reasonably homogeneous area compatible to GERB pixel size (around 50 x 50 km2), (ii) validation of GERB TOA radiances and fluxes derived by means of angular distribution models, (iii) development of algorithms to estimate surface net radiation from GERB TOA measurements, and (iv) development of accurate methodologies to measure radiation flux divergence and analyze its influence on the thermal regime and dynamics of the atmosphere, also using GERB data. SCALES is highly innovative: it focuses on a new and unique space instrument and develops a new specific validation methodology for low resolution sensors that is based on the use of a robust reference meteorological station (Valencia Anchor Station) around which 3D high resolution meteorological fields are obtained from the MM5 Meteorological Model. During the 1st GERB Ground Validation Campaign (18th-24th June, 2003), CERES instruments on Aqua and Terra provided additional radiance measurements to support validation efforts. CERES instruments operated in the PAPS mode (Programmable Azimuth Plane Scanning) focusing the station. Ground measurements were taken by lidar, sun photometer, GPS precipitable water content, radiosounding ascents, Anchor Station operational meteorological measurements at 2m and 15m., 4 radiation components at 2m, and mobile stations to characterize a large area. In addition, measurements during LANDSAT overpasses on June 14th and 30th were also performed. These activities were carried out within the GIST (GERB International Science Team) framework, during GERB Commissioning Period.

  13. Satisfaction of Social and Legal Sciences teachers with the introduction of the European Higher Education Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Ariza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available University teachers are one of the main figures in the European convergence process, but their attitude towards the reform of Spanish university studies is unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the satisfaction of Social and Legal Sciences teachers towards the introduction of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA. The sample was made up of 3,068 teachers from Spanish public universities, who teach in the said field. An online questionnaire was created for this purpose, with questions relating to the EHEA, teacher tasks and training, as well as aspects related to methodology and the teaching and learning process, amongst others. Cronbach´s alpha coefficient was .81. It is a population-based, descriptive study using a cross-sectional survey with a probability sample. In the results it can be observed that only 9.3% of teachers are satisfied with the adaptation of higher education to the EHEA. Finally, the limitations faced by teaching staff in consolidating this process will be discussed.

  14. Research status of large mode area single polarization active fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chun; Zhang, Ge; Yang, Bin-hua; Cheng, Wei-feng; Gu, Shao-yi

    2018-03-01

    As high power fiber laser used more and more widely, to increase the output power of fiber laser and beam quality improvement have become an important goal for the development of high power fiber lasers. The use of large mode fiber is the most direct and effective way to solve the nonlinear effect and fiber damage in the fiber laser power lifting process. In order to reduce the effect of polarization of the fiber laser system, the study found that when introduces a birefringence in the single-mode fiber, the polarization state changes caused by the birefringence is far greater than the random polarization state changes, then the external disturbance is completely submerged, finally the polarization can be controlled and stabilized. Through the fine design of the fiber structure, if the birefringence is high enough to achieve the separation of the two polarization states, the fiber will have a different cut-off mechanism to eliminate polarization which is not need, which will realize single mode single polarization transmission in a band. In this paper, different types of single polarization fiber design are presented and the application of these fibers are also discussed.

  15. A large-area RF source for negative hydrogen ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, P.; Feist, J. H.; Kraus, W.; Speth, E.; Heinemann, B.; Probst, F.; Trainham, R.; Jacquot, C.

    1998-01-01

    In a collaboration with CEA Cadarache, IPP is presently developing an rf source, in which the production of negative ions (H - /D - ) is being investigated. It utilizes PINI-size rf sources with an external antenna and for the first step a small size extraction system with 48 cm 2 net extraction area. First results from BATMAN (Bavarian T lowbar est Machine for N lowbar egative Ions) show (without Cs) a linear dependence of the negative ion yield with rf power, without any sign of saturation. At elevated pressure (1.6 Pa) a current density of 4.5 mA/cm 2 H - (without Cs) has been found so far. At medium pressure (0.6 Pa) the current density is lower by approx. a factor of 5, but preliminary results with Cesium injection show a relative increase by almost the same factor in this pressure range. Langmuir probe measurements indicate an electron temperature T e >2 eV close to the plasma grid with a moderate magnetic filter (700 Gcm). Attempts to improve the performance by using different magnetic configurations and different wall materials are under way

  16. Readout for a large area neutron sensitive microchannel plate detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yiming [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Yang, Yigang, E-mail: yangyigang@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Wang, Xuewu; Li, Yuanjing [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China)

    2015-06-01

    A neutron sensitive microchannel plate (MCP) detector was developed for neutron imaging on the beamline of a compact pulsed hadron source (CPHS). The detector was set up with a Wedge-and-Strip Anode (WSA) and a delay line anode readout to compare the spatial resolution and throughput with these two anodes. Tests show that the WSA readout is suitable for small area imaging with a spatial resolution of 200 μm with low energy X-rays in a 50 mm diameter MCP–WSA assembly. However, the spatial resolution deteriorated to ~2 mm in a 106 mm diameter MCP–WSA assembly because the noise caused by the parasitic capacitance is 10 times larger in the larger assembly than in the 50 mm diameter assembly. A 120 mm by 120 mm delay line anode was then used for the 106 mm MCP readout. The spatial resolution was evaluated for various voltages applied to the MCP V-stack, various readout voltages and various distances between the MCP V-stack rear face and the delay line. The delay line readout had resolutions of 65.6 μm in the x direction and 63.7 μm in the y direction and the throughput was greater than 600 kcps. The MCP was then used to acquire a neutron image of an USAF1951 Gd-mask.

  17. Confirmation of association of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor gene with systemic sclerosis in a large European population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossini-Castillo, L.; Simeon, C.P.; Beretta, L.; Vonk, M.C.; Callejas-Rubio, J.L.; Espinosa, G.; Carreira, P.; Camps, M.T.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, L.; Rodriguez-Carballeira, M.; Garcia-Hernandez, F.J.; Lopez-Longo, F.J.; Hernandez-Hernandez, V.; Saez-Comet, L.; Egurbide, M.V.; Hesselstrand, R.; Nordin, A.; Hoffmann-Vold, A.M.; Vanthuyne, M.; Smith, V.; Langhe, E. De; Kreuter, A.; Riemekasten, G.; Witte, T.J.M. de; Hunzelmann, N.; Voskuyl, A.E.; Schuerwegh, A.J.; Lunardi, C.; Airo, P.; Scorza, R.; Shiels, P.; Laar, J.M. van; Fonseca, C.; Denton, C.; Herrick, A.; Worthington, J.; Koeleman, B.P.; Rueda, B.; Radstake, T.R.D.J.; Martin, J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to confirm the implication of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) gene in SSc susceptibility or clinical phenotypes in a large European population. Methods. A total of 3800 SSc patients and 4282 healthy controls of white Caucasian ancestry from eight

  18. European legislation on radioactive waste management - opportunities and areas of uncertainty in case of shared competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisova, O.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to establish the regularities characterizing the European legislative framework for the radioactive waste management, the basic principles, legislative mechanism and relevant alternative methods of co-regulation and self-regulation, as well as characterization of areas of uncertainty in the radioactive waste management in case of shared competence and capabilities to improve the system involved in management of dangerous to health and the environment wastes from nuclear applications. Subject of study is the EU legislative framework on the management of radioactive waste, in particular the possibilities of existing mechanisms to achieve balance in the distribution of powers between the Community and national legislation regarding the responsibilities related to the radioactive waste management

  19. University tutorials in the setting of the European Higher Education Area: current profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina FERNÁNDEZ-SALINERO MIGUEL

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the new setting promoted by the European Higher Education Area, university guidance and tutorials have become more important than ever. We understand tutorials as part of the teaching responsibility in which a more personal interaction between professor and student, professor and novice teacher, or student and student is established, and whose goal is to guide learning according to the individual characteristics and learning styles of the individuals involved. Now is the time to set up guidance and tutorials systems for students –both during the training process and in their first professional steps– and for novice teachers also. Among such systems we can mention professor coaching, peer mentoring, professional tutoring in training centres or mentoring of an experienced university professor on the novice teacher.

  20. A large area Micromegas TPC for tracking at the ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wenxin

    2013-01-01

    The study of the fundamental building blocks of matter necessitates always more powerful accelerators. New particles are produced in high energy collisions of protons or electrons. The by-Products of these collisions are detected in large apparatus surrounding the interaction point. The 125 GeV Higgs particle discovered at LHC will be studied in detail in the next e + e - collider. The leading project for this is called ILC. The team that I joined is working on the R and D for a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) to detect the charged tracks by the ionization they leave in a gas volume, optimised for use at ILC. This primary ionization is amplified by the so-Called Micromegas device, with a charge-Sharing anode made of a resistive-Capacitive coating. After a presentation of the physics motivation for the ILC and ILD detector, I will review the principle of operation of a TPC (Chapter 2) and underline the advantages of the Micromegas readout with charge sharing. The main part of this PhD work concerns the detailed study of up to 12 prototypes of various kinds. The modules and their readout electronics are described in Chapter 3. A test-Bench setup has been assembled at CERN (Chapter 4) to study the response to a 55 Fe source, allowing an energy calibration and a uniformity study. In Chapter 5, the ion back-flow is studied using a bulk Micromegas and the gas gain is measured using a calibrated electronics chain. With the same setup, the electron transparency is measured as a function of the field ratio (drift/amplification). Also, several beam tests have been carried out at DESY with a 5 GeV electron beam in a 1 T superconducting magnet. These beam tests allowed the detailed study of the spatial resolution. In the final test, the endplate was equipped with seven modules, bringing sensitivity to misalignment and distortions. Such a study required software developments (Chapter 6) to make optimal use of the charge sharing and to reconstruct multiple tracks through several

  1. Conservation, spillover and gene flow within a network of Northern European marine protected areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Brockstedt Olsen Huserbråten

    Full Text Available To ensure that marine protected areas (MPAs benefit conservation and fisheries, the effectiveness of MPA designs has to be evaluated in field studies. Using an interdisciplinary approach, we empirically assessed the design of a network of northern MPAs where fishing for European lobster (Homarusgammarus is prohibited. First, we demonstrate a high level of residency and survival (50% for almost a year (363 days within MPAs, despite small MPA sizes (0.5-1 km(2. Second, we demonstrate limited export (4.7% of lobsters tagged within MPAs (N = 1810 to neighbouring fished areas, over a median distance of 1.6 km out to maximum 21 km away from MPA centres. In comparison, median movement distance of lobsters recaptured within MPAs was 164 m, and recapture rate was high (40%. Third, we demonstrate a high level of gene flow within the study region, with an estimated F ST of less than 0.0001 over a ≈ 400 km coastline. Thus, the restricted movement of older life stages, combined with a high level of gene flow suggests that connectivity is primarily driven by larval drift. Larval export from the MPAs can most likely affect areas far beyond their borders. Our findings are of high importance for the design of MPA networks for sedentary species with pelagic early life stages.

  2. Lessons learnt to keep Europe polio-free: a review of outbreaks in the European Union, European Economic Area, and candidate countries, 1973 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrough, Tarik; Salekeen, Alexandra

    2016-04-21

    Between 1973 and 2013, 12 outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis with a cumulative total of 660 cases were reported in the European Union, European Economic Area and candidate countries. Outbreaks lasted seven to 90 weeks (median: 24 weeks) and were identified through the diagnosis of cases of acute flaccid paralysis, for which infection with wild poliovirus was subsequently identified. In two countries, environmental surveillance was in place before the outbreaks, but did not detect any wild strain before the occurrence of clinical cases. This surveillance nonetheless provided useful information to monitor the outbreaks and their geographical spread. Outbreaks were predominantly caused by poliovirus type 1 and typically involved unvaccinated or inadequately vaccinated groups within highly immunised communities. Oral polio vaccine was primarily used to respond to the outbreaks with catch-up campaigns implemented either nationwide or in restricted geographical areas or age groups. The introduction of supplementary immunisation contained the outbreaks. In 2002, the European region of the World Health Organization was declared polio-free and it has maintained this status since. However, as long as there are non-vaccinated or under-vaccinated groups in European countries and poliomyelitis is not eradicated, countries remain continuously at risk of reintroduction and establishment of the virus. Continued efforts to reach these groups are needed in order to ensure a uniform and high vaccination coverage.

  3. European economic area in the system of the EU foreign policy: norwegian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohdan Y. Barna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available European Economic Area was one of the first examples of developing the relations between the EU and other partner countries on the continent that rejected a full membership in this organization. This form of cooperation for over twenty years provides stability, predictability and constructive development of relations with the three European partners, including Norway. Currently, the EEA is seen as a model of deeper integration without getting a full-fledged membership in the EU. It should also be noted that this arrangement has proven its resistance to external shocks as reduction of members of EFTA, EU enlargement and adoption of new EU treaties. Therefore, Brussels supports the existence of the EEA and never officially put on the agenda of the termination of the agreement or revision of its provisions. For their part, most Norwegian political parties also defend the status quo. However, there are voices on the need to modernize the EEA, especially after the adoption of the Lisbon Treaty. It is also necessary to point out that the Norwegian model of cooperation with the EU has lost its original exceptionality, especially after the entry into force of the Association Agreement with Ukraine. Oslo has also to compete with a number of other countries, NGOs and other lobby groups for attention from the EU. Relations between Norway and the EU are characterized by the asymmetry of obligations under the EEA, as Oslo is obliged to unilaterally implement acquis communautaire, while having no effective leverage over decision-making in the EU. Another challenge is the weakness of the EFTA pillars in the EEA, as it is necessary to interact with an organization, which has 28 European member-countries. There are other negative aspects that gradually reduce the role of Norway in relations with the EU. Given the current challenges, different scenarios have been prepared focusing on for the further development of relations between the EU and Norway. According to

  4. Is Traffic Still an Important Emitter of Monoaromatic Organic Compounds in European Urban Areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borbon, Agnès; Boynard, Anne; Salameh, Thérèse; Baudic, Alexia; Gros, Valérie; Gauduin, Julie; Perrussel, Olivier; Pallares, Cyril

    2018-01-16

    Trends of long-term observations and emission inventories suggest that traffic emissions will no longer dominate the concentrations of monoaromatic compounds (i.e., TEX - toluene, xylenes, and ethylbenzene) in European urban areas. But the split limit between traffic and other emission sector contributions such as solvent use remains tenuous. Here long-term observations of an extensive set of hydrocarbons, including TEX, at traffic and urban background sites in London, Paris and Strasbourg were combined to estimate the relative importance of traffic emissions on TEX in every city. When analyzing the urban enhancement emission ratios of TEX-to-benzene on a seasonal basis, two potential source signatures other than traffic could be differentiated in all cities (1) summertime evaporation from fuel and/or solvent and (2) wintertime domestic heating. However, traffic emissions still unambiguously dominate the concentration levels of TEX in every city despite the reduction of their emissions at exhaust pipe over the last two decades. Traffic explains between 60% and 96% (at ±20%) of TEX levels while it is less clear for xylenes at some locations. Our results provide a basis to evaluate regional emission inventories. The method is applicable at any urban area where speciated hydrocarbon monitoring is available.

  5. Requirements on information of the site of the European Union from member states within the area of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virgovic, R.; Grofova, R; Sochorova, O.

    2005-01-01

    In this presentation authors deal with requirements on information of the site of the European Union from member states within the area of the environment. As of May 1, 2004 with entrance into the European Union for the Slovak Republic results the responsibility feeding reports about the environment. Reports about the environment (State of the environment Report - Slovak Republic) deal with the following areas: (A) Horizontally measures; (B) Air protection; (C) Waste management; (D) Water protection; (E) Nature protection; (F) Inspection of industrial pollution and risk management; (G) Chemical agents and genetically modified organisms; (H) Noise from motor-cars and machines; (I) Nuclear safety; (J) Civil protection

  6. Prospecting direction and favourable target areas for exploration of large and super-large uranium deposits in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xingzhong

    1993-01-01

    A host of large uranium deposits have been successively discovered abroad by means of geological exploration, metallogenetic model studies and the application of new geophysical and geochemical methods since 1970's. Thorough undertaking geological research relevant to prospecting for super large uranium deposits have attracted great attention of the worldwide geological circle. The important task for the vast numbers of uranium geological workers is to make an afford to discover more numerous large and super large uranium deposits in China. The author comprehensively analyses the regional geological setting and geological metallogenetic conditions for the super large uranium deposits in the world. Comparative studies have been undertaken and the prospecting direction and favourable target areas for the exploration of super large uranium deposits in China have been proposed

  7. Development of a Methodology for Predicting Forest Area for Large-Area Resource Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. Cooke

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southcm Research Station, appointed a remote-sensing team to develop an image-processing methodology for mapping forest lands over large geographic areds. The team has presented a repeatable methodology, which is based on regression modeling of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Landsat Thematic...

  8. Implementation of Large-Scale Science Curricula: A Study in Seven European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, G. M.; Waddington, D. J.

    2005-01-01

    The Salters Chemistry courses, context-led curricula for 13-16 and 17-18 year old students, first developed by the Science Education Group at the University of York in the UK, have now been translated and/or adapted in seven other European countries. This paper describes and discusses the different reasons for taking up the courses, the ways in…

  9. Fusion and international collaboration: the european financial commitment and links with other large programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finzi, Umberto

    1980-01-01

    After describing the nature and objectives of the fusion research programme undertaken by the European Community, the author gives details of other extensive programmes now being implemented in the United States, Japan and the Soviet Union. He reviews the extent to which world cooperation is organised in this field [fr

  10. Soft Power and Hard Measures: Large-Scale Assessment, Citizenship and the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, David; Engel, Laura C.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS) with particular emphasis on the European Union's (EU's) involvement in the regional portion. Using the ICCS, the EU actively combines hard measures with soft power, allowing the EU to define and steer cross-national rankings of values of EU citizenship. The…

  11. Dietary fat, fat subtypes and hepatocellular carcinoma in a large European cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte-Salles, Talita; Fedirko, Veronika; Stepien, Magdalena; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Laursen, Anne Sofie Dam; Hansen, Louise; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; His, Mathilde; Boeing, Heiner; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elissavet; Kritikou, Maria; Masala, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Sieri, Sabina; Ricceri, Fulvio; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H. B.; Peeters, Petra H.; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Ardanaz, Eva; Bonet, Catalina; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirõs, J. Ramõn; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ohlsson, Bodil; Sjöberg, Klas; Wennberg, Maria; Khaw, Kay Tee; Travis, Ruth C.; Wareham, Nick; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Romieu, Isabelle; Cross, Amanda J.; Gunter, Marc; Lu, Yunxia; Jenab, Mazda

    2015-01-01

    The role of amount and type of dietary fat consumption in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poorly understood, despite suggestive biological plausibility. The associations of total fat, fat subtypes and fat sources with HCC incidence were investigated in the European Prospective

  12. Development of a photogrammetry technique for large-area deformation monitoring in coal mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redweik, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    The investigations of ground movements in coal mining areas during the past 10 years have been performed by methods of aerial photogrammetry. The ground points used for the determination of the movement in urban areas are manhole covers. The measurements must be repeated every three or four years. These facts have motivated the development of a new automatic method for measuring photo coordinates. This method is implemented on the Rollei RS1 (Reseau-Scanner Monocomparator. The approximate photo coordinates that are needed for this instrument can be computed from the old ground coordinates of each point. The manhole cover will be first recognised with a sort of template matching. Its central point will then be computed by using an ellipse operator. (orig.) [de

  13. European refining trends to 2030: The advent of multi-area linear programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Antonin, V.; Marion, P.

    2011-01-01

    The current high degree of uncertainty that pervades the global energy landscape is directly impacting on the oil industry, which is having to integrate growing mobility requirements in the context of energy transition due to the emergence of alternatives to petroleum fuels and restrictions on pollutant emissions. In this context, the study 'Raffinage 2030' (Refining 2030), carried out by IFPEN (the French Institute of Petroleum and New Energy Sources), is a prospective exercise for a better understanding of the balance between global supply and demand of petroleum products in order to shed light on the type and geographical location of necessary investments in refineries, as well as to assess the impact on these of the introduction of new fuels and more and more restrictions, such as environmental regulations. To this end, the refinery model used is one of linear programming, breaking the world down into nine geographical areas. This article introduces the programming model and its basic assumptions, before presenting the main lessons drawn om this study regarding the potential evolutions of the refining industry, in particular the European one, to face the market's long term trends. (authors)

  14. The European Higher Education Area: An interesting opportunity to contribute to global advancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agueda Benito

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Universidad Europea de Madrid, along with other universities and the support of the Agency for Quality Assurance, Accreditation and Prospects for the Community of Madrid (ACAP– Agencia de Calidad, Acreditación y Prospectiva de las Universidades de Madrid, developed a tool to measure progress in the construction of the European Higher Education Area. In addition to being able to determine the level of adoption of the Bologna principles, it became an essential tool for the improvement of quality throughout the University. ------- El Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior: Una interesante oportunidad de contribución al progreso global Resumen La Universidad Europea de Madrid, junto con algunas otras universidades y el apoyo de la Agencia de Calidad, Acreditación y Prospectiva de la Comunidad de Madrid (ACAP, desarrolló una herramienta de medición de los avances en materia de construcción del Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior, que más allá de permitir determinar el nivel de adopción de los principios de Bolonia constituyó una herramienta esencial en la mejora de la calidad de la Universidad. DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v2i3.77   PDF document contains both the original in Spanish and an English translation.

  15. A modelling approach to evaluating the effectiveness of Ecological Focus Areas: the case of the European brown hare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhammer, Maria; Grimm, Volker; Putz, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    and Man Simulation System (ALMaSS), an established simulation system that has been used to simulate a wide range of farmland species relevant to biodiversity. We analysed the benefits of seven greening scenarios for the European brown hare (Lepus europaeus), which has been in widespread decline throughout......With the current implementation of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) for 2014–2020, the European Commission wants to move towards “greener” farming practices in the European Union. Therefore, the EU funds both obligatory measures, such as Ecological Focus Areas (EFAs) through the Green Direct...... of each type was increased separately up to 5% of the area in three Danish landscapes, which are characterised by low hare densities. The effects on female and yearling abundance were observed over a period of 30 years. All greening scenarios had significant positive effects on hare populations...

  16. Energy key performance indicators : a european benchmark and assessment of meaningful indicators for the use of energy in large corporations

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrichs, Katja

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to identify and analyze energy key performance indicators among large European companies. Energy usage has become a very meaningful topic for both internal management as well as external stakeholders of a company. A review of current literature suggests that while environmental indicators in general have found broad attention and plenty of theories concerning good and meaningful indicators are published, no study investigating actually applied energy indicators ...

  17. Hybrid Ytterbium-doped large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber amplifier for long wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Alkeskjold, Thomas T.; Poli, Federica

    2012-01-01

    A large-mode-area Ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber amplifier with build-in gain shaping is presented. The fiber cladding consists of a hexagonal lattice of air holes, where three rows are replaced with circular high-index inclusions. Seven missing air holes define the large-mode-area core. ...

  18. Effects of uncertainty in model predictions of individual tree volume on large area volume estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts; James A. Westfall

    2014-01-01

    Forest inventory estimates of tree volume for large areas are typically calculated by adding model predictions of volumes for individual trees. However, the uncertainty in the model predictions is generally ignored with the result that the precision of the large area volume estimates is overestimated. The primary study objective was to estimate the effects of model...

  19. Where do people live longer and shorter lives? An ecological study of old-age survival across 4404 small areas from 18 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Ana Isabel; Krainski, Elias Teixeira; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Pina, Maria de Fátima de

    2016-06-01

    Further increases in life expectancy in high-income countries depend to a large extent on advances in old-age survival. We aimed to characterise the spatial distribution of old-age survival across small areas of Europe, and to identify areas with significantly high or low survivorship. This study incorporated 4404 small areas from 18 European countries. We used a 10-year survival rate to express the proportion of population aged 75-84 years who reached 85-94 years of age (beyond average life expectancy). This metric was calculated for each gender using decennial census data (1991, 2001 and 2011) at small geographical areas. To address problems associated with small areas, rates were smoothed using a Bayesian spatial model. Excursion sets were defined to identify areas with significantly high (>95th centile) and low (exist, suggesting that European social unity is still to be accomplished. These inequalities could arise from a myriad of population health determinants (eg, poverty, unhealthy lifestyles), which merit further study. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Changing governance of research and technology policy : The European research area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edler, Jakob; Kuhlmann, Stefan; Behrens, Maria

    2003-01-01

    This collection analyses and comments on the development of the ERA, which seeks to coordinate national research and advance European wide projects. The contributors include leading scholars of European integration and technology policy and high-level administrators. They discuss the potential

  1. On the current needs in European decision support tools for contaminated areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann

    2013-01-01

    As part of the ongoing European project NERIS-TP, a revision has been made of some parameters influencing dose estimates in the European emergency management decision support systems RODOS and ARGOS. On the basis of survey data, the estimates of the time fractions typically spent indoors and outd...

  2. A study of the 2013 Western European issue of aflatoxin contamination of maize from the Balkan area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijk, de T.C.; Egmond, van H.P.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Herbes, R.; Nijs, de W.C.M.; Samson, R.A.; Slate, A.B.; Spiegel, van der M.

    2015-01-01

    In March 2013 a large shipment of maize, intended for feed was subject of an alert in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed of the European Commission (EC) because the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) level in the load exceeded the EC regulated maximum level of 20 µg/kg. Since the shipment had passed import

  3. Habitat characteristics of nesting areas and of predated nests in a Mediterranean population of the European pond turtle, Emys orbicularis galloitalica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A.L. Zuffi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available one of the largest population of Emys orbicularis galloitalica of central Italy inhabits the canal system wet areas within a natural protected park. Features of nesting habitats, nest structure, and predation patterns of 209 nests of a large population of the European pond turtle are here presented and analysed. Nest sites were characterised by sunny bushy areas in strip habitat, digged along north-south oriented canals, on average with about 26% of the area covered by vegetation, less than one meter distant from 30 cm height bushes, at about 11 m from water and at about 13 m distance from wooded areas, 28 m away from a road. Principal Component and discriminant analyses were used on 20 selected variables in order to reduce the number of physical variables, and indicate that canal border, strip habitat, and canal orientation are grouping variables, that correctly classified 41.6%, 66.5%, and 100 % respectively of nest presence.

  4. Developing Generic Competences in the European Higher Education Area: A Proposal for Teaching the Principles of Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Manuel Salas; Sanchez Martinez, Maria Teresa; Ferrero, Noelina Rodriguez

    2012-01-01

    The participation of Spain in the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) involves a number of important challenges for academics. Adapting to an educational model that is characterised by competence-based teaching is a difficult task, yet it is of paramount importance in the context of current reforms. In an educational system in which the…

  5. Pathways to an East Asian Higher Education Area: A Comparative Analysis of East Asian and European Regionalization Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Roger Y., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The Author argues that historical regional developments in Europe and East Asia greatly influence the formation of an East Asian Higher Education Area. As such, this article compares European and East Asian regionalization and higher education regionalization processes to show this path dependency in East Asian regionalization of higher education…

  6. Variation of NO2 and NOx concentrations between and within 36 European study areas: Results from the ESCAPE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cyrys, J.; Eeftens, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315028300; Heinrich, J.; Ampe, C.; Armengaud, A.; Beelen, R.; Bellander, T.; Beregszaszi, T.; Birk, M.; Cesaroni, G.; Cirach, M.; de Hoogh, K.; de Nazelle, A.; de Vocht, F.; Declercq, C.; Dėdelė, A.; Dimakopoulou, K.; Eriksen, K.; Galassi, C.; Grąulevičienė, R.; Grivas, G.; Gruzieva, O.; Gustafsson, A.H.; Hoffmann, B.; Iakovides, M.; Ineichen, A.; Krämer, U.; Lanki, T.; Lozano, P.; Madsen, C.; Meliefste, K.; Modig, L.; Mölter, A.; Mosler, G.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Nonnemacher, M.; Oldenwening, M.; Peters, A.; Pontet, S.; Probst-Hensch, N.; Quass, U.; Raaschou-Nielsen, O.; Ranzi, A.; Sugiri, D.; Stephanou, E.G.; Taimisto, P.; Tsai, M-Y.; Vaskövi, É.; Villani, S.; Wang, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/345480279; Brunekreef, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Hoek, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069553475

    2012-01-01

    The ESCAPE study (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) investigates long-term effects of exposure to air pollution on human health in Europe. This paper documents the spatial variation of measured NO2 and NOx concentrations between and within 36 ESCAPE study areas across Europe. In

  7. Highly Flexible and High-Performance Complementary Inverters of Large-Area Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Monolayers

    KAUST Repository

    Pu, Jiang

    2016-03-23

    Complementary inverters constructed from large-area monolayers of WSe2 and MoS2 achieve excellent logic swings and yield an extremely high gain, large total noise margin, low power consumption, and good switching speed. Moreover, the WSe2 complementary-like inverters built on plastic substrates exhibit high mechanical stability. The results provide a path toward large-area flexible electronics. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Differences in adults' health and health behaviour between 16 European urban areas and the associations with socio-economic status and physical and social environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gelder, Rianne; Koster, Emmy M; van Buren, Laurens P; van Ameijden, Erik J C; Harrison, Annie; Birt, Christopher A; Verma, Arpana

    2017-05-01

    With a growing proportion of the European population living in urban areas (UAs), exploring health in urban areas becomes increasingly important. The objective of this study is to assess the magnitude of differences in health and health behaviour between adults living in urban areas (UAs) across Europe. We also explored whether and to what extent such differences can be explained by socio-economic status (SES) and physical or social environment. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional questionnaire survey, performed between as part of the European Urban Health Indicator System Part 2 (EURO-URHIS 2) project. Using multi-level logistic regression analysis, UA differences in psychological distress, self-assessed health, overweight and obesity, daily smoking, binge drinking and physical exercise were assessed. Median Odds Ratios (MORs) were calculated to estimate the extent to which the observed variance is attributable to UA, individual-level SES (measured by perceived financial strains, education level and employment status) and/or characteristics of physical and social environment. The dataset included 14 022 respondents in 16 UAs within 9 countries. After correction for age and gender, all MORs, except that for daily smoking, indicated statistically significant UA health differences. SES indicators (partly) explained UA differences in psychological distress, decreasing the MOR from 1.43 [95% credible interval (Cr.I.) 1.27-1.67, baseline model], to 1.25 (95% Cr.I. 1.14-1.40, SES model): a reduction of 42%. Accounting for the quality of green areas reduced the MOR for psychological distress by an additional 40%, to 1.15 (95% Cr.I. 1.05-1.28). Our study showed large differences in health and health behaviour between European UAs. Reducing socio-economic disadvantage and improving the quality of the neighbourhood's green spaces may reduce UA differences in psychological distress. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European

  9. The Feasibility of Small Hydro-Electric Generation in a Large Urban Area

    OpenAIRE

    Benson Y. Zhang; Adam Taylor

    2012-01-01

    The possibilities of generating electric power from relatively small hydro-electric sources in a large urban area is investigated. Two different aspects of hydro-electric sources have been studied: storm/waste water pipes in large multi-tenanted residential buildings and urban storm water discharge area (CSI area). The potential to generate from these sources has been investigated using a micro-turbine. The potential electric power which could be extracted from the sources was estimated using...

