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Sample records for european holstein cattle

  1. Identification of brachyspina syndrome carriers in Chinese Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lingzhao; Li, Yanhua; Zhang, Yi; Sun, Dongxiao; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Shengli

    2013-07-01

    Brachyspina syndrome (BS) is a rare monogenic autosomal recessive hereditary disorder identified in the Holstein breed caused by a 3.3-kb deletion in the bovine Fanconi anemia complementation group I (FANCI) gene on chromosome 21. In previous reports, the BS mutant allele was identified in North American and European Holstein populations. Because frozen semen and embryos have been imported into China from such regions during the past few years, BS has potentially spread into the dairy cattle population in China. In the present study, 206 Holstein bulls and 136 Holstein cows were tested for BS, with 10 BS carrier bulls and 3 carrier cows identified. Pedigree analysis showed that all 10 BS carrier bulls could be traced back to a common ancestor, the U.S. Holstein sire Sweet Haven Tradition. It is recommended that effective selection and mating strategies should be carried out to gradually eliminate this recessive gene from the Chinese Holstein population.

  2. Genomic evaluation of rectal temperature in Holstein cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat stress negatively impacts the production, fertility, and health of dairy cattle. Rectal temperature (RT) has unfavorable genetic correlations with production, longevity, economic merit, and somatic cell score in Holstein cows. The objectives of the current study were to perform a genome-wide as...

  3. Breeding objectives for Holstein cattle in South Africa | Banga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Well-defined breeding objectives form the basis of sound genetic improvement programmes. Breeding objectives for Holstein cattle in South Africa were developed in the current study. Economic values were calculated for those economically relevant traits that had adequate bio-economic data, namely milk volume, fat yield, ...

  4. Incidence of UMP synthase deficiency in South African Holstein cattle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase (DUMPS) is an inherited recessive metabolic defect identified in Holstein cattle. Since heterorygous carriers transmit the defective gene 50% of the time, one fourth of the offspring from matings between two carriers are expected to be homozygous for DUMPS. This is a lethal ...

  5. Study of citrullinaemia disorder in Khuzestan Holstein cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study investigated the occurrence of autosomal recessive genetic disease, citrullinaemia, in Khuzestan native cows and Iranian Holstein cattle. Genomic DNA was isolated from the blood of the cows (n = 330). The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis was ...

  6. Differences in genetic diversity in Holstein cattle with high and low genetic merit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelsma, K.A.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Calus, M.P.L.; Windig, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluations of genetic diversity in Holstein cattle based on pedigree data, indicate a decrease in genetic diversity in Holstein cattle, because of a lower effective population size and a higher relatedness compared to other cattle breeds. However, pedigree based diversity reflects only the overall

  7. The serum concentrations of lupine alkaloids in orally-dosed Holstein cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teratogenic alkaloid-containing Lupinus spp. cause significant losses to the cattle industry. Previous research has suggested that Holstein cattle clear toxic Delphinium alkaloids from their serum at a greater rate than beef cattle. The toxicokinetics of lupine alkaloids in Holsteins are not known...

  8. Genetic polymorphism of milk protein loci in Argentinian Holstein cattle

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    Bonvillani Adriana Gloria

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Some alleles of milk protein loci are associated with superior cheese production characteristics. The genetic polymorphism of the milk protein loci alphas1-casein, beta-casein, k-casein and beta-lactoglobulin was examined in Argentinian Holstein cattle. Samples from 12 herds of four regions of Córdoba were analyzed by starch gel electrophoresis. The chi² test was used to assess whether the populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Genotypic diversity was analyzed by the Shannon-Weaver index. The observed genotypic frequencies were analyzed by Hedrick's genetic identity and the genetic distance of Balakrishnan and Sanghvi. The allelic and genotypic frequencies were similar to those of other Holstein populations. The genotypic frequencies of the alphas1-casein and beta-casein loci were in equilibrium, whereas in some populations the k-casein and beta-lactoglobulin loci were not. According to the Shannon-Weaver index the total genetic diversity within each herd was greater than 96%. The high values of identity agreed with the low genetic distances among populations. We conclude that there is extensive genetic homogeneity in Holstein cattle in Córdoba Province and that it would be feasible to select for B alleles at the k-casein and b-lactoglobulin loci in order to improve the quality of milk available for cheese manufacturing.

  9. The SLICK Locus derived from Senepol cattle confers thermotolerance to Intensively-Managed lactating Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The SLICK haplotype in cattle confers animals with a short and sleek hair coat. Originally, identified in Senepol cattle, the gene has been introduced into Holsteins. The objectives of the current study were to determine whether lactating Holsteins with the slick phenotype have superior ability for ...

  10. Short communication: Heritability of twinning rate in Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lett, Beth M; Kirkpatrick, Brian W

    2018-02-14

    Multiple births or twinning in cattle is a naturally occurring reproductive phenomenon. For dairy cattle, twinning is considered a detrimental trait as it can be harmful to cow and calf as well as costly to the producer. The objective of this study was to examine recent US calving records for the Holstein breed to determine a current estimate of heritability for twinning rate along with effects of season and parity. Two models were used in this study: a linear sire model and a binary threshold-logit sire model. Both were mixed models considering fixed effects and random effects. Analyses were conducted using a restricted maximum likelihood method. Heritability estimates were 0.0192 ± 0.0009 and 0.1420 ± 0.0069 for the linear and threshold models, respectively. Repeatabilities from the linear and threshold-logit models were 0.0443 ± 0.0012 and 0.2310 ± 0.0072, respectively. The nonzero estimates of heritability indicate the potential to select against this trait for genetic improvement of Holstein cattle. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Seasonal meningoencephalitis in Holstein cattle caused by Naegleria fowleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daft, Barbara M; Visvesvara, Govinda S; Read, Deryck H; Kinde, Hailu; Uzal, Francisco A; Manzer, Michael D

    2005-11-01

    Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis is a fulminant infection of the human central nervous system caused by Naegleria fowleri, a free-living amoeba that thrives in artificially or naturally heated water. The infection usually is acquired while bathing or swimming in such waters. The portal of entry is the olfactory neuroepithelium. This report describes fatal meningoencephalitis caused by N. fowleri in Holstein cattle that consumed untreated surface water in an area of California where summer temperatures at times exceed 42 degrees C. In the summers of 1998 and 1999, severe multifocal necrosuppurative hemorrhagic meningoencephalitis was observed in brain samples from nine 10-20-month-old heifers with clinical histories of acute central nervous system disease. Olfactory lobes and cerebella were most severely affected. Lesions were also evident in periventricular and submeningeal neuropil as well as olfactory nerves. Naegleria fowleri was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in brain and olfactory nerve lesions and was isolated from one brain. Even though cultures of drinking water did not yield N. fowleri, drinking water was the likely source of the amoeba. The disease in cattle closely resembles primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in humans. Naegleria meningoencephalitis should be included among differential diagnoses of central nervous system disease in cattle during the summer season in areas with high ambient temperatures.

  12. Analyze of the milk yield and economics indicators in dairy cows of Holstein cattle

    OpenAIRE

    ZNAMENANÁ, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the trial was to analyze selected indicators of milk yield and economics of milk production in dairy herd of Holstein cattle. Economics of dairy cows is critical to keeping cattle on the farm. Among the main priorities that can improve the economic results of cattle, are mainly production conditions corresponding milk yields, good fertility, high quality market products, quality dairy nutrition, good health, appropriate management of breeding and compliance of welfare in the cattle...

  13. Ear fibroblasts derived from Taiwan yellow cattle are more heat resistant than those from Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hung-Yi; Peng, Shao-Yu; Li, Hung; Lee, Jai-Wei; Kesorn, Piyawit; Wu, Hsi-Hsun; Ju, Jyh-Cherng; Shen, Perng-Chih

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the thermotolerances of ear fibroblasts derived from Holstein (H) and Taiwan yellow cattle (Y) and their apoptosis-related protein expressions with (1, 3, 6, 12, and 24h) or without heat shock treatment. The results showed that the vaginal temperatures of Y (38.4-38.5°C) were (Pderived from Y (6h: 1.1%; 12h: 1.6%; 24h: 2.6%) were lower (Pderived from H (6h: 1.8%; 12h: 4.0%; 24h: 6.9%), respectively, after heat shock (42°C). The expression level of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) in ear fibroblasts derived from H was higher (Pderived from Y after the heat shock treatment for 6h and 12h, respectively. The level of cytochrome c of ear fibroblasts derived from H was higher (Pderived from Y after the heat shock treatment for 1-12h, respectively. The abundances of Caspase-3, Caspase-8 and Caspase-9 of ear fibroblasts derived from H were higher (Pderived from Y after 12h and 24h of heat shock, respectively; the Bcl-2/Bax ratios of ear fibroblasts derived from H were lower (Pderived fibroblasts after heated for 1-24h. The expression level of HSP-70 of Y-derived ear fibroblasts was also higher (Pderived from Taiwan yellow cattle was better than that of cells derived from Holstein cattle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A hereditary disposition for bovine peripheral nerve sheath tumors in Danish Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Anette B; Agerholm, Jørgen S; Christensen, Knud; Jensen, Henrik E; Leifsson, Páll S; Bendixen, Christian; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Fredholm, Merete

    2014-12-10

    Peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs) are frequently found in Danish cattle at slaughter. Bovine PNSTs share several gross and histopathological characteristics with the PNSTs in humans with heritable neurofibromatosis syndromes. The aim of the present study was to investigate a possible hereditary disposition to PNSTs in dairy cattle by statistical analysis performed on data from 567 cattle with PNSTs. Furthermore, a preliminary genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed on DNA isolated from 28 affected and 28 non-affected Holstein cows to identify loci in the bovine genome involved in the development of PNSTs. PNSTs were significantly more common in the Danish Holstein breed than in other breeds with 0.49% of Danish Holsteins slaughtered during an eight-year-period having PNSTs. PNSTs also occurred significantly more frequently in the offspring of some specific Holstein sires. Examination of three generation pedigrees showed that these sires were genetically related through a widely used US Holstein sire. The PNSTs included in GWAS were histologically classified as neurofibroma-schwannoma (43%), schwannoma (36%) and neurofibroma (21%) and derived from Holstein cows with multiple PNSTs. A single SNP on chromosome 27 reached genome-wide significance. Gross and histological characteristics of bovine PNSTs are comparable to PNSTs in humans (schwannomatosis). Danish Holsteins are genetically disposed to develop PNSTs but the examined materials are insufficient to allow determination of the mode of inheritance.

  15. Genome Scan Detects Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Female Fertility Traits in Danish and Swedish Holstein Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglund, Johanna Karolina; Guldbrandtsen, B; Su, G

    2009-01-01

    microsatellite markers. Single trait breeding values were used for 12 traits relating to female fertility and female reproductive disorders. Data were analyzed by least squares regression analysis within and across families. Twenty-six QTL were detected on 17 different chromosomes. The best evidence was found......Data from the joint Nordic breeding value prediction for Danish and Swedish Holstein grandsire families were used to locate quantitative trait loci (QTL) for female fertility traits in Danish and Swedish Holstein cattle. Up to 36 Holstein grandsires with over 2,000 sons were genotyped for 416...

  16. BDNF contributes to the genetic variance of milk fat yield in German Holstein cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Zielke, Lea G.; Bortfeldt, Ralf H; Jens eTetens; Brockmann, Gudrun A

    2011-01-01

    AbstractThe gene encoding the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been repeatedly associated with human obesity. As such, it could also contribute to the regulation of energy partitioning and the amount of secreted milk fat during lactation, which plays an important role in milk production in dairy cattle. Therefore, we performed an association study using estimated breeding values of bulls and yield deviations of German Holstein dairy cattle to test the effect of BDNF on milk fat yi...

  17. Comparing profitability of Burlina and Holstein Friesian cattle breeds

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    Martino Cassandro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to compare profitability of Burlina and Holstein Friesian cows in northern Italy. Cow’s profitability was calculated for each breed, with consideration of economic incentive programs and alternative milk pricing scenarios. The difference in annual profitability between Burlina and Holstein Friesian ranged from −€719 to −€274 per cow per year. In a low-input management level with a cow’s incentive payment and a specific cheese market strategy the low milk yield of Burlina can be compensate respect to Holstein Friesian.

  18. Carbon footprint from dairy farming system: comparison between Holstein and Jersey cattle in Italian circumstances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Riva, A.; Kristensen, Troels; De Marchi1, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to estimate the carbon footprint (CF) of milk production at farm gate considering two dairy cattle breeds, Holstein Friesian (HF) and Jersey (JE). Using Italian inventory data the emissions of CO2eq per kg ECM for dairy herds of HF and JE breed were estimated...

  19. Economic values for production and functional traits in Holstein cattle in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas, B.; Groen, A.F.; Herrero, M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Economic values for production traits (carrier, fat, protein, and dressing percentage) and functional traits (conception rate, survival rate, body weight, and rumen capacity) were calculated for Holstein cattle of Costa Rica. Economic values were derived using a bio-economic model that combined

  20. Whole-Genome association analysis of susceptibility to paratuberculosis in Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, B W; Shi, X; Shook, G E; Collins, M T

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to identify genetic markers and genomic regions associated with susceptibility to Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in Holstein cattle. Associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified by genotyping 521 MAP-infected Holstein cows and comparing SNP allele frequencies of these infected cows with allele frequencies estimated from specific reference populations. Reference population allele frequency estimates used Holstein sire genotype data and were weighted estimates based on sire usage within the population in question. The 521 infected cows were 233 and 288 cows from two resource populations of approximately 5000 cows each, collected independently. Population 1 was comprised primarily of daughters of twelve Holstein artificial insemination sires used heavily within the US dairy cattle population. Samples were obtained from 300 co-operating commercial dairy herds throughout the US and were tested by both MAP faecal culture and blood-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Population 2 consisted of dairy cattle from six co-operating dairy herds in Wisconsin, with all animals in the herds tested by blood enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for MAP infection. Genotyping was performed with the Illumina Bovine SNP50 Bead Chip, providing genotypes for 35,772 informative SNPs. Data from the two resource populations were analysed both in separate and combined analyses. The most significant autosomal markers from the individual and combined analyses (n=197, nominal PHolstein cattle susceptibility to MAP infection. © 2010 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2010 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  1. Comparison of pure Holsteins to crossbred Holsteins with Norwegian Red cattle in first and second generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezra, E; Van Straten, M; Weller, J I

    2016-08-01

    A total of 1922 first generation crossbred cows born between 2005 and 2012 produced by inseminating purebred Israeli Holstein cows with Norwegian Red semen, and 7487 purebred Israeli Holstein cows of the same age in the same 50 herds were analyzed for production, calving traits, fertility, calving diseases, body condition score, abortion rate and survival under intensive commercial management conditions. Holstein cows were higher than crossbreds for 305-day milk, fat and protein production. Differences were 764, 1244, 1231 for kg milk; 23.4, 37.4, 35.6 for kg fat, and 16.7, 29.8, 29.8 for kg protein; for parities 1 through 3. Differences for fat concentration were not significant; while crossbred cows were higher for protein concentration by 0.06% to 0.08%. Differences for somatic cells counts were not significant. Milk production persistency was higher for Holstein cows by 5, 8.3 and 8% in parities 1 through 3. Crossbred cows were higher for conception status by 3.1, 3.6 and 4.7% in parities 1 through 3. Rates of metritis for Holsteins were higher than the crossbred cows by 7.8, 4.6 and 3.4% in parities 1 to 3. Differences for incidence of abortion, dystocia, ketosis and milk fever were not significant. Holstein cows were lower than crossbred cows for body condition score for all three parities, with differences of 0.2 to 0.4 units. Contrary to comparisons in other countries, herd-life was higher for Holsteins by 79 days. A total of 6321 Holstein cows born between 2007 and 2011 were higher than 765 progeny of crossbred cows backcrossed to Israeli Holsteins of the same ages for milk, fat and protein production. Differences were 279, 537, 542 kg milk; 10.5, 17.7, 17.0 kg fat and 6.2, 12.9, 13.2 kg protein for parities 1 through 3. Differences for fat concentration were not significant, while backcross cows were higher for protein percentage by 0.02% to 0.04%. The differences for somatic cell score, conception rate, and calving diseases other than metritis, were not

  2. Variation in Weed Seed Fate Fed to Different Holstein Cattle Groups.

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    Salman Rahimi

    Full Text Available Weed seeds may maintain their viability when passing through the digestive tract of cattle and can be therefore dispersed by animal movement or the application of manure. Whether different cattle types of the same species can cause differential weed seed fate is largely unknown to us particularly under non-grazed systems similar to Holstein-Friesian dairy farming. We investigated the effect on the seed survival of four weed species in the digestive tracts of four groups of Holstein cattle: lactating cows, feedlot male calves, dry cows and growing heifers. The weed species used were Cuscuta campestris, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus and Sorghum halepense. Cattle excretion was sampled for recovery and viability of seeds at four 24 hourly intervals after seed intake. The highest seed recovery occurred two days after seed intake in all cattle groups. Averaged over weed species, dry and lactating cows had the lowest and highest seed recovery of 36.4% and 74.4% respectively. No significant differences were observed in seed recovery of the four weed species when their seeds were fed to dry cows. Based on a power model fitted to seed viability data, the estimated time to 50% viability loss after seed intake, over all cattle groups ranged from 65 h (R. crispus to 76 h (P. aviculare. Recovered seeds from the dung of feedlot male calves showed the highest mortality among cattle groups. Significant correlation was found between seed viability and ruminal pH (r = 0.86; P<0.05. This study shows that management programs aiming to minimize weed infestation caused by livestock should account for the variation amongst cattle groups in seed persistence. Our findings can be used as a guideline for evaluating the potential risk of the spread of weeds via the application of cattle manure.

