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Sample records for european lactase persistence

  1. Ancient DNA analysis reveals high frequency of European lactase persistence allele (T-13910) in medieval central europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüttli, Annina; Bouwman, Abigail; Akgül, Gülfirde; Della Casa, Philippe; Rühli, Frank; Warinner, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Ruminant milk and dairy products are important food resources in many European, African, and Middle Eastern societies. These regions are also associated with derived genetic variants for lactase persistence. In mammals, lactase, the enzyme that hydrolyzes the milk sugar lactose, is normally down-regulated after weaning, but at least five human populations around the world have independently evolved mutations regulating the expression of the lactase-phlorizin-hydrolase gene. These mutations result in a dominant lactase persistence phenotype and continued lactase tolerance in adulthood. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at C/T-13910 is responsible for most lactase persistence in European populations, but when and where the T-13910 polymorphism originated and the evolutionary processes by which it rose to high frequency in Europe have been the subject of strong debate. A history of dairying is presumed to be a prerequisite, but archaeological evidence is lacking. In this study, DNA was extracted from the dentine of 36 individuals excavated at a medieval cemetery in Dalheim, Germany. Eighteen individuals were successfully genotyped for the C/T-13910 SNP by molecular cloning and sequencing, of which 13 (72%) exhibited a European lactase persistence genotype: 44% CT, 28% TT. Previous ancient DNA-based studies found that lactase persistence genotypes fall below detection levels in most regions of Neolithic Europe. Our research shows that by AD 1200, lactase persistence frequency had risen to over 70% in this community in western Central Europe. Given that lactase persistence genotype frequency in present-day Germany and Austria is estimated at 71-80%, our results suggest that genetic lactase persistence likely reached modern levels before the historic population declines associated with the Black Death, thus excluding plague-associated evolutionary forces in the rise of lactase persistence in this region. This new evidence sheds light on the dynamic evolutionary

  2. Ancient DNA analysis reveals high frequency of European lactase persistence allele (T-13910 in medieval central europe.

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    Annina Krüttli

    Full Text Available Ruminant milk and dairy products are important food resources in many European, African, and Middle Eastern societies. These regions are also associated with derived genetic variants for lactase persistence. In mammals, lactase, the enzyme that hydrolyzes the milk sugar lactose, is normally down-regulated after weaning, but at least five human populations around the world have independently evolved mutations regulating the expression of the lactase-phlorizin-hydrolase gene. These mutations result in a dominant lactase persistence phenotype and continued lactase tolerance in adulthood. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at C/T-13910 is responsible for most lactase persistence in European populations, but when and where the T-13910 polymorphism originated and the evolutionary processes by which it rose to high frequency in Europe have been the subject of strong debate. A history of dairying is presumed to be a prerequisite, but archaeological evidence is lacking. In this study, DNA was extracted from the dentine of 36 individuals excavated at a medieval cemetery in Dalheim, Germany. Eighteen individuals were successfully genotyped for the C/T-13910 SNP by molecular cloning and sequencing, of which 13 (72% exhibited a European lactase persistence genotype: 44% CT, 28% TT. Previous ancient DNA-based studies found that lactase persistence genotypes fall below detection levels in most regions of Neolithic Europe. Our research shows that by AD 1200, lactase persistence frequency had risen to over 70% in this community in western Central Europe. Given that lactase persistence genotype frequency in present-day Germany and Austria is estimated at 71-80%, our results suggest that genetic lactase persistence likely reached modern levels before the historic population declines associated with the Black Death, thus excluding plague-associated evolutionary forces in the rise of lactase persistence in this region. This new evidence sheds light on the dynamic

  3. Ancient DNA Analysis Reveals High Frequency of European Lactase Persistence Allele (T-13910) in Medieval Central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Krüttli, Annina; Bouwman, Abigail; Akgül, Gülfirde; Della Casa, Philippe; Rühli, Frank; Warinner, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Ruminant milk and dairy products are important food resources in many European, African, and Middle Eastern societies. These regions are also associated with derived genetic variants for lactase persistence. In mammals, lactase, the enzyme that hydrolyzes the milk sugar lactose, is normally down-regulated after weaning, but at least five human populations around the world have independently evolved mutations regulating the expression of the lactase-phlorizin-hydrolase gene. These mutations re...

  4. The origins of lactase persistence in Europe.

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    Yuval Itan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Lactase persistence (LP is common among people of European ancestry, but with the exception of some African, Middle Eastern and southern Asian groups, is rare or absent elsewhere in the world. Lactase gene haplotype conservation around a polymorphism strongly associated with LP in Europeans (-13,910 C/T indicates that the derived allele is recent in origin and has been subject to strong positive selection. Furthermore, ancient DNA work has shown that the--13,910*T (derived allele was very rare or absent in early Neolithic central Europeans. It is unlikely that LP would provide a selective advantage without a supply of fresh milk, and this has lead to a gene-culture coevolutionary model where lactase persistence is only favoured in cultures practicing dairying, and dairying is more favoured in lactase persistent populations. We have developed a flexible demic computer simulation model to explore the spread of lactase persistence, dairying, other subsistence practices and unlinked genetic markers in Europe and western Asia's geographic space. Using data on--13,910*T allele frequency and farming arrival dates across Europe, and approximate Bayesian computation to estimate parameters of interest, we infer that the--13,910*T allele first underwent selection among dairying farmers around 7,500 years ago in a region between the central Balkans and central Europe, possibly in association with the dissemination of the Neolithic Linearbandkeramik culture over Central Europe. Furthermore, our results suggest that natural selection favouring a lactase persistence allele was not higher in northern latitudes through an increased requirement for dietary vitamin D. Our results provide a coherent and spatially explicit picture of the coevolution of lactase persistence and dairying in Europe.

  5. The origins of lactase persistence in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itan, Yuval; Powell, Adam; Beaumont, Mark A; Burger, Joachim; Thomas, Mark G

    2009-08-01

    Lactase persistence (LP) is common among people of European ancestry, but with the exception of some African, Middle Eastern and southern Asian groups, is rare or absent elsewhere in the world. Lactase gene haplotype conservation around a polymorphism strongly associated with LP in Europeans (-13,910 C/T) indicates that the derived allele is recent in origin and has been subject to strong positive selection. Furthermore, ancient DNA work has shown that the--13,910*T (derived) allele was very rare or absent in early Neolithic central Europeans. It is unlikely that LP would provide a selective advantage without a supply of fresh milk, and this has lead to a gene-culture coevolutionary model where lactase persistence is only favoured in cultures practicing dairying, and dairying is more favoured in lactase persistent populations. We have developed a flexible demic computer simulation model to explore the spread of lactase persistence, dairying, other subsistence practices and unlinked genetic markers in Europe and western Asia's geographic space. Using data on--13,910*T allele frequency and farming arrival dates across Europe, and approximate Bayesian computation to estimate parameters of interest, we infer that the--13,910*T allele first underwent selection among dairying farmers around 7,500 years ago in a region between the central Balkans and central Europe, possibly in association with the dissemination of the Neolithic Linearbandkeramik culture over Central Europe. Furthermore, our results suggest that natural selection favouring a lactase persistence allele was not higher in northern latitudes through an increased requirement for dietary vitamin D. Our results provide a coherent and spatially explicit picture of the coevolution of lactase persistence and dairying in Europe.

  6. Lactase persistence genotypes and malaria susceptibility in Fulani of Mali

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    Dolo Amagana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fulani are a widely spread African ethnic group characterized by lower susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum, clinical malaria morbidity and higher rate of lactase persistence compared to sympatric tribes. Lactase non-persistence, often called lactose intolerance, is the normal condition where lactase activity in the intestinal wall declines after weaning. Lactase persistence, common in Europe, and in certain African people with traditions of raising cattle, is caused by polymorphisms in the enhancer region approximately 14 kb upstream of the lactase gene. Methods To evaluate the relationship between malaria and lactase persistence genotypes, a 400 bp region surrounding the main European C/T-13910 polymorphism upstream of the lactase gene was sequenced. DNA samples used in the study originated from 162 Fulani and 79 Dogon individuals from Mali. Results Among 79 Dogon only one heterozygote of the lactase enhancer polymorphism was detected, whereas all others were homozygous for the ancestral C allele. Among the Fulani, the main European polymorphism at locus C/T-13910 was by far the most common polymorphism, with an allele frequency of 37%. Three other single-nucleotide polymorphisms were found with allele frequencies of 3.7%, 1.9% and 0.6% each. The novel DNA polymorphism T/C-13906 was seen in six heterozygous Fulani. Among the Fulani with lactase non-persistence CC genotypes at the C/T-13910 locus, 24% had malaria parasites detectable by microscopy compared to 18% for lactase persistent genotypes (P = 0.29. Pooling the lactase enhancer polymorphisms to a common presumptive genotype gave 28% microscopy positives for non-persistent and 17% for others (P = 0.11. Conclusions Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in asymptomatic Fulani is more common in individuals with lactase non-persistence genotypes, but this difference is not statistically significant. The potential immunoprotective properties of dietary cow milk as a reason

  7. Lactase Non-persistence and Lactose Intolerance.

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    Bayless, Theodore M; Brown, Elizabeth; Paige, David M

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the clinical and nutritional significance of genetically determined lactase non-persistence and potential lactose and milk intolerance in 65-70% of the world's adult population. Milk consumption is decreasing in the USA and is the lowest in countries with a high prevalence of lactase non-persistence. The dairy industry and Minnesota investigators have made efforts to minimize the influence of lactose intolerance on milk consumption. Some lactose intolerant individuals, without co-existent irritable bowel syndrome, are able to consume a glass of milk with a meal with no or minor symptoms. The high frequency of lactase persistence in offspring of Northern European countries and in some nomadic African tribes is due to mutations in the promoter of the lactase gene in association with survival advantage of milk drinking. Educational and commercial efforts to improve calcium and Vitamin D intake have focused on urging consumption of tolerable amounts of milk with a meal, use of lowered lactose-content foods including hard cheeses, yogurt, and lactose-hydrolyzed milk products.

  8. The -14010*C variant associated with lactase persistence is located between an Oct-1 and HNF1a binding site and increases lactase promoter activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tine G K; Liebert, Anke; Lewinsky, Rikke

    2011-01-01

    In most people worldwide intestinal lactase expression declines in childhood. In many others, particularly in Europeans, lactase expression persists into adult life. The lactase persistence phenotype is in Europe associated with the -13910*T single nucleotide variant located 13,910 bp upstream th...

  9. Diversity of Lactase Persistence Alleles in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, BL; Raga, TO; Liebert, Anke

    2013-01-01

    The persistent expression of lactase into adulthood in humans is a recent genetic adaptation that allows the consumption of milk from other mammals after weaning. In Europe, a single allele (−13910∗T, rs4988235) in an upstream region that acts as an enhancer to the expression of the lactase gene ...

  10. T-13910 DNA variant associated with lactase persistence interacts with Oct-1 and stimulates lactase promoter activity in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewinsky, Rikke H.; Jensen, Tine Gro Kleinert; Møller, Jette

    2005-01-01

    Two phenotypes exist in the human population with regard to expression of lactase in adults. Lactase non-persistence (adult-type hypolactasia and lactose intolerance) is characterized by a decline in the expression of lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) after weaning. In contrast, lactase...

  11. Lactase persistence and lipid pathway selection in the Maasai.

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    Kshitij Wagh

    Full Text Available The Maasai are a pastoral people in Kenya and Tanzania, whose traditional diet of milk, blood and meat is rich in lactose, fat and cholesterol. In spite of this, they have low levels of blood cholesterol, and seldom suffer from gallstones or cardiac diseases. Field studies in the 1970s suggested that the Maasai have a genetic adaptation for cholesterol homeostasis. Analysis of HapMap 3 data using Fixation Index (Fst and two metrics of haplotype diversity: the integrated Haplotype Score (iHS and the Cross Population Extended Haplotype Homozygosity (XP-EHH, identified genomic regions and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs as strong candidates for recent selection for lactase persistence and cholesterol regulation in 143-156 founder individuals from the Maasai population in Kinyawa, Kenya (MKK. The non-synonmous SNP with the highest genome-wide Fst was the TC polymorphism at rs2241883 in Fatty Acid Binding Protein 1(FABP1, known to reduce low density lipoprotein and tri-glyceride levels in Europeans. The strongest signal identified by all three metrics was a 1.7 Mb region on Chr2q21. This region contains the genes LCT (Lactase and MCM6 (Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component involved in lactase persistence, and the gene Rab3GAP1 (Rab3 GTPase-activating Protein Catalytic Subunit, which contains polymorphisms associated with total cholesterol levels in a genome-wide association study of >100,000 individuals of European ancestry. Sanger sequencing of DNA from six MKK samples showed that the GC-14010 polymorphism in the MCM6 gene, known to be associated with lactase persistence in Africans, is segregating in MKK at high frequency (∼58%. The Cytochrome P450 Family 3 Subfamily A (CYP3A cluster of genes, involved in cholesterol metabolism, was identified by Fst and iHS as candidate loci under selection. Overall, our study identified several specific genomic regions under selection in the Maasai which contain polymorphisms in genes associated

  12. Evidence of still-ongoing convergence evolution of the lactase persistence T-13910 alleles in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enattah, Nabil Sabri; Trudeau, Aimee; Pimenoff, Ville

    2007-01-01

    A single-nucleotide variant, C/T(-13910), located 14 kb upstream of the lactase gene (LCT), has been shown to be completely correlated with lactase persistence (LP) in northern Europeans. Here, we analyzed the background of the alleles carrying the critical variant in 1,611 DNA samples from 37 po...

  13. Lactase persistence versus lactose intolerance: Is there an intermediate phenotype?

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    Dzialanski, Zbigniew; Barany, Michael; Engfeldt, Peter; Magnuson, Anders; Olsson, Lovisa A; Nilsson, Torbjörn K

    2016-02-01

    According to the prevailing theory about the genetic background to lactose intolerance, there are three genotypes but only two adult physiological phenotypes: lactase persistence in individuals with the CT and TT genotypes and lactase non-persistence in individuals with the CC genotype. However, analysis of lactase activity from intestinal biopsies has revealed three distinct levels of activity, suggesting that an intermediate physiological phenotype may exist. To assess possible disparities between different genotypes with regard to biomarkers of lactase activity and physical symptoms during an oral lactose load test. A retrospective study using an oral lactose load test (n=487). Concentrations of hydrogen in exhaled air and blood glucose were measured. Afterwards, subjects were asked to provide oral mucosa samples for genotyping and answer a questionnaire (participation rate 56%, n=274). Mean hydrogen levels in exhaled air at 120min were significantly higher in the CT genotype than in the TT genotype. There was no significant difference in blood glucose levels between the two groups. Reported symptoms, with the possible exception of abdominal pain, were equally prevalent in both groups. Subjects with the CT and TT genotypes, hitherto classified as lactase-persistent, differ in their physiological response to lactose intake, indicating differences in phenotype which could have clinical significance. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Lactase persistence variants in Arabia and in the African Arabs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Priehodová, E.; Abdelsawy, A.; Heyer, E.; Černý, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 1 (2014), s. 7-18 ISSN 0018-7143 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-37998S Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : lactase persistence * Arabia * Africa * migration Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 0.853, year: 2014

  15. Body fat and dairy product intake in lactase persistent and non-persistent children and adolescents.

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    Almon, Ricardo; Patterson, Emma; Nilsson, Torbjörn K; Engfeldt, Peter; Sjöström, Michael

    2010-06-16

    Lactase non-persistent (LNP) individuals may be lactose intolerant and therefore on a more restricted diet concerning milk and milk products compared to lactase persistent (LP) individuals. This may have an impact on body fat mass. This study examines if LP and LNP children and adolescents, defined by genotyping for the LCT-13910 C > T polymorphism, differ from each other with regard to milk and milk product intake, and measures of body fat mass. Children (n=298, mean age 9.6 years) and adolescents (n=386, mean age 15.6 years), belonging to the Swedish part of the European Youth Heart Study, were genotyped for the LCT-13910 C > T polymorphism. Dietary intakes of reduced and full-fat dairy varieties were determined. LNP (CC genotype) subjects consumed less milk, soured milk and yoghurt compared to LP (CT/TT genotype) subjects (pproducts than LP children and adolescents (p=0.009 for children and p=0.001 for adolescents). We conclude that LP is linked to an overall higher milk and dairy intake, but is not linked to higher body fat mass in children and adolescents.

  16. High-resolution melting analysis using unlabeled probe and amplicon scanning simultaneously detects several lactase persistence variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janukonyté, Jurgita; Vestergaard, Else M; Ladefoged, Søren A

    2010-01-01

    Lactase persistence and thereby tolerance to lactose is a common trait in people of Northern European descent. It is linked to the LCT -13910C>T variant located in intron 13 of the MCM6 gene 13.9 kb upstream of the lactase (LCT) gene. In people of African and Middle Eastern descent, lactase...... persistence can be associated with other variants nearby the -13910C>T variant, limiting the use of the -13910C>T-based SNP analysis, e.g. TaqMan assays for the diagnosis of lactose intolerance. Using high-resolution melting analysis, we identified five samples that were heterozygous for the -13915T>G variant...... the -13910C>T and -13915T>G variants in addition to rarer variants surrounding the -13910 site. This new method may contribute to improve the diagnostic performance of the genetic analysis for lactose intolerance....

  17. Body fat and dairy product intake in lactase persistent and non-persistent children and adolescents

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    Ricardo Almon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : Lactase non-persistent (LNP individuals may be lactose intolerant and therefore on a more restricted diet concerning milk and milk products compared to lactase persistent (LP individuals. This may have an impact on body fat mass. Objective : This study examines if LP and LNP children and adolescents, defined by genotyping for the LCT-13910 C > T polymorphism, differ from each other with regard to milk and milk product intake, and measures of body fat mass. Design : Children (n=298, mean age 9.6 years and adolescents (n=386, mean age 15.6 years, belonging to the Swedish part of the European Youth Heart Study, were genotyped for the LCT-13910 C > T polymorphism. Dietary intakes of reduced and full-fat dairy varieties were determined. Results : LNP (CC genotype subjects consumed less milk, soured milk and yoghurt compared to LP (CT/TT genotype subjects (p<0.001. Subsequent partitioning for age group attenuated this observation (p=0.002 for children and p=0.023 in adolescents. Six subjects were reported by parents to be ‘lactose intolerant’, none of whom were LNP. LNP children and adolescents consumed significantly less reduced fat milk and milk products than LP children and adolescents (p=0.009 for children and p = 0.001 for adolescents. Conclusions : We conclude that LP is linked to an overall higher milk and dairy intake, but is not linked to higher body fat mass in children and adolescents.

  18. Impact of selection and demography on the diffusion of lactase persistence.

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    Gerbault, Pascale; Moret, Céline; Currat, Mathias; Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia

    2009-07-24

    The lactase enzyme allows lactose digestion in fresh milk. Its activity strongly decreases after the weaning phase in most humans, but persists at a high frequency in Europe and some nomadic populations. Two hypotheses are usually proposed to explain the particular distribution of the lactase persistence phenotype. The gene-culture coevolution hypothesis supposes a nutritional advantage of lactose digestion in pastoral populations. The calcium assimilation hypothesis suggests that carriers of the lactase persistence allele(s) (LCT*P) are favoured in high-latitude regions, where sunshine is insufficient to allow accurate vitamin-D synthesis. In this work, we test the validity of these two hypotheses on a large worldwide dataset of lactase persistence frequencies by using several complementary approaches. We first analyse the distribution of lactase persistence in various continents in relation to geographic variation, pastoralism levels, and the genetic patterns observed for other independent polymorphisms. Then we use computer simulations and a large database of archaeological dates for the introduction of domestication to explore the evolution of these frequencies in Europe according to different demographic scenarios and selection intensities. Our results show that gene-culture coevolution is a likely hypothesis in Africa as high LCT*P frequencies are preferentially found in pastoral populations. In Europe, we show that population history played an important role in the diffusion of lactase persistence over the continent. Moreover, selection pressure on lactase persistence has been very high in the North-western part of the continent, by contrast to the South-eastern part where genetic drift alone can explain the observed frequencies. This selection pressure increasing with latitude is highly compatible with the calcium assimilation hypothesis while the gene-culture coevolution hypothesis cannot be ruled out if a positively selected lactase gene was carried at

  19. Impact of selection and demography on the diffusion of lactase persistence.

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    Pascale Gerbault

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The lactase enzyme allows lactose digestion in fresh milk. Its activity strongly decreases after the weaning phase in most humans, but persists at a high frequency in Europe and some nomadic populations. Two hypotheses are usually proposed to explain the particular distribution of the lactase persistence phenotype. The gene-culture coevolution hypothesis supposes a nutritional advantage of lactose digestion in pastoral populations. The calcium assimilation hypothesis suggests that carriers of the lactase persistence allele(s (LCT*P are favoured in high-latitude regions, where sunshine is insufficient to allow accurate vitamin-D synthesis. In this work, we test the validity of these two hypotheses on a large worldwide dataset of lactase persistence frequencies by using several complementary approaches. METHODOLOGY: We first analyse the distribution of lactase persistence in various continents in relation to geographic variation, pastoralism levels, and the genetic patterns observed for other independent polymorphisms. Then we use computer simulations and a large database of archaeological dates for the introduction of domestication to explore the evolution of these frequencies in Europe according to different demographic scenarios and selection intensities. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that gene-culture coevolution is a likely hypothesis in Africa as high LCT*P frequencies are preferentially found in pastoral populations. In Europe, we show that population history played an important role in the diffusion of lactase persistence over the continent. Moreover, selection pressure on lactase persistence has been very high in the North-western part of the continent, by contrast to the South-eastern part where genetic drift alone can explain the observed frequencies. This selection pressure increasing with latitude is highly compatible with the calcium assimilation hypothesis while the gene-culture coevolution hypothesis cannot be ruled out

  20. Lactase persistence, milk intake, and mortality in the Danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholdt, Helle Kirstine Mørup; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Varbo, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Meta-analyses have suggested no association between milk intake and mortality. Since only few studies have been conducted, we investigated the association between the lactase persistent genetic variant LCT-13910 C/T (rs4988235), a proxy for long-term low and high intake of milk, and mortality. We...

  1. Direct estimates of natural selection in Iberia indicate calcium absorption was not the only driver of lactase persistence in Europe.

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    Sverrisdóttir, Oddny Ósk; Timpson, Adrian; Toombs, Jamie; Lecoeur, Cecile; Froguel, Philippe; Carretero, Jose Miguel; Arsuaga Ferreras, Juan Luis; Götherström, Anders; Thomas, Mark G

    2014-04-01

    Lactase persistence (LP) is a genetically determined trait whereby the enzyme lactase is expressed throughout adult life. Lactase is necessary for the digestion of lactose--the main carbohydrate in milk--and its production is downregulated after the weaning period in most humans and all other mammals studied. Several sources of evidence indicate that LP has evolved independently, in different parts of the world over the last 10,000 years, and has been subject to strong natural selection in dairying populations. In Europeans, LP is strongly associated with, and probably caused by, a single C to T mutation 13,910 bp upstream of the lactase (LCT) gene (-13,910*T). Despite a considerable body of research, the reasons why LP should provide such a strong selective advantage remain poorly understood. In this study, we examine one of the most widely cited hypotheses for selection on LP--that fresh milk consumption supplemented the poor vitamin D and calcium status of northern Europe's early farmers (the calcium assimilation hypothesis). We do this by testing for natural selection on -13,910*T using ancient DNA data from the skeletal remains of eight late Neolithic Iberian individuals, whom we would not expect to have poor vitamin D and calcium status because of relatively high incident UVB light levels. None of the eight samples successfully typed in the study had the derived T-allele. In addition, we reanalyze published data from French Neolithic remains to both test for population continuity and further examine the evolution of LP in the region. Using simulations that accommodate genetic drift, natural selection, uncertainty in calibrated radiocarbon dates, and sampling error, we find that natural selection is still required to explain the observed increase in allele frequency. We conclude that the calcium assimilation hypothesis is insufficient to explain the spread of LP in Europe.

  2. The Phenotype/Genotype Correlation of Lactase Persistence among Omani Adults

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    Abdulrahim Al-Abri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the correlation of lactase persistence phenotype with genotype in Omani adults.Methods: Lactase persistence phenotype was tested by hydrogen breath test in 52 Omani Adults using the Micro H2 analyzer. Results were checked against genotyping using direct DNA sequencing.Results: Forty one individuals with C/C-13910 and T/T-13915 genotypes had positive breath tests (≥20 ppm; while eight of nine individuals with T/C-13910 or T/G-13915 genotypes had negative breath tests (<20 ppm and two subjects were non-hydrogen producers. The agreement between phenotype and genotype using Kappa value was very good (0.93.Conclusion: Genotyping both T/C-13910 and T/G-13915 alleles can be used to assist diagnosis and predict lactose intolerance in the Omani population.

  3. Polymorphism in the oxytocin promoter region in patients with lactase non-persistence is not related to symptoms

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    Simrén Magnus

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxytocin and the oxytocin receptor have been demonstrated in the gastrointestinal (GI tract and have been shown to exert physiological effects on gut motility. The role for oxytocin in the pathophysiology of GI complaints is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine genetic variations or polymorphism of oxytocin (OXT and its receptor (OXTR genes in patients with GI complaints without visible organic abnormalities. Methods Genetic variants in the OXT promoter region, and in the OXTR gene in DNA samples from 131 rigorously evaluated patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS, 408 homozygous subjects referred for lactase (LCT-13910 C>T, rs4988235 genotyping, and 299 asymptomatic blood donors were compared. One polymorphism related to the OXT gene (rs6133010 A>G and 4 related to the OXTR gene (rs1465386 G>T, rs3806675 G>A, rs968389 A>G, rs1042778 G>T were selected for genotyping using Applied Biosystems 7900 HT allele discrimination assays. Results There were no statistically significant differences in the genotype or allele frequencies in any of the SNPs when IBS patients were compared to healthy controls. Among subjects referred for lactase genotyping, the rs6133010 A>G OXT promoter A/G genotype tended to be more common in the 154 non-persistent (27.3% subjects than in the 254 lactase persistant (18.1% subjects and in the healthy controls (19.4% (p = 0.08. When direct comparing, the A/G genotype was less common in the OXT promoter region in controls (p = 0.09 and in subjects with lactase persistence (p = 0.03 compared to subjects with lactase non-persistence. When healthy controls were viewed according to their own LCT-13910 genotypes, the C/C lactase non-persistent controls had a higher frequency for the OXT promoter A/G genotype than LCT-13910 T/T lactase persistent controls (41.2% vs 13.1%. No significant differences in frequencies of the investigated OXTR SNPs were noted in this study. Conclusion The results suggest

  4. Frequency of adult type-associated lactase persistence LCT-13910C/T genotypes in the Czech/Slav and Czech Roma/Gypsy populations

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    Jaroslav A. Hubácek

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lactase non-persistence (leading to primary lactose intolerance is a genetically dependent inability to digest lactose in adulthood. As part of the human adaptation to dairying, the human lactase LCT-13910C/T mutation (which propagates adult expression of lactase developed, spread and participated in the adaptation to dairying. This variant is associated with lactase activity persistence, and its carriers are able to digest lactose. We compared the frequencies of lactase 13910C/T (rs4988235 genotypes in Czechs/Slavs (N = 288 and Czech Gypsies/Roma (N = 300, two ethnically different groups where this polymorphism has not yet been analysed. Allelic frequencies significantly differed between the populations (p < 0.0001. In Czechs/Slavs, the lactase persistence T allele was present in 76% of the individuals, which is in agreement with frequencies among geographically neighbouring populations. In the Czech Gypsy/Roma population, only 27% of the adults were carriers of at least one lactase persistence allele, similar to the Indian population. In agreement with this result, dairy product consumption was reported by 70.5% of Czechs/Slavs and 39.0% of the Czech Gypsy/Roma population. Both in the Czech Gypsy/Roma and in the Czech/Slavs populations, the presence of carriers of the lactase persistence allele was similar in subjects self-reporting the consumption of unfermented/fresh milk, in comparison to the others.

  5. Lactase persistence, milk intake, hip fracture and bone mineral density: a study of 97 811 Danish individuals and a meta-analysis.

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    Bergholdt, H K M; Larsen, M K; Varbo, A; Nordestgaard, B G; Ellervik, C

    2018-03-14

    Whether a causal relationship exists between milk intake and reduced risk of fractures is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that genetically determined milk intake reduces the risk of fractures and increases bone mineral density (BMD). We investigated the association between milk intake, LCT-13910 C/T (rs4988235), which is associated with lactase persistence (TT/TC) in Northern Europeans, and hip fractures in three Danish prospective studies (N = 97 811, age ≥20 years). We added meta-analyses of LCT-13910 and fractures and BMD from five published Northern European population studies. In the Danish studies, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for hip fracture per one glass per week higher milk intake was 1.00 (95% CI: 0.99-1.01). The per T-allele milk intake was 0.58 (0.49-0.68) glasses per week, but HR was 1.01 (0.94-1.09) for hip fracture. In meta-analyses of Danish studies with published Northern European population studies, the random effects odds ratio for any fracture was 0.86 (0.61-1.21; I 2 = 73%) for TT vs. CC and 0.90 (0.68-1.21; I 2 = 63%) for TC vs. CC. The standardized mean difference in femoral neck BMD was 0.10 (0.02-0.18; I 2 = 0%) g cm -2 for TT vs. CC and 0.06 (-0.04 to 0.17; I 2 = 17%) g cm -2 for TC vs. CC. There were no differences in lumbar spine or total hip BMD comparing TT or TC with CC. Genetically lifelong lactase persistence with high milk intake was not associated with hip fracture in Danish population-based cohorts. A meta-analysis combining Danish studies with published Northern European population studies also showed that lactase persistence was not associated with fracture risk. Genetic lactase persistence was associated with a higher femoral neck BMD, but not lumbar spine or total hip BMD. © 2018 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  6. Lactase persistence, NOD2 status and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection associations to Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elguezabal Natalia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD, which includes both Crohn’s disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC, is caused by a complex interplay involving genetic predisposition, environmental factors and an infectious agent. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP is a promising pathogen candidate since it produces a chronic intestinal inflammatory disease in ruminants that resembles CD in humans. MAP is a ubiquitous microorganism, although its presence in the food chain, especially in milk from infected animals, is what made us think that there could be an association between lactase persistence (LP and IBD. The LCT mutation has brought adaptation to dairy farming which in turn would have increased exposure of the population to infection by MAP. NOD2 gene mutations are highly associated to CD. Methods In our study, CD and UC patients and controls from the North of Spain were genotyped for the lactase gene (LCT and for three NOD-2 variants, R702W, G908R and Cins1007fs. MAP PCR was carried out in order to assess MAP infection status and these results were correlated with LCT and NOD2 genotypes. Results As for LP, no association was found with IBD, although UC patients were less likely to present the T/T−13910 variant compared to controls, showing a higher C-allele frequency and a tendency to lactase non-persistence (LNP. NOD2 mutations were associated to CD being the per-allele risk higher for the Cins1007fs variant. MAP infection was more extended among the healthy controls (45.2% compared to CD patients (21.38% and UC patients (19.04% and this was attributed to therapy. The Asturian CD cohort presented higher levels of MAP prevalence (38.6% compared to the Basque CD cohort (15.5%, differences also attributed to therapy. No interaction was found between MAP infection and LCT or NOD2 status. Conclusions We conclude that LP is not significantly associated with IBD, but that MAP infection and NOD2 do show not mutually

  7. Lactase persistence and dairy intake in Mapuche and Mestizo populations from southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Catalina I; Flores, Sergio V

    2014-11-01

    Lactase persistence (LP) occurs at a very low frequency in indigenous populations from Latin America, offering an opportunity to understand the relationship between this genetic trait and patterns of dairy consumption. Here, the frequency of LP is analyzed from Mapuche and -an adjacent- mestizo population inhabiting the Araucanía region. In addition to genotyping for LP, participants were surveyed in relation to general perception and consumption habits of dairy products. Low LP frequency (10%) and very low dairy intake was found among the Mapuche population as compared with Mestizo populations inhabiting Chile. The survey reported that the main reasons for avoidance of dairy were the gastrointestinal symptoms after dairy intake and cultural dietary habits. The interaction between low LP genotype frequency, low dairy intake, and sociocultural determinants is here discussed in the light of their potential health outcomes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Lactase non-persistence and general patterns of dairy intake in indigenous and mestizo chilean populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Catalina I; Montalva, Nicolás; Arias, Macarena; Hevia, Macarena; Moraga, Mauricio L; Flores, Sergio V

    2016-01-01

    Lactase persistence (LP) is a genetic trait that has been studied among different countries and ethnic groups. In Latin America, the frequencies of this trait have been shown to vary according to the degree of admixture of the populations. The objective of this study is to better understand the relationship between this genetic trait and dairy intake in a multiethnic context through a synthesis of studies conducted in four regions of Chile. Genotypes frequencies for the SNP LCT-13910C>T (rs4988235) and frequency of dairy consumption were obtained from four populations: Polynesians from Easter Island (Rapanui); Amerindians (Mapuche) and Mestizos from the Araucanía region; urban Mestizos from Santiago; and rural Mestizos from the Coquimbo region. Genetic differentiation and association between milk consumption and genotype frequencies were estimated. Genetic differentiation between Native and Mestizo populations was significant; the LP frequency in Mapuche and Rapanui was 10% and 25%, respectively, whereas among the Mestizos, LP frequency was near 40%. Dairy intake was below the nutritional recommendations for the four groups, and extremely below recommendations among the indigenous populations. Association between milk intake and LP was found in Santiago and Rapanui populations. Although the frequency of LP varies among the populations according to their degree of admixture, dairy consumption was very low across the populations. Given that the association between milk consumption and expected phenotype was found only in two of the populations analyzed, it seems that lactase non-persistence (LNP) is not the only cause for dairy avoidance. Thus, it is suggested that SES and cultural preferences are likely affecting dairy consumption. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Genetic Origins of Lactase Persistence and the Spread of Pastoralism in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranciaro, Alessia; Campbell, Michael C.; Hirbo, Jibril B.; Ko, Wen-Ya; Froment, Alain; Anagnostou, Paolo; Kotze, Maritha J.; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Nyambo, Thomas; Omar, Sabah A.; Tishkoff, Sarah A.

    2014-01-01

    In humans, the ability to digest lactose, the sugar in milk, declines after weaning because of decreasing levels of the enzyme lactase-phlorizin hydrolase, encoded by LCT. However, some individuals maintain high enzyme amounts and are able to digest lactose into adulthood (i.e., they have the lactase-persistence [LP] trait). It is thought that selection has played a major role in maintaining this genetically determined phenotypic trait in different human populations that practice pastoralism. To identify variants associated with the LP trait and to study its evolutionary history in Africa, we sequenced MCM6 introns 9 and 13 and ∼2 kb of the LCT promoter region in 819 individuals from 63 African populations and in 154 non-Africans from nine populations. We also genotyped four microsatellites in an ∼198 kb region in a subset of 252 individuals to reconstruct the origin and spread of LP-associated variants in Africa. Additionally, we examined the association between LP and genetic variability at candidate regulatory regions in 513 individuals from eastern Africa. Our analyses confirmed the association between the LP trait and three common variants in intron 13 (C-14010, G-13907, and G-13915). Furthermore, we identified two additional LP-associated SNPs in intron 13 and the promoter region (G-12962 and T-956, respectively). Using neutrality tests based on the allele frequency spectrum and long-range linkage disequilibrium, we detected strong signatures of recent positive selection in eastern African populations and the Fulani from central Africa. In addition, haplotype analysis supported an eastern African origin of the C-14010 LP-associated mutation in southern Africa. PMID:24630847

  10. Genetic origins of lactase persistence and the spread of pastoralism in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranciaro, Alessia; Campbell, Michael C; Hirbo, Jibril B; Ko, Wen-Ya; Froment, Alain; Anagnostou, Paolo; Kotze, Maritha J; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Nyambo, Thomas; Omar, Sabah A; Tishkoff, Sarah A

    2014-04-03

    In humans, the ability to digest lactose, the sugar in milk, declines after weaning because of decreasing levels of the enzyme lactase-phlorizin hydrolase, encoded by LCT. However, some individuals maintain high enzyme amounts and are able to digest lactose into adulthood (i.e., they have the lactase-persistence [LP] trait). It is thought that selection has played a major role in maintaining this genetically determined phenotypic trait in different human populations that practice pastoralism. To identify variants associated with the LP trait and to study its evolutionary history in Africa, we sequenced MCM6 introns 9 and 13 and ~2 kb of the LCT promoter region in 819 individuals from 63 African populations and in 154 non-Africans from nine populations. We also genotyped four microsatellites in an ~198 kb region in a subset of 252 individuals to reconstruct the origin and spread of LP-associated variants in Africa. Additionally, we examined the association between LP and genetic variability at candidate regulatory regions in 513 individuals from eastern Africa. Our analyses confirmed the association between the LP trait and three common variants in intron 13 (C-14010, G-13907, and G-13915). Furthermore, we identified two additional LP-associated SNPs in intron 13 and the promoter region (G-12962 and T-956, respectively). Using neutrality tests based on the allele frequency spectrum and long-range linkage disequilibrium, we detected strong signatures of recent positive selection in eastern African populations and the Fulani from central Africa. In addition, haplotype analysis supported an eastern African origin of the C-14010 LP-associated mutation in southern Africa. Copyright © 2014 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Adaptation to Lactose in Lactase Non Persistent People: Effects on Intolerance and the Relationship between Dairy Food Consumption and Evalution of Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Szilagyi, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Dairy foods contain complex nutrients which interact with the host. Yet, evolution of lactase persistence has divided the human species into those that can or cannot digest lactose in adulthood. Such a ubiquitous trait has differential effects on humanity. The literature is reviewed to explore how the divide affects lactose handling by lactase non persistent persons. There are two basic differences in digesters. Firstly, maldigesters consume less dairy foods, and secondly, excess lactose is d...

  12. New insights into the history of the C-14010 lactase persistence variant in Eastern and Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Macholdt, Enrico; Slatkin, Montgomery; Pakendorf, Brigitte; Stoneking, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Lactase persistence (LP), the ability to digest lactose into adulthood, is strongly associated with the cultural traits of pastoralism and milk-drinking among human populations, and several different genetic variants are known that confer LP. Recent studies of LP variants in Southern African populations, with a focus on Khoisan-speaking groups, found high frequencies of an LP variant (the C-14010 allele) that also occurs in Eastern Africa, and concluded that the C-14010 allele was brought to ...

  13. Revealing the mechanisms behind adult-type hypolactasia by studies of the regulation of the lactase phlorizin hydrolase gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsen, Jesper Thorvald

    2008-01-01

    -10 years. Lactase non-persistence is often associated with an inability to efficiently digest lactose, resulting in lactose intolerance. The lactase persistent phenotype is frequently found among northern Europeans and their descendants, but is also found among some African and Arabic populations (e...

  14. Adult-type hypolactasia and regulation of lactase expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsen, Jesper Thorvald

    2005-01-01

    , the main carbohydrate in milk. Individuals with adult-type hypolactasia lose their lactase expression before adulthood and consequently often become lactose intolerant with associated digestive problems (e.g. diarrhoea). In contrast, lactase persistent individuals have a lifelong lactase expression......A common genetically determined polymorphism in the human population leads to two distinct phenotypes in adults, lactase persistence and adult-type hypolactasia (lactase non-persistence). All healthy newborn children express high levels of lactase and are able to digest large quantities of lactose...... and are able to digest lactose as adults. Lactase persistence can be regarded as the mutant phenotype since other mammals down-regulate their lactase expression after weaning (the postweaning decline). This phenomenon does not occur in lactase persistent individuals. The regulation of lactase expression...

  15. Adaptation to Lactose in Lactase Non Persistent People: Effects on Intolerance and the Relationship between Dairy Food Consumption and Evalution of Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Andrew

    2015-08-13

    Dairy foods contain complex nutrients which interact with the host. Yet, evolution of lactase persistence has divided the human species into those that can or cannot digest lactose in adulthood. Such a ubiquitous trait has differential effects on humanity. The literature is reviewed to explore how the divide affects lactose handling by lactase non persistent persons. There are two basic differences in digesters. Firstly, maldigesters consume less dairy foods, and secondly, excess lactose is digested by colonic microflora. Lactose intolerance in maldigesters may occur with random lactose ingestion. However, lactose intolerance without maldigestion tends to detract from gaining a clear understanding of the mechanisms of symptoms formation and leads to confusion with regards to dairy food consumption. The main consequence of intolerance is withholding dairy foods. However, regular dairy food consumption by lactase non persistent people could lead to colonic adaptation by the microbiome. This process may mimic a prebiotic effect and allows lactase non persistent people to consume more dairy foods enhancing a favorable microbiome. This process then could lead to alterations in outcome of diseases in response to dairy foods in lactose maldigesters. The evidence that lactose is a selective human prebiotic is reviewed and current links between dairy foods and some diseases are discussed within this context. Colonic adaptation has not been adequately studied, especially with modern microbiological techniques.

  16. The historical spread of Arabian Pastoralists to the eastern African Sahel evidenced by the lactase persistence -13,915*G allele and mitochondrial DNA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Priehodová, E.; Austerlitz, F.; Čížková, M.; Mokhtar, M. G.; Poloni, E. S.; Černý, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 3 (2017), č. článku e22950. ISSN 1042-0533 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-37998S Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : lactase persistence * Arabs * pastoralism * African Sahel Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology Impact factor: 1.780, year: 2016

  17. RFLP Analysis and Allelic Discrimination with Real-Time PCR Using the Human Lactase Persistence Trait: A Pair of Molecular Genetic Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinlander, Kenneth M.; Hall, David J.; De Stasio, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    We describe here two open-ended laboratory investigations for an undergraduate laboratory course that uses students' DNA as templates for quantitative real-time PCR and for traditional PCR followed by RFLP analysis. Students are captivated by the immediacy of the application and the relevance of the genotypes and traits, lactase persistence or…

  18. Adaptation to Lactose in Lactase Non Persistent People: Effects on Intolerance and the Relationship between Dairy Food Consumption and Evalution of Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Szilagyi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dairy foods contain complex nutrients which interact with the host. Yet, evolution of lactase persistence has divided the human species into those that can or cannot digest lactose in adulthood. Such a ubiquitous trait has differential effects on humanity. The literature is reviewed to explore how the divide affects lactose handling by lactase non persistent persons. There are two basic differences in digesters. Firstly, maldigesters consume less dairy foods, and secondly, excess lactose is digested by colonic microflora. Lactose intolerance in maldigesters may occur with random lactose ingestion. However, lactose intolerance without maldigestion tends to detract from gaining a clear understanding of the mechanisms of symptoms formation and leads to confusion with regards to dairy food consumption. The main consequence of intolerance is withholding dairy foods. However, regular dairy food consumption by lactase non persistent people could lead to colonic adaptation by the microbiome. This process may mimic a prebiotic effect and allows lactase non persistent people to consume more dairy foods enhancing a favorable microbiome. This process then could lead to alterations in outcome of diseases in response to dairy foods in lactose maldigesters. The evidence that lactose is a selective human prebiotic is reviewed and current links between dairy foods and some diseases are discussed within this context. Colonic adaptation has not been adequately studied, especially with modern microbiological techniques.

  19. Lactase Non-Persistence Genotyping: Comparison of Two Real-Time PCR Assays and Assessment of Concomitant Fructose/Sorbitol Malabsorption Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enko, Dietmar; Pollheimer, Verena; Németh, Stefan; Pühringer, Helene; Stolba, Robert; Halwachs-Baumann, Gabriele; Kriegshäuser, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    Genetic testing is a standard technique for the diagnosis of primary adult-type hypolactasia, also referred to as lactase non-persistence. The aim of this study was to compare the lactase gene (LCT) C/T-13910 polymorphism genotyping results of two commercially available real-time (RT)-PCR assays in patients referred to our outpatient clinic for primary lactose malabsorption testing. Furthermore, concomitant conditions of fructose/sorbitol malabsorption were assessed. Samples obtained from 100 patients were tested in parallel using the LCT T-13910C ToolSet for Light Cycler (Roche, Rotkreuz, Switzerland) and the LCT-13910C>T RealFast Assay (ViennaLab Diagnostics GmbH, Vienna, Austria). Additionally, patients were also screened for the presence of fructose/sorbitol malabsorption by functional hydrogen (H2)/methane (CH4) breath testing (HMBT). Cohen's Kappa (κ) was used to calculate the agreement between the two genotyping methods. The exact Chi-Square test was performed to compare fructose/sorbitol HMBT with LCT genotyping results. Twenty-one (21.0%) patients had a LCT C/C-13910 genotype suggestive of lactase non-persistence, and 79 (79.0%) patients were identified with either a LCT T/C-13910 or T/T-13910 genotype (i.e., lactase persistence). In all genotype groups, concordance between the two RT-PCR assays was 100%. Cohen's κ demonstrated perfect observed agreement (p sorbitol malabsorption was observed in 13/100 (13.0%) and 25/100 (25.0%) individuals, respectively. Both RT-PCR assays are robust and reliable LCT genotyping tools in a routine clinical setting. Concomitant fructose and/or sorbitol malabsorption should be considered in individuals with suspected lactase-non-persistence. However, standardization of clinical interpretation of laboratory HMBT results is required.

  20. Comparison of Quick Lactose Intolerance Test in duodenal biopsies of dyspeptic patients with single nucleotide polymorphism LCT-13910C>T associated with primary hypolactasia/lactase-persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattar, Rejane; Basile-Filho, Anibal; Kemp, Rafael; Santos, José Sebastião dos

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the usefulness of Quick Lactose Intolerance Test in relation to the genetic test based on LCT-13910C>T genotypes, previously validated for clinical practice, for primary hypolactasia/lactase-persistence diagnosis. Thirty-two dyspeptic patients that underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy entered the study. Two postbulbar duodenal biopsies were taken for the Quick test, and gastric antral biopsy for DNA extraction and LCT-13910C>T polymorphism analysis. DNA was also extracted from biopsies after being used in the Quick Test that was kept frozen until extraction. Nine patients with lactase-persistence genotype (LCT-13910CT or LCT-13910TT) had normolactasia, eleven patients with hypolactasia genotype (LCT-13910CC) had severe hypolactasia, and among twelve with mild hypolactasia, except for one that had LCT-13910CT genotype, all the others had hypolactasia genotype. The agreement between genetic test and quick test was high (plactose-containing food ingestion had severe hypolactasia (plactose intolerance.

  1. On the edge of Bantu expansions: mtDNA, Y chromosome and lactase persistence genetic variation in southwestern Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beleza Sandra

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current information about the expansion of Bantu-speaking peoples is hampered by the scarcity of genetic data from well identified populations from southern Africa. Here, we fill an important gap in the analysis of the western edge of the Bantu migrations by studying for the first time the patterns of Y-chromosome, mtDNA and lactase persistence genetic variation in four representative groups living around the Namib Desert in southwestern Angola (Ovimbundu, Ganguela, Nyaneka-Nkumbi and Kuvale. We assessed the differentiation between these populations and their levels of admixture with Khoe-San groups, and examined their relationship with other sub-Saharan populations. We further combined our dataset with previously published data on Y-chromosome and mtDNA variation to explore a general isolation with migration model and infer the demographic parameters underlying current genetic diversity in Bantu populations. Results Correspondence analysis, lineage sharing patterns and admixture estimates indicate that the gene pool from southwestern Angola is predominantly derived from West-Central Africa. The pastoralist Herero-speaking Kuvale people were additionally characterized by relatively high frequencies of Y-chromosome (12% and mtDNA (22% Khoe-San lineages, as well as by the presence of the -14010C lactase persistence mutation (6%, which likely originated in non-Bantu pastoralists from East Africa. Inferred demographic parameters show that both male and female populations underwent significant size growth after the split between the western and eastern branches of Bantu expansions occurring 4000 years ago. However, males had lower population sizes and migration rates than females throughout the Bantu dispersals. Conclusion Genetic variation in southwestern Angola essentially results from the encounter of an offshoot of West-Central Africa with autochthonous Khoisan-speaking peoples from the south. Interactions between the Bantus

  2. New insights into the history of the C-14010 lactase persistence variant in Eastern and Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macholdt, Enrico; Slatkin, Montgomery; Pakendorf, Brigitte; Stoneking, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Lactase persistence (LP), the ability to digest lactose into adulthood, is strongly associated with the cultural traits of pastoralism and milk-drinking among human populations, and several different genetic variants are known that confer LP. Recent studies of LP variants in Southern African populations, with a focus on Khoisan-speaking groups, found high frequencies of an LP variant (the C-14010 allele) that also occurs in Eastern Africa, and concluded that the C-14010 allele was brought to Southern Africa via a migration of pastoralists from Eastern Africa. However, this conclusion was based on indirect evidence; to date no study has jointly analyzed data on the C-14010 allele from both Southern African Khoisan-speaking groups and Eastern Africa. Here, we combine and analyze published data on the C-14010 allele in Southern and Eastern African populations, consisting of haplotypes with the C-14010 allele and four closely-linked short tandem repeat loci. Our results provide direct evidence for the previously-hypothesized Eastern African origin of the C-14010 allele in Southern African Khoisan-speaking groups. In addition, we find evidence for a separate introduction of the C-14010 allele into the Bantu-speaking Xhosa. The estimated selection intensity on the C-14010 allele in Eastern Africa is lower than that in Southern Africa, which suggests that in Eastern Africa the dietary changes conferring the fitness advantage associated with LP occurred some time after the origin of the C-14010 allele. Conversely, in Southern Africa the fitness advantage was present when the allele was introduced, as would be expected if pastoralism was introduced concomitantly. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Analysis of a SNP Linked to Lactase Persistence: An Exercise for Teaching Molecular Biology Techniques to Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheis, Patrick J.; Bowling, Bethany V.

    2011-01-01

    Recent experimental evidence indicates that the ability of adults to tolerate milk, cheese, and other lactose-containing dairy products is an autosomal dominant trait that co-evolved with dairy farming in Central Europe about 7,500 years ago. Among persons of European descent, this trait is strongly associated with a C to T substitution at a…

  4. East European energy. Romania's energy needs persist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Elliott C.; Denman, Sara B.; Kutnick, Bruce; Schultz, John R.; Foley Hinnen, Patricia; Bylsma, Peter J.

    1992-08-01

    Romania's economic growth and development have been hampered by declining domestic energy production and disrupted fuel imports, creating an energy shortage. Consequently, homes and businesses lack sufficient light and heat, and industrial output has fallen. In order to ensure sufficient energy supplies in the future, Romania is taking steps to decentralize its state-owned energy industries, modernize its outdated facilities and equipment, diversify its fuel sources, and eliminate its inefficient production practices. To accomplish these objectives, Romania needs substantial foreign trade and investment, according to Romanian officials. However, despite government efforts to reform the energy sector and improve the business climate, impediments to U.S. trade with and investment in Romania persist. These barriers include lack of a comprehensive energy strategy, underdeveloped legal and business infrastructures, uncertain economic and political conditions, and the absence of U.S. most-favored-nation trade status. Recent efforts by the Romanian and U.S. governments to overcome the barriers to most-favored-nation status have led to progress in this area. U.S. government and international agencies have initiated a variety of efforts to assist Romania's energy sector. For example, the Agency for International Development (AID) funded an Emergency Energy Program; the U.S. Trade and Development Program is evaluating requests to fund several feasibility studies in the power generation sector; and the Department of Commerce offers energy-related information exchanges and trade missions to Romania. International organizations such as the World Bank and the European Investment Bank have also granted loans for energy sector development projects in Romania

  5. Association of lactase persistence genotype with milk consumption, obesity and blood pressure: a Mendelian randomization study in the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort, with a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Fernando Pires; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Smith, George Davey; de Mola, Christian Loret; Victora, Cesar Gomes

    2016-10-01

    Milk intake has been associated with lower blood pressure (BP) in observational studies, and randomized controlled trials suggested that milk-derived tripeptides have BP-lowering effects. Milk intake has also been associated with body mass index (BMI). Nevertheless, it is unclear whether increasing milk consumption would reduce BP in the general population. We investigated the association of milk intake with obesity and BP using genetically-defined lactase persistence (LP) based on the rs4988235 polymorphism in a Mendelian randomization design in the 1982 Pelotas (Southern Brazil) Birth Cohort. These results were combined with published reports identified through a systematic review using meta-analysis. In the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort, milk intake was 42 [95% confidence interval (CI): 18; 67) ml/day higher in LP individuals. In conventional observational analysis, each 1-dl/day increase in milk intake was associated with -0.26 (95% CI: -0.33; -0.19) kg/m 2 in BMI and -0.31 (95% CI: -0.46; -0.16) and -0.35 (95% CI: -0.46; -0.23) mmHg in systolic and diastolic BP, respectively. These results were not corroborated when analysing LP status, but confidence intervals were large. In random effects meta-analysis, LP individuals presented higher BMI [0.17 (95% CI: 0.07; 0.27) kg/m 2 ] and higher odds of overweight-obesity [1.09 (95% CI: 1.02; 1.17)]. There were no reliable associations for BP. Our study supports that LP is positively associated with obesity, suggesting that the negative association of milk intake with obesity is likely due to limitations of conventional observational studies. Our findings also do not support that increased milk intake leads to lower BP. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  6. Microbial production of lactase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, M; Ishizuka, S; Fujino, S

    1978-03-06

    A novel lactase (1) is produced by aerobic culture of Kluyveromyces lactis 013-2 (FERMiP 3513). Thus, the microbe was aerobically cultured at 30/sup 0/ for 24 h on a liquid medium (pH 5.5) containing corn steep liquor 7 and lactose 2%. The cells (1.5 kg) were washed with water, mixed with toluol 80 mL and 0.05 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) 1.5 L, and autolyzed at 30/sup 0/ for 15 h. The autolyzate was centrifuged, the supernatant (2.5 L) was mixed with an equal volume of cold Me/sub 2/CO, the resulting precipitate was dissolved in 600 mL water, and the solution was mixed with protamine and the resulting precipitate was removed to yield 500 mL enzymes solution of 2000 units/mL. The enzyme solution was dialyzed against 0.01 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) 1.5 L, and autolyzed at 30/sup 0/ for 15 h. The autolyzate was centrifuged, the supernatant (2.5 L) was mixed with an equal volume of cold Me/sub 2/CO, the resulting precipitate was dissolved in 600 mL water, and the solution was mixed with protamine and the resulting precipitate was removed to yield 500 mL enzymes solution of 2000 units/mL. The enzyme solution was dialyzed against 0.01 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.9) containing 0.0001 M MnSO/sub 4/, and subjected to column chromatography on DEAE-Cellulose to separate 1-A 3.6 and 1-B 1.6 g, respectively. The enzyme had optimum pH and temperature at pH 6.0 to 6.5 and 40 to 50/sup 0/, respectively. It was stable at pH 6 to 8 and was inactivated at 55/sup 0/. It was inhibited with heavy metal salts, p-chloromercuribenzoate, and EDTA and activated with Mn/sup 2 +/, Mg/sup 2 +/, CO/sup 2 +/, Ni/sup 2 +/, K/sup +/ and Na/sup +/.

  7. LACTASE DEFICIENCY IN BABIES AND INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Kornienko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactose, the constituent disaccharide of milk and other dairy products, is an important nutrient in early childhood. Lactase breaks down lactose in small intestine. In most people the activity of lactase reduces with age. In infancy lactase deficiency tends to be either transient, which is more often, or secondary to intestinal diseases. Abdominal cramps, anxiety and dyspepsia are the common symptoms of lactase deficiency. Tactics of treatment should take into account a cause and severity of the condition. A specialized milk formula «enfamil lactofree», distinguished for its' optimal formulation, high clinical effectiveness and good tolerance, could be recommended for use in children with primary, transient and secondary lactase deficiency who receive formula and mixed feeding.Key words: lactose, lactase deficiency, lactose-free formula.

  8. Comparison of Quick Lactose Intolerance Test in duodenal biopsies of dyspeptic patients with single nucleotide polymorphism LCT-13910C>T associated with primary hypolactasia/lactase-persistence Comparação do Teste Quick de Intolerância à Lactose em biópsias duodenais de pacientes dispépticos com polimorfismo de nucleotídeo único LCT-13910C>T associado com hipolactasia primária/lactase persistente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Mattar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze the usefulness of Quick Lactose Intolerance Test in relation to the genetic test based on LCT-13910C>T genotypes, previously validated for clinical practice, for primary hypolactasia/lactase-persistence diagnosis. METHODS: Thirty-two dyspeptic patients that underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy entered the study. Two postbulbar duodenal biopsies were taken for the Quick test, and gastric antral biopsy for DNA extraction and LCT-13910C>T polymorphism analysis. DNA was also extracted from biopsies after being used in the Quick Test that was kept frozen until extraction. RESULTS: Nine patients with lactase-persistence genotype (LCT-13910CT or LCT-13910TT had normolactasia, eleven patients with hypolactasia genotype (LCT-13910CC had severe hypolactasia, and among twelve with mild hypolactasia, except for one that had LCT-13910CT genotype, all the others had hypolactasia genotype. The agreement between genetic test and quick test was high (pOBJETIVO: Analisar a aplicabilidade do Teste Quick de Intolerância à Lactose em relação ao teste genético baseado nos genótipos LCT-13910C>T, previamente validado para a prática clínica, para diagnóstico de má digestão primária de lactose/digestão de lactose. MÉTODOS: Trinta e dois pacientes dispépticos submetidos à endoscopia digestiva entraram no estudo. Duas biópsias duodenais pós-bulbares foram empregadas no Teste Quick, e biópsia do antro gástrico para extração de DNA e análise do polimorfismo LCT-13910C>T. DNA também foi extraído de biópsias depois de terem sido usadas no teste Quick, e conservadas congeladas. RESULTADOS: Nove pacientes com genótipo de lactase persistente (LCT-13910CT ou LCT-13910TT tinham normolactasia, onze pacientes com genótipo de hipolactasia (LCT-13910CC tinham hipolactasia severa, e entre doze com hipolactasia leve, com exceção de uma que tinha genótipo LCT-13910CT, todos os demais tinham genótipo de hipolactasia. A concord

  9. Technology alliances in emerging economies : Persistence and interrelation in European firms’alliance formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacob, J.; Belderbos, R.; Gilsing, V.A.

    2013-01-01

    We analyse the patterns and determinants of technology alliance formation with partner firms from emerging economies with a focus on European firms' alliance strategies. We examine to what extent European firms' alliance formation with partners based in emerging economies is persistent – that is, to

  10. Behaviour of intestinal lactase after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becciolini, A; Cariaggi, P; Gori, A [Florence Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Radiologia

    1975-08-01

    The behavior of intestinal lactase has been studied in rats after irradiation. The significant increase of activity is not immediate, but slowly and progressively starting from 4 hrs after irradiation. The modifications of the activity are slow and gradual also during the reduction phase. This disaccharase does not show a return to normal values even after three weeks. We suggest the hypothesis that the increase could be due to a modification of the normal synthesis of enzymes caused by irradiation.