  10. Recent development of the Multi-Grid detector for large area neutron scattering instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerard, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Most of the Neutron Scattering facilities are committed in a continuous program of modernization of their instruments, requiring large area and high performance thermal neutron detectors. Beside scintillators detectors, 3 He detectors, like linear PSDs (Position Sensitive Detectors) and MWPCs (Multi-Wires Proportional Chambers), are the most current techniques nowadays. Time Of Flight instruments are using 3 He PSDs mounted side by side to cover tens of m 2 . As a result of the so-called ' 3 He shortage crisis , the volume of 3He which is needed to build one of these instruments is not accessible anymore. The development of alternative techniques requiring no 3He, has been given high priority to secure the future of neutron scattering instrumentation. This is particularly important in the context where the future ESS (European Spallation Source) will start its operation in 2019-2020. Improved scintillators represent one of the alternative techniques. Another one is the Multi-Grid introduced at the ILL in 2009. A Multi-Grid detector is composed of several independent modules of typically 0.8 m x 3 m sensitive area, mounted side by side in air or in a vacuum TOF chamber. One module is composed of segmented boron-lined proportional counters mounted in a gas vessel; the counters, of square section, are assembled with Aluminium grids electrically insulated and stacked together. This design provides two advantages: First, magnetron sputtering techniques can be used to coat B 4 C films on planar substrates, and second, the neutron position along the anode wires can be measured by reading out individually the grid signals with fast shaping amplifiers followed by comparators. Unlike charge division localisation in linear PSDs, the individual readout of the grids allows operating the Multi-Grid at a low amplification gain, hence this detector is tolerant to mechanical defects and its production accessible to laboratories equipped with standard equipment. Prototypes of

  11. Recent development of the Multi-Grid detector for large area neutron scattering instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerard, Bruno [ILL-ESS-LiU collaboration, CRISP project, Institut Laue Langevin - ILL, Grenoble (France)

    2015-07-01

    Most of the Neutron Scattering facilities are committed in a continuous program of modernization of their instruments, requiring large area and high performance thermal neutron detectors. Beside scintillators detectors, {sup 3}He detectors, like linear PSDs (Position Sensitive Detectors) and MWPCs (Multi-Wires Proportional Chambers), are the most current techniques nowadays. Time Of Flight instruments are using {sup 3}He PSDs mounted side by side to cover tens of m{sup 2}. As a result of the so-called '{sup 3}He shortage crisis{sup ,} the volume of 3He which is needed to build one of these instruments is not accessible anymore. The development of alternative techniques requiring no 3He, has been given high priority to secure the future of neutron scattering instrumentation. This is particularly important in the context where the future ESS (European Spallation Source) will start its operation in 2019-2020. Improved scintillators represent one of the alternative techniques. Another one is the Multi-Grid introduced at the ILL in 2009. A Multi-Grid detector is composed of several independent modules of typically 0.8 m x 3 m sensitive area, mounted side by side in air or in a vacuum TOF chamber. One module is composed of segmented boron-lined proportional counters mounted in a gas vessel; the counters, of square section, are assembled with Aluminium grids electrically insulated and stacked together. This design provides two advantages: First, magnetron sputtering techniques can be used to coat B{sub 4}C films on planar substrates, and second, the neutron position along the anode wires can be measured by reading out individually the grid signals with fast shaping amplifiers followed by comparators. Unlike charge division localisation in linear PSDs, the individual readout of the grids allows operating the Multi-Grid at a low amplification gain, hence this detector is tolerant to mechanical defects and its production accessible to laboratories equipped with standard

  12. Site survey for large wind turbines in the Rijnmond area. Plaatsingsmogelijkheden grote windturbines in het Rijnmondgebied

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkesteyn, L A; Van der Ham, P

    1985-01-01

    This paper reveals only preliminary results of a study on site selection for large wind turbines in a heavily industrialized and urbanized area of The Netherlands: the Rijnmond area. Factors like average wind speed, coupling to electric power grid, acquisition of land, noise pollution, safety aspects, avoiding harm to birds, and fitting in the existent physical structure of the area are evaluated.

  13. The European Union Solidarity Fund: An Important Tool in the Recovery After Large-Scale Natural Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria IONCICĂ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the situation of the European Union Solidarity Fund, as an important tool in the recovery after large-scale natural disasters. In the last millennium, the European Union countries have faced climate change, which lead to events with disastrous consequences. There are several ex-post financial ways to respond to the challenges posed by large-scale natural disasters, among which EU Solidarity Fund, government funds, budget reallocation, donor assistance, domestic and/or external credit. The EU Solidarity Fund was created in 2002 after the massive floods from the Central Europe as the expression of the solidarity of EU countries. Romania has received financial assistance from the EU Solidarity Fund after the occurrence of major natural disasters, regional and neighbouring country disasters. The assessment of large-scale natural disasters in EU is very important and in order to analyse if there is a concentration of large-scale natural disasters in EU we used the Gini coefficient. In the paper, the method of the statistical analysis and the correlation between several indicators were used to study the financial impacts of large-scale natural disasters in Europe, and especially in Romania.

  14. Variability of morphometric characteristics of the leaves of European white elm from the area of Great War Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devetaković Jovana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The European White Elm (Ulmus effusa Willd. is indicated as a rare and endangered species in the growing stock of the Republic of Serbia. In the area of Great War Island, its natural populations were reduced to 56 registered trees, which occur in three spatially isolated subpopulations. On the basis of the research conducted on the level of variability of adaptible morphometric characteristics of leaves from 14 selected test trees of European White Elm, it can be concluded that the degree of interpopulation variability is satisfactory, which is a good basis for the conservation of the available gene pool.

  15. FOREWORD: Workshop on Large Amplitude Waves and Fields in Plasmas, sponsored by the Commission of the European Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, R.; De Angelis, U.; Shukla, P. K.; Stenflo, L.

    1990-01-01

    cavities and their burn-out resulting in very strong turbulence. Remarkable agreement between the simulations and ionospheric modification experiments have been demonstrated. The articles presented also attempted to correlate the theories of parametric instabilities with experimental observations. The properties of plasma lenses used for focusing of high energy particle beams is also presented as part of the uses of the nonlinear plasmas. Self-organisation of plasmas resulting in coherent nonlinear structures and particle diffusion processes are reported. On the experimental side the nonlinear optics of plasmas as a new area of research has been reviewed. This is becoming an important area for research since it treats the plasma from the outset as a nonlinear medium. Experimental observations of phase conjugation of electromagnetic signals demonstrate once again the importance of the nonlinearities inherent in the interaction of large amplitude waves with plasmas. Finally the importance of turbulence in space plasmas is emphasized in a discussion of the auroral phenomenon, presenting the plasma physicists point of view on this topic. The workshop, attended by scientists from all over the world, stimulated a great deal of lively discussions about the theoretical foundations, experimental observations and interpretations together with computer simulation results on the physics of nonlinear plasma wave phenomena. The workshop was made possible by the kind support of Professors A Salam, L Bertocchi and M Hassan. We are grateful to them for giving us the opportunity to organize the workshop within the activities of the Spring College on Plasma Physics. Thanks are also due to the ICTP and the European Economic Community (EEC) for providing partial financial support. Finally, our most cordial thanks are extended to the invited speakers for coming to Trieste delivering excellent talks and enhancing the activity of the Spring College.

  16. Livestock-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among human MRSA isolates, European Union/European Economic Area countries, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinross, Pete; Petersen, Andreas; Skov, Robert; Van Hauwermeiren, Evelyn; Pantosti, Annalisa; Laurent, Frédéric; Voss, Andreas; Kluytmans, Jan; Struelens, Marc J; Heuer, Ole; Monnet, Dominique L

    2017-11-01

    Currently, surveillance of livestock-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) in humans in Europe is not systematic but mainly event-based. In September 2014, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) initiated a questionnaire to collect data on the number of LA-MRSA from human samples (one isolate per patient) from national/regional reference laboratories in European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries in 2013. Identification of LA-MRSA as clonal complex (CC) 398 by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was preferred, although surrogate methods such as spa -typing were also accepted. The questionnaire was returned by 28 laboratories in 27 EU/EEA countries. Overall, LA-MRSA represented 3.9% of 13,756 typed MRSA human isolates, but it represented ≥ 10% in five countries (Belgium, Denmark, Spain, the Netherlands and Slovenia). Seven of the reference laboratories did not type MRSA isolates in 2013. To monitor the dispersion of LA-MRSA and facilitate targeted control measures, we advocate periodic systematic surveys or integrated multi-sectorial surveillance.

  17. Millennial-scale faunal record reveals differential resilience of European large mammals to human impacts across the Holocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crees, Jennifer J; Carbone, Chris; Sommer, Robert S; Benecke, Norbert; Turvey, Samuel T

    2016-03-30

    The use of short-term indicators for understanding patterns and processes of biodiversity loss can mask longer-term faunal responses to human pressures. We use an extensive database of approximately 18,700 mammalian zooarchaeological records for the last 11,700 years across Europe to reconstruct spatio-temporal dynamics of Holocene range change for 15 large-bodied mammal species. European mammals experienced protracted, non-congruent range losses, with significant declines starting in some species approximately 3000 years ago and continuing to the present, and with the timing, duration and magnitude of declines varying individually between species. Some European mammals became globally extinct during the Holocene, whereas others experienced limited or no significant range change. These findings demonstrate the relatively early onset of prehistoric human impacts on postglacial biodiversity, and mirror species-specific patterns of mammalian extinction during the Late Pleistocene. Herbivores experienced significantly greater declines than carnivores, revealing an important historical extinction filter that informs our understanding of relative resilience and vulnerability to human pressures for different taxa. We highlight the importance of large-scale, long-term datasets for understanding complex protracted extinction processes, although the dynamic pattern of progressive faunal depletion of European mammal assemblages across the Holocene challenges easy identification of 'static' past baselines to inform current-day environmental management and restoration. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. Interannual variability of Central European mean temperature in January / February and its relation to the large-scale circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, P.C.; Storch, H. von

    1993-01-01

    The Central European temperature distribution field, as given by 11 stations (Fanoe, Hamburg, Potsdam, Jena, Frankfurt, Uccle, Hohenpeissenberg, Praha, Wien, Zuerich and Geneve), is analysed with respect to its year-to-year variability. January-February (JF) average temperatures are considered for the interval 1901-80. An Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis reveals that the JF temperature variability is almost entirely controlled by one EOF with uniform sign. The second EOF represents only 7% of the total variance and describes a north-south gradient. The time coefficient of the first EOF is almost stationary whereas the second pattern describes a slight downward trend at the northern stations and a slight upward trend at the southern stations. The relationship of the temperature field to the large-scale circulation, represented by the North Atlantic/European sea-level pressure (SLP) field, is investigated by means of a Canonical Correlation (CCA) Analysis. Two CCA pairs are identified which account for most of the temperature year-to-year variance and which suggest plausible mechanisms. The CCA pairs fail, however, to consistently link the long-term temperature trends to changes in the large-scale circulation. In the output of a 100-year run with a coupled atmosphere-ocean model (ECHAM1/LSG), the same CCA pairs are found but the strength of the link between Central European temperature and North Atlantic SLP is markedly weaker than in the observed data. (orig.)

  19. Which future for natural gas in the European-Mediterranean area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giesbert, J.Ch.

    1997-01-01

    In the Mediterranean sea surrounding countries, energy consumption and in particular natural gas, is growing up. However, this development requires the mobilization of important capitals and the creation of multilateral partnerships. These investments must be realized when southern and eastern Mediterranean countries will change for a market economy and when the energy market in the European Union is liberalizing. This paper describes the situation of the development of natural gas uses in the Maghreb countries (power production, development of cogeneration systems, supply of LPG fuels for domestic uses, development of distribution and transportation systems) and the position of European gas companies with respect to this developing market: investments, risks assessment, European Union warranty, liberalization of gas markets in the Maghreb countries and in the European union. (J.S.)

  20. European origin of patients with Paget's disease of bone in the Buenos Aires area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Acotto, C.; Mautalen, C.A.

    2001-01-01

    Paget's bone disease is heterogeneously distributed and several foci of high prevalence have been reported in Europe, United States, Argentina and Australia. The aim of the present work was to determine the ethnic origin of the disease in Buenos Aires using a cross sectional epidemiological study. Sample choice was based on a sampling according to grandparents' nationality. Ninety five percent of Paget patients were of European descent and 5% were non-European, while in the control group the proportion of European descendants is lower: 83% (OR: 3.7; p < 0.007; IC 95%: 1.4-9.7). Within the group of patients with Paget's disease the proportion of Italian and Russian descendants was higher than expected according to the 1914 Argentinean census. The prevalence of Paget's disease among European migrants was higher than in the control group of citizens. Regardless of environmental factors, it is likely that the migrants carried a higher risk of developing the disease

  1. Euratom research and training in nuclear reactor safety: Towards European research and the higher education area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethem, G. van

    2004-01-01

    In this invited lecture, research and training in nuclear fission are looked at from a European perspective with emphasis on the three success factors of any European policy, namely: common needs, vision and instruments, that ought to be strongly shared amongst the stakeholders across the Member States concerned. As a result, the following questions are addressed: What is driving the current EU trend towards more research, more education and more training, in general? Regarding nuclear fission, in particular, who are the end-users of Euratom 'research and training' and what are their expectations from EU programmes? Do all stakeholders share the same vision about European research and training in nuclear fission? What are the instruments proposed by the European Commission (EC) to conduct joint research programmes of common interest for the nuclear fission community? In conclusion, amongst the stakeholders in Europe, there seems to be a wide consensus about common needs and instruments, but not about a common vision regarding nuclear. (author)

  2. Large area substrate for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) using glass-drawing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Ilia N; Simpson, John T

    2012-06-26

    A method of making a large area substrate comprises drawing a plurality of tubes to form a plurality of drawn tubes, and cutting the plurality of drawn tubes into cut drawn tubes. Each cut drawn tube has a first end and a second end along the longitudinal direction of the respective cut drawn tube. The cut drawn tubes collectively have a predetermined periodicity. The method of making a large area substrate also comprises forming a metal layer on the first ends of the cut drawn tubes to provide a large area substrate.

  3. Women in EPOS: the role of women in a large pan-European Research Infrastructure for Solid Earth sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calignano, Elisa; Freda, Carmela; Baracchi, Laura

    2017-04-01

    Women are outnumbered by men in geosciences senior research positions, but what is the situation if we consider large pan-European Research Infrastructures? With this contribution we want to show an analysis of the role of women in the implementation of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS): a planned research infrastructure for European Solid Earth sciences, integrating national and transnational research infrastructures to enable innovative multidisciplinary research. EPOS involves 256 national research infrastructures, 47 partners (universities and research institutes) from 25 European countries and 4 international organizations. The EPOS integrated platform demands significant coordination between diverse solid Earth disciplinary communities, national research infrastructures and the policies and initiatives they drive, geoscientists and information technologists. The EPOS architecture takes into account governance, legal, financial and technical issues and is designed so that the enterprise works as a single, but distributed, sustainable research infrastructure. A solid management structure is vital for the successful implementation and sustainability of EPOS. The internal organization relies on community-specific Working Packages (WPs), Transversal WPs in charge of the overall EPOS integration and implementation, several governing, executive and advisory bodies, a Project Management Office (PMO) and the Project Coordinator. Driven by the timely debate on gender balance and commitment of the European Commission to promote gender equality in research and innovation, we decided to conduct a mapping exercise on a project that crosses European national borders and that brings together diverse geoscience disciplines under one management structure. We present an analysis of women representation in decision-making positions in each EPOS Working Package (WP Leader, proxy, legal, financial and IT contact persons), in the Boards and Councils and in the PMO

  4. The part-time wage penalty in European countries: how large is it for men?

    OpenAIRE

    O'Dorchai, Sile Padraigin; Plasman, Robert; Rycx, François

    2007-01-01

    Economic theory advances a number of reasons for the existence of a wage gap between part-time and full-time workers. Empirical work has concentrated on the wage effects of part-time work for women. For men, much less empirical evidence exists, mainly because of lacking data. In this paper, we take advantage of access to unique harmonised matched employer-employee data (i.e. the 1995 European Structure of Earnings Survey) to investigate the magnitude and sources of the part-time wage penalty ...

  5. Production of the Large-area Plastic Scintillator for Beta-ray Detection using Epoxy Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Jong Soo; Choi, Yong Seok; Hong, Sang Bum; Seo, Bum Kyung; Moon, Jei Kwon; Choi, Jong Won

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we prepared a plastic scintillator whose manufacturing process is simple and can be freely shaped. A thin plate of the plastic scintillator was manufactured using epoxy resin as a polymer. The plastic scintillator was made by mixing epoxy resin and organic scintillators under various conditions. The optimal mixture ratio to prepare the plastic scintillator was derived from the above results. Using the derived results, we made the large-area plastic scintillator which can quickly measure the contamination site and evaluated characteristics of the large-area plastic scintillator in the laboratory. A thin plate of a plastic scintillator with a simple preparation process can be freely shaped using epoxy resin and organic scintillators such as PPO and POPOP. PPO emits scintillation of light in the ultraviolet range, and POPOP is a wave shifter for moving the wavelength responsible for the PMT. The mixture ratio of PPO and POPOP was determined using their emission spectra. The optimal weight percentage of PPO and POPOP in an organic scintillator was determined to be 0.2 wt%:0.01 wt%. Based on the above results, the large-area plastic scintillator of the window size of a typical pancake-type αβ surface contamination counter was prepared. We want to evaluate the characteristics of the large-area plastic scintillator. However, there were the difficulties in evaluating characteristics of the large-area plastic scintillator. The cross-sectional area of the large-area plastic scintillator is significantly different to PMT

  6. Production of the Large-area Plastic Scintillator for Beta-ray Detection using Epoxy Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Jong Soo; Choi, Yong Seok; Hong, Sang Bum; Seo, Bum Kyung; Moon, Jei Kwon; Choi, Jong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this study, we prepared a plastic scintillator whose manufacturing process is simple and can be freely shaped. A thin plate of the plastic scintillator was manufactured using epoxy resin as a polymer. The plastic scintillator was made by mixing epoxy resin and organic scintillators under various conditions. The optimal mixture ratio to prepare the plastic scintillator was derived from the above results. Using the derived results, we made the large-area plastic scintillator which can quickly measure the contamination site and evaluated characteristics of the large-area plastic scintillator in the laboratory. A thin plate of a plastic scintillator with a simple preparation process can be freely shaped using epoxy resin and organic scintillators such as PPO and POPOP. PPO emits scintillation of light in the ultraviolet range, and POPOP is a wave shifter for moving the wavelength responsible for the PMT. The mixture ratio of PPO and POPOP was determined using their emission spectra. The optimal weight percentage of PPO and POPOP in an organic scintillator was determined to be 0.2 wt%:0.01 wt%. Based on the above results, the large-area plastic scintillator of the window size of a typical pancake-type αβ surface contamination counter was prepared. We want to evaluate the characteristics of the large-area plastic scintillator. However, there were the difficulties in evaluating characteristics of the large-area plastic scintillator. The cross-sectional area of the large-area plastic scintillator is significantly different to PMT.

  7. Highlight report: Launch of a large integrated European in vitro toxicology project: EU-ToxRisk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshian, Mardas; Kamp, Hennicke; Hengstler, Jan; Leist, Marcel; van de Water, Bob

    2016-05-01

    The integrated European project, EU-ToxRisk, proudly sees itself as "flagship" exploring new alternative-to-animal approaches to chemical safety evaluation. It promotes mechanism-based toxicity testing and risk assessment according to the principles laid down for toxicology for the twenty-first century. The project was officially launched in January 2016 with a kickoff meeting in Egmond aan Zee, the Netherlands. Over 100 scientists representing academia and industry as well as regulatory authorities attended the inaugural meeting. The project will integrate advances in in vitro and in silico toxicology, read-across methods, and adverse outcome pathways. EU-ToxRisk will continue to make use of the case study strategy deployed in SEURAT-1, a FP7 initiative ended in December 2015. Even though the development of new non-animal methods is one target of EU-ToxRisk, the project puts special emphasis on their acceptance and implementation in regulatory contexts. This €30 million Horizon 2020 project involves 38 European partners and one from the USA. EU-ToxRisk aims at the "development of a new way of risk assessment."

  8. EnviroAtlas - Percent Large, Medium, and Small Natural Areas for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset contains the percentage of small, medium, and large natural areas for each Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD) 12-Digit Hydrologic Unit Code...

  9. Large Area Diamond Tribological Surfaces with Negligible Wear in Extreme Environments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase I we propose to demonstrate the processing of very large area diamond sliding bearings and tribological surfaces. The bearings and surfaces will experience...

  10. 3D-Printed Disposable Wireless Sensors with Integrated Microelectronics for Large Area Environmental Monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad; Karimi, Muhammad Akram; Salama, Khaled N.; Shamim, Atif

    2017-01-01

    disposable, compact, dispersible 3D-printed wireless sensor nodes with integrated microelectronics which can be dispersed in the environment and work in conjunction with few fixed nodes for large area monitoring applications. As a proof of concept

  11. Characterisation of large area THGEMs and experimental measurement of the Townsend coefficients for CF4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, J.; Crane, T.; Ezeribe, A. C.; Grove, C. L.; Lynch, W.; Scarff, A.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Steer, C.

    2017-10-01

    Whilst the performance of small THGEMs is well known, here we consider the challenges in scaling these up to large area charge readouts. We first verify the expected gain of larger THGEMs by reporting experimental Townsend coefficients for a 10 cm diameter THGEM in low-pressure CF4. Large area 50 cm by 50 cm THGEMs were sourced from a commercial PCB supplier and geometrical imperfections were observed which we quantified using an optical camera setup. The large area THGEMs were experimentally characterised at Boulby Underground Laboratory through a series of gain calibrations and alpha spectrum measurements. ANSYS, Magboltz and Garfield++ simulations of the design of a TPC based on the large area THGEMs are presented. We also consider their implications for directional dark matter research and potential applications within nuclear security.

  12. Low-Power Large-Area Radiation Detector for Space Science Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this task is to develop a low-power, large-area detectors from SiC, taking advantage of very low thermal noise characteristics and high radiation...

  13. Pure crystal orientation and anisotropic charge transport in large-area hybrid perovskite films

    KAUST Repository

    Cho, Nam Chul; Li, Feng; Turedi, Bekir; Sinatra, Lutfan; Sarmah, Smritakshi P.; Parida, Manas R.; Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Banavoth, Murali; Burlakov, Victor M.; Goriely, Alain; Mohammed, Omar F.; Wu, Tao; Bakr, Osman

    2016-01-01

    Controlling crystal orientations and macroscopic morphology is vital to develop the electronic properties of hybrid perovskites. Here we show that a large-area, orientationally pure crystalline (OPC) methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) hybrid

  14. Solution coating of large-area organic semiconductor thin films with aligned single-crystalline domains

    KAUST Repository

    Diao, Ying; Tee, Benjamin C-K.; Giri, Gaurav; Xu, Jie; Kim, Do Hwan; Becerril, Hector A.; Stoltenberg, Randall M.; Lee, Tae Hoon; Xue, Gi; Mannsfeld, Stefan C. B.; Bao, Zhenan

    2013-01-01

    Solution coating of organic semiconductors offers great potential for achieving low-cost manufacturing of large-area and flexible electronics. However, the rapid coating speed needed for industrial-scale production poses challenges to the control

  15. 55-68 Impact of Area Enclosures on Density and Diversity of Large ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Land Resources Management and Environmental Protection, Mekelle University, ... The enclosures have higher density and diversity of large wild mammals ..... in it. Figure 4 Human interference in enclosures of the study area ...

  16. Frequency conversion through spontaneous degenerate four wave mixing in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin

    2014-01-01

    Frequency conversion through spontaneous degenerate four wave mixing (FWM) is investigated in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers. Different FWM processes are observed, phasematching between fiber modes of orthogonal polarization, intermodal phasematching across bandgaps, and intramodal...

  17. General circulation and climate changes in the Mid-European area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, S.; Hupfer, P.

    1992-01-01

    The long-term changes in the frequency distribution of weather patterns ('Grosswetterlage') are closely related to recent climate variations in the investigation area. However, this simple recording of weather pattern frequency changes is not enough for the complete explanation of the climatic changes which took place in our century in central Europe. One of the causes is the large variability of the weather for identical flow directions. In the case of weather situations which are linked to a low cloudiness degree, especially the temperature is strongly dependent on the duration of the 'Grosswetterlage'. Also when viewed from a long-term view, the climatic characteristics of the GWL air masses are by no means constant. If one considers the course of climate elements under identical circulation conditions, it is found that the average weather sometimes varied considerably in the course of the century although the general flow direction was the same. (orig./KW) [de

  18. Intermodal parametric gain of degenerate four wave mixing in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard

    2013-01-01

    Intermodal degenerate four wave mixing (FWM) is investigated numerically in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers. The dispersion is controlled independently of core size, and thus allows for power scaling of the FWM process.......Intermodal degenerate four wave mixing (FWM) is investigated numerically in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers. The dispersion is controlled independently of core size, and thus allows for power scaling of the FWM process....