  3. Variation in Weed Seed Fate Fed to Different Holstein Cattle Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Salman; Mashhadi, Hamid Rahimian; Banadaky, Mehdi Dehghan; Mesgaran, Mohsen Beheshtian

    2016-01-01

    Weed seeds may maintain their viability when passing through the digestive tract of cattle and can be therefore dispersed by animal movement or the application of manure. Whether different cattle types of the same species can cause differential weed seed fate is largely unknown to us particularly under non-grazed systems similar to Holstein-Friesian dairy farming. We investigated the effect on the seed survival of four weed species in the digestive tracts of four groups of Holstein cattle: lactating cows, feedlot male calves, dry cows and growing heifers. The weed species used were Cuscuta campestris, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus and Sorghum halepense. Cattle excretion was sampled for recovery and viability of seeds at four 24 hourly intervals after seed intake. The highest seed recovery occurred two days after seed intake in all cattle groups. Averaged over weed species, dry and lactating cows had the lowest and highest seed recovery of 36.4% and 74.4% respectively. No significant differences were observed in seed recovery of the four weed species when their seeds were fed to dry cows. Based on a power model fitted to seed viability data, the estimated time to 50% viability loss after seed intake, over all cattle groups ranged from 65 h (R. crispus) to 76 h (P. aviculare). Recovered seeds from the dung of feedlot male calves showed the highest mortality among cattle groups. Significant correlation was found between seed viability and ruminal pH (r = 0.86; Pweed infestation caused by livestock should account for the variation amongst cattle groups in seed persistence. Our findings can be used as a guideline for evaluating the potential risk of the spread of weeds via the application of cattle manure.

  4. Genetic relationship between methane emissions and conformation traits in Danish Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zetouni, Larissa; Kargo, Morten; Lassen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Conformation traits have been widely explored in dairy cattle evaluation, being a part of the total merit index for Holstein cows in different countries. They have been used as a way to access the cow’s condition in general, based on its body features. Lots of studies have analyzed the relationship...... traits in Holstein cows: height (H), body depth (BD), chest width (CW), dairy character (DC) and body condition score (BCS). Data was collected on 1114 Holstein cows from 11 commercial herds in Denmark. Methane emission was measured during milking in milking robots, and then quantifed using information...... on milk production, weight and days carried calf to predict carbon dioxide production and multiplied by the ratio between methane and carbon dioxide. Bivariate linear models were used in the analysis to estimate the correlations between methane and each one of the traits analyzed. Heritabilities estimates...

  5. Improving the accuracy of genomic prediction in Chinese Holstein cattle by using one-step blending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiujin; Wang, Sheng; Huang, Ju; Li, Leyi; Zhang, Qin; Ding, Xiangdong

    2014-10-14

    The one-step blending approach has been suggested for genomic prediction in dairy cattle. The core of this approach is to incorporate pedigree and phenotypic information of non-genotyped animals. The objective of this study was to investigate the improvement of the accuracy of genomic prediction using the one-step blending method in Chinese Holstein cattle. Three methods, GBLUP (genomic best linear unbiased prediction), original one-step blending with a genomic relationship matrix, and adjusted one-step blending with an adjusted genomic relationship matrix, were compared with respect to the accuracy of genomic prediction for five milk production traits in Chinese Holstein. For the two one-step blending methods, de-regressed proofs of 17 509 non-genotyped cows, including 424 dams and 17 085 half-sisters of the validation cows, were incorporated in the prediction model. The results showed that, averaged over the five milk production traits, the one-step blending increased the accuracy of genomic prediction by about 0.12 compared to GBLUP. No further improvement in accuracies was obtained from the adjusted one-step blending over the original one-step blending in our situation. Improvements in accuracies obtained with both one-step blending methods were almost completely contributed by the non-genotyped dams. Compared with GBLUP, the one-step blending approach can significantly improve the accuracy of genomic prediction for milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cattle. Thus, the one-step blending is a promising approach for practical genomic selection in Chinese Holstein cattle, where the reference population mainly consists of cows.

  6. Is artificial selection in Italian Holstein Friesian cattle favouring heterozygotes?

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    A. Valentini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the genetic analysis of cattle breeds has shown that most of the genetic variability is located within breeds instead that between breeds (Mac Hugh et al., 1998. Moreover, the amount of genetic diversity assessed within breeds is quite high (Edwards et al., 2000. A selection pressure in favour of the heterozygotes can be a possible explanation for this. In this case the management of cattle breeds would represent a tool to preserve genetic variability, instead of the cause of its decline. The Italian Friesian is the main Italian dairy cattle breed. The herd book has been created in 1959 and is managed by the ANAFI (National Association of Italian Friesian Breeders. Each year ANAFI updates the herd book and uses productive data for computing genetic evaluations by an animal model analysis. These genetic evaluations are available to the farmers who use them to choose semen for artificial insemination.........

  7. Development of a breeding objective for Estonian Holstein cattle

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    E. PÄRNA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic weights for milk carrier (water plus lactose, fat and protein yields, calving interval, age at first service, interval between the first service and conception of heifers and length of productive life of Estonian Holsteins were estimated under assumed milk production quota and for non-quota conditions. A bio-economic model of an integrated production system of a closed herd was used. Economic values of milk carrier yield and length of productive life differed between quota and non-quota conditions, but there were only minor differences between those marketing systems in economic values for functional traits. The standardised economic values of the most important traits varied in magnitude between18 to 81% of the economic value for milk yield. Discounting had a substantial impact on the economic value of length of productive life. When defining the breeding objective for Estonian Holstein, the interval between the first service and conception of heifers, and the length of productive life should be included in the breeding goal along with the traits with the highest economic value, milk, fat and protein yield. In the optimum breeding objective, relative weights of production vs. functional traits were 79 and 21%, respectively.;

  8. Comparative Study on the Genetic Diversity of GHR Gene in Tibetan Cattle and Holstein Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Feilong; Xia, Chenyang; Jia, Xianbo; Song, Tianzeng; Liu, Jianzhi; Lai, Song-Jia; Chen, Shi-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Due to the phenotype-based artificial selection in domestic cattle, the underlying functional genes may be indirectly selected and show decreasing diversity in theory. The growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene has been widely proposed to significantly associate with critical economic traits in cattle. In the present study, we comparatively studied the genetic diversity of GHR in Tibetan cattle (a traditional unselected breed, n = 93) and Chinese Holstein cow (the intensively selected breed, n = 94). The Tibetan yak (n = 38) was also included as an outgroup breed. A total of 21 variants were detected by sequencing 1279 bp genomic fragments encompassing the largest exon 9. Twelve haplotypes (H1∼H12) constructed by 15 coding SNPs were presented as a star-like network profile, in which haplotype H2 was located at the central position and almost occupied by Tibetan yaks. Furthermore, H2 was also identical to the formerly reported sequence specific to African cattle. Only haplotype H5 was simultaneously shared by all three breeds. Tibetan cattle showed higher nucleotide diversity (0.00215 ± 0.00015) and haplotype diversity (0.678 ± 0.026) than Holstein cow. Conclusively, we found Tibetan cattle have retained relatively high genetic variation of GHR. The predominant presence of African cattle specific H2 in the outgroup yak breed would highlight its ancestral relationship, which may be used as one informative molecular marker in the phylogenetic studies.

  9. Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Calving Traits in Danish Holstein Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, J R; Guldbrandtsen, B; Sørensen, P

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting direct and maternal calving traits at first calving in the Danish Holstein population, 2) to distinguish between pleiotropic and linked QTL for chromosome regions affecting more than one trait, and 3) to detect...... QTL affecting stillbirth and calving difficulties but not calf size that could be used in selection to improve calving performance. Progeny-tested sons (2,297) were genotyped for 356 microsatellites in 34 grandsire families on all 29 autosomes. A total of 27 significant QTL on 17 chromosomes were...... detected using a between-families linear regression model. For the direct calving traits, 4 QTL significantly affected calving difficulty, 5 QTL affected stillbirth, and 7 QTL affected calf size subjectively assessed by the farmer as a categorical trait. When the maternal components of the same traits were...

  10. The Effect of Udder Measurements on Somatic Cell Count and Daily Milk Production in Holstein Cattle

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    Ayhan Ceyhan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of udder measurements group on somatic cell count (SCC and daily milk production. Milk samples and udder measurements were collected monthly from 79 lactating Holstein cows on commercial dairy in the province of Niğde. In the study, front teat length (FTL, rear teat length (RTL, front teat diameter (FTD, rear teat diameter (RTD, distance between front teats (DBFT, distance between rear teats (DBRT, front udder height, (FTH, rear udder height (RUH, distance between front and rear teats (DBST were obtained in before afternoon milking. Udder measurements were divided into 5 groups according to the measurements. The effect of DBFT, DBRT, FTH, RTD, FTD and DBRT groups on daily milk production were statistically significant, while FTH, RUH and DBRT were found non-significant. The effect of udder measurements groups on SCC was found not significant, except rear teat diameter (RTD. Average daily milk production and SCC were estimated as 28.25 kg/day and 274.90 cell/ml, respectively. In conclusion, it can be said that the distance between teats, teat’s diameter and front udder height of Holstein cattle is important factor for milk yield of Holstein dairy cattle. Also, SCC is effected by rear teat diameter.

  11. Estimation of economic values in three breeding perspectives for longevity and milk production traits in Holstein dairy cattle in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolahad Shadparvar; Ardeshir Nejati-Javaremi; Mohammad Moradi-Shahrbabak; Ali Ali Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate economic values (EVs) for three production traits (milk, fat and protein yields) and longevity and to develop a national selection index. The proposed Iranian selection index was compared with selection indices of three other countries in the world. A simple and appropriate model was used to describe the Holstein dairy cattle industry under an Iranian production system. Production parameters and economic data were collected from two Holstein dairy...

  12. Genotyping of the Holstein-Friesian crossbred cattle for CD18 gene using PCR-RFLP

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    A. S. Khade

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken in Holstein-Friesian (HF crossbred cattle with the objective to find out genotype of HF crossbred cattle for Bovine Leucocyte Adhesion Deficiency (BLAD by using PCR-RFLP. Materials and Methods: 50 blood samples were collected from HF crossbred cattle and subjected to PCR. The amplified PCR products were digested using Taq I restriction enzyme at 65 oC overnight. After restriction digestion, the final PCR products were electrophoresed on 2.5 % agarose gel. Results: All the 50 animals under present investigation were found to be normal as the amplified PCR product upon digestion with Taq I restriction enzyme, revealed two bands of 313 bp and 54 bp for normal animals. Conclusions: In the present investigation D128G carrier frequency was found to be 0 %. However, recent reports suggest that the mutant gene has already been observed in the HF crossbred cattle population of India, which makes it necessary to screen the animals to avoid the risk of spreading BLAD in the breeding cattle population.

  13. Genome-wide Association Study for Calving Traits in Danish and Swedish Holstein Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2011-01-01

    A total of 22 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected on 19 chromosomes for direct and maternal calving traits in cattle using a genome-wide association study. Calving performance is affected by the genotypes of both the calf (direct effect) and dam (maternal effect). To identify the QTL...... contributing these effects to calving characteristics, we performed a genome-wide association study using a mixed-model analysis in Danish and Swedish Holstein cattle. The analysis incorporated 2,062 progeny-tested bulls, and 36,387 single nucleotide polymorphism markers on 29 bovine autosomes were analyzed...... for association with 14 calving traits. Strong evidence for the presence of QTL that affect calving traits was observed on chromosomes 4, 6, 12, 18, 20, and 25. The QTL intervals were generally smaller than those described in earlier linkage studies. The identification of calving trait-associated single...

  14. Whole genome resequencing of black Angus and Holstein cattle for SNP and CNV discovery

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    Stothard Paul

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the goals of livestock genomics research is to identify the genetic differences responsible for variation in phenotypic traits, particularly those of economic importance. Characterizing the genetic variation in livestock species is an important step towards linking genes or genomic regions with phenotypes. The completion of the bovine genome sequence and recent advances in DNA sequencing technology allow for in-depth characterization of the genetic variations present in cattle. Here we describe the whole-genome resequencing of two Bos taurus bulls from distinct breeds for the purpose of identifying and annotating novel forms of genetic variation in cattle. Results The genomes of a Black Angus bull and a Holstein bull were sequenced to 22-fold and 19-fold coverage, respectively, using the ABI SOLiD system. Comparisons of the sequences with the Btau4.0 reference assembly yielded 7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, 24% of which were identified in both animals. Of the total SNPs found in Holstein, Black Angus, and in both animals, 81%, 81%, and 75% respectively are novel. In-depth annotations of the data identified more than 16 thousand distinct non-synonymous SNPs (85% novel between the two datasets. Alignments between the SNP-altered proteins and orthologues from numerous species indicate that many of the SNPs alter well-conserved amino acids. Several SNPs predicted to create or remove stop codons were also found. A comparison between the sequencing SNPs and genotyping results from the BovineHD high-density genotyping chip indicates a detection rate of 91% for homozygous SNPs and 81% for heterozygous SNPs. The false positive rate is estimated to be about 2% for both the Black Angus and Holstein SNP sets, based on follow-up genotyping of 422 and 427 SNPs, respectively. Comparisons of read depth between the two bulls along the reference assembly identified 790 putative copy-number variations (CNVs. Ten

  15. Genetic component of sensitivity to heat stress for nonreturn rate of Brazilian Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, M L; Bignardi, A B; Stefani, G; El Faro, L

    2017-08-01

    The objectives of the present study were: 1) to investigate variation in the genetic component of heat stress for nonreturn rate at 56 days after first artificial insemination (NR56); 2) to identify and characterize the genotype by environment interaction (G × E) due to heat stress for NR56 of Brazilian Holstein cattle. A linear random regression model (reaction norm model) was applied to 51,748 NR56 records of 28,595 heifers and multiparous cows. The decline in NR56 due to heat stress was more pronounced in milking cows compared to heifers. The age of females at first artificial insemination and temperature-humidity index (THI) exerted an important influence on the genetic parameters of NR56. Several evidence of G × E on NR56 were found as the high slope/intercept ratio and frequent intersection of reaction norms. Additionally, the genetic correlation between NR56 at opposite extremes of the THI scale reached estimates below zero, indicating that few of the same genes are responsible for NR56 under conditions of thermoneutrality and heat stress. The genetic evaluation and selection for NR56 in Holstein cattle reared under (sub)tropical conditions should therefore take into consideration the genetic variation on age at insemination and G × E due to heat stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The SLICK hair locus derived from Senepol cattle confers thermotolerance to intensively managed lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmen, S; Khan, F A; Huson, H J; Sonstegard, T S; Moss, J I; Dahl, G E; Hansen, P J