  11. Latitude, sunshine, and human lactase phenotype distributions may contribute to geographic patterns of modern disease: the inflammatory bowel disease model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szilagyi A

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Andrew Szilagyi,1 Henry Leighton,2 Barry Burstein,3 Xiaoqing Xue41Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Jewish General Hospital, 2Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, 3Department of Medicine, Jewish General Hospital, 4Department of Emergency Medicine, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, QC, CanadaAbstract: Countries with high lactase nonpersistence (LNP or low lactase persistence (LP populations have lower rates of some “western” diseases, mimicking the effects of sunshine and latitude. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, ie, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is putatively also influenced by sunshine. Recent availability of worldwide IBD rates and lactase distributions allows more extensive comparisons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent to which modern day lactase distributions interact with latitude, sunshine exposure, and IBD rates. National IBD rates, national distributions of LP/LNP, and population-weighted average national annual ultraviolet B exposure were obtained, estimated, or calculated from the literature. Negative binomial analysis was used to assess the relationship between the three parameters and IBD rates. Analyses for 55 countries were grouped in three geographic domains, ie, global, Europe, and non-Europe. In Europe, both latitude and ultraviolet B exposure correlate well with LP/LNP and IBD. In non-Europe, latitude and ultraviolet B exposure correlate weakly with LP/LNP, but the latter retains a more robust correlation with IBD. In univariate analysis, latitude, ultraviolet B exposure, and LP/LNP all had significant relationships with IBD. Multivariate analysis showed that lactase distributions provided the best model of fit for IBD. The model of IBD reveals the evolutionary effects of the human lactase divide, and suggests that latitude, ultraviolet B exposure, and LP/LNP mimic each other because LP/LNP follows latitudinal directions toward the equator

  12. The effect of lactase and formula reconstitution on milk osmolality.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malone, A J

    2012-02-03

    These experiments investigated the reaction rate of lactase on milk lactose by measuring milk osmolality; and explored the effect of formula reconstitution on milk osmolality. The investigations measured milk osmolality with the Fiske Os, freezing-point osmometer. Lactase (Lactaid) incubated with pure lactose solutions established the validity of the method. Lactase was incubated for 24 hours with four reconstituted milk formulas (Milumil, and Cow and Gate Nutrilon Plus, Farley\\'s First Milk, SMA Gold). Milk osmolality increased most rapidly in the first 4 hours after the addition of lactase. The lactase enzyme completed over 90% of the reaction within 12 hours. The milk osmolalities ranged from 487 to 591 mosm\\/kg after 24 hours with 2-4 drops of lactase in 240 ml of formula. A clinical guideline osmolality of 400 mosm\\/kg was reached in 240 ml of formula at 1 to 12 hours depending on the dose of lactase. High milk osmolalities due to prolonged enzyme incubation, or high lactase doses could be reduced to around 400 mosm\\/kg by dilution of 240 ml of formula with an extra 60 ml of water. The initial osmolality of formula after reconstitution by paediatric nurses varied widely and usually exceeded the manufacturer\\'s quoted osmolality. This initial osmolality was a further influence on the final osmolality reached after the addition of lactase. It is concluded that the recommended incubation time for Lactaid of 24 hours is unnecessary as lactase exerts the majority of its effect in less than 12 hours. Adjustment of Lactaid dose and incubation times will maintain milk formula osmolality within standard guidelines. Dilution with extra water will correct inadvertent high enzyme doses and prolonged incubation times. The normal method of reconstituting milk formulas from powder may be unreliable as the manufacturer\\'s quoted osmolality was not reproduced when milk formulas were reconstituted by paediatric nurses.

  13. Missing relationship of moyamoya and persistent primitive artery in Europeans. Another distinctive feature or artifact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenz, Holger; Wenz, Ralf; Förster, Alex; Fontana, Johann; Kerl, Hans Ulrich; Groden, Christoph; Scharf, Johann

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies found higher incidence of persistent primitive arteries in Asian moyamoya (MM) patients than in the general population, which was thought to be a characteristic trait of the MM entity in general. We analyzed incidence of persistent primitive arteries and demographics of patients with European MM treated in one single center. First, we compared our large dataset to existing literature and second, we raised the question whether European MM demonstrates similar high prevalence of persistent primitive arteries as it was previously presented within Asian MM. All European MM on whom revascularization surgery was performed from 1999 to 2013 were included. Demographics and associated diseases were obtained by retrospective chart review. Two independent readers evaluated 122 MM angiograms to determine the occurrence of persistent primitive arteries as well as the Suzuki score. We identified 112 cases with MM disease, 10 with MM syndrome. Mean age at time of diagnosis was 38.2 (range 6-64 years); a peak incidence in early childhood was not observed. Ninety (73.8%) were women, associated systemic diseases were found in four patients. Seven cases (5.7%) presented with unilaterally affected vessels. The majority of patients (71; 58.2%) were graded Suzuki Score 3. One 14-year-old boy with moyamoya presented with a primitive trigeminal artery (0.89%). We did not find a bimodal age distribution, but only a second peak during adulthood. Unlike previous studies on Asian moyamoya patients, our collective does not exhibit a higher prevalence of persistent primitive arteries than the normal population.

  14. EU-wide survey of polar organic persistent pollutants in European river waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos, Robert; Gawlik, Bernd Manfred; Locoro, Giovanni; Rimaviciute, Erika; Contini, Serafino; Bidoglio, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    This study provides the first EU-wide reconnaissance of the occurrence of polar organic persistent pollutants in European river waters. More than 100 individual water samples from over 100 European rivers from 27 European Countries were analysed for 35 selected compounds, comprising pharmaceuticals, pesticides, PFOS, PFOA, benzotriazoles, hormones, and endocrine disrupters. Around 40 laboratories participated in this sampling exercise. The most frequently and at the highest concentration levels detected compounds were benzotriazole, caffeine, carbamazepine, tolyltriazole, and nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NPE 1 C). Only about 10% of the river water samples analysed could be classified as 'very clean' in terms of chemical pollution. The rivers responsible for the major aqueous emissions of PFOS and PFOA from the European Continent could be identified. For the target compounds chosen, we are proposing 'indicative warning levels' in surface waters, which are (for most compounds) close to the 90th percentile of all water samples analysed. - More than 100 river water samples from 27 European Countries were analysed for 35 selected polar organic contaminants

  15. EU-wide survey of polar organic persistent pollutants in European river waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, Robert [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Via Enrico Fermi, 21020 Ispra (Italy)], E-mail: robert.loos@jrc.it; Gawlik, Bernd Manfred; Locoro, Giovanni; Rimaviciute, Erika; Contini, Serafino; Bidoglio, Giovanni [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Via Enrico Fermi, 21020 Ispra (Italy)

    2009-02-15

    This study provides the first EU-wide reconnaissance of the occurrence of polar organic persistent pollutants in European river waters. More than 100 individual water samples from over 100 European rivers from 27 European Countries were analysed for 35 selected compounds, comprising pharmaceuticals, pesticides, PFOS, PFOA, benzotriazoles, hormones, and endocrine disrupters. Around 40 laboratories participated in this sampling exercise. The most frequently and at the highest concentration levels detected compounds were benzotriazole, caffeine, carbamazepine, tolyltriazole, and nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NPE{sub 1}C). Only about 10% of the river water samples analysed could be classified as 'very clean' in terms of chemical pollution. The rivers responsible for the major aqueous emissions of PFOS and PFOA from the European Continent could be identified. For the target compounds chosen, we are proposing 'indicative warning levels' in surface waters, which are (for most compounds) close to the 90th percentile of all water samples analysed. - More than 100 river water samples from 27 European Countries were analysed for 35 selected polar organic contaminants.

  16. Four novel mutations in the lactase gene (LCT) underlying congenital lactase deficiency (CLD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torniainen, Suvi; Freddara, Roberta; Routi, Taina; Gijsbers, Carolien; Catassi, Carlo; Höglund, Pia; Savilahti, Erkki; Järvelä, Irma

    2009-01-22

    Congenital lactase deficiency (CLD) is a severe gastrointestinal disorder of newborns. The diagnosis is challenging and based on clinical symptoms and low lactase activity in intestinal biopsy specimens. The disease is enriched in Finland but is also present in other parts of the world. Mutations encoding the lactase (LCT) gene have recently been shown to underlie CLD. The purpose of this study was to identify new mutations underlying CLD in patients with different ethnic origins, and to increase awareness of this disease so that the patients could be sought out and treated correctly. Disaccharidase activities in intestinal biopsy specimens were assayed and the coding region of LCT was sequenced from five patients from Europe with clinical features compatible with CLD. In the analysis and prediction of mutations the following programs: ClustalW, Blosum62, PolyPhen, SIFT and Panther PSEC were used. Four novel mutations in the LCT gene were identified. A single nucleotide substitution leading to an amino acid change S688P in exon 7 and E1612X in exon 12 were present in a patient of Italian origin. Five base deletion V565fsX567 leading to a stop codon in exon 6 was found in one and a substitution R1587H in exon 12 from another Finnish patient. Both Finnish patients were heterozygous for the Finnish founder mutation Y1390X. The previously reported mutation G1363S was found in a homozygous state in two siblings of Turkish origin. This is the first report of CLD mutations in patients living outside Finland. It seems that disease is more common than previously thought. All mutations in the LCT gene lead to a similar phenotype despite the location and/or type of mutation.

  17. Four novel mutations in the lactase gene (LCT underlying congenital lactase deficiency (CLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Höglund Pia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital lactase deficiency (CLD is a severe gastrointestinal disorder of newborns. The diagnosis is challenging and based on clinical symptoms and low lactase activity in intestinal biopsy specimens. The disease is enriched in Finland but is also present in other parts of the world. Mutations encoding the lactase (LCT gene have recently been shown to underlie CLD. The purpose of this study was to identify new mutations underlying CLD in patients with different ethnic origins, and to increase awareness of this disease so that the patients could be sought out and treated correctly. Methods Disaccharidase activities in intestinal biopsy specimens were assayed and the coding region of LCT was sequenced from five patients from Europe with clinical features compatible with CLD. In the analysis and prediction of mutations the following programs: ClustalW, Blosum62, PolyPhen, SIFT and Panther PSEC were used. Results Four novel mutations in the LCT gene were identified. A single nucleotide substitution leading to an amino acid change S688P in exon 7 and E1612X in exon 12 were present in a patient of Italian origin. Five base deletion V565fsX567 leading to a stop codon in exon 6 was found in one and a substitution R1587H in exon 12 from another Finnish patient. Both Finnish patients were heterozygous for the Finnish founder mutation Y1390X. The previously reported mutation G1363S was found in a homozygous state in two siblings of Turkish origin. Conclusion This is the first report of CLD mutations in patients living outside Finland. It seems that disease is more common than previously thought. All mutations in the LCT gene lead to a similar phenotype despite the location and/or type of mutation.

  18. In vitro translation of RNA to lactase during postnatal development of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The in vitro translation products of RNA detected by Western blot analysis using brush border lactase antibodies showed several isoforms of lactase antigen with molecular weight ranging from 100–220 kDa. Analysed at days 7 and 30 of postnatal development, lactase isoforms of molecular weight 130 kDa and 220 kDa ...

  19. Elevated land runoff after European settlement perturbs persistent foraminiferal assemblages on the Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthicke, S; Patel, F; Ditchburn, R

    2012-01-01

    Coral reefs are under pressure from a variety of human-induced disturbances, but demonstration of ecosystem changes and identification of stressors are often difficult. We tested whether global change or increased agricultural runoff after European settlement of Northeast Australia (ca. 1860) has affected inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef. Eleven sediment cores were retrieved from inner reefs, intermediate reefs, and outer-island reefs, and benthic foraminiferal assemblages were analyzed in dated (14C, 210Pb, 137Cs) core sections (N = 82 samples). Data were grouped into six age bands ( 1500 yr). Principal component analysis and two-factor (Zone and Age) permutational analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) suggested that assemblages from the three zones were significantly different from each other over several millennia, with symbiont-bearing (mixotrophic) species dominating the outer reefs. A significant interaction term indicated that within-zone patterns varied. Assemblages in outer reefs unaffected from increased land runoff were persistent until present times. In both other zones, assemblages were also persistent until 150 yr ago, suggesting that benthic foraminiferal assemblages are naturally highly persistent over long (> 2000 yr) timescales. Assemblages in core sections PERMANOVA. With some exceptions, changes on the inner and intermediate reefs were consistent with a model predicting that increased nutrients and higher turbidity enhance relative abundance of heterotrophic species. Given that assemblages did not change in outer-island reefs (not impacted by runoff) we argue that changes in assemblages due to global change can be rejected as an explanation. Thus, the findings are more consistent with the hypothesis that agricultural runoff since European settlement altered foraminiferal assemblages than with the hypothesis that global forcing caused changes.

  20. Toxicological Evaluation of Lactase Derived from Recombinant Pichia pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifei; Chen, Delong; Luo, Yunbo; Huang, Kunlun; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Wentao

    2014-01-01

    A recombinant lactase was expressed in Pichia pastoris, resulting in enzymatic activity of 3600 U/mL in a 5 L fermenter. The lactase product was subjected to a series of toxicological tests to determine its safety for use as an enzyme preparation in the dairy industry. This recombinant lactase had the highest activity of all recombinant strains reported thus far. Acute oral toxicity, mutagenicity, genotoxic, and subchronic toxicity tests performed in rats and mice showed no death in any groups. The lethal dose 50% (LD50) based on the acute oral toxicity study is greater than 30 mL/kg body weight, which is in accordance with the 1500 L milk consumption of a 50 kg human daily. The lactase showed no mutagenic activity in the Ames test or a mouse sperm abnormality test at levels of up to 5 mg/plate and 1250 mg/kg body weight, respectively. It also showed no genetic toxicology in a bone marrow cell micronucleus test at levels of up to 1250 mg/kg body weight. A 90-day subchronic repeated toxicity study via the diet with lactase levels up to 1646 mg/kg (1000-fold greater than the mean human exposure) did not show any treatment-related significant toxicological effects on body weight, food consumption, organ weights, hematological and clinical chemistry, or histopathology compared to the control groups. This toxicological evaluation system is comprehensive and can be used in the safety evaluation of other enzyme preparations. The lactase showed no acute, mutagenic, genetic, or subchronic toxicity under our evaluation system. PMID:25184300

  1. Toxicological evaluation of lactase derived from recombinant Pichia pastoris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiying Zou

    Full Text Available A recombinant lactase was expressed in Pichia pastoris, resulting in enzymatic activity of 3600 U/mL in a 5 L fermenter. The lactase product was subjected to a series of toxicological tests to determine its safety for use as an enzyme preparation in the dairy industry. This recombinant lactase had the highest activity of all recombinant strains reported thus far. Acute oral toxicity, mutagenicity, genotoxic, and subchronic toxicity tests performed in rats and mice showed no death in any groups. The lethal dose 50% (LD50 based on the acute oral toxicity study is greater than 30 mL/kg body weight, which is in accordance with the 1500 L milk consumption of a 50 kg human daily. The lactase showed no mutagenic activity in the Ames test or a mouse sperm abnormality test at levels of up to 5 mg/plate and 1250 mg/kg body weight, respectively. It also showed no genetic toxicology in a bone marrow cell micronucleus test at levels of up to 1250 mg/kg body weight. A 90-day subchronic repeated toxicity study via the diet with lactase levels up to 1646 mg/kg (1000-fold greater than the mean human exposure did not show any treatment-related significant toxicological effects on body weight, food consumption, organ weights, hematological and clinical chemistry, or histopathology compared to the control groups. This toxicological evaluation system is comprehensive and can be used in the safety evaluation of other enzyme preparations. The lactase showed no acute, mutagenic, genetic, or subchronic toxicity under our evaluation system.

  2. Further characterization of intestinal lactase/phlorizin hydrolase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, H; Norén, O; Sjöström, H

    1982-01-01

    Pig intestinal lactase/phlorizin hydrolase (EC 3.2.1.23/62) was purified in its amphiphilic form by immunoadsorbent chromatography. The purified enzyme was free of other known brush border enzymes and appeared homogeneous in immunoelectrophoresis and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the pres......Pig intestinal lactase/phlorizin hydrolase (EC 3.2.1.23/62) was purified in its amphiphilic form by immunoadsorbent chromatography. The purified enzyme was free of other known brush border enzymes and appeared homogeneous in immunoelectrophoresis and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis...... in the presence of SDS. Pig lactase/phlorizin hydrolase was shown to have the same quaternary structure as the human enzyme, i.e., built up of two polypeptides of the same molecular weight (160000). In addition to hydrolyzing lactose, phlorizin and a number of synthetic substrates, both the human and the pig...... membranes (basolateral and intracellular membranes) exhibited in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis the same size of constituent polypeptides and the same catalytic and immunological properties as a normal brush border lactase/phlorizin hydrolase....

  3. The lactase -13910C>T polymorphism (rs4988235) is associated with overweight/obesity and obesity-related variables in a population sample of Portuguese young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manco, L; Dias, H; Muc, M; Padez, C

    2017-01-01

    Several studies reported associations of the lactase gene (LCT) polymorphism -13910C>T (rs4988235) with obesity-related variables and obesity in adults. This study aimed to replicate previously reported associations in a population sample of Portuguese young adults. We genotyped 447 subjects from central and northern regions of Portugal (mean age 20.81±4.24 years) for the lactase variant -13910C>T (rs4988235), using TaqMan probes. Anthropometric variables (weight, height and body fat) were measured using standardized procedures and body mass index (BMI) (kg/m 2 ) was calculated. Frequency of genotypes was 35.8% CC (lactase nonpersistent, LNP), 48.1% CT and 16.1% TT, consistent with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P=1). The frequency for the minor -13910 T allele was 0.402. Assuming a dominance model for the lactase persistence (LP) minor T-allele, linear regression models showed statistically significant associations between the LP genotype CT/TT and BMI, fat mass and weight (β=1.114, P=0.003; β=1.309, P=0.007 and β=2.67, P=0.021, respectively) after adjustment for age and sex. In concordance, logistic regression showed significant association between LP genotype CT/TT and overweight/obesity (OR=1.77; CI 1.08-2.92; P=0.023), as well as with high fat percentage ranges (OR=1.58; CI 1.01-2.46; P=0.041), when adjusting for age and sex. No significant interaction was obtained between the LCT polymorphism and physical activity for BMI (P int =0.454) or FAT % (P int =0.421). In the Portuguese sample of young adults, the lactase -13910C>T polymorphism revealed significant associations with the obesity-related anthropometric variables BMI, fat mass and weight, and previously observed associations with the obesity risk were also confirmed.

  4. Geohazard monitoring and modelling using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry in the framework of the European project Terrafirma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksley, Geraint; Arnaud, Alain; Banwell, Marie-Josée

    2013-04-01

    Increasingly, geohazard risk managers are looking to satellite observations as a promising option for supporting their risk management and mitigation strategies. The Terrafirma project, aimed at supporting civil protection agencies, local authorities in charge of risk assessment and mitigation is a pan-European ground motion information service funded by the European Space Agency's Global Monitoring for Environment and Security initiative. Over 100 services were delivered to organizations over the last ten years. Terrafirma promotes the use of Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) and Persistent Scatterer InSAR (PSI) within three thematic areas for terrain motion analysis: Tectonics, Flooding and Hydrogeology (ground water, landslides and inactive mines), as well as the innovative Wide Area mapping service, aimed at measuring land deformation over very large areas. Terrafirma's thematic services are based on advanced satellite interferometry products; however they exploit additional data sources, including non-EO, coupled with expert interpretation specific to each thematic line. Based on the combination of satellite-derived ground-motion information products with expert motion interpretation, a portfolio of services addressing geo-hazard land motion issues was made available to users. Although not a thematic in itself, the Wide Area mapping product constitutes the fourth quarter of the Terrafirma activities. The wide area processing chain is nearly fully automatic and requires only a little operator interaction. The service offers an operational PSI processing for wide-area mapping with mm accuracy of ground-deformation measurement at a scale of 1:250,000 (i.e. one cm in the map corresponds to 2.5 Km on the ground) on a country or continent level. The WAP was demonstrated using stripmap ERS data however it is foreseen to be a standard for the upcoming Sentinel-1 mission that will be operated in Terrain Observation by Progressive Scan (TOPS) mode. Within

  5. Features of endocrine status in obese children and polymorphisms of the lactase gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Nikulina

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity is an imbalance of immunocytokine and neuroendocrine regulation of energy metabolism with excessive accumulation of adipose tissue in the body accompanied by the formation of a chronic proinflammatory immune response associated with the genotype C/C 13910 of the lactase gene. Childhood obesity is a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes, steatohepatosis, cardiovascular diseases, orthopedic problems and mental disorders causing both short-term and long-term adverse effects on physical and psychosocial well-being. Materials and methods. A comprehensive examination was carried out according to the current protocols in the field of pediatric endocrinology for 76 children aged 6 to 18 years with obesity and SNP LCT. The first group (n = 36 was composed of children with genotype С/C 13910, which is associated with adult type of lactase deficiency. The second group (n = 40 presented phenotypically similar children with genotypes C/T and T/T 13910 associated with lactase persistence. The determination of lipid disorders was carried out using bioimpedancemetry on the Tefal Bodysignal electronic scales (France. The study of the endocrine system was performed using an immunochemical test method with electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, genotyping of the lactase gene by real time polymerase chain reaction. Results. Children with genotype C/C 13910 have statistically significant differences in endocrine status associated with an increase in insulin resistance in boys up to 6.79 ± 1.12 in the HOMA index, compared with 3.29 ± 0.99 in boys with C/T and T/T 13910 genotypes; p = 0.028. In girls with the C/C 13910 genotype, there is a relative, within the limits of the physiological norm, decrease in free estradiol to 40.10 ± 0.05 pg/ml, as compared with the level of girls with C/T and T/T 13910 genotypes — 75.61 ± 4.60 pg/ml, p < 0.01, with simultaneous pathological dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate increase by 3.5

  6. 21 CFR 184.1388 - Lactase enzyme preparation from Kluyveromyces lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lactase enzyme preparation from Kluyveromyces... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1388 Lactase enzyme preparation from Kluyveromyces lactis. (a) This enzyme preparation is derived from the nonpathogenic...

  7. Inflation Persistence under Semi-Fixed Exchange Rate Regimes:The European Evidence 1974-1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, C.J.M.; Lammertsma, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we empirically investigate the link between exchange rate accommodation and inflation persistence in Europe. We introduce the lagged level of the real exchange rate as an appropriate indicator of exchange rate accommodation. We correspondingly estimate a non-linear autoregressive

  8. Genome flux and stasis in a five millennium transect of European prehistory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamba, Cristina; Jones, Eppie R; Teasdale, Matthew D; McLaughlin, Russell L; Gonzalez-Fortes, Gloria; Mattiangeli, Valeria; Domboróczki, László; Kővári, Ivett; Pap, Ildikó; Anders, Alexandra; Whittle, Alasdair; Dani, János; Raczky, Pál; Higham, Thomas F G; Hofreiter, Michael; Bradley, Daniel G; Pinhasi, Ron

    2014-10-21

    The Great Hungarian Plain was a crossroads of cultural transformations that have shaped European prehistory. Here we analyse a 5,000-year transect of human genomes, sampled from petrous bones giving consistently excellent endogenous DNA yields, from 13 Hungarian Neolithic, Copper, Bronze and Iron Age burials including two to high (~22 × ) and seven to ~1 × coverage, to investigate the impact of these on Europe's genetic landscape. These data suggest genomic shifts with the advent of the Neolithic, Bronze and Iron Ages, with interleaved periods of genome stability. The earliest Neolithic context genome shows a European hunter-gatherer genetic signature and a restricted ancestral population size, suggesting direct contact between cultures after the arrival of the first farmers into Europe. The latest, Iron Age, sample reveals an eastern genomic influence concordant with introduced Steppe burial rites. We observe transition towards lighter pigmentation and surprisingly, no Neolithic presence of lactase persistence.

  9. Desenvolvimento e avaliação de embalagem ativa com incorporação de lactase Development and evaluation of active packaging incorporated with lactase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Rodrigues da Cunha

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A intolerância à lactose consiste na ausência ou deficiência na produção da lactase, enzima responsável por hidrolisar a lactose proveniente do leite e derivados. Indivíduos acometidos desse mal são privados de ingerir o leite em virtude dos desconfortos intestinais promovidos pela não hidrólise desse carboidrato no intestino. Assim, o presente trabalho objetivou desenvolver filme de base celulósica incorporado com lactase para redução do teor de lactose presente no leite. Os filmes foram produzidos pelo método "cast", imersos em frascos contendo 100 mL de leite pasteurizado, e mantidos a 25 °C/25 horas ou a 7 °C/48 horas. Os filmes produzidos com 1 e 1,5 mL da enzima lactase reduziram, respectivamente, 78 e 85% da lactose após 24 horas de contato a 7 °C e 92 e 100% após 25 horas de contato a 25 °C. Os filmes apresentaram estabilidade quando estocados à temperatura ambiente e de refrigeração. Testes de migração mostraram que, em média, 21,94% da lactase incorporada no filme migrou para a água após 14 dias de contato. Portanto, o filme desenvolvido apresenta potencialidade de ser usado como revestimento interno de embalagens para acondicionar leite.Lactose intolerance is caused by reduced or absent activity of lactase that prevents the splitting of lactose. People deficient in lactase should eliminate diet milk and milk products due to the gastrointestinal symptoms caused by the individual inability to hydrolise the lactose. Therefore, the aim of this work is to develop celulosic film incorporated with lactase to reduce the lactose level in milk. The films were cast immersed in 100 mL pasteurized milk and kept at 25 °C/25 hours or at 7 °C/48 hours. The films incorporated with 1 and 1.5 mL of lactase enzyme reduced respectively, 78 and 85% of lactase after 24 hours/7 °C and 92% and 100% after 25 hours/25 °C. These films presented stability when stored at room and refrigerated temperatures. Migrations test showed

  10. Correlation between lactose absorption and the C/T-13910 and G/A-22018 mutations of the lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LCT gene in adult-type hypolactasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Bulhões

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The C/T-13910 mutation is the major factor responsible for the persistence of the lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LCT gene expression. Mutation G/A-22018 appears to be only in co-segregation with C/T-13910. The objective of the present study was to assess the presence of these two mutations in Brazilian individuals with and without lactose malabsorption diagnosed by the hydrogen breath test (HBT. Ten milk-tolerant and 10 milk-intolerant individuals underwent the HBT after oral ingestion of 50 g lactose (equivalent to 1 L of milk. Analyses for C/T-13910 and G/A-22018 mutations were performed using a PCR-based method. Primers were designed for this study based on the GenBank sequence. The CT/GA, CT/AA, and TT/AA genotypes (lactase persistence were found in 10 individuals with negative HBT. The CC/GG genotype (lactase non-persistence was found in 10 individuals, 9 of them with positive HBT results. There was a significant agreement between the presence of mutations in the LCT gene promoter and HBT results (kappa = -0.9, P < 0.001. The CT/AA genotype has not been described previously and seems to be related to lactase persistence. The present study showed a significant agreement between the occurrence of mutations G/A-22018 and C/T-13910 and lactose absorption in Brazilian subjects, suggesting that the molecular test used here could be proposed for the laboratory diagnosis of adult-type primary hypolactasia.

  11. Direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs: European Commission persists in putting industry's interests first.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In late September 2010, Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) issued their verdict on European Commission proposals aimed at lifting the ban on pharmaceutical companies communicating directly with the general public about prescription drugs. The MEPs were able to limit the scope of some of the more harmful aspects of these proposals, in particular by proposing that drug regulatory agencies should pre-screen the "information" produced by drug companies before it is made available to the public. In December 2010, faced with ongoing opposition from European Member States, the Commission appeared to back down, announcing that it was drawing up "amended proposals". They were publicly released in February 2012 but still leave the door open to direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs, particularly "reminder advertising". As of 4 July 2012, the amended proposals had not yet been examined by Member States, thus obstructing the legislative process. Public health and management of the costs of social services for Member States are at stake. The Medicines in Europe Forum (MiEF) and the International Society of Drug Bulletins (ISDB) urge Member States to continue to refuse to examine the Commission's proposals, and have drawn up concrete counterproposals that would enable the general public to obtain relevant health information.

  12. Exposure to persistent organic pollutants and sperm DNA methylation changes in Arctic and European populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Consales, Claudia; Toft, Gunnar; Leter, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane], are environmental contaminants with potential endocrine disrupting activity. DNA methylation levels in peripheral blood lymphocytes have been associated with serum...... Greenland, Warsaw (Poland), and Kharkiv (Ukraine). Serum levels of PCB-153 [1,2,4-trichloro-5-(2,4,5-trichlorophenyl)benzene], as a proxy of the total PCBs body burden, and of p,p'-DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene], the main metabolite of DDT were measured. Sperm DNA methylation level...

  13. Persistent multi-scale fluctuations shift European hydroclimate to its millennial boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markonis, Y; Hanel, M; Máca, P; Kyselý, J; Cook, E R

    2018-05-02

    In recent years, there has been growing concern about the effect of global warming on water resources, especially at regional and continental scales. The last IPCC report on extremes states that there is medium confidence about an increase on European drought frequency during twentieth century. Here we use the Old World Drought Atlas palaeoclimatic reconstruction to show that when Europe's hydroclimate is examined under a millennial, multi-scale perspective, a significant decrease in dryness can be observed since 1920 over most of central and northern Europe. On the contrary, in the south, drying conditions have prevailed, creating an intense north-to-south dipole. In both cases, hydroclimatic conditions have shifted to, and in some regions exceeded, their millennial boundaries, remaining at these extreme levels for the longest period of the 1000-year-long record.

  14. Policy Autonomy, Coordination or Harmonization in the Persistently Heterogeneous European Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouba Luděk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of the continuing integration process in Europe, this paper addresses the question of whether policies in the EU should head towards autonomy, coordination or harmonization. Taking the path dependence effect into account, it is the authors’ opinion that Europe has gone too far in its integration process to be able to continue with policies being fully under the competences of individual member countries. However, the habitual question still arises: does fiscal policy need to be harmonized to a level comparable to monetary policy as these two policies, necessarily, complement each other? This paper argues that it does not. There are three main arguments discussed. Firstly, the authors build on the theory of fiscal federalism. Secondly, there are significantly different regimes of welfare states and extents of social policies among European countries, which strongly determine the character of public finance. And thirdly, the tax systems across Europe are also highly divergent, with many features of continuing tax competition.

  15. Layer by layer assembly of a biocatalytic packaging film: lactase covalently bound to low-density polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dana E; Talbert, Joey N; Goddard, Julie M

    2013-06-01

    Active packaging is utilized to overcome limitations of traditional processing to enhance the health, safety, economics, and shelf life of foods. Active packaging employs active components to interact with food constituents to give a desired effect. Herein we describe the development of an active package in which lactase is covalently attached to low-density polyethylene (LDPE) for in-package production of lactose-free dairy products. The specific goal of this work is to increase the total protein content loading onto LDPE using layer by layer (LbL) deposition, alternating polyethylenimine, glutaraldehyde (GL), and lactase, to enhance the overall activity of covalently attached lactase. The films were successfully oxidized via ultraviolet light, functionalized with polyethylenimine and glutaraldehyde, and layered with immobilized purified lactase. The total protein content increased with each additional layer of conjugated lactase, the 5-layer sample reaching up to 1.3 μg/cm2 . However, the increase in total protein did not lend to an increase in overall lactase activity. Calculated apparent Km indicated the affinity of immobilized lactase to substrate remains unchanged when compared to free lactase. Calculated apparent turnover numbers (kcat ) showed with each layer of attached lactase, a decrease in substrate turnover was experienced when compared to free lactase; with a decrease from 128.43 to 4.76 s(-1) for a 5-layer conjugation. Our results indicate that while LbL attachment of lactase to LDPE successfully increases total protein mass of the bulk material, the adverse impact in enzyme efficiency may limit the application of LbL immobilization chemistry for bioactive packaging use. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Impact of multi-layer soil model on the simulation of persistent organic pollutant fate at european scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loizeau, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are toxic substances that bio-accumulate in the food chain. Once emitted in the atmosphere, they are transported by the wind and deposited on soil. Since they are persistent, they can be re-emitted from soil to atmosphere by volatilization and travel over very long distances. This process is called grasshopper effect. Thus, POPs may be found at significant levels far from their emission source. It is necessary to understand the transport and fate of these pollutants in order to support the decision making process and reduce human exposure to POPs. Regulations over the last decades lead to a decrease of anthropogenic emissions and subsequent decrease of atmospheric concentration. In this context, the soil is no longer a sink of POPs but can be a source to the atmosphere. Many numeric models aim to study the behavior of POPs in the environment. Most of them consider soil compartment as a homogeneous box, leading to an underestimation of re-emissions. Then, it appears of great importance to develop more realistic soil models. The objective of my thesis was to develop such a model, with vertical transport within the soil. This model was evaluated against measured concentration soil profile. We also conducted a sensitivity analysis to identify the key parameters involved in the process of re-emissions. Then, the soil model was coupled with an atmospheric transport model. A case study was finally undertaken to estimate the impacts of re-emissions on global-mass balance of POPs at European scale. (author) [fr

  17. Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants and Infant Growth: A Pooled Analysis of Seven European Birth Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iszatt, Nina; Stigum, Hein; Verner, Marc-André; White, Richard A; Govarts, Eva; Murinova, Lubica Palkovicova; Schoeters, Greet; Trnovec, Tomas; Legler, Juliette; Pelé, Fabienne; Botton, Jérémie; Chevrier, Cécile; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Ranft, Ulrich; Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Kasper-Sonnenberg, Monika; Klümper, Claudia; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke; Polder, Anuschka; Eggesbø, Merete

    2015-07-01

    Infant exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may contribute to obesity. However, many studies so far have been small, focused on transplacental exposure, used an inappropriate measure to assess postnatal exposure through breastfeeding if any, or did not discern between prenatal and postnatal effects. We investigated prenatal and postnatal exposure to POPs and infant growth (a predictor of obesity). We pooled data from seven European birth cohorts with biomarker concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl 153 (PCB-153) (n = 2,487), and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) (n = 1,864), estimating prenatal and postnatal POPs exposure using a validated pharmacokinetic model. Growth was change in weight-for-age z-score between birth and 24 months. Per compound, multilevel models were fitted with either POPs total exposure from conception to 24 months or prenatal or postnatal exposure. We found a significant increase in growth associated with p,p'-DDE, seemingly due to prenatal exposure (per interquartile increase in exposure, adjusted β = 0.12; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.22). Due to heterogeneity across cohorts, this estimate cannot be considered precise, but does indicate that an association with infant growth is present on average. In contrast, a significant decrease in growth was associated with postnatal PCB-153 exposure (β = -0.10; 95% CI: -0.19, -0.01). To our knowledge, this is the largest study to date of POPs exposure and infant growth, and it contains state-of-the-art exposure modeling. Prenatal p,p'-DDE was associated with increased infant growth, and postnatal PCB-153 with decreased growth at European exposure levels.

  18. Lactase from Clarias Gariepinus and its Application in Development of Lactose Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep K. SHARMA

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A natural source of lactase enzyme was reported for the first time from an omnivorous cat fish, Clarias gariepinus. The lactase enzyme has been partially purified from catfish intestine using FPLC. The enzyme had specific activity 6.75 units mg-1 with an overall recovery of 80%. The enzyme was characterized and kinetic properties such as Km(4.8mM,Vmax (11.66 μmoles min-1mg-1, optimum pH(7.2 – 7.5 and thermal inactivation have been studied. The enzyme was stable on storage at 4 oC with only 5% loss in enzyme activity in 120 days. The energy of activation for thermal inactivation of catfish lactase was 23 K cal mol-1. The partially purified enzyme was used for the fabrication of lactose biosensor.

  19. Clinical significance of enzymatic deficiencies in the gastrointestinal tract with particular reference to lactase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, E; Lentze, M J

    1984-12-01

    The study of deficiencies of small intestinal brush-border hydrolases increased our knowledge about the specific functions of hydrolases in the digestion of smaller molecules on the microvillus surface of the absorptive cells. The sucrase-isomaltase (SI) complex has been shown to be synthesized as a precursor (pro-sucrase-isomaltase) which is then incorporated into the membrane. The hydrophobic N-terminal end of the molecule is anchored in the lipid bilayer. In SI deficiency the molecular base of the disease is still not clear. Absence of SI activity could be due to complete lack of precursor synthesis or to structural changes within the N-terminal end of the SI-complex. Deficiencies of peptide hydrolases have not been reported with the exception of enteropeptidase (EP). Here a congenital deficiency of the enzyme was observed as the primary defect in enzyme synthesis within the enterocytes and as a secondary defect due to exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. In contrast to the primary EP deficiency, the activity of EP can be restored in the cases of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency by treatment with pancreatic extracts. Primary lactase deficiency exists in various forms. Besides congenital lactase deficiency, the late onset or adult type of lactase deficiency has been observed. The latter occurs in many different ethnic groups around the world. Here, using gel electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis, the lack of enzyme activity could be shown to be a primary defect in enzyme protein synthesis. In man and in the rat, two different lactases have been identified. In contrast to adult lactase, fetal lactase contains sialic acid at the end of carbohydrate side chains.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. SECONDARY LACTASE DEFICIENCY AND ITS CORRECTION IN INFANTS ILL WITH ROTAVIRUS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsanova TA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cardinal changes in medicine during recent years have made the problem of disorders in digestion and carbohydrate absorption one of the most crucial. Lactose intolerance (lactase deficiency is a clinically revealed inability of intestinal enzymatic systems to break down lactose, where secondary lactose deficiency results from damage of erythrocytes against a background of some disease, including that of an infectious origin, particularly in viral intestinal infections. Purpose of the study. To study the efficacy of taking lactase preparations by infants during the first year of their life, who are breast fed and ill with rotavirus infection. Materials and methods. The study involved 28 naturally fed infants of the first year of life with rotavirus infection. The diagnosis was made by revealing the virus antigen in the patients’ faeces and antibodies to it in their blood. Besides the standard methods of examination the faeces were analysed for carbohydrates and pH values. The patients were divided into two groups: the first group of infants did not receive lactase-containing drugs in their combined therapy; the second group took them. Results. Damage of the gastrointestinal tract of the retrovirus aetiology was characterized by the following signs: vomiting, abdominal distention, diarrhoea with watery frothy stool having sour odour and undigested boluses. In the group of infants, whose combined therapy used lactase-containing drugs, regression of their clinical signs passed reliably more rapidly than in the group of infants, who did not receive the above medicines. Conclusion. The use of lactase-containing preparations in the treatment of infants, who are breast fed and ill with rotavirus infection, is undoubtedly effective in order to correct lactase deficiency, since it causes a more rapid disappearance of clinical manifestations of the disease, thereby making it possible to examine the possible inclusion of these drugs into the

  1. Regulatory regions in the rat lactase-phlorizin hydrolase gene that control cell-specific expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhave, Menno; Krasinski, Stephen D.; Christian, Sara I.; van Schaik, Sandrijn; van den Brink, Gijs R.; Doting, Edwina M. H.; Maas, Saskia M.; Wolthers, Katja C.; Grand, Richard J.; Montgomery, Robert K.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) is an enterocyte-specific gene whose expression has been well-characterized, not only developmentally but also along the crypt-villus axis and along the length of the small bowel. Previous studies from the authors' laboratory have demonstrated that 2 kb

  2. 21 CFR 184.1387 - Lactase enzyme preparation from Candida pseudotropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lactase enzyme preparation from Candida pseudotropicalis. 184.1387 Section 184.1387 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... preparation from Candida pseudotropicalis. (a) This enzyme preparation is derived from the nonpathogenic...

  3. Topical Questions of Diagnostic and Correction of Lactase Deficiency in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.I. Reshetilov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers a clinical manifestation of lactase deficiency in children and adolescents and its treatment. It has been proven a high therapeutic effectiveness of enzyme replacement therapy of primary and secondary lactose deficiency in breast-fed and formula-fed infants that allows keep lactose intake and reduce drug therapy volume.

  4. The Incidence of Functional Disorders and Clinical Symptoms that May be Associated with Lactase Deficiency in Infants of Lviv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V. Tkach

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, the violations of the digestive system in children of the first years of life remain the actual problem of practical pediatrics and are the common cause for parents to visit a doctor. The importance in the genesis of functional disorders of the digestive system in children of this age may belongs to lactase deficiency. 327 children from Lviv were included in the questionnaire survey. The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of clinical symptoms that may be associated with lactase deficiency in infants. Among the clinical symptoms in young children, according to the survey, regurgitation and colic, stool disorders dominated. The diagnosis of lactase deficiency was established in 3.4 % (11 of children, 2.8 % (9 children received enzyme of lactase.

  5. Solid-in-Oil-in-Water Emulsions for Delivery of Lactase To Control in Vitro Hydrolysis of Lactose in Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Zhong, Qixin

    2017-11-01

    There is an established need to deliver lactase in milk to retain activity during storage and hydrolyze lactose after ingestion. In this work, spray-dried lactase powder was encapsulated in solid-in-oil-in-water (S/O/W) emulsions to fabricate delivery systems. The adoption of Span 80 in milk fat and lecithin in protein solution enabled the encapsulation of ∼76% lactase and lactose hydrolysis during a 14 day refrigeration (from ∼70 to lactose during the simulated gastric and intestinal digestions, and resulted in the hydrolysis of most lactose during the simulated digestions. Therefore, the studied S/O/W emulsions have the potential to deliver lactase in milk for lactose-intolerant consumers.

  6. Treatment of chronic portal-systemic encephalopathy with lactose in lactase-deficient patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, M; Márquez, M A; García-Ramos, G; Escobedo, V; Murillo, H; Guevara, L; Lisker, R

    1980-12-01

    A controlled cross-over clinical comparison of lactose (50 g twice a day) versus neomycin (3 g/day) plus milk of magnesia, was carried out in ten cirrhotic patients with chronic portal-systemic encephalopathy and documented lactase deficiency. Serial semiquantitative assessments were done including: mental state, asterixis, number connection test, electroencephalogram, and blood ammonia levels. No patient developed deep coma while ingesting either lactose or neomycin plus milk of magnesia. However, a significant improvement of mental state, asterixis, number connection tests, and electroencephalograms was evident during lactose therapy. apart from mild diarrhea and bloating, no severe side effects were noticeable during lactose treatment. Based on these results, we propose lactose as a valuable alternate treatment of portal-systemic encephalopathy in lactase-deficient populations.

  7. Biosynthesis of intestinal microvillar proteins. Dimerization of aminopeptidase N and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M

    1990-01-01

    of dimers of this enzyme therefore occurs prior to the Golgi-associated processing, and the slow rate of dimerization may be the rate-limiting step in the transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex. For lactase-phlorizin hydrolase, the posttranslational processing includes a proteolytic......The pig intestinal brush border enzymes aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2) and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (EC 3.2.1.23-62) are present in the microvillar membrane as homodimers. Dimethyl adipimidate was used to cross-link the two [35S]methionine-labeled brush border enzymes from cultured mucosal...... explants. For aminopeptidase N, dimerization did not begin until 5-10 min after synthesis, and maximal dimerization by cross-linking of the transient form of the enzyme required 1 h, whereas the mature form of aminopeptidase N cross-linked with unchanged efficiency from 45 min to 3 h of labeling. Formation...

  8. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and infant growth: A pooled analysis of seven European birth cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Iszatt (Nina); H. Stigum (Hein); M.-A. Verner (Marc-André); R.G. White (Richard); E. Govarts (Eva); L.P. Murinova (Lubica Palkovicova); G. Schoeters (Greet); T. Trnovec (Tomáš); J. Legler (Juliette); F. Pele (Fabienne); J. Botton (Jérémie); C. Chevrier (Cécile); J. Wittsiepe (Jürgen); U. Ranft (Ulrich); S. Vandentorren (Stéphanie); M. Kasper-Sonnenberg (Monika); C. Klümper (Claudia); N. Weisglas-Kuperus (Nynke); A. Polder (Anuschka); M. Eggesbø (Merete)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Infant exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may contribute to obesity. However, many studies so far have been small, focused on transplacental exposure, used an inappropriate measure to assess postnatal exposure through breastfeeding if any, or did not discern

  9. Reproductive hormone levels in men exposed to persistent organohalogen pollutants: a study of inuit and three European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giwercman, Aleksander; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Toft, Gunnar

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Persistent organohalogen pollutant (POP) exposure may have a negative impact on reproductive function. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of POP exposure on the male hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. PARTICIPANTS: Participants included 184 Swedish fishermen and spou...

  10. Acute and Chronic Effects of Dietary Lactose in Adult Rats Are not Explained by Residual Intestinal Lactase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Heijning, Bert J M; Kegler, Diane; Schipper, Lidewij; Voogd, Eline; Oosting, Annemarie; van der Beek, Eline M

    2015-07-08

    Neonatal rats have a high intestinal lactase activity, which declines around weaning. Yet, the effects of lactose-containing products are often studied in adult animals. This report is on the residual, post-weaning lactase activity and on the short- and long-term effects of lactose exposure in adult rats. Acutely, the postprandial plasma response to increasing doses of lactose was studied, and chronically, the effects of a 30% lactose diet fed from postnatal (PN) Day 15 onwards were evaluated. Intestinal lactase activity, as assessed both in vivo and in vitro, was compared between both test methods and diet groups (lactose vs. control). A 50%-75% decreased digestive capability towards lactose was observed from weaning into adulthood. Instillation of lactose in adult rats showed disproportionally low increases in plasma glucose levels and did not elicit an insulin response. However, gavages comprising maltodextrin gave rise to significant plasma glucose and insulin responses, indicative of a bias of the adult GI tract to digest glucose polymers. Despite the residual intestinal lactase activity shown, a 30% lactose diet was poorly digested by adult rats: the lactose diet rendered the animals less heavy and virtually devoid of body fat, whereas their cecum tripled in size, suggesting an increased bacterial fermentation. The observed acute and chronic effects of lactose exposure in adult rats cannot be explained by the residual intestinal lactase activity assessed.

  11. Place of lactase deficiency in the pathogenesis of rotavirus infection and possibilities of its correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Usachova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Rotavirus infection is one of the causes of the lactase deficiency. The pathogenesis of the lactase deficiency in this disease has been actively studied recently. But the dynamic changes of clinical and laboratory signs of the lactase deficiency in early age children on the background of rotavirus infection and methods of their correction are still not well investigated. The aim of research: tо enhance the effectiveness of treatment of rotavirus infection in early age children through the study of clinical and laboratory parameters of lactase deficiency gravity and development of the method of its correction. Materials and methods: the research bases on the results of examination of 40 children aged 1 to 18 months suffered with rotavirus infection, who were breastfed. 20 of them had been accepted basic and symptomatic therapy and were in the first group of observation. The second group consisted of another 20 at the same age patients with rotavirus infection, received drug lactase along with this therapy. All the children of the investigation groups had Benedict test (determining the content of carbohydrates in the faeces and pH-metry faeces and clinical, biochemical, immunochromatographic and bacteriological tests. Results: The most part of children had increased levels of carbohydrates in faeces on the day of hospitalization due the clinical manifestations of the disaccharidase deficiency (osmotic diarrhoea, flatulence, intestinal colic: on the day of hospitalization Benedict test result was 0,6±0,3%; increased to 1,0±0,3% on the third day and remained at the same level (0,9± 0,3% on the fifth day of the observation. Strongly acidic faeces pH (5,3±0,2was recorded on the day of hospitalization in absolute majority of patients (80% - 16 children. On the third day of the disease this rate was 5,3±0,2 and was strongly acidic in 75%, and only on the fifth day of the rotavirus infection there were observed the raising of the acidity of faeces

  12. Relationships between organic matter, black carbon and persistent organic pollutants in European background soils: Implications for sources and environmental fate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Jae Jak [Centre for Chemicals Management and Environmental Science Department, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, RDA, 249 Sedun, Suwon 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Gustafsson, Orjan [Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Kurt-Karakus, Perihan [Centre for Chemicals Management and Environmental Science Department, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Breivik, Knut [Norwegian Institute for Air Research, P.O. Box 100, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway); University of Oslo, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 1033, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Steinnes, Eiliv [Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Jones, Kevin C. [Centre for Chemicals Management and Environmental Science Department, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: k.c.jones@lancaster.ac.uk

    2008-12-15

    Black carbon (BC) and total organic carbon (TOC) contents of UK and Norwegian background soils were determined and their relationships with persistent organic pollutants (HCB, PAHs, PCBs, co-planar PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs) investigated by correlation and regression analyses, to assess their roles in influencing compound partitioning/retention in soils. The 52 soils used were high in TOC (range 54-460 mg/g (mean 256)), while BC only constituted 0.24-1.8% (0.88%) of the TOC. TOC was strongly correlated (p < 0.001) with HCB, PCBs, co-PCBs and PBDEs, but less so with PCDD/Fs (p < 0.05) and PAHs. TOC explained variability in soil content, as follows: HCB, 80%; PCBs, 44%; co-PCBs, 40%; PBDEs, 27%. BC also gave statistically significant correlations with PBDEs (p < 0.001), co-PCBs (p < 0.01) and PCBs, HCB, PCDD/F (p < 0.05); TOC and BC were correlated with each other (p < 0.01). Inferences are made about possible combustion-derived sources, atmospheric transport and air-surface exchange processes for these compounds. - Total organic carbon and black carbon fractions can play an important role in the storage and cycling of persistent organic pollutants in background soils.

  13. Relationships between organic matter, black carbon and persistent organic pollutants in European background soils: Implications for sources and environmental fate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Jae Jak; Gustafsson, Orjan; Kurt-Karakus, Perihan; Breivik, Knut; Steinnes, Eiliv; Jones, Kevin C.

    2008-01-01

    Black carbon (BC) and total organic carbon (TOC) contents of UK and Norwegian background soils were determined and their relationships with persistent organic pollutants (HCB, PAHs, PCBs, co-planar PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs) investigated by correlation and regression analyses, to assess their roles in influencing compound partitioning/retention in soils. The 52 soils used were high in TOC (range 54-460 mg/g (mean 256)), while BC only constituted 0.24-1.8% (0.88%) of the TOC. TOC was strongly correlated (p < 0.001) with HCB, PCBs, co-PCBs and PBDEs, but less so with PCDD/Fs (p < 0.05) and PAHs. TOC explained variability in soil content, as follows: HCB, 80%; PCBs, 44%; co-PCBs, 40%; PBDEs, 27%. BC also gave statistically significant correlations with PBDEs (p < 0.001), co-PCBs (p < 0.01) and PCBs, HCB, PCDD/F (p < 0.05); TOC and BC were correlated with each other (p < 0.01). Inferences are made about possible combustion-derived sources, atmospheric transport and air-surface exchange processes for these compounds. - Total organic carbon and black carbon fractions can play an important role in the storage and cycling of persistent organic pollutants in background soils

  14. Managing Marine Litter: Exploring the Evolving Role of International and European Law in Confronting a Persistent Environmental Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Trouwborst

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of the world's oceans by human garbage, especially plastics, ranks among those environmental problems whose resolution appears remote, despite the considerable public attention paid to the 'Great Garbage Patch' in the Pacific, 'plastic soup', and the like. This 'marine litter' (or 'marine debris' problem is characterized by diffuse sources and an array of adverse environmental impacts, including entanglement of and ingestion by albatrosses, fulmars, turtles, seals and a variety of other marine wildlife. This article explores the evolving role of international law in the efforts to manage marine litter, including recent developments involving the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR Convention and the European Union's Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD.

  15. Managing Marine Litter: Exploring the Evolving Role of International and European Law in Confronting a Persistent Environmental Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Trouwborst

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available  The contamination of the world's oceans by human garbage, especially plastics, ranks among those environmental problems whose resolution appears remote, despite the considerable public attention paid to the 'Great Garbage Patch' in the Pacific, 'plastic soup', and the like. This 'marine litter' (or 'marine debris' problem is characterized by diffuse sources and an array of adverse environmental impacts, including entanglement of and ingestion by albatrosses, fulmars, turtles, seals and a variety of other marine wildlife. This article explores the evolving role of international law in the efforts to manage marine litter, including recent developments involving the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR Convention and the European Union's Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD.

  16. Alcohol production by selected yeast strains in lactase-hydrolyzed acid whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Leary, V S; Green, R; Sullivan, B C; Holsinger, V H

    1977-07-01

    Ethanol production by Kluyveromyces fragilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied using cottage cheese whey in which 80 to 90 percent of the lactose present had been prehydrolyzed to glucose and galactose. Complete fermentation of the sugar by K. fragilis required 120 hr at 30/sup 0/C in lactase-hydrolyzed whey compared to 72 hr in nonhydrolyzed whey. This effect was due to a diauxic fermentation pattern in lactase-hydrolyzed whey with glucose being fermented before galactose. Ethanol yields of about 2 percent were obtained in both types of whey when K. fragilis was the organism used for fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced alcohol from glucose more rapidly than K. fragilis, but galactose was fermented only when S. cerevisiae was pregrown on galactose. Slightly lower alcohol yields were obtained with S. cerevisiae, owing to the presence of some lactose in the whey which was not fermented by this organism. Although prehydrolysis of lactose in whey and whey fractions is advantageous in that microbial species unable to ferment lactose may be utilized, diauxic and galactose utilization problems must be considered.

  17. A combination of acid lactase from Aspergillus oryzae and yogurt bacteria improves lactose digestion in lactose maldigesters synergistically: A randomized, controlled, double-blind cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vrese, Michael; Laue, Christiane; Offick, Birte; Soeth, Edlyn; Repenning, Frauke; Thoß, Angelika; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2015-06-01

    Lactose digestion can be improved in subjects with impaired or completely absent intestinal lactase activity by administration of lactase preparations and particularly of acid lactase, which is active in the stomach, or by yogurt containing live lactic acid bacteria. It is the question, if lactose digestion can be further enhanced by combining these two approaches. We investigated in a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, 5-arm crossover study on 24 lactose malabsorbers with variable degrees of lactase deficiency if different lactase preparations and freeze-dried yogurt culture affect gastrointestinal lactose digestion after consuming moderate amounts of lactose (12.5 g) by assessing hydrogen exhalation over 6 h. Furthermore, symptoms of lactose intolerance (excess gas production, abdominal pain, diarrhoea or nausea) were assessed using validated questionnaires. All preparations increased lactose digestion and reduced peak hydrogen exhalation by -27% (yogurt), -29/-33% (3300/9000 FCC(1) ((1) One FCC hydrolyses about 5 or 1.7-2.5 mg lactose in aquous solution or in (artificial) chyme, respectively, according to the FCC-III method of the Committee on Codex Specifications, Food and Nutrition Board, National Research Council. Food Chemicals Codex, 3rd edition. Washington, DC, National Academy Press, 1981 It cannot precisely be defined how much lactose can be hydrolysed in vivo by the consumption of a certain number of FCC units.) units acid lactase from Aspergillus oryzae) or -46%, respectively (3300 FCC units lactase plus yogurt culture combined), as compared with placebo (p yogurt cultures and acid lactase increases lactose digestion more than either freeze-dried yogurt cultures or acid lactase alone, and more lactose malabsorbers benefited from this effect. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Expression of galectin-9 mRNA in obese children with polymorphism of the lactase gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Abaturov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study is to investigate the association of expression of galectin-9 (Gal-9 mRNA and lactose malabsorption in obese children with polymorphism (SNP of the lactase gene (LCT and to study the efficacy of lactase deficiency therapy using exogenous lactase preparations. Materials and methods. Seventy obese children (BMI > 95th percentile and 16 children without obesity aged 6–18 years were examined. There was studied SNP LCT (material for investigation venous blood by real-time PCR, expression of Gal-9 mRNA (study material buccal epithelium by real-time PCR with reverse transcription, malabsorption of lactose by hydrogen breath test (HBT. Among obese children, 38 children with genotype C/C 13910 presented the first observation group, 32 children with phenotype identical genotypes C/T 13910 and T/T 13910, p > 0.05, presented the second group. Children from the first observation group also determined the level of expression of Gal-9 mRNA and lactose malabsorption after using exogenous lactase preparations. Results. The genotype C/C 13910 was determined in 38 (54.3 %, genotype C/T 13910 in 22 (31.4 % and genotype T/T in 10 (14.3 % patients. Malabsorption of lactose in children with genotype C/C 13910 averaged 32.7 ± 10.4 pmm, in children with genotypes C/T 13910 — 26.3 ± 4.9 pmm (p > 0.05 and with genotype T/T 13910 and was absent in children without obesity (p < 0.05. The average level of expression of Gal-9 mRNA in children with genotype C/C 13910 was 564.3 ± 32.8 RU DmRNA Gal-9/mRNA actin, in children with genotypes C/T and T/T 13910 — 61.04 ± 15.30 RU DmRNA Gal-9/mRNA actin, p < 0.01. It is of great importance that the children with genotype C/C 13910 and lactose malabsorption (n = 20 had the lowest average level of expression of Gal-9 mRNA (42.47 ± 13.30 RU DmRNA Gal-9/mRNA actin whereas the children with genotype C/C 13910 and without lactose malabsorption (n =18 had the largest level (1086

  19. Independent introduction of two lactase-persistence alleles into human populations reflects different history of adaptation to milk culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enattah, Nabil Sabri; Jensen, Tine G K; Boyd, Mette

    2008-01-01

    the same history, probably related to the same cattle domestication event. In contrast, the compound Arab allele shows a different, highly divergent ancestral haplotype, suggesting that these two major global LP alleles have arisen independently, the latter perhaps in response to camel milk consumption....... These results support the convergent evolution of the LP in diverse populations, most probably reflecting different histories of adaptation to milk culture....

  20. β-Galactosidase activity of commercial lactase samples in raw and pasteurized milk at refrigerated temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, T W; Dunn, M L; Eggett, D L; Ogden, L V

    2011-07-01

    Many consumers are unable to enjoy the benefits of milk due to lactose intolerance. Lactose-free milk is available but at about 2 times the cost of regular milk or greater, it may be difficult for consumers to afford. The high cost of lactose-free milk is due in part to the added cost of the lactose hydrolysis process. Hydrolysis at refrigerated temperatures, possibly in the bulk tank or package, could increase the flexibility of the process and potentially reduce the cost. A rapid β-galactosidase assay was used to determine the relative activity of commercially available lactase samples at different temperatures. Four enzymes exhibited low-temperature activity and were added to refrigerated raw and pasteurized milk at various concentrations and allowed to react for various lengths of time. The degree of lactose hydrolysis by each of the enzymes as a function of time and enzyme concentration was determined by HPLC. The 2 most active enzymes, as determined by the β-galactosidase assay, hydrolyzed over 98% of the lactose in 24h at 2°C using the supplier's recommended dosage. The other 2 enzymes hydrolyzed over 95% of the lactose in 24h at twice the supplier's recommended dosage at 2°C. Results were consistent in all milk types tested. The results show that it is feasible to hydrolyze lactose during refrigerated storage of milk using currently available enzymes. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Peculiarities of rotavirus infection in children with different genotypes of the lactase gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abaturov A.E.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to study the peculiarities of rotavirus infection in children with various genotypes of the lactase gene LCT. Molecular genetic studies of LCT13910 gene polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction with electrophoretic detection were determined in the Institute of Genetic and Immunological basis of pathology and pharmacogenetics of "Ukrainian Medical Stomatological Academy", Poltava. According to the results of molecular genetic studies, all children were divided into three groups: the first group included 45 children with genotype C/C-13910, the second - 22 children with genotype C/T-13910, the third - 3 chil¬d¬ren with genotype T/T-13910. It is proved that in infants with rotavirus, the most common (63% is genotype C/C-13910 of LCT gene. It is shown that a less severe form of the disease, which in most cases occurs without fever, a less duration of vomiting syndrome, a high incidence of respiratory syndrome, a less duration of illness are the peculiarities of rotavirus infection in children with genotype C/C-13910 LCT gene. Tendency to severe course with febrile fever, severe diarrhea, a high frequency of occurrence of expressed ketone blood syndrome, longer duration of disease may be considered to be features of rotavirus infection course in children with genotype C/T-13910 LCT gene.