  19. European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.

    1995-01-01

    Different instruments used by European Commission of the European Union for financial support radioactive waste management activities in the Russian Federation are outlined. Three particular programmes in the area are described

  20. Toward Integral Higher Education Study Programs in the European Higher Education Area: A Programmatic and Strategic View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Molz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay somehow arbitrarily freezes my ongoing attempt to grasp the present situation and future possibilities of higher education courses, programs, institutions and initiatives that are inspired by integral and likeminded approaches. The focus in this essay is on the European Higher Education Area and its specifics, whereas some implicit or explicit comparisons with the USA are made. My reflections are triggered by the recurrent observation that in Europe there seems to be i more demand than offer of integrally oriented higher education programs, ii an imbalance between overused but little successful and underused but potentially more promising strategies to implement such programs, iii little or no learning from past failures, and iv little mutual awareness, communication and collaboration between different activists and initiatives in this field. The context for this essay is i the current societal macroshift, ii the unfolding of academic level integral and likeminded research worldwide, and iii the large scale reform of the European Higher Education systems brought about by the Bologna process, its (false promises and the potential it nevertheless has for realizing examples of a more integral higher education. On this basis the consequences for attempts to overcome a relatively stagnant state of affairs in Europe are discussed. Given that; most past attempts to implement programs inspired by an integral worldview have failed from the start, or disappeared after a relatively short period, or are marginalised or becoming remainstreamed, this essay aims to devise a potentially more promising strategic corridor and describes the contours of the results that could be brought about when following a developmental trajectory within this corridor. This futurising exercise is inspired by principles shared by many integral and likeminded approaches, especially the reconsideration, integration and transcendence of premodern, modern and postmodern

  1. Toward Integral Higher Education Study Programs in the European Higher Education Area: A Programmatic and Strategic View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Molz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay somehow arbitrarily freezes my ongoing attempt to grasp thepresent situation and future possibilities of higher education courses, programs,institutions and initiatives that are inspired by integral and likeminded approaches. Thefocus in this essay is on the European Higher Education Area and its specifics, whereassome implicit or explicit comparisons with the USA are made. My reflections aretriggered by the recurrent observation that in Europe there seems to be i more demandthan offer of integrally oriented higher education programs, ii an imbalance betweenoverused but little successful and underused but potentially more promising strategies toimplement such programs, iii little or no learning from past failures, and iv little mutualawareness, communication and collaboration between different activists and initiatives inthis field.The context for this essay is i the current societal macroshift, ii the unfolding ofacademic level integral and likeminded research worldwide, and iii the large scalereform of the European Higher Education systems brought about by the Bologna process,its (false promises and the potential it nevertheless has for realizing examples of a moreintegral higher education. On this basis the consequences for attempts to overcome arelatively stagnant state of affairs in Europe are discussed. Given that; most past attemptsto implement programs inspired by an integral worldview have failed from the start, ordisappeared after a relatively short period, or are marginalised or becoming remainstreamed,this essay aims to devise a potentially more promising strategic corridorand describes the contours of the results that could be brought about when following adevelopmental trajectory within this corridor. This futurising exercise is inspired byprinciples shared by many integral and likeminded approaches, especially thereconsideration, integration and transcendence of premodern, modern and postmodernstructures and practices

  2. Biomass exploitation for revitalizing rural areas: experiences and lessons drawn from three South European countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, J.C.; Herrero, J. [Wood and Forest Service Center of Castilla y Leon (CESEFOR) Pol. Ind. Las Casas, Soria (Spain); Crema, L.; Bozzoli, A. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FKB), Trento (Italy); Karampinis, E.; Grammelis, P.; Margaritis, N. [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas/Inst. for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications (CERTH/ISFTA), Athens (Greece)

    2012-11-01

    Castilla y Leon (Spain), Trento (Italy) and Western Macedonia (Greece) are regions with a very high potential for forest and agricultural biomass production, but their biomass supply chains are not firmly established yet. In Castilla y Leon, a municipality from a forest area takes advantage of its large autochthonous stock of wood to arrange a complete chain of business, beginning with wood cutting and extraction, processing of raw biomass in local logistic centers to produce quality and traceable wood chips and pellets, distribution of the solid biofuels to consumers in a determined area and own use to generate energy and heat. In Trento, we analyse the exploitation of locally certified wood and residues pellets for public micro-cogeneration in a town, reaching a virtual closed cycle of use and recycling of resources. In a municipality from Western Macedonia, biomass residues from animal waste are being used to produce biogas to generate electric power to be sold and heat to dry wood biomass in a local pellet factory, revitalizing a land very conditioned by mining industry. These strategies maximize the number of jobs created and make optimum use of the local resources, providing them with high added value.

  3. Combined impact of healthy lifestyle factors on colorectal cancer: a large European cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Pischon, Tobias; Jenab, Mazda; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Fedirko, Veronika; Norat, Teresa; Romaguera, Dora; Knüppel, Sven; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Dossus, Laure; Dartois, Laureen; Kaaks, Rudolf; Li, Kuanrong; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Quirós, José Ramón; Buckland, Genevieve; Sánchez, María José; Dorronsoro, Miren; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Panico, Salvatore; Siersema, Peter D; Peeters, Petra H M; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ericson, Ulrika; Ohlsson, Bodil; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Borch, Kristin Benjaminsen; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Kong, Joyce; Gunter, Marc J; Ward, Heather A; Riboli, Elio; Boeing, Heiner

    2014-10-10

    Excess body weight, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and certain dietary factors are individually related to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk; however, little is known about their joint effects. The aim of this study was to develop a healthy lifestyle index (HLI) composed of five potentially modifiable lifestyle factors--healthy weight, physical activity, non-smoking, limited alcohol consumption and a healthy diet, and to explore the association of this index with CRC incidence using data collected within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. In the EPIC cohort, a total of 347,237 men and women, 25- to 70-years old, provided dietary and lifestyle information at study baseline (1992 to 2000). Over a median follow-up time of 12 years, 3,759 incident CRC cases were identified. The association between a HLI and CRC risk was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards regression models and population attributable risks (PARs) have been calculated. After accounting for study centre, age, sex and education, compared with 0 or 1 healthy lifestyle factors, the hazard ratio (HR) for CRC was 0.87 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.44 to 0.77) for two factors, 0.79 (95% CI: 0.70 to 0.89) for three factors, 0.66 (95% CI: 0.58 to 0.75) for four factors and 0.63 (95% CI: 0.54 to 0.74) for five factors; P-trendhealthy lifestyle behaviours included in the index. Combined lifestyle factors are associated with a lower incidence of CRC in European populations characterized by western lifestyles. Prevention strategies considering complex targeting of multiple lifestyle factors may provide practical means for improved CRC prevention.

  4. Fatty liver is associated with insulin resistance, risk of coronary heart disease, and early atherosclerosis in a large European population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gastaldelli, Amalia; Kozakova, Michaela; Højlund, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Patients with fatty liver (FL) disease have a high risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The aim was to evaluate the association between FL, insulin resistance (IR), coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, and early atherosclerosis in a large European population (RISC Study). In 1...... cholesterol (r = 0.33), alanine aminotransferase (r = 0.48), aspartate aminotransferase (r = 0.25), systolic blood pressure (r = 0.39) and IMT (r = 0.30), and reduced insulin sensitivity (r = -0.43), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = -0.50), adiponectin (r = -0.42), and physical activity (r = -0...

  5. Spatial inter-comparison of Top-down emission inventories in European urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetti, Marco; Thunis, Philippe; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Clappier, Alain; Couvidat, Florian; Guevara, Marc; Kuenen, Jeroen; López-Aparicio, Susana

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents an inter-comparison of the main Top-down emission inventories currently used for air quality modelling studies at the European level. The comparison is developed for eleven European cities and compares the distribution of emissions of NOx, SO2, VOC and PPM2.5 from the road transport, residential combustion and industry sectors. The analysis shows that substantial differences in terms of total emissions, sectorial emission shares and spatial distribution exist between the datasets. The possible reasons in terms of downscaling approaches and choice of spatial proxies are analysed and recommendations are provided for each inventory in order to work towards the harmonisation of spatial downscaling and proxy calibration, in particular for policy purposes. The proposed methodology may be useful for the development of consistent and harmonised European-wide inventories with the aim of reducing the uncertainties in air quality modelling activities.

  6. Recent advances in the source term area within the SARNET European severe accident research network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, L.E.; Haste, T.; Kärkelä, T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Main achievements of source term research in SARNET are given. • Emphasis on the radiologically important iodine and ruthenium fission products. • Conclusions on FP release, transport in the RCS and containment behaviour. • Significance of large-scale integral experiments to validate the analyses used. • A thorough list of the most recent references on source term research results. - Abstract: Source Term has been one of the main research areas addressed within the SARNET network during the 7th EC Framework Programme of EURATOM. The entire source term domain was split into three major areas: oxidising impact on source term, iodine chemistry in the reactor coolant system and containment and data and code assessment. The present paper synthesises the main technical outcome stemming from the SARNET FWP7 project in the area of source term and includes an extensive list of references in which deeper insights on specific issues may be found. Besides, based on the analysis of the current state of the art, an outlook of future source term research is outlined, where major changes in research environment are discussed (i.e., the end of the Phébus FP project; the end of the SARNET projects; and the launch of HORIZON 2020). Most probably research projects will be streamlined towards: release and transport under oxidising conditions, containment chemistry, existing and innovative filtered venting systems and others. These will be in addition to a number of projects that have been completed or are ongoing under different national and international frameworks, like VERDON, CHIP and EPICUR started under the International Source Term Programme (ISTP), the OECD/CSNI programmes BIP, BIP2, STEM, THAI and THAI2, and the French national programme MIRE. The experimental PASSAM project under the 7th EC Framework programme, focused on source term mitigation systems, is highlighted as a good example of a project addressing potential enhancement of safety systems

  7. Recent advances in the source term area within the SARNET European severe accident research network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, L.E., E-mail: luisen.herranz@ciemat.es [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medio Ambientales y Tecnologica, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 40, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Haste, T. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, IRSN, BP 3, F-13115 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Kärkelä, T. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT Espoo (Finland)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Main achievements of source term research in SARNET are given. • Emphasis on the radiologically important iodine and ruthenium fission products. • Conclusions on FP release, transport in the RCS and containment behaviour. • Significance of large-scale integral experiments to validate the analyses used. • A thorough list of the most recent references on source term research results. - Abstract: Source Term has been one of the main research areas addressed within the SARNET network during the 7th EC Framework Programme of EURATOM. The entire source term domain was split into three major areas: oxidising impact on source term, iodine chemistry in the reactor coolant system and containment and data and code assessment. The present paper synthesises the main technical outcome stemming from the SARNET FWP7 project in the area of source term and includes an extensive list of references in which deeper insights on specific issues may be found. Besides, based on the analysis of the current state of the art, an outlook of future source term research is outlined, where major changes in research environment are discussed (i.e., the end of the Phébus FP project; the end of the SARNET projects; and the launch of HORIZON 2020). Most probably research projects will be streamlined towards: release and transport under oxidising conditions, containment chemistry, existing and innovative filtered venting systems and others. These will be in addition to a number of projects that have been completed or are ongoing under different national and international frameworks, like VERDON, CHIP and EPICUR started under the International Source Term Programme (ISTP), the OECD/CSNI programmes BIP, BIP2, STEM, THAI and THAI2, and the French national programme MIRE. The experimental PASSAM project under the 7th EC Framework programme, focused on source term mitigation systems, is highlighted as a good example of a project addressing potential enhancement of safety systems

  8. Detecting Change in Landscape Greenness over Large Areas: An Example for New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monitoring and quantifying changes in vegetation cover over large areas using remote sensing can potentially detect large-scale, slow changes (e.g., climate change), as well as more local and rapid changes (e.g., fire, land development). A useful indicator for detecting change i...

  9. Period doubling and chaos in large area Josephson junctions induced by rf signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O. H.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1985-01-01

    The influence of an applied rf signal on the emitted radiation from a large area Josephson junction is examined. A model of the system is presented in the framework of the one-dimensional sine-Gordon equation. The model linearizes for small and large values of the amplitude of the applied signal...

  10. Highly Flexible and High-Performance Complementary Inverters of Large-Area Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Monolayers

    KAUST Repository

    Pu, Jiang; Funahashi, Kazuma; Chen, Chang-Hsiao; Li, Ming-yang; Li, Lain-Jong; Takenobu, Taishi

    2016-01-01

    Complementary inverters constructed from large-area monolayers of WSe2 and MoS2 achieve excellent logic swings and yield an extremely high gain, large total noise margin, low power consumption, and good switching speed. Moreover, the WSe2

  11. Do you think that your health or safety are at risk because of your work? A large European study on psychological and physical work demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andries, F.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Smulders, P.G.W.

    1996-01-01

    A secondary analysis was performed on a large scale cross-sectional survey (n = 12,500) by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. The analysis investigates (1) 'strain', i.e. whether or not employees in 12 European Union (EU) member states considered their

  12. Cinema in social Education studies as driving force for the construction of the keywords European higher Education area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen PEREIRA DOMÍNGUEZ

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces us to an inner and outer journey toward that old world, europe. It regards to the importance of discovering this world through its landscape, its culture, its people and its values. In this sense, the film can be a vehicle to that encounter. Therefore, we use a repertory of cinema, performed in Europe and about Europe, which will help analyze, understand, think, discuss and assess on the construction and integrity of this context. besides, we embrace the film Ça commence aujourd’hui, a clear example that enriches the human being’s inner and promotes the European integration. we think that educational theories as these mentioned above are needed in the areas of Social education, are now essential for the European Higher education Area and for helping this society needed of communication and intercultural coexistence.

  13. Sex ratio and time to pregnancy: analysis of four large European population surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joffe, Mike; Bennett, James; Best, Nicky

    2007-01-01

    To test whether the secondary sex ratio (proportion of male births) is associated with time to pregnancy, a marker of fertility. Design Analysis of four large population surveys. Setting Denmark and the United Kingdom. Participants 49 506 pregnancies.......To test whether the secondary sex ratio (proportion of male births) is associated with time to pregnancy, a marker of fertility. Design Analysis of four large population surveys. Setting Denmark and the United Kingdom. Participants 49 506 pregnancies....

  14. On the current needs in European decision support tools for contaminated areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann

    One of the strategic objectives of the European NERIS platform on preparedness for nuclear and radiological emergency response and recovery, which was launched in 2010, is to promote exchange of information and views, and to identify needs for further technological developments in the field...

  15. The European Higher Education Area: An Interesting Opportunity to Contribute to Global Advancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capa, Agueda Benito

    2012-01-01

    Universidad Europea de Madrid, along with other universities and the support of the Agency for Quality Assurance, Accreditation and Prospects for the Community of Madrid (ACAP--Agencia de Calidad, Acreditación y Prospectiva de las Universidades de Madrid), developed a tool to measure progress in the construction of the European Higher Education…

  16. Impact of hepatitis B vaccination on acute hepatitis B epidemiology in European Union/European Economic Area countries, 2006 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglietta, Alessandro; Quinten, Chantal; Lopalco, Pier Luigi; Duffell, Erika

    2018-01-01

    Hepatitis B prevention in European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries relies on vaccination programmes. We describe the epidemiology of acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) at country and EU/EEA level during 2006–2014. Using a multi-level mixed-effects Poisson regression model we assessed differences in the acute HBV infection notification rates between groups of countries that started universal HBV vaccination before/in vs after 1995; implemented or not a catch-up strategy; reached a vaccine coverage ≥ 95% vs  0.05) were found in the acute HBV infection notification rates between groups of countries, while as vaccine coverage increased, such rates decreased (p < 0.01). Countries with universal HBV vaccination before 1995, a catch-up strategy, and a vaccine coverage ≥ 95% had significant decreasing trends (p < 0.01). Ending HBV transmission in Europe by 2030 will require high vaccine coverage delivered through universal programmes, supported, where appropriate, by catch-up vaccination campaigns. PMID:29439751

  17. COMPARISON OF MULTI-SCALE DIGITAL ELEVATION MODELS FOR DEFINING WATERWAYS AND CATCHMENTS OVER LARGE AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Harris

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Digital Elevation Models (DEMs allow for the efficient and consistent creation of waterways and catchment boundaries over large areas. Studies of waterway delineation from DEMs are usually undertaken over small or single catchment areas due to the nature of the problems being investigated. Improvements in Geographic Information Systems (GIS techniques, software, hardware and data allow for analysis of larger data sets and also facilitate a consistent tool for the creation and analysis of waterways over extensive areas. However, rarely are they developed over large regional areas because of the lack of available raw data sets and the amount of work required to create the underlying DEMs. This paper examines definition of waterways and catchments over an area of approximately 25,000 km2 to establish the optimal DEM scale required for waterway delineation over large regional projects. The comparative study analysed multi-scale DEMs over two test areas (Wivenhoe catchment, 543 km2 and a detailed 13 km2 within the Wivenhoe catchment including various data types, scales, quality, and variable catchment input parameters. Historic and available DEM data was compared to high resolution Lidar based DEMs to assess variations in the formation of stream networks. The results identified that, particularly in areas of high elevation change, DEMs at 20 m cell size created from broad scale 1:25,000 data (combined with more detailed data or manual delineation in flat areas are adequate for the creation of waterways and catchments at a regional scale.

  18. Comparison of Multi-Scale Digital Elevation Models for Defining Waterways and Catchments Over Large Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, B.; McDougall, K.; Barry, M.

    2012-07-01

    Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) allow for the efficient and consistent creation of waterways and catchment boundaries over large areas. Studies of waterway delineation from DEMs are usually undertaken over small or single catchment areas due to the nature of the problems being investigated. Improvements in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques, software, hardware and data allow for analysis of larger data sets and also facilitate a consistent tool for the creation and analysis of waterways over extensive areas. However, rarely are they developed over large regional areas because of the lack of available raw data sets and the amount of work required to create the underlying DEMs. This paper examines definition of waterways and catchments over an area of approximately 25,000 km2 to establish the optimal DEM scale required for waterway delineation over large regional projects. The comparative study analysed multi-scale DEMs over two test areas (Wivenhoe catchment, 543 km2 and a detailed 13 km2 within the Wivenhoe catchment) including various data types, scales, quality, and variable catchment input parameters. Historic and available DEM data was compared to high resolution Lidar based DEMs to assess variations in the formation of stream networks. The results identified that, particularly in areas of high elevation change, DEMs at 20 m cell size created from broad scale 1:25,000 data (combined with more detailed data or manual delineation in flat areas) are adequate for the creation of waterways and catchments at a regional scale.

  19. Effects of large herbivores on wood pasture dynamics in a European wetland system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, P.; Bokdam, J.; Sykora, K.V.; Berendse, F.

    2014-01-01

    Whether self-regulating large herbivores play a key role in the development of wood-pasture landscapes remains a crucial unanswered question for both ecological theory and nature conservation. We describe and analyse how a ‘partly self-regulating’ population of cattle, horses and red deer affected

  20. National studies on recidivism: an inventory of large-scale recidivism research in 33 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wartna, B.S.J.; Nijssen, L.T.J.

    2006-01-01

    Measuring recidivism is an established method for examining the effects of penal interventions. Over the last decades the automation of police and judiciary data has opened up opportunities to do large-scale recidivism research. The WODC has made an inventory of the studies that are carried out in

  1. Productivity and efficiency of economic activity of the Lower Silesia's large area farms in comparison with other large area farms in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Minta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows economical and financial situation of the agricultural companies which have most of the grounds in lease. Analysed objects were settled on Lower Silesia (the province in the south – west Poland. The main part of the results of research was about productivity and efficiency of economic resources in these objects. The research was made in years 2000-2002. The results of research in analyzed Lower Silesia’s companies were compared with the best Polish large area farms in order of law and organisation forms: leased farms, private farms and partnerships of Polish public agency AWRSP.

  2. A facile alternative technique for large-area graphene transfer via sacrificial polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Auchter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel method of transferring large-area graphene sheets onto a variety of substrates using Formvar (polyvinyl formal is presented. Due to the ease at which formvar can be dissolved in chloroform this method allows for a consistent, a clean, and a more rapid transfer than other techniques including the PMMA assisted one. This novel transfer method is demonstrated by transferring large-area graphene onto a range of substrates including commercial TEM grids, silicon dioxide and glass. Raman spectroscopy was used to confirm the presence of graphene and characterize the morphological properties of the large-area sheets. SEM and AFM analyses demonstrated the effectiveness of our rapid transfer technique for clean crystalline large-area graphene sheets. The removal of the sacrificial polymer was found to be one to two orders of magnitude faster than PMMA methods. Ultimately this facile transfer technique offers new opportunities for a wide range of applications for large-area graphene through the utilization of a new sacrificial polymer.

  3. Malnutrition risk in hospitalized children: use of 3 screening tools in a large European population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chourdakis, Michael; Hecht, Christina; Gerasimidis, Konstantinos; Joosten, Koen Fm; Karagiozoglou-Lampoudi, Thomais; Koetse, Harma A; Ksiazyk, Janusz; Lazea, Cecilia; Shamir, Raanan; Szajewska, Hania; Koletzko, Berthold; Hulst, Jessie M

    2016-05-01

    Several malnutrition screening tools have been advocated for use in pediatric inpatients. We evaluated how 3 popular pediatric nutrition screening tools [i.e., the Pediatric Yorkhill Malnutrition Score (PYMS), the Screening Tool for the Assessment of Malnutrition in Pediatrics (STAMP), and the Screening Tool for Risk of Impaired Nutritional Status and Growth (STRONGKIDS)] compared with and were related to anthropometric measures, body composition, and clinical variables in patients who were admitted to tertiary hospitals across Europe. The 3 screening tools were applied in 2567 inpatients at 14 hospitals across 12 European countries. The classification of patients into different nutritional risk groups was compared between tools and related to anthropometric measures and clinical variables [e.g., length of hospital stay (LOS) and infection rates]. A similar rate of completion of the screening tools for each tool was achieved (PYMS: 86%; STAMP: 84%; and STRONGKIDS: 81%). Risk classification differed markedly by tool, with an overall agreement of 41% between tools. Children categorized as high risk (PYMS: 25%; STAMP: 23%; and STRONGKIDS: 10%) had a longer LOS than that of children at low risk (1.4, 1.4, and 1.8 d longer, respectively; P malnutrition risk varied across the pediatric tools used. A considerable portion of children with subnormal anthropometric measures were not identified with all of the tools. The data obtained do not allow recommending the use of any of these screening tools for clinical practice. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01132742. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. HERCA's contribution to the establishment of a European area for radiation protection and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbitz, O.

    2010-01-01

    HERCA is an association between the Heads of the Radiological protection Competent Authorities in Europe. It was established in 2007 and has the ambition to develop new harmonized approaches to radiation protection without duplicating other international efforts. The forum facilitates close contacts between the national authorities both on the DG-level and between senior experts through the activities of its several Working Groups. HERCA works in close contact with the European Commission ensuring the relevance of its activities. (author)

  5. RE-Europe, a large-scale dataset for modeling a highly renewable European electricity system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tue Vissing; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    , we describe a dedicated large-scale dataset for a renewable electric power system. The dataset combines a transmission network model, as well as information for generation and demand. Generation includes conventional generators with their technical and economic characteristics, as well as weather-driven...... to the evaluation, scaling analysis and replicability check of a wealth of proposals in, e.g., market design, network actor coordination and forecastingof renewable power generation....

  6. Influence of blocking on Northern European and Western Russian heatwaves in large climate model ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, N.; Sillmann, J.; Anstey, J.; Fischer, E. M.; Grams, C. M.; Russo, S.

    2018-05-01

    Better preparedness for summer heatwaves could mitigate their adverse effects on society. This can potentially be attained through an increased understanding of the relationship between heatwaves and one of their main dynamical drivers, atmospheric blocking. In the 1979–2015 period, we find that there is a significant correlation between summer heatwave magnitudes and the number of days influenced by atmospheric blocking in Northern Europe and Western Russia. Using three large global climate model ensembles, we find similar correlations, indicating that these three models are able to represent the relationship between extreme temperature and atmospheric blocking, despite having biases in their simulation of individual climate variables such as temperature or geopotential height. Our results emphasize the need to use large ensembles of different global climate models as single realizations do not always capture this relationship. The three large ensembles further suggest that the relationship between summer heatwaves and atmospheric blocking will not change in the future. This could be used to statistically model heatwaves with atmospheric blocking as a covariate and aid decision-makers in planning disaster risk reduction and adaptation to climate change.

  7. Design of a broadband ultra-large area acoustic cloak based on a fluid medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian; Chen, Tianning; Liang, Qingxuan; Wang, Xiaopeng; Jiang, Ping

    2014-10-01

    A broadband ultra-large area acoustic cloak based on fluid medium was designed and numerically implemented with homogeneous metamaterials according to the transformation acoustics. In the present work, fluid medium as the body of the inclusion could be tuned by changing the fluid to satisfy the variant acoustic parameters instead of redesign the whole cloak. The effective density and bulk modulus of the composite materials were designed to agree with the parameters calculated from the coordinate transformation methodology by using the effective medium theory. Numerical simulation results showed that the sound propagation and scattering signature could be controlled in the broadband ultra-large area acoustic invisibility cloak, and good cloaking performance has been achieved and physically realized with homogeneous materials. The broadband ultra-large area acoustic cloaking properties have demonstrated great potentials in the promotion of the practical applications of acoustic cloak.

  8. Solution Coating of Superior Large-Area Flexible Perovskite Thin Films with Controlled Crystal Packing

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jianbo

    2017-05-08

    Solution coating of organohalide lead perovskites offers great potential for achieving low-cost manufacturing of large-area flexible optoelectronics. However, the rapid coating speed needed for industrial-scale production poses challenges to the control of crystal packing. Herein, this study reports using solution shearing to confine crystal nucleation and growth in large-area printed MAPbI3 thin films. Near single-crystalline perovskite microarrays are demonstrated with a high degree of controlled macroscopic alignment and crystal orientation, which exhibit significant improvements in optical and optoelectronic properties comparing with their random counterparts, spherulitic, and nanograined films. In particular, photodetectors based on the confined films showing intense anisotropy in charge transport are fabricated, and the device exhibits significantly improved performance in all aspects by one more orders of magnitude relative to their random counterparts. It is anticipated that perovskite films with controlled crystal packing may find applications in high-performance, large-area printed optoelectronics, and solar cells.

  9. Chemical hole doping into large-area transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers using boron-based oxidant

    KAUST Repository

    Matsuoka, Hirofumi; Kanahashi, Kaito; Tanaka, Naoki; Shoji, Yoshiaki; Li, Lain-Jong; Pu, Jiang; Ito, Hiroshi; Ohta, Hiromichi; Fukushima, Takanori; Takenobu, Taishi

    2018-01-01

    Hole carrier doping into single-crystalline transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) films can be achieved with various chemical reagents. However, large-area polycrystalline TMDC monolayers produced by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth method have yet to be chemically doped. Here, we report that a salt of a two-coordinate boron cation, Mes2B+ (Mes: 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl group), with a chemically stable tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate anion, [(C6F5)4B]−, can serve as an efficient hole-doping reagent for large-area CVD-grown tungsten diselenide (WSe2) films. Upon doping, the sheet resistance of large-area polycrystalline WSe2 monolayers decreased from 90 GΩ/sq to 3.2 kΩ/sq.

  10. Programmable and functional electrothermal bimorph actuators based on large-area anisotropic carbon nanotube paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingwei; Liu, Changhong; Fan, Shoushan

    2018-04-01

    Electro-active polymer (EAP) actuators, such as electronic, ionic and electrothermal (ET) actuators, have become an important branch of next-generation soft actuators in bionic robotics. However, most reported EAP actuators could realize only simple movements, being restricted by the small area of flexible electrodes and simple designs. We prepared large-area flexible electrodes of high anisotropy, made of oriented carbon nanotube (CNT) paper, and carried out artful graphic designs and processing on the electrodes to make functional ET bimorph actuators which can realize large bending deformations (over 220°, curvature > 1.5 cm-1) and bionic movements driven by electricity. The anisotropy of CNT paper benefits electrode designs and multiform actuations for complex actuators. Based on the large-area CNT paper, more interesting and functional actuators can be designed and prepared which will have practical applications in the fields of artificial muscles, complicated actuations, and soft and bionic robotics.

  11. Chemical hole doping into large-area transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers using boron-based oxidant

    KAUST Repository

    Matsuoka, Hirofumi

    2018-01-18

    Hole carrier doping into single-crystalline transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) films can be achieved with various chemical reagents. However, large-area polycrystalline TMDC monolayers produced by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth method have yet to be chemically doped. Here, we report that a salt of a two-coordinate boron cation, Mes2B+ (Mes: 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl group), with a chemically stable tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate anion, [(C6F5)4B]−, can serve as an efficient hole-doping reagent for large-area CVD-grown tungsten diselenide (WSe2) films. Upon doping, the sheet resistance of large-area polycrystalline WSe2 monolayers decreased from 90 GΩ/sq to 3.2 kΩ/sq.

  12. 3D-Printed Disposable Wireless Sensors with Integrated Microelectronics for Large Area Environmental Monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad

    2017-05-19

    Large area environmental monitoring can play a crucial role in dealing with crisis situations. However, it is challenging as implementing a fixed sensor network infrastructure over large remote area is economically unfeasible. This work proposes disposable, compact, dispersible 3D-printed wireless sensor nodes with integrated microelectronics which can be dispersed in the environment and work in conjunction with few fixed nodes for large area monitoring applications. As a proof of concept, the wireless sensing of temperature, humidity, and H2S levels are shown which are important for two critical environmental conditions namely forest fires and industrial leaks. These inkjet-printed sensors and an antenna are realized on the walls of a 3D-printed cubic package which encloses the microelectronics developed on a 3D-printed circuit board. Hence, 3D printing and inkjet printing are uniquely combined in order to realize a low-cost, fully integrated wireless sensor node.