    2014-09-01

    The SLICK haplotype (http://omia.angis.org.au/OMIA001372/9913/) in cattle confers animals with a short and sleek hair coat. Originally identified in Senepol cattle, the gene has been introduced into Holsteins. The objectives of the current study were to determine (1) whether lactating Holsteins with the slick hair phenotype have superior ability for thermoregulation compared with wild-type cows or relatives not inheriting the SLICK haplotype, and (2) whether seasonal depression in milk yield would be reduced in SLICK cows. In experiment 1, diurnal variation in vaginal temperature in the summer was monitored for cows housed in a freestall barn with fans and sprinklers. Vaginal temperatures were lower in slick-haired cows than in relatives and wild-type cows. In experiment 2, acute responses to heat stress were monitored after cows were moved to a dry lot in which the only heat abatement was shade cloth. The increases in rectal temperature and respiration rate caused by heat stress during the day were lower for slick cows than for relatives or wild-type cows. Moreover, sweating rate was higher for slick cows than for cows of the other 2 types. In experiment 3, effects of season of calving (summer vs. winter) on milk yield and composition were determined. Compared with milk yield of cows calving in winter, milk yield during the first 90 d in milk was lower for cows calving in the summer. However, this reduction was less pronounced for slick cows than for wild-type cows. In conclusion, Holsteins with slick hair have superior thermoregulatory ability compared with non-slick animals and experience a less drastic depression in milk yield during the summer. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Microsatellite panels suggested for parentage testing in cattle: informativeness revealed in Finnish Ayrshire and Holstein-Friesian populations (Research Note

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    P. BREDBACKA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Informativeness of eleven microsatellite markers suggested for parentage control in cattle by the International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG was studied in Finnish Ayrshire and Holstein-Friesian populations. Calculations were based on a sample of 100 non-sib artificial insemination bulls. Assuming one known parent the nine loci suggested for routine testing exhibited exclusion probabilities of 99.84% in the Ayrshires and 99.91% in the Holstein-Friesians. The addition of markers INRA23 and TGLA53, recommended for further investigations, increased the attained values to 99.94% in Ayrshires and to 99.98% in Holstein-Friesians. The recommended core set of six microsatellites provided a combined exclusion probability of 98.25% in Ayrshires and 99.32% in Holstein-Friesians. Although the combined values were high in general, a relatively low level of polymorphism was detected in some instances.;

  18. Gene expression profiling of hormonal regulation related to the residual feed intake of Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Y M; Yang, Z; Wu, F; Han, Z Y; Wang, G L

    2015-09-11

    An accumulation of over a decade of research in cattle has shown that genetic selection for decreased residual feed intake (RFI), defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake, is a viable option for improving feed efficiency and reducing the feed requirements of herds, thereby improving the profitability of cattle producers. Hormonal regulation is one of the most important factors in feed intake. To determine the relationship between hormones and feed efficiency, we performed gene expression profiling of jugular vein serum on hormonal regulation of Chinese Holstein cattle with low and high RFI coefficients. 857 differential expression genes (from 24683 genes) were found. Among these, 415 genes were up-regulated and 442 genes were down-regulated in the low RFI group. The gene ontology (GO) search revealed 6 significant terms and 64 genes associated with hormonal regulation, and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) selected the adipocytokine signaling pathway, insulin signaling pathway. In conclusion, the study indicated that the molecular expression of genes associated with hormonal regulation differs in dairy cows, depending on their RFI coefficients, and that these differences may be related to the molecular regulation of the leptin-NPY and insulin signaling pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Toll-like receptor 2 gene polymorphisms in Chinese Holstein cattle and their associations with bovine tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhanqin; Xue, Yun; Hu, Zhigang; Zhou, Feng; Ma, Beibei; Long, Ta; Xue, Qiao; Liu, Huisheng

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated whether there was an association between polymorphisms within the Toll-like receptor 2 gene (TLR2) of Chinese Holstein cattle and susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis (BTB). In a case-control study including 210 BTB cases and 237 control cattle, we found only two common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the entire coding region of the TLR2 gene, A631G (rs95214857) and T1707C (rs1388116488). Additionally, the allele and genotype distributions of A631G and T1707C were not different between case and control groups, indicated that these SNPs were not associated with susceptibility to BTB. These results suggested that polymorphisms in the TLR2 gene might not play a significant role in the BTB risk in Chinese Holstein cattle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of breed-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms to discriminate between Holstein and Jersey dairy cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Sameer D; Schenkel, Flavio S; Verschoor, Chris P; Karrow, Niel A

    2012-01-01

    Emphasis on livestock genetic improvement in the past decades has led to commercialization of different breeds of livestock species. Breed validation has become increasingly important to assess the safety and authenticity of livestock products in global and domestic markets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of breed-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in discriminating between Holstein and Jersey dairy cattle breeds. Two separate resource populations were used, including a reference population consisting of 498 Holstein and 83 Jersey bull DNA samples, and a validation population consisting of 260 Holstein and 34 Jersey cow DNA samples. Five Jersey-specific and four Holstein-specific SNPs were identified and genotyped on the reference and validation resource populations. The reference population was used to validate the breed-specific SNPs used in this study and to predict the allocation efficiencies and misclassification probabilities of different combinations of SNPs. Individual animals in the validation population were allocated to either breed based on the presence of breed-specific alleles. It was found that any combination of three breed-specific SNPs had, on average, high breed allocation efficiency of >95% and low misclassification probability of Holstein cattle breeds. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  1. PCR screening and allele frequency estimation of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency in Holstein and Gir cattle in Brazil

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    Luciana A. Ribeiro

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD is a disease known to affect the Holstein cattle breed throughout the world. Eighty-eight Holstein dairy cows and 88 Gir dairy bulls were genotyped by PCR for the CD18 BLAD alelle. The frequency of the BLAD mutant allele and the BLAD-carrier prevalence in Brazilian Holstein cows were 2.8 and 5.7%, respectively. No mutant allele was found in any of the 88 Gir animals. We conclude that the CD18 gene mutation is prevalent in Brazilian Holstein cattle and absent or present at a very low frequency in Gir cattle.Oitenta e oito vacas da raça Holandesa e 88 touros da raça Gir foram genotipados através da PCR para o gene CD18 da deficiência de adesão de leucócitos em bovinos (BLAD. As freqüências do alelo mutante BLAD e de vacas heterozigotas da raça Holandesa foram 2,8 e 5,7%, respectivamente. Por outro lado, todos animais Gir foram identificados como homozigotos normais, ou seja, nenhum alelo mutante BLAD foi encontrado. Estes resultados sugerem que a mutação no gene CD18 é prevalente em bovinos brasileiros da raça Holandesa e ausente ou presente numa freqüência muito baixa em animais Gir.

  2. Genome-wide association mapping for female fertility traits in Danish and Swedish Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, G; Guldbrandtsen, B; Bendixen, C

    2010-01-01

    A genome-wide association study was conducted using a mixed model analysis for QTL for fertility traits in Danish and Swedish Holstein cattle. The analysis incorporated 2,531 progeny tested bulls, and a total of 36 387 SNP markers on 29 bovine autosomes were used. Eleven fertility traits were...... analyzed for SNP association. Furthermore, mixed model analysis was used for association analyses where a polygenic effect was fitted as a random effect, and genotypes at single SNPs were successively included as a fixed effect in the model. The Bonferroni correction for multiple testing was applied...... to adjust the significance threshold. Seventy-four SNP-trait combinations showed chromosome-wide significance, and five of these were significant genome-wide. Twenty-four QTL regions on 14 chromosomes were detected. Strong evidence for the presence of QTL that affect fertility traits were observed...

  3. Endometrial cytology as an indicator of subclinical endometritis of dairy cattle Holstein Friesian and Jersey breeds

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    Reátegui J

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the presence of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (% PMN-N as an indicator of endometritis sub clinic in dairy cattle Holstein Friesian and Jersey breeds, by the method of endometrial cytology. 94 dairy cows were sampled, and were grouped by genotypic characteristics as: Group 1: 47 Holstein Friesian cows; Group 2: 47 Jersey cows, both between 21 and 56 days postpartum. It were evaluated: age, body condition, lactation number, number of birth, date of birth and days in milk to obtain the sample data were evaluated with a test of homogeneity based on statistical Chi square (p 0.05 was found in any of the variables studied, the% PMN-N reached a range between 0.4% and 4.4%, with an average of 2.2% still below the values indicating the present investigation reports the% PMN-N by genetic group both as multiparous or primiparous cows showed no significant differences between them. It has be concluded that the overall frequency for SE in different genotype cows did show statistically significant differences (p>0.05, however the presence of PMN-N as an indicator of subclinical endometritis in dairy cows of different genotype with 2 and 4 lactations showed differences statistically significant (p<0.05.

  4. Genetic parameters for test day somatic cell score in Brazilian Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, C N; Santos, G G; Cobuci, J A; Thompson, G; Carvalheira, J G V

    2015-12-29

    Selection for lower somatic cell count has been included in the breeding objectives of several countries in order to increase resistance to mastitis. Genetic parameters of somatic cell scores (SCS) were estimated from the first lactation test day records of Brazilian Holstein cows using random-regression models with Legendre polynomials (LP) of the order 3-5. Data consisted of 87,711 TD produced by 10,084 cows, sired by 619 bulls calved from 1993 to 2007. Heritability estimates varied from 0.06 to 0.14 and decreased from the beginning of the lactation up to 60 days in milk (DIM) and increased thereafter to the end of lactation. Genetic correlations between adjacent DIM were very high (>0.83) but decreased to negative values, obtained with LP of order four, between DIM in the extremes of lactation. Despite the favorable trend, genetic changes in SCS were not significant and did not differ among LP. There was little benefit of fitting an LP of an order >3 to model animal genetic and permanent environment effects for SCS. Estimates of variance components found in this study may be used for breeding value estimation for SCS and selection for mastitis resistance in Holstein cattle in Brazil.

  5. Estimation of genetic parameters of fertility traits in Chinese Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Gang; Guo, Xiangyu; Wang, Yachun

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for fertility traits in Chinese Holstein heifers and cows. Data of 20169 animals with 42106 records over a period of 10 yr (2001–2010) were collected from Sanyuan Lvhe Dairy Cattle Center in Beijing, China. Traits included age at first...... service (AFS), number of services (NS), days from calving to first service (CTFS), days open (DO), and calving interval (CI). Genetic parameters were estimated with multiple-trait animal model using the DMU software. Heritability estimates for AFS, NS, CTFS, DO and CI were 0.100±0.012, 0.040±0.017, 0.......49–0.99), and DO showed strong correlation with NS and CTFS (0.49 and 0.58, respectively). The genetic correlation between CTFS and NS was negative moderate (−0.25). Results were in range with previous literature estimates and can be used in Chinese Holstein genetic evaluation for fertility traits...

  6. Economic weights of production and functional traits for Holstein-Friesian cattle in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komlósi, I; Wolfová, M; Wolf, J; Farkas, B; Szendrei, Z; Béri, B

    2010-04-01

    A bio-economic model was used to estimate economic values of 15 milk production, functional, growth and carcass traits for Hungarian Holstein-Friesian cattle. The calculations were carried out for the situation in Hungary from 2000 to 2007, assuming no production quotas. The marginal economic values were defined as partial derivatives of the profit function with respect to each trait in a production system with dairy cow herds and with sales of surplus male calves. The economic weights for maternal and direct components of traits were calculated multiplying the marginal economic values by the number of discounted expression summed over a 25-year investment period for 2-year-old bulls (candidates for selection). The standardized economic weight (economic weight x genetic standard deviation) of the trait or trait component expressed as percentage of the sum of the standardized economic weights for all traits and trait components represented the relative economic importance of this trait or trait component. The highest relative economic importance was obtained for milk yield (25%), followed by productive lifetime of cows (23%), protein yield and the direct component of a cow's total conception rate (9% each), the maternal effect of the total conception rate of cows and the somatic cell score (approximately 7% each), fat yield (5%) and mature weight of cows and daily gain in rearing of calves (approximately 4% each). Other functional traits (clinical mastitis incidence, calving difficulty score, total conception rate of heifers and calf mortality) reached a relative economic importance between 0.5% and 2%. Birth weight and dressing percentage were least important (productive lifetime and cow fertility in the breeding programme for Holstein-Friesian cattle in Hungary is advisable.

  7. BOLA-DRB3 gene polymorphisms influence bovine leukaemia virus infection levels in Holstein and Holstein × Jersey crossbreed dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carignano, H A; Beribe, M J; Caffaro, M E; Amadio, A; Nani, J P; Gutierrez, G; Alvarez, I; Trono, K; Miretti, M M; Poli, M A

    2017-08-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infections, causing persistent lymphocytosis and lethal lymphosarcoma in cattle, have reached high endemicity on dairy farms. We observed extensive inter-individual variation in the level of infection (LI) by assessing differences in proviral load in peripheral blood. This phenotypic variation appears to be determined by host genetics variants, especially those located in the BoLA-DRB3 MHCII molecule. We performed an association study using sequencing-based typed BOLA-DRB3 alleles from over 800 Holstein and Holstein × Jersey cows considering LI in vivo and accounting for filial relationships. The DBR3*0902 allele was associated with a low level of infection (LLI) (cows. Moreover, we identified two BOLA-DRB3 alleles associated with a HLI, which is compatible with a highly contagious profile. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  8. Analysis of copy loss and gain variations in Holstein cattle autosomes using BeadChip SNPs

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    Weller Joel I

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Copy number variation (CNV has been recently identified in human and other mammalian genomes, and there is a growing awareness of CNV's potential as a major source for heritable variation in complex traits. Genomic selection is a newly developed tool based on the estimation of breeding values for quantitative traits through the use of genome-wide genotyping of SNPs. Over 30,000 Holstein bulls have been genotyped with the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip, which includes 54,001 SNPs (~SNP/50,000 bp, some of which fall within CNV regions. Results We used the BeadChip data obtained for 912 Israeli bulls to investigate the effects of CNV on SNP calls. For each of the SNPs, we estimated the frequencies of occurrence of loss of heterozygosity (LOH and of gain, based either on deviation from the expected Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE or on signal intensity (SI using the PennCNV "detect" option. Correlations between LOH/CNV frequencies predicted by the two methods were low (up to r = 0.08. Nevertheless, 418 locations displayed significantly high frequencies by both methods. Efficiency of designating large genomic clusters of olfactory receptors as CNVs was 29%. Frequency values for copy loss were distinguishable in non-autosomal regions, indicating misplacement of a region in the current BTA7 map. Analysis of BTA18 placed major quantitative trait loci affecting net merit in the US Holstein population in regions rich in segmental duplications and CNVs. Enrichment of transporters in CNV loci suggested their potential effect on milk-production traits. Conclusions Expansion of HWE and PennCNV analyses allowed estimating LOH/CNV frequencies, and combining the two methods yielded more sensitive detection of inherited CNVs and better estimation of their possible effects on cattle genetics. Although this approach was more effective than methodologies previously applied in cattle, it has severe limitations. Thus the number of CNVs reported here

  9. Genetic analysis for quality of frozen embryos produced by Holstein cattle donors in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaton, C; Schenkel, F S; Malchiodi, F; Sargolzaei, M; Price, C A; Baes, C; Miglior, F

    2017-09-01

    The number of embryos produced by Holstein donors has been shown to be heritable, so it could be possible to genetically select for this trait to improve the efficiency of the assisted reproductive technology (ART) in dairy cattle. Another important parameter to consider for achieving good results from ART is embryo quality because embryos of good quality have more chance of producing live offspring. The possibility of using genetic selection for increasing the quality of embryo produced from ART has yet to be assessed. The objective of this study was, therefore, to perform a genetic analysis of embryo quality of Holstein donors in Canada using data recorded by Holstein Canada. The data set used was missing quality score data for embryos transferred fresh into a recipient, so the analyses were only performed for frozen embryos. With most traits in the Canadian dairy industry being evaluated with linear models, embryo quality was also evaluated with this class of models. However, considering the categorical nature of embryo quality, a threshold model was also evaluated. Embryo quality data were analyzed with either a univariate linear animal model or a univariate binomial threshold animal model. Genetic parameters estimated from the different models were comparable. A low heritability was found for the donor (0.04 ± <0.01) and the service sire (0.02 ± <0.01), but the repeatability estimate for the donor was higher (0.17), indicating that it was worthwhile to use a repeated records model. Overall, considering the low genetic parameters estimated, slow genetic progress is expected for the quality of frozen embryos produced by Canadian Holstein donors. Rank correlations were calculated between breeding values estimated from different models. High correlations were found between all models, indicating that no substantial re-ranking of the animals is expected from the different models. So, even though a threshold model is better suited for the analysis of categorical

  10. Georeferenced evaluation of genetic breeding value patterns in Brazilian Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, N S; Hermuche, P; Cobuci, J A; Paiva, S R; Guimaraes, R F; Carvalho, O A; Gomes, R A T; Costa, C N; McManus, C M

    2014-11-27

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between environmental and genetic values for milk production and type traits in Holstein cattle in Brazil. The genetic value of 65,383 animals for milk production and 53,626 for type classification were available. Socioeconomic and environmental data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the National Institute of Meteorology. Five to six clusters were generated for each of the groups of type traits and production levels. The relationships between these traits were assessed using the STEPDISC, DISCRIM and CANDISC procedures in SAS(®). Traits within the clusters behaved differently, but, in general, animals with lower genetic values were found in environments that were more stressful for animal production. These differences were mainly associated with temperature, humidity, precipitation and the Normalized Difference Vegetative Index. Genetic values for milk production showed best discrimination between different environments, while type traits showed poor discrimination, possibly because farmers mainly select for milk production. Environmental variations for genetic values in dairy cattle in Brazil should be further examined.