  2. Modeling and optimization of fermentation variables for enhanced production of lactase by isolated Bacillus subtilis strain VUVD001 using artificial neural networking and response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswarulu, T C; Prabhakar, K Vidya; Kumar, R Bharath; Krupanidhi, S

    2017-07-01

    Modeling and optimization were performed to enhance production of lactase through submerged fermentation by Bacillus subtilis VUVD001 using artificial neural networks (ANN) and response surface methodology (RSM). The effect of process parameters namely temperature (°C), pH, and incubation time (h) and their combinational interactions on production was studied in shake flask culture by Box-Behnken design. The model was validated by conducting an experiment at optimized process variables which gave the maximum lactase activity of 91.32 U/ml. Compared to traditional activity, 3.48-folds improved production was obtained after RSM optimization. This study clearly shows that both RSM and ANN models provided desired predictions. However, compared with RSM (R 2  = 0.9496), the ANN model (R 2  = 0.99456) gave a better prediction for the production of lactase.

  3. ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF EXOGENOUS LACTASE IN TABLETS FOR PATIENTS DIAGNOSED WITH LACTOSE INTOLERANCE DUE TO PRIMARY HYPOLACTASIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesconi, Carlos Fernando de Magalhães; Machado, Marta Brenner; Steinwurz, Flavio; Nones, Rodrigo Bremer; Quilici, Flávio Antonio; Catapani, Wilson Roberto; Miszputen, Sender Jankiel; Bafutto, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Primary hypolactasia is a common condition where a reduced lactase activity in the intestinal mucosa is present. The presence of abdominal symptoms due to poor absorption of lactose, which are present in some cases, is a characteristic of lactose intolerance. Evaluate the efficacy of a product containing exogenous lactase in tablet form compared to a reference product with proven effectiveness in patients with lactose intolerance. Multicentre, randomized, parallel group, single-blind, comparative non-inferiority study. One hundred twenty-nine (129) adult lactose intolerance patients with hydrogen breath test results consistent with a diagnosis of hypolactasia were randomly assigned to receive the experimental product (Perlatte(r) - Eurofarma Laboratórios S.A.) or the reference product (Lactaid(r) - McNeilNutritionals, USA) orally (one tablet, three times per day) for 42 consecutive days. Data from 128 patients who actually received the studied treatments were analysed (66 were treated with the experimental product and 62 with the reference product). The two groups presented with similar baseline clinical and demographic data. Mean exhaled hydrogen concentration tested at 90 minutes after the last treatment (Day 42) was significantly lower in the experimental product treated group (17±18 ppm versus 34±47 ppm) in the per protocol population. The difference between the means of the two groups was -17 ppm (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: -31.03; -3.17). The upper limit of the 95% CI did not exceed the a priori non-inferiority limit (7.5 ppm). Secondary efficacy analyses confirmed that the treatments were similar (per protocol and intention to treat population). The tolerability was excellent in both groups, and there were no reports of serious adverse events related to the study treatment. The experimental product was non-inferior to the reference product, indicating that it was an effective replacement therapy for endogenous lactase in lactose intolerance

  4. ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF EXOGENOUS LACTASE IN TABLETS FOR PATIENTS DIAGNOSED WITH LACTOSE INTOLERANCE DUE TO PRIMARY HYPOLACTASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernando de Magalhães FRANCESCONI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Primary hypolactasia is a common condition where a reduced lactase activity in the intestinal mucosa is present. The presence of abdominal symptoms due to poor absorption of lactose, which are present in some cases, is a characteristic of lactose intolerance. , Objective Evaluate the efficacy of a product containing exogenous lactase in tablet form compared to a reference product with proven effectiveness in patients with lactose intolerance. Methods Multicentre, randomized, parallel group, single-blind, comparative non-inferiority study. One hundred twenty-nine (129 adult lactose intolerance patients with hydrogen breath test results consistent with a diagnosis of hypolactasia were randomly assigned to receive the experimental product (Perlatte(r - Eurofarma Laboratórios S.A. or the reference product (Lactaid(r - McNeilNutritionals, USA orally (one tablet, three times per day for 42 consecutive days. Results Data from 128 patients who actually received the studied treatments were analysed (66 were treated with the experimental product and 62 with the reference product. The two groups presented with similar baseline clinical and demographic data. Mean exhaled hydrogen concentration tested at 90 minutes after the last treatment (Day 42 was significantly lower in the experimental product treated group (17±18 ppm versus 34±47 ppm in the per protocol population. The difference between the means of the two groups was -17 ppm (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: -31.03; -3.17. The upper limit of the 95% CI did not exceed the a priori non-inferiority limit (7.5 ppm. Secondary efficacy analyses confirmed that the treatments were similar (per protocol and intention to treat population. The tolerability was excellent in both groups, and there were no reports of serious adverse events related to the study treatment. Conclusion The experimental product was non-inferior to the reference product, indicating that it was an effective

  5. Incidence of lactase deficiency (LD) in gastroduodenal ulcer and gastric carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahk, Yong Whee; Ahn, Kwan Shik; Kim, Chung Ja

    1974-01-01

    Lactase deficiency (LD) has been described in associated with peptic ulcer disease of the upper gastrointestinal tract, but little has been known as to the incidence of LD in the patients with ulcer disease of the upper GI tract or with gastric carcinoma. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the incidence of LD in gastric and/or duodenal ulcer disease and in gastric carcinoma, and to hypothesize the possible effect of these diseases on LD. Clinical materials consisted of 40 cases of active duodenal ulcer disease, 19 cases of benign gastric ulcer, 5 cases of multiple ulcers both in the stomach and duodenum, and 32 cases of gastric carcinoma. We used the lactose-barium test in diagnosing LD. X-ray findings were assessed according to the criteria described by Laws et al. and Preger and Amberg in the small-bowel film obtained at 30 minutes after the ingestion of some 200 ml of lactose-barium meal which contained 50 gm of lactose. Our clinical study revealed that the incidence of LD in duodenal ulcer was 50%, in gastric ulcer 57.9%, in gastric and duodenal ulcer 60%, and in gastric carcinoma 46.9%. The difference of incidence between each disease were statistically not significant, but the difference between the disease group and normal control was highly significant. The incidence of LD in disease group was nearly twice as high as that of normal control (27.7%). It is speculated that high incidence of LD in peptic ulcer disease of upper GI tract in particular may be associated with high acidity, the analog of which is found in Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. But high acidity is not a prominent feature in gastric carcinoma which is attended by almost equally high incidence of LD. It is therefore likely that the intolerability to lactose is caused by much complicated mechanism of versatile factors

  6. Incidence of lactase deficiency (LD) in gastroduodenal ulcer and gastric carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong Whee; Ahn, Kwan Shik; Kim, Chung Ja [St. Mary' s Hospital, Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-04-15

    Lactase deficiency (LD) has been described in associated with peptic ulcer disease of the upper gastrointestinal tract, but little has been known as to the incidence of LD in the patients with ulcer disease of the upper GI tract or with gastric carcinoma. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the incidence of LD in gastric and/or duodenal ulcer disease and in gastric carcinoma, and to hypothesize the possible effect of these diseases on LD. Clinical materials consisted of 40 cases of active duodenal ulcer disease, 19 cases of benign gastric ulcer, 5 cases of multiple ulcers both in the stomach and duodenum, and 32 cases of gastric carcinoma. We used the lactose-barium test in diagnosing LD. X-ray findings were assessed according to the criteria described by Laws et al. and Preger and Amberg in the small-bowel film obtained at 30 minutes after the ingestion of some 200 ml of lactose-barium meal which contained 50 gm of lactose. Our clinical study revealed that the incidence of LD in duodenal ulcer was 50%, in gastric ulcer 57.9%, in gastric and duodenal ulcer 60%, and in gastric carcinoma 46.9%. The difference of incidence between each disease were statistically not significant, but the difference between the disease group and normal control was highly significant. The incidence of LD in disease group was nearly twice as high as that of normal control (27.7%). It is speculated that high incidence of LD in peptic ulcer disease of upper GI tract in particular may be associated with high acidity, the analog of which is found in Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. But high acidity is not a prominent feature in gastric carcinoma which is attended by almost equally high incidence of LD. It is therefore likely that the intolerability to lactose is caused by much complicated mechanism of versatile factors.

  7. Association between exposure to persistent organohalogen pollutants and epididymal and accessory sex gland function: Multicentre study in Inuit and European populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elzanaty, Saad; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Jönsson, Bo A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) may have negative impact on male reproductive function. We, therefore, investigated the association between serum levels of POPs and epididymal and accessory sex gland function. Serum levels of CB-153, p,p′-DDE and seminal markers of epididy......Exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) may have negative impact on male reproductive function. We, therefore, investigated the association between serum levels of POPs and epididymal and accessory sex gland function. Serum levels of CB-153, p,p′-DDE and seminal markers...... with the activity of NAG were found among Greenlandic men (mean difference 7.0 mU/ejaculate, 95% CI 3.0, 34), and in the aggregated cohort (mean difference 4.0 mU/ejaculate, 95% CI -0.2, 8.0). A positive association was observed between CB-153 and PSA as well as zinc among Kharkiv men. In the Swedish cohort...

  8. Tissue persistence of fumonisin B1 in ducks and after exposure to a diet containing the maximum European tolerance for fumonisins in avian feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardieu, Didier; Bailly, Jean-Denis; Benlashehr, Imad; Auby, Alienor; Jouglar, Jean-Yves; Guerre, Philippe

    2009-12-10

    Toxicity and persistence of fumonisin B1 (FB1) in liver, kidney and muscle were investigated in ducks fed 5, 10 and 20mg FB1+FB2/kg feed during force-feeding. Mortality and signs of toxicity were only obtained with 20mg/kg, whereas an increased Sa/So ratio was observed from 5mg/kg on. Persistence of FB1 was only found in liver (16 and 20 microg FB1/kg liver in ducks fed 10 and 20 mg FB1+FB2/kg feed, respectively). Toxicokinetic studies were conducted by the intravenous route (IV, single dose: 10mg FB1/kg body weight) and the oral route (single dose: 100mg FB1/kg body weight), in growing ducks and in ducks during force-feeding. After IV administration, serum concentration-time curves were described by a two-compartment open model. Elimination half-life and mean residence time of FB1 were 26 and 24 min, respectively, clearance was 19.3 ml/min/kg. After oral administration, bioavailability, elimination half-life, mean residence time and clearance varied during force-feeding and growth from 2-2.3%, 71-80 min, 200-188 min, 16.7-17 ml/min/kg, respectively. Taken together these results demonstrate that the risk of persistence of FB1 in ducks after force-feeding is very low, Sa/So being a good biomarker which increases before signs of toxicity and risk of persistence of FB1 in tissue (limit of detection 13 microg/kg).

  9. Toxicokinetics of fumonisin B1 in turkey poults and tissue persistence after exposure to a diet containing the maximum European tolerance for fumonisins in avian feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardieu, Didier; Bailly, Jean-Denis; Skiba, Fabien; Grosjean, François; Guerre, Philippe

    2008-09-01

    The kinetic of fumonisin B1 (FB1) after a single IV and oral dose, and FB1 persistence in tissue were investigated in turkey poults by HPLC after purification of samples on columns. After IV administration (single-dose: 10mg FB1/kg bw), serum concentration-time curves were best described by a three-compartment open model. Elimination half-life and mean residence time of FB1 were 85 and 52min, respectively. After oral administration (single-dose: 100mg FB1/kg bw) bioavailability was 3.2%; elimination half-life and mean residence time were 214 and 408min, respectively. Clearance of FB1 was 7.6 and 7.5ml/min/kg for IV and oral administration, respectively. Twenty-four hours after the administration of FB1 by the intravenous route, liver and kidney contained the highest levels of FB1 in tissues, level in muscle was low or below the limit of detection (LD, 13microg/kg). The persistence of FB1 in tissue was also studied after administration for 9 weeks of a feed that contained 5, 10 and 20mg FB1+FB2/kg diet. Eight hours after the last intake of 20mg FB1+FB2/kg feed (maximum recommended concentration of fumonisins established by the EU for avian feed), hepatic and renal FB1 concentrations were 119 and 22microg/kg, level in muscles was below the LD.

  10. Coupled atmosphere-soil-vegetation modelling for the assessment of the impact of atmospheric releases of heavy metals and of persistent organic pollutants at the European scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queguiner, Solen

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research thesis is to couple a model of atmospheric dispersion with a multi-environment model in order to perform impact studies related to atmospheric pollution by heavy metals and POPs (persistent organic pollutants). The author first presents the studied pollutants, their physical and chemical properties, and their effects on health. Then, he addresses the atmospheric modelling with a presentation of the used atmospheric dispersion model (POLAIR3D), and an application to heavy metals. Simulations are performed on a 4-year period in order to try to represent the inter-annual variability of atmospheric lead and cadmium concentrations. The next part reports the modelling of POPs which required the introduction of a soil model to address re-emissions. Results are compared with provided measurements. The fourth part reports the modelling of agricultural environments in the impact model, and more particularly physical processes and parameters proper to heavy metals and POPs. The author finally reports two case studies, one related to heavy metals, and the other to POPs [fr

  11. Bacterial persistence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    Drug indifference versus persistence. Studies on the mode of ... is a special case of drug indifference, restricted to a small ... to his model (outlined in detail in Lewis 2008), treatment .... belong to the heat and cold shock response family; many.

  12. [Persistent diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, J A; Moreira, C; Fagundes Neto, U

    2000-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: Persistent diarrhea has high impact on infantile morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. Several studies have shown that 3 to 20% of acute diarrheal episodes in children under 5 years of age become persistent. DEFINITION: Persistent diarrhea is defined as an episode that lasts more than 14 days. ETIOLOGY: The most important agents isolated in persistent diarrhea are: Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Salmonella, Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), Klebisiella and Cryptosporidium. CLINICAL ASPECTS: In general, the clinical characteristics of patients with persistent diarrhea do not change with the pathogenic agent. Persistent diarrhea seems to represent the final result of a several insults a infant suffers that predisposes to a more severe episode of diarrhea due to a combination of host factors and high rates of enviromental contamination. Therefore, efforts should be made to promptly treat all episodes of diarrhea with apropriate follow-up. THERAPY: The aim of the treatment is to restore hydroelectrolytic deficits and to replace losses until the diarrheal ceases. It is possible in the majority of the cases, using oral rehydration therapy and erly an appropriate type of diet. PREVENTION: It is imperative that management strategies also focus on preventive aspects. The most effective diarrheal prevention strategy in young infants worldwide is promotion of exclusive breast feeding.

  13. Persistent angina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, L.; Abildstrom, S. Z.; Hvelplund, Anders

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate persistent angina in stable angina pectoris with no obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) compared to obstructive CAD and its relation to long-term anxiety, depression, quality of life (QOL), and physical functioning. We invited 357 patients (men = 191; women = 166; response rate 83......-obstructive CAD or normal coronary arteries than in patients with obstructive CAD. Persistent angina symptoms were associated with long-term anxiety, depression, impaired physical functioning, and QOL irrespective of the degree of CAD. Contrary to common perception, excluding obstructive CAD in stable angina does...... %) with no prior cardiovascular disease who had a first-time coronary angiography (CAG) in 2008-2009 due to suspected stable angina to participate in a questionnaire survey in 2011 with the Seattle Angina Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale as key elements. Long-term persistent angina (i...

  14. Habit persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther Møller, Stig

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses an iterated GMM approach to estimate and test the consumption based habit persistence model of Campbell and Cochrane (1999) on the US stock market. The empirical evidence shows that the model is able to explain the size premium, but fails to explain the value premium. Further...

  15. Bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in female common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from western European seas: Geographical trends, causal factors and effects on reproduction and mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, G.J.; Santos, M.B.; Murphy, S.; Learmonth, J.A.; Zuur, A.F.; Rogan, E.; Bustamante, P.; Caurant, F.; Lahaye, V.; Ridoux, V.; Zegers, B.N.; Mets, A.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blubber of female common dolphins and harbour porpoises from the Atlantic coast of Europe were frequently above the threshold at which effects on reproduction could be expected, in 40% and 47% of cases respectively. This rose to 74% for porpoises from the southern North Sea. PCB concentrations were also high in southern North Sea fish. The average pregnancy rate recorded in porpoises (42%) in the study area was lower than in the western Atlantic but that in common dolphins (25%) was similar to that of the western Atlantic population. Porpoises that died from disease or parasitic infection had higher concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) than animals dying from other causes. Few of the common dolphins sampled had died from disease or parasitic infection. POP profiles in common dolphin blubber were related to individual feeding history while those in porpoises were more strongly related to condition. - High PCB levels were recorded in porpoises and common dolphins from European coasts

  16. Bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in female common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from western European seas: Geographical trends, causal factors and effects on reproduction and mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, G.J. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ (United Kingdom); Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, Centro Oceanografico de Vigo, P.O. Box 1552, 36200, Vigo (Spain)], E-mail: g.j.pierce@abdn.ac.uk; Santos, M.B. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ (United Kingdom); Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, Centro Oceanografico de Vigo, P.O. Box 1552, 36200, Vigo (Spain); Murphy, S. [AFDC, Department of Zoology, Ecology and Plant Science, University College, National University of Ireland, Enterprise Centre, North Mall, Cork (Ireland); Sea Mammal Research Unit, Gatty Marine Laboratory, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 8LB (United Kingdom); Learmonth, J.A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ (United Kingdom); Zuur, A.F. [Highland Statistics, 6 Laverock Road, Newburgh, Aberdeenshire AB41 6FN (United Kingdom); Rogan, E. [AFDC, Department of Zoology, Ecology and Plant Science, University College, National University of Ireland, Enterprise Centre, North Mall, Cork (Ireland); Bustamante, P.; Caurant, F. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ecosystemes Littoraux Anthropises, UMR 6217 CNRS-IFREMER-Universite de la Rochelle, 22 avenue Michel Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle (France); Lahaye, V. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ (United Kingdom); Centre de Recherche sur les Ecosystemes Littoraux Anthropises, UMR 6217 CNRS-IFREMER-Universite de la Rochelle, 22 avenue Michel Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle (France); Ridoux, V. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ecosystemes Littoraux Anthropises, UMR 6217 CNRS-IFREMER-Universite de la Rochelle, 22 avenue Michel Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle (France); Zegers, B.N.; Mets, A. [Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel (Netherlands)] (and others)

    2008-05-15

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blubber of female common dolphins and harbour porpoises from the Atlantic coast of Europe were frequently above the threshold at which effects on reproduction could be expected, in 40% and 47% of cases respectively. This rose to 74% for porpoises from the southern North Sea. PCB concentrations were also high in southern North Sea fish. The average pregnancy rate recorded in porpoises (42%) in the study area was lower than in the western Atlantic but that in common dolphins (25%) was similar to that of the western Atlantic population. Porpoises that died from disease or parasitic infection had higher concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) than animals dying from other causes. Few of the common dolphins sampled had died from disease or parasitic infection. POP profiles in common dolphin blubber were related to individual feeding history while those in porpoises were more strongly related to condition. - High PCB levels were recorded in porpoises and common dolphins from European coasts.

  17. A comparison between lactose breath test and quick test on duodenal biopsies for diagnosing lactase deficiency in patients with self-reported lactose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnari, Manuele; Bonfanti, Daria; Parodi, Andrea; Franzè, Jolanda; Savarino, Edoardo; Bruzzone, Luca; Moscatelli, Alessandro; Di Mario, Francesco; Dulbecco, Pietro; Savarino, Vincenzo

    2013-02-01

    A lactose breath test (LBT) is usually used to diagnose lactase deficiency, and a lactose quick test (LQT) has been proposed as a new test on duodenal biopsies to detect this disorder. We aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of LBT and LQT and their ability to predict the clinical response to a lactose-free diet in patients with self-reported lactose intolerance. Fifty-five patients (age 47 ± 14 y; M/F 15/36) underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and 25g-LBT. Two duodenal biopsies were taken to determine lactase deficiency (normal, mild, or severe) by LQT and to rule out other causes of secondary lactose malabsorption. Patients with a positive LBT and normal LQT also underwent a glucose breath test to exclude small intestinal bacterial overgrowth as a cause of the former result. The severity of gastrointestinal symptoms was measured with a GSS questionnaire, under basal condition and 1 month after a lactose-free diet. Lactose malabsorption was detected in 31/51 patients with LBT and in 37/51 patients with LQT (P = NS). Celiac disease was found in 2 patients. Two LBT+ patients showed a positive glucose breath test for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Eight patients had a mild hypolactasia by LQT and a negative LBT, but they had a significant improvement of symptoms after diet. LQT and LBT were concordant in 83% of cases and predicted the response to a lactose-free diet in 98% and 81% of the cases, respectively (P = 0.03). LQT is as sensitive as LBT in detecting lactase deficiency; however, it seems to be more accurate than LBT in predicting the clinical response to a lactose-free diet.

  18. 1 kb of the lactase-phlorizin hydrolase promoter directs post-weaning decline and small intestinal-specific expression in transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsen, J T; Mehlum, A; Spodsberg, N

    1994-01-01

    Adult-type hypolactasia is a genetic condition making approximately one half of the human population intolerant to milk because of abdominal symptoms. The cause is a post-weaning down-regulation of the intestinal-specific enzyme lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) reducing the intestinal capacity...... to hydrolyze lactose. We here demonstrate that the stretch -17 to -994 in the pig LPH-promoter carries cis-elements which direct a small intestinal-specific expression and a post-weaning decline of a linked rabbit beta-globin gene. These data demonstrate that the post-weaning decline of LPH is mainly due...

  19. Persistent Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between representation and the represented is examined here through the notion of persistent modelling. This notion is not novel to the activity of architectural design if it is considered as describing a continued active and iterative engagement with design concerns – an evident....... It also provides critical insight into the use of contemporary modelling tools and methods, together with an examination of the implications their use has within the territories of architectural design, realisation and experience....... on this subject, this book makes essential reading for anyone considering new ways of thinking about architecture. In drawing upon both historical and contemporary perspectives this book provides evidence of the ways in which relations between representation and the represented continue to be reconsidered...

  20. Persistent Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The relationship between representation and the represented is examined here through the notion of persistent modelling. This notion is not novel to the activity of architectural design if it is considered as describing a continued active and iterative engagement with design concerns – an evident....... It also provides critical insight into the use of contemporary modelling tools and methods, together with an examination of the implications their use has within the territories of architectural design, realisation and experience....... on this subject, this book makes essential reading for anyone considering new ways of thinking about architecture. In drawing upon both historical and contemporary perspectives this book provides evidence of the ways in which relations between representation and the represented continue to be reconsidered...

  1. Two intestinal specific nuclear factors binding to the lactase-phlorizin hydrolase and sucrase-isomaltase promoters are functionally related oligomeric molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsen, J T; Mitchelmore, C; Sjöström, H

    1994-01-01

    Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) and sucrase-isomaltase (SI) are enterocyte-specific gene products. The identification of regulatory cis-elements in the promoter of these two genes has enabled us to carry out comparative studies of the corresponding intestinal-specific nuclear factors (NF-LPH1...... and SIF1-BP). Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that the two nuclear factors compete for binding on the same cis-elements. The molecular size of the DNA binding polypeptide is estimated to be approximately 50 kDa for both factors. In the native form the factors are found as 250 k......Da oligomeric complexes. Based on these results NF-LPH1 and SIF1-BP are suggested to be either identical or closely related molecules....

  2. Persistent Aerial Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc

  3. European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.

    1995-01-01

    Different instruments used by European Commission of the European Union for financial support radioactive waste management activities in the Russian Federation are outlined. Three particular programmes in the area are described

  4. European communion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on ‘sharing’ or ‘communion......’, provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as ‘integration’ or ‘co-operation’. The concept of ‘European communion’ is defined as the ‘subjective sharing of relationships’, understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing...... relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European...

  5. Demographics of antibiotic persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollerova, Silvia; Jouvet, Lionel; Steiner, Ulrich

    Persister cells, cells that can survive antibiotic exposure but lack heritable antibiotic resistance, are assumed to play a crucial role for the evolution of antibiotic resistance. Persistence is a stage associated with reduced metabolic activity. Most previous studies have been done on batch...... even play a more prominent role for the evolution of resistance and failures of medical treatment by antibiotics as currently assumed....

  6. A comparative study on the metabolism of Epimedium koreanum Nakai-prenylated flavonoids in rats by an intestinal enzyme (lactase phlorizin hydrolase) and intestinal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Chen, Yan; Wang, Ying; Gao, Xia; Qu, Ding; Liu, Congyan

    2013-12-24

    The aim of this study was to compare the significance of the intestinal hydrolysis of prenylated flavonoids in Herba Epimedii by an intestinal enzyme and flora. Flavonoids were incubated at 37 °C with rat intestinal enzyme and intestinal flora. HPLC-UV was used to calculate the metabolic rates of the parent drug in the incubation and LC/MS/MS was used to determine the chemical structures of metabolites generated by different flavonoid glycosides. Rates of flavonoid metabolism by rat intestinal enzyme were quicker than those of intestinal flora. The sequence of intestinal flora metabolic rates was icariin>epimedin B>epimedin A>epimedin C>baohuoside I, whereas the order of intestinal enzyme metabolic rates was icariin>epimedin A>epimedin C>epimedin B>baohuoside I. Meanwhile, the LC/MS/MS graphs showed that icariin produced three products, epimedin A/B/C had four and baohuoside I yielded one product in incubations of both intestinal enzyme and flora, which were more than the results of HPLC-UV due to the fact LC/MS/MS has lower detectability and higher sensitivity. Moreover, the outcomes indicated that the rate of metabolization of flavonoids by intestinal enzyme were faster than those of intestinal flora, which was consistent with the HPLC-UV results. In conclusion, the metabolic pathways of the same components by intestinal flora and enzyme were the same. What's more, an intestinal enzyme such as lactase phlorizin hydrolase exhibited a more significant metabolic role in prenylated flavonoids of Herba Epimedi compared with intestinal flora.

  7. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  8. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...

  9. Persistent myalgia following whiplash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan

    2005-10-01

    Persistent myalgia following whiplash is commonly considered the result of poor psychosocial status, illness behavior, or failing coping skills. However, there is much evidence that persistent myalgia may be due to neurophysiologic mechanisms involving peripheral and central sensitization. Myofascial trigger points may play a crucial role in maintaining sensitization. Recent research suggests that the chemical environment of myofascial trigger points is an important factor. Several consequences are reviewed when central pain mechanisms and myofascial trigger points are included in the differential diagnosis and in the management of patients with persistent pain following whiplash.

  10. Introduction: Persistent Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2012-01-01

    This introduction to 'Persistent Modelling – an extended role for architectural representation' identifies how the book probes the relationship between representation and the represented, in an architectural context. It discusses how the book presents an examination and discussion of historical......, familiar contemporary and, perhaps, not so familiar emerging manifestations of this relation. What persists from this probing, fully intact, is that representation and the represented remain inextricably related in our contemporary and emerging practices. What comes into focus is that the nature...

  11. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    and rules. The article examines the reasons for both resistance and selectiveness to Europeanization of the Danish minority policy through a “path dependency” perspective accentuating decision makers’ reluctance to deviate from existing institutional commitments, even in subsequently significantly altered...... political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  12. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  13. European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well.

  14. Persistent and recurrent hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Carole; Paladino, Nunzia Cinzia; Lowery, Aoife; Castinetti, Fréderic; Taieb, David; Sebag, Fréderic

    2017-06-01

    Despite remarkable progress in imaging modalities and surgical management, persistence or recurrence of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) still occurs in 2.5-5% of cases of PHPT. The aim of this review is to expose the management of persistent and recurrent hyperparathyroidism. A literature search was performed on MEDLINE using the search terms "recurrent" or "persistent" and "hyperparathyroidism" within the past 10 years. We also searched the reference lists of articles identified by this search strategy and selected those we judged relevant. Before considering reoperation, the surgeon must confirm the diagnosis of PHPT. Then, the patient must be evaluated with new imaging modalities. A single adenoma is found in 68% of cases, multiglandular disease in 28%, and parathyroid carcinoma in 3%. Others causes (<1%) include parathyromatosis and graft recurrence. The surgeon must balance the benefits against the risks of a reoperation (permanent hypocalcemia and recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy). If surgery is necessary, a focused approach can be considered in cases of significant imaging foci, but in the case of multiglandular disease, a bilateral neck exploration could be necessary. Patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes are at high risk of recurrence and should be managed regarding their hereditary pathology. The cure rate of persistent-PHPT or recurrent-PHPT in expert centers is estimated from 93 to 97%. After confirming the diagnosis of PHPT, patients with persistent-PHPT and recurrent-PHPT should be managed in an expert center with all dedicated competencies.

  15. Persistent luminescence nanothermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Rodríguez, Emma; López-Peña, Gabriel; Montes, Eduardo; Lifante, Ginés; García Solé, José; Jaque, Daniel; Diaz-Torres, Luis Armando; Salas, Pedro

    2017-08-01

    Persistent phosphorescence nanoparticles emitting in the red and near-infrared spectral regions are strongly demanded as contrast nanoprobes for autofluorescence free bioimaging and biosensing. In this work, we have developed Sr4Al14O25:Eu2+, Cr3+, Nd3+ nanopowders that produce persistent red phosphorescence peaking at 694 nm generated by Cr3+ ions. This emission displays temperature sensitivity in the physiological temperature range (20-60 °C), which makes these nanoparticles potentially useful as fluorescence (contactless) nanothermometers operating without requiring optical excitation. Nd3+ ions, which act as shallow electron traps for the red Cr3+ persistent emission, also display infrared emission bands, extending the fluorescence imaging capability to the second biological window. This unique combination of properties makes these nanoparticles multifunctional luminescent probes with great potential applications in nanomedicine.

  16. European visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, (on the right) visited the CMS assembly hall accompanied by Jim Virdee, Deputy Spokesman of CMS (on the left), and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN. The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, visited CERN on Tuesday 31 January. He was welcomed by the Director-General, Robert Aymar, who described the missions and current activities of CERN to him, in particular the realisation of the LHC with its three components: accelerator, detectors, storage and processing of data. The European Commissioner then visited the CMS assembly hall, then the hall for testing the LHC magnets and the ATLAS cavern. During this first visit since his appointment at the end of 2004, Janez Potočnik appeared very interested by the operation of CERN, an example of successful scientific co-operation on a European scale. The many projects (30 on average) that CERN and the European Commission carry out jointly for the benefit of res...

  17. European hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The European Hadron Facility (EHF) is a project for particle and nuclear physics in the 1990s which would consist of a fast cycling high intensity proton synchrotron of about 30 GeV primary energy and providing a varied spectrum of intense high quality secondary beams (polarized protons, pions, muons, kaons, antiprotons, neutrinos). The physics case of this project has been studied over the last two years by a European group of particle and nuclear physicists (EHF Study Group), whilst the conceptual design for the accelerator complex was worked out (and is still being worked on) by an international group of machine experts (EHF Design Study Group). Both aspects have been discussed in recent years in a series of working parties, topical seminars, and workshops held in Freiburg, Trieste, Heidelberg, Karlsruhe, Les Rasses and Villigen. This long series of meetings culminated in the International Conference on a European Hadron Facility held in Mainz from 10-14 March

  18. Persistent genital arousal disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eibye, Simone; Jensen, Hans Mørch

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a woman suffering from persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) after paroxetine cessation. She was admitted to a psychiatric department and diagnosed with agitated depression. Physical investigation showed no gynaecological or neurological explanation; however, a pelvic MRI...

  19. Persistent organic pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dungen, van den M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Wild caught fish, especially marine fish, can contain high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). In the Netherlands, especially eel from the main rivers have high POP levels. This led to a ban in 2011 on eel fishing due to health concerns. Many of the marine POPs have been related to

  20. Contributions to Persistence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Dong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Persistence theory discussed in this paper is an application of algebraic topology (Morse Theory [29] to Data Analysis, precisely to qualitative understanding of point cloud data, or PCD for short. PCD can be geometrized as a filtration of simplicial complexes (Vietoris-Rips complex [25] [36] and the homology changes of these complexes provide qualitative information about the data. Bar codes describe the changes in homology with coefficients in a fixed field. When the coefficient field is ℤ2, the calculation of bar codes is done by ELZ algorithm (named after H. Edelsbrunner, D. Letscher, and A. Zomorodian [20]. When the coefficient field is ℝ, we propose an algorithm based on the Hodge decomposition [17]. With Dan Burghelea and Tamal K. Dey we developed a persistence theory which involves level sets discussed in Section 4. We introduce and discuss new computable invariants, the “relevant level persistence numbers” and the “positive and negative bar codes”, and explain how they are related to the bar codes for level persistence. We provide enhancements and modifications of ELZ algorithm to calculate such invariants and illustrate them by examples.

  1. Is corruption really persistent?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldadyo, H.; de Haan, J.

    Theoretical and empirical research on corruption generally concludes that corruption is persistent. However, using International Country Risk Guide data for the period 1984-2008 for 101 countries, we find strong evidence that corruption changes over time. In the present study, corruption levels of

  2. European Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different

  3. Persistent Hiccups Following Stapedectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidonis I

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We report a case of a 37 year-old man who developed persistent hiccups after elective stapedectomy. Method and Results: The diagnostic approach is discussed as well as the non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic treatments and overall management. The aim is to stress that there is a variety of potential factors that can induce hiccups perioperatively and in cases like this a step by step approach must be taken. Conclusion: Persistent hiccups are very rare following stapedectomy, control of them is crucial for the successful outcome. The trigger may be more than one factors and the good response to treatment may be due to dealing successfully with more than one thing.

  4. Persistent facial pain conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forssell, Heli; Alstergren, Per; Bakke, Merete

    2016-01-01

    Persistent facial pains, especially temporomandibular disorders (TMD), are common conditions. As dentists are responsible for the treatment of most of these disorders, up-to date knowledge on the latest advances in the field is essential for successful diagnosis and management. The review covers...... TMD, and different neuropathic or putative neuropathic facial pains such as persistent idiopathic facial pain and atypical odontalgia, trigeminal neuralgia and painful posttraumatic trigeminal neuropathy. The article presents an overview of TMD pain as a biopsychosocial condition, its prevalence......, clinical features, consequences, central and peripheral mechanisms, diagnostic criteria (DC/TMD), and principles of management. For each of the neuropathic facial pain entities, the definitions, prevalence, clinical features, and diagnostics are described. The current understanding of the pathophysiology...

  5. Persistent Model #2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Tensegrity structures and Inflatable membranes can be considered analogous. They can both be described as pressure based systems in which a coherent envelope is tensioned through compressive force in order to achieve a state of self-equilibrium. Persistent Model #2 is a full-scale speculative pro...... Modelling and a sustained critical investigation of the roles digital tools can play in extending the ways in which we think, design, realise and experience architecture....

  6. Intergenerational Top Income Persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; Bonke, Jens; Hussain, M. Azhar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate intergenerational top earnings and top income mobility in Denmark. Access to administrative registers allowed us to look at very small fractions of the population. We find that intergenerational mobility is lower in the top when including capital income in the income...... measure— for the rich top 0.1% fathers and sons the elasticity is 0.466. Compared with Sweden, however, the intergenerational top income persistence is about half the size in Denmark....

  7. Numeric invariants from multidimensional persistence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skryzalin, Jacek [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carlsson, Gunnar [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)

    2017-05-19

    In this paper, we analyze the space of multidimensional persistence modules from the perspectives of algebraic geometry. We first build a moduli space of a certain subclass of easily analyzed multidimensional persistence modules, which we construct specifically to capture much of the information which can be gained by using multidimensional persistence over one-dimensional persistence. We argue that the global sections of this space provide interesting numeric invariants when evaluated against our subclass of multidimensional persistence modules. Lastly, we extend these global sections to the space of all multidimensional persistence modules and discuss how the resulting numeric invariants might be used to study data.

  8. Inflation persistence and flexible prices

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Dittmar; William T. Gavin; Finn E. Kydland

    2004-01-01

    If the central bank follows an interest rate rule, then inflation is likely to be persistence, even when prices are fully flexible. Any shock, whether persistent or not, may lead to inflation persistence. In equilibrium, the dynamics of inflation are determined by the evolution of the spread between the real interest rate and the central bank’s target. Inflation persistence in U.S. data can be characterized by a vector autocorrelation function relating inflation and deviations of output from ...

  9. Reflections on Student Persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Tinto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Feature for this issue Reflections on Student Persistence has been prepared by Professor Vincent Tinto, Distinguished University Professor Emeritus at Syracuse University, United States of America (USA and a longtime friend and supporter of STARS. Vincent explores the case for motivation to be considered as a significant aspect of the tertiary student psyche by drawing on theoretical frameworks, research and practical experiences related to the issue. He synthesises this extensive, detailed, rich but often somewhat impenetrable data into a trilogy of clear and credible key dimensions of the motivation construct student self efficacy, sense of belonging and perceived value of the curriculum. This interpretation of the literature is a personal but informed reflection and is a timely piece which highlights the breadth and profundity of the presentations at this year's conference in Adelaide, Australia where students in all their diversity are central to our focus on enhancing the student experience. In this opening article, Vincent refers directly to the STARS papers selected for this Conference issue of the Journal which also address the importance of student persistence, self-efficacy and building the sense of belonging within their own institutional communities (Fernandes, Ford, Rayner & Pretorius; Kahu, Nelson, & Picton; McFarlane, Spes-Skrbis & Taib; Naylor; Smallhorn. Echoing his position on social justice and his advocacy for underserved students, Vincent reminds us that educational equity gaps still exist, and he encourages us to see the issue of persistence through the eyes of the students to support their perseverance and completion and thereby help reduce educational disadvantage.

  10. Persistent marine debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the distribution of persistent marine debris, adrift on world oceans and stranded on beaches globally, is reviewed and related to the known inputs and transport by the major surface currents. Since naturally occurring processes eventually degrade petroleum in the environment, international measures to reduce the inputs have been largely successful in alleviating oil pollution on a global, if not on a local, scale. Many plastics, however, are so resistant to natural degradation that merely controlling inputs will be insufficient, and more drastic and costly measures will be needed to cope with the emerging global problem posed by these materials

  11. Persistent postsurgical pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Mads Utke; Bischoff, Joakim Mutahi

    2014-01-01

    The prevalences of severe persistent postsurgical pain (PPP) following breast cancer surgery (BCS), groin hernia repair (GHR), and lung cancer surgery (LCS) are 13, 2, and 4-12 %, respectively. Estimates indicate that 80,000 patients each year in the U.S.A. are affected by severe pain...... duration of surgery, repeat surgery, more invasive surgical techniques, and intraoperative nerve lesion have been associated with PPP. One of the most consistent predictive factors for PPP is high intensity acute postsurgical pain, but also psychological factors including anxiety, catastrophizing trait...

  12. Term Structure Persistence

    OpenAIRE

    Abbritti, M. (Mirko); Gil-Alana, L.A. (Luis A.); Lovcha, Y. (Yuliya); Moreno, A. (Antonio)

    2012-01-01

    Stationary I(0) models employed in yield curve analysis typically imply an unrealistically low degree of volatility in long-run short-rate expectations due to fast mean reversion. In this paper we propose a novel multivariate affine term structure model with a two-fold source of persistence in the yield curve: Long-memory and short-memory. Our model, based on an I(d) specification, nests the I(0) and I(1) models as special cases and the I(0) model is decisively rejected by the data. Our model...

  13. Persistence of Salmonid Redds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, J. M.; Buxton, T.; Fremier, A. K.; Hassan, M. A.; Yager, E.

    2013-12-01

    The construction of redds by spawning salmonids modifies fluvial processes in ways that are beneficial to egg and embryo survival. Redd topography induces hyporheic flow that oxygenates embryos incubating within the streambed and creates form drag that reduces bed mobility and scour of salmonid eggs. Winnowing of fine material during redd construction also coarsens the streambed, increasing bed porosity and hyporheic flow and reducing bed mobility. In addition to the biological benefits, redds may influence channel morphology by altering channel hydraulics and bed load transport rates depending on the size and extent of redds relative to the size of the channel. A key question is how long do the physical and biological effects of redds last? Field observations indicate that in some basins redds are ephemeral, with redd topography rapidly erased by subsequent floods, while in other basins, redds can persist for years. We hypothesize that redd persistence is a function of basin hydrology, sediment supply, and characteristics of the spawning fish. Hydrology controls the frequency and magnitude of bed mobilizing flows following spawning, while bed load supply (volume and caliber) controls the degree of textural fining and consequent bed mobility after spawning, as well as the potential for burial of redd features. The effectiveness of flows in terms of their magnitude and duration depend on hydroclimate (i.e., snowmelt, rainfall, or transitional hydrographs), while bed load supply depends on basin geology, land use, and natural disturbance regimes (e.g., wildfire). Location within the stream network may also influence redd persistence. In particular, lakes effectively trap sediment and regulate downstream flow, which may promote long-lived redds in stream reaches below lakes. These geomorphic controls are modulated by biological factors: fish species (size of fish controls size of redds and magnitude of streambed coarsening); life history (timing of spawning and

  14. Persistence extends reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Shun

    2017-04-01

    One key potential explanation for the evolution of cooperation is conditional cooperation. This allows cooperation to evolve for cooperators who switch their behavior on the basis of information about the opponent's behavior or reputation. However, information about the opponent's behavior or reputation is sometimes unavailable, and previous studies have assumed that a player cooperates with some default probability when no information about the opponent's previous behavior or reputation is available. This default probability has been interpreted as the player's "optimism". Here, we make use of the fact that even if a player cannot observe the opponent's previous behavior or reputation, he may still condition his future behavior based on his own past behavior and in such a case, he can behave persistently. In this paper, we especially consider the case where information about the opponent's "behavior" is sometimes absent and the iterated prisoner's dilemma game between the same two individuals is played. Here, we examine the evolution of strategies that can refer to the own behavior in the previous round. Using evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) analysis and analyzing replicator dynamics, we find that conditioning his future behavior based on his own past behavior is beneficial for the evolution. Persistence facilitates the evolution of cooperation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Persistence of airline accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

    2010-10-01

    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.

  16. European Utility Requirements: European nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komsi, M.; Patrakka, E.

    1997-01-01

    The work procedure and the content of the European Utility Requirements (EUR) concerning the future LWRs is described in the article. European Utility Requirements, produced by utilities in a number of European countries, is a document specifying the details relating to engineered safety, operating performance, reliability and economics of the reactors to be built by manufacturers for the European market

  17. Caliber-Persistent Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Araújo Pinho Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Caliber-persistent artery (CPLA of the lip is a common vascular anomaly in which a main arterial branch extends to the surface of the mucous tissue with no reduction in its diameter. It usually manifests as pulsatile papule, is easily misdiagnosed, and is observed more frequently among older people, suggesting that its development may involve a degenerative process associated with aging; CPLA is also characterized by the loss of tone of the adjacent supporting connective tissue. Although the diagnosis is clinical, high-resolution Doppler ultrasound is a useful noninvasive tool for evaluating the lesion. This report describes the case of a 58-year-old male patient who complained of a lesion of the lower lip with bleeding and recurrent ulceration. The patient was successfully treated in our hospital after a diagnosis of CPLA and is currently undergoing a clinical outpatient follow-up with no complaints.

  18. An annoying persistent cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cipollini

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic cough is a stressful condition and can lead to extensive investigations. We report a case of a 48-year-old woman who had suffered from persistent chronic cough for more than 3 months. She had been treated with cough suppressant. However, her cough was not alleviated by these treatments, and the patient was referred to our hospital. She did not exhibit typical gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD symptoms heartburn and regurgitation. Esophagoscopy did not disclose reflux esophagitis. The patient was treated with a proton-pump inhibitor, which markedly alleviated her cough. Chronic cough due to GERD was diagnosed. Although the diagnosis of chronic cough due to GERD is not easy when traditionally symptoms are not present, our case report underscores the importance of this association to the differential diagnosis of chronic cough. In these cases a relatively simple test as high dose proton pump-inhibitors trial may be useful to confirm GERD related cough.

  19. New daily persistent headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Tyagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available New daily persistent headache (NDPH is a chronic headache developing in a person who does not have a past history of headaches. The headache begins acutely and reaches its peak within 3 days. It is important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pressure and volume. A significant proportion of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment. The condition is best viewed as a syndrome rather than a diagnosis. The headache can mimic chronic migraine and chronic tension-type headache, and it is also important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in CSF pressure and volume. A large proportion of NDPH sufferers have migrainous features to their headache and should be managed with treatments used for treating migraine. A small group of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment.

  20. Persistent idiopathic facial pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarbjerg, Stine; Wolfram, Frauke; Heinskou, Tone Bruvik

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Persistent idiopathic facial pain (PIFP) is a poorly understood chronic orofacial pain disorder and a differential diagnosis to trigeminal neuralgia. To address the lack of systematic studies in PIFP we here report clinical characteristics and neuroimaging findings in PIFP. Methods...... pain 7 (13%), hypoesthesia 23 (48%), depression 16 (30%) and other chronic pain conditions 17 (32%) and a low prevalence of stabbing pain 21 (40%), touch-evoked pain 14 (26%) and remission periods 10 (19%). The odds ratio between neurovascular contact and the painful side was 1.4 (95% Cl 0.4–4.4, p = 0.......565) and the odds ratio between neurovascular contact with displacement of the trigeminal nerve and the painful side was 0.2 (95% Cl 0.0–2.1, p = 0.195). Conclusion: PIFP is separated from trigeminal neuralgia both with respect to the clinical characteristics and neuroimaging findings, as NVC was not associated...

  1. Persistent Aerial Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias

    2016-04-13

    In this thesis, we propose a new aerial video dataset and benchmark for low altitude UAV target tracking, as well as, a photo-realistic UAV simulator that can be coupled with tracking methods. Our benchmark provides the rst evaluation of many state of-the-art and popular trackers on 123 new and fully annotated HD video sequences captured from a low-altitude aerial perspective. Among the compared trackers, we determine which ones are the most suitable for UAV tracking both in terms of tracking accuracy and run-time. We also present a simulator that can be used to evaluate tracking algorithms in real-time scenarios before they are deployed on a UAV "in the field", as well as, generate synthetic but photo-realistic tracking datasets with free ground truth annotations to easily extend existing real-world datasets. Both the benchmark and simulator will be made publicly available to the vision community to further research in the area of object tracking from UAVs. Additionally, we propose a persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc.) integrating multiple UAVs with a stabilized RGB camera. A novel strategy is employed to successfully track objects over a long period, by \\'handing over the camera\\' from one UAV to another. We integrate the complete system into an off-the-shelf UAV, and obtain promising results showing the robustness of our solution in real-world aerial scenarios.

  2. Persistent homology of complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, Danijela; Maletić, Slobodan; Rajković, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Long-lived topological features are distinguished from short-lived ones (considered as topological noise) in simplicial complexes constructed from complex networks. A new topological invariant, persistent homology, is determined and presented as a parameterized version of a Betti number. Complex networks with distinct degree distributions exhibit distinct persistent topological features. Persistent topological attributes, shown to be related to the robust quality of networks, also reflect the deficiency in certain connectivity properties of networks. Random networks, networks with exponential connectivity distribution and scale-free networks were considered for homological persistency analysis

  3. Rarity and persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeij, Geerat J; Grosberg, Richard K

    2018-01-01

    Rarity is a population characteristic that is usually associated with a high risk of extinction. We argue here, however, that chronically rare species (those with low population densities over many generations across their entire ranges) may have individual-level traits that make populations more resistant to extinction. The major obstacle to persistence at low density is successful fertilisation (union between egg and sperm), and chronically rare species are more likely to survive when (1) fertilisation occurs inside or close to an adult, (2) mate choice involves long-distance signals, (3) adults or their surrogate gamete dispersers are highly mobile, or (4) the two sexes are combined in a single individual. In contrast, external fertilisation and wind- or water-driven passive dispersal of gametes, or sluggish or sedentary adult life habits in the absence of gamete vectors, appear to be incompatible with sustained rarity. We suggest that the documented increase in frequency of these traits among marine genera over geological time could explain observed secular decreases in rates of background extinction. Unanswered questions remain about how common chronic rarity actually is, which traits are consistently associated with chronic rarity, and how chronically rare species are distributed among taxa, and among the world's ecosystems and regions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  4. Initiation, desistance, and persistence of men's sexual coercion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Gordon C Nagayama; DeGarmo, David S; Eap, Sopagna; Teten, Andra L; Sue, Stanley

    2006-08-01

    Patterns of sexually coercive behavior were examined among 266 Asian American and 299 European American men over 1 year. Noncoercer (n = 358), desister (n = 120), initiator (n = 39), and persistent (n = 48) sexually coercive groups were identified. The strongest predictor of sexual coercion was past sexual coercion. Persistent sexual coercers were higher than the other groups in delinquency and hostile masculinity and were nearly twice as likely to engage in laboratory sexual harassment. Loss of face attenuated self-reported sexual coercion and laboratory sexual harassment risk among Asian Americans and attenuated only laboratory sexual harassment risk among European Americans. These findings suggest that the heterogeneity of sexually coercive behavior and ethnicity are important research and clinical considerations.

  5. The persistence of depression score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, J.; de Graaf, R.; Ormel, J.; Nolen, W. A.; Grobbee, D. E.; Burger, H.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To construct a score that allows prediction of major depressive episode (MDE) persistence in individuals with MDE using determinants of persistence identified in previous research. Method: Data were derived from 250 subjects from the general population with new MDE according to DSM-III-R.

  6. PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANS (POPS DAN KONVENSI STOCKHOLM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Warlina

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Persistent organic pollutants (POPs are toxic chemicals that adversely affect human health and the environment around the world. Because they can be transported by wind and water, most POPs generated in one country can affect people and wildlife far from where they are used and released. They persist for long periods of time in the environment and can accumulate and pass from one species to the next through the food chain. To address this global concern, many countries in the world joined forces with 90 other countries and the European Community to sign a groundbreaking United Nations treaty in Stockholm, Sweden, in May 2001, known as the Stockholm Convention. One of important agreement is all countries agreed to reduce or eliminate the production, use, and/or release of 12 key POPs. The Convention specifies a scientific review process that could lead to the addition of other POPs chemicals of global concern. POPs include a range of substances that include intentionally produced chemicals currently or once used in agriculture, disease control, manufacturing, or industrial processes. Also it can be produced by unintentionally produced chemicals, such as dioxins, that result from some industrial processes and from combustion (for example, municipal and medical waste incineration and backyard burning of trash.

  7. Persistence, resistance, resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsadka, Maayan

    form of musical consumption and experience. The three pieces draw lines connecting different aspects of persistence, resistance, and resonance.

  8. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry using Sentinel-1 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monserrat, Oriol; Crosetto, Michele; Devanthery, Nuria; Cuevas-Gonzalez, Maria; Qihuan, Huang; Barra, Anna; Crippa, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    This work will be focused on the deformation measurement and monitoring using SAR imagery from the C-band Sentinel-1, a space mission funded by the European Union and carried out by the European Space Agency (ESA) within the Copernicus Programme. The work will firstly address the data processing and analysis procedure implemented by the authors. This includes both Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) tools to analyse large stacks of SAR images (say, typically more than 20 images), and Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) tools to analyse short SAR image stacks. The work will discuss the characteristics of the main products derived by using Sentinel-1 DInSAR and PSI: deformation maps, deformation velocity maps, deformation time series, residual topographic error, etc. The analysis will be carried out over different types of land use area, e.g. urban, peri-urban and rural areas. The deformation monitoring based on Sentinel-1 data will be compared with the monitoring based on data from pre-existing missions, e.g. C-band ERS and Envisat, X-band TerraSAR-X and CosmoSkyMed, etc. The comparison will concern different study areas, mainly located in Italy and Spain.

  9. Demonstration of persistent contamination of a cooked egg product production facility with Salmonella enterica serovar Tennessee and characterization of the persistent strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakociune, D.; Bisgaard, M.; Pedersen, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate whether continuous contamination of light pasteurized egg products with Salmonella enterica serovar Tennessee (S. Tennessee) at a large European producer of industrial egg products was caused by persistent contamination of the production facility......, members of the persistent clone were weak producers of H2S in laboratory medium. S. Tennessee isolated from the case was able to grow better in pasteurized egg product compared with other serovars investigated. Conclusions: It was concluded that the contamination was caused by a persistent strain...... in the production facility and that this strain apparently had adapted to grow in the relevant egg product. Significance and Impact of the Study: S. Tennessee has previously been associated with persistence in hatching facilities. This is the first report of persistent contamination of an egg production facility...

  10. Teriparatide Induced Delayed Persistent Hypercalcemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirosshan Thiruchelvam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Teriparatide, a recombinant PTH, is an anabolic treatment for osteoporosis that increases bone density. Transient hypercalcemia is a reported side effect of teriparatide that is seen few hours following administration of teriparatide and resolves usually within 16 hours of drug administration. Persistent hypercalcemia, although not observed in clinical trials, is rarely reported. The current case describes a rare complication of teriparatide induced delayed persistent hypercalcemia.

  11. Persistence in the Cryptocurrency Market

    OpenAIRE

    Caporale, Guglielmo Maria; Gil-Alaña, Luis A.; Plastun, Alex

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines persistence in the cryptocurrency market. Two different long-memory methods (R/S analysis and fractional integration) are used to analyse it in the case of the four main cryptocurrencies (BitCoin, LiteCoin, Ripple, Dash) over the sample period 2013-2017. The findings indicate that this market exhibits persistence (there is a positive correlation between its past and future values), and that its degree changes over time. Such predictability represents evidence of market ine...

  12. Effects of the lactase 13910 C/T and calcium-sensor receptor A986S G/T gene polymorphisms on the incidence and recurrence of colorectal cancer in Hungarian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budai Barna

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies suggested the chemopreventive role of higher calcium intake in colorectal carcinogenesis. We examined genetic polymorphisms that might influence calcium metabolism: lactase (LCT gene 13910 C/T polymorphism causing lactose intolerance and calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR gene A986S polymorphism as a responsible factor for the altered cellular calcium sensation. Methods 538 Hungarian subjects were studied: 278 patients with colorectal cancer and 260 healthy controls. Median follow-up was 17 months. After genotyping, the relationship between LCT 13910 C/T and CaSR A986S polymorphisms as well as tumor incidence/progression was investigated. Results in patient with colorectal cancer, a significantly higher LCT CC frequency was associated with increased distant disease recurrence (OR = 4.04; 95% CI = 1.71–9.58; p = 0.006. The disease free survival calculated from distant recurrence was reduced for those with LCT CC genotype (log rank test p = 0.008. In case of CaSR A986S polymorphism, the homozygous SS genotype was more frequent in patients than in controls (OR = 4.01; 95% CI = 1.33–12.07; p = 0.014. The number of LCT C and CaSR S risk alleles were correlated with tumor incidence (p = 0.035. The CCSS genotype combination was found only in patients with CRC (p = 0.033. Conclusion LCT 13910 C/T and CaSR A986S polymorphisms may have an impact on the progression and/or incidence of CRC.

  13. Effects of the lactase 13910 C/T and calcium-sensor receptor A986S G/T gene polymorphisms on the incidence and recurrence of colorectal cancer in Hungarian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bácsi, Krisztián; Speer, Gábor; Hitre, Erika; Kósa, János P; Horváth, Henrik; Lazáry, Áron; Lakatos, Péter L; Balla, Bernadett; Budai, Barna; Lakatos, Péter

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggested the chemopreventive role of higher calcium intake in colorectal carcinogenesis. We examined genetic polymorphisms that might influence calcium metabolism: lactase (LCT) gene 13910 C/T polymorphism causing lactose intolerance and calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) gene A986S polymorphism as a responsible factor for the altered cellular calcium sensation. 538 Hungarian subjects were studied: 278 patients with colorectal cancer and 260 healthy controls. Median follow-up was 17 months. After genotyping, the relationship between LCT 13910 C/T and CaSR A986S polymorphisms as well as tumor incidence/progression was investigated. in patient with colorectal cancer, a significantly higher LCT CC frequency was associated with increased distant disease recurrence (OR = 4.04; 95% CI = 1.71–9.58; p = 0.006). The disease free survival calculated from distant recurrence was reduced for those with LCT CC genotype (log rank test p = 0.008). In case of CaSR A986S polymorphism, the homozygous SS genotype was more frequent in patients than in controls (OR = 4.01; 95% CI = 1.33–12.07; p = 0.014). The number of LCT C and CaSR S risk alleles were correlated with tumor incidence (p = 0.035). The CCSS genotype combination was found only in patients with CRC (p = 0.033). LCT 13910 C/T and CaSR A986S polymorphisms may have an impact on the progression and/or incidence of CRC

  14. Missed diagnosis-persistent delirium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseem Mehra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Delirium is in general considered as an acute short lasting reversible neuropsychiatric syndrome. However, there is some evidence to suggest that in a small proportion of cases delirium may be a chronic or persistent condition. However, making this diagnosis requires clinical suspicion and ruling other differential diagnosis. In this report, we present a case of a 55-year-old man who had cognitive symptoms, psychotic symptoms and depressive symptoms along with persistent hypokalemia and glucose intolerance. He was seen by 3 psychiatrists with these symptoms and was initially diagnosed as having depressive disorder and later diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder (current episode mania, and psychosis were considered by the third psychiatrist. However, despite the presence of persistent neurocognitive deficits, evening worsening of symptoms, hypokalemia and glucose intolerance diagnosis of delirium was not suspected.

  15. China's water pollution by persistent organic pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Lianjun; Maruya, Keith A.; Snyder, Shane A.; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2012-01-01

    Available data were reviewed to assess the status of contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), in drinking water sources and coastal waters of China. The levels of POPs in China's waters were generally at the high end of the global range. A comparison of China's regulatory limits indicated that PCBs in rivers and coastal water may pose potential human health risk. Occurrence of DDTs in some rivers of China may also pose health risk to humans using the regulatory limits of DDTs recommended by the European Union. Future monitoring of POPs in China's waters should be directed towards analytes of concern (e.g. PCBs and PCDD/Fs) and to fill data gaps for analytes (e.g. PBDEs, PCDD/Fs, and chlordane) and in watersheds/regions (e.g. West China) where data are scarce. - Highlights: ► Levels of POPs in China's aquatic systems were generally at the high end of the global range. ► New inputs of DDTs, likely related to the use of dicofol and anti-fouling paints, were found. ► Occurrence of PCBs and DDTs in some water bodies pay pose potential human health risk. ► Long-term monitoring of POPs in China's waters is needed to fill data gaps. - Occurrence, potential sources and ecological and human health risk of persistent organic pollutants in China's waters are reviewed.

  16. Energy Savings Lifetimes and Persistence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Ian M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schiller, Steven R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Billingsley, Megan A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This technical brief explains the concepts of energy savings lifetimes and savings persistence and discusses how program administrators use these factors to calculate savings for efficiency measures, programs and portfolios. Savings lifetime is the length of time that one or more energy efficiency measures or activities save energy, and savings persistence is the change in savings throughout the functional life of a given efficiency measure or activity. Savings lifetimes are essential for assessing the lifecycle benefits and cost effectiveness of efficiency activities and for forecasting loads in resource planning. The brief also provides estimates of savings lifetimes derived from a national collection of costs and savings for electric efficiency programs and portfolios.