  13. Solution Coating of Superior Large-Area Flexible Perovskite Thin Films with Controlled Crystal Packing

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jianbo; Liu, Yucheng; Ren, Xiaodong; Yang, Zhou; Li, Ruipeng; Su, Hang; Yang, Xiaoming; Xu, Junzhuo; Xu, Hua; Hu, Jian-Yong; Amassian, Aram; Zhao, Kui; Liu, Shengzhong Frank

    2017-01-01

    Solution coating of organohalide lead perovskites offers great potential for achieving low-cost manufacturing of large-area flexible optoelectronics. However, the rapid coating speed needed for industrial-scale production poses challenges to the control of crystal packing. Herein, this study reports using solution shearing to confine crystal nucleation and growth in large-area printed MAPbI3 thin films. Near single-crystalline perovskite microarrays are demonstrated with a high degree of controlled macroscopic alignment and crystal orientation, which exhibit significant improvements in optical and optoelectronic properties comparing with their random counterparts, spherulitic, and nanograined films. In particular, photodetectors based on the confined films showing intense anisotropy in charge transport are fabricated, and the device exhibits significantly improved performance in all aspects by one more orders of magnitude relative to their random counterparts. It is anticipated that perovskite films with controlled crystal packing may find applications in high-performance, large-area printed optoelectronics, and solar cells.

  14. Voltage uniformity study in large-area reactors for RF plasma deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sansonnens, L.; Pletzer, A.; Magni, D.; Howling, A.A.; Hollenstein, C. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP); Schmitt, J.P.M. [Balzers Process Systems, Palaiseau (France)

    1996-09-01

    Non-uniform voltage distribution across the electrode area results in inhomogeneous thin-film RF plasma deposition in large area reactors. In this work, a two-dimensional analytic model for the calculation of the voltage distribution across the electrode area is presented. The results of this model are in good agreement with measurements performed without plasma at 13.56 MHz and 70 MHz in a large area reactor. The principal voltage inhomogeneities are caused by logarithmic singularities in the vicinity of RF connections and not by standing waves. These singularities are only described by a two-dimensional model and cannot be intuitively predicted by analogy to a one-dimensional case. Plasma light emission measurements and thickness homogeneity studies of a-Si:H films show that the plasma reproduces these voltage inhomogeneities. Improvement of the voltage uniformity is investigated by changing the number and position of the RF connections. (author) 13 figs., 20 refs.

  15. The use of large area silicon sensors for thermal neutron detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, R.L.; Swanson, F.; Kesselman, M.

    1994-01-01

    The use of large area planar silicon detectors coupled with gadolinium foils has been investigated to develop a thermal neutron detector having a large area-efficiency (Aε) product. Noise levels due to high detector capacitance limit the size of silicon detectors that can be utilized. Calculations using the Monte Carlo code, MCNP, have been made to determine the variation of intrinsic detection efficiency as a function of the discriminator threshold level required to eliminate the detector noise. Measurements of the noise levels for planar silicon detectors of various resistivities (400, 3000 and 5000 Ω cm) have been made and the optimal detector area-efficiency products have been determined. The response of a Si-Gd-Si sandwich detector with areas between 1 cm 2 and 10.5 cm 2 is presented and the effects of the detector capacitance and reverse current are discussed. ((orig.))

  16. The use of large area silicon sensors for thermal neutron detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, R.L. (Research and Development Center, Mail Stop: A01-26, Grumman Aerospace Corporation, Bethpage, NY 11714 (United States)); Swanson, F. (Research and Development Center, Mail Stop: A01-26, Grumman Aerospace Corporation, Bethpage, NY 11714 (United States)); Kesselman, M. (Research and Development Center, Mail Stop: A01-26, Grumman Aerospace Corporation, Bethpage, NY 11714 (United States))

    1994-12-30

    The use of large area planar silicon detectors coupled with gadolinium foils has been investigated to develop a thermal neutron detector having a large area-efficiency (A[epsilon]) product. Noise levels due to high detector capacitance limit the size of silicon detectors that can be utilized. Calculations using the Monte Carlo code, MCNP, have been made to determine the variation of intrinsic detection efficiency as a function of the discriminator threshold level required to eliminate the detector noise. Measurements of the noise levels for planar silicon detectors of various resistivities (400, 3000 and 5000 [Omega] cm) have been made and the optimal detector area-efficiency products have been determined. The response of a Si-Gd-Si sandwich detector with areas between 1 cm[sup 2] and 10.5 cm[sup 2] is presented and the effects of the detector capacitance and reverse current are discussed. ((orig.))

  17. Clean-lifting transfer of large-area residual-free graphene films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di-Yan; Huang, I-Sheng; Ho, Po-Hsun; Li, Shao-Sian; Yeh, Yun-Chieh; Wang, Duan-Wei; Chen, Wei-Liang; Lee, Yu-Yang; Chang, Yu-Ming; Chen, Chia-Chun; Liang, Chi-Te; Chen, Chun-Wei

    2013-08-27

    A unique "clean-lifting transfer" (CLT) technique that applies a controllable electrostatic force to transfer large-area and high-quality CVD-grown graphene onto various rigid or flexible substrates is reported. The CLT technique without using any organic support or adhesives can produce residual-free graphene films with large-area processability, and has great potential for future industrial production of graphene-based electronics or optoelectronics. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Quantum efficiency measurement system for large area CsI photodetectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cusanno, F; Colilli, S; Crateri, R; Fratoni, R; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Giuliani, F; Gricia, M; Lucentini, M; Mostarda, A; Santavenere, F; Veneroni, P; Breuer, H; Iodice, M; Urciuoli, G M; De Cataldo, G; De Leo, R; Lagamba, L; Braem, André

    2003-01-01

    A proximity focusing freon/CsI RICH detector has been built for kaon physics at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF or Jefferson Lab), Hall A. The Cherenkov photons are detected by a UV photosensitive CsI film which has been obtained by vacuum evaporation. A dedicated evaporation facility for large area photocathodes has been built for this task. A measuring system has been built to allow the evaluation of the absolute quantum efficiency (QE) just after the evaporation. The evaporation facility is described here, as well as the quantum efficiency measurement device. Results of the QE on-line measurements, for the first time on large area photocathodes, are reported.

  19. Fast mapping algorithm of lighting spectrum and GPS coordinates for a large area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Wei; Hsu, Ke-Fang; Hwang, Jung-Min

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we propose a fast rebuild technology for evaluating light quality in large areas. Outdoor light quality, which is measured by illuminance uniformity and the color rendering index, is difficult to conform after improvement. We develop an algorithm for a lighting quality mapping system and coordinates using a micro spectrometer and GPS tracker integrated with a quadcopter or unmanned aerial vehicle. After cruising at a constant altitude, lighting quality data is transmitted and immediately mapped to evaluate the light quality in a large area.

  20. Efficient Mid-Infrared Supercontinuum Generation in Tapered Large Mode Area Chalcogenide Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christian Rosenberg; Engelsholm, Rasmus Dybbro; Markos, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Mid-infrared supercontinuum spanning from 1.8-9  μm with an output power of 41.5 mW is demonstrated by pumping tapered large mode area chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers using a 4 μm optical parametric source.......Mid-infrared supercontinuum spanning from 1.8-9  μm with an output power of 41.5 mW is demonstrated by pumping tapered large mode area chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers using a 4 μm optical parametric source....

  1. A Brief Technical History of the Large-Area Picosecond Photodetector (LAPPD) Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, B.W.; et al.

    2016-03-06

    The Large Area Picosecond PhotoDetector (LAPPD) Collaboration was formed in 2009 to develop large-area photodetectors capable of time resolutions measured in pico-seconds, with accompanying sub-millimeter spatial resolution. During the next three and one-half years the Collaboration developed the LAPPD design of 20 x 20 cm modules with gains greater than $10^7$ and non-uniformity less than $15\\%$, time resolution less than 50 psec for single photons and spatial resolution of 700~microns in both lateral dimensions. We describe the R\\&D performed to develop large-area micro-channel plate glass substrates, resistive and secondary-emitting coatings, large-area bialkali photocathodes, and RF-capable hermetic packaging. In addition, the Collaboration developed the necessary electronics for large systems capable of precise timing, built up from a custom low-power 15-GigaSample/sec waveform sampling 6-channel integrated circuit and supported by a two-level modular data acquisition system based on Field-Programmable Gate Arrays for local control, data-sparcification, and triggering. We discuss the formation, organization, and technical successes and short-comings of the Collaboration. The Collaboration ended in December 2012 with a transition from R\\&D to commercialization.

  2. Large area synchrotron X-ray fluorescence mapping of biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempson, I.; Thierry, B.; Smith, E.; Gao, M.; De Jonge, M.

    2014-01-01

    Large area mapping of inorganic material in biological samples has suffered severely from prohibitively long acquisition times. With the advent of new detector technology we can now generate statistically relevant information for studying cell populations, inter-variability and bioinorganic chemistry in large specimen. We have been implementing ultrafast synchrotron-based XRF mapping afforded by the MAIA detector for large area mapping of biological material. For example, a 2.5 million pixel map can be acquired in 3 hours, compared to a typical synchrotron XRF set-up needing over 1 month of uninterrupted beamtime. Of particular focus to us is the fate of metals and nanoparticles in cells, 3D tissue models and animal tissues. The large area scanning has for the first time provided statistically significant information on sufficiently large numbers of cells to provide data on intercellular variability in uptake of nanoparticles. Techniques such as flow cytometry generally require analysis of thousands of cells for statistically meaningful comparison, due to the large degree of variability. Large area XRF now gives comparable information in a quantifiable manner. Furthermore, we can now image localised deposition of nanoparticles in tissues that would be highly improbable to 'find' by typical XRF imaging. In addition, the ultra fast nature also makes it viable to conduct 3D XRF tomography over large dimensions. This technology avails new opportunities in biomonitoring and understanding metal and nanoparticle fate ex-vivo. Following from this is extension to molecular imaging through specific anti-body targeted nanoparticles to label specific tissues and monitor cellular process or biological consequence

  3. [100] or [110] aligned, semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit

    2015-03-24

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, large-area, [100] or [110] textured, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  4. Ecosystem services in European protected areas: Ambiguity in the views of scientists and managers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, C.; Provenzale, A.; Van der Meer, J.; Wijnhoven, S.; Nolte, A.; Poursanidis, D.; Janss, G.; Jurek, M.; Andresen, M.; Poulin, B.; Kobler, J.; Beierkuhnlein, C.; Honrado, J.; Razinkovas, A.; Stritih, A.; Bargmann, T.; Ziemba, A.; Bonet-García, F.; Adamescu, M.C.; Janssen, G.; Hummel, H.

    2017-01-01

    Protected Areas are a key component of nature conservation. They can play an important role in counterbalancing the impacts of ecosystem degradation. For an optimal protection of a Protected Area it is essential to account for the variables underlying the major Ecosystem Services an area delivers,

  5. Aspects of ecomorphology in the five European horseshoe bats (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) in the area of sympatry

    OpenAIRE

    Dietz, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Several ecomorphological aspects in the European horseshoe bats were studied. The analysis of the data allows to draw some conclusions about possible niche separating parameters. The thesis consists of seven parts, details can be found in the abstracts of each chapter. Verschiedene ökomorphologische Aspekte der europäischen Hufeisennasen-Fledermäuse wurden untersucht. Die Auswertung der Daten erlaubt Rückschlüsse auf mögliche Parameter, die eine Nischentrennung ermöglichen. Die Arbeit best...

  6. Canopy area of large trees explains aboveground biomass variations across neotropical forest landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Victoria; Saatchi, Sassan; Clark, David B.; Keller, Michael; Vincent, Grégoire; Ferraz, António; Espírito-Santo, Fernando; d'Oliveira, Marcus V. N.; Kaki, Dahlia; Chave, Jérôme

    2018-06-01

    Large tropical trees store significant amounts of carbon in woody components and their distribution plays an important role in forest carbon stocks and dynamics. Here, we explore the properties of a new lidar-derived index, the large tree canopy area (LCA) defined as the area occupied by canopy above a reference height. We hypothesize that this simple measure of forest structure representing the crown area of large canopy trees could consistently explain the landscape variations in forest volume and aboveground biomass (AGB) across a range of climate and edaphic conditions. To test this hypothesis, we assembled a unique dataset of high-resolution airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) and ground inventory data in nine undisturbed old-growth Neotropical forests, of which four had plots large enough (1 ha) to calibrate our model. We found that the LCA for trees greater than 27 m (˜ 25-30 m) in height and at least 100 m2 crown size in a unit area (1 ha), explains more than 75 % of total forest volume variations, irrespective of the forest biogeographic conditions. When weighted by average wood density of the stand, LCA can be used as an unbiased estimator of AGB across sites (R2 = 0.78, RMSE = 46.02 Mg ha-1, bias = -0.63 Mg ha-1). Unlike other lidar-derived metrics with complex nonlinear relations to biomass, the relationship between LCA and AGB is linear and remains unique across forest types. A comparison with tree inventories across the study sites indicates that LCA correlates best with the crown area (or basal area) of trees with diameter greater than 50 cm. The spatial invariance of the LCA-AGB relationship across the Neotropics suggests a remarkable regularity of forest structure across the landscape and a new technique for systematic monitoring of large trees for their contribution to AGB and changes associated with selective logging, tree mortality and other types of tropical forest disturbance and dynamics.

  7. A large-scale deforestation experiment: Effects of patch area and isolation on Amazon birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, G.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Stouffer, P.C.; Bierregaard, R.O.; Lovejoy, T.E.

    2007-01-01

    As compared with extensive contiguous areas, small isolated habitat patches lack many species. Some species disappear after isolation; others are rarely found in any small patch, regardless of isolation. We used a 13-year data set of bird captures from a large landscape-manipulation experiment in a Brazilian Amazon forest to model the extinction-colonization dynamics of 55 species and tested basic predictions of island biogeography and metapopulation theory. From our models, we derived two metrics of species vulnerability to changes in isolation and patch area. We found a strong effect of area and a variable effect of isolation on the predicted patch occupancy by birds.

  8. Childhood multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in the European Union and European Economic Area: an analysis of tuberculosis surveillance data from 2007 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ködmön, Csaba; van den Boom, Martin; Zucs, Phillip; van der Werf, Marieke Johanna

    2017-11-01

    BackgroundConfirming tuberculosis (TB) in children and obtaining information on drug susceptibility is essential to ensure adequate treatment. We assessed whether there are gaps in diagnosis and treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB in children in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA), quantified the burden of MDR TB in children and characterised cases. Methods : We analysed surveillance data from 2007 to 2015 for paediatric cases younger than 15 years. Results : In that period, 26 EU/EEA countries reported 18,826 paediatric TB cases of whom 4,129 (21.9%) were laboratory-confirmed. Drug susceptibility testing results were available for 3,378 (17.9%), representing 81.8% of the confirmed cases. The majority (n = 2,967; 87.8%) had drug-sensitive TB, 249 (7.4%) mono-resistant TB, 64 (1.9%) poly-resistant TB, 90 (2.7%) MDR TB and eight (0.2%) had extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB. MDR TB was more frequently reported among paediatric cases with foreign background (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.73; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.12-2.67) or previous TB treatment (aOR: 6.42; 95% CI: 3.24-12.75). Successful treatment outcome was reported for 58 of 74 paediatric MDR TB cases with outcome reported from 2007 to 2013; only the group of 5-9 years-olds was significantly associated with unsuccessful treatment outcome (crude odds ratio (cOR) = 11.45; 95% CI: 1.24-106.04). Conclusions : The burden of MDR TB in children in the EU/EEA appears low, but may be underestimated owing to challenges in laboratory confirmation. Diagnostic improvements are needed for early detection and adequate treatment of MDR TB. Children previously treated for TB or of foreign origin may warrant higher attention.

  9. A large-scale investigation of microplastic contamination: Abundance and characteristics of microplastics in European beach sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lots, Froukje A E; Behrens, Paul; Vijver, Martina G; Horton, Alice A; Bosker, Thijs

    2017-10-15

    Here we present the large-scale distribution of microplastic contamination in beach sediment across Europe. Sediment samples were collected from 23 locations across 13 countries by citizen scientists, and analysed using a standard operating procedure. We found significant variability in the concentrations of microplastics, ranging from 72±24 to 1512±187 microplastics per kg of dry sediment, with high variability within sampling locations. Three hotspots of microplastic accumulation (>700 microplastics per kg of dry sediment) were found. There was limited variability in the physico-chemical characteristics of the plastics across sampling locations. The majority of the microplastics were fibrous, microplastics on European beaches giving insights into the nature and extent of the microplastic challenge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Techno-economic analysis of large-scale integration of solar power plants in the European grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tielens, Pieter; Ergun, Hakan; Hertem, Dirk van [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium). Electrical Engineering Dept.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper different options to connect large solar power plants in North Africa to the European power system are compared from a transmission system investment point of view. Three different possible DC connections from Tunisia to Italy are investigated from a cost-based perspective. In the second part of the paper, the impact of the power fluctuations from CSP and PV power plants on the frequency control is examined in a qualitative manner. It is shown that the frequency response mainly depends on the amount of PV installed and the inertia present in the grid. The results of the simulations give a first estimation of the maximum amount of PV integration in the Tunisian grid without reaching certain frequency limits after a sudden power fluctuation. (orig.)

  11. Quality Procedures in the European Higher Education Area and Beyond--Visions for the Future: Third ENQA Survey. ENQA Occasional Papers 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifoll, Josep; Hopbach, Achim; Kekalainen, Helka; Lugano, Nathalie; Rozsnyai, Christina; Shopov, Todor

    2012-01-01

    Higher education reforms over the last decade, resulting in the establishment of the European Higher Education Area, with new social demands and expectations, have greatly impacted quality assurance in higher education. As a follow-up activity to two previous surveys on external quality procedures, the European Association for Quality Assurance in…

  12. The spatial thickness distribution of metal films produced by large area pulsed laser deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini; Schou, Jørgen; Linderoth, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Thin films of metals have been deposited in the large-area Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) Facility at Riso National Laboratory. Thin films of Ag and Ni were deposited with laser pulses from an excimer laser at 248 nm with a rectangular beam spot at a fluence of 10 J/cm(2) on glass substrates of 127...

  13. Single-grain Silicon Technology for Large Area X-ray Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arslan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Digital flat panel X-ray imagers are currently using a-Si and poly-Si thin-film-transistors (TFTs). a-Si TFT permits the use of large area substrates, however, due to the amorphous nature, the carrier mobility is very low (<1 cm2/Vs). Poly-Si TFT improves the mobility (~150 cm2/Vs) but due to random

  14. Wide-area phase-contrast X-ray imaging using large X-ray interferometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Atsushi E-mail: momose@exp.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Takeda, Tohoru; Yoneyama, Akio; Koyama, Ichiro; Itai, Yuji

    2001-07-21

    Large X-ray interferometers are developed for phase-contrast X-ray imaging aiming at medical applications. A monolithic X-ray interferometer and a separate one are studied, and currently a 25 mmx20 mm view area can be generated. This paper describes the strategy of our research program and some recent developments.

  15. Wide-area phase-contrast X-ray imaging using large X-ray interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, Atsushi; Takeda, Tohoru; Yoneyama, Akio; Koyama, Ichiro; Itai, Yuji

    2001-07-01

    Large X-ray interferometers are developed for phase-contrast X-ray imaging aiming at medical applications. A monolithic X-ray interferometer and a separate one are studied, and currently a 25 mm×20 mm view area can be generated. This paper describes the strategy of our research program and some recent developments.

  16. Homeless Students and Academic Achievement: Evidence from a Large Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Kerri J.

    2016-01-01

    Child homelessness has recently reached levels unprecedented in the United States since the Great Depression. Contemporary research has attempted to isolate the effects of homelessness on education, with mixed results. This study reports results from a study in one large urban area and finds that there is no meaningful difference in achievement…

  17. Large area flexible lighting foils using distributed bare LED dies on polyester substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D.A. van den; Kusters, R.H.L.; Cauwe, M.; Waal, A. van der; Brand, J. van den

    2013-01-01

    Integration of LEDs on flexible foil substrates is of interest for flexible lighting applications and for backlights for flexible displays. Such a large area lighting device can be made by integrating a matrix of closely spaced LEDs on a flexible foil substrate. Preferably, these LEDs are integrated

  18. Nanotechnological Advances in Catalytic Thin Films for Green Large-Area Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Biran Ay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-area catalytic thin films offer great potential for green technology applications in order to save energy, combat pollution, and reduce global warming. These films, either embedded with nanoparticles, shaped with nanostructuring techniques, hybridized with other systems, or functionalized with bionanotechnological methods, can include many different surface properties including photocatalytic, antifouling, abrasion resistant and mechanically resistive, self-cleaning, antibacterial, hydrophobic, and oleophobic features. Thus, surface functionalization with such advanced structuring methods is of significance to increase the performance and wide usage of large-area thin film coatings specifically for environmental remediation. In this review, we focus on methods to increase the efficiency of catalytic reactions in thin film and hence improve the performance in relevant applications while eliminating high cost with the purpose of widespread usage. However, we also include the most recent hybrid architectures, which have potential to make a transformational change in surface applications as soon as high quality and large area production techniques are available. Hence, we present and discuss research studies regarding both organic and inorganic methods that are used to structure thin films that have potential for large-area and eco-friendly coatings.

  19. Large-area and highly crystalline MoSe2 for optical modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jinde; Chen, Hao; Lu, Wei; Liu, Mengli; Li, Irene Ling; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Wenfei; Wang, Jinzhang; Xu, Zihan; Yan, Peiguang; Liu, Wenjun; Ruan, Shuangchen

    2017-12-01

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have been successfully used as broadband optical modulator materials for pulsed fiber laser systems. However, the nonlinear optical absorptions of exfoliated TMDs are strongly limited by their nanoflakes morphology with uncontrollable lateral size and thickness. In this work, we provide an effective method to fully explore the nonlinear optical properties of MoSe2. Large-area and high quality lattice MoSe2 grown by chemical vapor deposition method was adopted as an optical modulator for the first time. The large-area MoSe2 shows excellent nonlinear optical absorption with a large modulation depth of 21.7% and small saturable intensity of 9.4 MW cm-2. After incorporating the MoSe2 optical modulator into fiber laser cavity as a saturable absorber, a highly stable Q-switching operation with single pulse energy of 224 nJ is achieved. The large-area MoSe2 possessing superior nonlinear optical properties compared to exfoliated nanoflakes affords possibility for the larger-area two-dimensional materials family as high performance optical devices.

  20. A new acoustic lens material for large area detectors in photoacoustic breast tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, W.; Piras, D.; van Hespen, Johannes C.G.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We introduce a new acoustic lens material for photoacoustic tomography (PAT) to improve lateral resolution while possessing excellent acoustic acoustic impedance matching with tissue to minimize lens induced image artifacts. Background A large surface area detector due to its high

  1. Controllable chemical vapor deposition of large area uniform nanocrystalline graphene directly on silicon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Jie; Lindvall, Niclas; Cole, Matthew T.

    2012-01-01

    Metal-catalyst-free chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of large area uniform nanocrystalline graphene on oxidized silicon substrates is demonstrated. The material grows slowly, allowing for thickness control down to monolayer graphene. The as-grown thin films are continuous with no observable pinholes...

  2. Long period gratings written in large-mode area photonic crystal fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nodop, D.; Linke, S.; Jansen, F.

    2008-01-01

    We report for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, on the fabrication and characterization of CO2-laser written long-period gratings in a large-mode area photonic crystal fiber with a core diameter of 25 mu m. The gratings have low insertion losses ( 10 d...

  3. 2π proportional counting chamber for large-area-coated β sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 86; Issue 6. 2 π proportional counting chamber for large-area-coated β sources ... A provision is made for change ofthe source and immediate measurement of source activity. These sources are used to calibrate the efficiency of contamination monitors at radiological ...

  4. The Large Area Telescope in the context of the extended Fermi mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldini, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Launched on June 11, 2008 with the goal of a 10-year lifetime, the Fermi observatory is nearing completion of the 5-year prime phase of the mission. In this paper we briefly review the prospects of the Large Area Telescope (the main instrument on board Fermi) in the context of the extended mission

  5. Large-area Fabry-Perot modulator based on electro-optic polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benter, Nils; Bertram, Ralph Peter; Soergel, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    We present a large-area electro-optic Fabry-Perot modulator utilizing a photoaddressable bis-azo polymer placed between two dielectric mirrors with an open aperture of 2 cm. A modulation efficientcy of 1% at an effective modulation voltage of 20 V for a wavelength of 1.55 mymeter is demonstrated...

  6. Process variations in surface nano geometries manufacture on large area substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaon, Matteo; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tosello, Guido

    2014-01-01

    The need of transporting, treating and measuring increasingly smaller biomedical samples has pushed the integration of a far reaching number of nanofeatures over large substrates size in respect to the conventional processes working area windows. Dimensional stability of nano fabrication processe...

  7. Ecosystem services in European protected areas: Ambiguity in the views of scientists and managers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiaan Hummel

    Full Text Available Protected Areas are a key component of nature conservation. They can play an important role in counterbalancing the impacts of ecosystem degradation. For an optimal protection of a Protected Area it is essential to account for the variables underlying the major Ecosystem Services an area delivers, and the threats upon them. Here we show that the perception of these important variables differs markedly between scientists and managers of Protected Areas in mountains and transitional waters. Scientists emphasise variables of abiotic and biotic nature, whereas managers highlight socio-economic, cultural and anthropogenic variables. This indicates fundamental differences in perception. To be able to better protect an area it would be advisable to bring the perception of scientists and managers closer together. Intensified and harmonised communication across disciplinary and professional boundaries will be needed to implement and improve Ecosystem Service oriented management strategies in current and future Protected Areas.

  8. Ecosystem services in European protected areas: Ambiguity in the views of scientists and managers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzale, Antonello; van der Meer, Jaap; Wijnhoven, Sander; Nolte, Arno; Poursanidis, Dimitris; Janss, Guyonne; Jurek, Matthias; Andresen, Magnus; Poulin, Brigitte; Kobler, Johannes; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Honrado, João; Razinkovas, Arturas; Stritih, Ana; Bargmann, Tessa; Ziemba, Alex; Bonet-García, Francisco; Adamescu, Mihai Cristian; Janssen, Gerard; Hummel, Herman

    2017-01-01

    Protected Areas are a key component of nature conservation. They can play an important role in counterbalancing the impacts of ecosystem degradation. For an optimal protection of a Protected Area it is essential to account for the variables underlying the major Ecosystem Services an area delivers, and the threats upon them. Here we show that the perception of these important variables differs markedly between scientists and managers of Protected Areas in mountains and transitional waters. Scientists emphasise variables of abiotic and biotic nature, whereas managers highlight socio-economic, cultural and anthropogenic variables. This indicates fundamental differences in perception. To be able to better protect an area it would be advisable to bring the perception of scientists and managers closer together. Intensified and harmonised communication across disciplinary and professional boundaries will be needed to implement and improve Ecosystem Service oriented management strategies in current and future Protected Areas. PMID:29140983

  9. Ecosystem services in European protected areas: Ambiguity in the views of scientists and managers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Christiaan; Provenzale, Antonello; van der Meer, Jaap; Wijnhoven, Sander; Nolte, Arno; Poursanidis, Dimitris; Janss, Guyonne; Jurek, Matthias; Andresen, Magnus; Poulin, Brigitte; Kobler, Johannes; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Honrado, João; Razinkovas, Arturas; Stritih, Ana; Bargmann, Tessa; Ziemba, Alex; Bonet-García, Francisco; Adamescu, Mihai Cristian; Janssen, Gerard; Hummel, Herman

    2017-01-01

    Protected Areas are a key component of nature conservation. They can play an important role in counterbalancing the impacts of ecosystem degradation. For an optimal protection of a Protected Area it is essential to account for the variables underlying the major Ecosystem Services an area delivers, and the threats upon them. Here we show that the perception of these important variables differs markedly between scientists and managers of Protected Areas in mountains and transitional waters. Scientists emphasise variables of abiotic and biotic nature, whereas managers highlight socio-economic, cultural and anthropogenic variables. This indicates fundamental differences in perception. To be able to better protect an area it would be advisable to bring the perception of scientists and managers closer together. Intensified and harmonised communication across disciplinary and professional boundaries will be needed to implement and improve Ecosystem Service oriented management strategies in current and future Protected Areas.