  11. Analysis of pregnancy length in multiple births in Czech Fleckvieh and Holstein cattle

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    Jiří Bezdíček

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the work we have evaluated multiple births (calving between the years 1992 and 2003 in Czech Fleckvieh and Holstein cattle. We have compared the length of pregnancy in case of twins and triplets with the length of pregnancy of the same cow during the previous lactation when only one calf was born. Total number of observed multiple births of both strains was 686 cases – including 508 births of twins and 178 births of triplets. Mathematical statistical procedures have been made by standard mathematical methods using a SPSS 15.0 for Windows, Release 15.0.0 (6 Sep 2006 program. The results we have reached showed a significant (P ≤ 0.01 decrease in pregnancy length in multiple births. These results have appeared in both observed strains. Czech Fleckvieh cattle showed the length of pregnancy 281.57 days in case of twins (previous pregnacy with one calf was 287.41 days long and in case of triplets it was 277.09 days (previous pregnancy was 287.17 days long. Decrase in pregnancy length was therefore by 5.84 days in case of twins and by 10.08 days in case of triplets. A similar tendency was found also in Holstein cattle, where the length of pregnancy in case of twins was 274.98 days (previous pregnancy with one calf was 279.66 days long and in case of triplets was 271.12 (280.27 with one calf. Also in this case the shortening of the pregnancy with twins (by 4.68 days and with triplets (by 9.15 days was significant (P ≤ 0.01. Both observed strains showed the highest number of multiple births in the second to fifth pregnancy. These pregnancies showed the 75.07 % of all the multiple births – twins were 52.77 % and triplets were 22.3 %. On the other hand the lowest ratio of multiple births was in case of the first calving (total 2.33 %.

  12. Twinning in Iranian Holstein Dairy Cattle: A Study of Risk Factors and Production and Reproduction Consequences

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    abolfazl mahnani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cattle are a monotocous species meaning that, under most circumstances, a successful pregnancy results in the birth of one calf. Twinning rate has been reported in dairy cows from 3 to 5 percent, which can be influenced by maternal age.The birth of twins is detrimental to the majority of beef and dairy cattle producer. Financial loss arising from any of twinning has been reported in Europe between 109 to 201 dollars in recent years. Because it is associated with undesirable consequences such as reduced survival, calf, cow increased removal rate and poor performance. This also reduces pregnancy rates and profitability herds. One of the effects of twinning severe is reduction of the number of calves for replacement fertility in dairy cows. This is a loss arising from an increase in infant mortality and a gender bias in bull calves homo zygote.Twinning rate increases significantly the incidence of reproductive abnormalities, including the retained placenta, dystocia, stillbirth and abortion. Many studies have been done on the effect of multiple pregnancies in cattle production and reproduction. Higher milk production for cows twin issue is controversial as some studies have shown that there is a positive correlation between the rate of twinning in dairy cattle and milk production. But in the next lactation, production for cows that have been the twin of the infected cow metabolic disease in the previous period was lower. In a study reported that cows spend fewer days in the twin peak production. The results of the study on the effect of twinning on reproductive traits of Holstein cows-Farzin showed that only half of the twin cows are prone to reproduce in the next period. It is also reported a greater number of insemination per conception in twin compared to single cows. In addition, it has been reported that the twin was more than 15 days from calving to first services. Average twin cows experiencing 1.7 times more death and removal

  13. BDNF contributes to the genetic variance of milk fat yield in German Holstein cattle

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    Lea G. Zielke

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe gene encoding the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been repeatedly associated with human obesity. As such, it could also contribute to the regulation of energy partitioning and the amount of secreted milk fat during lactation, which plays an important role in milk production in dairy cattle. Therefore, we performed an association study using estimated breeding values of bulls and yield deviations of German Holstein dairy cattle to test the effect of BDNF on milk fat yield. A highly significant effect (corrected p-value =3.362 x10-4 was identified for an SNP 168 kb up-stream of the BDNF transcription start. The association tests provided evidence for an additive allele effect of 5.13 kg of fat per lactation on the estimated breeding value for milk fat yield in bulls and 6.80 kg of fat of the own production performance in cows explaining 1.72% and 0.60% of the phenotypic variance in the analysed populations, respectively. The analyses of bulls and cows consistently showed three haplotype groups that differed significantly from each other, suggesting at least two different mutations in the BDNF-region affecting the milk fat yield. The fat yield increasing alleles also had low but significant positive effects on protein and total milk yield which suggests a general role of the BDNF-region in energy partitioning, rather than a specific regulation of fat synthesis. The results obtained in dairy cattle suggest similar effects of BDNF on milk composition in other species, including man.

  14. BDNF contributes to the genetic variance of milk fat yield in german holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielke, Lea G; Bortfeldt, Ralf H; Tetens, Jens; Brockmann, Gudrun A

    2011-01-01

    The gene encoding the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been repeatedly associated with human obesity. As such, it could also contribute to the regulation of energy partitioning and the amount of secreted milk fat during lactation, which plays an important role in milk production in dairy cattle. Therefore, we performed an association study using estimated breeding values (EBVs) of bulls and yield deviations of German Holstein dairy cattle to test the effect of BDNF on milk fat yield (FY). A highly significant effect (corrected p-value = 3.362 × 10(-4)) was identified for an SNP 168 kb up-stream of the BDNF transcription start. The association tests provided evidence for an additive allele effect of 5.13 kg of fat per lactation on the EBV for milk FY in bulls and 6.80 kg of fat of the own production performance in cows explaining 1.72 and 0.60% of the phenotypic variance in the analyzed populations, respectively. The analyses of bulls and cows consistently showed three haplotype groups that differed significantly from each other, suggesting at least two different mutations in the BDNF region affecting the milk FY. The FY increasing alleles also had low but significant positive effects on protein and total milk yield which suggests a general role of the BDNF region in energy partitioning, rather than a specific regulation of fat synthesis. The results obtained in dairy cattle suggest similar effects of BDNF on milk composition in other species, including man.

  15. Genome-wide association for milk production and female fertility traits in Canadian dairy Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayeri, Shadi; Sargolzaei, Mehdi; Abo-Ismail, Mohammed K; May, Natalie; Miller, Stephen P; Schenkel, Flavio; Moore, Stephen S; Stothard, Paul

    2016-06-10

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are a powerful tool for detecting genomic regions explaining variation in phenotype. The objectives of the present study were to identify or refine the positions of genomic regions affecting milk production, milk components and fertility traits in Canadian Holstein cattle, and to use these positions to identify genes and pathways that may influence these traits. Several QTL regions were detected for milk production (MILK), fat production (FAT), protein production (PROT) and fat and protein deviation (FATD, PROTD respectively). The identified QTL regions for production traits (including milk production) support previous findings and some overlap with genes with known relevant biological functions identified in earlier studies such as DGAT1 and CPSF1. A significant region on chromosome 21 overlapping with the gene FAM181A and not previous linked to fertility in dairy cattle was identified for the calving to first service interval and days open. A functional enrichment analysis of the GWAS results yielded GO terms consistent with the specific phenotypes tested, for example GO terms GO:0007595 (lactation) and GO:0043627 (response to estrogen) for milk production (MILK), GO:0051057 (positive regulation of small GTPase mediated signal transduction) for fat production (FAT), GO:0040019 (positive regulation of embryonic development) for first service to calving interval (CTFS) and GO:0043268 (positive regulation of potassium ion transport) for days open (DO). In other cases the connection between the enriched GO terms and the traits were less clear, for example GO:0003279 (cardiac septum development) for FAT and GO:0030903 (notochord development) for DO trait. The chromosomal regions and enriched pathways identified in this study confirm several previous findings and highlight new regions and pathways that may contribute to variation in production or fertility traits in dairy cattle.

  16. A novel method for rapid and reliable detection of complex vertebral malformation and bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency in Holstein cattle

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    Zhang Yi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex vertebral malformation (CVM and bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD are two autosomal recessive lethal genetic defects frequently occurring in Holstein cattle, identifiable by single nucleotide polymorphisms. The objective of this study is to develop a rapid and reliable genotyping assay to screen the active Holstein sires and determine the carrier frequency of CVM and BLAD in Chinese dairy cattle population. Results We developed real-time PCR-based assays for discrimination of wild-type and defective alleles, so that carriers can be detected. Only one step was required after the DNA extraction from the sample and time consumption was about 2 hours. A total of 587 Chinese Holstein bulls were assayed, and fifty-six CVM-carriers and eight BLAD-carriers were identified, corresponding to heterozygote carrier frequencies of 9.54% and 1.36%, respectively. The pedigree analysis showed that most of the carriers could be traced back to the common ancestry, Osborndale Ivanhoe for BLAD and Pennstate Ivanhoe Star for CVM. Conclusions These results demonstrate that real-time PCR is a simple, rapid and reliable assay for BLAD and CVM defective allele detection. The high frequency of the CVM allele suggests that implementing a routine testing system is necessary to gradually eradicate the deleterious gene from the Chinese Holstein population.

  17. Prediction of insemination outcomes in Holstein dairy cattle using alternative machine learning algorithms.

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    Shahinfar, Saleh; Page, David; Guenther, Jerry; Cabrera, Victor; Fricke, Paul; Weigel, Kent

    2014-02-01

    When making the decision about whether or not to breed a given cow, knowledge about the expected outcome would have an economic impact on profitability of the breeding program and net income of the farm. The outcome of each breeding can be affected by many management and physiological features that vary between farms and interact with each other. Hence, the ability of machine learning algorithms to accommodate complex relationships in the data and missing values for explanatory variables makes these algorithms well suited for investigation of reproduction performance in dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to develop a user-friendly and intuitive on-farm tool to help farmers make reproduction management decisions. Several different machine learning algorithms were applied to predict the insemination outcomes of individual cows based on phenotypic and genotypic data. Data from 26 dairy farms in the Alta Genetics (Watertown, WI) Advantage Progeny Testing Program were used, representing a 10-yr period from 2000 to 2010. Health, reproduction, and production data were extracted from on-farm dairy management software, and estimated breeding values were downloaded from the US Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory (Beltsville, MD) database. The edited data set consisted of 129,245 breeding records from primiparous Holstein cows and 195,128 breeding records from multiparous Holstein cows. Each data point in the final data set included 23 and 25 explanatory variables and 1 binary outcome for of 0.756 ± 0.005 and 0.736 ± 0.005 for primiparous and multiparous cows, respectively. The naïve Bayes algorithm, Bayesian network, and decision tree algorithms showed somewhat poorer classification performance. An information-based variable selection procedure identified herd average conception rate, incidence of ketosis, number of previous (failed) inseminations, days in milk at breeding, and mastitis as the most

  18. Genetic and environmental variance and covariance parameters for some reproductive traits of Holstein and Jersey cattle in Antioquia (Colombia

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    Juan Carlos Zambrano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic, phenotypic and environmental parameters for calving interval (CI, days open (DO, number of services per conception (NSC and conception rate (CR in Holstein and Jersey cattle in Antioquia (Colombia. Variance and covariance component estimates were obtained by an animal model that was solved using the derivative-free restricted maximum likelihood method. The means and standard deviations for CI, DO, NSC and CR were: 430.32±77.93 days, 127.15±76.96 days, 1.58±1.03 services per conception and 79.88±28.66% in Holstein cattle, and 409.33±86.48 days, 125.62±86.09 days, 1.48±0.98 services per conception and 84.08±27.23% in Jersey cattle, respectively. The heritability estimates (standard errors were: 0.088(0.037, 0.082(0.037, 0.040(0.025 and 0.030(0.026 in Holstein cattle and 0.072(0.098, 0.090(0.104, 0.093(0.097 and 0.147(0.117 in Jersey cattle, respectively. The results show that the genetic, phenotypic and permanent environmental correlations in the two evaluated breeds were favorable for CI × DO, CI × NSC and DO × NSC, but not for CI × CR, DO × CR and NSC × CR. Genetic and permanent environmental correlations were high in most cases in Holstein cattle, whereas in Jersey cattle they were moderate. In contrast, phenotypic correlations were very low in both breeds, except for CI × DO and NSC × CR, which were high. Overall, the genetic component found was very low (<8% in both evaluated breeds and this implies that their selection would take long time and that a good practical management of the herd will be essential in order to improve the reproductive performance.

  19. Low incidence of an altered endometrial epidermal growth factor (EGF) profile in repeat breeder Holstein heifers and differential effect of parity on the EGF profile between fertile Holstein (dairy) and Japanese Black (beef) cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Seiji; Moriyoshi, Masaharu; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    2013-12-17

    A high incidence (about 70%) of alteration in endometrial epidermal growth factor (EGF) profile, i.e., loss of 2 peaks on days 2-4 and 13-14, has been linked to a reduced fertility in multiparous repeat breeder Holstein cows. However, the EGF profile in Holstein heifers and other breeds (types) of cattle has not been investigated. In study 1, EGF concentrations were determined using endometrial tissues obtained by biopsy on days 3, 7 and 14 from 84 fertile Holstein heifers to obtain a normal range and 53 repeat breeder Holstein heifers to estimate incidence of alterations in the EGF profile. In repeat breeder heifers, EGF concentrations were similar to fertile controls on 3 days and five animals (9.4%) had an altered EGF profile with EGF concentrations below the normal range on days 3 and 14. In study 2, EGF concentrations on day 3 were repeatedly examined from the nulliparous period to the third postpartum period in 28 Holstein (dairy) and 47 Japanese Black (beef) cattle. The effect of parity on EGF concentrations on day 3 was different between Holstein and Japanese Black cattle. In Japanese Black cows, the EGF concentrations were consistently high throughout the study period, while in Holstein cows, the EGF concentrations decreased after the second calving. In conclusion, unlike multiparous repeat breeder Holstein cows, an altered EGF profile may not be a major cause of repeat breeding in Holstein heifers, and the peak EGF concentrations around day 3 may decrease even in fertile populations of multiparous dairy cows, but not in beef cows.