  17. European Vegetation Archive (EVA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chytrý, Milan; Hennekens, S.M.; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Schaminée, J.H.J.; Haveman, Rense; Janssen, J.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The European Vegetation Archive (EVA) is a centralized database of European vegetation plots developed by the IAVS Working Group European Vegetation Survey. It has been in development since 2012 and first made available for use in research projects in 2014. It stores copies of national and

  18. Persistence Mechanisms of Conjugative Plasmids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Martin Iain; Hansen, Lars H.; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Are plasmids selfish parasitic DNA molecules or an integrated part of the bacterial genome? This chapter reviews the current understanding of the persistence mechanisms of conjugative plasmids harbored by bacterial cells and populations. The diversity and intricacy of mechanisms affecting the suc...

  19. On persistently positively expansive maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Arbieto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we prove that any C¹-persistently positively expansive map is expanding. This improves a result due to Sakai (Sakai 2004.Neste artigo, mostramos que todo mapa C¹-persistentemente positivamente expansivo e expansor. Isto melhora um resultado devido a Sakai (Sakai 2004.

  20. A European Research Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, R.

    2001-01-01

    This article is a summary of the presentation of the European Commissioner, Philippe Busquen, to the European Parliament (beginning of year 2000) with the proposal and method for a revival of the Research and Development in this wider sense in the European Union. The starting point of his thesis is that Europe performs less, and more disorderly, activities in this field that her main competitors. USA and Japan. His basic proposal is a larger coordination among the european research projects, with a previous phase of informatics intoxicator among the european research centres and the cross-linked participation, real of virtual in the experiments and projects. (Author)

  1. Persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kis Boisen

    2012-01-01

    The note shows an example of an architure for buildin g stand-alone program, where the programming language is object oriented and the databas system is a relational database system. Together with the notes is an example program.......The note shows an example of an architure for buildin g stand-alone program, where the programming language is object oriented and the databas system is a relational database system. Together with the notes is an example program....

  2. European notary public at windflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežić-Popović Dragana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The author of the paper analyzes the reasons and consequences of vulnerability of notary profession in European countries with a Latin-type notarial system, which in recent years lurk serious threat, which could influence in the nature of this profession. The European Commission has had several persistent attempts to attack the notary: through commencing six proceedings before the European Court of Justice and six Judgments in 2011 against member States that have not abolished the requirement of citizenship for admission to the profession, and then over the proposal for revision of Directive 2005/36 / EU in which it included the expanding of the field of application of professional qualifications recognition to the notaries public, all to the Green Book on treatment in this process, with explanation that with the new means should be supported the functioning of the internal market and stimulates economic growth in the EU. The Commission has always been guided by the findings that the reforms aimed at simplifying the environment of business entities and the removal of restrictions in certain sectors and in regulated professions were not allowed to remove barriers and restrictive behavior in a number of sectors, among which are expressly mentioned notaries, and that therefore the EU suffers economic decline. This was followed by strong reactions, which were not only the expression of a desire of notary public profession and science, but came from the highest authorities in France, Germany, and other countries. The complete jurist's population in these member States recognized the insincerity of the Commission in demanding liberalization of notary public services, under the expression of reviving economic activity in the EU. All actors of the protest considered the Commission's explanation was only a reflection of the ideological prejudices and a concession to satisfy the hegemonic aims of supporters of the Anglo-Saxon model of deregulation. The

  3. China's water pollution by persistent organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Lian-Jun; Maruya, Keith A; Snyder, Shane A; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2012-04-01

    Available data were reviewed to assess the status of contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), in drinking water sources and coastal waters of China. The levels of POPs in China's waters were generally at the high end of the global range. A comparison of China's regulatory limits indicated that PCBs in rivers and coastal water may pose potential human health risk. Occurrence of DDTs in some rivers of China may also pose health risk to humans using the regulatory limits of DDTs recommended by the European Union. Future monitoring of POPs in China's waters should be directed towards analytes of concern (e.g. PCBs and PCDD/Fs) and to fill data gaps for analytes (e.g. PBDEs, PCDD/Fs, and chlordane) and in watersheds/regions (e.g. West China) where data are scarce. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Search along persistent random walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, Benjamin M

    2008-01-01

    Optimal search strategies and their implementations in biological systems are a subject of active research. Here we study a search problem which is motivated by the hunt of sperm cells for the egg. We ask for the probability for an active swimmer to find a target under the condition that the swimmer starts at a certain distance from the target. We find that success probability is maximal for a certain level of fluctuations characterized by the persistence length of the swimming path of the swimmer. We derive a scaling law for the optimal persistence length as a function of the initial target distance and search time by mapping the search on a polymer physics problem

  5. Is Farm Management Skill Persistent?

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xin; Paulson, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Farm management skills can affect farm managers' performance. In this article, farm management performance is analyzed based on yearly Illinois Farm Business Farm Management (FBFM) panel data across 6,760 farms from 1996 through 2011. Two out-of-sample measures of skill are used to analyze the ability of farm managers that consistently perform well over yearly and longer time horizons. Persistence tests show management skills are consistent and predictable. Results also suggest that the most ...

  6. Persistent Authentication in Smart Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads Syska; Kirschmeyer, Martin; Jensen, Christian D.

    2008-01-01

    present a proof-of-concept implementation of the proposed mechanism, which employs camera based tracking with a single stationary 3D camera that uses the "time of flight" principle. A preliminary evaluation of the proposed mechanism indicates that persistent authentication is technically possible...... with the proposed hardware. The proposed model is sufficiently general to allow the addition of more cameras or supplemental tracking technologies, which will improve the robustness and scalability of the proposed mechanism....

  7. Long memory and changing persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Robinson; Sibbertsen, Philipp

    We study the empirical behaviour of semi-parametric log-periodogram estimation for long memory models when the true process exhibits a change in persistence. Simulation results confirm theoretical arguments which suggest that evidence for long memory is likely to be found. A recently proposed test...... by Sibbertsen and Kruse (2009) is shown to exhibit noticeable power to discriminate between long memory and a structural change in autoregressive parameters....

  8. How persistent is civilization growth?

    OpenAIRE

    Garrett, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    In a recent study (Garrett, 2011), I described theoretical arguments and empirical evidence showing how civilization evolution might be considered from a purely physical basis. One implication is that civilization exhibits the property of persistence in its growth. Here, this argument is elaborated further, and specific near-term forecasts are provided for key economic variables and anthropogenic CO2 emission rates at global scales. Absent some external shock, civilization wealth, energy cons...

  9. The role of metabolism in bacterial persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Amato

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial persisters are phenotypic variants with extraordinary tolerances toward antibiotics. Persister survival has been attributed to inhibition of essential cell functions during antibiotic stress, followed by reversal of the process and resumption of growth upon removal of the antibiotic. Metabolism plays a critical role in this process, since it participates in the entry, maintenance, and exit from the persister phenotype. Here, we review the experimental evidence that demonstrates the importance of metabolism to persistence, highlight the successes and potential for targeting metabolism in the search for anti-persister therapies, and discuss the current methods and challenges to understand persister physiology.

  10. PERSISTENCE IN PERFORMANCE FOR MUTUAL FUNDS IN PERIODS OF CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros KARGIDIS

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the persistence in performance for a sample of South European funds, domiciled in Portugal, Italy, Greece and Spain. Employing the Sharpe ratio, risk adjusted performance is measured in an attempt to judge the influence of the 2008 crisis and the current debt crisis on funds’ inclination to persist in their previous returns record. Examination period extends from January 2004 to December 2010 incorporating stages of relative stability in the stock and bond markets while also capturing the early stages of the eurozone crisis. We categorize funds as winners and losers in consecutive 6-monthly periods, thus being able to judge persistence in the short run, while our results suggest that the identification of winners and losers could enable us to investigate the possibility to gain investment advantages through this finding. Overall results suggest evidence of persistent results, whether positive or negative, both during the 2008 crisis and the current debt crisis, leading us to deduce that factors leading to performance persistence are not affected by market changes, since medium to long term persistence bypasses any temporary market mischief. This finding could be of use for fund managers aiming at establishing viable investment strategies, at their epicenter being the exploitation of such clues, suggesting persistence in returns. A fund of funds manager employing funds both in equities and fixed income could potentially choose to invest exclusively or more heavily in the winners of previous periods and avoid accordingly poor performers, thus achieving higher returns on average. For this purpose simple investment strategies are employed where we test the outcome of an investment strategy that would invest on fixed income securities by choosing those funds that were winners in the distribution of returns in the previous 6-monthly period, while disinvesting from poor performers and funds switching sides in performance

  11. From 'lactose intolerance' to 'lactose nutrition'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukito, Widjaja; Malik, Safarina G; Surono, Ingrid S; Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    The concept of lactose intolerance has become embedded in Western medicine and developing economy medicine. It is based on evidence that intestinal lactase activity persists into later childhood and throughout life in only a minority of the world's population, notably northern European-derived populations. These people have the T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the rs49882359 allele (C/T), also known as C/T-13910, the MCM6 gene which positively influences the lactase LCT gene. Other lactase persistent (LP) populations are found in Africa and the Middle East with different genetic variants. These SNPs represent co-evolution with dairying since the agricultural revolution and nutrient-dependent ecological adaptation. That said, gastrointestinal symptoms considered due to small intestinal lactose malabsorption are poorly correlated with lactase non-persistence (LNP), the situation for most people. With LNP, colonic microbiome lactase enables lactose fermentation to occur so that none is found in faeces. Whether the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and gases (hydrogen, carbon dioxide and methane) produced cause symptoms is dose-dependent. Up to 25 g of lactose at any one time can usually be consumed by a LNP person, but its food and meal pattern context, the microbiomic characteristics, age and other factors may alter tolerance. Thus, the notion that lactose intolerance is a disorder or disease of LNP people is misplaced and has been one of cultural perspective. What actually matters is whether a particular dairy product as normally consumed give rise to symptoms. It is, therefore, proposed that lactose tolerance tests be replaced with dairy food tolerance tests.

  12. European consensus statement on diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD: the European Network adult ADHD

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kooij, Sandra JJ

    2010-09-03

    Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood that persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. The evidence on persistence poses several difficulties for adult psychiatry considering the lack of expertise for diagnostic assessment, limited treatment options and patient facilities across Europe. Methods The European Network Adult ADHD, founded in 2003, aims to increase awareness of this disorder and improve knowledge and patient care for adults with ADHD across Europe. This Consensus Statement is one of the actions taken by the European Network Adult ADHD in order to support the clinician with research evidence and clinical experience from 18 European countries in which ADHD in adults is recognised and treated. Results Besides information on the genetics and neurobiology of ADHD, three major questions are addressed in this statement: (1) What is the clinical picture of ADHD in adults? (2) How can ADHD in adults be properly diagnosed? (3) How should ADHD in adults be effectively treated? Conclusions ADHD often presents as an impairing lifelong condition in adults, yet it is currently underdiagnosed and treated in many European countries, leading to ineffective treatment and higher costs of illness. Expertise in diagnostic assessment and treatment of ADHD in adults must increase in psychiatry. Instruments for screening and diagnosis of ADHD in adults are available and appropriate treatments exist, although more research is needed in this age group.

  13. European nuclear education network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.; Moons, F.; Safieh, J.

    2005-01-01

    In most countries within the European Union that rely to a significant extent on nuclear power, neither undergraduate nor PhD education is producing a sufficient number of engineers and doctors to fill the needs of the industry. As a result of an EU-supported project, a new education organisation, European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN), has recently been established, with the aim to establish a European master's degree of nuclear engineering. Recently, a new EU project, Nuclear European Platform of Training and University Organisations (NEPTUNO), has been launched, aiming at the practical implementation of ENEN and harmonisation of training activities. (author)

  14. European mobility cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick

    2016-01-01

    More targeted European policies promoting green travel patterns require better knowledge on differing mobility cultures across European regions. As a basis for this, we clustered the EU population into eight mobility styles based on Eurobarometer data. The mobility styles - including, for example...... positions on the path towards sustainable mobility and therefore different requirements towards European platforms and support measures, e.g. for 'Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans'. The country clusters can provide a starting point for future communication and targeting of European efforts in sustainable...

  15. MOOCs and Persistence: Definitions and Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Brent J.; Baker, Rachel B.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter argues for redefining the term "persistence" as it relates to MOOCs and considers how different measures produce different results in the research; it closes with a review of research on persistence in MOOCs.

  16. Persistence and drug tolerance in pathogenic yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Rasmus Kenneth; Regenberg, Birgitte; Folkesson, Sven Anders

    2017-01-01

    In this review, we briefly summarize the current understanding of how fungal pathogens can persist antifungal treatment without heritable resistance mutations by forming tolerant persister cells. Fungal infections tolerant to antifungal treatment have become a major medical problem. One mechanism...

  17. Physical trust-based persistent authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fujita, Masahiro; Jensen, Christian D.; Arimura, Shiori

    2015-01-01

    propose a new type of persistent authentication, called Persistent Authentication Based On physical Trust (PABOT). PABOT uses a context of “physical trust relationship” that is built by visual contact between users, and thus can offer a persistent authentication mechanism with better usability and higher...

  18. Distributed Persistent Identifiers System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Golodoniuc

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The need to identify both digital and physical objects is ubiquitous in our society. Past and present persistent identifier (PID systems, of which there is a great variety in terms of technical and social implementation, have evolved with the advent of the Internet, which has allowed for globally unique and globally resolvable identifiers. PID systems have, by in large, catered for identifier uniqueness, integrity, and persistence, regardless of the identifier’s application domain. Trustworthiness of these systems has been measured by the criteria first defined by Bütikofer (2009 and further elaborated by Golodoniuc 'et al'. (2016 and Car 'et al'. (2017. Since many PID systems have been largely conceived and developed by a single organisation they faced challenges for widespread adoption and, most importantly, the ability to survive change of technology. We believe that a cause of PID systems that were once successful fading away is the centralisation of support infrastructure – both organisational and computing and data storage systems. In this paper, we propose a PID system design that implements the pillars of a trustworthy system – ensuring identifiers’ independence of any particular technology or organisation, implementation of core PID system functions, separation from data delivery, and enabling the system to adapt for future change. We propose decentralisation at all levels — persistent identifiers and information objects registration, resolution, and data delivery — using Distributed Hash Tables and traditional peer-to-peer networks with information replication and caching mechanisms, thus eliminating the need for a central PID data store. This will increase overall system fault tolerance thus ensuring its trustworthiness. We also discuss important aspects of the distributed system’s governance, such as the notion of the authoritative source and data integrity

  19. Environmental exposure assessment in European birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehring, Ulrike; Casas, Maribel; Brunekreef, Bert

    2013-01-01

    of the environmental exposure and health data in these studies was made as part of the ENRIECO (Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts) project. The focus with regard to exposure was on outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens and biological organisms, metals, pesticides, smoking and second...... hand tobacco smoke (SHS), persistent organic pollutants (POPs), noise, radiation, and occupational exposures. The review lists methods and data on environmental exposures in 37 European birth cohort studies. Most data is currently available for smoking and SHS (N=37 cohorts), occupational exposures (N......Environmental exposures during pregnancy and early life may have adverse health effects. Single birth cohort studies often lack statistical power to tease out such effects reliably. To improve the use of existing data and to facilitate collaboration among these studies, an inventory...

  20. ATLAS OF EUROPEAN VALUES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M Ed Uwe Krause

    2008-01-01

    Uwe Krause: Atlas of Eurpean Values De Atlas of European Values is een samenwerkingsproject met bijbehorende website van de Universiteit van Tilburg en Fontys Lerarenopleiding in Tilburg, waarbij de wetenschappelijke data van de European Values Study (EVS) voor het onderwijs toegankelijk worden

  1. European media law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castendyk, O.; Dommering, E.; Scheuer, A.

    2008-01-01

    European Union legislation concerning electronic communications media is firmly established as an essential part of the law in the field in Europe. From relevant provisions of the European Convention of Human Rights and the EC Treaty to numerous directives, the most recent being the Audiovisual

  2. European Industry, 1700 - 1870

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broadberry, Stephen; Fremdling, Rainer; Solar, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of the development of European industry between 1700 and 1870, drawing in particular on the recent literature that has emerged following the formation of the European Historical Economics Society in 1991. The approach thus makes use of economic analysis and quantitative

  3. European Stars and Stripes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hendricks, Nancy

    1994-01-01

    The European Stars and Stripes (ES&S) organization publishes a daily newspaper, The Stars and Stripes, for DoD personnel stationed in Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, and other DoD activities in the U.S. European Command...

  4. Introduction: European climate leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurzel, R.K.W.; Liefferink, J.D.; Connelly, J.; Wurzel, R.K.W.; Connelly, J.; Liefferink, D.

    2017-01-01

    There is no shortage of would-be leaders in EU climate change politics. The EU institutions (e.g. European Council, Council of the EU, Commission and the European Parliament (EP)), member states and societal actors have all, though to varying degrees and at different time periods, tried to offer

  5. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2004-01-01

    The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  6. European Home Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.

    2009-01-01

    An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes......An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes...

  7. The European Programme Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Anne; Bergman, E.; Ehlers, S.

    The publication is a result of a cooperation between organisations in six European countries with the aim to develop a common European education for programme managers. It contains of a description of the different elements of the education together with a number of case-studies from the counties...

  8. European Analytical Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, B.; Grasserbauer, M.; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    for European analytical chemistry. During the period 2002–07, Professor Grasserbauer was Director of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (EC), Ispra, Italy. There is no doubt that many challenges exist at the present time for all of us representing...

  9. European Union and oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillard, Christophe Alexandre

    2004-01-01

    In a context of oil price increase, problems about a Russian oil company (Loukos), and uncertainties in the Middle-East, the possibility of a new oil shock is a threat for Europe, and raises the issue of a true European energy policy which would encompass, not only grid development, environmental issues or market regulation issues, but also strategic issues related to energy supply security. This article proposes an overview of the European policy: first steps for a future European energy and oil policy in the green paper of the European Commission published in November 2000, issues of pollution and safety for hydrocarbon maritime transport. The article then examines the possibility of a third oil shock due to a crisis in the Middle East, and discusses whether European must have strategic stocks to face an outage of oil supplies

  10. Territorial cohesion through cross-border landscape policy? The European case of the Three Countries park (BE-NL-DE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brüll, A.; Wirth, T.M.; Lohrberg, F.; Kempenaar, Annet; Brinkhuijsen, M.; Godart, M.F.; Coppens, A.; Nielsen, M.

    2017-01-01

    Landscapes can be understood as socialecological systems under constant change. In Europe various territorial dynamics pose persistent challenges to maintaining diverse landscapes both as European heritage and in their capacity to provide vital functions and services. Concurrently, under the

  11. Intrauterine Transmission of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Persistently Infected Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snorre Stuen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which causes the disease tick-borne fever (TBF, is the most important tick-borne pathogen in European animals. TBF may contribute to severe welfare challenges and economic losses in the Norwegian sheep industry. The bacterium causes a persistent infection in sheep and several other animal species. The objective of this study was to investigate whether intrauterine transmission occurs in persistently infected sheep. The study included thirteen 5–6-month-old unmated ewes, of which twelve were experimentally infected with A. phagocytophilum (GenBank acc. no. M73220. Four to six weeks later, all ewes were mated, and nine became pregnant. Blood samples were collected from these ewes and their offspring. If the lamb died, tissue samples were collected. The samples were analyzed with real-time PCR (qPCR targeting the msp2 gene. PCR-positive samples were further analyzed by semi-nested PCR and 16S rDNA sequencing. A total of 20 lambs were born, of which six died within two days. Six newborn lambs (30% were PCR-positive (qPCR, of which one was verified by 16S rDNA sequencing. The present study indicates that intrauterine transmission of A. phagocytophilum in persistently infected sheep may occur. The importance of these findings for the epidemiology of A. phagocytophilum needs to be further investigated.

  12. Demonstration of persistent contamination of a cooked egg product production facility with Salmonella enterica serovar Tennessee and characterization of the persistent strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakočiūnė, D; Bisgaard, M; Pedersen, K; Olsen, J E

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether continuous contamination of light pasteurized egg products with Salmonella enterica serovar Tennessee (S. Tennessee) at a large European producer of industrial egg products was caused by persistent contamination of the production facility and to characterize the persistent strains. Seventy-three S. Tennessee isolates collected from products over a 3-year period with intermittent contamination, and 15 control strains were compared by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using two enzymes. Forty-five case isolates distributed throughout the full period were shown to belong to one profile type. Isolates representing different PFGE profiles were all assigned to ST 319 by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The case isolates did not show a higher ability to form biofilm on a plastic surface than noncase isolates. Characteristically, members of the persistent clone were weak producers of H2 S in laboratory medium. S. Tennessee isolated from the case was able to grow better in pasteurized egg product compared with other serovars investigated. It was concluded that the contamination was caused by a persistent strain in the production facility and that this strain apparently had adapted to grow in the relevant egg product. S. Tennessee has previously been associated with persistence in hatching facilities. This is the first report of persistent contamination of an egg production facility with this serovar. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. New-found fundamentals of bacterial persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kint, Cyrielle I; Verstraeten, Natalie; Fauvart, Maarten; Michiels, Jan

    2012-12-01

    Persister cells display tolerance to high doses of bactericidal antibiotics and typically comprise a small fraction of a bacterial population. Recently, evidence was provided for a causal link between therapy failure and the presence of persister cells in chronic infections, underscoring the need for research on bacterial persistence. A series of recent breakthroughs have shed light on the multiplicity of persister genes, the contribution of gene expression noise to persister formation, the importance of active responses to antibiotic tolerance and heterogeneity among persister cells. Moreover, the development of in vivo model systems has highlighted the clinical relevance of persistence. This review discusses these recent advances and how this knowledge fundamentally changes the way in which we will perceive the problem of antibiotic tolerance in years to come. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. PRACE - The European HPC Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmeyer, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The mission of PRACE (Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe) is to enable high impact scientific discovery and engineering research and development across all disciplines to enhance European competitiveness for the benefit of society. PRACE seeks to realize this mission by offering world class computing and data management resources and services through a peer review process. This talk gives a general overview about PRACE and the PRACE research infrastructure (RI). PRACE is established as an international not-for-profit association and the PRACE RI is a pan-European supercomputing infrastructure which offers access to computing and data management resources at partner sites distributed throughout Europe. Besides a short summary about the organization, history, and activities of PRACE, it is explained how scientists and researchers from academia and industry from around the world can access PRACE systems and which education and training activities are offered by PRACE. The overview also contains a selection of PRACE contributions to societal challenges and ongoing activities. Examples of the latter are beside others petascaling, application benchmark suite, best practice guides for efficient use of key architectures, application enabling / scaling, new programming models, and industrial applications. The Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PRACE) is an international non-profit association with its seat in Brussels. The PRACE Research Infrastructure provides a persistent world-class high performance computing service for scientists and researchers from academia and industry in Europe. The computer systems and their operations accessible through PRACE are provided by 4 PRACE members (BSC representing Spain, CINECA representing Italy, GCS representing Germany and GENCI representing France). The Implementation Phase of PRACE receives funding from the EU's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreements RI-261557, RI-283493 and RI

  15. Persistent cough in an adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, M T; Harper, G; Chen, J

    1999-12-01

    Jessica, a 14-year-old girl with a history of asthma, went to her pediatrician's office because of a persistent cough. She had been coughing for at least 3 months with occasional cough-free periods of less than a few days. The cough was nonproductive and was not accompanied by fever, rhinorrhea, or facial or chest pain. Jessica and her mother observed that the cough increased with exercise and typically was not present during sleep. She has used two metered-dose inhalers--albuterol and cromolyn--without any change in the cough pattern. For the past 5 years, Jessica has had mild asthma responsive to albuterol. She enjoys running on the cross-country team, soccer, and dancing. She is an average student and denies any change in academic performance. She has never been hospitalized or had an emergency department visit for asthma or pneumonia. There has been no recent travel or exposure to a person with a chronic productive cough, tobacco smoke, or a live-in pet. Jessica lives with her mother and younger sister in a 10-year-old, carpeted apartment without any evidence of mold or recent renovation. In the process of taking the history, the pediatrician noticed that Jessica coughed intermittently, with two or three coughs during each episode. At times, the cough was harsh; at other times, it was a quiet cough, as if she were clearing her throat. She was cooperative, without overt anxiety or respiratory distress. After a complete physical examination with normal findings, the pediatrician interviewed Jessica and her mother alone. Jessica's parents had been divorced for the past 6 years. She lived with her mother but visited her father, and his new family with two young children, every weekend. She spoke about this arrangement comfortably and said that she loved her father and mother but didn't like the tension she experienced at her father's home. "I don't like adults arguing when kids are around." When asked why she thought the cough persisted so long, she commented in a

  16. Update of European bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an update of the research on European bioethics undertaken by the author together with Professor Peter Kemp since the 1990s, on Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. In this European approach to basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw......, the principles of autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability are proposed as the most important ethical principles for respect for the human person in biomedical and biotechnological development. This approach to bioethics and biolaw is presented here in a short updated version that integrates the earlier...... research in a presentation of the present understanding of the basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw....

  17. Transnational European Television Drama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib; Redvall, Eva Novrup; Helles, Rasmus

    This book deals with the role of television drama in Europe as enabler of transnational, cultural encounters for audiences and the creative community. It demonstrates that the diversity of national cultures is a challenge for European TV drama but also a potential richness and source of creative...... variation. Based on data on the production, distribution and reception of recent TV drama from several European countries, the book presents a new picture of the transnational European television culture. The authors analyse main tendencies in television policy and challenges for national broadcasters...

  18. European [Security] Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    The past 20 years, since the 1992 Treaty on European Union, have seen the gradual creation of both an “Area of Freedom, Security and Justice” and a “Common Foreign and Security Policy”. More recent is the development of a “European Neighbourhood Policy” over the past 10 years. All three...... of these policies involved the navigation and negotiation of security, borders and governance in and by the European Union (EU). This article analyses these practices of bordering and governance through a five-fold security framework. The article argues that a richer understanding of EU security discourses can...

  19. Democratic Citizenship: European referents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María PUIG GUTIÉRREZ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Let’s sense beforehand in this article a tour concerning the educational European policies that favors the development of a democratic citizenship. The aim that we chase is to understand the way in which nowadays it is being interpreted and stimulated the Citizenship education from European Union. for it we offer a conceptual delimiting of «Citizenship education» and later, we show an analysis of the principal documents and materials elaborated principally by the Council of Europe that mark the way followed by European Union as for education for Democratic Citizenship (EDC.

  20. Symbolism in European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Ernst Haas observed over fifty years ago that ‘United Europe' is a resilient, adaptable, unifying, and yet unspecified symbol'. It is precisely this adaptability and ambiguity that has ensures the continuing importance of European studies as a means of understanding ‘the remarkable social...... of social transformation involved' (Calhoun 2003: 18). This article will consider the role of symbolism in European integration as part of answering Craig Calhoun's call for a means of transcending specific regimes of analysis in order to advance European studies....

  1. Persistent homology and string vacua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirafici, Michele [Center for Mathematical Analysis, Geometry and Dynamical Systems,Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa,Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques,Le Bois-Marie, 35 route de Chartres, F-91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-03-08

    We use methods from topological data analysis to study the topological features of certain distributions of string vacua. Topological data analysis is a multi-scale approach used to analyze the topological features of a dataset by identifying which homological characteristics persist over a long range of scales. We apply these techniques in several contexts. We analyze N=2 vacua by focusing on certain distributions of Calabi-Yau varieties and Landau-Ginzburg models. We then turn to flux compactifications and discuss how we can use topological data analysis to extract physical information. Finally we apply these techniques to certain phenomenologically realistic heterotic models. We discuss the possibility of characterizing string vacua using the topological properties of their distributions.

  2. Coping with persistent environmental problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varjopuro, Riku; Andrulewicz, Eugeniusz; Brandt, Urs Steiner

    2014-01-01

    to a decision to taking action and several years further for actual implementation. Ecosystem responses to measures illustrate that feedback can keep the ecosystem in a certain state and cause a delay in ecosystem response. These delays can operate on decadal scales. Our aim in this paper...... involved in the implementation are keys to improve understanding of the systemic delays. The improved understanding is necessary for the adaptive management of a persistent environmental problem. In addition to the state of the environment, the monitoring and analysis should be targeted also......; (2) implementation delay: the time from the launch of a policy to the actual implementation; (3) ecosystem delay: the time difference between the implementation and an actual measurable effects. A policy process is one characterized by delays. It may take years from problem identification...

  3. Bilateral persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Tarun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of bilateral persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV in a 3-month-old male infant, who had bilateral leukokoria, is presented. The child was referred for imaging with a clinical suspicion of retinoblastoma. Gray-scale ultrasound evaluation revealed an echogenic band in the posterior segment of both globes, extending from the posterior surface of the lens capsule to the optic disc. Doppler examination revealed the presence of arterial flow in the band in both globes. Associated echogenic hemorrhage was also seen, which was confirmed by computed tomography. Most cases of PHPV are sporadic and unilateral, and bilateral PHPV is rare. The imaging features in this case suggest the diagnosis of bilateral PHPV and differentiate it from retinoblastoma. This entity, although infrequent, should be considered in the differential diagnosis while evaluating bilateral leukokoria.

  4. Persistence of antimuscarinic drug use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brostrøm, Søren; Hallas, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Evidence suggests antimuscarinic drugs for the overactive-bladder syndrome only confer modest improvements in quality of life. We wanted to describe the persistence of therapy, including an extended analysis beyond the 1-year follow-up employed in other studies. METHODS: All prescriptions...... for drugs in ATC category G04BD were retrieved for the period 1999-2006 from a regional database with complete capture of all reimbursed prescriptions. Kaplan-Meyer curves were generated for duration of treatment for each substance and analyzed for determinants of termination. RESULTS: With the exception...... of trospium chloride, all drugs had continuation rates of less than 50% at 6 months, less than 25% at 1 year, and less than 10% at 2 years and longer. Trospium chloride, however, exhibited continuation rates of 46% at 6 months, 36% at 1 year, 22% at 2 years, and 16% at 3 years. CONCLUSIONS: In a setting...

  5. Dematerialization: Variety, caution, and persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausubel, Jesse H; Waggoner, Paul E

    2008-09-02

    Dematerialization, represented by declining consumption per GDP of energy or of goods, offers some hope for rising environmental quality with development. The declining proportion of income spent on staples as affluence grows, which income elasticity <1.0 measures, makes dematerialization widespread. Further, as learning improves efficiency of resource use, the intensity of environmental impact per production of staples often declines. We observe that combinations of low income elasticity for staples and of learning by producers cause a variety of dematerializations and declining intensities of impact, from energy use and carbon emission to food consumption and fertilizer use, globally and in countries ranging from the United States and France to China, India, Brazil, and Indonesia. Because dematerialization and intensity of impact are ratios of parameters that may be variously defined and are sometimes difficult to estimate, their fluctuations must be interpreted cautiously. Nevertheless, substantial declining intensity of impact, and especially, dematerialization persisted between 1980 and 2006.

  6. Indirect Effects on Heathland Conservation and Wolf Persistence of Contradictory Policies that Threaten Traditional Free-Ranging Horse Husbandry

    OpenAIRE

    López-Bao, José V.; Sazatorníl, V.; LLaneza, Luis; Rodríguez, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Conservation agencies within the European Union promote the restoration of traditional land uses as a cost-effective way to preserve biodiversity outside reserves. Although the European Union pursues the integration of the environment into strategic decision-making, it also dictates sectoral policies that may damage farmland biodiversity. We illustrate this point by outlining the socioeconomic factors that allow the persistence of traditional free-ranging horse husbandry in Galicia, northwest...

  7. European Southern Observatory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1970-01-01

    Professor A. Blaauw, Director general of the European Southern Observatory, with George Hampton on his right, signs the Agreement covering collaboration with CERN in the construction of the large telescope to be installed at the ESO Observatory in Chile.

  8. Causality in Europeanization Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet

    2012-01-01

    to develop discursive institutional analytical frameworks and something that comes close to the formulation of hypothesis on the effects of European Union (EU) policies and institutions on domestic change. Even if these efforts so far do not necessarily amount to substantive theories or claims of causality......Discourse analysis as a methodology is perhaps not readily associated with substantive causality claims. At the same time the study of discourses is very much the study of conceptions of causal relations among a set, or sets, of agents. Within Europeanization research we have seen endeavours......, it suggests that discourse analysis and the study of causality are by no means opposites. The study of Europeanization discourses may even be seen as an essential step in the move towards claims of causality in Europeanization research. This chapter deals with the question of how we may move from the study...

  9. European Molecular Biology Laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    On 10 May an Agreement was signed at CERN setting up a new European Laboratory. It will be concerned with research in molecularbiology and will be located at Heidelberg in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  10. European 'Stabilisation through Association'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    In 2012 the Nobel Committee awarded the European Union (EU) its Peace Prize. It commemorated the building and sustaining of peace between Europeans, a process in which the Nobel Committee proposed that the EU and its predecessors had played an important part. It explicitly commen-ded the Union......’s success in repeatedly reconciling a divided continent and complemented its efforts to build peace beyond its borders. But does the EU (continue to) deserve such praise? This contribution examines European peacebuilding from the early inte-gration of post-World War Two economies, through the uniting...... of Europe after the Cold War to contemporary conflict management efforts in the Western Balkans and the Eastern neighbourhood. The purpose of this endeavour is to examine whether lessons from the European experience can be observed that may facilitate future regional stabilisation processes – within...

  11. CERN welcomes European science

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    On 3 and 4 October CERN will host a special workshop for Marie Curie fellows. This programme is a key plank in the EU's strategy for creating a European research area.     With thousands of scientists from all over the continent working together, CERN is already an exemplary European science showcase. On 3 and 4 October, the Laboratory will contribute further to unifying all European science by hosting a special workshop for EU-funded Marie Curie fellows. This scheme gives young researchers from around the continent the mobility to go to wherever Europe's best facilities in their chosen field happen to be. The event that will take place at CERN, entitled 'Special workshop of Marie Curie Fellows on research and training in physics and technology', organised together with the European Commission, is a continuation of a series of workshops with the aim, among others, of promoting young researchers, supporting their training and mobility, and facilitating the interdisciplinary dissemination of knowledge. Dur...

  12. European Economic Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, James A.

    1971-01-01

    Recounts the history and problems of European Economic Integration from the first post World War II organization, the OEEC, to the EEC (Common Market) and the EFTA. Suggestions for further reading are included. (JB)

  13. Ethics and European security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paskins, B.

    1986-01-01

    The alliance between the United States and her NATO partners has been strained severely in the last few years. American perceptions of European disloyalty and European impressions of American assertiveness and lack of judgment have played a large part in generating tensions between the allies and emphasising the new peace movements. This book is an attempt to develop a broader understanding of the problem of European security based on Christian ethics. There are disagreements and differences of emphasis among the contributors but they have in common the view that an exclusive preoccupation with the military dimension is damagingly one-sided. Instead the contributors argue that moral and theological concerns are a vital part of the politics and mechanics of European security and must be incorporated in any effort to devise new policies for security in Europe and the West.

  14. The European XFEL project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floettmann, K.

    2005-01-01

    The European XFEL project is a 4th generation synchrotron radiation facility based on the SASE FEL concept and the superconducting TESLA technology for a linear accelerator. In February 2003 the German government decided that the XFEL should be realized as a European project and be located at DESY in Hamburg. The paper will give an overview of the overall layout and parameters of the facility, with emphasis on the accelerator design, technology and physics. (author)

  15. European Union Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdalbero, D.R.; Schmitz, B.; Raldow, W.; Poireau, M.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an extensive state of the art of the energy research conducted at European Union level between 1984 and 2006, i.e. from the first to the sixth European Community Framework Programmes (FP1-FP6) for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration (RTD and D). The FP is the main legal tool and financial instrument of EU RTD and D policy. It sets the objectives, priorities and budgets for a period of several years. It has been complemented over time with a number of policy oriented initiatives and notably with the launch of the European Research Area. FP7 will cover the period 2007-2013 and will have a total budget of more than euros 50 billion. Energy has been a main research area in Europe since the founding Treaties (European Coal and Steel Community, European Atomic Energy Community-Euratom and European Economic Community), and energy RTD and D has always been a substantial part of common EU research. Nevertheless, when inflation and successive European enlargements are taken into account, over time the RTD and D effort in the field of energy has decreased significantly in relative terms. In nominal terms it has remained relatively stable at about euros 500 million per year. For the next years (FP7), it is expected that energy will still represent about 10 % of total EU research effort but with an annual budget of more than euros 800 million per year. This article presents a detailed review of the thematic areas and budget in both European nuclear energy research (fusion and fission) and non-nuclear energy research (energy efficiency/rational use of energy, fossil fuels, CO 2 capture and storage, fuel cells and hydrogen, renewable energy sources, strategic energy research/socio-economy). (authors)

  16. ELSY. European LFR activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alemberti, Alessandro; Carlsson, Johan; Malambu, Edouard; Orden, Alfredo; Cinotti, Luciano; Struwe, Dankward; Agostini, Pietro; Monti, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    The European Lead Fast Reactor has been developed in the frame of the European lead system (ELSY) project funded by the Sixth Framework Programme of EURATOM. The project, coordinated by Ansaldo Nucleare, involved a wide consortium of European organizations. The ELSY reference design is a 600 MWe pool-type reactor cooled by pure lead. The project demonstrates the possibility of designing a competitive and safe fast critical reactor using simple engineered technical features, whilst fully complying with the Generation IV goals. The paper focuses on the main aspects of the proposed design for the European lead fast reactor highlighting the innovation of this reactor concept and overall objectives. Special attention has been dedicated to safety starting from the first step of the design development taking into account other important aspects, such as the investment protection, the compactness of the primary system as well as sustainability. The main safety features of the proposed innovative decay heat removal (DHR) systems are presented. From the beginning of 2010, and for a duration of three years, the European Commission (EC) is financing the new project Lead European Advanced Demonstration Reactor (LEADER) as part of the 7th Framework Program. This paper highlights the main objectives of the LEADER project. (author)

  17. Persistence of stapedial artery: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Bruna Vilaca de; Gaiotti, Juliana Oggioni; Diniz, Renata Lopes Furletti Caldeira; Ribeiro, Marcelo Almeida; Motta, Emilia Guerra Pinto Coelho; Moreira, Wanderval

    2013-01-01

    Persistent stapedial artery is a rare congenital anomaly that occurs by a failure in the involution of such artery. Most patients with persistent stapedial artery are asymptomatic. The imaging diagnosis is made principally by means of multidetector computed tomography. In the present case, persistent stapedial artery was an incidental computed tomography finding. The authors discuss the embryogenesis, computed tomography findings and the importance of an early diagnosis of such anomaly. (author)

  18. Dualities in persistent (co)homology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Silva, Vin; Morozov, Dmitriy; Vejdemo-Johansson, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    We consider sequences of absolute and relative homology and cohomology groups that arise naturally for a filtered cell complex. We establish algebraic relationships between their persistence modules, and show that they contain equivalent information. We explain how one can use the existing algorithm for persistent homology to process any of the four modules, and relate it to a recently introduced persistent cohomology algorithm. We present experimental evidence for the practical efficiency of the latter algorithm

  19. Drought Persistence Errors in Global Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, H.; Gudmundsson, L.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2018-04-01

    The persistence of drought events largely determines the severity of socioeconomic and ecological impacts, but the capability of current global climate models (GCMs) to simulate such events is subject to large uncertainties. In this study, the representation of drought persistence in GCMs is assessed by comparing state-of-the-art GCM model simulations to observation-based data sets. For doing so, we consider dry-to-dry transition probabilities at monthly and annual scales as estimates for drought persistence, where a dry status is defined as negative precipitation anomaly. Though there is a substantial spread in the drought persistence bias, most of the simulations show systematic underestimation of drought persistence at global scale. Subsequently, we analyzed to which degree (i) inaccurate observations, (ii) differences among models, (iii) internal climate variability, and (iv) uncertainty of the employed statistical methods contribute to the spread in drought persistence errors using an analysis of variance approach. The results show that at monthly scale, model uncertainty and observational uncertainty dominate, while the contribution from internal variability is small in most cases. At annual scale, the spread of the drought persistence error is dominated by the statistical estimation error of drought persistence, indicating that the partitioning of the error is impaired by the limited number of considered time steps. These findings reveal systematic errors in the representation of drought persistence in current GCMs and suggest directions for further model improvement.

  20. Habermas on European Constitution and European Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Biró-Kaszás

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For the last two decades or so philosophers have been reflecting on a set of practical and political concerns in connection with the new political structural arrangements beyond the nation-state. In this article two essays by Jürgen Habermas shall be examined. An attempt shall be made to tackle Habermas’ philosophical concepts of personal and collective identity as well as the role that a constitution may play in building the post-national constellation. It has been shown that Habermas has normative answers. Firstly, according to him, the fragile balance between the legal order and the particular cultures and traditions of a community has to be protected by the constitutional state. For that reason the political culture has to be “decoupled” from the majority culture. Secondly, the democratically structured attempt to achieve shared meaning has to find the delicate balance between the context-transcending universal normative claims and the claims of particular individual and collective life. Thirdly, it is possible to expand legally mediated civil solidarity trans-nationally, across Europe – we may recognize this development as the emergence of European identity –, since the process of democratic will-formation of citizens may get loose from the structures provided by the state if both shared democratic political cultures as well as a European-wide public sphere exist. The European Constitution may have a catalytic function in materialization of these conditions. It has been shown that in his deliberations Habermas tried to find a reflective equilibrium between the normative and the empirical.

  1. Translating Romans: some persistent headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. du Toit

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Translating Romans: some persistent headaches Gone are the days when it was axiomatic that expertise in biblical languages automatically qualified one as a Bible translator. In 1949, Ronald Knox, who for nine years conscientiously struggled with translating the Bible for his generation, published a booklet under the title The trials of a translator. At that stage Bible translation as the subject of scientific study was still in its infancy. Since then, research into the intricacies of communicating the biblical message in an authentic but understandable manner, has made significant progress (cf. Roberts, 2009. However, the frustrations of Bible translators, first of all to really understand what the biblical authors wanted to convey to their original addressees, and then to commu-nicate that message to their own targeted readers in a meaningful way, have not disappeared. In fact, the challenge to meet the vary-ing requirements of the multiple kinds of translation that are present-ly in vogue, has only increased.

  2. Energy savings: persuasion and persistence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eijadi, David; McDougall, Tom; Leaf, Kris; Douglas, Jim; Steinbock, Jason; Reimer, Paul [The Weidt Group, Minnetonka, MN (United States); Gauthier, Julia [Xcel Energy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Wild, Doug; Richards McDaniel, Stephanie [BWBR Architects, Inc., Saint Paul, MN (United States)

    2005-07-01

    In this study, the architects, sponsoring utility and energy simulation specialist joined together to investigate the persistence of energy savings in three completed projects: a college library; a municipal transportation facility; and a hospital. The primary question being 'How well did the design decisions made with the help of simulation analysis translate into building operations over several years?' Design simulation and metered performance data are compared for specific energy-saving strategies. The paper provides a brief overview of the basis of selection of the three projects, the energy design assistance methods employed and the decisions made, along with their savings expectations. For each case, design characteristics, modelling assumptions, selected strategies and actual metered performance are outlined. We find evidence of appropriate levels of energy conservation, but they are not the absolute values predicted. In each case, the discrepancies between modelling assumptions and final construction or operating procedures are identified, examined and rectified. The paper illustrates that while owners are saving energy, they are not always getting the full savings potential for what they install. The paper concludes with a re-examination of the overall process. It evaluates the potential for additional savings of individual technologies and related larger utility incentives to design teams and building owners.

  3. European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buras, B.

    1985-01-01

    How a European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has developed into a detailed proposal recently accepted as the basis for construction of the facility at Grenoble is discussed. In November 1977, the General Assembly of the European Science Foundation (ESF) approved the report of the ESF working party on synchrotron radiation entitled Synchrotron Radiation - a Perspective View for Europe. This report contained as one of its principal recommendations that work should commence on a feasibility study for a European synchrotron radiation laboratory having a dedicated hard X-ray storage ring and appropriate advanced instrumentation. In order to prepare a feasibility study the European Science Foundation set up the Ad-hoc Committee on Synchrotron Radiation, which in turn formed two working groups: one for the machine and another for instrumentation. This feasibility study was completed in 1979 with the publication of the Blue Book describing in detail the so called 1979 European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The heart of the facility was a 5 GeV electron storage ring and it was assumed that mainly the radiation from bending magnets will be used. The facility is described

  4. The Development and Persistence of Agricultural Policy in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthou, Silas

    Abstract The analysis of which factors affect the development of European agricultural policy, the CAP, combines economic, political and historic methods to examine the interaction between politicians, farmers and voters/taxpayers. The objective of this PhD thesis is to examine the development...... and persistence of agricultural policy in the EU, based on the hypothesis that the political process and the agricultural structure are linked together. This is achieved through an examination of the foundation, the Danish farm household income and the future of agricultural support. The result of this study...... is that the foundation of agricultural policy in Europe depends on domestic policy, thus how the policy measures will affect voters. The farm households in Denmark have a living standard which is equal to rest of the society....

  5. The SciencePAD treasure hunt of Persistent Identifiers

    CERN Multimedia

    Beatrice Bressan, for the European Middleware Initiative (EMI)

    2013-01-01

    Have you ever followed a reference for an article that eventually turned out to be unavailable? Have you always thought that experiment data or research results should be permanently accessible? If so, you will probably be interested in the latest news on the current status of software and digital information issues, and you shouldn’t miss the SciencePAD Persistent Identifiers Workshop (SPID2013).   The workshop is being organised by the European Middleware Initiative (EMI) together with its SciencePAD (formerly known as ScienceSoft) project and will take place on 30 January 2013 at CERN. SciencePAD is a community-enabler, working on providing the necessary one-stop-shop tools, including software, catalogues, statistics, reference citation systems, marketplaces, technical services links, platform integration supports, etc. It allows researchers and open source software developers from scientific communities to interact with each other within and beyond their area of expertise, and co...

  6. Mastering NServiceBus and persistence

    CERN Document Server

    Helton, Rich

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended for developers, designers, and architects alike who wish to build C# NServiceBus enterprise architectures and learn how ESB persists data and messages to help them attain their goals. No prior knowledge of persistence in NServiceBus is required.

  7. Is bacterial persistence a social trait?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Gardner

    Full Text Available The ability of bacteria to evolve resistance to antibiotics has been much reported in recent years. It is less well-known that within populations of bacteria there are cells which are resistant due to a non-inherited phenotypic switch to a slow-growing state. Although such 'persister' cells are receiving increasing attention, the evolutionary forces involved have been relatively ignored. Persistence has a direct benefit to cells because it allows survival during catastrophes-a form of bet-hedging. However, persistence can also provide an indirect benefit to other individuals, because the reduced growth rate can reduce competition for limiting resources. This raises the possibility that persistence is a social trait, which can be influenced by kin selection. We develop a theoretical model to investigate the social consequences of persistence. We predict that selection for persistence is increased when: (a cells are related (e.g. a single, clonal lineage; and (b resources are scarce. Our model allows us to predict how the level of persistence should vary with time, across populations, in response to intervention strategies and the level of competition. More generally, our results clarify the links between persistence and other bet-hedging or social behaviours.

  8. The Persistence of Mutual Fund Performance.

    OpenAIRE

    Grinblatt, Mark; Titman, Sheridan

    1992-01-01

    This paper analyzes how mutual fund performance relates to past performance. These tests are based on a multiple portfolio benchmark that was formed on the basis of securities characteristics. The authors find evidence that differences in performance between funds persist over time and that this persistence is consistent with the ability of fund managers to earn abnormal returns. Copyright 1992 by American Finance Association.

  9. Modelling asymmetric persistence over the business cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); R. Paap (Richard)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractWe address the issue of time varying persistence of shocks to macroeconomic time series variables by proposing a new and parsimonious time series model. Our model assumes that this time varying persistence depends on a linear combination of lagged explanatory variables, where this

  10. A model for persistency of egg production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossman, M.; Gossman, T.N.; Koops, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of our study were to propose a new definition for persistency of egg production and to develop a mathematical model to describe the egg production curve, one that includes a new measure for persistency, based on the proposed definition, for use as a selection criterion to improve

  11. Lymphogranuloma venereum causing a persistent genital ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Terrence; Lee, Yer; Pandori, Mark; Jain, Vivek; Cohen, Stephanie Elise

    2014-04-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted cause of inguinal lymphadenopathy and proctocolitis. We report a patient with a persistent genital ulcer due to LGV (serovar L2b), an unusual presentation among US men who have sex with men. Lymphogranuloma venereum should be considered when evaluating persistent genital ulcers, and LGV-specific testing should be sought.

  12. Persistent Identifiers as Boundary Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, M. A.; Fox, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    In 1989, Leigh Star and Jim Griesemer defined the seminal concept of `boundary objects'. These `objects' are what Latour calls `immutable mobiles' that enable communication and collaboration across difference by helping meaning to be understood in different contexts. As Star notes, they are a sort of arrangement that allow different groups to work together without (a priori) consensus. Part of the idea is to recognize and allow for the `interpretive flexibility' that is central to much of the `constructivist' approach in the sociology of science. Persistent Identifiers (PIDs) can clearly act as boundary objects, but people do not usually assume that they enable interpretive flexibility. After all, they are meant to be unambiguous, machine-interpretable identifiers of defined artifacts. In this paper, we argue that PIDs can fill at least two roles: 1) That of the standardized form, where there is strong agreement on what is being represented and how and 2) that of the idealized type, a more conceptual concept that allows many different representations. We further argue that these seemingly abstract conceptions actually help us implement PIDs more effectively to link data, publications, various other artifacts, and especially people. Considering PIDs as boundary objects can help us address issues such as what level of granularity is necessary for PIDs, what metadata should be directly associated with PIDs, and what purpose is the PID serving (reference, provenance, credit, etc.). In short, sociological theory can improve data sharing standards and their implementation in a way that enables broad interdisciplinary data sharing and reuse. We will illustrate this with several specific examples of Earth science data.

  13. A European experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willson, D.

    1981-01-01

    The Joint European Torus (JET) is an experiment in nuclear fusion research which was planned as a joint effort between national research laboratories and Euratom. Before approval was given for it to be built it became a political football in the European Communities. This book describes the background against which JET was conceived, designed and planned. It gives a chronological account of the political imbroglio which followed between 1975 and 1978 and indicates how close the project came to collapse at one point. In addition to the two years' delay caused by Ministerial conflicts over its siting, the project suffered many compromises in its financing, its staffing and its organisation. An account is given of the unique structure of the European Communities and its procedures, which shows how idealism constantly faces reality. The role of Euratom is discussed, taking into account the difference between its approach to applications of nuclear fission as opposed to those of nuclear fusion. (author)

  14. Stochastic convergence of persistence landscapes and silhouettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Chazal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Persistent homology is a widely used tool in Topological Data Analysis that encodes multi-scale topological information as a multiset of points in the plane called a persistence diagram. It is difficult to apply statistical theory directly to a random sample of diagrams. Instead, we summarize persistent homology with a persistence landscape, introduced by Bubenik, which converts a diagram into a well-behaved real-valued function. We investigate the statistical properties of landscapes, such as weak convergence of the average landscapes and convergence of the bootstrap. In addition, we introduce an alternate functional summary of persistent homology, which we call the silhouette, and derive an analogous statistical theory.

  15. On persistence interfaces for scientific data stores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malon, D.M.; May, E.N.

    1996-01-01

    A common dilemma among builders of large scientific data stores is whether to use a lightweight object persistence manager or a genuine object-oriented database. There are often good reasons to consider each of these strategies; a few are described in this paper. Too often, however, electing to use a lightweight approach has meant programming to an interface that is entirely different than that expected by commercial object-oriented databases. With the emergence of object database standards, it is possible to provide an interface to persistence managers that does not needlessly inhibit coexistence with (and, perhaps, eventual migration to) object-oriented databases. This paper describes an implementation of a substantial subset of the ODMG-93[1]C++ specification that allows clients to use many of today's lightweight object persistence managers through an interface that conforms to the ODMG standard. We also describe a minimal interface that persistence software should support in order to provide persistence services for ODMG implementations

  16. The Stone Age Plague and Its Persistence in Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrades Valtueña, Aida; Mittnik, Alissa; Key, Felix M; Haak, Wolfgang; Allmäe, Raili; Belinskij, Andrej; Daubaras, Mantas; Feldman, Michal; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Janković, Ivor; Massy, Ken; Novak, Mario; Pfrengle, Saskia; Reinhold, Sabine; Šlaus, Mario; Spyrou, Maria A; Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna; Tõrv, Mari; Hansen, Svend; Bos, Kirsten I; Stockhammer, Philipp W; Herbig, Alexander; Krause, Johannes

    2017-12-04

    Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of plague, is a bacterium associated with wild rodents and their fleas. Historically it was responsible for three pandemics: the Plague of Justinian in the 6 th century AD, which persisted until the 8 th century [1]; the renowned Black Death of the 14 th century [2, 3], with recurrent outbreaks until the 18 th century [4]; and the most recent 19 th century pandemic, in which Y. pestis spread worldwide [5] and became endemic in several regions [6]. The discovery of molecular signatures of Y. pestis in prehistoric Eurasian individuals and two genomes from Southern Siberia suggest that Y. pestis caused some form of disease in humans prior to the first historically documented pandemic [7]. Here, we present six new European Y. pestis genomes spanning the Late Neolithic to the Bronze Age (LNBA; 4,800 to 3,700 calibrated years before present). This time period is characterized by major transformative cultural and social changes that led to cross-European networks of contact and exchange [8, 9]. We show that all known LNBA strains form a single putatively extinct clade in the Y. pestis phylogeny. Interpreting our data within the context of recent ancient human genomic evidence that suggests an increase in human mobility during the LNBA, we propose a possible scenario for the early spread of Y. pestis: the pathogen may have entered Europe from Central Eurasia following an expansion of people from the steppe, persisted within Europe until the mid-Bronze Age, and moved back toward Central Eurasia in parallel with human populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Persistence Characteristics of Australian Rainfall Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Ian; Hope, Pandora

    1997-05-01

    Using 79 years (1913-1991) of Australian monthly precipitation data we examined the nature of the persistence of rainfall anomalies. Analyses were performed for four climate regions covering the country, as well as for the entire Australian continent. We show that rainfall over these regions has high temporal variability and that annual rainfall amounts over all five sectors vary in phase and are, with the exception of the north-west region, significantly correlated with the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). These relationships were particularly strong during the spring season.It is demonstrated that Australian rainfall exhibits statistically significant persistence on monthly, seasonal, and (to a limited extent) annual time-scales, up to lags of 3 months and one season and 1 year. The persistence showed strong seasonal dependence, with each of the five regions showing memory out to 4 or 5 months from winter and spring. Many aspects of climate in the Australasian region are known to have undergone considerable changes about 1950. We show this to be true for persistence also; its characteristics identified for the entire record were present during the 1951--1980 period, but virtually disappeared in the previous 30-year period.Much of the seasonal distribution of rainfall persistence on monthly time-scales, particularly in the east, is due to the influence of the SOI. However, most of the persistence identified in winter and spring in the north-west is independent of the ENSO phenomenon.Rainfall anomalies following extreme dry and wet months, seasons and years (lowest and highest two deciles) persisted more than would be expected by chance. For monthly extreme events this was more marked in the winter semester for the wet events, except in the south-east region. In general, less persistence was found for the extreme seasons. Although the persistence of dry years was less than would have been expected by chance, the wet years appear to display persistence.

  18. European Union, 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Malone Margaret Mary

    2018-01-01

    The year 2017 was eventful for the EU and its member states. Given the widespread Euroscepticism and populism which appeared to be on the rise last year, election results in the Netherlands, France and Germany were greeted with relief and hope for the future. The EU was in an optimistic mood. European Commission President Jean- Claude Juncker used his State of the European Union speech in September to note that the EU had the ‘wind in its sails’ (Juncker, 2017). At the same time, he cautioned...

  19. European immigration a sourcebook

    CERN Document Server

    Triandafyllidou, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Fully updated and containing chapters on the new EU member states and the attempt to form a common EU migration policy, this new edition of European Immigration: A Sourcebook provides a comprehensive overview of the trends and developments in migration in all EU countries. With chapters following a common structure to facilitate direct international comparisons, it not only examines the internal affairs of each member state, but also explores both migratory trends within the EU itself and the implications for European immigration of wider global events, including the Arab Spring and the world financial crisis.

  20. The European Fusion Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palumbo, D.

    1983-01-01

    The European Fusion Programme is coordinated by Euratom and represents a long term cooperative project of Member States of the European Communities in the field of fusion, designed to lead to the joint construction of prototypes. The main lines of the programme proposed for 1982 to 1986 are: (1) the continuation of a strong effort on tokamaks with emphasis on JET construction, operation and upgrading, (2) conceptual design of NET and development of the related technology, and (3) further work on two alternative magnetic confinement systems. The current status and future plans for this programme are discussed in the paper. (author)

  1. European Values and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Theisen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Good Governance, Social Market Economy, Culture and Education are the decisive elements for Human Development. We need a third way between the extremes of the Utopian Global Free Market and a new nationalism. A Social Market Economy and the European Model of a Union could be such third way. For a new Social Market Economy we need a renaissance of the European dialectics between culture and society, idealism and materialism, religion and enlightenment, solidarity and profitability. The balancing of those poles is deeply rooted in our best traditions. 

  2. European countries in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, Celia; Pescia, Dimitri; Ferreira, Francisco; Antunes, Rita; Claustre, Raphael; Priesner, Goerg C.; Pidous, Blandine; Dufour, Manon; Zuloaga, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    From the Atlantic Ocean to the Baltic Sea, from Portugal to Poland through UK, Germany or Austria, energy transition is in progress everywhere in Europe, but at different rhythms and in various conditions from one country to the other. How does the European framework promote the energy transition at the local and regional scales? What advantages the most advanced countries are relying on? How do citizens and local projects take over slow or retrograde governmental policies? This dossier gives some elements of answer through an overview of some energy policy scenarios under implementation in some European countries (Germany, Portugal, Denmark, Austria, UK, Spain)

  3. European Decommissioning Academy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, V. S.; Hornacek, M.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Experiences from the first run of the European Decommissioning Academy (EDA) are reported in details. EDA was created at the Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava Slovakia, based on discussion and expressed needs declared at many international meetings including ECED2013. The first run successfully passed 15 participants during 7–26 June 2015. Academy was focused on decommissioning issues via lessons, practical exercises in laboratories, on-site training prepared at NPP V-1 in Jaslovské Bohunice, Slovakia as well as four day technical tour to other European decommissioning facilities in Switzerland and Italy. Detailed information can be found at http://kome.snus.sk/inpe/. (author

  4. European Network Against Racism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helene Pristed

    This article reviews ENAR’s (European Network Against Racism) history from its inception in 1998 to the present – a development which reflects an increasing need for a professionalised lobby organisation with the ability to respond to Brussels-induced demands. Furthermore, against the backdrop...