  10. Cleanup of large areas contaminated as a result of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The purposes of the report are to provide an overview of the methodology and technology available to clean up contaminated areas and to give preliminary guidance on matters related to the planning, implementation and management of such cleanups. This report provides an integrated overview of important aspects related to the cleanup of very large areas contaminated as a result of a serious nuclear accident, including information on methods and equipment available to: characterize the affected area and the radioactive fallout; stabilize or isolate the contamination; and clean up contaminated urban, rural and forested areas. The report also includes brief sections on planning and management considerations and the transport and disposal of the large volumes of wastes arising from such cleanups. For the purposes of this report, nuclear accidents which could result in the deposition of decontamination over large areas if the outer containment fails badly include: 1) An accident with a nuclear weapon involving detonation of the chemical high explosive but little, if any, nuclear fission. 2) A major loss of medium/high level liquid waste (HLLW) due to an explosion/fire at a storage site for such waste. 3) An accident at a nuclear power plant (NPP), for example a loss of coolant accident, which results in some core disruption and fuel melting. 4) An accident at an NPP involving an uncontrolled reactivity excursion resulting in the violent ejection of a reactor core material and rupture of the containment building. 117 refs, 32 figs, 12 tabs

  11. Large-Area Synthesis of High-Quality Uniform Few-Layer MoTe2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin; Xu, Kai; Zubair, Ahmad; Liao, Albert D; Fang, Wenjing; Ouyang, Fangping; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Ueno, Keiji; Saito, Riichiro; Palacios, Tomás; Kong, Jing; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2015-09-23

    The controlled synthesis of large-area, atomically thin molybdenum ditelluride (MoTe2) crystals is crucial for its various applications based on the attractive properties of this emerging material. In this work, we developed a chemical vapor deposition synthesis to produce large-area, uniform, and highly crystalline few-layer 2H and 1T' MoTe2 films. It was found that these two different phases of MoTe2 can be grown depending on the choice of Mo precursor. Because of the highly crystalline structure, the as-grown few-layer 2H MoTe2 films display electronic properties that are comparable to those of mechanically exfoliated MoTe2 flakes. Our growth method paves the way for the large-scale application of MoTe2 in high-performance nanoelectronics and optoelectronics.

  12. A facility for the test of large area muon chambers at high rates

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, S; Belli, G; Bonifas, A; Carabelli, V; Gatignon, L; Hessey, N P; Maggi, M; Peigneux, J P; Reithler, H; Silari, Marco; Vitulo, P; Wegner, M

    2000-01-01

    Operation of large area muon detectors at the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be characterized by large sustained hit rates over the whole area, reaching the range of kHz/\\scm. We describe a dedicated test zone built at CERN to test the performance and the aging of the muon chambers currently under development. A radioactive source delivers photons causing the sustained rate of random hits, while a narrow beam of high energy muons is used to directly calibrate the detector performance. A system of remotely controlled lead filters serves to vary the rate of photons over four orders of magnitude, to allow the study of performance as a function of rate.

  13. Scalable and reusable micro-bubble removal method to flatten large-area 2D materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Phi H. Q.; Quach, Nhi V.; Li, Jinfeng; Burke, Peter J.

    2018-04-01

    Bubbles generated during electro-delamination and chemical etch during large-area two-dimensional (2D) material transfer has been shown to cause rippling, and consequently, results in tears and wrinkles in the transferred film. Here, we demonstrate a scalable and reusable method to remove surface adhered micro-bubbles by using hydrophobic surfaces modified by self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). Bubble removal allows the 2D film to flatten out and prevents the formation of defects. Electrical characterization was used to verify improved transfer quality and was confirmed by increased field-effect mobility and decreased sheet resistance. Raman spectroscopy was also used to validate enhanced electrical quality following transfer. The bubble removal method can be applied to an assortment of 2D materials using diverse hydrophobic SAM variants. Our studies can be integrated into large scale applications and will lead to improved large-area 2D electronics in general.

  14. A facility for the test of large-area muon chambers at high rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agosteo, S.; Altieri, S.; Belli, G.; Bonifas, A.; Carabelli, V.; Gatignon, L.; Hessey, N.; Maggi, M.; Peigneux, J.-P.; Reithler, H. E-mail: hans.reithler@cern.ch; Silari, M.; Vitulo, P.; Wegner, M

    2000-09-21

    Operation of large-area muon detectors at the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be characterized by large sustained hit rates over the whole area, reaching the range of kHz cm{sup -2}. We describe a dedicated test zone built at CERN to test the performance and the aging of the muon chambers currently under development. A radioactive source delivers photons causing the sustained rate of random hits, while a narrow beam of high-energy muons is used to directly calibrate the detector performance. A system of remotely controlled lead filters serves to vary the rate of photons over four orders of magnitude, to allow the study of performance as a function of rate. (authors)

  15. Degenerate four wave mixing in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous degenerate four wave mixing (FWM) is investigated in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers, in which photonic bandgap guidance and index guidance is combined. Calculations show the parametric gain is maximum on the edge of a photonic bandgap, for a large range of pump...... wavelengths. The FWM products are observed on the edges of a transmission band experimentally, in good agreement with the numerical results. Thereby the bandedges can be used to control the spectral positions of FWM products through a proper fiber design. The parametric gain control combined with a large mode...... area fiber design potentially allows for power scaling of light at wavelengths not easily accessible with e.g. rare earth ions....

  16. Large area strain analysis using scanning transmission electron microscopy across multiple images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oni, A. A.; Sang, X.; LeBeau, J. M.; Raju, S. V.; Saxena, S.; Dumpala, S.; Broderick, S.; Rajan, K.; Kumar, A.; Sinnott, S.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we apply revolving scanning transmission electron microscopy to measure lattice strain across a sample using a single reference area. To do so, we remove image distortion introduced by sample drift, which usually restricts strain analysis to a single image. Overcoming this challenge, we show that it is possible to use strain reference areas elsewhere in the sample, thereby enabling reliable strain mapping across large areas. As a prototypical example, we determine the strain present within the microstructure of a Ni-based superalloy directly from atom column positions as well as geometric phase analysis. While maintaining atomic resolution, we quantify strain within nanoscale regions and demonstrate that large, unit-cell level strain fluctuations are present within the intermetallic phase

  17. Techno-economic assessment of novel vanadium redox flow batteries with large-area cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minke, Christine; Kunz, Ulrich; Turek, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    The vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) is a promising electrochemical storage system for stationary megawatt-class applications. The currently limited cell area determined by the bipolar plate (BPP) could be enlarged significantly with a novel extruded large-area plate. For the first time a techno-economic assessment of VRFB in a power range of 1 MW-20 MW and energy capacities of up to 160 MWh is presented on the basis of the production cost model of large-area BPP. The economic model is based on the configuration of a 250 kW stack and the overall system including stacks, power electronics, electrolyte and auxiliaries. Final results include a simple function for the calculation of system costs within the above described scope. In addition, the impact of cost reduction potentials for key components (membrane, electrode, BPP, vanadium electrolyte) on stack and system costs is quantified and validated.

  18. The Anti-Coincidence Detector for the GLAST Large Area Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moiseev, A.A.; Hartman, R.C.; Ormes, J.F.; Thompson, D.J.; Amato, M.J.; Johnson, T.E.; Segal, K.N.; Sheppard, D.A.

    2007-03-23

    This paper describes the design, fabrication and testing of the Anti-Coincidence Detector (ACD) for the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT). The ACD is LAT's first-level defense against the charged cosmic ray background that outnumbers the gamma rays by 3-5 orders of magnitude. The ACD covers the top and 4 sides of the LAT tracking detector, requiring a total active area of {approx}8.3 square meters. The ACD detector utilizes plastic scintillator tiles with wave-length shifting fiber readout. In order to suppress self-veto by shower particles at high gamma-ray energies, the ACD is segmented into 89 tiles of different sizes. The overall ACD efficiency for detection of singly charged relativistic particles entering the tracking detector from the top or sides of the LAT exceeds the required 0.9997.

  19. Large-area burns with pandrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection and respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Fang-Gang; Zhao, Xiao-Zhuo; Bian, Jing; Zhang, Guo-An

    2011-02-01

    Infection due to pandrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PDRPA) has become a challenge in clinical practice. The aim of this research was to summarize the treatment of large-area burns (60% - 80%) with PDRPA infection and respiratory failure in our hospital over the last two years, and to explore a feasible treatment protocol for such patients. We retrospectively analyzed the treatment of five patients with large-area burns accompanied by PDRPA infection and respiratory failure transferred to our hospital from burn units in hospitals in other Chinese cities from January 2008 to February 2010. Before PDRPA infection occurred, all five patients had open wounds with large areas of granulation because of the failure of surgery and dissolving of scar tissue; they had also undergone long-term administration of carbapenems. This therapy included ventilatory support, rigorous repair of wounds, and combined antibiotic therapy targeted at drug-resistance mechanisms, including carbapenems, ciprofloxacin, macrolide antibiotics and β-lactamase inhibitors. Four patients recovered from burns and one died after therapy. First, compromised immunity caused by delayed healing of burn wounds in patients with large-area burns and long-term administration of carbapenems may be the important factors in the initiation and progression of PDRPA infection. Second, if targeted at drug-resistance mechanisms, combined antibiotic therapy using carbapenems, ciprofloxacin, macrolide antibiotics and β-lactamase inhibitors could effectively control PDRPA infection. Third, although patients with large-area burns suffered respiratory failure and had high risks from anesthesia and surgery, only aggressive skin grafting with ventilatory support could control the infection and save lives. Patients may not be able to tolerate a long surgical procedure, so the duration of surgery should be minimized, and the frequency of surgery increased.

  20. Environmental risk assessment of water quality in harbor areas: a new methodology applied to European ports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Aina G; Ondiviela, Bárbara; Puente, Araceli; Juanes, José A

    2015-05-15

    This work presents a standard and unified procedure for assessment of environmental risks at the contaminant source level in port aquatic systems. Using this method, port managers and local authorities will be able to hierarchically classify environmental hazards and proceed with the most suitable management actions. This procedure combines rigorously selected parameters and indicators to estimate the environmental risk of each contaminant source based on its probability, consequences and vulnerability. The spatio-temporal variability of multiple stressors (agents) and receptors (endpoints) is taken into account to provide accurate estimations for application of precisely defined measures. The developed methodology is tested on a wide range of different scenarios via application in six European ports. The validation process confirms its usefulness, versatility and adaptability as a management tool for port water quality in Europe and worldwide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sedimentary records of trace elements from large European lakes (Switzerland) document historic to recent freshwater pollution and climate-induced runoff variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevenon, F.; Wirth, S. B.; Fujak, M.; Poté, J.; Thierry, A.; Chiaradia, M.; Girardclos, S.

    2011-12-01

    Continuous sedimentary records of anthropogenic and natural trace elements determined by ICPMS, from 5 large and deep perialpine lakes from Central Europe (Switzerland), evidence the environmental impacts of industrial fossil fuel pollution. In fact, the greatest increase in heavy metal pollution was registered at all the studied sites following the European industrial revolution of ca. AD 1800; with the highest values during the middle part of the 20th century. On a regional scale, anthropogenic heavy metal input subsequently stopped increasing thanks to remediation strategies such as the implementation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). On the other hand, the discharge of industrial treated wastewaters into Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva during the second part of the 20th century involved the sedimentation of highly contaminated sediments in the area surrounding the WWTP outlet pipe discharge; less than 4 km from the main supply of drinking water of Lausanne (127'000 hab.). Microbial analyses furthermore reveal i) high increase in bacterial densities following the lake eutrophication in the 1970s, and that ii) the related sediments can be considered as a reservoir of antibiotic resistant bacteria/genes (of human origin). We finally compare instrumental hydrological data over the last century with variations of lithogenic trace elements (e.g., titanium) as registered in three large lakes (Brienz, Thun and Bienne) connected by the River Aar. This task allows to better constraining the runoff variations on a regional scale over the last decades for the the River Aar, and its possible increase under warming climate conditions in the European Alps.

  2. Two-group modeling of interfacial area transport in large diameter channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlegel, J.P., E-mail: schlegelj@mst.edu [Department of Mining and Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 301 W 14th St., Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Hibiki, T.; Ishii, M. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Dr., West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Implemented updated constitutive models and benchmarking method for IATE in large pipes. • New model and method with new data improved the overall IATE prediction for large pipes. • Not all conditions well predicted shows that further development is still required. - Abstract: A comparison of the existing two-group interfacial area transport equation source and sink terms for large diameter channels with recently collected interfacial area concentration measurements (Schlegel et al., 2012, 2014. Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 47, 42) has indicated that the model does not perform well in predicting interfacial area transport outside of the range of flow conditions used in the original benchmarking effort. In order to reduce the error in the prediction of interfacial area concentration by the interfacial area transport equation, several constitutive relations have been updated including the turbulence model and relative velocity correlation. The transport equation utilizing these updated models has been modified by updating the inter-group transfer and Group 2 coalescence and disintegration kernels using an expanded range of experimental conditions extending to pipe sizes of 0.304 m [12 in.], gas velocities of up to nearly 11 m/s [36.1 ft/s] and liquid velocities of up to 2 m/s [6.56 ft/s], as well as conditions with both bubbly flow and cap-bubbly flow injection (Schlegel et al., 2012, 2014). The modifications to the transport equation have resulted in a decrease in the RMS error for void fraction and interfacial area concentration from 17.32% to 12.3% and 21.26% to 19.6%. The combined RMS error, for both void fraction and interfacial area concentration, is below 15% for most of the experiments used in the comparison, a distinct improvement over the previous version of the model.

  3. Activity of CERN and LNF groups on large area GEM detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfonsi, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Bencivenni, G. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Brock, I. [Physikalisches Institute der Universitat Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Cerioni, S. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Croci, G.; David, E. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); De Lucia, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); De Oliveira, R. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); De Robertis, G. [Sezione INFN di Bari, Bari (Italy); Domenici, D., E-mail: Danilo.Domenici@lnf.infn.i [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Duarte Pinto, S. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Felici, G.; Gatta, M.; Jacewicz, M. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Loddo, F. [Sezione INFN di Bari, Bari (Italy); Morello, G. [Dipeartimento di Fisica Universita della Calabria e INFN, Cosenza (Italy); Pistilli, M. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Ranieri, A. [Sezione INFN di Bari, Bari (Italy); Ropelewski, L. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Sauli, F. [TERA Foundation, Novara (Italy)

    2010-05-21

    We report on the activity of CERN and INFN-LNF groups on the development of large area GEM detectors. The two groups work together within the RD51 Collaboration, to aim at the development of Micro-pattern Gas detectors technologies. The vast request for large area foils by the GEM community has driven a change in the manufacturing procedure by the TS-DEM-PMT laboratory, needed to overcome the previous size limitation of 450x450mm{sup 2}. Now a single-mask technology is used allowing foils to be made as large as 450x2000mm{sup 2}. The limitation in the short size, due to the definite width of the raw material, can be overcome by splicing more foils together. A 10x10cm{sup 2} GEM detector with the new single-mask foil has been tested with X-rays and the results are shown. Possible future applications for large area GEM are the TOTEM experiment upgrade at CERN, and the KLOE-2 experiment at the Dafne {Phi}-factory in Frascati.

  4. Activity of CERN and LNF groups on large area GEM detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfonsi, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Brock, I.; Cerioni, S.; Croci, G.; David, E.; De Lucia, E.; De Oliveira, R.; De Robertis, G.; Domenici, D.; Duarte Pinto, S.; Felici, G.; Gatta, M.; Jacewicz, M.; Loddo, F.; Morello, G.; Pistilli, M.; Ranieri, A.; Ropelewski, L.; Sauli, F.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the activity of CERN and INFN-LNF groups on the development of large area GEM detectors. The two groups work together within the RD51 Collaboration, to aim at the development of Micro-pattern Gas detectors technologies. The vast request for large area foils by the GEM community has driven a change in the manufacturing procedure by the TS-DEM-PMT laboratory, needed to overcome the previous size limitation of 450x450mm 2 . Now a single-mask technology is used allowing foils to be made as large as 450x2000mm 2 . The limitation in the short size, due to the definite width of the raw material, can be overcome by splicing more foils together. A 10x10cm 2 GEM detector with the new single-mask foil has been tested with X-rays and the results are shown. Possible future applications for large area GEM are the TOTEM experiment upgrade at CERN, and the KLOE-2 experiment at the Dafne Φ-factory in Frascati.

  5. Tianmujian caldera. A potential area for locating rich and large uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Ziyu; Xu Jinshan; Chen Mingzhuo; Jiang Jinyuan; Fan Honghai; Cheng Qi

    2001-01-01

    Based on the comprehensive analysis on geologic, remote sensing, gravimetric, magnetic and geochemical data, and the field geologic investigation, the author has preliminarily ascertained the formation and the distribution characteristics of the Tianmujian caldera, and recognized the porphyroclastic lava system which is extensively distributed in the area. The authors suggest that the Tianmujian volcanic basin experienced two evolution stages--the thermal uplifting and the formation of caldera, that large concealed uranium-rich granitic massif occurs in the area, and during the vertical evolution process the uranium showed its concentration in the lower part and depletion in the upper part, and large amount of ore-forming material moved upward along with the magmatic hydrothermals entering the caldera to form uranium deposit. In addition, it is clarified that the NE-NW rhombic-formed basement structural pattern is predominated by the NE-trending fault. At the same time, the important role of the basement faults in controlling the magmatic activities, in the formation of volcanic basins, as well as the formation of uranium mineralization is emphasized. On the basis of the above comprehensive analysis the authors suggest that the Tianmujian caldera is a quite favourable potential area for possessing the basic conditions necessary for the formation of rich and large uranium deposit including uranium 'source, migration, concentration, preservation' and favourable multiple metallogenic information is displayed in the Tianmujian area

  6. Institutional Aspects of European Commission Guidance in the Area of Antitrust Law

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Smulders

    2009-01-01

    From an institutional law perspective, the question arises how to qualify the more than thirty existing communications, notices and guidelines which the Commission has issued in the area of antitrust law.

  7. Integrated chemical and biological assessment of contaminant impacts in selected European coastal and offshore marine areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hylland, Ketil; Robinson, Craig D.; Burgeot, Thierry; Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Lang, Thomas; Svavarsson, Jörundur; Thain, John E.; Vethaak, A. Dick; Gubbins, Mattew J.

    This paper reports a full assessment of results from ICON, an international workshop on marine integrated contaminant monitoring, encompassing different matrices (sediment, fish, mussels, gastropods), areas (Iceland, North Sea, Baltic, Wadden Sea, Seine estuary and the western Mediterranean) and

  8. Science case and requirements for the MOSAIC concept for a multi-object spectrograph for the European extremely large telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, C.J.; Puech, M.; Bonifacio, P.; Hammer, F.; Jagourel, P.; Caffau, E.; Disseau, K.; Flores, H.; Huertas-Company, M.; Mei, S.; Aussel, H.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 18 months we have revisited the science requirements for a multi-object spectrograph (MOS) for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). These efforts span the full range of E-ELT science and include input from a broad cross-section of astronomers across the ESO partner countries. In this contribution we summarise the key cases relating to studies of high-redshift galaxies, galaxy evolution, and stellar populations, with a more expansive presentation of a new case relating to detection of exoplanets in stellar clusters. A general requirement is the need for two observational modes to best exploit the large (=40 arcmin 2 ) patrol field of the E-ELT. The first mode ('high multiplex') requires integrated-light (or coarsely resolved) optical/near-IR spectroscopy of ≥100 objects simultaneously. The second ('high definition'), enabled by wide-field adaptive optics, requires spatially-resolved, near-IR of ≥10 objects/sub-fields. Within the context of the conceptual study for an ELT-MOS called MOSAIC, we summarise the top level requirements from each case and introduce the next steps in the design process. (authors)

  9. Effects of electrolyte gating on photoluminescence spectra of large-area WSe2monolayer films

    KAUST Repository

    Matsuki, Keiichiro; Pu, Jiang; Kozawa, Daichi; Matsuda, Kazunari; Li, Lain-Jong; Takenobu, Taishi

    2016-01-01

    We fabricated electric double-layer transistors comprising large-area WSe2 monolayers and investigated the effects of electrolyte gating on their photoluminescence (PL) spectra. Using the efficient gating effects of electric double layers, we succeeded in the application of a large electric field (>107Vcm%1) and the accumulation of high carrier density (>1013cm%2). As a result, we observed PL spectra based on both positively and negatively charged excitons and their gate-voltage-dependent redshifts, suggesting the effects of both an electric field and charge accumulation. © 2016 The Japan Society of Applied Physics.

  10. Monolayer graphene-insulator-semiconductor emitter for large-area electron lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirley, Matthew P.; Aloui, Tanouir; Glass, Jeffrey T.

    2017-06-01

    The rapid adoption of nanotechnology in fields as varied as semiconductors, energy, and medicine requires the continual improvement of nanopatterning tools. Lithography is central to this evolving nanotechnology landscape, but current production systems are subject to high costs, low throughput, or low resolution. Herein, we present a solution to these problems with the use of monolayer graphene in a graphene-insulator-semiconductor (GIS) electron emitter device for large-area electron lithography. Our GIS device displayed high emission efficiency (up to 13%) and transferred large patterns (500 × 500 μm) with high fidelity (industries and opening opportunities in nanomanufacturing.

  11. Effects of electrolyte gating on photoluminescence spectra of large-area WSe2monolayer films

    KAUST Repository

    Matsuki, Keiichiro

    2016-05-24

    We fabricated electric double-layer transistors comprising large-area WSe2 monolayers and investigated the effects of electrolyte gating on their photoluminescence (PL) spectra. Using the efficient gating effects of electric double layers, we succeeded in the application of a large electric field (>107Vcm%1) and the accumulation of high carrier density (>1013cm%2). As a result, we observed PL spectra based on both positively and negatively charged excitons and their gate-voltage-dependent redshifts, suggesting the effects of both an electric field and charge accumulation. © 2016 The Japan Society of Applied Physics.

  12. Fast printing of thin, large area, ITO free electrochromics on flexible barrier foil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Roar R.; Hösel, Markus; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    Processing of large area, indium tin oxide (ITO) free electrochromic (EC) devices has been carried out using roll-toroll (R2R) processing. By use of very fine high-conductive silver grids with a hexagonal structure, it is possible to achieve good transparency of the electrode covered substrates...... and when used in EC devices switching times are similar to corresponding ITO devices. This is obtained without the uneven switching of larger areas, which is generally observed when using ITO because of its high-sheet resistance. The silver electrode structures for 18 ×18 cm2 devices can be processed...

  13. On the stability of large-area Al-p-Si junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyganov, Yu.S.

    2006-01-01

    Design of silicon radiation detector made of 12 kΩ · cm p-silicon with both amine- and amine-free hardeners epoxy resin junction edge passivation is presented. Before producing large-area detectors for measurements of efficiency of evaporation residues collection at the focal plane of the Dubna Gas-Filled Recoil Separator (DGFRS), a set of small-area test detectors was produced. Stability of the Al-(p)Si junction has been studied for a long time. Estimate of a realistic lifetime for the mentioned type of Al-Si rectifying junction is done

  14. Highly segmented large-area hybrid photodiodes with bialkali photocathodes and enclosed VLSI readout electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Braem, André; Filthaut, Frank; Go, A; Joram, C; Weilhammer, Peter; Wicht, P; Dulinski, W; Séguinot, Jacques; Wenzel, H; Ypsilantis, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    We report on the principles, design, fabrication, and operation of a highly segmented, large-area hybrid photodiode, which is being developed in the framework of the LHCb RICH project. The device consists of a cylindrical, 127 mm diameter vacuum envelope capped with a spherical borosilicate UV-glass entrance window, with an active-to-total-area fraction of 81A fountain-focusing electron optics is used to demagnify the image onto a 50 mm diameter silicon sensor, containing 2048 pads of size 1*1 mm/sup 2/. (10 refs).

  15. Radiocaesium levels in roe deer and wild boar in two large forest areas in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tataruch, F.; Klansek, E.; Schoenhofer, F.

    1996-01-01

    A report is given on the course of radiocaesium contamination in roe deer and wild boar in two large forest areas in Austria. In autumn 1987 and winter 1987/88 radiocaesium levels rose to values higher than those recorded in 1986 in these regions. The reason for this increase was the very specific feeding selection of roe deer in these forest areas resulting in the ingestion of an unusual high amount of blueberries, ferns and mushrooms. An explanation for the changes of wild boar's contamination has not been found yet, but possible reasons are discussed. (author)

  16. Bend-resistant large mode area fiber with novel segmented cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shaoshuo; Ning, Tigang; Pei, Li; Li, Jing; Zheng, Jingjing

    2018-01-01

    A novel structure of segment cladding fiber (SCF) with characteristics of bend-resistance and large-mode-area (LMA) is proposed. In this new structure, the high refractive index (RI) core is periodically surrounded by high RI fan-segmented claddings. Numerical investigations show that effective single-mode operation of the proposed fiber with mode field area of 700 μm2 can be achieved when the bending radius is 15 cm. Besides, this fiber is insensitive to the bending orientation at the ranging of [-180°, 180°]. The proposed design shows great potential in high power fiber lasers and amplifiers with compact structure.

  17. Thick and large area PIN diodes for hard X-ray astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Ota, N; Sugizaki, M; Kaneda, M; Tamura, T; Ozawa, H; Kamae, T; Makishima, K; Takahashi, T; Tashiro, M; Fukazawa, Y; Kataoka, J; Yamaoka, K; Kubo, S; Tanihata, C; Uchiyama, Y; Matsuzaki, K; Iyomoto, N; Kokubun, M; Nakazawa, T; Kubota, A; Mizuno, T; Matsumoto, Y; Isobe, N; Terada, Y; Sugiho, M; Onishi, T; Kubo, H; Ikeda, H; Nomachi, M; Ohsugi, T; Muramatsu, M; Akahori, H

    1999-01-01

    Thick and large area PIN diodes for the hard X-ray astronomy in the 10-60 keV range are developed. To cover this energy range in a room temperature and in a low background environment, Si PIN junction diodes of 2 mm in thickness with 2.5 cm sup 2 in effective area were developed, and will be used in the bottom of the Phoswich Hard X-ray Detector (HXD), on-board the ASTRO-E satellite. Problems related to a high purity Si and a thick depletion layer during our development and performance of the PIN diodes are presented in detail.

  18. A large area two-dimensional position sensitive multiwire proportional detector

    CERN Document Server

    Moura, M M D; Souza, F A; Alonso, E E; Fujii, R J; Meyknecht, A B; Added, N; Aissaoui, N; Cardenas, W H Z; Ferraretto, M D; Schnitter, U; Szanto, E M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Yamamura, M S; Carlin, N

    1999-01-01

    Large area two-dimensional position sensitive multiwire proportional detectors were developed to be used in the study of light heavy-ion nuclear reactions at the University of Sao Paulo Pelletron Laboratory. Each detector has a 20x20 cm sup 2 active area and consists of three grids (X-position, anode and Y-position) made of 25 mu m diameter gold plated tungsten wires. The position is determined through resistive divider chains. Results for position resolution, linearity and efficiency as a function of energy and position for different elements are reported.

  19. Highlights of a recycling behaviour study in South Africa’s large urban areas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strydom, WF

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available behaviour study in South Africa?s large urban areas WF STRYDOM CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001 Email: wstrydom@csir.co.za ? www.csir.co.za INTRODUCTION The recently promulgated National Environmental Management... representative sample of 2 004 respondents in 11 of the larger South African urban areas, including all the metropolitan municipalities. The survey was conducted in November 2010, before the Waste Act was widely implemented. The objective of the study was...

  20. Bend compensated large-mode-area fibers: achieving robust single-modedness with transformation optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fini, John M; Nicholson, Jeffrey W

    2013-08-12

    Fibers with symmetric bend compensated claddings are proposed, and demonstrate performance much better than conventional designs. These fibers can simultaneously achieve complete HOM suppression, negligible bend loss, and mode area >1000 square microns. The robust single-modedness of these fibers offers a path to overcoming mode instability limits on high-power amplifiers and lasers. The proposed designs achieve many of the advantages of our previous (asymmetric) bend compensation strategy in the regime of moderately large area, and are much easier to fabricate and utilize.