  20. Prediction of excretion of manure and nitrogen by Holstein dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, V A; Mertens, D R; Casper, D P

    1997-12-01

    A compilation of N balance data (n = 1801) was partitioned into four groups to define the mean excretion of manure and N and to develop empirical equations to estimate these excretions from Holstein herds. Mean excretion of manure for cows that averaged 29 kg/d of milk production was 3 kg/d per 1000 kg of body weight (BW) more than the value for dairy cows reported by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers; N excretion was 0.09 kg/d per 1000 kg of BW higher than the value reported by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Mean excretion of manure and N for cows that averaged 14 kg/d of milk production and that for nonlactating cows were substantially lower than the values reported by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Growing and replacement cattle excreted 10 kg/d per 1000 kg of BW more manure and 0.11 kg/d per 1000 kg of BW more N than was reported by the American Society for Agricultural Engineers for beef cattle. Estimation of manure and N excretion was more accurate than mean values when using regression equations that included variables for milk production, concentration of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber in the diet, BW, days in milk, and days of pregnancy. Equations that contained intake variables did not significantly affect predictions of manure and N excretion, and the use of such equations is discouraged unless dry matter intake is measured and not estimated. Accurate estimates of excreta output could improve the planning of storage and handling systems for manure and the calculation of nutrient balances on dairy farms.

  1. Linkage disequilibrium on chromosome 6 in Australian Holstein-Friesian cattle

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    Raadsma Herman W

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We analysed linkage disequilibrium (LD in Australian Holstein-Friesian cattle by genotyping a sample of 45 bulls for 15 closely-spaced microsatellites on two regions of BTA6 reported to carry important QTL for dairy traits. The order and distance of markers were based on the USDA-MARC linkage map. Frequencies of haplotypes were estimated using the E-M approach and a more computationally-intensive Bayesian approach as implemented in PHASE. LD was then estimated using the Hedrick multiallelic extension of Lewontin normalised coefficient D'. Estimates of D' from the two approaches were in close agreement (r = 0.91. The mean estimates of D' for marker pairs with an inter-marker distance of less than 5 cM (n = 13 are 0.57 and 0.51, and for distances more than 20 cM (n = 44 are 0.29 and 0.17, estimated from the E-M and Bayesian approaches, respectively. The Malecot model was fitted for the exponential decline of LD with map distance between markers. The swept radii (the distance at which LD has declined to 1/e (~37% of its initial value are 11.6 and 13.7 cM for the above two methods, respectively. The Malecot model was also fitted using map distance in Mb from the bovine integrated map (bovine location database, bLDB in addition to cM from the MARC map. Overall, the results indicate a high level of LD on chromosome 6 in Australian dairy cattle.

  2. Dissection of additive, dominance, and imprinting effects for production and reproduction traits in Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jicai; Shen, Botong; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; VanRaden, Paul M; Cole, John B; Ma, Li

    2017-05-30

    Although genome-wide association and genomic selection studies have primarily focused on additive effects, dominance and imprinting effects play an important role in mammalian biology and development. The degree to which these non-additive genetic effects contribute to phenotypic variation and whether QTL acting in a non-additive manner can be detected in genetic association studies remain controversial. To empirically answer these questions, we analyzed a large cattle dataset that consisted of 42,701 genotyped Holstein cows with genotyped parents and phenotypic records for eight production and reproduction traits. SNP genotypes were phased in pedigree to determine the parent-of-origin of alleles, and a three-component GREML was applied to obtain variance decomposition for additive, dominance, and imprinting effects. The results showed a significant non-zero contribution from dominance to production traits but not to reproduction traits. Imprinting effects significantly contributed to both production and reproduction traits. Interestingly, imprinting effects contributed more to reproduction traits than to production traits. Using GWAS and imputation-based fine-mapping analyses, we identified and validated a dominance association signal with milk yield near RUNX2, a candidate gene that has been associated with milk production in mice. When adding non-additive effects into the prediction models, however, we observed little or no increase in prediction accuracy for the eight traits analyzed. Collectively, our results suggested that non-additive effects contributed a non-negligible amount (more for reproduction traits) to the total genetic variance of complex traits in cattle, and detection of QTLs with non-additive effect is possible in GWAS using a large dataset.

  3. Polymorphism of growth hormone receptor (GHR gene in Holstein Friesian dairy cattle

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    Restu Misrianti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone gene have a critical role in the regulation of lactation, mammary gland development and growth process through its interaction with a specific receptor. Growth hormone (GH is an anabolic hormone which is synthesized and secreted by somatotrop cell in pituitary anterior lobe, and interacts with a specific receptor on the surface of the target cells. Growth hormone receptor (GHR has been suggested as candidate gene for traits related to milk production in Bovidae. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic polymorphism of the Growth Hormone Receptor (GHR genes in Holstein Friesian (HF cattle. Total of 353 blood samples were collected from five populations belonging to Cikole Dairy Cattle Breeding Station (BPPT-SP Cikole (88 samples, Pasir Kemis (95 samples, Cilumber (98 samples, Cipelang Livestock Embryo Center (BET Cipelang (40 samples, Singosari National Artificial Insemination Centre (BBIB Singosari (32 samples and 17 frozen semen samples from Lembang Artificial Insemination Center (BIB Lembang. Genomic DNAs were extracted by a standard phenol-chloroform protocol and amplified by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques then PCR products were genotyped by the Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP methods. There were two allele dan three genotypes were found namely: allele A and G, Genotype AA, AG and GG repectively. Allele A frequency (0.70-0.82 relatively higher than allele G frequency (0.18-0.30. Chi square test show that on group of BET Cipelang, BIB Lembang and BBIB Singosari population were not significantly different (0.00-0.93, while on group of BET Cipelang, BIB Lembang dan BBIB Singosari population were significantly different (6.02-11.13. Degree of observed heterozygosity (Ho ranged from 0.13-0.42 and expected heterozygosity (He ranged from 0.29-0.42.

  4. Fine mapping of a calving QTL on Bos taurus autosome 18 in Holstein cattle.

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    Mao, X; Kadri, N K; Thomasen, J R; De Koning, D J; Sahana, G; Guldbrandtsen, B

    2016-06-01

    Decreased calving performance not only directly impacts the economic efficiency of dairy cattle farming but also influences public concern for animal welfare. Previous studies have revealed a QTL on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 18 that has a large effect on calving traits in Holstein cattle. In this study, fine mapping of this QTL was performed using imputed high-density SNP chip (HD) genotypes followed by imputed next-generation sequencing (NGS) variants. BTA18 was scanned for seven direct calving traits in 6113 bulls with imputed HD genotypes. SNP rs136283363 (BTA18: 57 548 213) was consistently the most significantly associated SNP across all seven traits [e.g. p-value = 2.04 × 10(-59) for birth index (BI)]. To finely map the QTL region and to explore pleiotropic effects, we studied NGS variants within the targeted region (BTA18: 57 321 450-57 625 355) for associations with direct calving traits and with three conformation traits. Significant variants were prioritized, and their biological relevance to the traits was interpreted. Considering their functional relationships with direct calving traits, SIGLEC12, CD33 and CEACAM18 were proposed as candidate genes. In addition, pleiotropic effects of this QTL region on direct calving traits and conformation traits were observed. However, the extent of linkage disequilibrium combined with the lack of complete annotation and potential errors in the Bos taurus genome assembly hampered our efforts to pinpoint the causal mutation. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Mapping QTL influencing gastrointestinal nematode burden in Dutch Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle

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    Georges Michel

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasitic gastroenteritis caused by nematodes is only second to mastitis in terms of health costs to dairy farmers in developed countries. Sustainable control strategies complementing anthelmintics are desired, including selective breeding for enhanced resistance. Results and Conclusion To quantify and characterize the genetic contribution to variation in resistance to gastro-intestinal parasites, we measured the heritability of faecal egg and larval counts in the Dutch Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle population. The heritability of faecal egg counts ranged from 7 to 21% and was generally higher than for larval counts. We performed a whole genome scan in 12 paternal half-daughter groups for a total of 768 cows, corresponding to the ~10% most and least infected daughters within each family (selective genotyping. Two genome-wide significant QTL were identified in an across-family analysis, respectively on chromosomes 9 and 19, coinciding with previous findings in orthologous chromosomal regions in sheep. We identified six more suggestive QTL by within-family analysis. An additional 73 informative SNPs were genotyped on chromosome 19 and the ensuing high density map used in a variance component approach to simultaneously exploit linkage and linkage disequilibrium in an initial inconclusive attempt to refine the QTL map position.

  6. Comparative proteomics dataset of skimmed milk samples from Holstein and Jersey dairy cattle

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    Rinske Tacoma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk samples were collected from Holstein and Jersey breeds of dairy cattle maintained under the same management practices and environmental conditions over a seven-day period. Milk samples were collected twice daily from six cows of each breed as previously described (Tacoma et al., 2016 [1]. Samples were composited within individual cow over the experimental period and skimmed to remove the fat layer. Skimmed milk samples were fractionated using CaCl2 precipitation, ultracentrifugation and ProteoMiner treatment to remove the high abundance milk proteins. Separation of the low abundance proteins was achieved using SDS-PAGE. Differential protein abundances were analyzed by mass spectrometry-based proteomic approaches followed by statistical analyses of the peptide count data. The complete list of low-abundance proteins identified in both breeds is provided in the dataset as well as the total number of distinct sequenced peptides and gene ontology functions for each protein. The relative abundance of a select few proteins is depicted using the SIEVE software.

  7. Estimation of genomic inbreeding coefficients based on high-density SNP markers in Chinese Holstein cattle.

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    Yang, Zhan-cheng; Huang, He-tian; Yan, Qing-xia; Wang, Ya-chun; Yu, Ying; Chen, Shao-hu; Sun, Dong-xiao; Zhang, Sheng-li; Zhang, Yi

    2017-01-20

    In livestock, inbreeding coefficient based on pedigree information is usually used to evaluate the level of inbreeding. Recently, with cost reduction of high-density SNP genotyping, it's possible to analyze real genomic inbreeding degree using genomic information. In this study, utilizing high-density SNP chip data, we analyzed the frequency and distribution of runs of homozygosity (ROH) in 2107 Chinese Holstein cattle in Beijing area, and calculated 2 genomic inbreeding coefficients, i.e., 1) the proportion of ROH length in the total length of autosomal genome (Froh), and 2) the percentage of homozygous SNPs (Fhom). Then we analyzed the correlation between 2 genomic inbreeding coefficients and the correlation between genomic and pedigree inbreeding coefficients. We totally detected 44 676 ROHs that mainly ranged from 1 to 10 Mb. Various lengths of ROHs existed in the genome. There were more short ROHs than long ROHs. ROHs aren't evenly distributed in chromosomes. The area with most ROHs is in the middle part of chromosome 10. Strong correlation (r > 0.90) existed between 2 kinds of genomic inbreeding coefficients, but the correlation between pedigree and genomic inbreeding coefficients were much lower (r inbreeding. Genomic inbreeding measures may reflect individuals' real inbreeding, which could be a useful tool to evaluate population inbreeding.

  8. The use of runs of homozygosity for estimation of recent inbreeding in Holstein cattle.

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    Gurgul, A; Szmatoła, T; Topolski, P; Jasielczuk, I; Żukowski, K; Bugno-Poniewierska, M

    2016-11-01

    Controlling inbreeding in livestock populations is of great importance because excess relatedness among animals leads to a rapid loss of genetic variation and to adverse phenotypical effects associated with an inbreeding depression. Recent advances in genotyping technology have made it possible to study inbreeding at a molecular level by the analysis of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism panels. In this study, we used BovineSNP50 assay (Illumina) to estimate genomic inbreeding coefficient in 298 Holstein cattle by the analysis of the genome portion in runs of homozygosity (FROH) or using genomic relationship matrix (FGRM), and compared this data with conventional pedigree-based inbreeding coefficients (FPED). Weak or moderate Spearman's rank correlations were observed between FROH and FPED which depended on the ROH length categories used for calculations and inclusion of animals with different number of complete generations registered in pedigrees. The highest correlations were observed when using ROH with lengths over 8 Mb (0.334). The correlations tended to increase as pedigree depth increased, and were the highest for animals with seven complete generations of pedigree data. FGRM correlated poorly with pedigree-based estimates, which suggests that ROH-based inbreeding coefficients better reflect recent relatedness among animals.

  9. Application of imputation methods to genomic selection in Chinese Holstein cattle

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    Weng Ziqing

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Missing genotypes are a common feature of high density SNP datasets obtained using SNP chip technology and this is likely to decrease the accuracy of genomic selection. This problem can be circumvented by imputing the missing genotypes with estimated genotypes. When implementing imputation, the criteria used for SNP data quality control and whether to perform imputation before or after data quality control need to consider. In this paper, we compared six strategies of imputation and quality control using different imputation methods, different quality control criteria and by changing the order of imputation and quality control, against a real dataset of milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cattle. The results demonstrated that, no matter what imputation method and quality control criteria were used, strategies with imputation before quality control performed better than strategies with imputation after quality control in terms of accuracy of genomic selection. The different imputation methods and quality control criteria did not significantly influence the accuracy of genomic selection. We concluded that performing imputation before quality control could increase the accuracy of genomic selection, especially when the rate of missing genotypes is high and the reference population is small.

  10. Effect of genotyped cows in the reference population on the genomic evaluation of Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemoto, Y; Osawa, T; Saburi, J

    2017-03-01

    population was also assessed. The results showed that it is important to account for relatedness among bulls in the reference population. Our studies indicate that the prediction method, the contribution ratio of including animals, and genetic relatedness could affect the prediction accuracy in genomic evaluation of Holstein cattle, when including genotyped cows in the reference population.