  5. European Music Year 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexanderson, Thomas; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Articles concerning music are included in this newsletter dedicated to cultural venture to be jointly carried out by the Council of Europe and the European communities. Many events will mark Music Year 1985, including concerts, dance performances, operas, publications, recordings, festivals, exhibitions, competitions, and conferences on musical…

  6. Gifted European American Woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Margie K.; Perkins, Carol O.

    2000-01-01

    This article describes factors affecting the achievement of 15 highly accomplished European American women in the fields of business, higher education, and law and government. Findings indicate participants tended to attribute their success to external factors while simultaneously employing proactive strategies to overcome potential barriers.…

  7. European Metals Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Vereecken, Jean

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the papers that will be presented at 'EMC '91 '-the European Metals Conference-to be held in Brussels, Belgium, from 15 to 20 September 1991, and organized by Benelux Metallurgie, GDMB (Gesellschaft Deutscher Metallhutten­ und Bergleute) and IMM (the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy). 'EMC '91' is the first of an intended major series organized at the European level with the aim of bringing together all those who are involved with the extraction and processing of non-ferrous metals-European metallurgists and their international colleagues-to provide them with the opportunity to exchange views on the state and evolution of their industry. The programme covers all the different aspects of the metallurgy of non-ferrous metals from mining to fabricated products. Particular attention is being paid to the European non -ferrous industry with respect to changes in demand, the technology used, pressures on the environment and the competitive position of manufacturers. The contributions of the...

  8. Play the European card

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majewski, O.

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Otto Majewski, Chief Executive Officer of the Bayernwerk AG utility, in his capacity as Chairman of the European Nuclear Council pointed out at ENC 98 in Nice that national energy policies constituted a major danger to the use of nuclear power. At the same time, he indicated ways and means by which to evade that danger. The decisions taken in Sweden and in the Federal Republic of Germany to opt out of the use of nuclear power show that national energy policies can seriously jeopardize the use of nuclear power. Bayernwerk CEO Dr. Majewski urged nuclear power plant operators to counteract these tendencies by playing the European card. Nuclear power anyway was a classical topic of European cooperation which, in the past, had resulted in higher safety standards and in the development of the EPR. It should also be attempted, by working on European institutions, to strengthen the use of nuclear power, even on a national level. He invoked economic arguments against nuclear opponents, especially the preservation of competitiveness by means of lower electricity prices, and arguments of climate protection. (orig.) [de

  9. European Respiratory Society statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miravitlles, Marc; Dirksen, Asger; Ferrarotti, Ilaria

    2017-01-01

    lung disease. A large proportion of individuals affected remain undiagnosed and therefore without access to appropriate care and treatment.The most recent international statement on AATD was published by the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society in 2003. Since then there has...

  10. European Integration and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bobica

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available According to many, the term globalization is able to explain any phenomenon whatsoever, be it positive or negative, that takes place within the global social system. It seems like a sort of magical formula, which is to be found in the speeches of all sorts of people, be they economists, politicians, businessmen or sociologists. However this magical formula of globalization has its limitations, since it encompasses a certain amount of quibbling, beyond which not many can pass. In the context of globalization there appears the question on its role in the process of European integration. Is European integration a part of this global process or, quite on the contrary, does it present certain distinctive features, as it moulds itself differently from the globalization phenomenon? A clear-cut answer seems difficult because of the various aspects involved. Not only the general phenomenon of globalization, but also the economic integration on European level is based on the liberalization of markets and on the opening of national economies towards the exterior,having as direct consequence the intensification of trade exchanges. If from a global point of view one may talk of a market fundamentalism in that the market principles know no boundary, European integration on the other hand implies not only market economy, but also a guided and monitored action of Member Statesaccording to the needs of the whole entity, also taking into consideration - as far as possible – all aspects and consequences on social level.

  11. AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regulations governing the production and use of genetically modified organisms have been developed in the United Kingdom since 1976. Regulations covering the release of transgenic organisms into the environment were initially voluntary. Since 1990, the European Economic Commission (EEC) Directive. 90/219 and ...

  12. Laboratory diagnosis of persistent human chlamydial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirja ePuolakkainen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic assays for persistent chlamydial infection are much needed to conduct high-quality, large-scale studies investigating the persistent state in vivo, its disease associations and the response to therapy. Yet in most studies the distinction between acute and persistent infection is based on the interpretation of the data obtained by the assays developed to diagnose acute infections or on complex assays available for research only and/or difficult to establish for clinical use. Novel biomarkers for detection of persistent chlamydial infection are urgently needed. Chlamydial whole genome proteome arrays are now available and they can identify chlamydial antigens that are differentially expressed between acute infection and persistent infection. Utilizing these data will lead to the development of novel diagnostic assays. Carefully selected specimens from well-studied patient populations are clearly needed in the process of translating the proteomic data into assays useful for clinical practice. Before such antigens are identified and validated assays become available, we face a challenge of deciding whether the persistent infection truly induced appearance of the proposed marker or do we just base our diagnosis of persistent infection on the presence of the suggested markers. Consequently, we must bear this in mind when interpreting the available data.

  13. Persistent insomnia is associated with mortality risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Sairam; Vasquez, Monica M; Halonen, Marilyn; Bootzin, Richard; Quan, Stuart F; Martinez, Fernando D; Guerra, Stefano

    2015-03-01

    Insomnia has been associated with mortality risk, but whether this association is different in subjects with persistent vs intermittent insomnia is unclear. Additionally, the role of systemic inflammation in such an association is unknown. We used data from a community-based cohort to determine whether persistent or intermittent insomnia, defined based on persistence of symptoms over a 6-year period, was associated with death during the following 20 years of follow-up. We also determined whether changes in serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels measured over 2 decades between study initiation and insomnia determination were different for the persistent, intermittent, and never insomnia groups. The results were adjusted for confounders such as age, sex, body mass index, smoking, physical activity, alcohol, and sedatives. Of the 1409 adult participants, 249 (18%) had intermittent and 128 (9%) had persistent insomnia. During a 20-year follow-up period, 318 participants died (118 due to cardiopulmonary disease). In adjusted Cox proportional-hazards models, participants with persistent insomnia (adjusted hazards ratio [HR] 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-2.45) but not intermittent insomnia (HR 1.22; 95% CI, 0.86-1.74) were more likely to die than participants without insomnia. Serum CRP levels were higher and increased at a steeper rate in subjects with persistent insomnia as compared with intermittent (P = .04) or never (P = .004) insomnia. Although CRP levels were themselves associated with increased mortality (adjusted HR 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.82; P = .04), adjustment for CRP levels did not notably change the association between persistent insomnia and mortality. In a population-based cohort, persistent, and not intermittent, insomnia was associated with increased risk for all-cause and cardiopulmonary mortality and was associated with a steeper increase in inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The european ALARA network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croueail, P.; Lefaure, C.; Croft, J.

    2000-01-01

    Throughout the 1980s and early 1990s the European Commission sponsored projects on the understanding and practical implementation of the ALARA principle. These projects helped ensure that ALARA was integrated into many organisations radiation protection programmes, particularly in the nuclear industry. However there was still much to be done in the non-nuclear sector, as well as for the management of internal exposure. Therefore, the European Commission decided to set up, as of the first January 1996, a European ALARA Network (EAN) whose main goals are to: Further promote ALARA within non nuclear industry, research and the nuclear cycle; Provide a means for feedback experience and the exchange and dissemination of good radiological protection practices in these areas; Initiate proposals for research projects and workshops on topics dealing with optimisation of radiological protection for all types of occupational exposure. The Network has a Steering Committee of experts from 11 countries, with CEPN being the co-ordinator. Twice yearly, the EAN products for the international community a European ALARA Newsletter that reaches several thousand individuals or institutions, mainly in Europe. Each year since 1997, the EAN has organised an ALARA workshop attended by 60 to 80 experts from about ten countries. The first three Workshops were devoted to: ALARA and Decommissioning (1997, Saclay, France), Good Radiation Practices in Industry and Research (1998, Chilton, United Kingdam), and ALARA and Internal Exposure (1999, Munich, Germany). Each of these Workshops gave rise to sets of recommendations to the European Commission which included proposals for further research, modification of regulations, and actions to support feedback experience within the member states. (author)

  15. European Identity and European Citizenship: the Case of Missing Polis?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šejvl, Michal

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2008), s. 49-56 ISSN 1789-1035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70680506 Keywords : the European integration * law of citizenship * European identity Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  16. Genome Sequencing Identifies Two Nearly Unchanged Strains of Persistent Listeria monocytogenes Isolated at Two Different Fish Processing Plants Sampled 6 Years Apart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holch, Anne; Webb, Kristen; Lukjancenko, Oksana

    2013-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne human-pathogenic bacterium that can cause infections with a high mortality rate. It has a remarkable ability to persist in food processing facilities. Here we report the genome sequences for two L. monocytogenes strains (N53-1 and La111) that were isolated 6...... that has been isolated as a persistent subtype in several European countries. The purpose of this study was to use genome analyses to identify genes or proteins that could contribute to persistence. In a genome comparison, the two persistent strains were extremely similar and collectively differed from...... are required to determine if the absence of these genes promotes persistence. While the genome comparison did not point to a clear physiological explanation of the persistent phenotype, the remarkable similarity between the two strains indicates that subtypes with specific traits are selected for in the food...

  17. European Research Reloaded : Cooperation and Integration Among Europeanized States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhacker, Ron; Haverland, Markus

    2006-01-01

    European integration has had an ever deepening impact on the member states. The first wave of research concerned the process of institution building and policy developments at the European Union (EU) level. The second wave, on Europeanization used the resulting integration as an explanatory factor

  18. Modelling the fate of persistent organic pollutants in Europe: parameterisation of a gridded distribution model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevedouros, Konstantinos; MacLeod, Matthew; Jones, Kevin C.; Sweetman, Andrew J.

    2004-01-01

    A regionally segmented multimedia fate model for the European continent is described together with an illustrative steady-state case study examining the fate of γ-HCH (lindane) based on 1998 emission data. The study builds on the regionally segmented BETR North America model structure and describes the regional segmentation and parameterisation for Europe. The European continent is described by a 5 deg. x 5 deg. grid, leading to 50 regions together with four perimetric boxes representing regions buffering the European environment. Each zone comprises seven compartments including; upper and lower atmosphere, soil, vegetation, fresh water and sediment and coastal water. Inter-regions flows of air and water are described, exploiting information originating from GIS databases and other georeferenced data. The model is primarily designed to describe the fate of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) within the European environment by examining chemical partitioning and degradation in each region, and inter-region transport either under steady-state conditions or fully dynamically. A test case scenario is presented which examines the fate of estimated spatially resolved atmospheric emissions of lindane throughout Europe within the lower atmosphere and surface soil compartments. In accordance with the predominant wind direction in Europe, the model predicts high concentrations close to the major sources as well as towards Central and Northeast regions. Elevated soil concentrations in Scandinavian soils provide further evidence of the potential of increased scavenging by forests and subsequent accumulation by organic-rich terrestrial surfaces. Initial model predictions have revealed a factor of 5-10 underestimation of lindane concentrations in the atmosphere. This is explained by an underestimation of source strength and/or an underestimation of European background levels. The model presented can further be used to predict deposition fluxes and chemical inventories, and it

  19. Performance Persistence of Equity Funds in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Filip

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the phenomenon of performance persistence of equity funds in Hungary in two time perspectives: 1-year and 6-month perspectives. The empirical results confirm the occurrence of performance dependence in consecutive periods. There is also a strong evidence of short-term persistence in the total horizon of the study (from the beginning of 2000 to the end of 2009, and in several sub-periods. The 1-year persistence was also found in the tested sample and, in general, depended on the measure applied. Furthermore, I observed performance reversal, which can be partly explained by trend changes in the financial markets. The persistence of equity funds performance in Hungary is shaped by market factors rather than the diversity of managerial characteristics.

  20. Near-total pancreatectomy for persistent hyperinsulinemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of persistent hypoglycemia in infancy with consequences ... (PHHI) is the most common cause of recurrent and per- sistent hypoglycemia in infancy and childhood. Causes .... a high rate of pancreatic surgery in the neonatal-onset group.

  1. The persistent stereotype: children's images of scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emens McAdam, Janice

    1990-03-01

    Through their reading children learn to regard scientists as eccentrics. It is shown that this stereotype has persisted for over thirty years and affects many adult attitudes. Some methods of breaking the author-reader cycle are suggested.

  2. Principles of European Contract Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole; Beale, Hugh

    This text provides a comprehensive guide to the principles of European contract law. They have been drawn up by an independent body of experts from each Member State of the EU, under a project supported by the European Commission and many other organizations. The principles are stated in the form...... of articles, with a detailed commentary explaining the purpose and operation of each article and its relation to the remainder. Each article also has extensive comparative notes surveying the national laws and other international provisions on the topic. "The Principles of European Contract Law Parts I &...... in developing a common European legal culture. The European Parliament has twice called for the creation of a European Civil Code. The principles of European contract law are essential steps in these projects. This text provides a comprehensive guide to the Principles of European contract law. They have been...

  3. Political dimension of European constitutionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplánová Patricia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Author in the article tries to analyse different elements of document called European Constitution. Analysis is supported with theoretical framework of federalism, presented by Brezovšek. Authors is playing with idea of (confederal and international organization elements of European Constitution and their mix. They are also trying to set some connections between so called common European identity as necessary condition to give legitimacy to the European Constitution. This became important question after „votes of non-confidence“ to the European Constitution in France, despite it should be addressed already before. However, European Constitution is important document on the path of European integration and lack of support to it will slow down this process of widening and deepening European ties.

  4. Persisting nutritional neuropathy amongst former war prisoners.

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, G V; Bell, D R

    1982-01-01

    Of 898 former Far East prisoners of war, assessed between 1968 and 1981, 49 (5.5%) had evidence of persisting symptomatic neurological disease dating back to their periods of malnutrition in captivity. The commonest syndromes were peripheral neuropathy (often of "burning foot" type), optic atrophy, and sensori-neural deafness. Though nutritional neuropathies disappeared soon after release in most ex-Far East prisoners of war, in some they have persisted up to 36 years since exposure to the nu...

  5. Long - Memory Persistence in African Stock Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Numapau Gyamfi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Emerging stock markets are said to become efficient with time. This study seeks to investigate this assertion by analyzing long - memory persistence in 8 African stock markets covering the period from 28 August 2000 to 28 August 2015. The Hurst exponent is used as our efficiency measure which is evaluated by the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA. Our findings show strong evidence of long - memory persistence in the markets studied therefore violating the weak - form Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH.

  6. Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome with Transverse Testicular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastham JA, McEvoy K, Sullivan R, Chandrasoma P. A case of simultaneous bilateral nonseminomatous testicular tumors in persistent müllerian duct syndrome. J Urol 1992;148:407-8. 8. Shinmura Y, Yokoi T, Tsutsui Y. A case of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the müllerian duct in persistent müllerian duct syndrome: The first ...

  7. Hyperthyroidism as a cause of persistent vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogendoorn, E H; Cools, B M

    2004-09-01

    A 32-year-old woman presented with persistent vomiting, epigastric pain and weight loss. A sinus tachycardia was the clue to the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease. On treatment with propylthiouracil and a beta-blocking agent, her symptoms resolved within one day, even though her free thyroxine level was still high. Hyperthyroidism is an uncommon, but previously reported cause of persistent vomiting.

  8. Hyperthyroidism as a cause of persistent vomiting.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogendoorn, E.H.; Cools, B.M.

    2004-01-01

    A 32-year-old woman presented with persistent vomiting, epigastric pain and weight loss. A sinus tachycardia was the clue to the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease. On treatment with propylthiouracil and a beta-blocking agent, her symptoms resolved within one day, even though her free thyroxine level was still high. Hyperthyroidism is an uncommon, but previously reported cause of persistent vomiting.

  9. The European electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The creation of a single European market also will have its effects on the power and electricity sector. Expectations tied to this abandonment of borders on the electricity market are different: some hope for a reduction of energy costs, others fear safeguarded supplies to be at risk. It cannot be fully judged at present what the situation will be on a strongly integrated, European power and electricity market, and the brochure in hand is intended to present a first survey of the situation from the perspective of the power industry and energy policy, concentrating on main aspects. The survey is compiled in the form of reprints of journal articles written on this topic by a number of well-known German experts in the field. (orig./HP) [de

  10. European Nuclear Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, B.; Gonzalez, E.; Diaz Diaz, J.L.; Jimenez, J.L.; Velarde, G.; Navarro, J.M.; Hittner, D.; Dominguez, M.T.; Bollini, G.; Martin, A.; Suarez, J.; Traini, E.; Lang-Lenton, J.

    2004-01-01

    ''European Nuclear Features - ENF'' is a joint publication of the three specialized technical journals, Nuclear Espana (Spain), Revue General Nucleaire (France), and atw - International Journal of Nuclear Power (Germany). The ENF support the international Europeen exchange of information and news about energy and nuclear power. News items, comments, and scientific and technical contributions will cover important aspects of the field. The second issue of ENF contains contributions about theses topics, among others: Institutional and Political Changes in the EU. - CIEMAT Department of Nuclear Fission: A General Overview. - Inertial Fusion Energy at DENIM. - High Temperature Reactors. European Research Programme. - On Site Assistance to Khmelnitsky NPP 1 and 2 (Ukraine). - Dismantling and Decommissioning of Vandellos I. (orig.)

  11. European Union, 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malone Margaret Mary

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The year 2017 was eventful for the EU and its member states. Given the widespread Euroscepticism and populism which appeared to be on the rise last year, election results in the Netherlands, France and Germany were greeted with relief and hope for the future. The EU was in an optimistic mood. European Commission President Jean- Claude Juncker used his State of the European Union speech in September to note that the EU had the ‘wind in its sails’ (Juncker, 2017. At the same time, he cautioned that the fair weather conditions would not last long - there was no room for complacency. The EU had to act to protect, empower and defend its citizens. The EU moved forward on a number of policy fronts in the wake of the Brexit vote and also concluded high-profile international trade deals in an effort to fill the vacuum left by the protectionist policies of the Trump administration.

  12. Do Europeans Like Nudges?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Sunstein, Cass R.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, many governments have shown a keen interest in “nudges” — approaches to law and policy that maintain freedom of choice, but that steer people in certain directions. Yet to date, there has been little evidence on whether citizens of various societies support nudges and nudging. We...... report the results of nationally representative surveys in six European nations: Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, and the United Kingdom. We find strong majority support for nudges of the sort that have been adopted, or under serious consideration, in democratic nations. Despite the general...... European consensus, we find markedly lower levels of support for nudges in two nations: Hungary and Denmark. We are not, in general, able to connect support for nudges with distinct party affiliations....

  13. European nuclear education initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glatz, Jean-Paul

    2011-01-01

    Whatever option regarding their future nuclear energy development is chosen by European Union Member States, the availability of a sufficient number of well trained and experienced staff is key for the responsible use of nuclear energy. This is true in all areas including design, construction, operation, decommissioning, fuel cycle and waste management as well as radiation protection. Given the high average age of existing experts leading to a significant retirement induce a real risk of the loss of nuclear competencies in the coming years. Therefore the demand of hiring skilled employees is rising. The challenge of ensuring a sufficient number of qualified staff in the nuclear sector has been acknowledged widely among the different stakeholders, in particular the nuclear industry, national regulatory authorities and Technical Support Organisations (TSOs). Already the EURATOM Treaty refers explicitly to the obligation for the Commission to carry out training actions. Recently initiatives have been launched at EU level to facilitate and strengthen the efforts of national stakeholders. The European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN) Association aims at preservation and further development of expertise in the nuclear field by higher education and training. The goal of the European Nuclear Energy Leadership Academy (ENELA) is to educate future leaders in the nuclear field to ensure the further development of sustainable European nuclear energy solutions The European Nuclear Energy Forum (ENEF) is a platform operated by the European Commission for a broad discussion on the opportunities and risks of nuclear energy. The nuclear programs under investigation in the Joint Research Center (JRC) are increasingly contributing to Education and Training (E and T) initiatives, promoting a better cooperation between key players and universities as well as operators and regulatory bodies in order to mutually optimise their training programmes. Another objective is to increase

  14. European standards for composite construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, J.W.B.

    2000-01-01

    The European Standards Organisation (CEN) has planned to develop a complete set of harmonized European building standards. This set includes standards for composite steel and concrete buildings and bridges. The Eurocodes, being the design standards, form part of this total system of European

  15. The European Natural Gas Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correlje, A.F.

    The European Union started the introduction of competition in the European market for natural gas. Today, mid-2016, the process of restructuring is still going on. In parallel, important changes in geopolitical, environmental and technological determinants can be observed in the European and global

  16. European Automotive Congress

    CERN Document Server

    Clenci, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The volume includes selected and reviewed papers from the European Automotive Congress held in Bucharest, Romania, in November 2015. Authors are experts from research, industry and universities coming from 14 countries worldwide. The papers are covering the latest developments in fuel economy and environment, automotive safety and comfort, automotive reliability and maintenance, new materials and technologies, traffic and road transport systems, advanced engineering methods and tools, as well as advanced powertrains and hybrid and electric drives.

  17. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...... to form winning coalitions in the Council, the ideological positioning of the co-legislators and the inclusion of the cohesion countries have played a significant role in driving budget change....

  18. Telemedicine and European law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Stefaan

    2003-01-01

    A Directive of the European Union was first published in 2000, which dealt with telemedicine as part of its provisions. This E-Commerce Directive, as it became known, was subjected to further study which revealed some problems relative to the practice of telemedicine. Among the subjects discussed in this paper are those of privacy, data protection, free movement of services, the impact of electronic communication and ethical issues.

  19. European wind turbine catalogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The THERMIE European Community programme is designed to promote the greater use of European technology and this catalogue contributes to the fulfillment of this aim by dissemination of information on 50 wind turbines from 30 manufacturers. These turbines are produced in Europe and are commercially available. The manufacturers presented produce and sell grid-connected turbines which have been officially approved in countries where this approval is acquired, however some of the wind turbines included in the catalogue have not been regarded as fully commercially available at the time of going to print. The entries, which are illustrated by colour photographs, give company profiles, concept descriptions, measured power curves, prices, and information on design and dimension, safety systems, stage of development, special characteristics, annual energy production, and noise pollution. Lists are given of wind turbine manufacturers and agents and of consultants and developers in the wind energy sector. Exchange rates used in the conversion of the prices of wind turbines are also given. Information can be found on the OPET network (organizations recognised by the European Commission as an Organization for the Promotion of Energy Technologies (OPET)). An article describes the development of the wind power industry during the last 10-15 years and another article on certification aims to give an overview of the most well-known and acknowledged type approvals currently issued in Europe. (AB)

  20. European Academy of decommisioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, V.; Hinca, R.

    2014-01-01

    According to analyses presented at EC meeting focused on decommissioning organized at 11.9.2012 in Brussels, it was stated that at least 500 new international experts for decommissioning will be needed in Europe up to 2025, which means about 35 per year.Having in mind the actual EHRO-N report from 2013 focused on operation of nuclear facilities and an assumption that the ratio between nuclear experts, nuclearized and nuclear aware people is comparable also for decommissioning (16:74:10), as well as the fact that the special study branch for decommissioning in the European countries almost does not exist, this European Decommissioning Academy (EDA) could be helpful in the overbridging this gap.For the first run of the EDA scheduled on 2014 we would like to focus on VVER decommissioning issues because this reactor type is the most distributed design in the world and many of these units are actually in decommissioning process or will be decommissioned in the near future in Europe.A graduate of the European Decommissioning Academy (EDA) should have at least bachelor level from technical or natural science Universities or Colleges and at least one year working experiences in the area of NPP decommissioning or nuclear power engineering. This study creates prerequisites for acquiring and completion of professional and specialized knowledge in the subjects which are described. (authors)

  1. European industry outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, G.

    1991-01-01

    Europe's offshore oil and gas industry is estimated to spend around Pound 14bn per year out of a world total of some Pound 43bn, showing that despite its maturity the North West European Continental Shelf remains a dominant segment of the world's offshore business. Especially in the U.K. sector, expenditure is booming and 1991 is expected to be a record year. This activity level is likely to continue into 1992, but there are factors which could limit activity later in the 1990s. This volume lists some 225 undeveloped discoveries and fields under development in the U.K. sector, 80 each in Norway and the Netherlands, and 17 in Denmark. New technologies, particularly subsea separation and multiphase flow will be prominent factors in ensuring that the numerous small oilfields within this inventory of discoveries will eventually achieve commercial development. The effects of likely European Community legislation continue to concern many in the industry, with a more open and regulated purchasing regime for major contracts becoming more certain. A major step has been taken towards open access rights, and if this policy is pursued it could open the European gas industry to a new era of free competition, especially if a U.K.-Continental transmission link were to be realised. The long term implications of the increased share of natural gas in the total energy mix to virtually all companies engaged in offshore activities (and many not so engaged) are likely to be fundamental and far-reaching. (author)

  2. The European Social Survey and European research policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kropp, Kristoffer

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the history of the European Social Survey (ESS) and its relationship to changes in European research policy, using Bourdieu’s field-analytical approach. It argues that the success of the ESS relied on three interwoven processes that we can understand theoretically in terms...... of the establishment of homological structures and the formation of conjunctural alliances between the field of European social-scientific research and the field of European policy. The three interwoven processes that I depict are: first, the production of a European field of social research, connected to both...... European and national scientific institutions; second, the establishment of European Union (EU) institutions and organisations that were able to identify and link up with social researchers; and third, the formation of conjunctural alliances between the two fields (social science and EU research policy...

  3. Persistence of the planetary wave type oscillations in foF2 for four European stations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan; Križan, Peter; Šauli, Petra; Novotná, Dagmar

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 21, - (2003), s. 1543-1552 ISSN 0992-7689 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK3012103; GA ČR GP205/02/P077; GA MŠk OC 271.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : ionosphere ionosphere-atmosphere interaction * mid-latitude ionosphere, ionospheric disturbances) * meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (waves and tides ) Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.031, year: 2003

  4. Persistent multi-scale fluctuations shift European hydroclimate to its millennial boundaries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Markonis, Y.; Hanel, M.; Máca, P.; Kyselý, Jan; Cook, E.R.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 9 (2018), č. článku 1767. ISSN 2041-1723 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : ve zpracování Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Climatic research Impact factor: 12.124, year: 2016 https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-04207-7

  5. Persistent negative effects of pesticides on biodiversity and biological control potential on European farmland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geiger, F.; Bengtsson, J.; Berendse, F.; Weisser, W.W.; Emmerson, M.; Morales, M.B.; Ceryngier, P.; Liira, J.; Tscharntke, T.; Winqvist, C.; Eggers, S.; Bommarco, R.; Pärt, T.; Bretagnolle, V.; Plantegenest, M.; Clement, L.W.; Dennis, C.; Palmer, C.; Oñate, J.J.; Guerrero, I.; Hawro, V.; Aavik, T.; Thies, C.; Flohre, A.; Hänke, S.; Fischer, C.; Goedhart, P.W.; Inchausti, P.

    2010-01-01

    During the last 50 years, agricultural intensification has caused many wild plant and animal species to go extinct regionally or nationally and has profoundly changed the functioning of agro-ecosystems. Agricultural intensification has many components, such as loss of landscape elements, enlarged

  6. Population growth, accessibility spillovers and persistent borders: Historical growth in West-European municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs-Crisioni, Chris; Koomen, Eric

    2017-06-01

    Lack of cross-border transport supply has repeatedly been blamed for the fact that national borders limit spatial interaction and, consequently, the growth of border regions. This study applies an accessibility approach to investigate for most municipalities in ten countries in mainland West Europe if foreign transport supply is lagging behind, and if population growth in these municipalities has been affected by the limits that national borders have imposed on market access. To do so, data describing historical population changes and road networks between 1961 and 2011 have been used. The results show that in the study area, cross-border transport accessibility was not at a disadvantage in 1961 and has since then grown even more than domestic accessibility. However, municipal population growth has depended almost exclusively on domestic market access. Processes of economic international integration in the study area are found to coincide with the growth of cross-border accessibility, but do not have a clear coincidence with the effects of cross-border accessibility on population growth.

  7. Persistence of herpesvirus of eel (Herpesvirus anguillae) in farmed European ell (Anguilla anguilla L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwstadt, van A.P.; Dijkstra, S.G.; Haenen, O.L.M.

    2001-01-01

    Herpesvirus of eel Herpesvirus anguillae (HVA) was isolated repeatedly from farmed eel of an outwardly healthy stock, but virus isolation was much greater in an experimental group of fish that were injected with dexamethasone. The results suggest that HVA can establish a latent infection in eel.

  8. Herbicide Persistence in Seawater Simulation Experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Mercurio

    Full Text Available Herbicides are detected year-round in marine waters, including those of the World Heritage listed Great Barrier Reef (GBR. The few previous studies that have investigated herbicide persistence in seawater generally reported half-lives in the order of months, and several studies were too short to detect significant degradation. Here we investigated the persistence of eight herbicides commonly detected in the GBR or its catchments in standard OECD simulation flask experiments, but with the aim to mimic natural conditions similar to those found on the GBR (i.e., relatively low herbicide concentrations, typical temperatures, light and microbial communities. Very little degradation was recorded over the standard 60 d period (Experiment 1 so a second experiment was extended to 365 d. Half-lives of PSII herbicides ametryn, atrazine, diuron, hexazinone and tebuthiuron were consistently greater than a year, indicating high persistence. The detection of atrazine and diuron metabolites and longer persistence in mercuric chloride-treated seawater confirmed that biodegradation contributed to the breakdown of herbicides. The shortest half-life recorded was 88 d for growth-regulating herbicide 2,4-D at 31°C in the dark, while the fatty acid-inhibitor metolachlor exhibited a minimum half-life of 281 d. The presence of moderate light and elevated temperatures affected the persistence of most of the herbicides; however, the scale and direction of the differences were not predictable and were likely due to changes in microbial community composition. The persistence estimates here represent some of the first appropriate data for application in risk assessments for herbicide exposure in tropical marine systems. The long persistence of herbicides identified in the present study helps explain detection of herbicides in nearshore waters of the GBR year round. Little degradation of these herbicides would be expected during the wet season with runoff and associated

  9. Herbicide Persistence in Seawater Simulation Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Philip; Mueller, Jochen F.; Eaglesham, Geoff; Flores, Florita; Negri, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Herbicides are detected year-round in marine waters, including those of the World Heritage listed Great Barrier Reef (GBR). The few previous studies that have investigated herbicide persistence in seawater generally reported half-lives in the order of months, and several studies were too short to detect significant degradation. Here we investigated the persistence of eight herbicides commonly detected in the GBR or its catchments in standard OECD simulation flask experiments, but with the aim to mimic natural conditions similar to those found on the GBR (i.e., relatively low herbicide concentrations, typical temperatures, light and microbial communities). Very little degradation was recorded over the standard 60 d period (Experiment 1) so a second experiment was extended to 365 d. Half-lives of PSII herbicides ametryn, atrazine, diuron, hexazinone and tebuthiuron were consistently greater than a year, indicating high persistence. The detection of atrazine and diuron metabolites and longer persistence in mercuric chloride-treated seawater confirmed that biodegradation contributed to the breakdown of herbicides. The shortest half-life recorded was 88 d for growth-regulating herbicide 2,4-D at 31°C in the dark, while the fatty acid-inhibitor metolachlor exhibited a minimum half-life of 281 d. The presence of moderate light and elevated temperatures affected the persistence of most of the herbicides; however, the scale and direction of the differences were not predictable and were likely due to changes in microbial community composition. The persistence estimates here represent some of the first appropriate data for application in risk assessments for herbicide exposure in tropical marine systems. The long persistence of herbicides identified in the present study helps explain detection of herbicides in nearshore waters of the GBR year round. Little degradation of these herbicides would be expected during the wet season with runoff and associated flood plumes

  10. Eastern Dimension of the European Neighbourhood Policy: Europeanization Mutual Trap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Latkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the Europeanization policy of the European Union towards the Eastern Partnership participant countries. Suffering from the lack of clear strategy and ultimate goal in the European Neighbourhood Policy the European Union enhances external democratization and its governance in post soviet states without immediate Union's membership perspective. Underestimation of common neighbourhood geopolitical duality in the context of growing rivalry between European (EU and Eurasian (Custom Union/Eurasian Economic Union integration gravitation centers presents the Eastern partners of the EU with a fierce dilemma of externally forced immediate geopolitical and civilizational choice while not all of them are well prepared to such a choice. The mutual Europeanization trap here to be studied both for the EU and its Eastern partners (involving Russia is a deficiency of regulating cooperation mechanism in the situation of European and Eurasian free trades zones overlapping. Vilnius Summit 2013 results test the "European aspirations" of the New Independent States and upset the ongoing process of the European Neighbourhood Policy in the context of growing economic interdependence in Wider Europe. Besides, the Ukrainian crisis escalation during 2014 as a new seat of tension provokes unbalance of the whole European security system and creates new dividing lines in Europe from Vancouver to Vladivostok.

  11. Generating Dynamic Persistence in the Time Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, A.; Smith, L. A.; Smith, L. A.; Kaplan, D. T.

    2001-12-01

    Many dynamical systems present long-range correlations. Physically, these systems vary from biological to economical, including geological or urban systems. Important geophysical candidates for this type of behaviour include weather (or climate) and earthquake sequences. Persistence is characterised by slowly decaying correlation function; that, in theory, never dies out. The Persistence exponent reflects the degree of memory in the system and much effort has been expended creating and analysing methods that successfully estimate this parameter and model data that exhibits persistence. The most widely used methods for generating long correlated time series are not dynamical systems in the time domain, but instead are derived from a given spectral density. Little attention has been drawn to modelling persistence in the time domain. The time domain approach has the advantage that an observation at certain time can be calculated using previous observations which is particularly suitable when investigating the predictability of a long memory process. We will describe two of these methods in the time domain. One is a traditional approach using fractional ARIMA (autoregressive and moving average) models; the second uses a novel approach to extending a given series using random Fourier basis functions. The statistical quality of the two methods is compared, and they are contrasted with weather data which shows, reportedly, persistence. The suitability of this approach both for estimating predictability and for making predictions is discussed.

  12. Persistent agents in Axelrod's social dynamics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reia, Sandro M.; Neves, Ubiraci P. C.

    2016-01-01

    Axelrod's model of social dynamics has been studied under the effect of external media. Here we study the formation of cultural domains in the model by introducing persistent agents. These are agents whose cultural traits are not allowed to change but may be spread through local neighborhood. In the absence of persistent agents, the system is known to present a transition from a monocultural to a multicultural regime at some critical Q (number of traits). Our results reveal a dependence of critical Q on the occupation probability p of persistent agents and we obtain the phase diagram of the model in the (p,Q) -plane. The critical locus is explained by the competition of two opposite forces named here barrier and bonding effects. Such forces are verified to be caused by non-persistent agents which adhere (adherent agents) to the set of traits of persistent ones. The adherence (concentration of adherent agents) as a function of p is found to decay for constant Q. Furthermore, adherence as a function of Q is found to decay as a power law with constant p.

  13. WHO European review of social determinants of health and the health divide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marmot, Michael; Allen, Jessica; Bell, Ruth; Bloomer, Ellen; Goldblatt, Peter; Casanovas, Guillem Lopez; Ferge, Zsuzsa; Kickbusch, Ilona; Mackenbach, Johan; Meimanaliev, Tilek; Sen, Amartya; Starodubov, Vladimir; Turmen, Tomris; Vagero, Denny; Whitehead, Margaret; Tsouros, Agis; Huebel, Michael; Dyson, Alan; Eisenstadt, Naomi; Siegrist, Johannes; Popay, Jennie; Lundeberg, Olle; Coote, Anna; Kopp, Maria; Grundy, Emily; Galea, Gauden; Zatonski, Witold; Suhrcke, Marc; Cookson, Richard; Burns, Harry; Ziglio, Erio; Labonte, Ronald; Stronks, Karien; Bobak, Martin; Stein, Claudia; Allen, Matilda; Hanefeld, Johanna; Ostlin, Piroska; Nihlen, Asa; Brown, Chris; Yordi, Isabel; Simpson, Sarah; Alderslade, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The European region has seen remarkable heath gains in those populations that have experienced progressive improvements in the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, and work. However, inequities, both between and within countries, persist. The review reported here, of inequities in health

  14. The European populist challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Stavrakakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s Europe, the word ‘populism’ usually refers to right-wing populism or the populist extreme right. Is, however, the concept of ‘populism’ the proper theoreticopolitical instrument through which such identifications should be perceived, categorized and debated? What are the implications (direct and indirect of such a naming? And what are the risks for critical analysis and for democratic politics in the European context? The hypothesis explored in this essay is that sticking to a restrictive association between ‘populism’ and the extreme right poses certain dangers that have to be seriously taken into account, especially in times of crisis. For a start, it is often premised on a rather simplistic euro-centrism that reduces the broad conceptual spectrum covered by the category ‘populism’ in its global use to a very particular European experience and then essentializes the resulting association, over-extending its scope. In addition, the category ‘populism’ is aften used to describe political forces, identities and discourses in which the role of ‘the people’ is only secondary or peripheral, to the extent that it has to coincide with strongly hierarchical and elitist visions of society. What complicates things even further is that, within the context of the European (economic and political crisis, whoever questions/ resists the austerity agenda – especially on the left – is increasingly discredited and denounced as an irresponsible populist. Indeed, it is not by coincidence that doubts are increasingly voiced both in the theoretical and in the political literature regarding the rationale behind such a strong association between populism and the extreme right. A series of points will thus be raised that may help us develop a plausible theoretico-political strategy in the new emerging conditions from a discursive perspective.*

  15. Nordic paradox, Southern miracle, Eastern disaster: persistence of inequalities in mortality in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenbach, Johan P

    2017-10-01

    The persistence of socioeconomic inequalities in health, despite all that has been done to reduce social and economic inequalities in many European countries, is one of the great disappointments of public health. In this paper, I summarize the results of a series of studies into the explanation of variations and trends in inequalities in mortality in three European regions: the Nordic countries with their puzzlingly large inequalities in mortality, Southern European countries with their miraculously small inequalities in mortality and Central & Eastern European countries in which inequalities in mortality have disastrously exploded since the early 1990 s. The results of these studies show that inequalities in mortality are remarkably variable and dynamic, which suggests that it may be possible to reduce them if we exploit the entry-points for policy that these studies have also identified, such as poverty, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption and lack of access to health care. At the same time, another lesson is that health inequalities are influenced in sometimes unexpected ways by factors that are not under our control, and that we cannot expect to eliminate these health inequalities soon. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  16. The European Logarithmic Microprocessor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Coleman, J. N.; Softley, C. I.; Kadlec, Jiří; Matoušek, R.; Tichý, Milan; Pohl, Zdeněk; Heřmánek, Antonín; Benschop, N. F.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2008), s. 532-546 ISSN 0018-9340 Grant - others:Evropská komise(BE) ESPRIT 33544 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : Processor architecture * arithmetic unit * logarithmic arithmetic Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software Impact factor: 2.611, year: 2008 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/ZS/kadlec-the%20european%20logarithmic%20microprocessor.pdf

  17. Discussion: European Commission policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coldwell, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper documents the debate which arose following two papers presented to a seminar run by the Centre for the Study of Regulated Industries, on 11th November 1992, on European Commission (EC) energy policies. The issues raised cover how an internal market for electricity and natural gas will be implemented under a proposed EC directive, bearing in mind the level of opposition from a number of Member States. How this Directive will apply to vertically integrated structures, such as Scottish Electricity Industry, is also considered. (UK)

  18. European Corporate Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorresteijn, Adriaan; Teichmann, Christoph; Werlauff, Erik

    , and the United Kingdom are taken into account; Italy is now included in this new edition. As in earlier editions, the authors demonstrate that analysis and comparison of national corporate laws yield highly valuable general principles and observations, not least because business organizations, wherever located...... initiatives in such aspects of the corporate environment as regulation of financial institutions and non-financial reporting obligations with a view to sustainability and other social responsibility concerns. The authors, all leading experts in European corporate law, describe current and emerging trends...

  19. Cooperative strategies European perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Killing, J Peter

    1997-01-01

    Cooperative Strategies: European Perspectives is one of three geographically targeted volumes in which the contributors present the most current research on topics such as advances in theories of cooperative strategies, the formation of cooperative alliances, the dynamics of partner relationships, and the role of information and knowledge in cooperative alliances. Blending conceptual insights with empirical analyses, the contributors highlight commonalities and differences across national, cultural, and trade zones. The chapters in this volume are anchored in a wide set of theoretical approaches, conceptual frameworks, and models, illustrating how rich the area of cooperative strategies is for scholarly inquiry.

  20. European Union of Memories?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Anne

    After a very brief introduction to history and memory in Europe after 1989, as seen by Aleida Assmann, I will give a short introduction to the EP and to their adoption of resolutions and declarations. Then I will define some concepts central to my study before I proceed to the analysis. Finally I...... these changes have come about. Moreover, I show that there seems to be a political memory split between Left and Right and I suggest that the time might not be ripe for a shared European memory....

  1. The European Community context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charrault, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    The chapter discusses the following: energy resources and energy policy within the European Community; political aspects in the Member States; Community involvement in the transport of radioactive materials; responsibility for safety in relation to transport lies with the governments of the Member States, but the Community through its various organizations also has certain responsibilities, e.g. to ensure that transport regulations are harmonised, to carry out safeguards checks, to provide standards for health and safety of workers and the public, and to cooperate with Member States in developing guidelines for transport safety. (U.K.)

  2. Addressing unmet needs in understanding asthma mechanisms: From the European Asthma Research and Innovation Partnership (EARIP) Work Package (WP)2 collaborators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edwards, Michael R.; Saglani, Sejal; Schwarze, Jurgen; Skevaki, Chrysanthi; Smith, Jaclyn A.; Ainsworth, Ben; Almond, Mark; Andreakos, Evangelos; Belvisi, Maria G.; Chung, Kian Fan; Cookson, William; Cullinan, Paul; Hawrylowicz, Catherine; Lommatzsch, Marek; Jackson, David; Lutter, Rene; Marsland, Benjamin; Moffatt, Miriam; Thomas, Mike; Virchow, J. Christian; Xanthou, Georgina; Edwards, Jessica; Walker, Samantha; Johnston, Sebastian L.

    2017-01-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous, complex disease with clinical phenotypes that incorporate persistent symptoms and acute exacerbations. It affects many millions of Europeans throughout their education and working lives and puts a heavy cost on European productivity. There is a wide spectrum of disease

  3. How campaigns enhance European issues voting during European Parliament elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek; Møller Hansen, Kasper; Larsen, Martin Vinæs

    2017-01-01

    Based on findings from the literature on campaign effects on the one hand, and the literature on European Parliament elections on the other, we propose a model of European Parliamentary elections in which the campaign shift the calculus of electoral support, making differences in national political...... allegiances less important and attitudes about the European project more important by informing voters of and getting them interested in European politics. In effect, we argue that the political campaign leading up to the election makes European Parliament elections less second-order. While previous studies...... have demonstrated that EU attitudes can matter for voting behavior in European Parliament elections, existing research has drawn on post-election surveys that do not enable us to capture campaign effects. Our contribution is to assess the impact of a campaign by utilizing a rolling cross sectional...

  4. The European Hematology Association Roadmap for European Hematology Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engert, Andreas; Balduini, Carlo; Brand, Anneke

    2016-01-01

    The European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European hematology...... research. Initiated by the EHA, around 300 experts contributed to the consensus document, which will help European policy makers, research funders, research organizations, researchers, and patient groups make better informed decisions on hematology research. It also aims to raise public awareness...... of the burden of blood disorders on European society, which purely in economic terms is estimated at €23 billion per year, a level of cost that is not matched in current European hematology research funding. In recent decades, hematology research has improved our fundamental understanding of the biology...

  5. The Economy of Persistence: Mario the Tailor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudence Black

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mario Conte has had a tailor shop in King Street, Newtown since the mid 1960s. Taking an interview with Mario as its point of departure, this article describes the persistence of a skilled worker whose practices and techniques remain the same in a world that has long changed. While inattentive to what rules might be used to decorate a shop window, Mario continues to make and sew in the way that he learnt in post-war Italy. Mario’s persistence could be described as all the skills and other elements that need to be in place to keep him working, in particular the tradition of tailoring techniques he has remained true to over the last fifty years. The hand stitching of his tailoring is like a metronome of that persistence.

  6. Understanding mild persistent asthma in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Szefler, Stanley J

    2005-01-01

    Limitations in asthma prevalence studies and difficulties in diagnosing pediatric asthma lead to uncertainty over the full extent of mild persistent asthma in children and adolescents. Although recent surveys have reported that the majority of pediatric patients with asthma in the United States...... and Europe have symptoms consistent with mild disease, these surveys have limitations in design. Thus, the true prevalence of mild asthma remains unknown. It is unclear whether children with mild persistent asthma progress to more severe asthma, but the risk of severe asthma exacerbations seems...... to be unrelated to the symptom severity. Clinical studies restricted to pediatric patients with mild asthma are limited, but available data do suggest substantial morbidity of mild persistent asthma in this population and support inhaled corticosteroid intervention. There is a need for further investigation...

  7. International perspectives on retention and persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Burkholder

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Access to higher education globally is increasing dramatically; attainment of tertiary degrees is a high priority, as educational attainment is associated with increased personal incomes as well as growth of the middle class in developing countries. The purpose of this essay is to briefly examine retention and persistence issues from a global perspective, review some retention strategies that have been employed at schools outside the United States, and to identify several key factors that related to retention and persistence globally, including access, infrastructure, financial consideration, and readiness for tertiary education.  There exists an opportunity to utilize knowledge gained in the evolution of the higher education system in the United States to help address the problems associated with retention and persistence.   DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v4i2.208

  8. Persistent toxic substances: sources, fates and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ming H; Armour, Margaret-Ann; Naidu, Ravi; Man, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Persistent toxic substances (PTS) include the Stockholm persistent organic pollutants, like dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxin/furan, etc., and organometallic compounds, like organomercury, organotin, and organolead, which all share the same characteristics of being persistent, toxic, bioaccumulative, and able to travel long distances through different media. The adverse health effects of some of the emerging chemicals like pentabromodiphenyl ether, bisphenol A, and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, which are widely used in daily appliances (e.g., TVs, computers, mobile phones, plastic baby bottles), have become a public health concern due to more evidence now available showing their adverse effects like disturbance of the endocrine system and cancer. This article is an attempt to review the current status of PTS in our environment, citing case studies in China and North America, and whether our existing drinking water treatment and wastewater treatment processes are adequate in removing them from water. Some management issues of these emerging chemicals of concern are also discussed.

  9. Modeling Real Exchange Rate Persistence in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Salazar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The long and persistent swings in the real exchange rate have for a long time puzzled economists. Recent models built on imperfect knowledge economics seem to provide a theoretical explanation for this persistence. Empirical results, based on a cointegrated vector autoregressive (CVAR model, provide evidence of error-increasing behavior in prices and interest rates, which is consistent with the persistence observed in the data. The movements in the real exchange rate are compensated by movements in the interest rate spread, which restores the equilibrium in the product market when the real exchange rate moves away from its long-run benchmark value. Fluctuations in the copper price also explain the deviations of the real exchange rate from its long-run equilibrium value.

  10. Persisting nutritional neuropathy amongst former war prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, G V; Bell, D R

    1982-01-01

    Of 898 former Far East prisoners of war, assessed between 1968 and 1981, 49 (5.5%) had evidence of persisting symptomatic neurological disease dating back to their periods of malnutrition in captivity. The commonest syndromes were peripheral neuropathy (often of "burning foot" type), optic atrophy, and sensori-neural deafness. Though nutritional neuropathies disappeared soon after release in most ex-Far East prisoners of war, in some they have persisted up to 36 years since exposure to the nutritional insult. PMID:6292369

  11. PERSISTENCY ANALYSIS OF PARTICIPANTS OF PENSION PLANS

    OpenAIRE

    ROBERTA DE SOUZA CHUN

    2007-01-01

    O tema central deste trabalho é apresentar modelos de persistência. As probabilidades de persistência na carteira de um produto de determinada empresa de seguros e previdência serão estudadas de forma agregada, de tal forma que se torna possível a elaboração de outros estudos, como por exemplo, de análise de lucratividade, mesmo com poucos dados, o que inviabiliza a elaboração de tábuas de múltiplos decrementos. Serão avaliadas as possíveis causas de saí...

  12. Amnestically Induced Persistence in Random Walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressoni, J. C.; da Silva, Marco Antonio Alves; Viswanathan, G. M.

    2007-02-01

    We study how the Hurst exponent α depends on the fraction f of the total time t remembered by non-Markovian random walkers that recall only the distant past. We find that otherwise nonpersistent random walkers switch to persistent behavior when inflicted with significant memory loss. Such memory losses induce the probability density function of the walker’s position to undergo a transition from Gaussian to non-Gaussian. We interpret these findings of persistence in terms of a breakdown of self-regulation mechanisms and discuss their possible relevance to some of the burdensome behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias.

  13. The Persistence of Long Work Hours

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Drago; David Black; Mark Wooden

    2005-01-01

    Previous research hypothesizes that long working hours are related to consumerism, the ideal worker norm, high levels of human capital, and a high cost-of-job-loss. The authors test these hypotheses using panel data on working hours for an Australian sample of full-time employed workers. Analyses include a static cross-sectional model and a persistence model for long hours over time. The results suggest that long hours (50 or more hours in a usual week) are often persistent, and provide stron...

  14. European innovation and technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    The promotion of technological innovation by European national governments and the EC in pursuit of both increased recovery and the anchoring of technology in supply, manufacturing and service sector companies has been a feature of the strategic involvement by European states in exploration and production research and development. This paper summaries past trends in this activity and reviews the targets for future industry innovation which will enable European (primarily the North Sea) production to be sustained for a further generation

  15. Political Psychology of European Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The...

  16. Prevalence and persistence of masked hypertension in treated hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verberk, Willem J; Thien, Theo; Kroon, Abraham A; Lenders, Jacques W M; van Montfrans, Gert A; Smit, Andries J; de Leeuw, Peter W

    2007-12-01

    Masked hypertension (MH) is defined as a normal blood pressure in the physician's office and an elevated blood pressure when measured out-of-office. The cause of MH may be termed the masked hypertension effect (MHE), and is not restricted to blood-pressure (BP) values around the thresholds for normal BP. We investigated the prevalence and persistence of MH and MHE in patients who were being treated for high BP and who had been followed for a period of 1 year. One hundred and sixty-one treated hypertensive patients underwent office blood-pressure measurements (OBPMs) at seven visits and self-performed blood-pressure measurements (SBPMs) for 1 week before each visit over a period of 1 year. All measurements were performed with the same type of automatic device. At each visit, MH was determined according to the European Society of Hypertension definition (OBPM, /=135 mm Hg or 85 mm Hg). In addition, we determined prevalences of MHE at 5/3 mm Hg (SBPM exceeds OBPM by 5 mm Hg systolic and 3 mm Hg diastolic), and MHE at 10/6 mm Hg (SBPM exceeds OBPM by 10 mm Hg systolic and 6 mm Hg diastolic), respectively. During the entire study, 50% of the patients had MH, and 40% had MHE at 5/3 mm Hg at least once. At four sequential OBPM visits, 2% consistently had MH, and 3% had MHE at 5/3 mm Hg or MHE at 10/6 mm Hg. The prevalence of MH increased with lower OBPM levels but remained rather constant for MHE at 5/3 mm Hg and MHE at 10/6 mm Hg. The persistence of MH and the MHE over time in individual patients was low. We conclude that MH and MHE at 5/3 mm Hg and MHE at 10/6 mm Hg commonly occur in treated patients, but are not persistent phenomena and probably result from an accidentally low OBPM value on one particular occasion.

  17. Using Benchmarking To Strengthen the Assessment of Persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Michael S; Zou, Hongyan; Gouin, Todd

    2017-01-03

    Chemical persistence is a key property for assessing chemical risk and chemical hazard. Current methods for evaluating persistence are based on laboratory tests. The relationship between the laboratory based estimates and persistence in the environment is often unclear, in which case the current methods for evaluating persistence can be questioned. Chemical benchmarking opens new possibilities to measure persistence in the field. In this paper we explore how the benchmarking approach can be applied in both the laboratory and the field to deepen our understanding of chemical persistence in the environment and create a firmer scientific basis for laboratory to field extrapolation of persistence test results.

  18. Nuclear power: European report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, nuclear power plants were operated and/or built in eighteen European countries. Thirteen of these countries are members of EU-25. Five of the ten countries joining the European Union on May 1, 2004 operate nuclear power stations. A total of 206 power reactors with a gross power of 181,941 MWe and a net power of 172,699 MWe were in operation at the end of the year. In 2004, one nuclear power plant was commissioned in Russia (Kalinin 3), two (Kmelnitzki 2 and Rowno 4) in Ukraine. Five nuclear power plants were decommissioned in Europe in the course of 2004. As announced in 2000, the Chapelcross 1 to Chapelcross 4 plants in Britain were shut down for economic reasons. In Lithuania, the Ignalina 1 unit was disconnected from the power grid, as had been demanded by the EU Commission within the framework of the negotiations about the country's accession to the EU. As a result of ongoing technical optimization in some plants, involving increases in reactor power or generator power as well as commissioning of plants of higher capacity, nuclear generating capacity increased by approx. 1.5 GW. In late 2004, four nuclear generating units were under construction in Finland (1), Romania (1), and Russia (2). 150 nuclear power plants were operated in thirteen states of the European Union (EU-25), which is sixteen more than the year before as a consequence of the accession of new countries. They had an aggregate gross power of 137,943 MWe and a net power of 131,267 MWe, generating approx. 983 billion gross kWh of electricity in 2003, thus again contributing some 32% to the public electricity supply in the EU-25. In largest share of nuclear power in electricity generation is found in Lithuania (80%), followed by 78% in France, 57% in the Slovak Republic, 56% in Belgium, and 46% in Ukraine. In several countries not operating nuclear power plants of their own, such as Italy, Portugal, and Austria, nuclear power makes considerable contributions to public electricity supply as

  19. The Europeanization of National Judiciaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaremba, Urszula; Mayoral, Juan A.

    2018-01-01

    judiciaries is still somewhat scattered and fragmented. The central ambition of this article is to provide a theoretical framework that would contribute to the understanding of Europeanization of judiciaries by: 1) offering a definition and theoretical developments useful for the study Europeanization and its......The article is underpinned by the idea that the national courts/judges are expected to act as decentralized European Union judges. However, the general knowledge concerning the impact of EU law on the functioning of national courts as EU judges and the process of Europeanization of national...

  20. Nuclear energy: the European way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The dossier published in this issue deals with the present and future situation of nuclear energy in Europe. What could be the trends of the nuclear development in the Europe of tomorrows. That global question is answered by pointing out the different data related to the present state of european nuclear programmes. Such an overview is followed by a serie of articles dealing with definite items: the actions implemented by the European Communities Commission: the electricity market and EDF policy in the field of european electric grids; the trends of nuclear cycle industry and the perfecting of the future european nuclear reactor

  1. The European Photovoltaic Technology Platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, S.; Aulich, H.; Bal, J.L.; Dimmler, B.; Garnier, A.; Jongerden, G.; Luther, J.; Luque, A.; Milner, A.; Nelson, D.; Pataki, I.; Pearsall, N.; Perezagua, E.; Pietruszko, S.; Rehak, J.; Schellekens, E.; Shanker, A.; Silvestrini, G.; Sinke, W.; Willemsen, H.

    2006-05-01

    The European Photovoltaic Technology Platform is one of the European Technology Platforms, a new instrument proposed by the European Commission. European Technology Platforms (ETPs) are a mechanism to bring together all interested stakeholders to develop a long-term vision to address a specific challenge, create a coherent, dynamic strategy to achieve that vision and steer the implementation of an action plan to deliver agreed programmes of activities and optimise the benefits for all parties. The European Photovoltaic Technology Platform has recently been established to define, support and accompany the implementation of a coherent and comprehensive strategic plan for photovoltaics. The platform will mobilise all stakeholders sharing a long-term European vision for PV, helping to ensure that Europe maintains and improves its industrial position. The platform will realise a European Strategic Research Agenda for PV for the next decade(s). Guided by a Steering Committee of 20 high level decision-makers representing all relevant European PV Stakeholders, the European PV Technology Platform comprises 4 Working Groups dealing with the subjects policy and instruments; market deployment; science, technology and applications as well as developing countries and is supported by a secretariat

  2. The Enigmatic Persistence of Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, B. Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Objective In this review, based on recent advances in cognitive neuroscience, the author presents a formulation in which the marked persistence of anorexia nervosa can be usefully understood as a well-ingrained maladaptive habit. Method The author reviewed the relevant literature on the development and course of anorexia nervosa and interpreted critical features in light of developments in cognitive neuroscience. Results Anorexia nervosa is a well characterized disorder with remarkable persistence both across history and among affected individuals. Food restriction, the salient behavioral feature of the disorder, often begins innocently but gradually takes on a life of its own. Over time, it becomes highly entrenched and resistant to change through either psychological or pharmacological treatment. Cognitive neuroscience has described two related but distinct processes that underlie the acquisition of new patterns of behavior, namely, action-outcome and stimulus-response learning. It is likely that both processes are engaged in the development of anorexia nervosa and that stimulus-response learning (that is, habit formation) is critical to the persistence of the dieting behavior. Conclusions The formulation of the dieting behavior characteristic of anorexia nervosa as a well-entrenched habit provides a basis for understanding the striking persistence of this disorder. This model helps explain the resistance of anorexia nervosa to interventions that have established efficacy in related disorders and implies that addressing the dieting behavior is critical, especially early in the course of the illness, before it has become ingrained. PMID:23429750

  3. Nitrogen uptake dynamics of a persistent cyanobacterium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worldwide, persistent cyanobacterial blooms are becoming more frequent and are often associated with effects of global climate change. In June 2009, a widespread bloom of the unicellular cyanobacterium, Cyanothece sp., appeared in North Lake and False Bay of Lake St Lucia – a large (360 km2) estuarine lake system ...

  4. Persistent Functional Languages: Toward Functional Relational Databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wevers, L.

    2014-01-01

    Functional languages provide new approaches to concurrency control, based on techniques such as lazy evaluation and memoization. We have designed and implemented a persistent functional language based on these ideas, which we plan to use for the implementation of a relational database system. With

  5. Persistent pain after mastectomy with reconstruction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hickey, Oonagh T

    2011-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of persistent postsurgical pain (PPSP) and its influence on functional status, and to examine associations between PPSP and single nucleotide polymorphisms of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene and the guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH1) gene following mastectomy and reconstruction.

  6. Persistent ovarian masses and pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, William A; Rincon, Monica; Bohrer, Justin; Tolosa, Jorge E; Sohaey, Roya; Riaño, Rene; Davis, James; Zalud, Ivica

    2013-07-01

    To determine if persistent ovarian masses in pregnancy are associated with increased adverse outcomes. This is a retrospective cohort of 126 pregnant women with a persistent ovarian mass measuring 5 cm or greater who delivered at two university hospitals between 2001 and 2009. Maternal outcomes included gestational age (GA) at diagnosis, delivery and surgery as well as miscarriage, preterm birth (PTB), ovarian torsion and hospital admission for pain. Neonatal outcomes included birth weight, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), intra-ventricular hemorrhage (IVH), death and sepsis. A total of 1225 ovarian masses were identified (4.9%) in 24,868 patients. A persistent ovarian mass was found in 0.7%. Average GA at diagnosis was 17.8 weeks. Miscarriage rate was 3.3%. Average GA at delivery was 37.9 weeks. Of the patients, 8.5% had ovarian torsion, 10.3% had admission for pain and 9.3% had PTBs. The mean cesarean delivery rate was 46.3%. The average neonatal weight was 3273 g. There was one neonatal death in this cohort. The rate of RDS was 2.8%, IVH 0.9% and neonatal sepsis 1.9%. The most common surgical pathologic diagnosis was dermoids (37.6%). No overt malignancies were seen. A persistent ovarian mass in pregnancy does not confer an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  7. Persistence of Change: Fume Hood Campaign Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, Elah; Robinson, Jennifer; Wakefield, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Sustainability initiatives typically operate for a limited time period, but it is often unclear whether they have lasting effects. The purpose of this paper is to examine a laboratory fume hood campaign, in order to identify factors that might contribute or detract from long-term change persistence. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  8. Treatment of persistent pain from torture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Amanda C de C; Amris, Kirstine

    2017-01-01

    the nature of persistent pain means that pain is largely overlooked and untreated in torture survivors. We carried out a systematic review on treatments for pain from torture, but found few studies and little use of current understanding and evidence. We discuss this in the context of treating pain...