  1. Decreased losses of woody plant foliage to insects in large urban areas are explained by bird predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Mikhail V; Lanta, Vojtěch; Zverev, Vitali; Rainio, Kalle; Kunavin, Mikhail A; Zvereva, Elena L

    2017-10-01

    Despite the increasing rate of urbanization, the consequences of this process on biotic interactions remain insufficiently studied. Our aims were to identify the general pattern of urbanization impact on background insect herbivory, to explore variations in this impact related to characteristics of both urban areas and insect-plant systems, and to uncover the factors governing urbanization impacts on insect herbivory. We compared the foliar damage inflicted on the most common trees by defoliating, leafmining and gall-forming insects in rural and urban habitats associated with 16 European cities. In two of these cities, we explored quality of birch foliage for herbivorous insects, mortality of leafmining insects due to predators and parasitoids and bird predation on artificial plasticine larvae. On average, the foliage losses to insects were 16.5% lower in urban than in rural habitats. The magnitude of the overall adverse effect of urbanization on herbivory was independent of the latitude of the locality and was similar in all 11 studied tree species, but increased with an increase in the size of the urban area: it was significant in large cities (city population 1-5 million) but not significant in medium-sized and small towns. Quality of birch foliage for herbivorous insects was slightly higher in urban habitats than in rural habitats. At the same time, leafminer mortality due to ants and birds and the bird attack intensity on dummy larvae were higher in large cities than in rural habitats, which at least partially explained the decline in insect herbivory observed in response to urbanization. Our findings underscore the importance of top-down forces in mediating impacts of urbanization on plant-feeding insects: factors favouring predators may override the positive effects of temperature elevation on insects and thus reduce plant damage. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The European Economic Area (EEA) agreement and the Norwegian energy policy; EOES-avtalen og norsk energipolitikk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar; Claes, Dag Harald

    2011-07-01

    The Norwegian energy policy has a long tradition of strong public management. Already in the early 1900s the state ensured the right of first refusal to any new power stations and ensured that the privately owned power plant should go without charge back to the state after 60 years. The development of the petroleum sector Since 1970 the number of the corresponding manner largely been controlled by the state through public companies and stronger regulations, which (in conjunction with Norwegian and foreign private companies) to ensure employment, skills and added value would get 'the whole nation as a whole.' The goals were national and the funding were interventionistic from the public side. EU internal market represents in turn a far more liberal ideology, and promotes neutral nation competition for the benefit of the whole of the European Economic cooperation area (EEA). In the internal market the state's role is largely limited to being regulator of economic activities undertaken by private actors. Here are the goal European and the the funds are regulatory. The two models are met through the EEA agreement, both in terms of who the policy is going to work for and how it should be exercised. On the energy policy area these two major challenges creates for Norway: firstly, as a producer and exporter of oil and gas, economic and political interests are not always in line with the EU's interests as a consumer and importer of energy, for the second we have a tradition of a stronger governance of the energy sector than the EU internal market calls for. While not exist EEA Agreement in a vacuum.The changes in the petroleum regime in 2001-2002 through partial privatization of Statoil, the first gas directive and the case against the Gas Negotiating Committee (GFU) must be seen in context. Change is due to the mature of the petroleum sector, market development,development of the infrastructure and general international liberal economic trends that EEA

  3. ITO with embedded silver grids as transparent conductive electrodes for large area organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, Bhushan Ramesh; Mirsafaei, Mina; Cielecki, Pawel Piotr

    2017-01-01

    In this work, development of semi-transparent electrodes for efficient large area organic solar cells (OSCs) has been demonstrated. Electron beam evaporated silver grids were embedded in commercially available ITO coatings on glass, through a standard negative photolithography process, in order...... patterns. Solution processed bulk heterojunction OSCs based on PTB7:[70]PCBM were fabricated on top of these electrodes with cell areas of 4.38 cm2, and the performance of these OSCs was compared to reference cells fabricated on pure ITO electrodes. The Fill Factor of the large-scale OSCs fabricated on ITO...... with embedded Ag grids was enhanced by 18 % for the line grids pattern and 30 % for the square grids pattern compared to that of the reference OSCs. The increase in the Fill Factor was directly correlated to the decrease in the series resistance of the OSCs. The maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE...

  4. Large-Area All-Textile Pressure Sensors for Monitoring Human Motion and Physiological Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengmeng; Pu, Xiong; Jiang, Chunyan; Liu, Ting; Huang, Xin; Chen, Libo; Du, Chunhua; Sun, Jiangman; Hu, Weiguo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-11-01

    Wearable pressure sensors, which can perceive and respond to environmental stimuli, are essential components of smart textiles. Here, large-area all-textile-based pressure-sensor arrays are successfully realized on common fabric substrates. The textile sensor unit achieves high sensitivity (14.4 kPa -1 ), low detection limit (2 Pa), fast response (≈24 ms), low power consumption (sensor is demonstrated to be able to recognize finger movement, hand gestures, acoustic vibrations, and real-time pulse wave. Furthermore, large-area sensor arrays are successfully fabricated on one textile substrate to spatially map tactile stimuli and can be directly incorporated into a fabric garment for stylish designs without sacrifice of comfort, suggesting great potential in smart textiles or wearable electronics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Large-area imaging micro-well detectors for high-energy astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Deines-Jones, P; Hunter, S D; Jahoda, K; Owens, S M

    2002-01-01

    Micro-well detectors are pixelized imaging sensors that can be inexpensively fabricated in very large arrays. Owing to their intrinsic gain and operation at room temperature, they can be instrumented at very low power, per unit area, making them valuable for a variety of space-flight applications where wide-angle X-ray imaging or large-area particle tracking is required. For example, micro-well detectors have been chosen as the focal plane imager for Lobster-ISS, a proposed soft X-ray all-sky monitor. We have fabricated detectors which image X-rays with 200 mu m FWHM resolution at 3 keV. In agreement with other groups using similar geometries, we find nominal proportional counter energy resolution (20% at 6 keV in P-10), and stable operation at gas gains up to 30,000.

  6. Clinical observation on the reconstruction of large areas lower eyelid defect with Medpor spacer graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Yan Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the effects of porous polyethylene(Medporas a spacer graft in the reconstruction of large areas eyelid defect after the operation of malignant tumors of lower eyelids.METHODS: Nineteen cases(19 eyesof malignant tumors of lower eyelid underwent the eyelid reconstruction were selected. Medpor lower eyelid inserts implantation were used to replace tarsal joint sliding conjunctival flap and pedicle flap, and repaired full-thickness lower eyelid defects then underwent eyelid reconstruction. RESULTS: Appearance of eyelids and functional improvements were satisfactory with no stimulation on the eyeball and no effect on the visual function. Implants is with no absorption, shift, exclusion or infection and no tumor recurrence in all cases during the follow up for 6-36mo.CONCLUSION: Medpor lower eyelid inserts implantation can instead tarsal plate for the reconstruction of medium to large areas lower eyelid defect, which is easy performing with rare complications. It is an ideal alternatives of tarsal plate.

  7. ArCLight—A Compact Dielectric Large-Area Photon Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Auger

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ArgonCube Light readout system (ArCLight is a novel device for detecting scintillation light over large areas with Photon Detection Efficiency (PDE of the order of a few percent. Its robust technological design allows for efficient use in large-volume particle detectors, such as Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs or liquid scintillator detectors. Due to its dielectric structure it can be placed inside volumes with high electric field. It could potentially replace vacuum PhotoMultiplier Tubes (PMTs in applications where high PDE is not required. The photon detection efficiency for a 10 × 10 cm2 detector prototype was measured to be in the range of 0.8% to 2.2% across the active area.

  8. Calibration of atomic trajectories in a large-area dual-atom-interferometer gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhan-Wei; Lu, Si-Bin; Li, Run-Bing; Luo, Jun; Wang, Jin; Zhan, Ming-Sheng

    2018-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a method for calibrating atomic trajectories in a large-area dual-atom-interferometer gyroscope. The atom trajectories are monitored by modulating and delaying the Raman transition, and they are precisely calibrated by controlling the laser orientation and the bias magnetic field. To improve the immunity to the gravity effect and the common phase noise, the symmetry and the overlap of two large-area atomic interference loops are optimized by calibrating the atomic trajectories and by aligning the Raman-laser orientations. The dual-atom-interferometer gyroscope is applied in the measurement of the Earth's rotation. The sensitivity is 1.2 ×10-6 rad s -1 Hz-1/2, and the long-term stability is 6.2 ×10-8 rad/s at 2000 s.

  9. Large-area WSe2 electric double layer transistors on a plastic substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Funahashi, Kazuma; Pu, Jiang; Li, Ming Yang; Li, Lain-Jong; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Takenobu, Taishi

    2015-01-01

    Due to the requirements for large-area, uniform films, currently transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC) cannot be used in flexible transistor industrial applications. In this study, we first transferred chemically grown large-area WSe2 monolayer films from the as-grown sapphire substrates to the flexible plastic substrates. We also fabricated electric double layer transistors using the WSe2 films on the plastic substrates. These transistors exhibited ambipolar operation and an ON/OFF current ratio of ∼104, demonstrating chemically grown WSe2 transistors on plastic substrates for the first time. This achievement can be an important first step for the next-generation TMDC based flexible devices. © 2015 The Japan Society of Applied Physics.

  10. A Novel Method of Fabricating Flexible Transparent Conductive Large Area Graphene Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Tian-Ju; Yuan Chun-Qiu; Tang Wei; Tong Song-Zhao; Huang Wei; Min Yong-Gang; Liu Yi-Dong; Epstein, Arthur J.

    2015-01-01

    We fabricate flexible conductive and transparent graphene films on position-emission-tomography substrates and prepare large area graphene films by graphite oxide sheets with the new technical process. The multi-layer graphene oxide sheets can be chemically reduced by HNO 3 and HI to form a highly conductive graphene film on a substrate at lower temperature. The reduced graphene oxide sheets show a high conductivity sheet with resistance of 476 Ω/sq and transmittance of 76% at 550 nm (6 layers). The technique used to produce the transparent conductive graphene thin film is facile, inexpensive, and can be tunable for a large area production applied for electronics or touch screens. (paper)

  11. Large-area atmospheric Cherenkov detectors for high-energy gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the development of new ground-based gamma-ray detectors to explore the energy region between 20 and 200 GeV. This region in energy is interesting because it is currently unexplored by any experiment. The proposed detectors use the atmospheric Cherenkov technique, in which Cherenkov radiation produced in the gamma-ray air showers is detected using mirrors and light-sensitive devices. The important feature of the proposed experiments is the use of large mirror collection areas, which should allow for a significant improvement (i.e. reduction) in energy threshold over existing experiments. Large mirror areas are available for relatively low cost at central tower solar power plants, and there are two groups developing gamma-ray experiments using solar heliostat arrays. This paper summarizes the progress in the design of experiments using this novel approach

  12. An open-flow pulse ionization chamber for alpha spectrometry of large-area samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, L.; Roos, B.; Samuelsson, C.

    1992-01-01

    The presented open-flow pulse ionization chamber was developed to make alpha spectrometry on large-area surfaces easy. One side of the chamber is left open, where the sample is to be placed. The sample acts as a chamber wall and therby defeins the detector volume. The sample area can be as large as 400 cm 2 . To prevent air from entering the volume there is a constant gas flow through the detector, coming in at the bottom of the chamber and leaking at the sides of the sample. The method results in good energy resolution and has considerable applicability in the retrospective radon research. Alpha spectra obtained in the retrospective measurements descend from 210 Po, built up in the sample from the radon daughters recoiled into a glass surface. (au)

  13. Multicolor emission from large-area porous thin films constructed of nanowires of small organic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhechen; Ding Xunlei; Ma Yanping; Xue Wei; He Shenggui; Xiao Wenchang

    2008-01-01

    We describe a facile low-temperature physical vapor deposition approach to fabricate porous network thin films constructed of nanowires of small organic molecules on a large area. Supermolecular assemblies of pyrene nanowires based on a combination of van der Waals forces and π-π stacking tend to hierarchically self-assemble to form uniform porous films using our techniques. The morphology of the films is studied and we also study several reasons influencing the process of assembly such as evaporation temperature, deposition temperature, and different kinds of substrate. The deposition temperature is determined to be the main reason for hierarchical aggregation. Typically prepared films exhibit unique optical properties, that is, multicolor red-green-blue emissions. This novel method can be applied to other organic molecular systems and may be potentially used to place nanoscaled building blocks directly on solid surfaces for fabricating large-area nanostructure-based flat screens.

  14. Multicolor emission from large-area porous thin films constructed of nanowires of small organic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe-Chen; Xiao, Wen-Chang; Ding, Xun-Lei; Ma, Yan-Ping; Xue, Wei; He, Sheng-Gui

    2008-12-01

    We describe a facile low-temperature physical vapor deposition approach to fabricate porous network thin films constructed of nanowires of small organic molecules on a large area. Supermolecular assemblies of pyrene nanowires based on a combination of van der Waals forces and π-π stacking tend to hierarchically self-assemble to form uniform porous films using our techniques. The morphology of the films is studied and we also study several reasons influencing the process of assembly such as evaporation temperature, deposition temperature, and different kinds of substrate. The deposition temperature is determined to be the main reason for hierarchical aggregation. Typically prepared films exhibit unique optical properties, that is, multicolor red-green-blue emissions. This novel method can be applied to other organic molecular systems and may be potentially used to place nanoscaled building blocks directly on solid surfaces for fabricating large-area nanostructure-based flat screens.

  15. A gas proportional scintillation counter for use in large area detector systems without photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baruch, J.E.F.; Brooke, G.; Kellerman, E.W.; Bateman, J.E.; Connolly, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    The properties of a prototype gas proportional scintillation (GPS) detector module are described. The module (25X25X14cm 3 ) is intended to form the basic unit of large area (up to approximately 100 m 2 ) calorimetric cosmic ray burst detector. Ionisation from particle tracks in the module is collected onto a point electrode where the GPS signal is generated. A concave mirror focusses this point source onto the end of a fibre optic light guide. In the proposed large area detector these fibres are brought together onto a low light level TV camera which performs the readout. The prototype module has demonstrated an adequate light output for the detection of single muons by such a readout system and also permitted the investigation of the main operating parameters (gas mixture, EHT, pressure, etc) and operational requirements such as proportionality and long term stability. (Auth.)

  16. Large-area WSe2 electric double layer transistors on a plastic substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Funahashi, Kazuma

    2015-04-27

    Due to the requirements for large-area, uniform films, currently transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC) cannot be used in flexible transistor industrial applications. In this study, we first transferred chemically grown large-area WSe2 monolayer films from the as-grown sapphire substrates to the flexible plastic substrates. We also fabricated electric double layer transistors using the WSe2 films on the plastic substrates. These transistors exhibited ambipolar operation and an ON/OFF current ratio of ∼104, demonstrating chemically grown WSe2 transistors on plastic substrates for the first time. This achievement can be an important first step for the next-generation TMDC based flexible devices. © 2015 The Japan Society of Applied Physics.

  17. Large-Area Binary Blazed Grating Coupler between Nanophotonic Waveguide and LED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqiang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A large-area binary blazed grating coupler for the arrayed waveguide grating (AWG demodulation integrated microsystem on silicon-on-insulator (SOI was designed for the first time. Through the coupler, light can be coupled into the SOI waveguide from the InP-based C-band LED for the AWG demodulation integrated microsystem to function. Both the length and width of the grating coupler are 360 μm, as large as the InP-based C-band LED light emitting area in the system. The coupler was designed and optimized based on the finite difference time domain method. When the incident angle of the light source is 0°, the coupling efficiency of the binary blazed grating is 40.92%, and the 3 dB bandwidth is 72 nm at a wavelength of 1550 nm.

  18. Cyclical convergence of Central and Eastern European countries to the Euro area core. New methodological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana ALEXE

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current paper develops an analysis on the degree of business cycle convergence of the new member states of the EU towards the Euro area core (Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg during 1996 – 2010.Unlike the previous research, the study takes into consideration the similarity of cycles, and not their synchronization. Furthermore, from the methodological point of view, it explores the use of survey indicators in the analysis of the cycles, thus in addition to the traditional approach that employs the GDP. The results obtained through clusterization show that the degree of convergence towards Euro area core remains modest.

  19. Evolution of traffic emissions in European urban areas: Milan case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giugliano, M.; Cemin, A.; Cernuschi, S.

    1992-01-01

    The worldwide increasing role of mobile sources on the air quality of urban areas requires a careful evaluation of all the potential intervention policies for the reduction of traffic related emissions. The accurate description of the evolution of the source, following the renewal of the fleet with vehicles regulated by stricter emission standards, represents the basic premise for this evaluation. This paper outlines a proposed methodology for the evaluation of the trend of mobile source emissions, implemented on the calculation program EMISMOB, and reports the results obtained with its application to predict the evolution of traffic emissions in the urban area of Milan (Italy) until the year 2010

  20. Development of an Evaluation Methodology for Loss of Large Area induced from extreme events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sok Chul; Park, Jong Seuk; Kim, Byung Soon; Jang, Dong Ju; Lee, Seung Woo

    2015-01-01

    USNRC announced several regulatory requirements and guidance documents regarding the event of loss of large area including 10CFR 50.54(hh), Regulatory Guide 1.214 and SRP 19.4. In Korea, consideration of loss of large area has been limitedly taken into account for newly constructing NPPs as voluntary based. In general, it is hardly possible to find available information on methodology and key assumptions for the assessment of LOLA due to 'need to know based approach'. Urgent needs exists for developing country specific regulatory requirements, guidance and evaluation methodology by themselves with the consideration of their own geographical and nuclear safety and security environments. Currently, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company (KHNP) has developed an Extended Damage Mitigation Guideline (EDMG) for APR1400 under contract with foreign consulting company. The submittal guidance NEI 06-12 related to B.5.b Phase 2 and 3 focused on unit-wise mitigation strategy instead of site level mitigation or response strategy. Phase 1 mitigating strategy and guideline for LOLA (Loss of Large Area) provides emphasis on site level arrangement including cooperative networking outside organizations and agile command and control system. Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety has carried out a pilot in-house research project to develop the methodology and guideline for evaluation of LOLA since 2014. This paper introduces the summary of major results and outcomes of the aforementioned research project. After Fukushima Dai-Ichi accident, the awareness on countering the event of loss of large area induced from extreme man-made hazards or extreme beyond design basis external event. Urgent need exists to develop regulatory guidance for coping with this undesirable situation, which has been out of consideration at existing nuclear safety regulatory framework due to the expectation of rare possibility of occurrence

  1. Large-area thin self-supporting carbon foils with MgO coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarz, Anna; Maier-Komor, Peter

    2002-03-01

    Large area self-supporting carbon foils in the thickness of range of 8-22 μg/cm 2, coated with approximately 4 μg/cm 2 MgO have been prepared by e-gun evaporation. They were mounted on frames with apertures of 130 cm 2. Problems related to the parting agent preparation, floating procedure, and mounting onto frames are discussed. Special precautions necessary to avoid damage during foil drying, storage and transportation are suggested.

  2. X-ray spectrometry with Peltier-cooled large area avalanche photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, L.M.P.; Lopes, J.A.M.; Santos, J.M.F. dos; Conde, C.A.N.

    2004-01-01

    Performance characteristics of the response of a Peltier-cooled large-area avalanche photodiode are investigated. Detector gain, energy linearity, energy resolution and minimum detectable energy are studied at different operation temperatures. Detector energy resolution and lowest detectable X-ray energy present a strong improvement as the operation temperature is reduced from 25 to 15 deg. C and slower improvements are achieved for temperatures below 10 deg. C

  3. Development of a large-area Multigap RPC with adequate spatial resolution for muon tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Wang, Y.; Wang, X.; Zeng, M.; Xie, B.; Han, D.; Lyu, P.; Wang, F.; Li, Y.

    2016-11-01

    We study the performance of a large-area 2-D Multigap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) designed for muon tomography with high spatial resolution. An efficiency up to 98% and a spatial resolution of around 270 μ m are obtained in cosmic ray and X-ray tests. The performance of the MRPC is also investigated for two working gases: standard gas and pure Freon. The result shows that the MRPC working in pure Freon can provide higher efficiency and better spatial resolution.

  4. Implications of Harvest on the Boundaries of Protected Areas for Large Carnivore Viewing Opportunities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget L Borg

    Full Text Available The desire to see free ranging large carnivores in their natural habitat is a driver of tourism in protected areas around the globe. However, large carnivores are wide-ranging and subject to human-caused mortality outside protected area boundaries. The impact of harvest (trapping or hunting on wildlife viewing opportunities has been the subject of intense debate and speculation, but quantitative analyses have been lacking. We examined the effect of legal harvest of wolves (Canis lupus along the boundaries of two North American National Parks, Denali (DNPP and Yellowstone (YNP, on wolf viewing opportunities within the parks during peak tourist season. We used data on wolf sightings, pack sizes, den site locations, and harvest adjacent to DNPP from 1997-2013 and YNP from 2008-2013 to evaluate the relationship between harvest and wolf viewing opportunities. Although sightings were largely driven by wolf population size and proximity of den sites to roads, sightings in both parks were significantly reduced by harvest. Sightings in YNP increased by 45% following years with no harvest of a wolf from a pack, and sightings in DNPP were more than twice as likely during a period with a harvest buffer zone than in years without the buffer. These findings show that harvest of wolves adjacent to protected areas can reduce sightings within those areas despite minimal impacts on the size of protected wolf populations. Consumptive use of carnivores adjacent to protected areas may therefore reduce their potential for non-consumptive use, and these tradeoffs should be considered when developing regional wildlife management policies.

  5. Implications of Harvest on the Boundaries of Protected Areas for Large Carnivore Viewing Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Bridget L; Arthur, Stephen M; Bromen, Nicholas A; Cassidy, Kira A; McIntyre, Rick; Smith, Douglas W; Prugh, Laura R

    2016-01-01

    The desire to see free ranging large carnivores in their natural habitat is a driver of tourism in protected areas around the globe. However, large carnivores are wide-ranging and subject to human-caused mortality outside protected area boundaries. The impact of harvest (trapping or hunting) on wildlife viewing opportunities has been the subject of intense debate and speculation, but quantitative analyses have been lacking. We examined the effect of legal harvest of wolves (Canis lupus) along the boundaries of two North American National Parks, Denali (DNPP) and Yellowstone (YNP), on wolf viewing opportunities within the parks during peak tourist season. We used data on wolf sightings, pack sizes, den site locations, and harvest adjacent to DNPP from 1997-2013 and YNP from 2008-2013 to evaluate the relationship between harvest and wolf viewing opportunities. Although sightings were largely driven by wolf population size and proximity of den sites to roads, sightings in both parks were significantly reduced by harvest. Sightings in YNP increased by 45% following years with no harvest of a wolf from a pack, and sightings in DNPP were more than twice as likely during a period with a harvest buffer zone than in years without the buffer. These findings show that harvest of wolves adjacent to protected areas can reduce sightings within those areas despite minimal impacts on the size of protected wolf populations. Consumptive use of carnivores adjacent to protected areas may therefore reduce their potential for non-consumptive use, and these tradeoffs should be considered when developing regional wildlife management policies.

  6. ITO with embedded silver grids as transparent conductive electrodes for large area organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Bhushan R.; Mirsafaei, Mina; Piotr Cielecki, Paweł; Fernandes Cauduro, André Luis; Fiutowski, Jacek; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Madsen, Morten

    2017-10-01

    In this work, development of semi-transparent electrodes for efficient large area organic solar cells (OSCs) has been demonstrated. Electron beam evaporated silver grids were embedded in commercially available ITO coatings on glass, through a standard negative photolithography process, in order to improve the conductivity of planar ITO substrates. The fabricated electrodes with embedded line and square patterned Ag grids reduced the sheet resistance of ITO by 25% and 40%, respectively, showing optical transmittance drops of less than 6% within the complete visible light spectrum for both patterns. Solution processed bulk heterojunction OSCs based on PTB7:[70]PCBM were fabricated on top of these electrodes with cell areas of 4.38 cm2, and the performance of these OSCs was compared to reference cells fabricated on pure ITO electrodes. The Fill Factor (FF) of the large-scale OSCs fabricated on ITO with embedded Ag grids was enhanced by 18% for the line grids pattern and 30% for the square grids pattern compared to that of the reference OSCs. The increase in the FF was directly correlated to the decrease in the series resistance of the OSCs. The maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the OSCs was measured to be 4.34%, which is 23% higher than the PCE of the reference OSCs. As the presented method does not involve high temperature processing, it could be considered a general approach for development of large area organic electronics on solvent resistant, flexible substrates.

  7. Large-area super-resolution optical imaging by using core-shell microfibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Yang; Lo, Wei-Chieh

    2017-09-01

    We first numerically and experimentally report large-area super-resolution optical imaging achieved by using core-shell microfibers. The particular spatial electromagnetic waves for different core-shell microfibers are studied by using finite-difference time-domain and ray tracing calculations. The focusing properties of photonic nanojets are evaluated in terms of intensity profile and full width at half-maximum along propagation and transversal directions. In experiment, the general optical fiber is chemically etched down to 6 μm diameter and coated with different metallic thin films by using glancing angle deposition. The direct imaging of photonic nanojets for different core-shell microfibers is performed with a scanning optical microscope system. We show that the intensity distribution of a photonic nanojet is highly related to the metallic shell due to the surface plasmon polaritons. Furthermore, large-area super-resolution optical imaging is performed by using different core-shell microfibers placed over the nano-scale grating with 150 nm line width. The core-shell microfiber-assisted imaging is achieved with super-resolution and hundreds of times the field-of-view in contrast to microspheres. The possible applications of these core-shell optical microfibers include real-time large-area micro-fluidics and nano-structure inspections.

  8. Scenarios for european coastal areas, a promising tool for making decisions at various levels?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Natural coasts, especially soft coasts, in Europe are valuable landscapes, but they are under great pressure. Trends and threats have various causes of both physico-ecological and socio-economic origin. Examples of large-scale processes are given, such as sea level rise and regional processes

  9. The European Union as an Area of Freedom, Security and Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fletcher, Maria; Herlin-Karnell, Ester; Matera, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Europe’s area of freedom, security and justice is of increasing importance in contemporary EU law and legislation. It is worthy of special research attention because of its high-stakes content (particularly from an individual and a state perspective) and because its development to date has

  10. Disentangling neighbourhood problems: Area-based interventions in Western European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gent, W.P.C.; Musterd, S.; Ostendorf, W.

    2009-01-01

    Urban policies in Western Europe have increasingly taken a territorial focus in addressing social problems through area-based initiatives (ABIs). Policy discourses emphasise the role of the residential environment in the social economic deprivation. However, a territorial focus that tackles both

  11. Rapid fabrication of large-area, corrosion-resistant superhydrophobic Mg alloy surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenji; Song, Jinlong; Sun, Jing; Lu, Yao; Yu, Ziyuan

    2011-11-01

    A superhydrophobic magnesium (Mg) alloy surface was successfully fabricated via a facile electrochemical machining process, and subsequently covered with a fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) film. The surface morphologies and chemical compositions were investigated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and a Fourier-transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR). The results show hierarchal rough structures and an FAS film with a low surface energy on the Mg alloy surfaces, which confers good superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 165.2° and a water tilting angle of approximately 2°. The processing conditions, such as the processing time and removal rate per unit area at a constant removal mass per unit area, were investigated to determine their effects on the superhydrophobicity. Interestingly, when the removal mass per unit area is constant at approximately 11.10 mg/cm(2), the superhydrophobicity does not change with the removal rate per unit area. Therefore, a superhydrophobic Mg alloy surface can be rapidly fabricated based on this property. A large-area superhydrophobic Mg alloy surface was also fabricated for the first time using a small-area moving cathode. The corrosion resistance and durability of the superhydrophobic surfaces were also examined.

  12. [Effects of large-area planting water hyacinth on macro-benthos community structure and biomass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Feng; Liu, Hai-Qin; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Yan, Shao-Hua; Zhong, Ji-Cheng; Fan, Cheng-Xin

    2010-12-01

    The effects on macro-benthos and benthos environment of planting 200 hm2 water hyacinth (E. crassipens) in Zhushan Bay, Lake Taihu, were studied during 8-10 months consecutive surveys. Results indicated that average densities of mollusca (the main species were Bellamya aeruginosa) in far-planting, near-planting and planting area were 276.67, 371.11 and 440.00 ind/m2, respectively, and biomass were 373.15, 486.57 and 672.54 g/m2, respectively, showed that average density and biomass of planting area's were higher than those of others. However, the average density and biomass of Oligochaeta (the main species was Limodrilus hoffmeisteri) and Chironomidae in planting area were lower than that of outside planting area. The density and biomass of three dominant species of benthic animal increased quickly during 8-9 months, decreased quickly in October inside and outside water hyacinth planting area. The reason of this phenomenon could be possible that lots of cyanobacteria cells died and consumed dissolve oxygen in proceed decomposing. Algae cells released lots of phosphorus and nitrogen simultaneously, so macro-benthos died in this environment. The indexes of Shannon-Weaver and Simpson indicated that water environment was in moderate polluted state. On the basis of the survey results, the large-area and high-density planting water hyacinth haven't demonstrated a great impact on macrobenthos and benthos environment in short planting time (about 6 months planting time).