  11. Identification of genomic regions associated with inbreeding depression in Holstein and Jersey dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryce, Jennie E; Haile-Mariam, Mekonnen; Goddard, Michael E; Hayes, Ben J

    2014-11-18

    Inbreeding reduces the fitness of individuals by increasing the frequency of homozygous deleterious recessive alleles. Some insight into the genetic architecture of fitness, and other complex traits, can be gained by using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data to identify regions of the genome which lead to reduction in performance when identical by descent (IBD). Here, we compared the effect of genome-wide and location-specific homozygosity on fertility and milk production traits in dairy cattle. Genotype data from more than 43 000 SNPs were available for 8853 Holstein and 4138 Jersey dairy cows that were part of a much larger dataset that had pedigree records (338 696 Holstein and 64 049 Jersey animals). Measures of inbreeding were based on: (1) pedigree data; (2) genotypes to determine the realised proportion of the genome that is IBD; (3) the proportion of the total genome that is homozygous and (4) runs of homozygosity (ROH) which are stretches of the genome that are homozygous. A 1% increase in inbreeding based either on pedigree or genomic data was associated with a decrease in milk, fat and protein yields of around 0.4 to 0.6% of the phenotypic mean, and an increase in calving interval (i.e. a deterioration in fertility) of 0.02 to 0.05% of the phenotypic mean. A genome-wide association study using ROH of more than 50 SNPs revealed genomic regions that resulted in depression of up to 12.5 d and 260 L for calving interval and milk yield, respectively, when completely homozygous. Genomic measures can be used instead of pedigree-based inbreeding to estimate inbreeding depression. Both the diagonal elements of the genomic relationship matrix and the proportion of homozygous SNPs can be used to measure inbreeding. Longer ROH (>3 Mb) were found to be associated with a reduction in milk yield and captured recent inbreeding independently and in addition to overall homozygosity. Inbreeding depression can be reduced by minimizing overall inbreeding but maybe

  12. A de novo missense mutation of FGFR2 causes facial dysplasia syndrome in Holstein cattle.

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    Agerholm, Jørgen S; McEvoy, Fintan J; Heegaard, Steffen; Charlier, Carole; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Drögemüller, Cord

    2017-08-02

    Surveillance for bovine genetic diseases in Denmark identified a hitherto unreported congenital syndrome occurring among progeny of a Holstein sire used for artificial breeding. A genetic aetiology due to a dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance or a mosaic germline mutation was suspected as all recorded cases were progeny of the same sire. Detailed investigations were performed to characterize the syndrome and to reveal its cause. Seven malformed calves were submitted examination. All cases shared a common morphology with the most striking lesions being severe facial dysplasia and complete prolapse of the eyes. Consequently the syndrome was named facial dysplasia syndrome (FDS). Furthermore, extensive brain malformations, including microencephaly, hydrocephalus, lobation of the cerebral hemispheres and compression of the brain were present. Subsequent data analysis of progeny of the sire revealed that around 0.5% of his offspring suffered from FDS. High density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping data of the seven cases and their parents were used to map the defect in the bovine genome. Significant genetic linkage was obtained for three regions, including chromosome 26 where whole genome sequencing of a case-parent trio revealed two de novo variants perfectly associated with the disease: an intronic SNP in the DMBT1 gene and a single non-synonymous variant in the FGFR2 gene. This FGFR2 missense variant (c.927G>T) affects a gene encoding a member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family, where amino acid sequence is highly conserved between members and across species. It is predicted to change an evolutionary conserved tryptophan into a cysteine residue (p.Trp309Cys). Both variant alleles were proven to result from de novo mutation events in the germline of the sire. FDS is a novel genetic disorder of Holstein cattle. Mutations in the human FGFR2 gene are associated with various dominant inherited craniofacial dysostosis syndromes. Given

  13. Detection of the nonsense mutation of OPA3 gene in Holstein Friesian cattle with dilated cardiomyopathy in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    HORIUCHI, Noriyuki; KUMAGAI, Daishiro; MATSUMOTO, Kotaro; INOKUMA, Hisashi; FURUOKA, Hidefumi; KOBAYASHI, Yoshiyasu

    2015-01-01

    Bovine dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder causing congestive heart failure and subsequent death. Recently, a nonsense mutation c.343C>T in the bovine optic atrophy 3 (OPA3) gene had been reported to cause the DCM in Holstein cattle in Switzerland. However, the mutation has not been confirmed in bovine DCM outside Switzerland. Nine Holstein Friesian cows that were macroscopically and histologically diagnosed with or suspected of DCM and 12 control cows kept in Japan were tested for the mutation. The mutation surrounding OPA3 DNA fragment was amplified by PCR and subjected to direct sequences. The homogeneous c.343C>T mutation was proved to occur in all the affected cows and not in the control cows. The present study is the first report of the mutation in the DCM affected cows outside Switzerland. PMID:25947227

  14. Histopathology case definition of naturally acquired Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin infection in young Holstein cattle in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecoraro, Heidi L; Thompson, Belinda; Duhamel, Gerald E

    2017-11-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin ( Salmonella Dublin) is a host-adapted bacterium that causes high morbidity and mortality in dairy cattle worldwide. A retrospective search of archives at the New York Animal Health Diagnostic Center revealed 57 culture-confirmed Salmonella Dublin cases from New York and Pennsylvania in which detailed histology of multiple tissues was available. Tissues routinely submitted by referring veterinarians for histologic evaluation included sections of heart, lungs, liver, spleen, and lymph nodes. Of the 57 S almonella Dublin-positive cases, all were Holstein breed, 53 were female (93%), and 49 (86%) were 90% (45 of 49) of lungs, 90% (28 of 31) of livers, 50% (11 of 22) of spleens, and 62% (18 of 29) of lymph nodes examined had moderate-to-severe inflammation with or without necrosis. Inconstant lesions were seen in 48% (10 of 21) of hearts examined, and consisted of variable inflammatory infiltrates and rare areas of necrosis. We propose a histopathology case definition of Salmonella Dublin in <6-mo-old Holstein cattle that includes a combination of pulmonary alveolar capillary neutrophilia with or without hepatocellular necrosis and paratyphoid granulomas, splenitis, and lymphadenitis. These findings will assist in the development of improved protocols for the diagnosis of infectious diseases of dairy cattle.

  15. Identification of a doublet missense substitution in the bovine LRP4 gene as a candidate causal mutation for syndactyly in Holstein cattle.

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    Duchesne, A; Gautier, M; Chadi, S; Grohs, C; Floriot, S; Gallard, Y; Caste, G; Ducos, A; Eggen, A

    2006-11-01

    Syndactyly in Holstein cattle is an autosomal recessive abnormality characterized by the fusion of the functional digits. This disorder has been previously mapped to the telomeric part of bovine chromosome 15. Here, we describe the fine-mapping of syndactyly in Holstein cattle to a 3.5-Mb critical interval using a comparative mapping approach and an extended pedigree generated by embryo transfer. We report genetic evidence for the exclusion of two genes previously suggested as candidates (EXT2 and ALX4) and describe the identification of a doublet mutation in complete linkage disequilibrium with syndactyly in one gene of the critical interval: LRP4. Finally, based on recent discoveries concerning the mouse mutants dan and mdig and a mouse knockout for Lrp4, we present solid evidence that the subsequent substitution in LRP4 exon 33 is a strong candidate causal mutation for syndactyly in Holstein cattle.

  16. Influence of DGAT1 K232A polymorphism on milk fat percentage and fatty acid profiles in Romanian holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tăbăran, A; Balteanu, V A; Gal, E; Pusta, D; Mihaiu, R; Dan, S D; Tăbăran, A F; Mihaiu, M

    2015-01-01

    Milk and dairy products are considered the main sources of saturated fatty acids, which are a valuable source of nutrients in the human diet. Fat composition can be adjusted through guided nutrition of dairy animals but also through selective breeding. Recently, a dinucleotide substitution located in the exon 8 of the gene coding for acyl CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), that alters the amino acid sequence from a lysine to an alanine (p.Lys232Ala) in the mature protein, was shown to have a strong effect on milk fat content in some cattle breeds. Therefore, the objectives of this work were to study the occurrence of the DGAT1 p.Lys232Ala polymorphism in Romanian Holstein cattle and Romanian Buffalo breeds and to further investigate its possible influence on fat percentage and fatty acid profiles. The results obtained in this study show that in Romanian Holstein cattle the K allele is associated with increased fat percentage and higher levels of C16:0 and C18:0 fatty acids. The ratio of saturated fatty acids versus unsaturated fatty acids (SFA/UFA) was also higher in KK homozygous individuals, whereas the fractions of C14:0, unsaturated C18 decreased. The DGAT1 p.Lys232Ala polymorphism revealed a high genetic variance for fat percentage, unsaturated C18, C16:0, and SFA/UFA. Although the effect of this polymorphism was not so evident for short chain fatty acids such as C4:0-C8:0, it was significant for C14:0 fatty acids. We concluded that selective breeding of carriers of the A allele in Romanian Holsteins can contribute to improvement in unsaturated fatty acids content of milk. However, in buffalo, the lack of the A allele makes selection inapplicable because only the K allele, associated with higher saturated fatty acids contents in milk, was identified.

  17. Impact of variation at the FTO locus on milk fat yield in Holstein dairy cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea G Zielke

    Full Text Available This study explores the biological role of the Fat Mass and Obesity associated (FTO gene locus on milk composition in German Holstein cattle. Since FTO controls energy homeostasis and expenditure and the FTO locus has repeatedly shown association with obesity in human studies, we tested FTO as a candidate gene in particular for milk fat yield, which represents a high amount of energy secreted during lactation. The study was performed on 2,402 bulls and 860 cows where dense milk composition data were available. Genetic information was taken from a 2 Mb region around FTO. Five SNPs and two haplotype blocks in a 725 kb region covering FTO and the neighboring genes RPGRIP1L, U6ATAC, and 5 S rRNA were associated with milk fat yield and also affected protein yield in the same direction. Interestingly, higher frequency SNP alleles and haplotypes within the FTO gene increased milk fat and protein yields by up to 2.8 and 2.2 kg per lactation, respectively, while the most frequent haplotype in the upstream block covering exon 1 of FTO to exon 15 of RPGRIP1L had opposite effects with lower fat and milk yield. Both haplotype blocks were also significant in cows. The loci accounted for about 1% of the corresponding trait variance in the population. The association signals not only provided evidence for at least two causative mutations in the FTO locus with a functional effect on milk but also milk protein yield. The pleiotropic effects suggest a biological function on the usage of energy resources and the control of energy balance rather than directly affecting fat and protein synthesis. The identified effect of the obesity gene locus on milk energy content suggests an impact on infant nutrition by breast feeding in humans.

  18. PREDICTION OF GLOBAL AND LOCAL SIMMENTAL AND RED HOLSTEIN FRIESIAN ADMIXTURE LEVELS IN SWISS FLECKVIEH CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Khayatzadeh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study we estimated levels of local ancestry for individuals of the Swiss Fleckvieh dairy cattle population. It is a composite breed descending from two pure breeds, Simmental (SIM and Red Holstein Friesian (RHF. Illumina BovineSNP50 Beadchip genotyping data for a total of 500 pure and admixed animals were used for the analysis. The global ancestries estimated by Hidden Markov model were 0.68 and 0.32 for RHF and SIM respectively. Local ancestry levels investigated along chromosomes 2, 3 and 13 indicated that there were some regions across the chromosomes exhibiting substantial fluctuations in admixture. On chromosome 2, in the range of 28 to 31, 41 to 46 and 54 to 56 Mb RHF ancestry is substantially higher than average (0.77-0.78. These regions on chromosome 2 are wide, indicating recent admixture. Along the segments on chromosome 2, many QTLs related to dairy, conformation, reproduction, health and carcass traits were found. We observed sharper excess in favour of SIM on chromosome 3, whereas different regions with excess of RHF and SIM were found out on Chromosome 13. At the first part of chromosome 13, an excess of RHF was observed. Moreover, in regions between 40 and 57 Mb excess of SIM, referred to recent admixture was detected. In respect of RHF chromosome segments in admixed animals, dairy, reproduction and health QTLs were found. In positions where more Simmental segments were detected, QTLs related to meat and carcass traits as well as udder health traits were found. In conclusion, the authors believe that estimation of local admixture levels in crossbred populations can add information to the composite breeds history of selection.

  19. Case-control approach application for finding a relationship between candidate genes and clinical mastitis in Holstein dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Masoumeh; Moradi-Sharhrbabak, M; Miraie-Ashtiani, R; Safdari-Shahroudi, M; Abdollahi-Arpanahi, R

    2016-02-01

    Mastitis is a major source of economic loss in dairy herds. The objective of this research was to evaluate the association between genotypes within SLC11A1 and CXCR1 candidate genes and clinical mastitis in Holstein dairy cattle using the selective genotyping method. The data set contained clinical mastitis records of 3,823 Holstein cows from two Holstein dairy herds located in two different regions in Iran. Data included the number of cases of clinical mastitis per lactation. Selective genotyping was based on extreme values for clinical mastitis residuals (CMR) from mixed model analyses. Two extreme groups consisting of 135 cows were formed (as cases and controls), and genotyped for the two candidate genes, namely, SLC11A1 and CXCR1, using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), respectively. Associations between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes with CMR and breeding values for milk and protein yield were carried out by applying logistic regression analyses, i.e. estimating the probability of the heterogeneous genotype in the dependency of values for CMR and breeding values (BVs). The sequencing results revealed a novel mutation in 1139 bp of exon 11 of the SLC11A1 gene and this SNP had a significant association with CMR (P G and these genotypes had significant relationships with CMR. Overall, the results showed that SLC11A1 and CXCR1 are valuable candidate genes for the improvement of mastitis resistance as well as production traits in dairy cattle populations.

  20. Single nucleotide variants and indels identified from whole-genome re-sequencing of Guzerat, Gyr, Girolando and Holstein cattle breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole-genome re-sequencing, alignment and annotation analyses were undertaken for 12 sires representing four important cattle breeds in Brazil: Guzerat (multi-purpose), Gyr, Girolando and Holstein (dairy production). A total of approximately 4.3 billion reads from an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer ge...

  1. Effects of milk fat composition, DGAT1, and SCD1 on fertility traits in Dutch Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeter, R M; Schopen, G C B; Lansink, A G J M Oude; Meuwissen, M P M; van Arendonk, J A M

    2009-11-01

    Recently, selective breeding was proposed as a means of changing the fatty acid composition of milk to improve its nutritional quality. Before implementing such breeding objectives, effects on other economically important traits should be investigated. The objectives of this study were to examine 1) the effect of milk fat composition, and 2) the effect of polymorphisms of DGAT1 and SCD1 genes on female fertility in commercial Dutch Holstein-Friesian cattle. Data on 1,745 first-lactation cows were analyzed by fitting linear mixed models. We found that higher concentrations of trans fatty acids within total milk fat negatively affected reproductive performance. Furthermore, results suggested a potential effect of the DGAT1 polymorphism on nonreturn rates for insemination 28 and 56 d after the first service. Our results can be used to assess the correlated effects of breeding for improved milk fat composition on reproduction, thereby allowing for better evaluation of breeding programs before implementation.

  2. Genetic parameters for female fertility, locomotion, body condition score, and linear type traits in Czech Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zink, Vojtech; Stipkova, M; Lassen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    type traits ranged from 0.03 for locomotion to 0.39 for stature. Estimated genetic correlations between fertility traits and linear type traits were generally neutral or positive, whereas genetic correlations between body condition score and CF1, DO1, FL1, CF2 and DO2 were mostly negative......The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for fertility traits and linear type traits in the Czech Holstein dairy cattle population. Phenotypic data regarding 12 linear type traits, measured in first lactation, and 3 fertility traits, measured in each of first and second lactation......)variance components were estimated using AI-REML in a series of bivariate analyses, which were implemented via the DMU package. Fertility traits included days from calving to first service (CF1), days open (DO1), and days from first to last service (FL1) in first lactation, and days from calving to first service (CF2...

  3. A hereditary disposition for bovine peripheral nerve sheath tumors in Danish Holstein cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Grossi, Anette B.; Agerholm, Jorgen S.; Christensen, Knud; Jensen, Henrik E; Leifsson, Pall S; Bendixen, Christian; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Fredholm, Merete

    2014-01-01

    Background Peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs) are frequently found in Danish cattle at slaughter. Bovine PNSTs share several gross and histopathological characteristics with the PNSTs in humans with heritable neurofibromatosis syndromes. The aim of the present study was to investigate a possible hereditary disposition to PNSTs in dairy cattle by statistical analysis performed on data from 567 cattle with PNSTs. Furthermore, a preliminary genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed ...

  4. Performance of Canadian Holstein-Friesian cattle in the humid forest zone of Ghana. I. Milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabuga, J D; Agyemang, K

    1984-05-01

    One hundred and three calving records of 35 Canadian Holstein-Friesian cattle introduced in 1974 into Ashanti constituted the data for this study. Age, year, lactation number, season and age X season effects on 305-day yield, lactation length and components of the lactation curve were estimated from 84 complete lactation records. Analysis of variance by General Linear Models Procedure showed significant effect of age and year on all traits studied. Age, year, lactation number, season, concentrate fed and season X age accounted for 61.1, 64.6, 66.9, 68.5 and 38.1% of the variation in 305-day yield, 300-day yield, monthly peak yield, persistency index and lactation length respectively. Age and year significantly affected all traits except lactation length. Lactation number only significantly affected 305-day yield of the traits studied. Season was not an important factor affecting any of the traits. The productive life span of the animals was up to five calvings (eight years). The mean life time milk production was 16,186 kg. Unadjusted means of the 103 records were: 305-day yield 3,878 +/- 93.7 kg; actual 305-yield 4,451 +/- 102.7 kg; total yield 4,225 +/- 160.6 kg; lactation length 332 +/- 14.5 days; days dry 96 +/- 5.9 and total yield per day of calving interval 10.6 +/- 0.33 kg. Performance of Holsteins in Ashanti was better than in most tropical areas.