  9. Reserve design to maximize species persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Haight; Laurel E. Travis

    2008-01-01

    We develop a reserve design strategy to maximize the probability of species persistence predicted by a stochastic, individual-based, metapopulation model. Because the population model does not fit exact optimization procedures, our strategy involves deriving promising solutions from theory, obtaining promising solutions from a simulation optimization heuristic, and...

  10. Retrospective review of neonates with persistent pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is a clinical condition characterised by severe respiratory failure and hypoxaemia.[1] Its incidence is estimated at around 2 per 1 000 live births worldwide and it is associated with a high morbidity and mortality.[2,3] Despite the progress in treating PPHN, it remains a.

  11. A Neonate with persistent hypoglycemia and seizures.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBY

    disorder was diagnosed and managed with limited success as the episodes hydroglycemic seizures persisted. ... the presence of hyperinsulinemia as the cause of the hypoglycemic dependent seizures. Case Presentation. A three day old girl was admitted to the neonatal .... the Prader-Willi syndrome, has been reported.

  12. Persistent Pain and Sensory Abnormalities after Abdominoplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Presman, Benjamin; Finnerup, Kenneth; Andresen, Sven Robert

    2015-01-01

    and characteristics of persistent pain after abdominoplasty, which is one of the most frequent cosmetic surgical procedures. METHODS: In September 2014, a link to a web-based questionnaire was mailed to 217 patients who had undergone abdominoplasty between 2006 and 2014 at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Aalborg...

  13. The Myth of Persistence of Vision Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joseph; Anderson, Barbara

    1993-01-01

    Argues that "persistence of vision" myth (the succession of still images perceived as continuous motion) has a place in the history of film scholarship but can no longer be given currency in film theory. Suggests replacement of the concept of the passive viewer implied by the myth by an enlightened understanding of how viewers actually…

  14. Forecasting autoregressive time series under changing persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Robinson

    Changing persistence in time series models means that a structural change from nonstationarity to stationarity or vice versa occurs over time. Such a change has important implications for forecasting, as negligence may lead to inaccurate model predictions. This paper derives generally applicable...

  15. Persistence Modeling for Assessing Marketing Strategy Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik); D.M. Hanssens (Dominique)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe question of long-run market response lies at the heart of any marketing strategy that tries to create a sustainable competitive advantage for the firm or brand. A key challenge, however, is that only short-run results of marketing actions are readily observable. Persistence modeling

  16. Persistent trophoblast disease following partial molar pregnancy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielsma, S.; Kerkmeijer, L.G.W.; Bekkers, R.L.M.; Pyman, J.; Tan, J.; Quinn, M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) follow-up data were analysed retrospectively in all patients registered in the Hydatidiform Mole Registry at the Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne from January 1992 to January 2001 to determine the risk of persistent trophoblast disease following

  17. Intermediates, Catalysts, Persistence, and Boundary Steady States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcondes de Freitas, Michael; Feliu, Elisenda; Wiuf, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    networks without breaking known necessary or sufficient conditions for persistence, by iteratively removing socalled intermediates and catalysts from the network. The procedures are easy to apply and, in many cases, lead to highly simplified network structures, such as monomolecular networks. For specific...

  18. Hyperthyroidism as a cause of persistent vomiting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, E.H.; Cools, B.M.

    2004-01-01

    A 32-year-old woman presented with persistent vomiting, epigastric pain and weight loss. A sinus tachycardia was the clue to the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease. On treatment with propylthiouracil and a beta-blocking agent, her symptoms resolved within one day, even though her

  19. Ethnic Differences in Persistence with COPD Medications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yusun; Cantarero-Arévalo, Lourdes; Frølich, Anne

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-acting bronchodilators (LABDs) are recommended as a first-line maintenance therapy in patients with moderate or severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of the study was to explore potential ethnic differences in persistence with LABD in COPD patients. METHODS...

  20. Novel protocol for persister cells isolation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia J Cañas-Duarte

    Full Text Available Bacterial persistence, where a fraction of a population presents a transient resistance to bactericidal substances, has great medical importance due to its relation with the appearance of antibiotic resistances and untreatable bacterial chronic infections. The mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain largely unknown in spite of recent advances, in great part because of the difficulty in isolating the very small fraction of the population that is in this state at any given time. Current protocols for persister isolation have resulted in possible biases because of the induction of this state by the protocol itself. Here we present a novel protocol that allows rapid isolation of persister cells both from exponential and stationary phase. Moreover, it is capable of differentiating between type I and type II persister cells, which should allow the field to move beyond its current state of studying only one type. While this protocol prompts a revision of many of the current results, it should greatly facilitate further advances in the field.

  1. Persistence of Value-Driven Attentional Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian A.; Yantis, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Stimuli that have previously been associated with the delivery of reward involuntarily capture attention when presented as unrewarded and task-irrelevant distractors in a subsequent visual search task. It is unknown how long such effects of reward learning on attention persist. One possibility is that value-driven attentional biases are plastic…

  2. Retrospective review of neonates with persistent pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is a clinical syndrome characterised by high pulmonary pressures, low systemic pressures and severe hypoxaemia due to circulation transition failure after birth. Objective. To determine the incidence of and describe the risk factors, infant ...

  3. Judgment of facial expressions and depression persistence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hale, WW

    1998-01-01

    In research it has been demonstrated that cognitive and interpersonal processes play significant roles in depression development and persistence. The judgment of emotions displayed in facial expressions by depressed patients allows for a better understanding of these processes. In this study, 48

  4. Persistence of environmental DNA in freshwater ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Dejean

    Full Text Available The precise knowledge of species distribution is a key step in conservation biology. However, species detection can be extremely difficult in many environments, specific life stages and in populations at very low density. The aim of this study was to improve the knowledge on DNA persistence in water in order to confirm the presence of the focus species in freshwater ecosystems. Aquatic vertebrates (fish: Siberian sturgeon and amphibian: Bullfrog tadpoles were used as target species. In control conditions (tanks and in the field (ponds, the DNA detectability decreases with time after the removal of the species source of DNA. DNA was detectable for less than one month in both conditions. The density of individuals also influences the dynamics of DNA detectability in water samples. The dynamics of detectability reflects the persistence of DNA fragments in freshwater ecosystems. The short time persistence of detectable amounts of DNA opens perspectives in conservation biology, by allowing access to the presence or absence of species e.g. rare, secretive, potentially invasive, or at low density. This knowledge of DNA persistence will greatly influence planning of biodiversity inventories and biosecurity surveys.

  5. Lactose intolerance: a non-allergic disorder often managed by allergologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perino, A; Cabras, S; Obinu, D; Cavalli Sforza, L

    2009-02-01

    Lactose malabsorption is a very common condition characterized by intestinal lactase deficiency. Primary lactose malabsorption is an inherited deficit present in the majority of the world's population, while secondary bypolactasia can be the consequence of an intestinal disease. The presence of malabsorbed lactose in the colonic lumen may cause gastrointestinal symptoms. This condition is known as lactose intolerance. Lactase non-persistence is the ancestral state, whilst two single nucleotide polymorphisms in the lactase gene have been associated with lactase persistence. These are C/T 13910 and G/A 22018 substitutions. Lactase persistence, this Mendelian dominant trait, only became advantageous after the invention of agriculture, when milk from domesticated animals became available for adults to drink. Lactase persistence is then strongly correlated with the diary history of the population. Diagnosis is assessed clinically by elimination of dietary lactose or, better, by non-invasive tests including hydrogen breath test and genetic test. In patients with lactase non-persistence, treatment should be considered exclusively if intolerance symptoms are present. In the absence of guidelines, the common therapeutic approach tends to exclude milk and dairy products from the diet. However, this strategy may have serious nutritional disadvantages. Several studies have been carried out to find alternative approaches, such as exogenous beta-galactosidase, yogurt and probiotics for their bacterial lactase activity, strategies that can prolong contact time between enzyme and substrate delaying gastrointestinal transit time, and chronic lactose ingestion to enhance colonic adaptation.

  6. Persistence of Mycoplasma genitalium following azithromycin therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catriona S Bradshaw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To determine clinical outcomes and cure rates for M.genitalium genital infection in men and women following azithromycin 1 g. METHODOLOGY: Patients attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between March 2005 and November 2007 with urethritis/epididymitis, cervicitis/pelvic inflammatory disease and sexual contacts of M.genitalium were tested for M.genitalium by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. M.genitalium-infection was treated with 1 g of azithromycin and a test-of-cure (toc was performed one month post-azithromycin. Response to azithromycin, and response to moxifloxacin (400 mg daily for 10 days in individuals with persistent infection post-azithromycin, was determined. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of 1538 males and 313 females tested, 161 males (11% and 30 females (10% were infected with M.genitalium. A toc was available on 131 (69% infected individuals (median = 36 days [range 12-373]. Of 120 individuals prescribed azithromycin only pre-toc, M.genitalium was eradicated in 101 (84%, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 77-90% and persisted in 19 (16%, 95% CI: 10-23%. Eleven individuals with persistent infection (9%, 95% CI: 5-15% had no risk of reinfection from untreated-partners, while eight (7%, 95% CI: 3-12% may have been at risk of reinfection from doxycycline-treated or untreated-partners. Moxifloxacin was effective in eradicating persistent infection in all cases not responding to azithromycin. Patients with persistent-M.genitalium were more likely to experience persistent symptoms (91%, compared to patients in whom M.genitalium was eradicated (17%, p<0.0001. CONCLUSION: Use of azithromycin 1 g in M.genitalium-infected patients was associated with unacceptable rates of persistent infection, which was eradicated with moxifloxacin. These findings highlight the importance of follow-up in M.genitalium-infected patients prescribed azithromycin, and the need to monitor for the development of resistance. Research to determine optimal first and

  7. Multiscale Persistent Functions for Biomolecular Structure Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Kelin [Nanyang Technological University (Singapore). Division of Mathematical Sciences, School of Physical, Mathematical Sciences and School of Biological Sciences; Li, Zhiming [Central China Normal University, Wuhan (China). Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics; Mu, Lin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Division

    2017-11-02

    Here in this paper, we introduce multiscale persistent functions for biomolecular structure characterization. The essential idea is to combine our multiscale rigidity functions (MRFs) with persistent homology analysis, so as to construct a series of multiscale persistent functions, particularly multiscale persistent entropies, for structure characterization. To clarify the fundamental idea of our method, the multiscale persistent entropy (MPE) model is discussed in great detail. Mathematically, unlike the previous persistent entropy (Chintakunta et al. in Pattern Recognit 48(2):391–401, 2015; Merelli et al. in Entropy 17(10):6872–6892, 2015; Rucco et al. in: Proceedings of ECCS 2014, Springer, pp 117–128, 2016), a special resolution parameter is incorporated into our model. Various scales can be achieved by tuning its value. Physically, our MPE can be used in conformational entropy evaluation. More specifically, it is found that our method incorporates in it a natural classification scheme. This is achieved through a density filtration of an MRF built from angular distributions. To further validate our model, a systematical comparison with the traditional entropy evaluation model is done. Additionally, it is found that our model is able to preserve the intrinsic topological features of biomolecular data much better than traditional approaches, particularly for resolutions in the intermediate range. Moreover, by comparing with traditional entropies from various grid sizes, bond angle-based methods and a persistent homology-based support vector machine method (Cang et al. in Mol Based Math Biol 3:140–162, 2015), we find that our MPE method gives the best results in terms of average true positive rate in a classic protein structure classification test. More interestingly, all-alpha and all-beta protein classes can be clearly separated from each other with zero error only in our model. Finally, a special protein structure index (PSI) is proposed, for the first

  8. Persistence of undergraduate women in STEM fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedone, Maggie Helene

    The underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is a complex problem that continues to persist at the postsecondary level, particularly in computer science and engineering fields. This dissertation explored the pre-college and college level factors that influenced undergraduate women's persistence in STEM. This study also examined and compared the characteristics of undergraduate women who entered STEM fields and non-STEM fields in 2003-2004. The nationally representative Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS:04/09) data set was used for analysis. BPS:04/09 study respondents were surveyed three times (NPSAS:04, BPS:04/06, BPS:04/09) over a six-year period, which enabled me to explore factors related to long-term persistence. Astin's Input-Environment-Output (I-E-O) model was used as the framework to examine student inputs and college environmental factors that predict female student persistence (output) in STEM. Chi-square tests revealed significant differences between undergraduate women who entered STEM and non-STEM fields in 2003-2004. Differences in student demographics, prior academic achievement, high school course-taking patterns, and student involvement in college such as participation in study groups and school clubs were found. Notably, inferential statistics showed that a significantly higher proportion of female minority students entered STEM fields than non-STEM fields. These findings challenge the myth that underrepresented female minorities are less inclined to enter STEM fields. Logistic regression analyses revealed thirteen significant predictors of persistence for undergraduate women in STEM. Findings showed that undergraduate women who were younger, more academically prepared, and academically and socially involved in college (e.g., lived on campus, interacted with faculty, participated in study groups, fine arts activities, and school sports) were more likely to persist in STEM

  9. EPR (European Pressurized Reactor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This document presents the EPR (European Pressurized Reactor), a modernised version of PWRs which uses nuclear fission. It indicates to which category it belongs (third generation). It briefly describes its operation: recalls on nuclear fission, electricity production in a nuclear reactor. It presents and comments its characteristics: power, thermal efficiency, redundant systems for safety control, double protective enclosure, expected lifetime, use of MOX fuel, modular design. It discusses economic stakes (expected higher nuclear electricity competitiveness, but high construction costs), and safety challenges (design characteristics, critics by nuclear safety authorities about the safety data processing system). It presents the main involved actors (Areva, EDF) and competitors in the field of advanced reactors (Rosatom with its VVER 1200, General Electric with its ABWR and its ESBWR, Mitsubishi with its APWR, Westinghouse with its AP100) while outlining the importance of certifications and delays to obtain them. After having evoked key data on EPR fuel consumption, it indicates reactors under construction, evokes potential markets and perspectives

  10. The European nanometrology landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Richard K; Boyd, Robert; Burke, Theresa; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Dirscherl, Kai; Dziomba, Thorsten; Gee, Mark; Koenders, Ludger; Morazzani, Valérie; Pidduck, Allan; Roy, Debdulal; Unger, Wolfgang E S; Yacoot, Andrew

    2011-02-11

    This review paper summarizes the European nanometrology landscape from a technical perspective. Dimensional and chemical nanometrology are discussed first as they underpin many of the developments in other areas of nanometrology. Applications for the measurement of thin film parameters are followed by two of the most widely relevant families of functional properties: measurement of mechanical and electrical properties at the nanoscale. Nanostructured materials and surfaces, which are seen as key materials areas having specific metrology challenges, are covered next. The final section describes biological nanometrology, which is perhaps the most interdisciplinary applications area, and presents unique challenges. Within each area, a review is provided of current status, the capabilities and limitations of current techniques and instruments, and future directions being driven by emerging industrial measurement requirements. Issues of traceability, standardization, national and international programmes, regulation and skills development will be discussed in a future paper.

  11. European Commission policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coldwell, R.

    1993-01-01

    This debate discusses the debate surrounding the proposed European Community (EC) Directive on the completion of the internal energy market for natural gas and electric power. The context in which the liberalisation program is proposed is described for electricity, considering political issues, international ownership patterns and trade between Eastern and Western Europe. The author then argues for Member States to be consistent and fair, bearing in mind existing variations in liberalisation of national energy markets. Finally the components of the directive are examined. The United Kingdom, with its already liberalised electricity industry has much to gain from the Directive, while other countries which oppose it, are seen as protecting the vested interests of their own utilities. (UK)

  12. The European nanometrology landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Richard K.; Boyd, Robert; Burke, Theresa; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Dirscherl, Kai; Dziomba, Thorsten; Gee, Mark; Koenders, Ludger; Morazzani, Valérie; Pidduck, Allan; Roy, Debdulal; Unger, Wolfgang E. S.; Yacoot, Andrew

    2011-02-01

    This review paper summarizes the European nanometrology landscape from a technical perspective. Dimensional and chemical nanometrology are discussed first as they underpin many of the developments in other areas of nanometrology. Applications for the measurement of thin film parameters are followed by two of the most widely relevant families of functional properties: measurement of mechanical and electrical properties at the nanoscale. Nanostructured materials and surfaces, which are seen as key materials areas having specific metrology challenges, are covered next. The final section describes biological nanometrology, which is perhaps the most interdisciplinary applications area, and presents unique challenges. Within each area, a review is provided of current status, the capabilities and limitations of current techniques and instruments, and future directions being driven by emerging industrial measurement requirements. Issues of traceability, standardization, national and international programmes, regulation and skills development will be discussed in a future paper.

  13. The European nanometrology landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, Richard K; Boyd, Robert; Gee, Mark; Roy, Debdulal; Yacoot, Andrew; Burke, Theresa; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Dziomba, Thorsten; Koenders, Ludger; Dirscherl, Kai; Morazzani, Valerie; Pidduck, Allan; Unger, Wolfgang E S

    2011-01-01

    This review paper summarizes the European nanometrology landscape from a technical perspective. Dimensional and chemical nanometrology are discussed first as they underpin many of the developments in other areas of nanometrology. Applications for the measurement of thin film parameters are followed by two of the most widely relevant families of functional properties: measurement of mechanical and electrical properties at the nanoscale. Nanostructured materials and surfaces, which are seen as key materials areas having specific metrology challenges, are covered next. The final section describes biological nanometrology, which is perhaps the most interdisciplinary applications area, and presents unique challenges. Within each area, a review is provided of current status, the capabilities and limitations of current techniques and instruments, and future directions being driven by emerging industrial measurement requirements. Issues of traceability, standardization, national and international programmes, regulation and skills development will be discussed in a future paper. (topical review)

  14. The European nanometrology landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, Richard K; Boyd, Robert; Gee, Mark; Roy, Debdulal; Yacoot, Andrew [National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom); Burke, Theresa [European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology (United Kingdom); Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Dziomba, Thorsten; Koenders, Ludger [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany); Dirscherl, Kai [Danish Fundamental Metrology (Denmark); Morazzani, Valerie [Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais (France); Pidduck, Allan [QinetiQ (United Kingdom); Unger, Wolfgang E S, E-mail: richard.leach@npl.co.uk [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (Germany)

    2011-02-11

    This review paper summarizes the European nanometrology landscape from a technical perspective. Dimensional and chemical nanometrology are discussed first as they underpin many of the developments in other areas of nanometrology. Applications for the measurement of thin film parameters are followed by two of the most widely relevant families of functional properties: measurement of mechanical and electrical properties at the nanoscale. Nanostructured materials and surfaces, which are seen as key materials areas having specific metrology challenges, are covered next. The final section describes biological nanometrology, which is perhaps the most interdisciplinary applications area, and presents unique challenges. Within each area, a review is provided of current status, the capabilities and limitations of current techniques and instruments, and future directions being driven by emerging industrial measurement requirements. Issues of traceability, standardization, national and international programmes, regulation and skills development will be discussed in a future paper. (topical review)

  15. Rectors of European universities

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Several rectors of European universities visited CERN recently while in Geneva for a conference on coordination between their institutions. The visit began with a welcome by Roger Cashmore, CERN Director of Collider Programmes,and continued with tours of CMS, ALICE and the LHC magnet assembly hall. Photos 01, 02: The visitors in the ALICE assembly hall: (left to right) Dr. Raymond Werlen, Deputy Secretary-General of the Conference of Rectors of Swiss Universities; visit guide Prof. Alain Blondel, Department of Nuclear and Corpuscular Physics, University of Geneva; Prof. Adriano Pimpão, Rector of the University of Algarve, President of the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities; Prof. Jean-Pierre Finance, Conference of University Presidents, France; Prof. Jean-Paul Lehners, Vice-President of the Centre Universitaire, Luxemburg.

  16. Characterizing European cultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tieskens, Koen F.; Schulp, Catharina J E; Levers, Christian

    2017-01-01

    intensification and land abandonment. To prevent the loss of cultural landscapes, knowledge on the location of different types of cultural landscapes is needed. In this paper, we present a characterization of European cultural landscapes based on the prevalence of three key dimensions of cultural landscapes......Almost all rural areas in Europe have been shaped or altered by humans and can be considered cultural landscapes, many of which now are considered to entail valuable cultural heritage. Current dynamics in land management have put cultural landscapes under a huge pressure of agricultural...... the three dimensions into a continuous “cultural landscape index” that allows for a characterization of Europe's rural landscapes. The characterization identifies hotspots of cultural landscapes, where all three dimensions are present, such as in the Mediterranean. On the other hand, Eastern and Northern...

  17. Future European biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, A. K.P.; Ehimen, E. A.; Holm-Nielsen, J. B.

    2018-01-01

    Biogas is expected to play an important role in reaching the future energy policy targets of the European Union (EU). The sustainability of biogas substrates has however been recently critically discussed due to the increasing shares of agricultural land used for energy crop production.The aim...... of this study was to project and map the biomass and biogas energy potential from a selection of potentially sustainable agricultural residues, which have been documented to improve in biogas yields when co-digested in biogas production, for the EU28 in year 2030. The investigated types of residual biomasses...... were animal manure, straw by-products from cereal production, and excess grass from rotational and permanent grasslands and meadows. The biogas energy potential from the investigated biomass was projected to range from 1.2·103 to 2.3·103 PJ y-1 in year 2030 in the EU28, depending on the biomass...

  18. Quasat - European status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilizzi, R.T.

    1987-01-01

    The scientific goals, design, and current development status of Quasat are reviewed. Quasat is a proposed 15-m orbiting radio telescope intended to serve as the space leg of an astronomical VLBI network comprising the existing large arrays in Europe, the U.S., the USSR, and Australia. The planned 63-deg-inclination 5700 x 12,500-km elliptical orbit is optimized for high-resolution imaging of quasar and radio-galaxy nuclei at cm wavelengths with the U.S. and European ground arrays. A drawing of the ESA inflatable-antenna concept, a diagram of the space/ground system, and tables listing additional observing targets and the predicted angular and spatial resolutions of a Quasat-based array at different wavelengths are included

  19. The European experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisgaard, N

    2001-06-01

    This article presents an overview of past and current experiences with time division multiple assess-based (Global System for Mobil Communication) mobile telephones in Europe as seen by the European Hearing Instrument Manufacturers Association. Initial fear of widespread interference problems for hearing aid users in general owing to use of a new generation of mobile telephones seems unjustified. The background for the International Electrotechnical Commission 118-13 standard for measuring interference is described. No solution to complete elimination of interference problems resulting from direct contact between hearing aids and mobile telephones has yet been found. Several reports on the subjects are cited, and new work on measurement standards for near-field situations is mentioned.

  20. Measuring European selves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antalikova, Radka

    Taking the perspective of cross-cultural psychology, the current thesis sets out to investigate self in a European context. For this purpose, the thesis first thoroughly reviews the most prominent conceptualizations of self in cross-cultural psychology, specifically focusing on disentangling...... the term interdependence. Thereafter, the thesis critically examines the most common measures of self and appropriates some of these measures for use in the current empirical study. More concretely, the current study compares self-descriptions and autobiographical memories of individuals from post......-Communist Europe and Scandinavia. The study’s results exemplify participants’ interdependence, whether in the form of their relational and group self-descriptions or their autobiographical memories recalled to different interpersonal cue words. On the whole, the current thesis contributes with novel data...

  1. Ariane: NASA's European rival

    Science.gov (United States)

    The successful test launch of two three-quarter ton satellites in the European Space Agency's (ESA) Ariane rocket last June firmly placed ESA in competition with NASA for the lucrative and growing satellite launching market. Under the auspices of the private (but largely French-government financed) Arianespace company, ESA is already attracting customers to its three-stage rocket by offering low costs.According to recent reports [Nature, 292, pp. 785 and 788, 1981], Arianespace has been able to win several U.S. customers away from NASA, including Southern Pacific Communications, Western Union, RCA, Satellite Television Corporation, and GTE. Nature [292, 1981] magazine in an article entitled ‘More Trouble for the Hapless Shuttle’ suggests that it will be possible for Ariane to charge lower prices for a launch than NASA, even with the space shuttle.

  2. Can the European Central Bank Create a European identity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn Sørensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    In what ways do central banks construct community, and how may the European Central Bank (ECB) contribute to a supranational European identity? In this paper I seek to answer these two questions by developing a conceptual framework for the ways that central banks construct national identities and...

  3. European citizenship and the constitutionalisation of the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijken, Hanneke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314133992

    2014-01-01

    The concept of citizenship in relatively new legal order of the European Union has its own meaning and dynamics compared to national citizenship. One of the important questions regarding this transnational form of citizenship is how to place this European citizenship in a constitutional context in

  4. Persistence drives gene clustering in bacterial genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha Eduardo PC

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene clustering plays an important role in the organization of the bacterial chromosome and several mechanisms have been proposed to explain its extent. However, the controversies raised about the validity of each of these mechanisms remind us that the cause of this gene organization remains an open question. Models proposed to explain clustering did not take into account the function of the gene products nor the likely presence or absence of a given gene in a genome. However, genomes harbor two very different categories of genes: those genes present in a majority of organisms – persistent genes – and those present in very few organisms – rare genes. Results We show that two classes of genes are significantly clustered in bacterial genomes: the highly persistent and the rare genes. The clustering of rare genes is readily explained by the selfish operon theory. Yet, genes persistently present in bacterial genomes are also clustered and we try to understand why. We propose a model accounting specifically for such clustering, and show that indispensability in a genome with frequent gene deletion and insertion leads to the transient clustering of these genes. The model describes how clusters are created via the gene flux that continuously introduces new genes while deleting others. We then test if known selective processes, such as co-transcription, physical interaction or functional neighborhood, account for the stabilization of these clusters. Conclusion We show that the strong selective pressure acting on the function of persistent genes, in a permanent state of flux of genes in bacterial genomes, maintaining their size fairly constant, that drives persistent genes clustering. A further selective stabilization process might contribute to maintaining the clustering.

  5. Rotenone persistence model for montane streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Peter J.; Zale, Alexander V.

    2012-01-01

    The efficient and effective use of rotenone is hindered by its unknown persistence in streams. Environmental conditions degrade rotenone, but current label instructions suggest fortifying the chemical along a stream based on linear distance or travel time rather than environmental conditions. Our objective was to develop models that use measurements of environmental conditions to predict rotenone persistence in streams. Detailed measurements of ultraviolet radiation, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids (TDS), conductivity, pH, oxidation–reduction potential (ORP), substrate composition, amount of organic matter, channel slope, and travel time were made along stream segments located between rotenone treatment stations and cages containing bioassay fish in six streams. The amount of fine organic matter, biofilm, sand, gravel, cobble, rubble, small boulders, slope, pH, TDS, ORP, light reaching the stream, energy dissipated, discharge, and cumulative travel time were each significantly correlated with fish death. By using logistic regression, measurements of environmental conditions were paired with the responses of bioassay fish to develop a model that predicted the persistence of rotenone toxicity in streams. This model was validated with data from two additional stream treatment reaches. Rotenone persistence was predicted by a model that used travel time, rubble, and ORP. When this model predicts a probability of less than 0.95, those who apply rotenone can expect incomplete eradication and should plan on fortifying rotenone concentrations. The significance of travel time has been previously identified and is currently used to predict rotenone persistence. However, rubble substrate, which may be associated with the degradation of rotenone by adsorption and volatilization in turbulent environments, was not previously considered.

  6. Extending and implementing the Persistent ID pillars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Car, Nicholas; Golodoniuc, Pavel; Klump, Jens

    2017-04-01

    The recent double decade anniversary of scholarly persistent identifier use has triggered journal special editions such as "20 Years of Persistent Identifiers". For such a publication, it is apt to consider the longevity of some persistent identifier (PID) mechanisms (Digital Object Identifiers) and the partial disappearance of others (Life Sciences IDs). We have previously postulated a set of "PID Pillars" [1] which are design principles aimed at ensuring PIDs can survive technology and social change and thus persist for the long term that we have drawn from our observations of PIDs at work over many years. The principles: describe how to ensure identifiers' system and organisation independence; codify the delivery of essential PID system functions; mandate a separation of PID functions from data delivery mechanisms; and require generation of policies detailing how change is handled. In this presentation, first we extend on our previous work of introducing the pillars by refining their descriptions, giving specific suggestions for each and presenting some work that addresses them. Second, we propose a baseline data model for persistent identifiers that, if used, would assist the separation of PID metadata and PID system functioning. This would allow PID system function specifics to change over time (e.g. resolver services or even resolution protocols) and yet preserve the PIDs themselves. Third, we detail our existing PID system — the PID Service [2] — that partially implements the pillars and describe both its successes and shortcomings. Finally, we describe our planned next-generation system that will aim to use the baseline data model and fully implement the pillars.

  7. Westinghouse European trainee program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, G.

    2010-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Company is proud of giving its employees the possibility to work and act globally. The company's European Trainee Program provides an opportunity to work within different fields of business within Westinghouse, participating in a wide range of projects and experiencing and learning from the different cultures of the company. In 2006 the first Trainee Program started with seven Swedish Trainees. During these eighteen months they worked 12 months in Sweden and then went off to six-month-assignments in France and in the US. In April 2008, the first European Trainee Program was launched with ten Trainees from four different countries: five from Sweden, two from Germany, two from Spain and one from Belgium. As with the previous program, its length was eighteen months. During the first year, the European Trainees had the opportunity to work in various areas within their country of hire, as well as to visit different Westinghouse headquarters in Europe and the US to learn more about the global business. Their kick-off session took place in Vaesteraas, Sweden in April 2008. During four days, the Trainees participated in group dynamic exercises as well as presentations of the business of Westinghouse abroad and in Sweden. Two of the most interesting parts of this session were the visits to the Fuel Factory and to the Field Services mock-ups. The second session took place in June 2008 in Monroeville, Pennsylvania (USA), where Westinghouse had its main headquarters, nowadays located in Cranberry, PA. During two weeks, the trainees got to know even more about Westinghouse through visits, lectures and forums for open discussions. The visits comprised for example the tubing factory at Blairsville, the Field Services main headquarters in Madison and the George Westinghouse Research and Technology Park near Pittsburgh. The meetings included presentations of each Westinghouse business unit, detailed information about future projects and round table discussions

  8. How to decode Unemployment Persistence: An econometric framework for identifying and comparing the sources of persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels Framroze

    2016-01-01

    Most econometric analyses of persistence focus on the existence of non-stationary unemployment but not the origin of this. The present research contains a multivariate econometric framework for identifying and comparing different sources of unemployment persistence (e.g. hysteresis versus a slowly...... moving equilibrium rate). A small example, considering historical data (1988-2006) for the UK, demonstrates how the method can be applied in practice. Although this primarily serves as an illustration, the evidence clearly suggests that persistence was due to a slowly moving equilibrium (driven...

  9. Traumatic brain injury and obesity induce persistent central insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karelina, Kate; Sarac, Benjamin; Freeman, Lindsey M; Gaier, Kristopher R; Weil, Zachary M

    2016-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI)-induced impairments in cerebral energy metabolism impede tissue repair and contribute to delayed functional recovery. Moreover, the transient alteration in brain glucose utilization corresponds to a period of increased vulnerability to the negative effects of a subsequent TBI. In order to better understand the factors contributing to TBI-induced central metabolic dysfunction, we examined the effect of single and repeated TBIs on brain insulin signalling. Here we show that TBI induced acute brain insulin resistance, which resolved within 7 days following a single injury but persisted until 28 days following repeated injuries. Obesity, which causes brain insulin resistance and neuroinflammation, exacerbated the consequences of TBI. Obese mice that underwent a TBI exhibited a prolonged reduction of Akt (also known as protein kinase B) signalling, exacerbated neuroinflammation (microglial activation), learning and memory deficits, and anxiety-like behaviours. Taken together, the transient changes in brain insulin sensitivity following TBI suggest a reduced capacity of the injured brain to respond to the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory actions of insulin and Akt signalling, and thus may be a contributing factor for the damaging neuroinflammation and long-lasting deficits that occur following TBI. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Persistence of bacterial proteolytic enzymes in lake ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiersztyn, Bartosz; Siuda, Waldemar; Chróst, Ryszard J

    2012-04-01

    This study analyzes proteolytic enzyme persistence and the role of dead (or metabolically inactive) aquatic bacteria in organic matter cycling. Samples from four lakes of different trophic status were used. Irrespective of the trophic status of the examined lakes, bacterial aminopeptidases remained active even 72 h after the death of the bacteria that produced them. The total pool of proteolytic enzymes in natural lake water samples was also stable. We found that the rates of amino acid enzymatic release from proteinaceous matter added to preserved lake water sample were constant for at least 96 h (r(2)  = 0.99, n = 17, P ≤ 0.0001, V(max)  = 84.6 nM h(-1) ). We also observed that proteases built into bacterial cell debris fragments remained active for a long time, even after the total destruction of cells. Moreover, during 24 h of incubation time, about 20% of these enzymatically active fragments adsorbed onto natural seston particles, becoming a part of the 'attached enzymes system' that is regarded as the 'hot-spot' of protein degradation in aquatic ecosystems. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Excessive nickel release from mobile phones--a persistent cause of nickel allergy and dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Johansen, Jeanne D; Zachariae, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Despite the political intention to limit nickel allergy and dermatitis in Europeans, nickel allergy remains frequent. There are several explanations for the persistence of nickel allergy and dermatitis, including the increasing use of mobile phones. Before regulation of nickel release from mobile...... phones, we showed that eight (19.5%) of 41 mobile phones marketed in Denmark between 2003 and 2007 released nickel in concentrations that may result in nickel allergy and dermatitis. In 2009, the EU Nickel Directive was revised to include nickel-releasing mobile phones....

  12. Excessive nickel release from mobile phones--a persistent cause of nickel allergy and dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Johansen, Jeanne D; Zachariae, Claus

    2011-01-01

    phones, we showed that eight (19.5%) of 41 mobile phones marketed in Denmark between 2003 and 2007 released nickel in concentrations that may result in nickel allergy and dermatitis. In 2009, the EU Nickel Directive was revised to include nickel-releasing mobile phones.......Despite the political intention to limit nickel allergy and dermatitis in Europeans, nickel allergy remains frequent. There are several explanations for the persistence of nickel allergy and dermatitis, including the increasing use of mobile phones. Before regulation of nickel release from mobile...

  13. Persistence of docetaxel-induced neuropathy and impact on quality of life among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckhoff, L.; Knoop, A.; Jensen, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study evaluates persistence and severity of docetaxel-induced neuropathy (peripheral neuropathy (PN)) and impact on health related quality of life in survivors from early-stage breast cancer. METHODS: One thousand and thirty-one patients with early-stage breast cancer, who received...... at least one cycle of docetaxel and provided information on PN during treatment, completed questionnaires on PN as an outcome (Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) scores, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy 20 (EORTC CIPN20) and EORTC Quality...

  14. European vehicle passive safety network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Janssen, E.G.

    1999-01-01

    The general objective of the European Vehicle Passive Safety Network is to contribute to the reduction of the number of road traffic victims in Europe by passive safety measures. The aim of the road safety policy of the European Commission is to reduce the annual total of fatalities to 18000 in

  15. A toolbox for European judges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    The forthcoming instrument on European contract law, be it in the shape of an optional code for cross-border contracts or as an official toolbox for the European legislator, is likely to have a spill-over effect on private law adjudication in Europe. Judges will have no great difficulty in finding

  16. Brazilian Portuguese Ethnonymy and Europeanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    Delineates the incorporation and analyzes the impact of European borrowings in Brazilian racio-ethnic terminology. This overview covers French, Italian, Spanish, and English influences. Borrowings from European languages have had a small impact on the calculus of Brazilian racio-ethnic terms. (43 references) (Author/CK)

  17. Carbon accumulation in European forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciais, P.; Schelhaas, M.J.; Zaehle, S.; Piao, S.L.; Cescatti, A.; Liski, J.; Luyssaert, S.; Le-Maire, G.; Schulze, E.D.; Bouriaud, O.; Freibauer, A.; Valentini, R.; Nabuurs, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    European forests are intensively exploited for wood products, yet they also form a sink for carbon. European forest inventories, available for the past 50 years, can be combined with timber harvest statistics to assess changes in this carbon sink. Analysis of these data sets between 1950 and 2000

  18. European Industry, 1700-1870

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broadberry, Stephen; Fremdling, Rainer; Solar, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of the development of European industry between 1700 and 1870, drawing in particular on the recent literature that has emerged following the formation of the European Historical Economics Society in 1991. The approach thus makes use of economic analysis and quantitative

  19. Market forces in european soccer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, M.; Koning, Ruud H.; Witteloostuijn, A. van

    2002-01-01

    Recent decades have witnessed major changes in the market for European soccer. The most profound were the Bosman ruling, which lifted restrictions in the European labor market for soccer talent, and the introduction of the Champions' League, a high-profile international competition that generates

  20. PRODUCT INTERVENTION: A EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Schaeken Willemaers, Gaëtane

    2013-01-01

    This article wishes to contribute to the debate on how to best regulate the European retail financial market. This article is a reflection on the recent emphasis put by the European regulator on product intervention to address the various risks facing the retail investor.

  1. Action Research in European perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2004-01-01

    The article gives an overview of how different Italian and Danish contributions to action research can be viewed in an European perspective.......The article gives an overview of how different Italian and Danish contributions to action research can be viewed in an European perspective....

  2. Antifungal therapy in European hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarb, P; Amadeo, B; Muller, A

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to identify targets for quality improvement in antifungal use in European hospitals and determine the variability of such prescribing. Hospitals that participated in the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption Point Prevalence Surveys (ESAC-PPS) were included. The WHO...

  3. Sentinel European Node Trial (SENT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilling, Clare; Stoeckli, Sandro J; Haerle, Stephan K

    2015-01-01

    in patients with early-stage oral squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS: An European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer-approved prospective, observational study commenced in 2005. Fourteen European centres recruited 415 patients with radiologically staged T1-T2N0 squamous cell carcinoma. SNB...

  4. Participation in European water policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. van Ast (Jacko); S.P. Boot (Sander Paul)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper considers the possibilities for interactive policy-making in European water management. In the new European Water Framework Directive, public information and consultation are major elements in the procedure (process) that leads to River Basin Management Plans. In general,

  5. High Stakes and Persistent Challenges –

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Jakob v. H.; Madsen, Mikael Rask

    2015-01-01

    In this separate rejoinder to Jan Klabbers' and Ino Augsberg's comments to the articles in the symposium on New Legal Realism in International Law (Leiden Journal of International Law, Volume 28:2, 2015), we respond from the point of view of the European New Legal Realism (ENLR) as propounded in ...

  6. Jasenovac and the Persistence of the Past

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benčic, A.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the contested and iconic status that former WWII Jasenovac Concentration Camp has in context of Croatian and wider Southeastern European war heritage. As a starting point, the historical background of the Jasenovac Concentration Camp will be viewed within the context of the