  13. Situation of European SMEs in the olive oil and table olive area. Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador, Javier

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A study of the situation of European Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs in the olive oil and table olive sector is carried out in order to find their main needs in the following aspects: information, participation in Research, Development and Innovation (R+D+I programmes, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs implementation, quality control, environmental impacts, etc. The data used in this study were obtained through questionnaires sent to SMEs in France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain and Turkey. The results obtained show: a reasonable acceptance of ICTs, a high interest in training courses on the most recent and pertinent legislation, and in product quality improvement and marketing.En este trabajo, se realiza un estudio de la PYME europea en el sector olivarero para detectar las principales necesidades que tienen las empresas en información técnica, participación en proyectos de investigación, formación, Tecnologías de Información y Comunicación (TIC, calidad, impacto ambiental, etc. Los datos se obtuvieron a través de encuestas enviadas a empresas de Alemania, Francia, España, Grecia, Italia, Portugal y Turquía. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que las TIC tienen un nivel razonable de implantación en este sector industrial. Así mismo, las empresas encuestadas manifiestan tener gran interés en actividades de formación e información en la legislación relacionada con el sector, el control de calidad y el marketing.

  14. Analysis on Dangerous Source of Large Safety Accident in Storage Tank Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Li, Ying; Xie, Tiansheng; Liu, Yu; Zhu, Xueyuan

    2018-01-01

    The difference between a large safety accident and a general accident is that the consequences of a large safety accident are particularly serious. To study the tank area which factors directly or indirectly lead to the occurrence of large-sized safety accidents. According to the three kinds of hazard source theory and the consequence cause analysis of the super safety accident, this paper analyzes the dangerous source of the super safety accident in the tank area from four aspects, such as energy source, large-sized safety accident reason, management missing, environmental impact Based on the analysis of three kinds of hazard sources and environmental analysis to derive the main risk factors and the AHP evaluation model is established, and after rigorous and scientific calculation, the weights of the related factors in four kinds of risk factors and each type of risk factors are obtained. The result of analytic hierarchy process shows that management reasons is the most important one, and then the environmental factors and the direct cause and Energy source. It should be noted that although the direct cause is relatively low overall importance, the direct cause of Failure of emergency measures and Failure of prevention and control facilities in greater weight.

  15. Research progress on large-area perovskite thin films and solar modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichun Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organometal halide perovskites have exhibited a bright future as photovoltaic semiconductor in next generation solar cells due to their unique and promising physicochemical properties. Over the past few years, we have witnessed a tremendous progress of efficiency record evolution of perovskite solar cells (PSCs. Up to now, the highest efficiency record of PSCs has reached 22.1%; however, it was achieved at a very small device area of <0.1 cm2. With the device area increasing to mini-module scale, the efficiency record dropped dramatically. The inherent causes are mainly ascribed to inadequate quality control of large-area perovskite thin films and insufficient optimization of solar module design. In current stage of PSCs research and development, to overcome these two obstacles is in urgent need before this new technology could realize scale-up industrialization. Herein, we present an overview of recently developed strategies for preparing large-area perovskite thin films and perovskite solar modules (PSMs. At last, cost analysis and future application directions of PSMs have also been discussed.

  16. Self-alignment of a compact large-area atomic Sagnac interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tackmann, G; Berg, P; Schubert, C; Abend, S; Gilowski, M; Ertmer, W; Rasel, E M

    2012-01-01

    We report on the realization of a compact atomic Mach-Zehnder-type Sagnac interferometer of 13.7 cm length, which covers an area of 19 mm 2 previously reported only for large thermal beam interferometers. According to Sagnac's formula, which holds for both light and atoms, the sensitivity for rotation rates increases linearly with the area enclosed by the interferometer. The use of cold atoms instead of thermal atoms enables miniaturization of Sagnac interferometers without sacrificing large areas. In comparison with thermal beams, slow atoms offer better matching of the initial beam velocity and the velocity with which the matter waves separate. In our case, the area is spanned by a cold atomic beam of 2.79 m s -1 , which is split, deflected and combined by driving a Raman transition between the two hyperfine ground states of 87 Rb in three spatially separated light zones. The use of cold atoms requires a precise angular alignment and high wave front quality of the three independent light zones over the cloud envelope. We present a procedure for mutually aligning the beam splitters at the microradian level by making use of the atom interferometer itself in different configurations. With this method, we currently achieve a sensitivity of 6.1×10 -7 rad s -1 Hz -1/2 . (paper)

  17. Evaluation of bacterial nanocellulose-based uniform wound dressing for large area skin transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Lina [Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Nano-Medicine, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhou, Ping [Institute of Organ Transplant of Tongji Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Zhang, Shengmin [Advanced Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Yang, Guang, E-mail: yang_sunny@yahoo.com [Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Nano-Medicine, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-07-01

    Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) was biosynthesized by Gluconacetobacter xylinus. The surface area, physicochemical structure and morphology of the materials were characterized. Here provides a method for an efficient production of uniform BNC, which is beneficial for the fast characterization and evaluation of BNC. In vitro cytotoxicity of the materials was evaluated by the proliferation, the adhesion, the viability and the morphology of NIH/3T3 cells. Low cytotoxicity of the BNC was observed, and micrographs demonstrate a good proliferation and adhesion of NIH/3T3 cells on BNC. Large area full-thickness skin defects were made on the back of C57BL/6 mice in animal surgery. The wounds were transplanted with BNC films and the results compared to those in a control group. The rehabilitation of the wound surfaces and the pathological sections of mice were investigated and are discussed. Histological examinations demonstrated faster and better healing effect and lower inflammatory response in the BNC group than those in the control group. Preliminary results on wound dressings from BNC show a curative effect promoting the healing of epithelial tissue. BNC is a promising natural polymer with medical applications in wound dressings. - Highlights: • BNC is expected to be a promising material in wound healing and skin transplantation. • We studied surface area, physicochemical structures and morphology of uniform BNC. • Cyto-evaluation results of BNC-based wound dressing show a good biocompatibility. • Large area skin transplantation experiments suggest a good performance of healing.

  18. Evaluation of bacterial nanocellulose-based uniform wound dressing for large area skin transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Lina; Zhou, Ping; Zhang, Shengmin; Yang, Guang

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) was biosynthesized by Gluconacetobacter xylinus. The surface area, physicochemical structure and morphology of the materials were characterized. Here provides a method for an efficient production of uniform BNC, which is beneficial for the fast characterization and evaluation of BNC. In vitro cytotoxicity of the materials was evaluated by the proliferation, the adhesion, the viability and the morphology of NIH/3T3 cells. Low cytotoxicity of the BNC was observed, and micrographs demonstrate a good proliferation and adhesion of NIH/3T3 cells on BNC. Large area full-thickness skin defects were made on the back of C57BL/6 mice in animal surgery. The wounds were transplanted with BNC films and the results compared to those in a control group. The rehabilitation of the wound surfaces and the pathological sections of mice were investigated and are discussed. Histological examinations demonstrated faster and better healing effect and lower inflammatory response in the BNC group than those in the control group. Preliminary results on wound dressings from BNC show a curative effect promoting the healing of epithelial tissue. BNC is a promising natural polymer with medical applications in wound dressings. - Highlights: • BNC is expected to be a promising material in wound healing and skin transplantation. • We studied surface area, physicochemical structures and morphology of uniform BNC. • Cyto-evaluation results of BNC-based wound dressing show a good biocompatibility. • Large area skin transplantation experiments suggest a good performance of healing

  19. Large area, low capacitance, GaAs nanowire photodetector with a transparent Schottky collecting junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyedi, M. A., E-mail: seyedi@usc.edu; Yao, M.; O' Brien, J.; Dapkus, P. D. [Center for Energy Nanoscience, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Wang, S. Y. [Center for Energy Nanoscience, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Nanostructured Energy Conversion Technology and Research (NECTAR), Advanced Studies Laboratories, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064, USA and NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California 94035 (United States)

    2013-12-16

    We present experimental results on a GaAs/Indium-Tin-Oxide Schottky-like heterojunction photodetector based on a nanowire device geometry. By distributing the active detecting area over an array of nanowires, it is possible to achieve large area detection with low capacitance. Devices with bare GaAs and passivated AlGaAs/GaAs nanowires are fabricated to compare the responsivity with and without surface passivation. We are able to achieve responsivity of >0.5A/W and Signal-Noise-Ratio in excess of 7 dB for 2 V applied reverse bias with passivated nanowire devices. Capacitance-voltage measurement yields <5 nF/cm{sup 2}, which shows a strong possibility for high-speed applications with a broad area device.

  20. Large area, low capacitance, GaAs nanowire photodetector with a transparent Schottky collecting junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyedi, M. A.; Yao, M.; O'Brien, J.; Dapkus, P. D.; Wang, S. Y.

    2013-01-01

    We present experimental results on a GaAs/Indium-Tin-Oxide Schottky-like heterojunction photodetector based on a nanowire device geometry. By distributing the active detecting area over an array of nanowires, it is possible to achieve large area detection with low capacitance. Devices with bare GaAs and passivated AlGaAs/GaAs nanowires are fabricated to compare the responsivity with and without surface passivation. We are able to achieve responsivity of >0.5A/W and Signal-Noise-Ratio in excess of 7 dB for 2 V applied reverse bias with passivated nanowire devices. Capacitance-voltage measurement yields 2 , which shows a strong possibility for high-speed applications with a broad area device

  1. Fabrication of Large Area Fishnet Optical Metamaterial Structures Operational at Near-IR Wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis W. Prather

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate a fabrication process for large area (2 mm × 2 mm fishnet metamaterial structures for near IR wavelengths. This process involves: (a defining a sacrificial Si template structure onto a quartz wafer using deep-UV lithography and a dry etching process (b deposition of a stack of Au-SiO2-Au layers and (c a ‘lift-off’ process which removes the sacrificial template structure to yield the fishnet structure. The fabrication steps in this process are compatible with today’s CMOS technology making it eminently well suited for batch fabrication. Also, depending on area of the exposure mask available for patterning the template structure, this fabrication process can potentially lead to optical metamaterials spanning across wafer-size areas.

  2. Two-group interfacial area concentration correlations of two-phase flows in large diameter pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Xiuzhong; Hibiki, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The reliable empirical correlations and models are one of the important ways to predict the interfacial area concentration (IAC) in two-phase flows. However, up to now, no correlation or model is available for the prediction of the IAC in the two-phase flows in large diameter pipes. This study collected an IAC experimental database of two-phase flows taken under various flow conditions in large diameter pipes and presented a systematic way to predict the IAC for two-phase flows from bubbly, cap-bubbly to churn flow in large diameter pipes by categorizing bubbles into two groups (group-1: spherical and distorted bubble, group-2: cap bubble). Correlations were developed to predict the group-1 void fraction from the void fraction of all bubble. The IAC contribution from group-1 bubbles was modeled by using the dominant parameters of group-1 bubble void fraction and Reynolds number based on the parameter-dependent analysis of Hibiki and Ishii (2001, 2002) using one-dimensional bubble number density and interfacial area transport equations. A new drift velocity correlation for two-phase flow with large cap bubbles in large diameter pipes was derived in this study. By comparing the newly-derived drift velocity correlation with the existing drift velocity correlation of Kataoka and Ishii (1987) for large diameter pipes and using the characteristics of the representative bubbles among the group 2 bubbles, we developed the model of IAC and bubble size for group 2 cap bubbles. The developed models for estimating the IAC are compared with the entire collected database. A reasonable agreement was obtained with average relative errors of ±28.1%, ±54.4% and ±29.6% for group 1, group 2 and all bubbles respectively. (author)

  3. Optimized preparation for large surface area activated carbon from date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) stone biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danish, Mohammed; Hashim, Rokiah; Ibrahim, M.N. Mohamad; Sulaiman, Othman

    2014-01-01

    The preparation of activated carbon from date stone treated with phosphoric acid was optimized using rotatable central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM). The chemical activating agent concentration and temperature of activation plays a crucial role in preparation of large surface area activated carbons. The optimized activated carbon was characterized using thermogravimetric analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that the larger surface area of activated carbon from date stone can be achieved under optimum activating agent (phosphoric acid) concentration, 50.0% (8.674 mol L −1 ) and activation temperature, 900 °C. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area of optimized activated carbon was found to be 1225 m 2  g −1 , and thermogravimetric analysis revealed that 55.2% mass of optimized activated carbon was found thermally stable till 900 °C. The leading chemical functional groups found in the date stone activated carbon were aliphatic carboxylic acid salt ν(C=O) 1561.22 cm −1 and 1384.52 cm −1 , aliphatic hydrocarbons ν(C–H) 2922.99 cm −1 (C–H sym./asym. stretch frequency), aliphatic phosphates ν(P–O–C) 1054.09 cm −1 , and secondary aliphatic alcohols ν(O–H) 3419.81 cm −1 and 1159.83 cm −1 . - Highlights: • RSM optimization was done for the production of large surface area activated carbon. • Two independent variables with two responses were selected for optimization. • Characterization was done for surface area, morphology and chemical constituents. • Optimized date stone activated carbon achieved surface area 1225 m 2  g −1

  4. Preliminary piping layout and integration of European test blanket modules subsystems in ITER CVCS area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarallo, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.tarallo@unina.it [CREATE, University of Naples Federico II, DII, P.le Tecchio, 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Mozzillo, Rocco; Di Gironimo, Giuseppe [CREATE, University of Naples Federico II, DII, P.le Tecchio, 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Aiello, Antonio; Utili, Marco [ENEA UTIS, C.R. Brasimone, Bacino del Brasimone, I-40032 Camugnano, BO (Italy); Ricapito, Italo [TBM& MD Project, Fusion for Energy, EU Commission, Carrer J. Pla, 2, Building B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • The use of human modeling tools for piping design in view of maintenance is discussed. • A possible preliminary layout for TBM subsystems in CVCS area has been designed with CATIA. • A DHM-based method to quickly check for maintainability of piping systems is suggested. - Abstract: This paper explores a possible integration of some ancillary systems of helium-cooled lithium lead (HCLL) and helium-cooled pebble-bed (HCPB) test blanket modules in ITER CVCS area. Computer-aided design and ergonomics simulation tools have been fundamental not only to define suitable routes for pipes, but also to quickly check for maintainability of equipment and in-line components. In particular, accessibility of equipment and systems has been investigated from the very first stages of the design using digital human models. In some cases, the digital simulations have resulted in changes in the initial space reservations.

  5. Twitter as a Tool in Crisis Communication in the European Union Area

    OpenAIRE

    Numminen, Anssi; Rajamäki, Jyri

    2017-01-01

    n this study we built understanding on how the social media and especially Twitter can be used in crisis communication in the EU. We conducted a case analysis about how the Munich Police Department did their crisis communication via Twitter during the Munich shooting crisis. The use of social media in crisis communication is increasing as well as the available mobile phone environment for the people in the EU area. EU projects have increased knowledge about the possible crises situations in t...

  6. Interfacial area concentration in gas–liquid bubbly to churn flow regimes in large diameter pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Xiuzhong; Hibiki, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A systematic method to predict interfacial area concentration (IAC) is presented. • A correlation for group 1 bubble void fraction is proposed. • Correlations of IAC and bubble diameter are developed for group 1 bubbles. • Correlations of IAC and bubble diameter are developed for group 2 bubbles. • The newly-developed two-group IAC model compares well with collected databases. - Abstract: This study performed a survey on existing correlations for interfacial area concentration (IAC) prediction and collected an IAC experimental database of two-phase flows taken under various flow conditions in large diameter pipes. Although some of these existing correlations were developed by partly using the IAC databases taken in the low-void-fraction two-phase flows in large diameter pipes, no correlation can satisfactorily predict the IAC in the two-phase flows changing from bubbly, cap bubbly to churn flow in the collected database of large diameter pipes. So this study presented a systematic way to predict the IAC for the bubbly-to-churn flows in large diameter pipes by categorizing bubbles into two groups (group 1: spherical or distorted bubble, group 2: cap bubble). A correlation was developed to predict the group 1 void fraction by using the void fraction for all bubble. The group 1 bubble IAC and bubble diameter were modeled by using the key parameters such as group 1 void fraction and bubble Reynolds number based on the analysis of Hibiki and Ishii (2001, 2002) using one-dimensional bubble number density and interfacial area transport equations. The correlations of IAC and bubble diameter for group 2 cap bubbles were developed by taking into account the characteristics of the representative bubbles among the group 2 bubbles and the comparison between a newly-derived drift velocity correlation for large diameter pipes and the existing drift velocity correlation of Kataoka and Ishii (1987) for large diameter pipes. The predictions from the newly

  7. Active Case Finding for Communicable Diseases in Prison Settings: Increasing Testing Coverage and Uptake Among the Prison Population in the European Union/European Economic Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroling, Hilde; Babudieri, Sergio; Monarca, Roberto; Vonk Noordegraaf-Schouten, Marije; Beer, Netta; Gomes Dias, Joana; O’Moore, Éamonn; Hedrich, Dagmar; Oordt-Speets, Anouk

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Prison populations are disproportionally affected by communicable diseases when compared with the general community because of a complex mix of socioeconomic determinants and environmental factors. Tailored and adequate health care provision in prisons has the potential to reach vulnerable and underserved groups and address their complex needs. We investigated the available evidence on modalities and effectiveness of active case-finding interventions in prisons by searching PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for records on prison and active case finding with no language limit. Conference abstracts and unpublished research reports also were retrieved. We analyzed the findings by testing modality, outcomes, and study quality. The included 90 records—63 peer-reviewed, 26 from gray literature, and 1 systematic review—reported variously on viral hepatitis, human immunodeficiency virus, sexually transmitted infections, and tuberculosis. No records were retrieved for other communicable diseases. Provider-initiated opt-in testing was the most frequently investigated modality. Testing at entry and provider-initiated testing were reported to result in comparatively higher uptake ranges. However, no comparative studies were identified that reported statistically significant differences between testing modalities. Positivity rates among tested inmates ranged broadly but were generally high for all diseases. The evidence on active case finding in correctional facilities is limited, heterogeneous, and of low quality, making it challenging to draw conclusions on the effect of different testing modalities. Scale-up of provider-initiated testing in European correctional facilities could substantially reduce the undiagnosed fraction and, hence, prevent additional disease transmission in both prison settings and the community at large. PMID:29648594

  8. The sixth Euratom framework programme 2003-2006: a driving force for the construction of the Nuclear European Research Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Ruiz, P.; Forsstroem, H.; Goethem, G. van

    2005-01-01

    At the Lisbon 2000 summit, a strategic goal was proposed for the European Union: 'to become the most competitive knowledge-based economy with more and better employment and social cohesion by 2010'. Overall, in particular in the community of nuclear fission research, this EC initiative was well accepted by the main stakeholders. In Europe, the main stakeholders (i.e. suppliers and/or demanders) of nuclear research are actually: the research organisations (with mixed public/private funding), the manufacturing industry (or vendors), the utilities (or engineering companies), the regulatory bodies (or technical safety organisations) and the academia (or universities). In response to the Lisbon 2000 objectives, Commissioner P. BUSQUIN launched the concept of European Research Area (ERA) which sets also the frame for the FP-6. In this invited lecture, research and training in nuclear fission are looked at from a nuclear ERA perspective with emphasis on the three success factors of any European integration policy, namely: needs, vision and instruments, that ought to be strongly shared amongst the stakeholders in the EU-25. The following questions are addressed. What is driving the current EU trend towards more research, more education and more training in general? Regarding nuclear fission, in particular, who are the end-users of Euratom 'research and training' and what are their expectations (needs) from EU programmes? Do all stakeholders share the same vision about European research and training in nuclear fission? What are the instruments proposed by the Commission to the end-users to conduct joint research programmes? The above questions are all linked to nuclear knowledge management. It is shown that, in Community research, production of knowledge remains the most important objective, be it to generate products or services. However, dissemination/transfer (e.g. education and training) and exploitation (e.g. innovation) of knowledge become equally important as

  9. A small-scale, rolled-membrane microfluidic artificial lung designed towards future large area manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A J; Marks, L H; Goudie, M J; Rojas-Pena, A; Handa, H; Potkay, J A

    2017-03-01

    Artificial lungs have been used in the clinic for multiple decades to supplement patient pulmonary function. Recently, small-scale microfluidic artificial lungs (μAL) have been demonstrated with large surface area to blood volume ratios, biomimetic blood flow paths, and pressure drops compatible with pumpless operation. Initial small-scale microfluidic devices with blood flow rates in the μ l/min to ml/min range have exhibited excellent gas transfer efficiencies; however, current manufacturing techniques may not be suitable for scaling up to human applications. Here, we present a new manufacturing technology for a microfluidic artificial lung in which the structure is assembled via a continuous "rolling" and bonding procedure from a single, patterned layer of polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS). This method is demonstrated in a small-scale four-layer device, but is expected to easily scale to larger area devices. The presented devices have a biomimetic branching blood flow network, 10  μ m tall artificial capillaries, and a 66  μ m thick gas transfer membrane. Gas transfer efficiency in blood was evaluated over a range of blood flow rates (0.1-1.25 ml/min) for two different sweep gases (pure O 2 , atmospheric air). The achieved gas transfer data closely follow predicted theoretical values for oxygenation and CO 2 removal, while pressure drop is marginally higher than predicted. This work is the first step in developing a scalable method for creating large area microfluidic artificial lungs. Although designed for microfluidic artificial lungs, the presented technique is expected to result in the first manufacturing method capable of simply and easily creating large area microfluidic devices from PDMS.

  10. Organic solar cell modules for specific applications-From energy autonomous systems to large area photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niggemann, M.; Zimmermann, B.; Haschke, J.; Glatthaar, M.; Gombert, A.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the development of two types of organic solar cell modules one for energy autonomous systems and one for large area energy harvesting. The first requires a specific tailoring of the solar cell geometry and cell interconnection in order to power an energy autonomous system under its specific operating conditions. We present an organic solar cell module with 22 interconnected solar cells. A power conversion efficiency of 2% under solar illumination has been reached on the active area of 46.2 cm 2 . A voltage of 4 V at the maximum power point has been obtained under indoor illumination conditions. Micro contact printing of a self assembling monolayer was employed for the patterning of the polymer anode. Large area photovoltaic modules have to meet the requirements on efficiency, lifetime and costs simultaneously. To minimize the production costs, a suitable concept for efficient reel-to-reel production of large area modules is needed. A major contribution to reduce the costs is the substitution of the commonly used indium tin oxide electrode by a cheap material. We present the state of the art of the anode wrap through concept as a reel-to-reel suited module concept and show comparative calculations of the module interconnection of the wrap through concept and the standard ITO-based cell architecture. As a result, the calculated overall module efficiency of the anode wrap through module exceeds the overall efficiency of modules based on ITO on glass (sheet resistance 15 Ω/square) and on foils (sheet resistance 60 Ω/square)

  11. The AlpArray Seismic Network: A Large-Scale European Experiment to Image the Alpine Orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetényi, György; Molinari, Irene; Clinton, John; Bokelmann, Götz; Bondár, István; Crawford, Wayne C.; Dessa, Jean-Xavier; Doubre, Cécile; Friederich, Wolfgang; Fuchs, Florian; Giardini, Domenico; Gráczer, Zoltán; Handy, Mark R.; Herak, Marijan; Jia, Yan; Kissling, Edi; Kopp, Heidrun; Korn, Michael; Margheriti, Lucia; Meier, Thomas; Mucciarelli, Marco; Paul, Anne; Pesaresi, Damiano; Piromallo, Claudia; Plenefisch, Thomas; Plomerová, Jaroslava; Ritter, Joachim; Rümpker, Georg; Šipka, Vesna; Spallarossa, Daniele; Thomas, Christine; Tilmann, Frederik; Wassermann, Joachim; Weber, Michael; Wéber, Zoltán; Wesztergom, Viktor; Živčić, Mladen

    2018-04-01

    The AlpArray programme is a multinational, European consortium to advance our understanding of orogenesis and its relationship to mantle dynamics, plate reorganizations, surface processes and seismic hazard in the Alps-Apennines-Carpathians-Dinarides orogenic system. The AlpArray Seismic Network has been deployed with contributions from 36 institutions from 11 countries to map physical properties of the lithosphere and asthenosphere in 3D and thus to obtain new, high-resolution geophysical images of structures from the surface down to the base of the mantle transition zone. With over 600 broadband stations operated for 2 years, this seismic experiment is one of the largest simultaneously operated seismological networks in the academic domain, employing hexagonal coverage with station spacing at less than 52 km. This dense and regularly spaced experiment is made possible by the coordinated coeval deployment of temporary stations from numerous national pools, including ocean-bottom seismometers, which were funded by different national agencies. They combine with permanent networks, which also required the cooperation of many different operators. Together these stations ultimately fill coverage gaps. Following a short overview of previous large-scale seismological experiments in the Alpine region, we here present the goals, construction, deployment, characteristics and data management of the AlpArray Seismic Network, which will provide data that is expected to be unprecedented in quality to image the complex Alpine mountains at depth.

  12. Large-scale assessment of myxomatosis prevalence in European wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) 60years after first outbreak in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafuerte, Rafael; Castro, Francisca; Ramírez, Esther; Cotilla, Irene; Parra, Francisco; Delibes-Mateos, Miguel; Recuerda, Pilar; Rouco, Carlos

    2017-10-01

    Myxomatosis is a viral disease that affects European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) worldwide. In Spain, populations of wild rabbits drastically decreased in the 1950s after the first outbreak of myxomatosis. Since that first appearance, it seems to be an annual epizootic in Spain with periodic outbreaks, predominantly in summer and autumn. Taking into account rabbit population structure, abundance, and genetic lineage, this paper attempts to make a large-scale characterization of myxomatosis seroprevalence based on the immune status of 29 rabbit populations distributed throughout Spain, where O. cuniculus cuniculus and O. c. algirus, the two known rabbit subspecies, naturally inhabit. A total of 654 samples were collected between 2003 and 2009, and seroprevalence of antibodies against Myxoma virus (MYXV) was determined. Overall, our results revealed that 53% of the rabbit samples were positive to antibodies against MYXV. Newborn and juvenile rabbits were the most susceptible animals to the virus, with 19% and 16% seropositivity for newborn and juveniles, respectively, while adult rabbits were the most protected, with 65% of seropositive samples. This suggests that prevalence is negatively related to the proportion of newborn and juvenile rabbits in a population. Our results also showed that seroprevalence against MYXV tended to be higher in high-abundance populations. In contrast, no differences were detected in seroprevalence between rabbit subspecies. This study confirms that >60years since first outbreak, myxomatosis is an endemic disease in Spain. Based on the results, the establishment of a myxomatosis surveillance protocol is proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modelling of electricity generation of large interconnected power systems: How can a CO2 tax influence the European generation mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorspools, Kris R.; D'haeseleer, William D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses a methodology for detailed modelling of electricity generation of large interconnected power systems in a liberalised market. The resulting model, called E-Simulate, respects the technological restrictions and boundary conditions inherent to power generation and simulates the power generation and cross border trade on an hourly basis and on a power plant level. Nevertheless, E-Simulate is sufficiently flexible, transparent and fast. It is a valid, objective and useful tool in the simulation of the impact of power generation topics in the context of liberalised markets and GHG emission reduction. As a comprehensive example of the use and the strength of E-Simulate, we study the effect of a CO 2 tax on power generation and electricity trade in and between eight interconnected European zones: The Netherlands, Belgium/Luxemburg, France, Germany, Spain, Portugal, Switzerland and Italy. A CO 2 tax of 10 Euro /ton CO 2 causes an overall CO 2 emission reduction of about 6%. We notice an overall increase in gas fired generation and a corresponding reduction of coal and lignite fired generation on a trans-national level. In some zones (The Netherlands, Belgium/Luxemburg and Italy), the emissions will rise. In others (France, Germany and Spain), emissions will decrease. This is a result of the CO 2 tax that not only causes a shift towards fuels with lower carbon content but also, and correspondingly, leads to a redistribution of cross border trade

  14. Testing DNA barcode performance in 1000 species of European lepidoptera: large geographic distances have small genetic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Peter; Mutanen, Marko; Sefc, Kristina M; Hebert, Paul D N

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the performance of DNA barcodes (mt cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene) in the identification of 1004 species of Lepidoptera shared by two localities (Finland, Austria) that are 1600 km apart. Maximum intraspecific distances for the pooled data were less than 2% for 880 species (87.6%), while deeper divergence was detected in 124 species. Despite such variation, the overall DNA barcode library possessed diagnostic COI sequences for 98.8% of the taxa. Because a reference library based on Finnish specimens was highly effective in identifying specimens from Austria, we conclude that barcode libraries based on regional sampling can often be effective for a much larger area. Moreover, dispersal ability (poor, good) and distribution patterns (disjunct, fragmented, continuous, migratory) had little impact on levels of intraspecific geographic divergence. Furthermore, the present study revealed that, despite the intensity of past taxonomic work on European Lepidoptera, nearly 20% of the species shared by Austria and Finland require further work to clarify their status. Particularly discordant BIN (Barcode Index Number) cases should be checked to ascertain possible explanatory factors such as incorrect taxonomy, hybridization, introgression, and Wolbachia infections.