  5. Identification of citrullinaemia carrier and detection of a new silent mutation at 240bp position in ASS1 gene of normal Holstein cattle

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    Kotikalapudi Rosaiah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The autosomal recessive genetic disorders are regularly investigated especially in Indian Holstein and Holstein Crossbred bulls before they entered in semen collection so that a defective gene should not be transmitted to future generations. Bovine citrullinaemia first reported in Australia is a metabolic disorder as one of the enzymes, Argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS involved in urea cycle is impaired in function. The mutation responsible for citrullinemia has been characterized as a single-base substitution at 256bp (C>T in coding exon 3 of argininosuccinate synthetase 1 (ASS1 gene, which converts the CGA (arginine at 86 codon to TGA (stop codon. A Holstein bull during routine molecular screening was found to be carrier for Citrullinaemia that was confirmed by sequencing. This is a fresh case of Citrullinaemia carrier in addition to three cases reported earlier in India. Partial sequencing of coding exon 3 of a normal Holstein revealed a new silent polymorphism at 240bp position that does not change amino acid (Sarine AGC>AGT at 80 codon within exon 3 of ASS1 gene. The sequence of exon 3 of ASS1 gene in a normal Holstein exhibiting a new polymorphism was submitted to NCBI with accession No. KF933365. The presence of citrullinaemia carriers in Indian Holstein, though in very low frequency, emphasizing to continue the investigation of mutant gene in cattle population.

  6. The productivity of holstein-friesian dairy cattle in different farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information on performance of various breeds within different farming systems of Kenya would be useful in determining a breeding programme that would enable selection of appropriate animals for improved production. This study investigated the performance of Holstein-Friesian cows in small-scale farms (SSF), medium ...

  7. Differences between Angus and Holstein cattle in the Lupinus leucophyllus induced inhibition of fetal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Benedict T; Panter, Kip E; Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Pfister, James A; Gardner, Dale R; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Davis, T Zane

    2015-11-01

    Calves with congenital defects born to cows that have grazed teratogenic Lupinus spp. during pregnancy can suffer from what is termed crooked calf syndrome. Crooked calf syndrome defects include cleft palate, spinal column defects and limb malformations formed by alkaloid-induced inhibition of fetal movement. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that there are differences in fetal activity of fetuses carried by Holstein verses Angus heifers orally dosed with 1.1 g/kg dried ground Lupinus leucophyllus. Fetal activity was monitored via transrectal ultrasonography and maternal serum was analyzed for specific lupine alkaloids. There were more (P Holstein heifers than those in Angus heifers at eight and 12 h after oral dosing. In addition to serum alkaloid toxicokinetic differences, the Holstein heifers had significantly lower serum concentrations of anagyrine at 2, 4, and 8 h after oral dosing than Angus heifers. Holstein heifers also had significantly greater serum concentrations of lupanine at 12, 18 and 24 h after dosing than the Angus heifers. These results suggest that there are breed differences in susceptibility to lupine-induced crooked calf syndrome. These differences may also be used to discover genetic markers that identify resistant animals, thus facilitating selective breeding of resistant herds. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Genetic analysis of female fertility traits in South African Holstein cattle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bobby

    Abstract. Female fertility is increasingly gaining importance in national dairy cattle breeding objectives worldwide. In South Africa, there is no routine prediction of breeding values for reproductive performance in dairy cattle and selection is mainly focused on production traits. The objective of this study was to estimate ...

  9. Association of MAP4K4 gene single nucleotide polymorphism with mastitis and milk traits in Chinese Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Dinesh; Chen, Xing; Ur Rehman, Zia; Hao, Xingjie; Ullah, Farman; Dad, Rahim; Talpur, Hira Sajjad; Kadariya, Ishwari; Cui, Lu; Fan, Mingxia; Zhang, Shujun

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the studies presented in this Research Communication was to investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms present in the MAP4K4 gene with different milk traits in dairy cows. Based on previous QTL fine mapping results on bovine chromosome 11, the MAP4K4 gene was selected as a candidate gene to evaluate its effect on somatic cell count and milk traits in ChineseHolstein cows. Milk production traits including milk yield, fat percentage, and protein percentage of each cow were collected using 305 d lactation records. Association between MAP4K4 genotype and different traits and Somatic Cell Score (SCS) was performed using General Linear Regression Model of R. Two SNPs at exon 18 (c.2061T > G and c.2196T > C) with genotype TT in both SNPs were found significantly higher for somatic SCS. We found the significant effect of exon 18 (c.2061T > G) on protein percentage, milk yield and SCS. We identified SNPs at different location of MAP4K4 gene of the cattle and several of them were significantly associated with the somatic cell score and other different milk traits. Thus, MAP4K4 gene could be a useful candidate gene for selection of dairy cattle against mastitis and the identified polymorphisms might potentially be strong genetic markers.

  10. Genetic Parameters of Residual Energy Intake and Its Correlations with Other Traits in Holstein Dairy Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    ZAMANI, Pouya; MIRAEI-ASHTIANI, Seied Reza; Mohammadi, Hosein

    2008-01-01

    Residual energy intake (REI) or residual feed intake (RFI), defined as the difference between actual energy intake, is predicted on the basis of requirements for maintenance, milk production, and body weight change of an animal. Genetic variation of REI and its relationships with dry matter intake, milk yield, fat corrected milk yield and milk fat, and protein yields was investigated using 3503 monthly records collected from 906 Holstein lactating cows. Variance components were estimated usin...

  11. Determination of Genetic Variations of Toll-Like Receptor (TLR 2, 4, and 6 with Next-Generation Sequencing in Native Cattle Breeds of Anatolia and Holstein Friesian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuket Bilgen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the focus of disease resistance and susceptibility studies in cattle have been on determining patterns in the innate immune response of key proteins, such as Toll-like receptors (TLR. In the bovine genome, there are 10 TLR family members and, of these, TLR2, TLR4, and TLR6 are specialized in the recognition of bacterial ligands. Indigenous cattle breeds of Anatolia have been reported to show fewer signs of clinical bacterial infections, such as bovine tuberculosis and mastitis, and it is hypothesized that this might be due to a less stringent genetic selection during breeding. In contrast, Holstein-Friesian cattle have been under strong selection for milk production, which may have resulted in greater susceptibility to diseases. To test this hypothesis, we have compared the TLR2, TLR4, and TLR6 genes of Anatolian Black (AB, East Anatolian Red (EAR, South Anatolian Red (SAR, Turkish Grey (TG, and Holstein (HOL cattle using next-generation sequencing. The SAR breed had the most variations overall, followed by EAR, AB, TG, and HOL. TG had the most variations for TLR2, whereas SAR had the most variations in TLR4 and TLR6. We compared these variants with those associated with disease and susceptibility traits. We used exon variants to construct haplotypes, investigated shared haplotypes within breeds, and proposed candidate haplotypes for a disease resistance phenotype in Anatolian cattle breeds.

  12. Estimation of economic values in three breeding perspectives for longevity and milk production traits in Holstein dairy cattle in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolahad Shadparvar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate economic values (EVs for three production traits (milk, fat and protein yields and longevity and to develop a national selection index. The proposed Iranian selection index was compared with selection indices of three other countries in the world. A simple and appropriate model was used to describe the Holstein dairy cattle industry under an Iranian production system. Production parameters and economic data were collected from two Holstein dairy farms in Tehran province. The EVs were estimated at farm level for three breeding perspectives (maximized profit, minimized costs, and economic efficiency and two restrictions in production system (fixed herd size and fixed total input. The average absolute EVs on profit perspective and herd size restriction for milk, fat, and protein yields (based on $/kg and longevity ($/month were 0.11, 0.89, -0.20, and 6.20, respectively. The average absolute EVs under minimized costs per unit of product interest for milk, fat, protein yields and longevity were -0.30, -3.43, 0.88 and -20.40, respectively. The average absolute EVs under maximized economic efficiency for milk, fat and protein yields and longevity were 0.34, 2.73, -0.99 and 36.33, respectively. Relative emphasis for three production traits and longevity were 59.7, 14.3, -3.0 and 23.1, respectively. The comparison of the proposed Iranian index with those countries where most of the semen and embryos are imported points out that developing a national selection index to improve cow profitability and optimum generic trends is necessary. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the influence of milk payment changes on EVs was the greatest as its influence on fat and protein EVs is substantial. EVs for milk and fat yields, with respect to price changes (milk, feed and non-feed, were the least sensitive and most sensitive, respectively.

  13. Genome-wide associations for milk production and somatic cell score in Holstein-Friesian cattle in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Contemporary dairy breeding goals have broadened to include, along with milk production traits, a number of non-production-related traits in an effort to improve the overall functionality of the dairy cow. Increased indirect selection for resistance to mastitis, one of the most important production-related diseases in the dairy sector, via selection for reduced somatic cell count has been part of these broadened goals. A number of genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants associated with milk production traits and mastitis resistance, however the majority of these studies have been based on animals which were predominantly kept in confinement and fed a concentrate-based diet (i.e. high-input production systems). This genome-wide association study aims to detect associations using genotypic and phenotypic data from Irish Holstein-Friesian cattle fed predominantly grazed grass in a pasture-based production system (low-input). Results Significant associations were detected for milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat percentage, protein percentage and somatic cell score using separate single-locus, frequentist and multi-locus, Bayesian approaches. These associations were detected using two separate populations of Holstein-Friesian sires and cows. In total, 1,529 and 37 associations were detected in the sires using a single SNP regression and a Bayesian method, respectively. There were 103 associations in common between the sires and cows across all the traits. As well as detecting associations within known QTL regions, a number of novel associations were detected; the most notable of these was a region of chromosome 13 associated with milk yield in the population of Holstein-Friesian sires. Conclusions A total of 276 of novel SNPs were detected in the sires using a single SNP regression approach. Although obvious candidate genes may not be initially forthcoming, this study provides a preliminary framework upon which to identify the

  14. Genome-wide mapping of 10 calving and fertility traits in Holstein dairy cattle with special regard to chromosome 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M-P; Rothammer, S; Seichter, D; Russ, I; Hinrichs, D; Tetens, J; Thaller, G; Medugorac, I

    2017-03-01

    Over the last decades, a dramatic decrease in reproductive performance has been observed in Holstein cattle and fertility problems have become the most common reason for a cow to leave the herd. The premature removal of animals with high breeding values results in both economic and breeding losses. For efficient future Holstein breeding, the identification of loci associated with low fertility is of major interest and thus constitutes the aim of this study. To reach this aim, a genome-wide combined linkage disequilibrium and linkage analysis (cLDLA) was conducted using data on the following 10 calving and fertility traits in the form of estimated breeding values: days from first service to conception of heifers and cows, nonreturn rate on d 56 of heifers and cows, days from calving to first insemination, days open, paternal and maternal calving ease, paternal and maternal stillbirth. The animal data set contained 2,527 daughter-proven Holstein bulls from Germany that were genotyped with Illumina's BovineSNP50 BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). For the cLDLA, 41,635 sliding windows of 40 adjacent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were used. At each window midpoint, a variance component analysis was executed using ASReml. The underlying mixed linear model included random quantitative trait locus (QTL) and polygenic effects. We identified 50 genome-wide significant QTL. The most significant peak was detected for direct calving ease at 59,179,424 bp on chromosome 18 (BTA18). Next, a mixed-linear model association (MLMA) analysis was conducted. A comparison of the cLDLA and MLMA results with special regard to BTA18 showed that the genome-wide most significant SNP from the MLMA was associated with the same trait and located on the same chromosome at 57,589,121 bp (i.e., about 1.5 Mb apart from the cLDLA peak). The results of 5 different cLDLA and 2 MLMA models, which included the fixed effects of either SNP or haplotypes, suggested that the cLDLA method

  15. Genome-wide associations for milk production and somatic cell score in Holstein-Friesian cattle in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Brian K

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contemporary dairy breeding goals have broadened to include, along with milk production traits, a number of non-production-related traits in an effort to improve the overall functionality of the dairy cow. Increased indirect selection for resistance to mastitis, one of the most important production-related diseases in the dairy sector, via selection for reduced somatic cell count has been part of these broadened goals. A number of genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants associated with milk production traits and mastitis resistance, however the majority of these studies have been based on animals which were predominantly kept in confinement and fed a concentrate-based diet (i.e. high-input production systems. This genome-wide association study aims to detect associations using genotypic and phenotypic data from Irish Holstein-Friesian cattle fed predominantly grazed grass in a pasture-based production system (low-input. Results Significant associations were detected for milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat percentage, protein percentage and somatic cell score using separate single-locus, frequentist and multi-locus, Bayesian approaches. These associations were detected using two separate populations of Holstein-Friesian sires and cows. In total, 1,529 and 37 associations were detected in the sires using a single SNP regression and a Bayesian method, respectively. There were 103 associations in common between the sires and cows across all the traits. As well as detecting associations within known QTL regions, a number of novel associations were detected; the most notable of these was a region of chromosome 13 associated with milk yield in the population of Holstein-Friesian sires. Conclusions A total of 276 of novel SNPs were detected in the sires using a single SNP regression approach. Although obvious candidate genes may not be initially forthcoming, this study provides a preliminary framework

  16. Genome wide association studies for body conformation traits in the Chinese Holstein cattle population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaoping; Fang, Ming; Liu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background: Genome-wide association study (GWAS) is a powerful tool for revealing the genetic basis of quantitative traits. However, studies using GWAS for conformation traits of cattle is comparatively less. This study aims to use GWAS to find the candidates genes for body conformation traits.Re...

  17. Genetic analysis of female fertility traits in South African Holstein cattle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bobby

    causes economic losses due to reduced production as a result of prolonged calving intervals (Van Arendonk et al., 1989 ... Female fertility has been neglected in the past in most dairy cattle genetic improvement programmes ... To maintain or recover a high fertility in modern dairy cows calls for a two-pronged approach,.

  18. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) Gene are Associated with Performance in Holstein-Friesian Dairy Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Michael Paul; Berry, Donagh P.; Howard, Dawn J.; Diskin, Michael G.; Lynch, Ciaran O.; Giblin, Linda; Kenny, David A.; Magee, David A.; Meade, Kieran G.; Waters, Sinead M.

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has been shown to be associated with fertility, growth, and development in cattle. The aim of this study was to (1) identify novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine IGF-1 gene and alongside previously identified SNPs (2) determine their association with traits of economic importance in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle. Nine novel SNPs were identified across a panel of 22 beef and dairy cattle by sequence analysis of the 5′ promoter, intronic, and 3′ regulatory regions, encompassing ~5 kb of IGF-1. Genotyping and associations with daughter performance for milk production, fertility, survival, and measures of body size were undertaken on 848 Holstein-Friesian AI sires. Using multiple regression analysis nominal associations (P cow carcass weight (i.e., an indicator of mature cow size). Novel SNPs were identified in the 3′ region of IGF-1 were associated (P < 0.05) with functional survival and chest width. The remaining four SNPs, all located within introns of IGF-1 were associated (P < 0.05) with milk protein yield, milk fat yield, milk fat concentration, somatic cell score, carcass conformation, and carcass fat. Results of this study further demonstrate the multifaceted influences of IGF-1 on milk production and growth related traits in cattle. PMID:22303302

  19. EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL AND ELECTROLYTE COMPONENTS OF MILK IN SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS IN HOLSTEIN X HARYANA CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Guha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to investigate whether the chemical and electrolyte components of milk can be used as an indicator to detect subclinical mastitis in Holstein X Haryana cows. The bacterial cultural examination revealed 32 cows comprising 34 quarters are SCM positive. SCM positive and negative samples were estimated for electrical conductivity (EC and pH with respective meters, sodium (Na+ and potassium (K+ with Flame photometer and chloride (Cl- by titremetric method. The result demonstrated statistically significant (p<0.01 increase in EC, Na+ and Cl- and decrease in K+. After studying the correlation coefficient among the milk components and comparing them with a Gold standard (Log10 SCC separately in normal and infected milk it was found that Na+, Cl- and K+ are the indicators of SCM in the present study.