  7. Persistent lipid abnormalities in statin-treated patients with diabetes mellitus in Europe and Canada: results of the Dyslipidaemia International Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leiter, L. A.; Lundman, P.; da Silva, P. M.; Drexel, H.; Jünger, C.; Gitt, A. K.; Absenger, Guun; Albrich, Ernst; Allinger, Berndt; Allinger, Stephan; Anacher, Gerald; Angermayr, Gertraud; Angermeier, Hermann; Anzengruber, Aneas; Archimanitis, Gabriele; Arnsteiner, Patricia; Auberger, Wolfgang; Azhary, Mawaheb; Barfuss, Michael; Bauer, Christian; Bauer, Birgit Elisabeth; Beclin, Thomas; Binder, Thomas; Binder, Gabriele; Böhler, Dietmar; Brändle, Johann; Breslmair, Jörg; Brettlecker, Marlis; Bürger, Michael; Calvi, Inge; Dorfinger, Werner; Doringer-Schnepf, Elisabeth; Eer, Anton; Eckmayr, Christine; Eder, Franz; Egermann, Margit; Erath, Michael; Etzinger, Michael; Etzinger, Claudia; Fiedler, Lothar; Filip, Wolfgang; Filip, Michaela; Föchterle, Johann; Fodor, Anita; Frieden, Thomas; Gareiss, Mertens; Gföllner, Peter; Ghamarian, Thomas; Goritschan, Michael; Haar, Klaus; Habeler, Gerhard; Hadjiivanov, Valery; Haiböck, Christian; Hammer, Regina; Hartmann, Siegfried; Haschkovitz, Herbert; Hauer, Walter; Hauer, Josef; Haunschmidt, Christian; Heimayr, Christine; Hengl, Wolfgang; Hengl, Gunter; Hermann, Rudolf; Herrmann, Rainer; Hillebrand, Roswitha; Hintersteininger, Otto; Hirsch, Michael; Hitzinger, Martin; Hochegger, Tanja; Hockl, Wolfgang; Hoi, Michael; Hörmann, Jan; Hudler, Brigitte; Imb, Gerhard; Joichl, Anea; Jungbauer, Karl; Kapl, Gerlinde; Kerschbaum, Margit; Kienesberger, Franz; Killinger, Gerhard; Kitzler, Gerhard; Klein, Franz; Kleinbichler, Dietmar; Kohr, Anton; Kopetzky, Michael; Korthals, Christian; Kortschak, Werner; Koschutnik, Martin; Kraus, Werner A.; Kurzemann, Susanne; Lavicka, Claus; Lehner, Guido; Lenz, Jürgen; Lepuschütz, Sabine; Lichtenwallner, Michael; Lober, Reinhard; Loidl, Christine; Lopatka, Eduard; Ludwig, Rudolf; Maca, Thomas; Mair, Anneliese; Mandak, Michael; Margreiter, Maria; Margreiter, Anea; Markovics, Michael; Matejicek, Frieich; Mohilla, Maximillian; Moll, Christian; Mörz, Beate; Mörz, Reinhard; Nagl, Heinz; Neumayr, Günther; Oberroitmair, Helmut; Oberzinner, Michael; Pallamar, Walter; Pangratz, Sibylle; Parandian, Laurenz; Paulus, Alexana; Pfaffenwimmer, Christoph; Plaichinger, Peter; Pokorn, Thomas; Polanec, Helmuth; Pöll-Weiss, Barbara; Pralea, Doralina; Puttinger, Johann; Quinton, Thomas; Ranegger, Matthias; Rass, Sepp; Rauch, Heribert; Riehs, Manfred; Robetin, Erich; Rohringer, Jörg; Rupprechter, Josef; Sadjed, Eduard; Schimbach, Johann Alois; Schmid, Jutta; Schneiderbauer, Rotraud; Schopper, Wolfgang; Schulze-Bauer, Alfred; Schuster, Gottfried; Schwarz, Johann; Schwarz, Maria; Schweighofer, Christoph; Schwelle, Franz; Simma, Hanspeter; Sock, Renate; Sock, Reinhard; Sprenger, Fritz; Stiglmayr, Thomas; Stocker, Ilse; Stütz, Pia; Tama, Mustafa; Teleky, Ursula; Tschauko, Werner; Veits, Martin; Vikydal, Gerhard; Vlaschitz, Karl; Wais, Elisabeth; Wais, Adam; Wegmann, Robert; Wehle, Franz; Weindl, Manfred; Weinhandl, Manuela; Wendt, Ursula; Wendt, Klaus; Werner-Tutschku, Volker; Werner-Tutschku, Christine; Wilscher, Josef; Wind, Norbert; Winter, Aneas; Wolfschütz, Gerald; Wolfsgruber, Markus; Wolfsgruber, Brigitte; Wurm, Renate; Ziebart-Schroth, Arno; Zimmermann, Maximillian; Zinnagl, Aneas; Zirm, Anea; Zirm Canada, Bernhard; Bokenfohr, Grace Mary; Liu, Edmond K. H.; Melling, Gordon W.; Papp, Edward William; Sachdeva, Ashok K.; Snyman, Ernst Retief; Varma, Sonya; Ward, Richard A.; Tiong Wong, Anew Pak; Basson, Paul J.; Brodie, Brian D.; Chahal, Sukhjiwan Jeevyn; Chan, William Y.; Chow, John C.; Cormack, Maura; Eddy, Donald H. J.; Ezekiel, Daniel; Farquhar, Anew; Gu, Shian; Hii, Ting H.; Ho-Asjoe, Marianne P. K.; Hosie, Anew; Jaffer, Shahin; Jakubowski, Anew T.; Karim, Mandy; Kiai, Cristina; Kooy, Jacobus; Lytle, Craig R.; Mcleod, Kevin Lain; Morgan, David C.; Myckatyn, Michael M.; Ng, John P. Y.; Schriemer, Ronnald; Schumacher, Gerhard; Grey Stopforth, James; Hoo Tsui, Winston Wai; Wilson, Robin T.; Wong, Danny; Wong, Wilfred T.; Yeung, Margaret M. W.; Cram, David Harvey; Kumari Dissanayake, Dilani Tamara; Gerber, Johan Daniel W.; Haligowski, David; Hrabarchuk, Blair; Kroczak, Tadeusz J.; Lipson, Alan H.; Mahay, Raj K.; Wessels Mare, Abraham Carel; Mohamdee, Feisal John; Olynyk, Frederick Theodore; Pieterse, Wickus; Ramgoolam, Rajenanath; Rothova, Anna; Saunders, Kevin Kenneth; Szajkowski, Stanley; van Gend, Richard F.; van Rensburg, Nicolaas Marthinus Jansen; Anand, Sanjiv; Baer, Carolyn E. H.; Basque, Eric J. Y.; Benaya, Sebastian; Bessoudo, Ricardo; Bhalla, Jaswinder; Chettiar, Nataraj V.; Craig, Brian N.; Desrosiers, France; Ranjani Imbulgoda, Manel; Morgan, Gareth M.; Nowak, Zbigniew J.; Scott, Daniel G.; Searles, Gregory R.; Slorach, J. Ninian; Stevenson, Robert N.; Browne, Noel John; Bruff, Karl Joseph; Collingwood, John Maurice; Collins, Wayne; Over, Aidan; Gabriel, Anthony M.; Govender, Moonsamy; Hart, David G.; Hatcher, Lydia B.; Janes, John; Kielty, John F.; Krisdaphongs, Michoke; Lush, Richard Boyd; Moulton, William Bertram; Riche, Cyril R.; Rideout, Gary M.; Roberts, Bernard C.; Walsh, Paul E.; Wight, Harold G.; Woodland, K. Heather; Woodland, Robert C.; Atkinson, Bradley Charles; Chow, Carlyle S. H. A.; Collins, James A.; Graham, Robert D.; Hosein, Jalal; Machel, Teresa M.; Mahaney, Gordon Ralston; Mclean, James Robert Bruce; Murray, Michael R.; Myatt, Gregory Alexander; Ozere, Christopher P.; Saha, Amal Krishna; Sanders, David Herbert; Seaman, Donald Maxwell; Seaman, James Gordon; Swinamer, Deanna; Voon Yee, Kenny Yew; Ali, Mohamed Mustapha; Bankay, Clarence D. C.; Beduhn, Eitel Erich Reinhold; Callaghan, Denis J.; Chan, Yun Kai; Chaudhri, Arif R.; Chen, Richard Y. Y.; Conway, James Robin; Cunningham, William L.; Cusimano, Steven Lawrence; Souza, Eleanor De; de Souza, Selwyn X.; Deyoung, John Paul; Epstein, Ralph; Faiers, Alan Arthur; Figurado, Victor John; Forbes, F. Basil Trayer; Gabor, Zsuzsanna; Gallardo, Rodolfo Canonizado; Gaur, Shiva K.; George, Elizabeth; Hartford, Brian J.; Shiu-Chung Ho, Michael; Ho, Chung; Ismail, Shiraz H.; Bhushan Kalra, Bharat; Koprowicz, Kinga; Kumar, Naresh; Lam, Clement; Lau, Ming-Jarm; Law, Hugo Kwok Cheung; Fung, Max Leung Sui; Liutkus, Joanne Frances; Lotfallah, Talaat K.; Luton, Robert G.; Meneses, Gloria S.; Miller, Mark Lee; Nagji, Noorbegum; Ng, Ken H. M.; Ng Thow Hing, Roland E.; Pandey, Amritanshu Shekhar; Petrov, Ivan; Rosenthall, Wendy; Rudner, Howard; Russell, Alan Douglas; Sanchez, Zenia A.; Shaban, Joseph A.; Shariff, Shiraz B. K.; Shih, Chung Ming; Sinclair, Duncan W.; Spink, Donald Richard; Tung, Tommy Hak Tsun; Vizel, Saul; Yanover, David Frederick; Zavodni, Louis S.; Cusack, Paul; Dewar, Charles M.; Hooley, Peter; Kassner, Rachel Anne; Mackinnon, Randy James; Molyneaux, Harold W.; Shetty, Karunakara Naduhithlu; Barrière, Ginette; Berjat, Maria B.; Bernucci, Bruno; Bérubé, Claude; Boueau, Ghyslain; Chehayeb, Raja; Ciricillo, Domenico; Constance, Christian M.; Côté, Gilles; Desroches, Jacques; Gagnon, Robert; Gaueau, Gilles; Godbout, Jean Louis; Harvey, Pierre; Hassan, Youssef; Hoang, Ngoc Vinh; Houde, Danielle; Lalonde, Alain-Paul; Lavoie, Régis; Leclair, Normand; Meagher, Luc; Ouimet, Alain; Plourde, Simon; Rioux, Denis W.; Roberge, Claude; Roy, Bruno; Sasseville, Richard; Serfaty, Samuel; Theriault, Lyne; Timothée, Jean R.; Tjia, Sabine; Tremblay, Bruno; Turcotte, Jean; Bose, Sabyasachi; Aletta Bouwer, Hester; Chernesky, Patricia A.; Johnson, Mervin Louis; Kemp, David R.; Lai, Raymond Pong-Che; Lee, Frank R.; Lipsett, William G. C.; Lombard, Schalk J.; Majid, Falah S.; Malan, Johannes J.; Maree, Narinda; Nayar, Arun; Nel, Mandi; Oduntan, Oluwole O.; Rajakumar, Alphonsus R. J.; Baraka Ramadan, Fauzi; Shamsuzzaman, Mohammed; Vermeulen, Abraham P. M.; Fred, C.; Anthonsen, Birgitte; Ardest, Steen Pennerup; Arnold-Larsen, Susanne Kajsa; Axelsen, Allan; Barfoed, Klaus; Birkler, Niels Erik; Blokkebak, Jens; Boserup, Jørgen; Kettrup Brassøe, Jens Ole; Chovanec, Martin; Lykke Christensen, Bendt; Christensen, Micael; Skjøth Christensen, Randi; Eidner, Per Olav; Eisbo, Jørn; Elsvor, Jan; Engmann, Ida Veng-Christensen; Eriksen, Rene Milling; Frederiksen, Thorkil; Frølund, Hanne Charlotte; Garne, Susanne; Giørtz, Agnete; Gregersen, Bettina; Halkier, Merete Lundbye; Hansen, Jens Georg; Harder, Jan; Jørgen, Hans; Henriksen, O.; Kirkeby Hoffmann, Michael; Holk, Erik; Hollensen, Jan; Jacobsen, Rune; Jakobsen, Lotte; Jensen, Christian; Jensen, Morten; Jensen, Vibeke; Jepsen, Peter; Johannsen, Jens Arne; Verner Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Ole Steen; Juul, Kristian; Jørgensen, Arvid Frank; Jørgensen, Peter; Jørgensen, Ulrik Miilmann; Kensmark, Lars; Kjellerup, Carsten; Kjaer, Ejner; Kjaersgaard, Morten; Klubien, Peter; Kolby, Peter; Korsgaard Thomsen, Kristian; Krebs, Peter; Kristiansen, Tom; Lyng, Flemming; Madsen, Natalia V.; Meyer-Christensen, Jesper; Mogensen, Ole; Mortensen, Finn; Nielsen, Lotta Marie; Nielsen, Per Schiwe; Nielsen, Søren Kjærem; Ommen, Henrik; Juhl Otte, Jens; Østergaard Paridon, Volle; Parm, Michael; Peampour, Kian; Petersen, Kirsten; Pilgaard, Peder Jensen; Poulsen, Svend Erik; Preisler, Thomas; Hast Prins, Søren Ulrik; Randløv, Annette; Rasmussen, Birgit Reindahl; Elmegaard Rasmussen, Peter; Rasmussen, Regnar; Roed, Søren Flemming; Sander, Kirsten Foltmar; Schmidt, Ejnar Ørum; Jørgen Schultz, Paul; Smidemann, Margit; Solgaard, Jørgen; Stripp, Tommy; Søderlund, Michael Rene M.; Søgaard, Henning; Søndergaard, Dorte E.; Sørensen, Birgitte H.; Sørensen, Gerhard Seth; Thøgersen, Niels; Toftdahl, Hans; Uggerhøj, Hanne; Uhrenholt, Bjarne; Veronika Ullisch, Eva; Valentiner-Branth, Christian; Vinberg, Jørgen; Vinter, Svend Aage; Vittrup, Preben; Winther-Pedersen, Niels; Wøldike, Anne Grete; Zederkof, Jørgen M.; Thue Østergaard, Merete; Abiven, Patrick; Abraham, Dominique; de Beaumais, Philippe Adam; Ado, Jean Pierre; Affres, Helene; Agache, Regis; Airault Leman, Anne Marie; Moussarih, Abdallah Al; Albaric, Christian; Allaouchiche, Thierry; Allignol, Christian; Ammor, Mohammed; Ammoun Bourdelas, Corinne; Amsallem, Luc; Anquez, Denis; Antonini, Jean Michel; Assuied, Virginia; Attia, Gerard; Audebert, Olivier; Audibert, Henri; Ayach, Claude; Bagdadlian, Serge; Bagni, Marina; Baillet, Jean; Ballivian Cardozo, Fernando; Baranes, Robert; Barbier, Patricia; Barousse, Francoise; Bas, Sylvie; Battaglia, Jean Marc; Baudonnat, Bruno; Bauple, Jean Louis; Domengetroy, Frederic Baylac; Beard, Thierry; Beaumier, Eric; Beaumont, Jean Francois; Baylac Domengetroy, Frederic; Beck, Christian; Behar, Michel; Behr, Bernard; Benady, Richard; Benghanem, Mohamed Mounir; Benichou, Herve; Bensoussan, Jean Marc; Bensussan, Pierre; Bercegeay, Pascal; Berneau, Jean Baptiste; Bertolotti, Alexane; Bertrand, Sylviane; Besson, Alain; Bezanson, Christophe; Bezier, Christophe; Bezzina, Remy; Bichon, Herve; Bickar, Pierre; Billot, Pierre; Billot Belmere, Marie Claude; Bisson, Francois; Blanc, Dominique; Bloch, Jean Luc; Bloch, Bernard; Blondin, Hyacinthe; Blot, Jacques; Bloud, Raymond; Blouin, Pascal; Boesch, Christophe; Boiteux, Jean Luc; Bonnafous, Pierre; Bonneau, Yanick; Bonnefoy, Laurent; Borg, Bernard; Borys, Jean Michel; Brunehaut Petaut, Myriam; Boschmans, Sabine; Said, Rami Bou; Bouallouche, Abderrahmane; Bouchet, Jacques; Bouchlaghem, Khaled; Boulen, Yvon; Bouline, Benoit; Bounekhla, Mohamed Salah; Bouquin, Vincent; Bourgeois, Marie Brigitte; Bourgois, Didier; Brandily, Christian; Brandt, Pierre; Branquart, Frederic; Breilh, Patrick; Brilleman, Fabrice; Brisson, Thierry; Brocard, Francis; Bruel, Pierre; Brun, Jean Pierre; Buisson, Jean Gabriel; Buisson Virmoux, Isabelle; Bur, Christian; Cabal Malville, Elodie; Cabantous, Serge; Cabrol, Pierre; Cagnoli Gromovoi, Sylviane; Caillaux, Bruno Xavier; Caillot, Didier; Canchon Ottaviani, Isabelle; Canu, Philippe; Caramella, Alexana; Caramella, Alexane; Cardaillac, Christian; Carrivale, Alain; Cartal, Jean Pierre; Cassany, Bernard; Cauon, Bernard; Causeret, Jean Marie; Caye, Philippe; Cayet, Jean Paul; Cazor, Gilles; Cesarini, Joel; Chakra, Georges; Chambeau, Bernadette; Chambon, Valerie; Chanas, Jack; Chapuzot, Patrick; Charon, Ane; Charpin, Eric; Charton, Frederic; Cheikel, Jean; Chemin, Philippe; Chennouf, Kamel; Chequel, Henri; Chevrier, Denis; Ciroux, Patrick; Cissou, Yves; Claeys, Jean Luc; Clariond, Yves; Classen, Olivier; Cloerec, Ane; Clouet, Sophie; Cloup Lefeuvre, Anne Marie; Cochet, Chantal; Cocuau, Didier; Cohen, Henri; Cohen Presberg, Pascale Cohen; Colin, Stephane; Colin, Remy; Colucci, Robert; Come, Philippe; Condouret, Pierre; Conturie, Agnes; Corbin, Ane; Corticelli, Paola; Coste, Daniel; Cotrel, Olivier; Coueau, Sylvie; Coulon, Paul; Courdy, Christian; Courtin, Marc; Courtot, Pierre; Coutrey, Laurent; Couval, Rene; Cravello, Patrick; Cressey, Olivier; Cuisinier, Yves; Cunin, Bernard; Cunnington, Bernard; Cusseau, Herve; Cuvelier, Christian; Arailh, Bruno D.; Dabboura, Adib; Dages, Laurence; Dahmani, Noureddine; Dandignac, Jean Christophe; Daney, Dominique; Dannel, Bernard; Darbois, Dominique; Dareths, Philippe; Daubin, Daniel; David, Jean Claude; de Foiard, Patrick; de Mallmann Guyot, Veronique De; de Wit, Marie Astrid; Debast, Francoise; Deboute, Eric; Debuc, Jean Pierre; Dechoux, Edouard; Decloux, Olivier; Decruyenaere, Yannick; Dejans, Jacques Maurice; Delarue, Michel; Delattre, Xavier; Delmaire, Patrick; Denis, Lucien; Deschamps Ben Ayed, Myriam; Devins, Pascal; Dezou, Sylvie; Dieuzaide, Pierre; Dirheimer, Bertrand; Dominguez, Paul; Donadille, Florence; Dondain, Benoit; Doridan, Pierre; Ouhet, Pascal; Dubois, Arnaud; Dubois, Ane; Ducharme, Pascal; Duchez, Paul; Dulard, Catherine; Dumoulin, Marc; Duprey, Georges; Durand, Jacques; Mohamed, Ibrahim; Chehab, El; Emery, Bernard; Emmanuel, Georges; Ashari, Ghazaleh Esna; Evrard, Eric; Fargeot Lamy, Aleth; Farges, Jean Louis; Faucher, Patrick; Faucie, Alain; Faure, Yves; Favre, Jean Jacques; Felipe, Jean Louis; Feret, Daniel; Ferragu, Alain; Ferrandin, Gerard; Ferriot, Francois; Finelle, Laurent; Flond, Jacques; Foieri, Jean; Fol, Stephane; Fontaine, Brigitte; Forichon, Dominique; Foucry, Michel; Fournier, Jean Francois; Fregeac, Bernard; Fuchs, Martin; Gabriel, Franck; Gaimard, Didier; Gallois, Stephane; Garapon, Georges; Garas, Mamdouh; Garcia, Pierre; Garcia, Jean Michel; Garcia, Marie Pierre; Garman, Waddah; Garzuel, Dominique; Gaspard, Jean Marc; Gauci, Laurent; Gautheron, Patrick; Gauthier, Jacques; Gauthier Lafaye, Pierre Yves; Gay, Michel Charles; Gay Duc, Bernadette; Gayout, Olivier; Gegu, Yann; Gentile, Francois; Germain, Emmanuel; Gharbi, Gerard; Gigandet Tamarelle, Catherine; Gilardie, Alain; Gilles Verliat, Martine; Gillet, Thierry; Gnana, Philippe; Goguey, Alain; Gombert, Alain; Gonin, Bernard; Gonzales, Philippe; Goulesque, Xavier; Graba, Jean Marc; Granier, Alain; Greiner, Olivier; Groboz, Martial; Gromoff, Serge; Grossemy, Xavier; Grossi, Christian; Guenin, Frederic; Gueranger, Pierre; Guerin, Patrick; Guerineau, Jean Pierre; Guessous Zghal, Fathia; Guicheux, Dominique; Guillere, Jacqueline; Guyonnet, Gilles; Haddad, Samir; Hadj, Nordine; Hamani, Djamel; Hamm, Jacky; Hammoudi, Djamal; Harle, Xavier; Harnie Coussau, Pierre; Hazen, Richard; Hembert, Francois; Hemon, Pierre; Hergue, Michel; Hestin, Christian; Heyraud, Luc; Hindennach, Dieter; Hirot, Etienne; Ho Wang Yin, Chan Shing; Hocquelet Denis, Catherine; Hoppe, Patrice; Horovitz, Daniel; Hours, Jean Michel; Houta, Benjamin; Hua, Gerard; Hui Bon Hoa, Nicole; Humez, Philippe; Hurier, Michel; Husson, Gerald; Hyvernat, Guy; Ichard, Jean Francois; Impens, Claude; Iovescu, Decebal; Jacob, Philippe; Jacob, Gildas; Jacquemart, Jean Pierre; Jacquier, Philippe; Jahanshahi Honorat, Shideh; Jalladeau, Jean Francois; Jan, Luc; Jannel, Yves; Jarrige, Vincent; Jeremiasz, Richard; Annick Jestin Depond, Marie; Joseph, Michel; Joseph Henri Fargue, Helene; Joubrel, Alain; Jouet, Alain; Julien, Bruno; Jullien, Francois; Jullien, Jean Louis; Kadoche, David; Kahl, Etienne; Kanawati, Aiman; Khalife, Sami; Khettou, Christophe; Kiers, Jean Paul; Kissel, Christian; Klein, Jean Claude; Klopfenstein, Samuel; Koch, Alexis; Koenig, Georges; Kohler, Philippe; Koriche, Abdelmalek; Labernardiere, Nicole; Labet, Philippe; Lablanche, Fabien; Laborde Laulhe, Vincent; Lagorce, Xavier; Laine, Eric; Lalague, Pascal; Laleu, Jean Noel; Lambert, Michel; Lambert Ledain, Mireille Lambert; Lambertyn, Xavier; Lame, Jean Francois; Langlois, Frederic; Lanoix, Eric; Laprade, Michel; Lasseri, Charaf; Laterrade, Bernard; Laurent, Jean Claude; Laurier, Bernard; Laval, Laurent; Le Borgne, Patrick; Le Franc, Pierre; Le Henaff, Patrick; Le Noir de Carlan, Herve; Le Roy, Jean Pierre; Le Roy Hennion, Florence; Lebon, Louis; Lecler, Olivier; Leclerc, Philippe; Ledieu, Christian; Lefebvre, Bernard; Lefevre, Philippe; Lehujeur, Catherine; Leiber, Christian; Leick, Gerard; Lemberthe, Thierry; Lenevez, Norbert; Lenoble, Patrick; Leriche, Philippe; Leroux, Eric; Leroy, Jean Michel; Leroy, Christian; Lescaillez, Dominique; Leurele, Christian; Lhermann, Sophie; Libermann, Pierre; Licari, Gilbert; Lo Re, Antoine; Long, Philippe; Long, Jean Louis; Lormeau, Boris; Louchart, Jean Christophe; Lucas, Jean Pierre; Luquet, Thierry; Lussato, Philippe; Maarouf, Moustapha; Mabilais, Francois; Magnier Sinclair, Christine; Mahot Moreau, Pascale; Malafosse, Denis; Mandirac, Jean Paul; Manolis, Jerome; Mante, Jean Pierre; Maquaire, Claude; Marchal, Thierry; Marchand, Guillaume; Marillesse, Olivier; Marmier, Gabriel; Herve Maron, Yves; Marrachelli, Nadine; Marsaux, Michel; Martin, Bruno; Martin, Michel; Deiss, Pascale Martin; Masson, Arnaud; Mativa, Bruno; Matton, Jean Francois; Mauffrey, Jean; Mauriere, Serge; Maurois, Georges; Maury, Joceline; Mayer, Frederic; Menu, Pierre; Mercier, Bernard; Messmer, Daniel; Mestiri, Sami; Meyer, Gilles; Michaelides, Michael; Michaud, Gilles; Michenaud, Bernard; Mielot, Stephane; Millory Marco, Jerry Anne; Mingam, Stephane; Mira, Reginald; Mius, Stephane; Monnier Meteau, Marie Paule; Mora, Francis; Morbois Trabut, Louise; Morosi, Laurent; Mougeolle, Jean Luc; Mouget, Jean Louis; Mouroux, Daniel; Mouthon, Jean Marie; Muller, Jacques; Nakache, Ane; Narbonne, Herve; Navarranne Roumec, Anne; Navarro, Pierre; Neubrand, Jean Yves; Nguyen, Quang Thieu; Nguyen Quang, Guy; Nguyen Xuan, Thong; Niot, Patrice; Oudart, Jean Maurice; Outteryck, Alain; Pages, Jean Marie; Paillet, Charles; Pain, Jean Marie; Pangaud de Gouville, Patricia; Paquin, Olivier; Parent, Vincent; Parer Richard, Claire; Parrot, Francine; Parthenay, Pascal; Pascariello, Jean Claude; Passebon, Jean Claude; Pere, Alain; Perelstein, Laurent; Perot, Michel; Petit, Richard; Petit, Philippe; Petit, Francois; Petruzzi, Philippe; Phelipeau, Denis; Philippon, Jean Claude; Philippon, Gilles; Picard, Bruno; Picard, Jean Claude; Picot, Bernard; Piera, Jean Francois; Pieri, Alain; Piffoux, Eric; Pilard, Patrick; Pillet, Alain; Pinot, Philippe; Pinzani, Alain; Pleskof, Alain; Plessier, Jean Claude; Plisson, Alain; Pochon, Claude; Poggi, Valerie; Poirat, Alain; Poiree, Maurice; Polleux, Janick; Noel Pontecaille, Jean; Posocco, Regis; Pospiech, Jean Claude; Pradies, Felix; Prevot, Remi; Pueyo, Jean Bernard; Quaelli, Jacques; Rabbia, Michel; Rabemananjara, Aimery; Rami, Saad; Rapin, Jean Jacques; Rasquin, Corinne; Ratinaud, Didier; Reboud, Bruno; Reboul, Philippe; Reichman, Jean Jacques; Reinhardt, Patrick; Renard Houta, Catherine Renard; Reverdy, Olivier; Revol, Michel; Rey, Pierre Alain; Richardeau, Yves; Rives, Bernard; Robida, Christine; Rochez Fraiberg, Muriel; Rodet, Jean Pierre; Rolland, Jean Francois; Romand, Bruno; Romano, Jean Paul; Rosati Gretere, Chantal; Rosey, Alain; Rosset, Martial; Rossi, Jean Pierre; Rouquette, Georges; Rousseau, Michel; Rousselon, Xavier; Roy, Christophe; Royer, Denis; Ruetsch, Marcel; Saade, Maurice; Saby Kuchler, Nicolas; Samar, Guy; Sanchez, Pierre Yves; Sane, Alain; Sanz, Jean Paul; Sardon, Michel; Sarrazin, Marc Eric; Sasportes, Gilbert; Saudou, Francis; Sauze, Elisabeth; Savary, Pascal; Schenowitz, Alain; Schmartz, Pierre; Schoepfer, Marc Olivier; Seewagen, Jacques; Serramoune, Denis; Serre, Christian; Sicard Guroo, Helene; Sichãc, Jean Philippe; Sifaoui, Sylvain; Simoncello, Marc; Simonin, Marie Jeanne; Simonnet, Jean Francois; Spindler, Didier; Steier, Alain; Sultan, Charles Raphael; Taghipour, Kouroch; Talayrach, Bruno; Talbot, Francois; Talhouarn, Vanessa; Tallec, Yves; Tarasco Schenrey, Elisabeth; Tarrene, Michel; Tater, Dominique; Tessier, Bernard; Teste, Marie; Thierry, Dominique; Thiollier, Patrice; Thoreau, Frederic; Thual, Jean; Traen, Vincent; Trigano, Jacques Alexane; Troussier, Jean Bernard; Truong Ky Minh, Bernard; van Melckebeke, Gerard; Vaque, Philippe; Vaucelle, Celine; Vedel, Eric; Venu, Didier; Verdavoine, Patrick; Vergeron, Jean; Viallon, Philippe; Viault, Dominique; Vieules, Jean Max; Vigier, Jean Paul; Vilain, Jean Marie; Villard, Bruno; Vitoux, Jean Francois; Viviand, Paul; Vivien, Olivier; Walter, Patrice; Waquier, Patrick; Waszkiewicz, Jean Marc; Weidich, Stephane; Westerfeld, Raymond; Weynachter, Gerald; Wilhelm, Pierre; Wolff, Claude; Wursthorn, Marc; Zammattio, Didier; Zylinski, Bernard; Lauer, Peter; Kühn, Uwe; Weltzel, Wolfgang; Mohr, Hella; Weyland, Klaus; Spittel, Bärbel; Böhm, Günter; Ferdowsy, Said; Hanusch, Peter; Spiekermann, Josef; Albert, Edwin; Stuff, Karl; Jungmair, Wolfgang; Koller, Sabine; Schubert, Wilhelm; Schlehahn, Fred; Bormann, Gundula; Graf, Kristof; Stiehler, Gisela; Bock, Manfred; Müller, Angelika; Haufe, Michael; Nielsen, Lorenz; Raum, Doris; Rogler, Karin; Bürstner, Joachim; Völk, Hans-Jörg; Sachse, Michael; Escher, Torsten; Doumit, Adel; O'dey, Hildegard; Holzmann, Ulrike; Sauer, Hermann; Schellenberg, Gottfried; Carius, Jürgen; Dänschel, Wilfried; Kopf, Aneas; Zerr, Elena; Tatalovic, Ratko; Rupp, Heiun; Anders, Elfriede; Mende, Marion; Volk, Ulrich; Hagenow, Aneas; Lang, Thomas; Schmitz, Karl-Heinz; Gössling, Jan-Henik; Mutsch, Günther; Steidel, Joachim; Osten, Klaus; Giokoglu, Kiriakos; Bellisch, Sabine; Füll, Katja; Walther, Wolfgang; Flick, Sabine; Dünnebier, Rosemarie; Dharmawan, Ichsan; Schönmehl, Wolfgang; Hoss, Valentin; Kipping, Stephan; Wolf, Hans-Joachim; Wolf, Hans-Frieich; Willmann, Volker; Bugarski, Bruno; Hoffschröer, Josef; Von Wallfeld, Siegrun; Ruhland, Guun; Bulling, Daniel; Häusler, Maren; Haustein, Gabriele; Kallenbach, Cornelia; Schwemmler, Claudia; Frank, Antje; Lodder-Bender, Ulrike; Rawe, Klaus; Reinert, Hans-Ferdinand; Schönhof, Petra; Fahrenschon, Klaus; Schorcht, Elisabeth; Etzold, Erika; Brehm, Michael; Paust, Wolf-Dieter; Schulte-Kemna, Achim; Pötter, Klaus-Werner; Ott-Voigtländer, Ulrike; Schwenke, Reto; Thinesse-Mallwitz, Manuela; Siml, Steffi; Stern, Hirene; Roelen, Harald; Scherhag, Klaus-Peter; Matulla, Petra; Herrmann, Hans Joachim; Neumann, Gerhard; Barbuia, Marius; Vormann, Reinhold; Hitzler, Karl; Linum, Aneas; Hanke, Klaus; Hohberg, Hans-Joachim; Klingel, Roger; Hohnstädter, Rainer; Klasen, Hartmut; Aschermann, Peter; Grau, Wilfried; Killinger, Paul; Gross, Kathrin; Naus, Rainer; Todoroff, Karin; Zühlke, Wolfgang; Kellner, Hanns-Ulrich; Hager, Eva; Thieme, Jochen; Kornitzky, Michael; Rösch, Volker; Heinze, Elke; Hiederer, Wolfgang; Konz, Karl-Heinz; Köhler, Michael; Diekmann, Martin; Junghans, Edith; Dietermann, Friedgard; Kerp, Ekkehard; Schäfer-Lehnhausen, Silvia; Kruck, Irmtraut; Ettelt, Rolf; Hölscher, Aneas; Kittler, Sybil; Jung, Heiun; Mailänder, Albert; Nowara, Peter; Ritschl, Harald; Mödl, Bernhard; Gallwitz, Torsten; Meyer, Stephan; Peter, Anton; Peters, Otto; Pflaum, Petra; Fröhlich, Karl-Heinz; Mertens, Hans-Jürgen; Merlin-Sprünken, Verena; Erpenbach, Klaus; Fervers, Frank; Kuhl, Ulrike; Halsig, Friedemann; Rein, Wilfried; Hauser, Ernst-Richard; Laubenthal, Florin; Richard, Frank; Langer, Claus; Lange, Rainer; Eska, Jan; Mohanty, George; Lange, Isengard; Eltges, Nicole; Kuntz, Christoph; Mechery, Thomas; Vöckl, Josef; Viergutz, Christoph; Stähle-Klose, Claudia; Sohr, Katja; Böhler, Steffen; Brecke, Georg; Burls, Malcolm; Werner, Karl-Michael; Vorpahl, Ralf; Stahl-Weigert, Beate; Bunge, Gerd; Thomsen, Jutta; Blessing, Erwin; Bengel, Bengel; Buhlmann, Ulla; Tröger, Tröger; Sippel, Sippel; Vossschulte, Vossschulte; Wilms, Wilms; Appelt, Appelt; Dauterstedt, Dauterstedt; Witte, Witte; Böttger, Uta; Wyborski, Waltraud; Strache, Sabine; Böttger, Werner; Zeiner, Luise; Wuttke, Wanda; Stoidner- Amann, Annette; Stoermer, Brigitte; Bock, Stephan; Groos-März, Cornelia; Thamm, Maria-Elisabeth; Meier, Josef; Schneider, Martin; Niessen, Ulrich; Storm, Gernot-Rainer; Streitbürger, Elmar; Münkel, Thomas; Palfi, Mihai; Naumann, Ulrich; Tannhof, Gabriele; Streibhardt, Frank; Gebhardt, Wolfgang; Nieswandt, Gerhard; Gerke, Ulrich; Nöhring, Axel; Bott, Jochen; Goertz, Jutta; Winkler, Dietmar; Lotter, Edith; Kraaz, Katja; Bärwinkel, Petra; Hildebrandt, Diana; Weyers, Georg; Kubin-Siring, Birgit; Baier, Eduard; Weber, Thomas; Holz, Dirk-Egbert; Wolfers, Johannes; Kihm, Wolfgang; Kamali-Ernst, Schirin; Amann, Wolfgang; Kaase, Hans-Jürgen; Banning, Ottmar; Voigt, Thomas; Grünert, Frank; Gürtler, Michael; Pferdmenges, Karin; van Treek, Heiko; Möller, Bernd; Weigel, Sybille; Jun Hassler, Normann; Mauer, Helmuth; Beckers, Erwin; Weber, Clemens-August; Hawash, Hana; Ladke, Dietrich; Labitzky, Gerlinde; Kunkel, Petra; Hartung, Wolfgang; Pomykaj, Thomas; Prokop, Heiun; Schleif, Thomas; Cascino, Luisa; Exner, Petra; Daelman, Eric; Dietrich, Aneas; Prasse, Thomas; Brundisch, Stefanie; Schipper, Ralf; Duderstaedt, Bernd; de Haan, Fokko; Schmidt-Reinwald, Astrid; Seidel, Peter; Schmitz, Joachim; Bülent, Ergec; Ja Pique, Pyoong; Ding, Roland; Eggeling, Thomas; Duderstaedt, Elvira; Ferchland, Hans-Peter; Kruth, Renate; Gralla, Dieter; Köhler, Angelika; Laborge, Joachim Rene; Hammer, Harald; Richter, Ilona; Sauldie, Happy; Valk-Denkema, Inge Van Der; van der Valk, Leo; Feely, John; Dunne, Liam; Cox, John; Doyle, Michael; O'Gorman, Mary; Kennedy, John; Maher, Brian; Forde, Derek; Harrington, Peter; Cronin, Brian; Coady, Anew; Craig, John; O'Dowd, Caroline; O'Doherty, Brian; O'Connor, Patrick; Ling, Roland; Perry, Majella; Crowley, James; Keaveney, Lynda; Townley, Eadaoin; O'Shea, Eamonn; Regan, Michael; Cunningham, Seamus; Bluett, Desmond; Whyte, Oliver; Casey, Michael; Ruane, Fergal; Fitzgerald, Eleanor; O'Beirn, Eugene; Faller, Eamonn; Moffatt, Sean; Coleman, Michael; Day, Brendan; Mcadam, Brendan; O'Neill, Daragh; Mac Mahon, Conor; Wheeler, Mark; Byrne, Sheila; Fulcher, Kieran; CAREY, Owen; O'Connell, Kieran; Keane, Jack; Almarsomi, Laith; Vaughan, Carl; O'Callaghan, Tom; Grufferty, Tadgh; Shanahan, Eamon; Crowley, Brendan; Moran, Joe; Cotter, Jeremy; Healy, Colin; Curtin, Tom; Dillon, Joe; Dennehy, Thomas; Murphy, Elaine; Kennedy, Michael; Coffey, Donal; Carroll, Paul O.; Oliver, Barry; Mccarthy, Shane; Joyce, Peter; O'Shea, Gerard; Apperloo, A. J.; Basart, D. C. G.; Bax, M.; Beysens, P. A. J.; Breed, J. G. S.; Derks, A.; Eijgenraam, J. W.; Hermann, J. P. R.; Janus, C. L.; Kaasjager, H. A. H.; Klomps, H. C.; Koole, M. A. C.; Koster, T.; Kroon, C.; Lieverse, A. G.; Massaar-Hagen, B. E. M.; Moghaddam, F.; Oldenburg-Ligtenberg, P. C.; Potter van Loon, B. J.; Stroes, E. S. G.; Twickler, Th B.; van Asperdt, F. G. M. H.; van Asseldonk, J. P. M.; van der Loos, T. L. J. M.; van der Velde, R. Y.; van der Vring, J. A. F.; van Dorp, W. T.; van Essen, G. G.; van Kalmthout, P. M.; van Liebergen, R. A. M.; van Wissem, S.; Waanders, H.; Withagen, A. J. A. M.; Andersen, Per Vidar Klemet; Andersen, Randi F.; Andersson, Egil; Arnstad, Asle; Belguendouz, Larbi; Birkeland, Inge Arve; Bjørkum, Kari; Bredvold, Thor; Brevig, Leif Harald; Buchman, Erik; Burkeland-Matre, Rune; Burski, Krzysztoft; Byre, Roald; Bø, Per Erik; Dahl, Erik; Duch, Anna; Duong, Khoa; Dvergsdal, Peter; Edvardsen, Magne; Ernø, Asbjørn; Fredwall, Svein Otto; Glasø, Morten; Glasø, Jan; Grini, Asbjørn; Hallaråker, Arne; Normann Hansen, Age Normann; Haugland, Helge Haugland; Henrichsen, Svein Høegh; Hestnes, Atle; Idehen, Norman I. E.; Jacobsen, Kristin Løland; Johansen, Ture; Johnsen, Roald; Jonasmo, Kåre; Kirknes, Svetalana; Kjetså, Arild; Kjaer, Peter; Knoph, Erik; Knutssøn, Carl; Koss, Arne; Kravtchenko, Oleg; Krogsæter, Dagfinn; Langaker, Kåre; Lind, Knut W.; Lund, Kjell Rømyhr; Madsbu, Sverre; Mehlum, Yvonne E. Mazurek; Moon, Philipp; Movafagh, Aram; Myhrer, Kurt; Nørager, Dan Michael; Ore, Stephan; Rafat, Hooshang B.; Rød, Reinert; Schmidt-Melbye, Torgeir; Singh, Navneet; Singsås, Tore; Skjelvan, Gunnar; Smet, Arthur; Staalesen, Staale; Storeheier, Espen; Storhaug, Sidsel; Storm-Larsen, Ane; Sundby, Jon Eivind; Syverstad, Dag Eivind; Sørensen, Anne Sissel; Torjusen, Trygve B.; Torkelsen, Arne; Tunby, Jan Reidar; Vanberg, Pål Johan; Vevatne, Audun; Vikse, Arild; Wahlstrøm, Viktor; Walaas, Kirsten; Walløe, Arne Eyolf; Wear-Hansen, Hans-Gunnar; Ole Ystgaard, Ole Aneas; Zimmermann, Birgit; Øvsthus, Knut; Aião, Julio; Albuquerque, Mario; Alves, Fernando; Esteves, Antonio; Amaral, Maria Fatima; Amaral, Fátima; Amorim, Helena; Anade, Benilde; Anade, Maria Benilde; Antonio, Godinho; Araujo, Francisco; Arriaga, Antonio; Baeta, Sonia; Afonso, Francisca Banha; Beato, Vitor; Beirão, Paula; Martins, Ausenda Belo; Bernardes, Jose; Botas, Luis; Baeta, Antonio; Ramos, Manuel Braga; Brandão, Peo; Brandão, Antonio G.; Brandão, Antonio; Raposo, Antonio Caetano; Carrilho, Francisco; Carvalho, Isabel; Carvalho, Patricia; Castel-Branco, Ana; Castellano, Maria Desamparados; Corredoura, Ana; Corredoura, Ana Sofia; Costa, Vitor; Coutinho, João; Crujo, Francisco; Cunha, Damião; Dias, Manuela; Fernandes, Maria Emilia; Ferreira, Gustavo; Ferreira, Dirce; Ferreira, Jorge; Ferreira, Antonio M.; Fonseca, Antonio; Freitas, Paula; Gago, Amandio; Galego, Rosa; Garrett, Antonio Viriato; Gavina, Cristina; Simões, José Geraldes; Gomes, Maria Fatima; Gomes, Norberto; Gomez, Brigitte; Graça, Peo; Gravato, Antonio; Guedes, Nuno Filipe; Guerra, Fernanda; Issa, Custódio; João, Isabel Fernandes; João, Isabel; Jorge, Vasco; Leite, Maria Salome; Lousada, Nuno; Macedo, Filipe M.; Madeira Lopes, João; Magalhães, Jorge; Marinho, Jose Carlos; Marques, Carlos; Marques, Jose Augusto; Marques Ferreira, Antonio; Martins, Jose Carlos; Martins, J. Belo; Matos, Alice; Melo, Miguel; Miguel, Antonia; Monteiro, Filomena; Monteiro, Francisco; Monteiro, Filomena B.; Sarmento, João Morais; Morato Sá, Maria José; Mota, Joana; Moura, Luis; Moura, Brenda; Neves, Lena; Neves, Celestino; Oliveira, Maria; Oliveira Ramos, Manuel; Osorio, Ramos; Pacheco, Joao; Palma, Isabel; Peixoto, Maria Cristina; Pereira, Helder; Pestana, João; Pignatelli, Duarte; Pinho, Hernani; Puig, Jorge; Raindo, Maria; Ramos, Helena; Rebelo, Marta; Roigues, Antonio; Roigues, Alvaro; Roigues, Elisabete; Rola, José; Rovytchcva, Milena; Sa, João; Santos, Fernando; Santos, João Cesar; Sequeira Duarte, Joao; Serra E Silva, Polybio; Silva, Bernardino; Silva, Paula; Silva, Maria; Silva, Francisco; Silva, Dora; Silva, José; Silvestre, Isabel; Simões, Heleno; Soares, Manuela; Sousa, Nelson; Sousa, Antonio; Souto, Delfina; Teixeira, Esmeralda; Torres, Isabel; Valle, Tahydi; Ventura, Carlos; Vicente, Ana; Vieira, Muriel; Alfaro, Rafael; Alonso, Roigo; Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Allut, Germán; Amado, Jose A.; Ampuero, Javier; Angel, Luis Fernando; Antolín, Eduardo; Anton, Javier; Aranda, Jose Luis; Argimon, Jordi; Arques, Francesc; Arribas, Jose Peo; Arroya, Concepción; Arroyo, Jose Antonio; Auladell, Maria Antonia; Bajo, Julian; BALVIN, Alberto; Ballester, Jose Vicente; Barreda Glez, Maria Jesus; Becerra, Antonio; Bermejo, Juan Carlos; Bernacer, Luis; Besada, Ricardo; Blasco, Jesús; Bravo, Manuel; Bueno, Francisco Manuel; Campo, Ignacio; Carrasco, Jose Luis; Catalán, José Ignacio; Cobo, Jose; Coello, Ignacio; Combarro, Jesús; Contreras, Juan A.; Correa, Julian; Cortilla, Alberto; Cuatrecasas, Guillem; Chicharro, Sana; de Dios, Juan; de Los Arcos, Enrique; de Portugal, Jose; del Cañizo, Francisco; del Molino, Fatima; Díaz, Jose Luis; Domingo, Javier; Escobar, Carlos; Escoda, Jaume; Espinosa, Eugenio; Ester, Francisco; Fernandez, Antonio; Ferreiro, Manuel; Fondas, Jose Maria; Fraile, Angel Luis; Franco, Miguel; Fuentes, Francisco; Garcia, Jose Antonio; Garcia, Domingo; Garcia, Manuel Enrique; García, Luis; Garcia, Jesus; Gilabert, Rosa; Goiria, Begoña; Gomez, Purificación; Gomez-Calcerrada, David; Gonzalez, Manuel; Gonzalez, Jose Manuel; Guijarro, Carlos; Guirao Gujarro, Victor; Herrera, Carlos; Herrera, Maria Carmen; Herrero, Miguel; Ibarguren, Amaya; Irigoyen, Luis; Jimenez, Blas; Lamelas, Jose Antonio; Laplaza, Ismael; Laporta, Felix; Lazo, Victor; Leal, Mariano; Ledesma, Vicente; Lopez, Peo; Lopez, Pablo; Lopez, Alberto; López, Maria Jose; Lopez-Cepero, Eduardo; Lorenzo, Francisco; Lucena, Javier; Luquín, Rafael; Lloveras, Ariadna; Maceda, Teresa; Macia, Ramon; Marti, Cristina; Martin, Jose Maria; Martin, Isodoro; Martín Lesende, Iñaki; Martinez, Mercedes; Martinez, Juan Alberto; Martinez, Peo; Martinez, Angel; Mato, Fernando; Medel, Federico; Mederos, Ana Maria; Mediavilla, Javier; Mediavilla, Gregorio; Mestron, Antonio; Michans, Antonio; Millán, Jesús; Molina, Carlos; Monroy, Carmelo; Monte, Inés; Montes, Jose Maria; Morales, Clotilde; Morales, Francisco J.; Morata, Carmen; Mori, Carlos; Muñoz, Jaime; Muñoz, Maria Jose; Núnez, Julio; Nuñez, Alfonso; Ocaña, Fermin; Olaz, Fernando; Ollero Artigas, Anes; Ortega, Juan; Oteo, Olga; Pascual, Jose Maria; Paya, Jose Antonio; Pechuan, Joaquín; Penedo Suarez, Ramón; Perez, Eugenia; Pesquera, Carlos; Pia, Gonzalo; Piea, Maria; Pinilla, Martin; Pita, Alejano; Pose, Antonio; Prieto Díaz, Miguel Angel; Quesada, Carmen; Ramirez, Francisco; Ramirez, Carmen; Ramirez, Luisa; Reinares, Leonardo; Rey, Salvador; Ribas, Montse; Ridaura, Amparo; Ridocci, Francisco; Rigueiro, Peo; Rivera, Salomón; Robles, Antonio; Rodero, Estrella; Roiguez, Jose Angel; Romero, Fernando; Romero Hernandez, Franklin; Romeu, Regina; Rubio Buisán, Lorenzo; Salas, Fernando; Sánchez, Carlos; Sánchez, Jesus; Saponi, Jose Maria; Serres, Miguel; Suarez, Saturnino; Suarez, Carmen; Tato, Maria; Tebar, Francisco Javier; Toda, Maria Roca; Tofe, Santiago; Urdiain, Raquel; Vaamonde, Leopoldo; Valderrama, Javier; Vazquez, Jose Antonio; Velazquez, Osvaldo; Venell, Federico; Vilariño, Ruben; Villa, Maria Jesus; Villar, Maria Dolores; Zarauza, Jesus; Zuñiga, Manuel; Abab, Jose Luis; Abad, Eduardo; Abad, Rafael; Afonso, Carmen; Aguilar, Gerardo; Alberiche, Maria Del Pino; Alcolea, Rosa; Alegria, Eduardo; Almagro, Fátima; Almenara, Africa; Almenos, Maria Cruz; Alonso, Javier; Alvarez, Manuel; Ampudia, Javier; Andia, Victor Manuel; Anglada, Jordi; Aranda, Miguel Ángel; Arbelo, Lorenzo; Armengol, Francesc; Arnau, Asunción; Arrarte, Vicente; Arribas, Bienvenido; Artiñano, Yolanda; Avilés, Benjamín; Ayensa, Javier; Ballestar, Enric; Ballester, Javier; Barcelo, Bartolome; Barcena, Felix; Barranco, Mercedes; Barrena, Isabel; Barriales, Vicente; Barrot, Joan; Bartolome, Jose A.; Belmonte, Joan; Bellés, Amadeo; Benito, Josefina; Bernad, Antonio; Biendicho, Armando; Blanco, Rubén; Boix, Evangelina; Bonora, Carlos; Boxó, Jose Ramon; Brea, Angel; Caballero, Peo; Cabrera, Peo; Cabrero, Juan Jose; Calduch, Lourdes; Calero, Francisco; Calvo Garcia, Jose Javier; Camacho, Jose; Canales, Juan Jose; Caparros, Jorge; Carbonell, Francisco; Caro, Manuel; Castilla, Miguel Angel; Castillo, Luis; Cepero, Daniel; Cerdan, Miguel; Cimbora, Antonio; Civera, Miguel; Colchero, Justo; Comas Fuentes, Angel; Corpas, Clara; Corrales, Juan Antonio; Cotobal, Eusebio; Cruz, Carmen; Cruz, Inmaculada; de La Flor, Manuel D.; de Luis, Alberto; del Alamo, Alberto; del Rosario, Victor; Diego, Carlos; D'Lacoste, Marta; Doganis Peppas, Constantino; Dominguez, Jose Ramon; Durá, Francisco Javier; Durand, Jose L.; Ena, Javier; Encinas, Ana Rosa; Erdozain, Juan Peo; Escribano, Jose; Escriva, Blanca; Esteve, Eduardo; Facila, Lorenzo; Fenoll, Federico; Fernandez, Eugenio; Fernandez, Celia; Fernandez, Maria Jesus; Fernandez, Antonia; Fernandez, Jacinto; Fernandez, Severo; Fernandez, Jose Manuel; Fernandez, Jose Manuel Fernandez; Ferrer, Juan Carlos; Ferrer, Peo; Ferrer Bascuñana, Peo; Fierro, Maria Jose; Flores, Julio; Fuentes, Fernando; Fuertes, Jorge; Galgo, Alberto; Galvez, Angel; Gallego, Anea; Garcia, Maria Angeles; Garcia, Jose; Garcia, Maria Luisa; Garcia, Peo; Garcia, Javier; García, Francisco; Garrido, Nícolas Garrido; Gil, Manuel Gil; Ginés Gascón, Ramón; Godoy, Diego; Gomez, Carlos Manuel; Gonzalez, Miguel; Gonzalez, Rosa; Gonzalez, Rocío; Gonzalez, Enrique; Gonzalez, Juan Jose; Gonzalez, Joaquin; Gonzalez Huambos, Adan; Guerrero, Jordi; Guillen, Rosario; Guirao, Lorenzo; Gutierrez, Fernando; Gutierrez, Diego; Hernandez, Alberto; Hernandez, Antonio; Hernandis, Vicenta; Herrero, Jose Vicente; Herreros, Benjamin; Hevia Roiguez, Eduardo; Horgue, Antonio; Illan, Fatima; Inigo, Pilar; Ibrahim Jaber, Ali; Jimenez, Manuel; Jornet, Agusti; Juanola, Ester; Laguna, Alfonso; Latorre, Juan; Lebron, Jose Antonio; Lecube, Albert; Ledesma, Claudio; Ligorria, Cristina; Lima, Joan; López, Jose Enrique; Lopez, Manuel; López, José Antonio; López, Jaime; López, Isio; Lozano, Jose Vicente; Mangas, Miguel Angel; Mangas, Alipio; Manzano, Antonio; Maraver, Juan; Marco, Maria Dolores; Marchán, Enrique; Marchante, Francisco; Marin, Fernando; Marreo, Josefa Esther; Martin, Manuel; Martin, Alberto; Martin, Francisco Javier; Martinez, Antonio; Martinez, Guillermo; Martínez, Luis; Martinez Barselo, Antonio Pablo; Mas, Emili; Mascareño, Isabel; Mascarós, Enrique; Massa, Rita; Mazón, Pilar; Mediavilla, Juan Diego; Mena, Candido; Mendez, Jose; Mendez, Jose Maria; Mezquita Raya, Peo; Millan, Jose Maria; Millaruelo, Jose; Minguela, Ester; Miret, Pere; Molina, Mariano; Molina, Carmen; Montagud, Blanca; Montalban, Coral; Montiel, Angel; Montoro, Javier; Monze, Bernardo; Moreno, Francisco Luis; Morillas, Antonio; Moro, Jose Antonio; Moya, Ana; Muñiz, Ovidio; Muñoz, Manuel; Navarro, Vicente Luis; Nerin, Jesus; Nicolas, Ricardo; Nogueiras, Concepción; Ojeda, Benito; Olmerilla, Javier; Oller, Guillermo; Ortega, Antonio; Ortega, Manuel; Ortega, Miguel; Ortiz, Maria Jose; Otegui Alarduya, Luis; Palet, Jordi; Palomo, Jesus; Paytubí, Carlos; Peiro, Rafael; Pelaez, Carmen; Peña, Peo; Peñafiel, Javier; Perez, Antonia; Perez, Elvira; Perez, Tomas; Peso, Miguel; Pilar, Juan Manuel; Piñeiro, Carlos; Plaza, Jose Antonio; Polo, Noelia; Portal, Maria; Prieto, Jesus; Prieto, Luis; Prieto Novo, Manuel; Puñal, Peo; Quesada, Miguel; Quindimil, Jose Antonio; Rabade, Jose Manuel; Ramila Beraza, Luis Antonio; Ramirez, José Manuel; Ramos, Jose Antonio; Ramos, Francisco; Rayo, Manuel; Reixa Vizoso, Sol; Reyes, Antonio; Rico, Miguel Angel; Ripoll, Tomas; Rivera, Antonio; Robres, Mariano; Rodilla, Enrique; Roiguez, Miguel Angel; Roiguez, Zoilo Jesus; Roiguez, Carlos; Roiguez, Pilar; Roiguez, Melchor; Roiguez, Alfonso; Rojas, Domingo; Rosell, Luis; Rossignoli, Carlos; Rueda, Antonio; Rueda, Eloy; Ruix, Anes; Ruiz, Jose Antonio; Ruiz, Luis; Saban, Jose; Saez, Francisco Jose; Salleras, Narcis; Sánchez, Gerardo; Sanchez, Gloria; Sanchez, Angel; Sanfeliu, Josep Maria; Sangros Gonzalez, Javier; Santos, Francisco; Santus, Eufrosina; Sebastian, Alfredo; Seguro, Maria Eugenia; Selles, David; Serrano, Daniel; Serrano, Soledad; Serrano, Adalberto; Sestorain, Francisco; Solbes, Ruben; Soriano, Cristina; Suárez, Héctor; Surroca, Maria Luisa; Tarabini, Ada; Tarraga, Peo; Teixido, Eulalia; Terron, Raquel; Torres, Antonio; Tortosa, Jose Maria; Tortosa, Frederic; Valdés, Carmen; Valdés, Peo; Valiente, Jose Ignacio; Varo, Antonio; Vazquez, Enrique; Vázquez, Luis; Vela Ruiz de Morales, Jose Manuel; Vericat, Antonio; Vicioso, Peo; Vilaplana, Carlos; Villazón, Francisco; Lidia Viñas, Lidia Viñas; Zuagoitia, Jose Felix; Nörgaard, Faris; Dziamski, Ryszard; Haglund, Lars; Holm, Daniela; Sars, Mikael; Jagunic, Ivica; Östgård, Per; Kumlin, Lars; Jacobsson, Michael; Hamad, Yousef; Jäger, Wanje; Särhammar, Lars; Olsson, Anders; Boldt-Christmas, Antonina; Nyborg, Karin; Kjellström, Thomas; Ghazal, Faris; Wikström, Lene; Holby, Torulf; Bhiladvala, Pallonji; Kynde, Sara Maria; Eizyk, Enrique Julio; Tengblad, Anders; Christoffersson, Ole; Sjöström, Astrid; Kynde, Christian; Katzman, Per; Tenhunen, Anita; Lennermo, Klas; Lindholm, Carl-Johan; Löndahl, Magnus; Elfstrand, Aino; Grönlund-Brown, Inger; Ziedén, Bo; Minnhagen, Karin; Lindvall, Peter; Fant, Kristina; Kaczynski, Jacek; Wallmark, Anders; Wallén, Carl-Erik; Wallberg, Håkan; Grönquist, Lennart; Hansen, John Albert; Björkander, Inge; Timberg, Ingar; Rosenqvist, Ulf; Fries, Robert; Carlsson, Jan-Erik; Rautio, Aslak Tauno; Sjöberg, Lennart; Wirdby, Alexander; Höök, Peter; Larsson, Åsa; Bergström, Catharina Lysell; Jwayed, Addnan; Smolowicz, Adam; Lindman, Anne-Christine; Nilsson, Per; Tarrach, Gerrit; Carlsson, Ingolf; Wieloch, Mattias; Rindevall, Peter; Strömblad, Gunnar; Holmberg, Göran; Shahnazarian, Henrik; Melchior, Jan; Younan, Kamal; Hansson, Anders; Bjurklint, Dag; Borgencrantz, Bertil; Sjöström, Malin; Mullaart, Mikael; Munoz, Marjatta; Jakkola, Vallentina; Romot, Jaan; Dash, Rabinarayan; Magnusson, Jan-Olof; Ahmed, Saman; Jonsson, Christina; Pipkorn, Owe; Bray, Edward; Wolff, Aneas; Black, Iain; Head, Christopher; Allan, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of persistent lipid abnormalities in statin-treated patients with diabetes with and without the metabolic syndrome. This was a cross-sectional study of 22,063 statin-treated outpatients consecutively recruited by clinicians in Canada and 11 European countries. Patient

  8. Denmark and the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades Morten Kelstrup’s work has been at the centre of three important intellectual innovations in political science – the study of the EU as a regional political system; European security studies; and small states in European integration. Kelstrup’s best known books (Buzan, K...... of this book, two of Kelstrup’s most important intellectual contributions come from his work on Denmark’s relations with the European Union, and his use of systems theory to understand the EU.......Over the past two decades Morten Kelstrup’s work has been at the centre of three important intellectual innovations in political science – the study of the EU as a regional political system; European security studies; and small states in European integration. Kelstrup’s best known books (Buzan...

  9. HARMONIZED EUROPE OR EUROPEAN HARMONY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Marinescu

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent evolutions in Europe raise questions on the viability of the present economic and social model that defines the European construction project. In this paper, the author will try to explain the viability of institutional European model that sticks between free market mechanisms and protectionism. The main challenge for the EU is about the possibility to bring together the institutional convergence and the welfare for all Europeans. This is the result of the view, still dominant, of European politics elite, according to which institutional harmonization is the solution of a more dynamic and prosper Europe. But, economic realities convince us that, more and more, a harmonized, standardized Europe is not necessarily identical with a Europe of harmony and social cooperation. If „development through integration” seems to be harmonization through „institutional transplant”, how could then be the European model one sufficiently wide open to market, which creates the prosperity so long waited for by new member countries?

  10. Political Psychology of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social...... construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The chapter argues that the study of the EU has much to benefit from political psychology in terms of theories...... and methods of European identity and integration, but it also argues that political psychology can benefit from the insights of European integration by rethinking the processes that drive the marking of inside and outside, interior and exterior, belonging and otherness....

  11. How to Enforce European Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the well known saga of the European Court of Justice’s introduction of direct effect of Council directives on basis of new comprehensive archival research. The expansion of the doctrine of direct effect to include directives was part of a drive of the Legal Service of the Eu......This article explores the well known saga of the European Court of Justice’s introduction of direct effect of Council directives on basis of new comprehensive archival research. The expansion of the doctrine of direct effect to include directives was part of a drive of the Legal Service...... of the European Commission and the ECJ to strengthen the enforcement of European law. This threatened the deeper balance of competences between the European Community and its member states and consequently led to a sharp response from the national parliaments and courts. The force of these responses and the deep...

  12. European environmental stratifications and typologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazeu, G.W,; Metzger, M.J.; Mücher, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    their limitations and challenges. As such, they provide a sound basis for describing the factors affecting the robustness of such datasets. The latter is especially relevant, since there is likely to be further interest in European environmental assessment. In addition, advances in data availability and analysis......A range of new spatial datasets classifying the European environment has been constructed over the last few years. These datasets share the common objective of dividing European environmental gradients into convenient units, within which objects and variables of interest have relatively homogeneous...... scale. This paper provides an overview of five recent European stratifications and typologies, constructed for contrasting objectives, and differing in spatial and thematic detail. These datasets are: the Environmental Stratification (EnS), the European Landscape Classification (LANMAP), the Spatial...

  13. Persistence of interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics: An analysis of persisting and non-persisting students

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jeffry L.

    While there has been an increase in enrollment, interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has been declining on college campuses since 1967. Higher enrollment does not transfer to an increase in the number of minorities in the STEM fields. The majority-minority enrollment ratio is nearly 2:1 but the gap widens to 4:1 when it comes to graduation. In fact, underrepresented minorities (URM) earned only 12% of the STEM degrees awarded in 1998. When the higher attrition and lower graduation rates of URM are scrutinized, upwards of 60% changed majors or dropped out of STEM. Further investigation reveals the most frequently cited reasons for departure were loss of initial interest, developed a greater interest in another field, or were turned off by the STEM disciplines. A primarily exploratory study was conducted into the conditions necessary for academic interest in the STEM fields to persist. A model based on student engagement (Astin, 1977) and interest operations (Prenzel, 1988a) theories was used with a random sample of URM at universities participating in the Ohio Science and Engineering Alliance. Survey research was employed to investigate interest development and the effect of student retention programs and activities on such interest. The latter part of the study could not be fully examined when 95% reported not utilizing retention services. For the section on interest, an online survey using a 5-point Likert scale was validated using principal components analysis. A binominal logistic regression was used to predict membership in one of two possible groups: persisters and students at-risk for not persisting. The major conclusions are: (1) While 3 variables (feelings, learning and difficulty) were statistically significant only one, feelings was substantively significant. (2) Persistence increased 80.9% for each 1-unit increase in feelings and 9.9% for learning. (3) Persistence decreased 19.8% for each one-unit increase in difficulty

  14. European oil product supply modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Antonin, V.

    1998-01-01

    Over the last few years, trends in European oil product consumption (in terms of level as structure and quality) has important implications of the refining industry. In this context, the purpose of this thesis consists in building a mathematical programming model applied to the European refineries in order to determine oil product supply prices, European refining industry investments and oil product exchanges of the European Union. The first part presents the reason for our choice for a long-term aggregate multi-refineries linear programming model, based on European refineries characteristics and the objectives of our model. Its dual properties are studied in detail and we focus particularly on the European exchange modelling. In the second part, an analysis of the European refining trends leads us to identify parameters and variables of the model that are essential to the aggregate representation of the European oil product supply. The third part is devoted to the use of this model, regarding two scenarios of increasingly stringent specifications for gasoline and diesel oil. Our interest for these products is due to their important share of the European oil product consumption and the not insignificant responsibility of the transport sector for atmospheric pollution. Finally, in order to have the use of an overall picture of the European refining industry, we build a regression model summarizing, though a few equations, the main relations between the major endogenous and exogenous variables o the LP model. Based on pseudo-data, this kind of model provides a simple and robust representation of the oil product supply. But a more specialized analysis of the refining industry operations, turning on a technical assessment of processing units, is reliant on the use of an optimization model such as the model we have built. (author)

  15. Road tunnels safety according to European legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor KÁLLAY

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with safety of European road tunnels in accordance with actual European legislation. Standards and recommendations of European Commission, PIARC and other professional bodies of the European Union define minimal technological requirements for equipment and operation of the tunnels in scope of Trans-European Road Network.

  16. Emotional persistence in online chatting communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garas, Antonios; Garcia, David; Skowron, Marcin; Schweitzer, Frank

    2012-05-01

    How do users behave in online chatrooms, where they instantaneously read and write posts? We analyzed about 2.5 million posts covering various topics in Internet relay channels, and found that user activity patterns follow known power-law and stretched exponential distributions, indicating that online chat activity is not different from other forms of communication. Analysing the emotional expressions (positive, negative, neutral) of users, we revealed a remarkable persistence both for individual users and channels. I.e. despite their anonymity, users tend to follow social norms in repeated interactions in online chats, which results in a specific emotional ``tone'' of the channels. We provide an agent-based model of emotional interaction, which recovers qualitatively both the activity patterns in chatrooms and the emotional persistence of users and channels. While our assumptions about agent's emotional expressions are rooted in psychology, the model allows to test different hypothesis regarding their emotional impact in online communication.

  17. Persistent hyperlactacidaemia: about a clinical case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana Rita Saraiva; Valente, Rosalina; Ramos, José; Ventura, Lurdes

    2013-05-22

    Lactate is the endogenous end product of the anaerobic glycolysis, whose production is favoured in situations of hypoperfusion or mitochondrial dysfunction. Leigh syndrome is a rare, progressive encephalomyopathy that represents a spectrum of mitochondrial genetic diseases phenotypically distinct, but with neuroradiological and pathological uniform presentation. We present the case of a 7-month-old infant, with a history of prematurity, psychomotor retardation and epilepsy, admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) due to cardio-respiratory arrest because of respiratory infection. Hyperlactacidaemia was detected and was persistent. The study of redox potential was normal but MRI with spectroscopy identified bilateral and symmetrical lesions involving thalamic and basal ganglia, with small lactate peaks at T2 flair, findings that were suggestive of Leigh syndrome. Subsequent enzymatic study identified lack of pyruvate dehydrogenase. Persistent hyperlactacidaemia, in the appropriate clinical context, should lead to the screening of mitochondrial diseases.

  18. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, P M C; Bataclan, Maria Flordeliz A

    2004-06-01

    This article attempts to define a complicated, yet not rare disease of the neonate, which presents with extreme hypoxemia due to increased pulmonary vascular resistance, resulting in diversion of the pulmonary venous blood through persistent fetal channels, namely ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale. Pathophysiology, diagnostic approach and the various modalities of management are analyzed. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn is multi-factorial, which is reflected in the management as well. These babies are extremely labile to hypoxia and should be stabilized with minimum handling. One hundred percent oxygen and ventilation are the mainstay of treatment. The role of hyperventilation, alkalinization, various non-specific vasodilators such as tolazoline, magnesium sulphate, selective vasodilators such as inhaled nitric oxide, adenosine and the role of high frequency oscillatory ventilation and extra corporeal membrane oxygenation are discussed. With the newer modalities of management, the outlook has improved with mortality of less than 20% and fewer long-term deficits.

  19. Patients with persistent medically unexplained physical symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A, Aamland; Malterud, Kirsti; Werner, E.

    2014-01-01

    for all variables and split analysis on gender and age. RESULTS: The GPs registered 526 patients among their total of 17 688 consultations, giving a consultation prevalence of persistent MUPS of 3%. The mean age of patients was 46 years, and 399 (76%) were women. The most frequent group of symptoms...... was musculoskeletal problems, followed by asthenia/fatigue. There was no significant gender difference in symptom pattern. Almost half of the patients were currently working (45%), significantly more men. The major GP management strategy was supportive counseling. CONCLUSION: A consultation prevalence rate of 3......% implies that patients with persistent MUPS are common in general practice. Our study disclosed heterogeneity among the patients such as differences in employment status, which emphasizes the importance of personalized focus rather than unsubstantiated stereotyping of "MUPS patients" as a group....

  20. Persistent Identifiers for Dutch cultural heritage institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ras, Marcel; Kruithof, Gijsbert

    2016-04-01

    Over the past years, more and more collections belonging to archives, libraries, media, museums, and knowledge institutes are being digitised and made available online. These are exciting times for ALM institutions. They are realising that, in the information society, their collections are goldmines. Unfortunately most heritage institutions in the Netherlands do not yet meet the basic preconditions for long-term availability of their collections. The digital objects often have no long lasting fixed reference yet. URL's and web addresses change. Some digital objects that were referenced in Europeana and other portals can no longer be found. References in scientific articles have a very short life span, which is damaging for scholarly research. In 2015, the Dutch Digital Heritage Network (NDE) has started a two-year work program to co-ordinate existing initiatives in order to improve the (long-term) accessibility of the Dutch digital heritage for a wide range of users, anytime, anyplace. The Digital Heritage Network is a partnership established on the initiative of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science. The members of the NDE are large, national institutions that strive to professionally preserve and manage digital data, e.g. the National Library, The Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision, the Netherlands Cultural Heritage Agency, the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, the National Archive of the Netherlands and the DEN Foundation, and a growing number of associations and individuals both within and outside the heritage sector. By means of three work programmes the goals of the Network should be accomplished and improve the visibility, the usability and the sustainability of digital heritage. Each programme contains of a set of projects. Within the sustainability program a project on creating a model for persistent identifiers is taking place. The main goals of the project are (1) raise awareness among cultural heritage institutions on the

  1. Persistent Aerial Tracking system for UAVs

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias

    2016-12-19

    In this paper, we propose a persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc.) integrating multiple UAVs with a stabilized RGB camera. A novel strategy is employed to successfully track objects over a long period, by ‘handing over the camera’ from one UAV to another. We evaluate several state-of-the-art trackers on the VIVID aerial video dataset and additional sequences that are specifically tailored to low altitude UAV target tracking. Based on the evaluation, we select the leading tracker and improve upon it by optimizing for both speed and performance, integrate the complete system into an off-the-shelf UAV, and obtain promising results showing the robustness of our solution in real-world aerial scenarios.

  2. Persistent Aerial Tracking system for UAVs

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias; Sharma, Gopal; Smith, Neil; Ghanem, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc.) integrating multiple UAVs with a stabilized RGB camera. A novel strategy is employed to successfully track objects over a long period, by ‘handing over the camera’ from one UAV to another. We evaluate several state-of-the-art trackers on the VIVID aerial video dataset and additional sequences that are specifically tailored to low altitude UAV target tracking. Based on the evaluation, we select the leading tracker and improve upon it by optimizing for both speed and performance, integrate the complete system into an off-the-shelf UAV, and obtain promising results showing the robustness of our solution in real-world aerial scenarios.

  3. Geometry Helps to Compare Persistence Diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerber, Michael; Morozov, Dmitriy; Nigmetov, Arnur

    2015-11-16

    Exploiting geometric structure to improve the asymptotic complexity of discrete assignment problems is a well-studied subject. In contrast, the practical advantages of using geometry for such problems have not been explored. We implement geometric variants of the Hopcroft--Karp algorithm for bottleneck matching (based on previous work by Efrat el al.), and of the auction algorithm by Bertsekas for Wasserstein distance computation. Both implementations use k-d trees to replace a linear scan with a geometric proximity query. Our interest in this problem stems from the desire to compute distances between persistence diagrams, a problem that comes up frequently in topological data analysis. We show that our geometric matching algorithms lead to a substantial performance gain, both in running time and in memory consumption, over their purely combinatorial counterparts. Moreover, our implementation significantly outperforms the only other implementation available for comparing persistence diagrams.

  4. Imaging approach to persistent neonatal jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirks, D.; Coleman, R.E.; Filston, H.C.; Rosenberg, E.R.; Merten, D.F.

    1984-01-01

    Fifteen patients with persistent neonatal jaundice were evaluated by sonography and radionuclide scintigraphy. The sonographic features of both neonatal hepatitis and biliary atresia are nonspecific. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy after phenobarbital pretreatment in patients with neonatal hepatitis demonstrates normal hepatic extraction and delayed tracer excretion into the gastrointestinal tract. If there is neonatal hepatitis with severe hepatocellular damage, the hepatic extraction of tracer activity is decreased and excretion may be delayed or absent. Patients under 3 months of age with biliary atresia have normal hepatic extraction of tracer with no excretion into the gastrointestinal tract. Sonography in patients with a choledochal cyst shows a cystic mass in the porta hepatis with associated bile-duct dilatation. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy confirms that the choledochal cyst communicates with the biliary system. Initial sonography demonstrates hepatobiliary anatomy; subsequent phenobarbital-enhanced radionuclide scintigraphy determines hepatobiliary function. An expedient diagnostic approach is recommended for the evaluation of persistent neonatal jaundice

  5. Persistent hepatitis virus infection and immune homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    ZHOU Yun

    2014-01-01

    Homeostasis between the host and viruses is naturally maintained. On the one hand, the immune system activates the immune response to kill or eliminate viruses; on the other hand, the immune system controls the immune response to maintain immune homeostasis. The cause of persistent infections with hepatitis viruses such as HBV and HCV is that viral molecules damage the immune system of the host and their variants escape immune clearance. Long-term coexistence of the host and viruses is the pr...

  6. The persistence of marketing effects on sales

    OpenAIRE

    Dekimpe, Marnik; Hanssens, DM

    1993-01-01

    Are marketing efforts able to affect long-term trends in sales or other performance measures? Answering this question is essential for the creation of marketing strategies that deliver a sustainable competitive advantage. This paper introduces persistence modeling to derive long-term marketing effectiveness from time-series observations on sales and marketing expenditures. First, we use unit-root tests to determine whether sales are stable or evolving (trending) over time. If they are evolvin...

  7. Mobility-induced persistent chimera states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrungaro, Gabriela; Uriu, Koichiro; Morelli, Luis G.

    2017-12-01

    We study the dynamics of mobile, locally coupled identical oscillators in the presence of coupling delays. We find different kinds of chimera states in which coherent in-phase and antiphase domains coexist with incoherent domains. These chimera states are dynamic and can persist for long times for intermediate mobility values. We discuss the mechanisms leading to the formation of these chimera states in different mobility regimes. This finding could be relevant for natural and technological systems composed of mobile communicating agents.

  8. Understanding and Responding to Persistently High Unemployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Persistent Effects of Job Displacement: The Importance of Multiple Job Losses,” Journal of Labor Economics , vol. 15, no. 1, part 1 (January 1997), pp...Capital: Evidence from Displaced Workers,” Journal of Labor Economics , vol. 13, no. 4 (October 1995), pp. 653–677.one-third had trouble meeting...Effects of Worker Displacement,” Journal of Labor Economics , vol. 26, no. 3 (July 2008), pp. 455–483. completed its most recent economic forecast), that

  9. Actinomyces associated with persistent vaginal granulation tissue.

    OpenAIRE

    Wai, Clifford Y; Nihira, Mikio A; Drewes, Peter G; Chang, Joe S; Siddiqui, Momin T; Hemsell, David L

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We report a case of symptomatic actinomycosis associated with vaginal suture erosion and granulation tissue refractory to conservative management, in an outpatient setting. CASE: Three months after total vaginal hysterectomy and uterosacral ligament vaginal vault suspension, a woman complained of painless, intermittent vaginal discharge and spotting. Despite cauterization of granulation tissue, vaginal spotting persisted for another month. On re-examination, braided polyester sutu...

  10. Persistent postsurgical pain: risk factors and prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Henrik; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Woolf, Clifford J.

    2006-01-01

    therapy for postoperative pain should be investigated, since the intensity of acute postoperative pain correlates with the risk of developing a persistent pain state. Finally, the role of genetic factors should be studied, since only a proportion of patients with intraoperative nerve damage develop...... chronic pain. Based on information about the molecular mechanisms that affect changes to the peripheral and central nervous system in neuropathic pain, several opportunities exist for multimodal pharmacological intervention. Here, we outline strategies for identification of patients at risk...

  11. Information persistence using XML database technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Thomas A.; Lipa, Brian E. G.; Macera, Anthony R.; Staskevich, Gennady R.

    2005-05-01

    The Joint Battlespace Infosphere (JBI) Information Management (IM) services provide information exchange and persistence capabilities that support tailored, dynamic, and timely access to required information, enabling near real-time planning, control, and execution for DoD decision making. JBI IM services will be built on a substrate of network centric core enterprise services and when transitioned, will establish an interoperable information space that aggregates, integrates, fuses, and intelligently disseminates relevant information to support effective warfighter business processes. This virtual information space provides individual users with information tailored to their specific functional responsibilities and provides a highly tailored repository of, or access to, information that is designed to support a specific Community of Interest (COI), geographic area or mission. Critical to effective operation of JBI IM services is the implementation of repositories, where data, represented as information, is represented and persisted for quick and easy retrieval. This paper will address information representation, persistence and retrieval using existing database technologies to manage structured data in Extensible Markup Language (XML) format as well as unstructured data in an IM services-oriented environment. Three basic categories of database technologies will be compared and contrasted: Relational, XML-Enabled, and Native XML. These technologies have diverse properties such as maturity, performance, query language specifications, indexing, and retrieval methods. We will describe our application of these evolving technologies within the context of a JBI Reference Implementation (RI) by providing some hopefully insightful anecdotes and lessons learned along the way. This paper will also outline future directions, promising technologies and emerging COTS products that can offer more powerful information management representations, better persistence mechanisms and

  12. Anomaly equations and the persistent mass condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, E.; Frishman, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Vector SU(Nsub(c)) gauge theories with nsub(f) flavors in the fundamental representation are considered. We prove that if the persistent mass condition is assumed, the two anomaly equations are identical and flavor independent for nsub(f) >= 3. Integer solutions exist only for nsub(f) = 2. The necessity of a separate discussion for 2 <= nsub(f) <= Nsub(c) is explained. (orig.)