  15. Testing DNA barcode performance in 1000 species of European lepidoptera: large geographic distances have small genetic impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Huemer

    Full Text Available This study examines the performance of DNA barcodes (mt cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene in the identification of 1004 species of Lepidoptera shared by two localities (Finland, Austria that are 1600 km apart. Maximum intraspecific distances for the pooled data were less than 2% for 880 species (87.6%, while deeper divergence was detected in 124 species. Despite such variation, the overall DNA barcode library possessed diagnostic COI sequences for 98.8% of the taxa. Because a reference library based on Finnish specimens was highly effective in identifying specimens from Austria, we conclude that barcode libraries based on regional sampling can often be effective for a much larger area. Moreover, dispersal ability (poor, good and distribution patterns (disjunct, fragmented, continuous, migratory had little impact on levels of intraspecific geographic divergence. Furthermore, the present study revealed that, despite the intensity of past taxonomic work on European Lepidoptera, nearly 20% of the species shared by Austria and Finland require further work to clarify their status. Particularly discordant BIN (Barcode Index Number cases should be checked to ascertain possible explanatory factors such as incorrect taxonomy, hybridization, introgression, and Wolbachia infections.

  16. Design of a prototype position actuator for the primary mirror segments of the European Extremely Large Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, A.; Morante, E.; Viera, T.; Núñez, M.; Reyes, M.

    2010-07-01

    European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) based in 984 primary mirror segments achieving required optical performance; they must position relatively to adjacent segments with relative nanometer accuracy. CESA designed M1 Position Actuators (PACT) to comply with demanding performance requirements of EELT. Three PACT are located under each segment controlling three out of the plane degrees of freedom (tip, tilt, piston). To achieve a high linear accuracy in long operational displacements, PACT uses two stages in series. First stage based on Voice Coil Actuator (VCA) to achieve high accuracies in very short travel ranges, while second stage based on Brushless DC Motor (BLDC) provides large stroke ranges and allows positioning the first stage closer to the demanded position. A BLDC motor is used achieving a continuous smoothly movement compared to sudden jumps of a stepper. A gear box attached to the motor allows a high reduction of power consumption and provides a great challenge for sizing. PACT space envelope was reduced by means of two flat springs fixed to VCA. Its main characteristic is a low linear axial stiffness. To achieve best performance for PACT, sensors have been included in both stages. A rotary encoder is included in BLDC stage to close position/velocity control loop. An incremental optical encoder measures PACT travel range with relative nanometer accuracy and used to close the position loop of the whole actuator movement. For this purpose, four different optical sensors with different gratings will be evaluated. Control strategy show different internal closed loops that work together to achieve required performance.

  17. Interpretation of the peak areas in gamma-ray spectra that have a large relative uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korun, M.; Maver Modec, P.; Vodenik, B.

    2012-01-01

    Empirical evidence is provided that the areas of peaks having a relative uncertainty in excess of 30% are overestimated. This systematic influence is of a statistical nature and originates in way the peak-analyzing routine recognizes the small peaks. It is not easy to detect this influence since it is smaller than the peak-area uncertainty. However, the systematic influence can be revealed in repeated measurements under the same experimental conditions, e.g., in background measurements. To evaluate the systematic influence, background measurements were analyzed with the peak-analyzing procedure described by Korun et al. (2008). The magnitude of the influence depends on the relative uncertainty of the peak area and may amount, in the conditions used in the peak analysis, to a factor of 5 at relative uncertainties exceeding 60%. From the measurements, the probability for type-II errors, as a function of the relative uncertainty of the peak area, was extracted. This probability is near zero below an uncertainty of 30% and rises to 90% at uncertainties exceeding 50%. - Highlights: ► A systematic influence affecting small peak areas in gamma-ray spectra is described. ► The influence originates in the peak locating procedure, using a pre-determined sensitivity. ► The predetermined sensitivity makes peak areas with large uncertainties to be overestimated. ► The influence depends on the relative uncertainty of the number of counts in the peak. ► Corrections exceeding a factor of 3 are attained at peak area uncertainties exceeding 60%.

  18. Thin absorbers for large-area soft X-ray microcalorimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocks, L. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)]. E-mail: rocks@wisp.physics.wisc.edu; Anderson, M.B. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Bilgri, N. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Brekosky, R. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gwynne Crowder, S. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Figueroa-Feliciano, E. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kelley, R. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kilbourne, C.A. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Lai, T. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Lindeman, M.A. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Man, J. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); McCammon, D. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Nelms, K.L. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Porter, F.S. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Sivananthan, S. [University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Vidugiris, G. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Zhao, J. [University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    The X-ray Quantum Calorimeter (XQC) sounding rocket experiment utilizes a microcalorimeter array for observing the diffuse soft X-ray background. Observations of such low surface-brightness targets require a large-area detector. We will be using an array of large absorbers. Good absorbers must rapidly and completely thermalize photons, have small heat capacity for high stopping efficiency and have good lateral thermal transport. For observing the soft X-ray background (energies <1 keV), the volume and heat capacity of absorber material can be kept to a minimum by making the absorbers only as thick as needed for high quantum efficiency at these low energies. These thin, large-area absorbers are not self-supporting and have poor lateral heat transport. Depositing the absorber material on a Si substrate provides support and improves lateral thermal conduction. We present heat capacity results for thin HgTe and thin Bi, each on Si substrates. We also describe the HgTe absorber fabrication.

  19. Wettability Investigations and Wet Transfer Enhancement of Large-Area CVD-Graphene on Aluminum Nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Marius; Hoffmann, René; Cimalla, Volker; Ambacher, Oliver

    2017-08-18

    The two-dimensional and virtually massless character of graphene attracts great interest for radio frequency devices, such as surface and bulk acoustic wave resonators. Due to its good electric conductivity, graphene might be an alternative as a virtually massless electrode by improving resonator performance regarding mass-loading effects . We report on an optimization of the commonly used wet transfer technique for large-area graphene, grown via chemical vapor deposition, onto aluminum nitride (AlN), which is mainly used as an active, piezoelectric material for acoustic devices. Today, graphene wet transfer is well-engineered for silicon dioxide (SiO₂). Investigations on AlN substrates reveal highly different surface properties compared to SiO₂ regarding wettability, which strongly influences the quality of transferred graphene monolayers. Both physical and chemical effects of a plasma treatment of AlN surfaces change wettability and avoid large-scale cracks in the transferred graphene sheet during desiccation. Spatially-resolved Raman spectroscopy reveals a strong strain and doping dependence on AlN plasma pretreatments correlating with the electrical conductivity of graphene. In our work, we achieved transferred crack-free large-area (40 × 40 mm²) graphene monolayers with sheet resistances down to 350 Ω/sq. These achievements make graphene more powerful as an eco-friendly and cheaper replacement for conventional electrode materials used in radio frequency resonator devices.

  20. Enhancing Performance of Large-Area Organic Solar Cells with Thick Film via Ternary Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianqi; Zhao, Yifan; Fang, Jin; Yuan, Liu; Xia, Benzheng; Wang, Guodong; Wang, Zaiyu; Zhang, Yajie; Ma, Wei; Yan, Wei; Su, Wenming; Wei, Zhixiang

    2017-06-01

    Large-scale fabrication of organic solar cells requires an active layer with high thickness tolerability and the use of environment-friendly solvents. Thick films with high-performance can be achieved via a ternary strategy studied herein. The ternary system consists of one polymer donor, one small molecule donor, and one fullerene acceptor. The small molecule enhances the crystallinity and face-on orientation of the active layer, leading to improved thickness tolerability compared with that of a polymer-fullerene binary system. An active layer with 270 nm thickness exhibits an average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.78%, while the PCE is less than 8% with such thick film for binary system. Furthermore, large-area devices are successfully fabricated using polyethylene terephthalate (PET)/Silver gride or indium tin oxide (ITO)-based transparent flexible substrates. The product shows a high PCE of 8.28% with an area of 1.25 cm 2 for a single cell and 5.18% for a 20 cm 2 module. This study demonstrates that ternary organic solar cells exhibit great potential for large-scale fabrication and future applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Efficient transfer of large-area graphene films onto rigid substrates by hot pressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Junmo; Hwang, Soonhwi; Kim, Jae Hwan; Kim, Min Hyeok; Ryu, Jaechul; Seo, Sang Jae; Hong, Byung Hee; Kim, Moon Ki; Choi, Jae-Boong

    2012-06-26

    Graphene films grown on metal substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method have to be safely transferred onto desired substrates for further applications. Recently, a roll-to-roll (R2R) method has been developed for large-area transfer, which is particularly efficient for flexible target substrates. However, in the case of rigid substrates such as glass or wafers, the roll-based method is found to induce considerable mechanical damages on graphene films during the transfer process, resulting in the degradation of electrical property. Here we introduce an improved dry transfer technique based on a hot-pressing method that can minimize damage on graphene by neutralizing mechanical stress. Thus, we enhanced the transfer efficiency of the large-area graphene films on a substrate with arbitrary thickness and rigidity, evidenced by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) images, Raman spectra, and various electrical characterizations. We also performed a theoretical multiscale simulation from continuum to atomic level to compare the mechanical stresses caused by the R2R and the hot-pressing methods, which also supports our conclusion. Consequently, we believe that the proposed hot-pressing method will be immediately useful for display and solar cell applications that currently require rigid and large substrates.

  2. Development of large-area high-temperature fixed-point blackbodies for photometry and radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlevnoy, Boris; Grigoryeva, Irina; Anhalt, Klaus; Waehmer, Martin; Ivashin, Evgeniy; Otryaskin, Denis; Solodilov, Maxim; Sapritsky, Victor

    2018-04-01

    Large-area high-temperature fixed-point (HTFP) blackbodies with working temperatures of approximately 2748 K and 3021 K, based on an Re-C eutectic and a WC-C peritectic respectively, have been developed and investigated. The blackbodies have an emissivity of 0.9997, show high-quality phase-transition plateaus and have high repeatability of the melting temperatures, but demonstrate temperature differences (from 0.2 K to 0.6 K) compared with small-cell blackbodies of the same HTFP. We associate these temperature differences with the temperature drop effect, which may differ from cell to cell. The large radiating cavity diameter of 14 mm allows developed HTFP blackbodies to be used for photometric and radiometric applications in irradiance mode with uncertainties as small as 0.12% (k  =  1) in the visible. A photometer and an irradiance-mode filter radiometer (visible range), previously calibrated at VNIIOFI, were used to measure illuminance and irradiance of the HTFP blackbodies equipped with a precise outer aperture. The values measured by the detectors agreed with those based on the blackbody calculation to within 0.2%. The large-area HTFP blackbodies will be used in a joint PTB-VNIIOFI experiment on measuring thermodynamic temperature.

  3. Towards Large-area Field-scale Operational Evapotranspiration for Water Use Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, G. B.; Friedrichs, M.; Morton, C.; Huntington, J. L.; Verdin, J.

    2017-12-01

    Field-scale evapotranspiration (ET) estimates are needed for improving surface and groundwater use and water budget studies. Ideally, field-scale ET estimates would be at regional to national levels and cover long time periods. As a result of large data storage and computational requirements associated with processing field-scale satellite imagery such as Landsat, numerous challenges remain to develop operational ET estimates over large areas for detailed water use and availability studies. However, the combination of new science, data availability, and cloud computing technology is enabling unprecedented capabilities for ET mapping. To demonstrate this capability, we used Google's Earth Engine cloud computing platform to create nationwide annual ET estimates with 30-meter resolution Landsat ( 16,000 images) and gridded weather data using the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) model in support of the National Water Census, a USGS research program designed to build decision support capacity for water management agencies and other natural resource managers. By leveraging Google's Earth Engine Application Programming Interface (API) and developing software in a collaborative, open-platform environment, we rapidly advance from research towards applications for large-area field-scale ET mapping. Cloud computing of the Landsat image archive combined with other satellite, climate, and weather data, is creating never imagined opportunities for assessing ET model behavior and uncertainty, and ultimately providing the ability for more robust operational monitoring and assessment of water use at field-scales.

  4. Power Generation from a Radiative Thermal Source Using a Large-Area Infrared Rectenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, Joshua; Kadlec, Emil A.; Jarecki, Robert L.; Starbuck, Andrew; Howell, Stephen; Peters, David W.; Davids, Paul S.

    2018-05-01

    Electrical power generation from a moderate-temperature thermal source by means of direct conversion of infrared radiation is important and highly desirable for energy harvesting from waste heat and micropower applications. Here, we demonstrate direct rectified power generation from an unbiased large-area nanoantenna-coupled tunnel diode rectifier called a rectenna. Using a vacuum radiometric measurement technique with irradiation from a temperature-stabilized thermal source, a generated power density of 8 nW /cm2 is observed at a source temperature of 450 °C for the unbiased rectenna across an optimized load resistance. The optimized load resistance for the peak power generation for each temperature coincides with the tunnel diode resistance at zero bias and corresponds to the impedance matching condition for a rectifying antenna. Current-voltage measurements of a thermally illuminated large-area rectenna show current zero crossing shifts into the second quadrant indicating rectification. Photon-assisted tunneling in the unbiased rectenna is modeled as the mechanism for the large short-circuit photocurrents observed where the photon energy serves as an effective bias across the tunnel junction. The measured current and voltage across the load resistor as a function of the thermal source temperature represents direct current electrical power generation.

  5. Large area crystallization of amorphous Si with overlapping high repetition rate laser pulses

    KAUST Repository

    Ryu, Sang-Gil

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a pulsed laser crystallization technique, enabling large area crystallization of amorphous Si to produce grains having well-defined size and orientation. The method is developed by first determining the parameters influencing crystallization induced by single laser pulses of circular cross-sectional profile. In a second step, crystallization by overlapping round spots is examined. The experiments reveal three zones characterized by distinctly different crystallized morphologies following the laser irradiation. One of these zones corresponds to the regime of lateral crystal growth, wherein grains are driven towards the center of the spot by the radial temperature gradient. These findings are then applied to processing via line beam profiles that facilitate large area crystallization upon rapid translation of the specimen. Crystallization of extended areas hinges on the determination of the crystal growth length for a single spot. The pitch between successive pulses is then set on the basis of this information. It is shown that the pulse energy has only a weak effect on the crystal growth length. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Fabrication of a Horizontal and a Vertical Large Surface Area Nanogap Electrochemical Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jules L. Hammond

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanogap sensors have a wide range of applications as they can provide accurate direct detection of biomolecules through impedimetric or amperometric signals. Signal response from nanogap sensors is dependent on both the electrode spacing and surface area. However, creating large surface area nanogap sensors presents several challenges during fabrication. We show two different approaches to achieve both horizontal and vertical coplanar nanogap geometries. In the first method we use electron-beam lithography (EBL to pattern an 11 mm long serpentine nanogap (215 nm between two electrodes. For the second method we use inductively-coupled plasma (ICP reactive ion etching (RIE to create a channel in a silicon substrate, optically pattern a buried 1.0 mm × 1.5 mm electrode before anodically bonding a second identical electrode, patterned on glass, directly above. The devices have a wide range of applicability in different sensing techniques with the large area nanogaps presenting advantages over other devices of the same family. As a case study we explore the detection of peptide nucleic acid (PNA−DNA binding events using dielectric spectroscopy with the horizontal coplanar device.

  7. Recreation of the european higher education area within the horizon of a wisdom society: Towards a new educational scenari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo JOVER

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Higher Education Area (EHEA derived from the well-knownBologna process, has come to an end. Nevertheless, its implementation has brought asound introduction of the equally famous Knowledge Society and the democratizationof the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT in education. All thesechanges have been critical to consummate the step from the mere knowledge to the moredesirable know how and, in this sense, improve the quality of higher education. In theselines, we would like to sum up the characteristics of the aforementioned change andtry to understand what could, or should, be the next aim to be achieved. Therefore, weadvocate moving towards a “Wisdom Society” that could allow to enhance knowledgeon ethical and moral principles and help us to achieve competence-based professionals,no doubt about it, but also critical and committed people who would value, above all,knowing how to be.

  8. Costs of Adopting a Common European Currency. Analysis in Terms of the Optimum Currency Areas Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Gabriela SOCOL

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This analysis presents a theoretical approach of the possible costs related to a national economy which desires to be part of a monetary union. The analysis is made in terms of the classical optimum currency areas theory, which represents the basis of the monetary union process. The objective of this theory was to make a monetary union possible. This theory shows that the countries can obtain net benefits as a result of having a common currency, thus being able to avoid the possible adjustment problems. As a matter of fact, its great merit is that it identified certain properties of the countries being part of a monetary union, these properties representing real alternative tools for losing the independence of the monetary policy

  9. Coexistence dilemmas in European marine spatial planning practices. The case of marine renewables and marine protected areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyriazi, Zacharoula; Maes, Frank; Degraer, Steven

    2016-01-01

    The question whether coexistence of marine renewable energy (MRE) projects and marine protected areas (MPAs) is a common spatial policy in Europe and how a number of factors can affect it, has been addressed by empirical research undertaken in eleven European marine areas. Policy drivers and objectives that are assumed to affect coexistence, such as the fulfillment of conservation objectives and the prioritization of other competing marine uses, were scored by experts and predictions were crosschecked with state practice. While in most areas MRE-MPA coexistence is not prohibited by law, practice indicates resistance towards it. Furthermore expert judgment demonstrated that a number of additional factors, such as the lack of suitable space for MRE projects and the uncertainty about the extent of damage by MRE to the MPA, might influence the intentions of the two major parties involved (i.e. the MRE developer and the MPA authority) to pursue or avoid coexistence. Based on these findings, the interactions of these two players are further interpreted, their policy implications are discussed, while the need towards efficient, fair and acceptable MRE-MPA coexistence is highlighted.

  10. Investigation on the growth of DAST crystals of large surface area for THz applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijay, R. Jerald; Melikechi, N.; Thomas, Tina; Gunaseelan, R.; Arockiaraj, M. Antony; Sagayaraj, P.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: It is evident from the photographs that the crystal tend to grow as a needle (Fig. 1a) in the lower concentration region (2–3 g/200 mL); whereas, in the high concentration region (5 g/200 mL) though there is a marked enlargement in the size of the crystal, the morphology of the resulting DAST crystal is slightly irregular (Fig. 1d) in nature. Among the four concentrations employed, best result was obtained with the DAST–methanol solution of concentration 4 g/200 mL; which resulted in the DAST crystal of large surface area (270 mm 2 ) with high transparency and nearly square shape (Fig. 1c) in a growth period of 20–25 days. Highlights: ► DAST crystals of different sizes are obtained for different concentrations. ► The main focus is to grow DAST crystals with large surface area. ► Structural, optical, thermal and mechanical properties are investigated. - Abstract: The growth of high quality 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4-N-methyl-stilbazoliumtosylate (DAST) crystal with large surface area is reported by adopting the slope nucleation coupled slow evaporation method (SNM-SE). The structure and composition of the crystal are studied by single crystal X-ray diffraction and CHN analyses. The linear optical properties are investigated by UV–vis absorption. The melting point and thermal behavior of DAST are investigated using differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). The Vickers microhardness number (VHN) and work hardening coefficient of the grown crystal have been determined. The surface features of the DAST crystal are analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and it confirmed the presence of narrow line defects (NLDs) in the sample.

  11. Development of large area silicon semiconductor detectors for use in the current mode

    CERN Document Server

    Ouyang Xia Opin; Li Zhen Fu; Zhang Guo Guang; Zhang Qi; Zhang Xia; Song Xian Cai; Jia Huan Yi; Lei Jian Hua; Sun Yuan Cheng

    2002-01-01

    Large area silicon semiconductor detectors for use in the current mode, with their dimensions of phi 40, phi 50 and phi 60 mm, their depletion thickness of 200-300 mu m, have been developed. Their performance measurements have been made, which indicate that the developed detectors can satisfactorily meet the needs in expectation. Compared with the detectors commercially available on the market, authors' large PIN detectors can serve both as reliable and efficient high-resolution devices for nuclear counting experiments, as well as monitors of high-intensity radiation fields in the current mode under a bias of 100-1000 V, while the detectors commercially available are only for the counting use

  12. An advanced open-path atmospheric pollution monitor for large areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, L.

    1995-01-01

    Large amounts of toxic waste materials, generated in manufacturing fuel for nuclear reactors, are stored in tanks buried over large areas at DOE sites. Flammable and hazardous gases are continually generated by chemical reactions in the waste materials. To prevent explosive concentrations of these gases, the gases are automatically vented to the atmosphere when the pressure exceeds a preset value. Real-time monitoring of the atmosphere above the tanks with automatic alarming is needed to prevent exposing workers to unsafe conditions when venting occurs. This project is to design, develop, and test an atmospheric pollution monitor which can measure concentrations of DOE-specified and EPA-specified hazardous gases over ranges as long as 4km. A CO 2 laser to measure absorption spectra and to determine the distance over which the measurements are made, is combined with an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) to measure thermal emission spectra

  13. Modeling thermo-optic effect in large mode area double cladding photonic crystal fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscelli, Enrico; Cucinotta, Annamaria

    2014-02-01

    The impact of thermally-induced refractive index changes on the single-mode (SM) properties of large mode area (LMA) photonic crystal fibers are thoroughly investigated by means of a full-vector modal solver with integrated thermal model. Three photonic crystal fiber designs are taken into account, namely the 19-cell core fiber, the large-pitch fiber (LPF) and the distributed modal filtering (DMF) fiber, to assess the effects of the interplay between thermal effects and the high-order mode (HOM) suppression mechanisms exploited in order to obtain effectively SM guiding. The results have shown significant differences in the way the SM regime is changed by the increase of heat load, providing useful hints for the design of LMA fibers for high power lasers.

  14. Replication fidelity assessment of large area sub-μm structured polymer surfaces using scatterometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calaon, M; Hansen, H N; Tosello, G; Madsen, M H; Weirich, J; Hansen, P E; Garnaes, J; Tang, P T

    2015-01-01

    The present study addresses one of the key challenges in the product quality control of transparent structured polymer substrates, the replication fidelity of sub-μm structures over a large area. Additionally the work contributes to the development of new techniques focused on in-line characterization of large nanostructured surfaces using scatterometry. In particular an approach to quantify the replication fidelity of high volume manufacturing processes such as polymer injection moulding is presented. Both periodic channels and semi-spherical structures were fabricated on nickel shims used for later injection moulding of Cyclic-olefin-copolymer (COC) substrate were the sub-μm features where ultimately transferred. The scatterometry system was validated using calibrated atomic force microscopy measurements and a model based on scalar diffraction theory employed to calculate the expected angular distribution of the reflected and the transmitted intensity for the nickel surfaces and structured COC and, respectively. (paper)

  15. A gas proportional scintillation counter for use in large area detector systems without photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baruch, J.E.F.; Brooke, G.; Kellermann, E.W.; Bateman, J.E.; Connolly, J.F.

    1978-03-01

    The properties of a prototype gas proportional scintillation detector, for use in large numbers, are examined. The detector is designed to focus a light signal, which is proportional to ionisation loss, into a fibre optic lightguide. It is shown that a single charged particle traversing the detector produces enough light out of the lightguide to be seen by a TV camera. Problems of lifetime and large scale detector production are discussed. Properties of saturation, linearity, position sensitivity, and operating limits are examined. It is shown that an array of gas proportional scintillation detectors when used with fibre optic lightguides and TV camera readout could offer significant improvements in cost per area and reliability over a scintillator plus photomultiplier or a wire proportional chamber array. (author)

  16. A large area cosmic muon detector located at Ohya stone mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nii, N.; Mizutani, K.; Aoki, T.; Kitamura, T.; Mitsui, K.; Matsuno, S.; Muraki, Y.; Ohashi, Y.; Okada, A.; Kamiya, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The chemical composition of the primary cosmic rays between 10 to the 15th power eV and 10 to the 18th power eV were determined by a Large Area Cosmic Muon Detector located at Ohya stone mine. The experimental aims of Ohya project are; (1) search for the ultra high-energy gamma-rays; (2) search for the GUT monopole created by Big Bang; and (3) search for the muon bundle. A large number of muon chambers were installed at the shallow underground near Nikko (approx. 100 Km north of Tokyo, situated at Ohya-town, Utsunomiya-city). At the surface of the mine, very fast 100 channel scintillation counters were equipped in order to measure the direction of air showers. These air shower arrays were operated at the same time, together with the underground muon chamber.

  17. Controlled elaboration of large-area plasmonic substrates by plasma process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugliara, A; Despax, B; Makasheva, K; Bonafos, C; Carles, R

    2015-01-01

    Elaboration in a controlled way of large-area and efficient plasmonic substrates is achieved by combining sputtering of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and plasma polymerization of the embedding dielectric matrix in an axially asymmetric, capacitively coupled RF discharge maintained at low gas pressure. The plasma parameters and deposition conditions were optimized according to the optical response of these substrates. Structural and optical characterizations of the samples confirm the process efficiency. The obtained results indicate that to deposit a single layer of large and closely situated AgNPs, a high injected power and short sputtering times must be privileged. The plasma-elaborated plasmonic substrates appear to be very sensitive to any stimuli that affect their plasmonic response. (paper)

  18. Effects of Large Area Liquid Lithium Limiters on Spherical Torus Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.; Boaz, M.; Efthimion, P.; Gettelfinger, G.; Gray, T.; Hoffman, D.; Jardin, S.; Kugel, H.; Marfuta, P.; Munsat, T.; Neumeyer, C.; Raftopoulos, S.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Spaleta, J.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Woolley, R.; Zakharov, L.; Finkenthal, M.; Stutman, D.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Seraydarian, R.P.; Antar, G.; Doerner, R.; Luckhardt, S.; Baldwin, M.; Conn, R.W.; Maingi, R.; Menon, M.; Causey, R.; Buchenauer, D.; Ulrickson, M.; Jones, B.; Rodgers, D.

    2004-01-01

    Use of a large-area liquid lithium surface as a first wall has significantly improved the plasma performance in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Previous CDX-U experiments with a partially-covered toroidal lithium limiter tray have shown a decrease in impurities and the recycling of hydrogenic species. Improvements in loading techniques have permitted nearly full coverage of the tray surface with liquid lithium. Under these conditions, there was a large drop in the loop voltage needed to sustain the plasma current. The data are consistent with simulations that indicate more stable plasmas having broader current profiles, higher temperatures, and lowered impurities with liquid lithium walls. As further evidence for reduced recycling with a liquid lithium limiter, the gas puffing had to be increased by up to a factor of eight for the same plasma density achieved with an empty toroidal tray limiter

  19. Effects of large area liquid lithium limiters on spherical torus plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.; Boaz, M.; Efthimion, P.; Gettelfinger, G.; Gray, T.; Hoffman, D.; Jardin, S.; Kugel, H.; Marfuta, P.; Munsat, T.; Neumeyer, C.; Raftopoulos, S.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Spaleta, J.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Woolley, R.; Zakharov, L.; Finkenthal, M.; Stutman, D.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Seraydarian, R.P.; Antar, G.; Doerner, R.; Luckhardt, S.; Baldwin, M.; Conn, R.W.; Maingi, R.; Menon, M.; Causey, R.; Buchenauer, D.; Ulrickson, M.; Jones, B.; Rodgers, D.

    2005-01-01

    Use of a large-area liquid lithium surface as a limiter has significantly improved the plasma performance in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Previous CDX-U experiments with a partially-covered toroidal lithium limiter tray have shown a decrease in impurities and the recycling of hydrogenic species. Improvements in loading techniques have permitted nearly full coverage of the tray surface with liquid lithium. Under these conditions, there was a large drop in the loop voltage needed to sustain the plasma current. The data are consistent with simulations that indicate more stable plasmas having broader current profiles, higher temperatures, and lowered impurities with liquid lithium walls. As further evidence for reduced recycling with a liquid lithium limiter, the gas puffing had to be increased by up to a factor of eight for the same plasma density achieved with an empty toroidal tray limiter

  20. Large-area functionalized CVD graphene for work function matched transparent electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bointon, Thomas H.; Jones, Gareth F.; de Sanctis, Adolfo; Hill-Pearce, Ruth; Craciun, Monica F.; Russo, Saverio

    2015-11-01

    The efficiency of flexible photovoltaic and organic light emitting devices is heavily dependent on the availability of flexible and transparent conductors with at least a similar workfunction to that of Indium Tin Oxide. Here we present the first study of the work function of large area (up to 9 cm2) FeCl3 intercalated graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition on Nickel, and demonstrate values as large as 5.1 eV. Upon intercalation, a charge density per graphene layer of 5 ṡ 1013 ± 5 ṡ 1012 cm-2 is attained, making this material an attractive platform for the study of plasmonic excitations in the infrared wavelength spectrum of interest to the telecommunication industry. Finally, we demonstrate the potential of this material for flexible electronics in a transparent circuit on a polyethylene naphthalate substrate.