  13. [Persistent duodenal septum in an adult].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helwing, E; Echtermeyer, V; Otten, G

    1977-02-01

    A case of duodenal obstruction by a congenital duodenal web in a 34-year-old woman is presented. A mucosal diaphragm obstructed the duodenum. It showed an excentric opening of 0.8 cm diameter, but the dilated diaphragm caused a total stop during the last months. Despite a typical history, exact X-ray, and endoscopic examination, the correct preoperative diagnosis was not found, because nobody thought it possible, that a mucosal diapharm of the duodenum could persist for 34 years.

  14. THE MORPHOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE CHINESE AND THE EUROPEAN DISTRICTS IN SURABAYA, 1787-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timoticin Kwanda

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the phenomena of economic boom during the 1990s have led to the physical restructuring within the old centre of Surabaya. The changes is inevitable, thus the real issue is how to find the elements of persistent, constraining development to some degree that could be applied to influence future development. The objective of the research is to understand the impact of intervention, and to find the typo-morphological framework in the European and the Chinese quarters, from 1787 to 2005 for future development. A synchronic and a diachronic method is applied to understand the old town centre historical development, and the relationship between building type and urban fabric. The result shows three different degrees of persistent. The town plan of the Chinese and the European districts show a notable persistence. However the land utilization is less persistent especially in the European district such as the first and the second city wall were replaced by roads, and the first and the second fort were replaced by open space and residential uses. Finally, the buildings fabric shows a drastic change such as most of the nineteenth century Indische buildings have been replaced by the 1920s modern buildings.

  15. The European XFEL Project

    CERN Document Server

    Trunk, U

    2008-01-01

    The European XFEL project is a 4th generation photon source to be built in Hamburg. Electron bunches, accelerated to 17.5GeV by the XFEL linac, are distributed to three long SASE undulators. There photon pulses with full lateral coherence and wavelengths between 0.1nm and 4.9nm (12.4 keV and 0.8 keV) are generated for three beamlines. It will deliver around 1012photons within each 100 fs pulse, reaching a peak brilliance of 1033photonss−1mm−2mrad−2(0.1%BW)−1. Thus it will offer unprecedented possibilities in photon science research including nano-object imaging and studies (e.g. by coherent X-ray scattering) and ultra fast dynamic analysis of plasma and chemical reactions (e.g. by X-ray photo correlation spectroscopy). The detector requirements for such studies are extremely challenging: position sensitive area detectors have to provide a dynamic range of ≥ 104, with single-photon sensitivity, while withstanding radiation doses up to 1GGy (TID). Furthermore the detectors have to record data from tra...

  16. European XFEL (in Polish)

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, R S

    2013-01-01

    European X-Ray FEL – free electron laser is under construction in DESY Hamburg. It is scheduled to be operational at 2015/16 at a cost more than 1 billion Euro. The laser uses SASE method to generate x-ray light. It is propelled by an electron linac of 17,5GeV energy and more than 2km in length. The linac uses superconducting SRF TESLA technology working at 1,3 GHz in frequency. The prototype of EXFEL is FLASH Laser (200 m in length), where the “proof of principle” was checked, and from the technologies were transferred to the bigger machine. The project was stared in the nineties by building a TTF Laboratory -Tesla Test Facility. The EXFEL laser is a child of a much bigger teraelectronovolt collider project TESLA (now abandoned in Germany but undertaken by international community in a form the ILC). A number of experts and young researchers from Poland participate in the design, construction and research of the FLASH and EXFEL lasers.

  17. Endorectal magnetic resonance imaging in persistent hemospermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prando, Adilson

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To present the spectrum of abnormalities found at endorectal magnetic resonance imaging (E-MRI), in patients with persistent hemospermia. Materials and methods: A review of E-MRI findings observed in 86 patients with persistent hemospermia was performed and results compared with those reported in the literature. Follow-up was possible in 37 of 86 (43%) patients with hemospermia. Results: E-MRI showed abnormal findings in 52 of 86 (60%) patients with hemospermia. These findings were: a) hemorrhagic seminal vesicle and ejaculatory duct, isolated (n = 11 or 21%) or associated with complicated midline prostatic cyst (n = 10 or 19.0%); b) hemorrhagic chronic seminal vesiculitis, isolated (n = 14 or 27%) or associated with calculi within dilated ejaculatory ducts (n = 2 or 4 %); c) hemorrhagic seminal vesicle associated with calculi within dilated ejaculatory duct (n = 4 or 7.7%) or within seminal vesicle (n = 4 or 7.7%); d) non-complicated midline prostatic cyst (n = 6 or 11.5%); and e) prostate cancer (n = 1 or 2%). Successful treatment was more frequent in patients with chronic inflammatory and/or obstructive abnormalities. Conclusion: E-MRI should be considered the modality of choice, for the evaluation of patients with persistent hemospermia. (author)

  18. Endorectal magnetic resonance imaging in persistent hemospermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prando, Adilson [Vera Cruz Hospital, Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging

    2008-03-15

    Objective: To present the spectrum of abnormalities found at endorectal magnetic resonance imaging (E-MRI), in patients with persistent hemospermia. Materials and methods: A review of E-MRI findings observed in 86 patients with persistent hemospermia was performed and results compared with those reported in the literature. Follow-up was possible in 37 of 86 (43%) patients with hemospermia. Results: E-MRI showed abnormal findings in 52 of 86 (60%) patients with hemospermia. These findings were: a) hemorrhagic seminal vesicle and ejaculatory duct, isolated (n = 11 or 21%) or associated with complicated midline prostatic cyst (n = 10 or 19.0%); b) hemorrhagic chronic seminal vesiculitis, isolated (n = 14 or 27%) or associated with calculi within dilated ejaculatory ducts (n = 2 or 4 %); c) hemorrhagic seminal vesicle associated with calculi within dilated ejaculatory duct (n = 4 or 7.7%) or within seminal vesicle (n = 4 or 7.7%); d) non-complicated midline prostatic cyst (n = 6 or 11.5%); and e) prostate cancer (n = 1 or 2%). Successful treatment was more frequent in patients with chronic inflammatory and/or obstructive abnormalities. Conclusion: E-MRI should be considered the modality of choice, for the evaluation of patients with persistent hemospermia. (author)

  19. Persistent physical symptoms as perceptual dysregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Peter; Gündel, Harald; Kop, Willem J

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms underlying the perception and experience of persistent physical symptoms are not well understood, and in the models, the specific relevance of peripheral input versus central processing, or of neurobiological versus psychosocial factors in general, is not clear.In this a......OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms underlying the perception and experience of persistent physical symptoms are not well understood, and in the models, the specific relevance of peripheral input versus central processing, or of neurobiological versus psychosocial factors in general, is not clear.......In this article, we propose a model for this clinical phenomenon that is designed to be coherent with an underlying, relatively new model of the normal brain functions involved in the experience of bodily signals. METHODS: Based on a review of recent literature we describe central elements of this model and its...... of predictions and sensory input. Two possibilities exist: adaptation of the generative model underlying the predictions or alteration of the sensory input via autonomic nervous activation (in the case of interoception). Following this model, persistent physical symptoms can be described as "failures...

  20. Persistent producer-scrounger relationships in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harten, Lee; Matalon, Yasmin; Galli, Naama; Navon, Hagit; Dor, Roi; Yovel, Yossi

    2018-02-01

    Social foraging theory suggests that group-living animals gain from persistent social bonds, which lead to increased tolerance in competitive foraging and information sharing. Bats are among the most social mammals, often living in colonies of tens to thousands of individuals for dozens of years, yet little is known about their social foraging dynamics. We observed three captive bat colonies for over a year, quantifying >13,000 social foraging interactions. We found that individuals consistently used one of two foraging strategies, either producing (collecting) food themselves or scrounging it directly from the mouth of other individuals. Individual foraging types were consistent over at least 16 months except during the lactation period when females shifted toward producing. Scroungers intentionally selected whom to interact with when socially foraging, thus generating persistent nonrandom social relationships with two to three specific producers. These persistent producer-scrounger relationships seem to reduce aggression over time. Finally, scrounging was highly correlated with vigilance, and we hypothesize that vigilant-prone individuals turn to scrounging in the wild to mitigate the risk of landing on a potentially unsafe fruit tree. We find the bat colony to be a rich and dynamic social system, which can serve as a model to study the role that social foraging plays in the evolution of mammalian sociality. Our results highlight the importance of considering individual tendencies when exploring social behavior patterns of group-living animals. These tendencies further emphasize the necessity of studying social networks over time.

  1. Overview of persistent pain in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molton, Ivan R; Terrill, Alexandra L

    2014-01-01

    With the shifting age demographics of the U.S. population, more psychologists will be asked to provide clinical services to older adults. Given the high prevalence of persistent pain in aging, in many cases this will mean providing empirically supported interventions for pain and the interference it creates. The purpose of this review is to provide a broad overview of the scope and impact of persistent pain in older people and to discuss mechanisms by which persistent geriatric pain can lead to suffering and disability. We consider the unique context of pain in older adulthood and review differences between older and younger people in terms of pain perception, the social network, beliefs about pain, pain-related coping, and adherence to pain medication. Finally, we discuss special issues affecting pain management in older adults, including dementia, polypharmacy, and barriers to accessing adequate pain care. This review also highlights a need for greater provider training in pain management to meet the needs of a changing U.S. population. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Sputum Neutrophilia in Severe Persistent Asthmatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naseem, A.; Zaidi, S. B. H.; Liaqat, J.; Iftikhar, R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of sputum neutrophilia in patients with severe persistent bronchial asthma. Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Medicine, Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, from November 2009 to November 2010. Methodology: Cases of severe persistent bronchial asthma, aged between 12 and 40 years, were included. Sputum samples were collected by induction with hypertonic saline (4.5%). All samples were centrifuged and differential neutrophil count was calculated. Data was analyzed using SPSS 11. Results: Out of 195 patients, there were 129 (66.2%) males and 66 (33.8%) females. The mean age was 27.01 A +- 6.92 years. Mean sputum neutrophilic count was 126.47 A +- 16.52 x 106/ml and the mean neutrophilic percentage was 63.187 A +- 8.3363. Sputum neutrophilia was present in 84 patients (43.1%), out of whom, 56 were males and 28 females. In patients with sputum neutrophilia, mean neutrophilic count was 142.40 A +- 8.49 x 106/ml and the mean neutrophilic percentage was 71.2024 A +- 4.2441%. Conclusion: Sputum neutrophilia is a frequent finding in cases with severe persistent bronchial asthma. Presence of sputum neutrophilia in such cases can lessen the inappropriate use of corticosteroids with their associated long-term side effects. (author)

  3. University Experiences and Women Engineering Student Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, LoAnn Debra Gienger

    Riverside University (a pseudonym), like many universities, has not significantly increased the number of women who graduate with bachelor's degrees in engineering. The purpose of the study is to understand how the university experiences of women students influence the decision to persist in an undergraduate engineering degree and to understand the role of self-perception in how the students perceive experiences as supporting or hindering their persistence in the major. Archival data, documents and artifacts, observations, individual interviews, and a focus group with women engineering students provide insights into students' perceived barriers and supports of student success. Analysis of the data results in two major themes. First, students' self-confidence and self-efficacy influence how women assimilate university experiences as either supportive or diminishing of academic success. Second, university policies and practices shape the campus environment within which student experiences are formed and influence a student's level of institutional, academic, and social integration. The results of the study indicate opportunities for university leadership to enhance strategies that positively shape students' institutional, academic and social integration as precursors toward increasing the number of women students who successfully complete undergraduate engineering degrees at Riverside University. Future research is indicated to better understand how gender and gender identity intersects with other demographic factors, such as socio-economic status, immigration status, and life stage (e.g., traditional versus non-traditional students), to support or deter the persistence of engineering students to degree completion.

  4. Reoperation for persistent or recurrent secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abruzzo, Alida; Gioviale, Maria Concetta; Damiano, Giuseppe; Palumbo, Vincenzo Davide; Buscemi, Salvatore; Lo Monte, Giulia; Gulotta, Leonardo; Buscemi, Giuseppe; Lo Monte, Attilio Ignazio

    2017-10-23

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism is a common acquired disorder seen in chronic renal failure. Its pathophysiology is mainly due to hyperphosphatemia and vitamin D deficiency and resistance. When medical treatment fails, subtotal and total parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation are the standard procedures, although both are associated with high recurrence rates. 4 patients experienced persistence and 9 relapse. The first 4 were subjected to reoperation after 6 months for the persistence of symptoms due to the finding of a supernumerary adenomatous gland while the remaining patients at the reoperation showed in 5 cases 2 more glands in over thymic position, and 4 an hyperplasia of the residual glandular tissue. A classic cervicotomy was sufficient to remove the residual parathyroid in patients with persistent hyperparathyroidism. For cases of recurrent hyperparathyroidism it was enough a medial approach and sometimes lateral for the complete excision of the hyperplastic tissue. The advent of the intraoperative technique of parathyroid hormone dosage allowed a better performance of the surgical technique for the last 3 patients undergoing reoperation. After reoperation all patients had immediate regression of clinical symptoms with normalization of serum calcium and PTH levels. On the basis of these considerations, diagnostic imaging has a not negligible role because during the first intervention helps to have an idea of the possible location of the glands and thus to avoid the risk of recurrence and relapse due to ectopic or supernumerary tissue.

  5. Experiencing European integration: transnational lives and European identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhn, T.

    2015-01-01

    European integration has generated a wide array of economic, political, and social opportunities beyond the nation state. Scandinavians spending their retirement at the Mediterranean coast; Germans employing a Polish caretaker; international exchange students staying in Prague; Italian baristas

  6. Atmosphere and ocean dynamics: contributors to the European Little Ice Age?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palastanga, V.; Schrier, G. van der; Weber, S.L. [Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), P.O. Box 201, De Bilt (Netherlands); Kleinen, T. [University of East Anglia, Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, Norwich (United Kingdom); Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Briffa, K.R.; Osborn, T.J. [University of East Anglia, Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, Norwich (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    The role of a reduction in the Atlantic meridional overturning and that of a persistently negative North Atlantic Oscillation in explaining the coldness of the European Little Ice Age (LIA) has been assessed in two sets of numerical experiments. These experiments are performed using an intermediate complexity climate model and a full complexity GCM. The reduction in the Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) of ca. 25% is triggered by a conventional fresh-water hosing set-up. A persistently negative NAO winter circulation, at NAO-index value -0.5, is imposed using recently developed data-assimilation techniques applicable on paleoclimatic timescales. The hosing experiments lead to a reduction in oceanic meridional heat transport and cooler sea-surface temperatures. Next to a direct cooling effect on European climate, the change in ocean surface temperatures feedback on the atmospheric circulation modifying European climate significantly. The data-assimilation experiments showed a reduction of winter temperatures over parts of Europe, but there is little persistence into the summer season. The output of all model experiments are compared to reconstructions of winter and summer temperature based on the available temperature data for the LIA period. This demonstrates that the hypothesis of a persistently negative NAO as an explanation for the European LIA does not hold. The hosing experiments do not clearly support the hypothesis that a reduction in the MOC is the primary driver of LIA climate change. However, a reduction in the Atlantic overturning might have been a cause of the European LIA climate, depending on whether there is a strong enough feedback on the atmospheric circulation. (orig.)

  7. Adolescents' experience of complex persistent pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Kari; Christiansen, Bjørg

    2017-04-01

    Persistent (chronic) pain is a common phenomenon in adolescents. When young people are referred to a pain clinic, they usually have amplified pain signals, with pain syndromes of unconfirmed ethology, such as fibromyalgia and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Pain is complex and seems to be related to a combination of illness, injury, psychological distress, and environmental factors. These young people are found to have higher levels of distress, anxiety, sleep disturbance, and lower mood than their peers and may be in danger of entering adulthood with mental and physical problems. In order to understand the complexity of persistent pain in adolescents, there seems to be a need for further qualitative research into their lived experiences. The aim of this study was to explore adolescents' experiences of complex persistent pain and its impact on everyday life. The study has an exploratory design with individual in-depth interviews with six youths aged 12-19, recruited from a pain clinic at a main referral hospital in Norway. A narrative approach allowed the informants to give voice to their experiences concerning complex persistent pain. A hermeneutic analysis was used, where the research question was the basis for a reflective interpretation. Three main themes were identified: (1) a life with pain and unpleasant bodily expressions; (2) an altered emotional wellbeing; and (3) the struggle to keep up with everyday life. The pain was experienced as extremely strong, emerging from a minor injury or without any obvious causation, and not always being recognised by healthcare providers. The pain intensity increased as the suffering got worse, and the sensation was hard to describe with words. Parts of their body could change in appearance, and some described having pain-attacks or fainting. The feeling of anxiety was strongly connected to the pain. Despair and uncertainty contributed to physical disability, major sleep problems, school absence, and withdrawal from

  8. Trustworthy persistent identifier systems of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golodoniuc, Pavel; Klump, Jens; Car, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    Over the last two decades, persistent identifier (PID) systems have seen some significant changes in their governance policies, system capabilities, and technology. The development of most systems was driven by two main application areas, namely archives and libraries. Guidelines and criteria for trustworthy PID systems have been clearly devised (Bütikofer, 2009) and many PID system implementations for the identification of static digital objects have been built (e.g., PURL). However systems delivering persistent identifiers for dynamic datasets are not yet mature. There has been a rapid proliferation of different PID systems caused by the specific technical or organisational requirements of various communities that could not be met by existing systems such as DOI, ISBN, and EAN. Many of these different systems were limited by their inability to provide native means of persistent identifier resolution. This has prompted a decoupling of PID-associated data from the resolution service and this is where the Handle system has played a significant role. The Handle allowed to build a distributed system of independently managed resolver services. A trustworthy PID system must be designed to outlive the objects it provides persistent identifiers for, which may cease to exist or otherwise be deprecated, and the technology used to implement it, which will certainly need to change with time. We propose that such a system should rest on four pillars of agreements - (i) definitions, (ii) policies, (iii) services, and (iv) data services, to ensure longevity. While we believe all four pillars are equally important, we intentionally leave regulating aspects of issuing of identifiers and their registration out of the scope of this paper and focus on the agreements that have to be established between PID resolver services and the data sources indicated by the persistent identifiers. We propose an approach to development of PID systems that combines the use of (a) the Handle system

  9. The European Model Company Act

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix

    2011-01-01

    European Company Law regulation is currently undergoing a reform. These reforms raise a number of regulatory questions, such as what should be the aims of companies' legislation, and how these aims should best be met by regulation. Many of the reforms and discussions (both on EU and national level...... an increasing influence on the framing of company legislation, such as the choice between mandatory or default rules. This article introduces the project 'European Company Law and the choice of Regulatory Method' which is carried out in collaboration with the 'European Model Company Act Group'. The project aims...

  10. The European Parliament and the European future of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skerdilajd Bajramaj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available On 06.24.2014 Albania was granted the status of candidate country. The foreign ministers of the 28 European Union member states decided unanimously to grant the candidate status for Albania. After receiving the status of “candidate country” for EU membership, the institutional relations with European international bodies are becoming stronger. One of these institutions, which during this time has increased its authority with Albania, is the European Parliament. In this paper will be analyzed the composition, competences and functioning of this particular institution, which is not only important for the future of the European Union and its Member States, but also for those who aim to join in. The study will be based on decisions made by this legislative body, as the only direct representative of the citizens of the European Union, and the impact they have on the performance and functioning of the Member States and the EU itself. In order to verify the validity of these claims, the analysis aims to assess the scope of the legislative function of the European Parliament post-Lisbon, examining its participation in the EU lawmaking both from the point of view of quantity and quality in over the past legislatures. Particular attention has been given to the examination of the changes that have taken place with the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty, and the areas most affected. We will finally look at the work and contribution of the European Parliament, through the instruments at his disposal, on behalf of Albania’s progress towards full accession in the European Union.

  11. North European Transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korja, Annakaisa; Heikkinen, Pekka J.; Roslov, Yuri; Ivanova, Nina; Verba, Marc; Sakoulina, Tamara

    2010-05-01

    A nearly continuous, 3600 km long, NE-running North European Transect (NET) is combined from the existing deep seismic reflection data sets in the Baltic Sea (BABEL, 1600 km), Northern Finland (FIRE 4-4A, 580 km) and Barents Sea (1-AR, 1440 km;). The reflective image of the deep crust is highly dependent on the thickness of the sedimentary cover. The cover is few hundred meters in the Baltic sea, few tens of meters in the land areas and few kilometers in the Barents Sea area. In the Barents Sea area, the seismic image is dominated by the layered structure of the sedimentary basins and the middle and lower crust are poorly imaged. Therefore the Moho boundary in the Barents Sea has been determined from wide-angle reflections. Geologically the transect covers the transition from Phanerozoic Europe to Precambrian Europe and back to the Phanerozoic Barents Sea Shelf. It displays how Northern Europe grew around Baltica in several tectonic episodes involving the formation and destruction of Columbia/Hudsonland, Rodinia and Pangea supercontinents. The paleo plateboundaries are traversed by subvertical transparent zones suggesting transpressional and trantensional environments. The BABEL lines image how the core of Baltica was formed by sequential accretion of microcontinents and arc terranes at the old continental margin during the Svecofennian Orogeny ~1.9-1.8 Ga .When Baltica joined the Columbia supercontinent, new terranes were added to its southern edge in the Sveocbaltic Orogeny (~1.8 Ga). During the dispersal of the Columbia, the Baltic Sea failed rift was formed, rapakivi granitoids were intruded and sedimentary basins were developed. An extended plate margin structure has been imposed on the Rodinian (Sveconorwegian) and Pangean additions (Variscan-Caledonian). Major crustal thinning takes place along a series of subvertical faults across the Trans-European Suture Zone marking the transition from Phanerozoic to Proterozoic Europe. The FIRE lines in Northen Finland

  12. Post Crisis European Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop, Napoleon

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis is still evolving, at least from the point of view of some features making the entire process of its reversing very difficult - uncertainties, confusions and lack of investors` trust. More then that, every rim of the Atlantic Ocean has its own opinion as to the timing of the exit stimulus measures. There are prevailing risks taken into consideration when we talk about the next stage of the economic growth e.g. its sustainability on a log run or inflaming the inflation. It is for sure, that according to the core economic policies practiced either in USA or Europe, in Europe what count most is the danger of the inflation, if the right time of stopping the flood of the governmental funds to the real economy is not well chosen. The economic situation in Europe, as all over the world, in spite of some signs that the economy is on the right track ( South East Asia, USA or Germany, there are a lot of doubts as to the assurance that recession is over and there is no way for an immediate return. Notabilities in economics see that governmental intervention should be continued, just because the economic growth consigned by statistics is not convincing. Convictions, if they exist, are blended with a lot of obsessions which in my opinion are making up a serious agenda of the debates in Europe: budgetary deficit in excess, danger of the inflation, new regulation of the financial sector, credibility of the euro zone. Romania has to be involved in all these debates as it is passing through all the mentioned difficulties which need solutions within the frame of European standards, as a member of the EU.

  13. European MEMS foundries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Patric R.

    2003-01-01

    According to the latest release of the NEXUS market study, the market for MEMS or Microsystems Technology (MST) is predicted to grow to $68B by the year 2005, with systems containing these components generating even higher revenues and growth. The latest advances in MST/MEMS technology have enabled the design of a new generation of microsystems that are smaller, cheaper, more reliable, and consume less power. These integrated systems bring together numerous analog/mixed signal microelectronics blocks and MEMS functions on a single chip or on two or more chips assembled within an integrated package. In spite of all these advances in technology and manufacturing, a system manufacturer either faces a substantial up-front R&D investment to create his own infrastructure and expertise, or he can use design and foundry services to get the initial product into the marketplace fast and with an affordable investment. Once he has a viable product, he can still think about his own manufacturing efforts and investments to obtain an optimized high volume manufacturing for the specific product. One of the barriers to successful exploitation of MEMS/MST technology has been the lack of access to industrial foundries capable of producing certified microsystems devices in commercial quantities, including packaging and test. This paper discusses Multi-project wafer (MPW) runs, requirements for foundries and gives some examples of foundry business models. Furthermore, this paper will give an overview on MST/MEMS services that are available in Europe, including pure commercial activities, European project activities (e.g. Europractice), and some academic services.

  14. European mountain biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy, Jennifer

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper, originally prepared as a discussion document for the ESF Exploratory Workshop «Trends in European Mountain Biodiversity - Research Planning Workshop», provides an overview of current mountain biodiversity research in Europe. It discusses (a biogeographical trends, (b the general properties of biodiversity, (c environmental factors and the regulation of biodiversity with respect to ecosystem function, (d the results of research on mountain freshwater ecosystems, and (e climate change and air pollution dominated environmental interactions.- The section on biogeographical trends highlights the importance of altitude and latitude on biodiversity. The implications of the existence of different scales over the different levels of biodiversity and across organism groups are emphasised as an inherent complex property of biodiversity. The discussion on ecosystem function and the regulation of biodiversity covers the role of environmental factors, productivity, perturbation, species migration and dispersal, and species interactions in the maintenance of biodiversity. Regional and long-term temporal patterns are also discussed. A section on the relatively overlooked topic of mountain freshwater ecosystems is presented before the final topic on the implications of recent climate change and air pollution for mountain biodiversity.

    [fr] Ce document a été préparé à l'origine comme une base de discussion pour «ESF Exploratory Workshop» intitulé «Trends in European Mountain Biodiversity - Research Planning Workshop»; il apporte une vue d'ensemble sur les recherches actuelles portant sur la biodiversité des montagnes en Europe. On y discute les (a traits biogéographiques, (b les caractéristiques générales- de la biodiversité, (c les facteurs environnementaux et la régulation de la biodiversité par rapport à la fonction des écosystèmes, (d les résultats des études sur les écosystèmes aquatiques des montagnes et (e les

  15. Modeling and Forecasting Persistent Financial Durations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žikeš, F.; Baruník, Jozef; Shenai, N.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 10 (2017), s. 1081-1110 ISSN 0747-4938 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-32263S EU Projects: European Commission 612955 - FINMAP Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : price durations * long memory * multifractal models * realized volatility * Whittle estimation Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics , Econometrics Impact factor: 1.333, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/barunik-0434201.pdf

  16. Lidocaine Patch (5%) in Treatment of Persistent Inguinal Postherniorrhaphy Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, Joakim M; Petersen, Marian; Uçeyler, Nurcan

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based pharmacological treatment options for patients with persistent inguinal postherniorrhaphy pain are lacking.......Evidence-based pharmacological treatment options for patients with persistent inguinal postherniorrhaphy pain are lacking....

  17. Factors associated with persistent airflow limitation in severe asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Brinke, A.; Zwinderman, A. H.; Sterk, P. J.; Rabe, K. F.; Bel, E. H.

    2001-01-01

    Persistent airflow limitation can develop in nonsmoking patients with asthma. However, the prevalence and risk factors for airways obstruction with incomplete reversibility in asthma are unknown. We assessed the prevalence of persistent airflow limitation (defined as postbronchodilator FEV(1) or

  18. A minimally invasive option for the treatment of persistent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Hospital, King Saud ... We present two patients with persistent esophageal leak after compli- .... easy, and quite effective in the management of persistent ... 6 Rakocz M, Mazar A, Varon D, Spierer S, Blinder D, Martinowitz U. Dental extractions ...

  19. Variable Persister Gene Interactions with (pppGpp for Persister Formation in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Persisters comprise a group of phenotypically heterogeneous metabolically quiescent bacteria with multidrug tolerance and contribute to the recalcitrance of chronic infections. Although recent work has shown that toxin-antitoxin (TA system HipAB depends on stringent response effector (pppGppin persister formation, whether other persister pathways are also dependent on stringent response has not been explored. Here we examined the relationship of (pppGpp with 15 common persister genes (dnaK, clpB, rpoS, pspF, tnaA, sucB, ssrA, smpB, recA, umuD, uvrA, hipA, mqsR, relE, dinJ using Escherichia coli as a model. By comparing the persister levels of wild type with their single gene knockout and double knockout mutants with relA, we divided their interactions into five types, namely A “dependent” (dnaK, recA, B “positive reinforcement” (rpoS, pspF, ssrA, recA, C “antagonistic” (clpB, sucB, umuD, uvrA, hipA, mqsR, relE, dinJ, D “epistasis” (clpB, rpoS, tnaA, ssrA, smpB, hipA, and E “irrelevant” (dnaK, clpB, rpoS, tnaA, sucB, smpB, umuD, uvrA, hipA, mqsR, relE, dinJ. We found that the persister gene interactions are intimately dependent on bacterial culture age, cell concentrations (diluted versus undiluted culture, and drug classifications, where the same gene may belong to different groups with varying antibiotics, culture age or cell concentrations. Together, this study represents the first attempt to systematically characterize the intricate relationships among the different mechanisms of persistence and as such provide new insights into the complexity of the persistence phenomenon at the level of persister gene network interactions.

  20. Interest rate convergence in the EMS prior to European Monetary Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frömmel, Michael; Kruse, Robinson

    In this paper we analyze the convergence of interest rates in the European Monetary System (EMS) in a framework of changing persistence. This allows us to estimate the exact date of full convergence from the data. A change in persistence means that a time series switches from stationarity to non......-stationarity, or vice versa. It is often argued that due to the specific historical situation in the EMS the interest rate differential was non-stationary before the full convergence of interest rates was achieved and stationary afterwards. Our empirical results suggest that the convergence date has been very different...

  1. Prediction of antibody persistency from antibody titres to natalizumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Poul Erik H; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Sellebjerg, Finn

    2012-01-01

    In a subgroup of patients with multiple sclerosis natalizumab therapy causes generation of anti-natalizumab antibodies that may be transient or persistent. It is recommended to discontinue natalizumab therapy in persistently antibody-positive patients.......In a subgroup of patients with multiple sclerosis natalizumab therapy causes generation of anti-natalizumab antibodies that may be transient or persistent. It is recommended to discontinue natalizumab therapy in persistently antibody-positive patients....

  2. European Union: US Hegemonic Competitor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kellar, Ronald

    2001-01-01

    .... Intergovernmentalism in the European Community has evolved into an economic form of supranationalism with the persona change form Community to Union after ratification of the Treaty of Maastricht in 1993...

  3. European pain management discussion forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Harald

    2012-12-01

    Queries from European physicians about analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from the author are presented. Topics addressed in this issue pertain to epidural injection for painful central lumbar stenosis and epicondolysis.

  4. Renowned European Laboratory turns 50

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    A European Laboratory that was the birthplace of the World Wide Web and home of Nobel prize-winning developments in the quest to understand the makeup of matter wished itself a happy 50th birtheday on Tuesday

  5. Obesogenic Diets in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Intemann, Timm; Hebestreit, Antje; Reisch, Lucia A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Poor nutrition is a major contributor to the overall burden of disease. Worldwide, nutrition-related diseases have become a major health concern, reportedly causing a loss of over 56 million years of healthy life for European citizens in the year 2000. Childhood obesity is one...... will stress dietary factors in European children as one major aspect of the complex aetiology of childhood obesity, and offer a broader comment on the role of contemporary food systems. Results: Parental socioeconomic status, children’s media consumption and current arketing strategies employed by the food...... industry were associated with a low-quality diet and unhealthy food intake in European children. Conclusion: Present evidence calls for policy interventions to facilitate healthy diets of European children and adolescents. Prevention strategies for childhood obesity should address upstream factors...

  6. Container Traffic In European Ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen Twrdy

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last fifteen years the European transport markethas witnessed a growth of container traffic which today reachesapproximately 50 million TEU per year. From 1997 to 2002,container traffic in the northern European ports increased from14 to 20.6 million TEU per year, in the ports of the westernMedite"anean from 6 to 10 million TEU per year, and in thenorthern Adriatic ports from 0. 69 to 0. 74 million TEU per year.The ports of the northern Adriatic are located in three states(Slovenia, Croatia and Italy with different statuses in relationto the common European market. In addition, different developmentlevels of these states are reflected in different levels ofinternational commercial exchange, the development of the existinginfrastructure and plans for the construction of new infrastructures.However, all three countries share a common goaltoincrease their competitiveness in comparison with the westemEuropean ports.

  7. European Hospitality Without a Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille Rosello

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available How do European governments conceptualize what they call "hospitality" when they draft immigration laws and when they allow the concepts of asylum, of illegal immigrants, to change according to a constantly evolving political context? What consequences…

  8. The European Union's Africa Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2013-01-01

    For a number of years, there has been an international debate on whether and to what extent small member states can influence the common external policies of the European Union. Recent research on the role of small EU states concludes that these states are neither per se political dwarfs nor power...... including North–South and specifically Africa policies. Five separate analyses are carried out addressing the question of Nordicization and Europeanization. Based on the empirical analyses, it is not possible to confirm the hypothesis that a Nordicization of the European Union's Africa policy has taken...... place. Rather, it appears adequate to talk about convergence of policies between the Nordics and the EU and therefore, the Africa policies of both actors are basically the result of Europeanization....

  9. The European Utility Requirement Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, I.I.

    1999-01-01

    The major European electricity producers work on a common requirement document for future LWR plants since 1992. They aim at requirements acceptable together by the owners, the public and the authorities. Thus the designers can develop standard LWR designs acceptable everywhere in Europe and the utilities can open their consultations to vendors on common bases. Such a standardisation promotes an improvement of generation costs and of safety : public and authorities acceptance should be improved as well ; significant savings are expected in development and construction costs. Since the early stages of the project, the EUR group has grown significantly. It now includes utilities from nine European countries. Utilities from two other European countries are joining the group. Specific cooperation agreements are also in progress with a few extra-European partners

  10. The European automotive LPG market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    The European automotive LPG market could reach at least 4 % of the European fuel market in 2005 versus 1 % in 1990. This would represent a rise of about 35 % in automotive LPG sales (from 2,4 million tonnes in 1997 to 7 million tonnes estimated for 2005). This was underlined by Alain Deleuse, Primagaz group's Marketing Director, in the paper he delivered at the AEGPL Budapest Convention. We publish large excepts of this paper. (author)

  11. Innovation Policy in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta-Christina Suciu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The innovation policies aim to analyze priority factors shaping innovative performance and to reflect the increasing appreciation of the economic and social importance of innovation. This paper is commissioned to examine topics of current interest or concern to innovation policy-makers in Europe. Based on literature and the framework of the European Action Plan for Innovation, this paper investigates different levels and fields of European innovational systems and practices.

  12. [European Union and blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouger, P

    2003-06-01

    Blood transfusion is progressing, Europe is growing, European blood transfusion organisations are developing rapidly. The first step was the publication of a new directive (2002/98/CE). The directive is the result of a compromise between technocracy, lobbying and blood transfusion professionals. European blood transfusion must be based on medical, scientific and social criteria. Two imperatives must be considered: the respect of ethics and; independence from the commercial system. The primary objective is to give satisfaction to patients while respecting blood donors.

  13. The European fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedkoop, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    With the 1982-86 pluriannual programme, reactor technology became a separate chapter in the fusion research programme of the European Commission. It comprises work on materials, the breeder blanket, tritium management, magnet coils, maintenance and the safety and environmental aspects. After an overview of the programme each of these areas is discussed briefly and some remarks are made on the role played by the European fission energy and magnet laboratories. (author)

  14. Consumer protection in European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlová, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    The consumer protection is a very actual topic in the european policy. It is necessary for the right function of the internal market. The document mentions the development of the consumer protection policy - the past and the future strategy. The valid legislation is listed and also mentioned is the Proposal for a Directive on Consumer Rights. It gives an overview of european consumer organisations and their function . There are also mentioned some alternatives of the consumer's redress. Docum...

  15. Coordination in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Feldstein

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the sources of current conflict within the EU and the EMU. The topics discussed include the recent ECB policy of bond buying (the OMT policy), the attempts to advance the "European Project" of stronger political union (the fiscal compact, the banking union, and the proposals for budget supervision). Contrary to the claims of the European leadership, the progress that has been made has been by individual countries and not by coordinated action. The special problems of Franc...

  16. BEAM-BASED MEASUREMENTS OF PERSISTENT CURRENT DECAY IN RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FISCHER, W.; JAIN, A.; TEPIKIAN, S.

    2001-01-01

    The two RHIC rings are equipped with superconducting dipole magnets. At injection, induced persistent currents in these magnets lead to a sextupole component. As the persistent currents decay with time, the horizontal and vertical chromaticities change. From magnet measurements of persistent current decays, chromaticity changes in the machine are estimated and compared with chromaticity measurements

  17. Persistent Structural Priming from Language Comprehension to Language Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Kathryn; Dell, Gary S.; Chang, Franklin; Onishi, Kristine H.

    2007-01-01

    To examine the relationship between syntactic processes in language comprehension and language production, we compared structural persistence from sentence primes that speakers heard to persistence from primes that speakers produced. [Bock, J. K., & Griffin, Z. M. (2000). The persistence of structural priming: transient activation or implicit…

  18. Bacterial persistence: some new insights into an old phenomenon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    the involvement of the alarmone (p) ppGpp in the generation of persisters. However, the precise mechanisms are ... Bigger noticed that treatment of cultures of Staphylococcus aureus with high concentrations of ...... Li Y and Zhang Y 2007 pho U is a persister switch involved in persister formation and tolerance to multiple ...

  19. Volatility persistence in crude oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, Amélie; Darné, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Financial market participants and policy-makers can benefit from a better understanding of how shocks can affect volatility over time. This study assesses the impact of structural changes and outliers on volatility persistence of three crude oil markets – Brent, West Texas Intermediate (WTI) and Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) – between January 2, 1985 and June 17, 2011. We identify outliers using a new semi-parametric test based on conditional heteroscedasticity models. These large shocks can be associated with particular event patterns, such as the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq, the Operation Desert Storm, the Operation Desert Fox, and the Global Financial Crisis as well as OPEC announcements on production reduction or US announcements on crude inventories. We show that outliers can bias (i) the estimates of the parameters of the equation governing volatility dynamics; (ii) the regularity and non-negativity conditions of GARCH-type models (GARCH, IGARCH, FIGARCH and HYGARCH); and (iii) the detection of structural breaks in volatility, and thus the estimation of the persistence of the volatility. Therefore, taking into account the outliers on the volatility modelling process may improve the understanding of volatility in crude oil markets. - Highlights: • We study the impact of outliers on volatility persistence of crude oil markets. • We identify outliers and patches of outliers due to specific events. • We show that outliers can bias (i) the estimates of the parameters of GARCH models, (ii) the regularity and non-negativity conditions of GARCH-type models, (iii) the detection of structural breaks in volatility of crude oil markets

  20. A European Res publica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Zetterquist

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the fundamental constitutional enigma of the European Union (EU, namely whether the EU can be considered as a (from its Member States separate and independent constitutional legal order. The EU is often referred to as a legal order sui generis, i.e. of a unique character that defies traditional definitions. More specifically, the notion of an independent and separate EU is at odds with the idea of the sovereign state. The notion of the EU as a legal order sui generis is too much influenced by the models of the sovereign state and sovereignty (in the vein of Thomas Hobbes. The key component in the Hobbesian idea of sovereignty is freedom as non-interference. A sovereign state is consequently a state that is free from, i.e. not interfered with by, external actors like, for example, the EU. Put differently, either the EU is sovereign or the Member States are sovereign. By shifting the perspective to a neo-Roman republican understanding of freedom as non-domination the constitutional picture of the EU will become more nuanced. Res publica is best understood as what citizens hold in common and above their narrow self-interest. According to a republican notion of the constitution the purpose of the law is to eliminate the possibility of arbitrary domination. For that reason, not all interference is to be considered as a restriction of freedom but only those restrictions that cannot be justified according to the res publica. Viewed through the republican prism it can be argued that the EU represents an important advancement in securing freedom as non-domination without implying that the EU must become a state. The fundamental enigma can thus be rephrased as a clash between two diverging concepts of freedom. Whereas the EU will always be at odds with the idea of sovereignty (however framed it will be much easier to reconcile with the republican ideal. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1837332

  1. European Languages: Instruments and Symbols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Ožbot

    2008-07-01

    Further, the role of Latin as the single most important European language over the centuries and as a unifying feature of European culture is discussed. Parallels are drawn between Latin as the historical European lingua franca on the one hand and English as the modern language of international communication on the other: the importance of both languages started growing after substantial territorial expansion of their speakers and it was especially the political and economic power associated to these languages that played a significant role in their diffusion and long-term influence. Taking into consideration the instrumental as well as the symbolic function of languages, the question about the relationship between English and other European languages in today’s Europe is dealt with; it is suggested that the European languages are in principle not endangered as a result of the spread of English, with the exception of those instances in which English has been taking over the functions they have traditionally performed as national or community languages. It is emphasized that the future of Europe lies in the promotion of biand multilingualism, which have, in actual fact, been present on this continent throughout its history, and which in the cases of some European languages (e.g. Catalan, Basque, Irish, etc. have been successfully enhanced over the past decades.

  2. MR imaging of persistent primitive trigeminal artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashikaga, Ryuichiro; Araki, Yutaka; Ono, Yukihiko; Ishida, Osamu; Mabuchi, Nobuhisa.

    1997-01-01

    The persistent trigeminal artery is the most common anomaly of the primitive carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses. We reviewed MR images and MR angiographies of 11 patients with primitive trigeminal artery. In 8 of the 11 cases, PTA were identified with conventional long TR spin-echo images. In 8 of 11 cases, a hypoplastic basilar trunk associated with PTA was seen on both MR images and MR angiographies. In 7 of 11 cases, a hypoplasia or agenesis of the ipsilateral posterior communicating artery was seen on MR angiographies. (author)

  3. Calculation of persistent currents in superconducting magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Völlinger

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a semianalytical hysteresis model for hard superconductors. The model is based on the critical state model considering the dependency of the critical current density on the varying local field in the superconducting filaments. By combining this hysteresis model with numerical field computation methods, it is possible to calculate the persistent current multipole errors in the magnet taking local saturation effects in the magnetic iron parts into consideration. As an application of the method, the use of soft magnetic iron sheets (coil protection sheets mounted between the coils and the collars for partial compensation of the multipole errors during the ramping of the magnets is investigated.

  4. Trust and persistence for Internet resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Lunghi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet has changed our way of working, communicating, living, producing and accessing information, everything available on an open and flexible infrastructure accessible to all the users mainly free of cost. However in some cases, it’s not only important to find information but also having information about its authenticity, integrity, provenance and relations with other pieces of information. Systems for certification using URN technology like the persistent identifiers for digital objects, for authors and for bodies can extremely help in order to refine the quality of information retrievable from Internet and to increase largely its usability and potential development.

  5. Persistently increased intestinal fraction of alkaline phosphatase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nathan, E; Baatrup, G; Berg, H

    1984-01-01

    Persistent elevation of the intestinal fraction of the alkaline phosphatase (API) as an isolated finding has to our knowledge not been reported previously. It was found in a boy followed during a period of 5.5 years. The only symptom was transient periodic fatigue observed at home, but not apparent...... during hospitalization. His blood type was O, RH+, Le (a-, b+) and he was a secretor of H-substance, which may be associated with rising API activity after fat-loading. In this case API was unchanged after fat-loading. Neither intestinal nor liver diseases were found, and no other cause for the elevated...

  6. Distributed design approach in persistent identifiers systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golodoniuc, Pavel; Car, Nicholas; Klump, Jens

    2017-04-01

    The need to identify both digital and physical objects is ubiquitous in our society. Past and present persistent identifier (PID) systems, of which there is a great variety in terms of technical and social implementations, have evolved with the advent of the Internet, which has allowed for globally unique and globally resolvable identifiers. PID systems have catered for identifier uniqueness, integrity, persistence, and trustworthiness, regardless of the identifier's application domain, the scope of which has expanded significantly in the past two decades. Since many PID systems have been largely conceived and developed by small communities, or even a single organisation, they have faced challenges in gaining widespread adoption and, most importantly, the ability to survive change of technology. This has left a legacy of identifiers that still exist and are being used but which have lost their resolution service. We believe that one of the causes of once successful PID systems fading is their reliance on a centralised technical infrastructure or a governing authority. Golodoniuc et al. (2016) proposed an approach to the development of PID systems that combines the use of (a) the Handle system, as a distributed system for the registration and first-degree resolution of persistent identifiers, and (b) the PID Service (Golodoniuc et al., 2015), to enable fine-grained resolution to different information object representations. The proposed approach solved the problem of guaranteed first-degree resolution of identifiers, but left fine-grained resolution and information delivery under the control of a single authoritative source, posing risk to the long-term availability of information resources. Herein, we develop these approaches further and explore the potential of large-scale decentralisation at all levels: (i) persistent identifiers and information resources registration; (ii) identifier resolution; and (iii) data delivery. To achieve large-scale decentralisation

  7. Persistence of innovation in unstable environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suarez, Diana Valeria

    2014-01-01

    of the environment impact on the type of profitable innovations, and past innovations might not be suitable for the new environment. As a result, firm's innovative behavior might change, which means that the firm's set of decisions about engaging in the seek for innovations or not and, if so, the set of investments...... during 1998-2006, which coincides with a period of macroeconomic instability. Results suggest that persistence has to be analyzed in terms of a dynamic firm's innovative behavior - regardless of its results - and how it allows the firm to accumulate competences and resources, which increases the odds...... of successfully responding to changes in the environment and continuing to innovate....

  8. Grails Persistence with GORM and GSQL

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Unique to the popular Grails web framework is its architecture. While other frameworks are built from the ground up, Grails leverages existing and proven technologies that already have advanced functionality built in. One of the key technologies in this architecture is Hibernate, on top of which Grails builds its GORM (Grails Object Relational Mapping) model layer. This provides Grails a persistence solution. Published with the developer in mind, firstPress technical briefs explore emerging technologies that have the potential to be critical for tomorrow's industry. Apress keeps developers one

  9. Neonatal thyrotoxicosis presenting as persistent pulmonary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Rawad; Kalra, Vaneet Kumar; Arora, Prem; Quist, Felix; Moltz, Kathleen C; Chouthai, Nitin Shashikant

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal hyperthyroidism is a rare condition caused either by transplacental passage of thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins from a mother with Graves’ disease or by activating mutations of the thyrotropin receptors and α-subunit of G-protein. The clinical features may vary. We report a case of neonatal thyrotoxicosis in an infant born to a mother with Graves’ disease, who presented with cardiorespiratory failure and persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN). PPHN resolved with specific antithyroid treatment and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was not required. PMID:22669869

  10. Gravity in one dimension - Persistence of correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, B.N.; Reidl, C.J. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Central questions are concerning the thermalization time-scale in a one-dimensional, self-gravitating system are addressed in the present consideration of the persistent correlation between the positions and velocities of the mass-sheets. An algorithm developed for testing thermalization in the one-dimensional gravitating system was applied to the logistic map as a control; the parameter value associated with global chaos yields complete agreement with theoretical prediction. The implications of these results for gravitational interaction in higher dimension should be considered. 26 refs

  11. Explaining evolution via constrained persistent perfect phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The perfect phylogeny is an often used model in phylogenetics since it provides an efficient basic procedure for representing the evolution of genomic binary characters in several frameworks, such as for example in haplotype inference. The model, which is conceptually the simplest, is based on the infinite sites assumption, that is no character can mutate more than once in the whole tree. A main open problem regarding the model is finding generalizations that retain the computational tractability of the original model but are more flexible in modeling biological data when the infinite site assumption is violated because of e.g. back mutations. A special case of back mutations that has been considered in the study of the evolution of protein domains (where a domain is acquired and then lost) is persistency, that is the fact that a character is allowed to return back to the ancestral state. In this model characters can be gained and lost at most once. In this paper we consider the computational problem of explaining binary data by the Persistent Perfect Phylogeny model (referred as PPP) and for this purpose we investigate the problem of reconstructing an evolution where some constraints are imposed on the paths of the tree. Results We define a natural generalization of the PPP problem obtained by requiring that for some pairs (character, species), neither the species nor any of its ancestors can have the character. In other words, some characters cannot be persistent for some species. This new problem is called Constrained PPP (CPPP). Based on a graph formulation of the CPPP problem, we are able to provide a polynomial time solution for the CPPP problem for matrices whose conflict graph has no edges. Using this result, we develop a parameterized algorithm for solving the CPPP problem where the parameter is the number of characters. Conclusions A preliminary experimental analysis shows that the constrained persistent perfect phylogeny model allows to

  12. Gate-controlled switching between persistent and inverse persistent spin helix states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizumi, K.; Sasaki, A.; Kohda, M.; Nitta, J.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate gate-controlled switching between persistent spin helix (PSH) state and inverse PSH state, which are detected by quantum interference effect on magneto-conductance. These special symmetric spin states showing weak localization effect give rise to a long spin coherence when the strength of Rashba spin-orbit interaction (SOI) is close to that of Dresselhaus SOI. Furthermore, in the middle of two persistent spin helix states, where the Rashba SOI can be negligible, the bulk Dresselhaus SOI parameter in a modulation doped InGaAs/InAlAs quantum well is determined.

  13. Gate-controlled switching between persistent and inverse persistent spin helix states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizumi, K.; Sasaki, A.; Kohda, M.; Nitta, J. [Department of Materials Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2016-03-28

    We demonstrate gate-controlled switching between persistent spin helix (PSH) state and inverse PSH state, which are detected by quantum interference effect on magneto-conductance. These special symmetric spin states showing weak localization effect give rise to a long spin coherence when the strength of Rashba spin-orbit interaction (SOI) is close to that of Dresselhaus SOI. Furthermore, in the middle of two persistent spin helix states, where the Rashba SOI can be negligible, the bulk Dresselhaus SOI parameter in a modulation doped InGaAs/InAlAs quantum well is determined.

  14. Persistent viral infections and immune aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Stefan; Herndler-Brandstetter, Dietmar; Weinberger, Birgit; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix

    2011-07-01

    Immunosenescence comprises a set of dynamic changes occurring to both, the innate as well as the adaptive immune system that accompany human aging and result in complex manifestations of still poorly defined deficiencies in the elderly population. One of the most prominent alterations during aging is the continuous involution of the thymus gland which is almost complete by the age of 50. Consequently, the output of naïve T cells is greatly diminished in elderly individuals which puts pressure on homeostatic forces to maintain a steady T cell pool for most of adulthood. In a great proportion of the human population, this fragile balance is challenged by persistent viral infections, especially Cytomegalovirus (CMV), that oblige certain T cell clones to monoclonally expand repeatedly over a lifetime which then occupy space within the T cell pool. Eventually, these inflated memory T cell clones become exhausted and their extensive accumulation accelerates the age-dependent decline of the diversity of the T cell pool. As a consequence, infectious diseases are more frequent and severe in elderly persons and immunological protection following vaccination is reduced. This review therefore aims to shed light on how various types of persistent viral infections, especially CMV, influence the aging of the immune system and highlight potential measures to prevent the age-related decline in immune function. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cosmic radiation exposure and persistent cognitive dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Vipan K.; Allen, Barrett D.; Caressi, Chongshan; Kwok, Stephanie; Chu, Esther; Tran, Katherine K.; Chmielewski, Nicole N.; Giedzinski, Erich; Acharya, Munjal M.; Britten, Richard A.; Baulch, Janet E.; Limoli, Charles L.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars mission will result in an inevitable exposure to cosmic radiation that has been shown to cause cognitive impairments in rodent models, and possibly in astronauts engaged in deep space travel. Of particular concern is the potential for cosmic radiation exposure to compromise critical decision making during normal operations or under emergency conditions in deep space. Rodents exposed to cosmic radiation exhibit persistent hippocampal and cortical based performance decrements using six independent behavioral tasks administered between separate cohorts 12 and 24 weeks after irradiation. Radiation-induced impairments in spatial, episodic and recognition memory were temporally coincident with deficits in executive function and reduced rates of fear extinction and elevated anxiety. Irradiation caused significant reductions in dendritic complexity, spine density and altered spine morphology along medial prefrontal cortical neurons known to mediate neurotransmission interrogated by our behavioral tasks. Cosmic radiation also disrupted synaptic integrity and increased neuroinflammation that persisted more than 6 months after exposure. Behavioral deficits for individual animals correlated significantly with reduced spine density and increased synaptic puncta, providing quantitative measures of risk for developing cognitive impairment. Our data provide additional evidence that deep space travel poses a real and unique threat to the integrity of neural circuits in the brain. PMID:27721383

  16. PERSISTENCE MAPPING USING EUV SOLAR IMAGER DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, B. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Young, C. A., E-mail: barbara.j.thompson@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 670, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    We describe a simple image processing technique that is useful for the visualization and depiction of gradually evolving or intermittent structures in solar physics extreme-ultraviolet imagery. The technique is an application of image segmentation, which we call “Persistence Mapping,” to isolate extreme values in a data set, and is particularly useful for the problem of capturing phenomena that are evolving in both space and time. While integration or “time-lapse” imaging uses the full sample (of size N ), Persistence Mapping rejects ( N − 1)/ N of the data set and identifies the most relevant 1/ N values using the following rule: if a pixel reaches an extreme value, it retains that value until that value is exceeded. The simplest examples isolate minima and maxima, but any quantile or statistic can be used. This paper demonstrates how the technique has been used to extract the dynamics in long-term evolution of comet tails, erupting material, and EUV dimming regions.

  17. Microbial Biofilms: Persisters, Tolerance and Dosing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, N. G.

    2005-03-01

    Almost all moist surfaces are colonized by microbial biofilms. Biofilms are implicated in cross-contamination of food products, biofouling, medical implants and various human infections such as dental cavities, ulcerative colitis and chronic respiratory infections. Much of current research is focused on the recalcitrance of biofilms to typical antibiotic and antimicrobial treatments. Although the polymer component of biofilms impedes the penetration of antimicrobials through reaction-diffusion limitation, this does not explain the observed tolerance, it merely delays the action of the agent. Heterogeneities in growth-rate also slow the eradication of the bacteria since most antimicrobials are far less effective for non-growing, or slowly growing bacteria. This also does not fully describe biofilm tolerance, since heterogeneities arr primairly a result of nutrient consumption. In this investigation, we describe the formation of `persister' cells which neither grow nor die in the presence of antibiotics. We propose that the cells are of a different phenotype than typical bacterial cells and the expression of the phenotype is regulated by the growth rate and the antibiotic concentration. We describe several experiments which describe the dynamics of persister cells and which motivate a dosing protocol that calls for periodic dosing of the population. We then introduce a mathematical model, which describes the effect of such a dosing regiment and indicates that the relative dose/withdrawal times are important in determining the effectiveness of such a treatment. A reduced model is introduced and the similar behavior is demonstrated analytically.

  18. Active multispectral reflection fingerprinting of persistent chemical agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholl, H. D.; Münzhuber, F.; Kunz, J.; Raab, M.; Rattunde, M.; Hugger, S.; Gutty, F.; Grisard, A.; Larat, C.; Papillon, D.; Schwarz, M.; Lallier, E.; Kastek, M.; Piatkowski, T.; Brygo, F.; Awanzino, C.; Wilsenack, F.; Lorenzen, A.

    2017-10-01

    Remote detection of toxic chemicals of very low vapour pressure deposited on surfaces in form of liquid films, droplets or powder is a capability that is needed to protect operators and equipment in chemical warfare scenarios and in industrial environments. Infrared spectroscopy is a suitable means to support this requirement. Available instruments based on passive emission spectroscopy have difficulties in discriminating the infrared emission spectrum of the surface background from that of the contamination. Separation of background and contamination is eased by illuminating the surface with a spectrally tune-able light source and by analyzing the reflectivity spectrum. The project AMURFOCAL (Active Multispectral Reflection Fingerprinting of Persistent Chemical Agents) has the research topic of stand-off detection and identification of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) with amplified quantum cascade laser technology in the long-wave infrared spectral range. The project was conducted under the Joint Investment Programme (JIP) on CBRN protection funded through the European Defence Agency (EDA). The AMURFOCAL instrument comprises a spectrally narrow tune-able light source with a broadband infrared detector and chemometric data analysis software. The light source combines an external cavity quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL) with an optical parametric amplifier (OPA) to boost the peak output power of a short laser pulse tune-able over the infrared fingerprint region. The laser beam is focused onto a target at a distance between 10 and 20 m. A 3D data cube is registered by tuning the wavelength of the laser emission while recording the received signal scattered off the target using a multi-element infrared detector. A particular chemical is identified through the extraction of its characteristic spectral fingerprint out of the measured data. The paper describes the AMURFOCAL instrument, its functional units, and its principles of operation.

  19. Implications of human value shift and persistence for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredo, Michael J; Teel, Tara L; Dietsch, Alia M

    2016-04-01

    Large-scale change in human values and associated behavior change is believed by some to be the ultimate solution to achieve global biodiversity conservation. Yet little is known about the dynamics of values. We contribute to this area of inquiry by examining the trajectory of values affecting views of wildlife in North America. Using data from a 19-state study in the United States and global data from the Schwartz Value Survey, we explored questions of value persistence and change and the nature of attitudinal responses regarding wildlife conservation issues. We found support, based on subjects' ancestry, for the supposition that domination is a prevalent American value orientation toward wildlife that has origins in European Judeo-Christian traditions. Independent of that effect, we also found indications of change. Modernization is contributing to a shift from domination to mutualism value orientations, which is fostering attitudes less centered on human interests and seemingly more consistent with a biocentric philosophy. Our findings suggest that if value shift could be achieved in a purposeful way, then significant and widespread behavior change believed necessary for long-term conservation success may indeed be possible. In particular, greater emphasis on mutualism values may help provide the context for more collaborative approaches to support future conservation efforts. However, given the societal forces at play, it is not at all clear that human-engineered value shift is tenable. Instead of developing strategies aimed at altering values, it may be more productive to create strategies that recognize and work within the boundaries of existing values. Whereas values appear to be in a period of flux, it will be difficult to predict future trends without a better understanding of value formation and shift, particularly under conditions of rapid social-ecological change. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Landslide inventory updating by means of Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI: the Setta basin (Italy case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frangioni Sara

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates the contribution of Persistent Scatterer SAR Interferometry (PSInSAR technique to landslide detection, using interferometric data acquired in C-band by European remote-sensing satellite (ERS 1/2 and environmental satellite (ENVISAT satellites. The main purpose is to update a pre-existing landslide inventory map, by changing or confirming the landslide geometry and state of activity and eventually, identifying new phenomena.This work presents an application of satellite remote sensing to analyse ground displacement movements in the Setta basin, located on the northern Appennine (Bologna province, Italy and extended up 268 km2.The proposed methodology, resting upon pre-existing works already consolidated in the scientific community, combines interferometric measures with aerial imagery and other auxiliary data, in order to detect landslide indicators, finally validated with field surveys. The use of an activity matrix allows the identification of the state of activity of landslide phenomena with respect to the velocity of the radar displacement rates. Field validations are carried out in the areas that are more relevant because of the highest ground velocities and the presence of structures extensively affected by ground movements.The final updated landslide database of the Setta basin, based on Persistent Scatterer Interferometry analysis and in situ checks, consists of 1550 landslides, 236 of which have persistent scatterer information.