  20. Novel harmful recessive haplotypes identified for fertility traits in Nordic Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Nielsen, Ulrik Sander; Aamand, Gert Pedersen

    2013-01-01

    . A total of 7,937 Nordic Holstein animals were genotyped with BovineSNP50 BeadChip and haplotypes including 25 consecutive markers were constructed and tested for absence of homozygotes states. We have identified 17 homozygote deficient haplotypes which could be loosely clustered into eight genomic regions...... harboring possible recessive lethal alleles. Effects of the identified haplotypes were estimated on two fertility traits: non-return rates and calving interval. Out of the eight identified genomic regions, six regions were confirmed as having an effect on fertility. The information can be used to avoid...... carrier-by-carrier mattings in practical animal breeding. Further, identification of causative genes/polymorphisms responsible for lethal effects will lead to accurate testing of the individuals carrying a lethal allele...

  1. The production performance of Holstein Friesian dairy cattle in West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mahyudin

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available The production performance of Holstein-Friesian cows in West Java was evaluated in two areas, Cisarua district (Bogor and Tanjungsari district (Sumedang. In Cisarua the evaluation was made on 175 cows with different stage of lactation (2 - 11 months. Feed offered, both forage and concentrate, milk production and chess girth were measured from each animal for 24 h only. Date of calving, date of service and stage of pregnancy were recorded by interviewing the farmers . In Tanjungsari the study was conducted on 102 postpartum cows . Milk production and chess girth were measured at the beginning of the study and then once a month (morning and afternoon milking for 3 months. Milk production was 3,700 1 and 3,400 1 per lactation with declining rate of 0 .03 and 0 .05 1/d for Cisarua and Tanjungsari area respectively. The ratio of concentrate : forage consumption was 1 and 1 .4 in Cisarua and in Tanjungsari respectively, and the ratio was reduced as milk production declined . The efficiency of conversion of feed ME to milk yield was approximately the same (0.12 1/MJ in both location . The proportion of cows lost weight in Cisarua during the first three months was lower (46 % as compared to that in Sumedang (77 %. Approximately 68 % of the population have conception rate (CR > 50 % , the remaining should be culled, 24 % have low CR and 8 % have days open > 150 days . From 61 cows observed, 71 % and 21% have a projected calving interval of 12 months and 13 - 14 months respectively . It can be concluded that milk production and reproduction efficiency of Holstein'cows in West Java are considered low.

  2. Detection of genetic association and functional polymorphisms of UGDH affecting milk production trait in Chinese Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qing; Mei, Gui; Sun, Dongxiao; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Yuan; Yin, Cengceng; Chen, Huiyong; Ding, Xiangdong; Liu, Jianfeng

    2012-11-02

    We previously localized a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on bovine chromosome 6 affecting milk production traits to a 1.5-Mb region between BMS483 and MNB-209 via genome scanning followed by fine mapping. Totally 15 genes were mapped within such linkage region through bioinformatic analysis of the cattle-human comparative map and bovine genome assembly. Of them, the UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UGDH) was suggested as a potential positional candidate gene for milk production traits based on its corresponding physiological and biochemical functions and genetic effects. By sequencing all the coding exons and the untranslated regions in UGDH with pooled DNA of 8 sires represented the separated families detected in our previous studies, a total of ten SNPs were identified and genotyped in 1417 Holstein cows of 8 separation families. Individual SNP-based association analysis revealed 4 significant associations of SNP Ex1-1, SNP Int3-1, SNP Int5-1, and SNP Ex12-3 with milk yield (P milk production traits in our samples. Taken together, our findings strongly indicate that UGDH gene could be involved in genetic variation underlying the QTL for milk production traits.

  3. Methods for estimation of daily and lactation milk yields from alternative milk recording scheme in Holstein and Simmental cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Kuterovac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare different statistical methods for the estimation of daily and 305-day lactation milk, fat and protein yields of Holstein and Simmental cattle breeds using an alternative milk recording scheme. Data included 6,824 individual test-day milk yield records collected according to the A4 milk recording method on 668 cows reared on 15 family farms. Daily milk, fat and protein yields were estimated using several statistical methods with regard to breed. The 305-day lactation yields were calculated from estimated daily yields using the Test Interval Method. The correlation between estimated and true yields, as well as the mean difference among estimated and true yield were used as the evaluation criteria for estimation methods. The linear regression of daily to partial milk, fat and protein yields while taking into account the interval between successive milkings was shown to be the most accurate model for estimating daily values, either from morning or evening records. The simple doubling of morning or evening records overestimated and underestimated the daily yields, respectively. When 305-day lactation milk, fat and protein yields were compared no difference between evaluated methods were found. Also, a separate estimation of daily and 305-day lactation yields according to breeds did not result in increased estimation accuracy.

  4. Relationships between milk protein composition, milk protein variants, and cow fertility traits in Dutch Holstein-Friesian cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeter, R M; Markiewicz, K; van Arendonk, J A M; Bovenhuis, H

    2010-11-01

    Selective breeding can change milk protein composition to improve the manufacturing properties of milk. However, the effects of such breeding strategies on other economically important traits should be investigated before implementation. The objectives of this study were to examine the association between cow fertility traits and (1) milk protein composition and (2) milk protein variants (β-lactoglobulin, β-casein, κ-casein, and β-κ-casein) in commercial Dutch Holstein-Friesian cattle. Data on 1,644 first-lactation cows were analyzed by fitting linear mixed models. Greater relative concentration of α(S1)-casein within total milk protein had a positive phenotypic relationship with nonreturn rates and calving rate after first insemination. Furthermore, results showed virtually no significant relationship between cow fertility and concentration of other milk proteins or milk protein variants. Results of this study can be used to assess the correlated effects of breeding for improved milk protein composition on reproduction, thereby allowing for better evaluation of breeding programs before implementation. Our findings suggest that selecting cows based on milk protein composition or milk protein variants for improved manufacturing properties would have no negative influence on reproductive performance. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Growth Hormone Gene Polymorphism and Its Association with Partial Cumulative Milk Yields of Holstein Friesian Dairy Cattle

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    R. Misrianti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone gene (GH gene plays an important role in regulating body growth and in developing mammary gland, similar with its interaction to specific receptors. The GH gene has been considered as one of candidate gene associated with selection on lactation trait and milk production. This study was aimed to determine genetic polymorphism of the GH-AluI gene and to associate its genotype variants on various 15-d partial cumulative milk yields in Holstein Friesian (HF dairy cows. A number of 370 blood samples were collected from six HF populations, respectively from small dairy farmer under the supervision of the North Bandung Milk Cooperation (NBMC in Cilumber (98 and Pasir Kemis village (96, Dairy Cattle Breeding and Improvement Station (Cikole DCBIS Cikole (88, Lembang Artificial Insemination Center (Lembang AIC (17, Singosari Artificial Insemination Center (Singosari AIC (32, and Cipelang Livestock Embryo Center (Cipelang LEC (40. A polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method was used to identify variant genotypes of the GH gene using AluI restriction enzyme. Genotyping results produced only two genotypes, i.e. LL and LV genotypes, without VV genotype. Frequency of the former was dominant, whilst that was low for the latter (89% vs. 11%; leading to the frequency of L allele was very high (94% compared to that of V allele (6%. No significant association between variant genotypes (LL and LV and various 15-d partial cumulative milk yields.

  6. Genetic parameters for milk fatty acids, milk yield and quality traits of a Holstein cattle population reared under tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, J; Iung, L H S; Rodriguez, M A P; Salvian, M; Pértille, F; Rovadoscki, G A; Cassoli, L D; Coutinho, L L; Machado, P F; Wiggans, G R; Mourão, G B

    2016-10-01

    Information about genetic parameters is essential for selection decisions and genetic evaluation. These estimates are population specific; however, there are few studies with dairy cattle populations reared under tropical and sub-tropical conditions. Thus, the aim was to obtain estimates of heritability and genetic correlations for milk yield and quality traits using pedigree and genomic information from a Holstein population maintained in a tropical environment. Phenotypic records (n = 36 457) of 4203 cows as well as the genotypes for 57 368 single nucleotide polymorphisms from 755 of these cows were used. Covariance components were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood method under a mixed animal model, considering a pedigree-based relationship matrix or a combined pedigree-genomic matrix. High heritabilities (around 0.30) were estimated for lactose and protein content in milk whereas moderate values (between 0.19 and 0.26) were obtained for percentages of fat, saturated fatty acids and palmitic acid in milk. Genetic correlations ranging from -0.38 to -0.13 were determined between milk yield and composition traits. The smaller estimates compared to other similar studies can be due to poor environmental conditions, which may reduce genetic variability. These results highlight the importance in using genetic parameters estimated in the population under evaluation for selection decisions. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP in PPARGC1A Gene Associates Milk Production Traits in Chinese Holstein Cattle

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    M. A. Alim§, Yipeng Fan§, Yan Xie, Xiaoping Wu, Dongxiao Sun*, Yi Zhang, Shengli Zhang, Yuan Zhang, Qin Zhang and Lin Liu1

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to find out possible associations between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP of PPARGC1A gene and milk production traits. In the current study, one SNP at g.85330C>T position was identified in 9th intron of PPARGC1A gene through pooled DNA sequencing. The identified SNP was genotyped using MALDI-TOF MS technique in 752 individuals from the Chinese Holstein cattle breed. The frequency of C allele at position g.85330C>T was more frequent in our population (0.69, followed by the T allele (0.31. From the association results, significant differences were found between PPARGC1A genotypes in the protein concentration and protein yield. Heterozygous cows with CT genotype at the g.85330C>T locus showed the highest protein yield, with more than 4.18 kg compared with homozygous cows with TT genotype; homozygous CC cows were found at intermediate position. In case of protein percentage, homozygous cows with TT genotype were significantly greater than heterozygous CT cows, with a difference of about 0.012%; CC cows were found in lowest position. The allele substitution results demonstrated that g.85330C>T-C allele decreased protein yield (1.23kg and protein percentage (0.016%. This result clearly indicated that g.85330C>T-T allele increased protein percentage and protein yield.

  8. Comparison of Milk Fat Globule Membrane (MFGM Proteins of Chianina and Holstein Cattle Breed Milk Samples Through Proteomics Methods

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    Lorraine Pariset

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification of proteins involved in milk production is important to understand the biology of lactation. Many studies have advanced the understanding of mammary function and milk secretion, but the critical molecular mechanisms implicated in milk fat secretion is still incomplete. Milk Fat Globules are secreted from the apical surface of the mammary cells, surrounded by a thin membrane bilayer, the Milk Fat Globule Membrane (MFGM, formed by proteins which have been suggested to be cholesterolemia-lowering factors, inhibitors of cancer cell growth, vitamin binders, bactericidal, suppressors of multiple sclerosis. Using a proteomic approach, we compared MFGM from milk samples of individuals belonging to two different cattle breeds, Chianina and Holstein, representative of selection for milk and meat traits, respectively. We were able to isolate some of the major MFGM proteins in the examined samples and to identify differences between the protein fractions of the two breeds. We detected differences in the amount of proteins linked to mammary gland development and lipid droplets formation, as well as host defence mechanisms. We have shown that proteomics is a suitable, unbiased method for the study of milk fractions proteins and a powerful tool in nutritional genomics.

  9. Genetic Architecture of Milk, Fat, Protein, Mastitis and Fertility Studied using NGS Data in Holstein Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Janss, Luc; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

    The use of genomic information in genetic evaluation has revolutionized dairy cattle breeding. It remains a major challenge to understand the genetic basis of variation for quantitative traits. Here, we study the genetic architecture for milk, fat, protein, mastitis and fertility indices in dairy...... from NGS variants (most ‘associated’ SNP for each 0.5 Mbp bin) explained 81.0, 81.6, 85.0, 60.4 and 70.9% of total genetic variance for milk, fat, protein, mastitis and fertility indices when analyzed simultaneously by BMM......The use of genomic information in genetic evaluation has revolutionized dairy cattle breeding. It remains a major challenge to understand the genetic basis of variation for quantitative traits. Here, we study the genetic architecture for milk, fat, protein, mastitis and fertility indices in dairy...... cattle using NGS variants. The analysis was done using a linear mixed model (LMM) and a Bayesian mixture model (BMM). The top 10 QTL identified by LMM analyses explained 22.61, 23.86, 10.88, 18.58 and 14.83% of the total genetic variance for these traits respectively. Trait-specific sets of 4,964 SNPs...

  10. Comparative phenotypic profile of subpopulations of peripheral blood leukocytes in European (Bos taurus taurus) and Zebu cattle (Bos taurus indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macêdo, A A; Marciano, A P V; Rocha, L M; Alves-Júnior, J R F; Faria, A M C; Bittar, J F F; Araújo, M S S; Santos, R L; Martins-Filho, O A

    2013-12-19

    Differences in cellular and humoral immunity in Zebu (Bos taurus indicus) and European (B. taurus taurus) cattle breeds, which may be related to differences in resistance or susceptibility to infectious or parasitic diseases, are largely unknown. This study aimed to perform a comparative analysis of innate and adaptive immunity of European (including Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Hereford) and Zebu (including Gir, Nelore, and Guzera) breeds, by assessing their peripheral blood leukocyte profiles (i.e., monocytes, eosinophils, and lymphocytes, including CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, and CD21(+) B cells). Higher frequencies of cells involved in innate immunity were observed in Zebu breeds, particularly monocytes and non-T and non-B cells (13.37 ± 0.9058 and 37.67 ± 1.55, respectively). This finding may contribute to the increased resistance of B. taurus indicus to certain infectious and parasitic diseases. Considering other leukocyte populations in the peripheral blood, among-breed variation was greater than differences between the two subspecies. This study will serve as a basis for further investigations regarding comparative immunology and resistance to infectious and parasitic diseases of cattle.

  11. Genome wide analysis of fertility and production traits in Italian Holstein cattle.

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    Giulietta Minozzi

    Full Text Available A genome wide scan was performed on a total of 2093 Italian Holstein proven bulls genotyped with 50K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, with the objective of identifying loci associated with fertility related traits and to test their effects on milk production traits. The analysis was carried out using estimated breeding values for the aggregate fertility index and for each trait contributing to the index: angularity, calving interval, non-return rate at 56 days, days to first service, and 305 day first parity lactation. In addition, two production traits not included in the aggregate fertility index were analysed: fat yield and protein yield. Analyses were carried out using all SNPs treated separately, further the most significant marker on BTA14 associated to milk quality located in the DGAT1 region was treated as fixed effect. Genome wide association analysis identified 61 significant SNPs and 75 significant marker-trait associations. Eight additional SNP associations were detected when SNP located near DGAT1 was included as a fixed effect. As there were no obvious common SNPs between the traits analyzed independently in this study, a network analysis was carried out to identify unforeseen relationships that may link production and fertility traits.

  12. Factor Analysis of Linear Type Traits and Their Relation with Longevity in Brazilian Holstein Cattle

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    Elisandra Lurdes Kern

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we aimed to evaluate the reduction in dimensionality of 20 linear type traits and more final score in 14,943 Holstein cows in Brazil using factor analysis, and indicate their relationship with longevity and 305 d first lactation milk production. Low partial correlations (−0.19 to 0.38, the medium to high Kaiser sampling mean (0.79 and the significance of the Bartlett sphericity test (p<0.001, indicated correlations between type traits and the suitability of these data for a factor analysis, after the elimination of seven traits. Two factors had autovalues greater than one. The first included width and height of posterior udder, udder texture, udder cleft, loin strength, bone quality and final score. The second included stature, top line, chest width, body depth, fore udder attachment, angularity and final score. The linear regression of the factors on several measures of longevity and 305 d milk production showed that selection considering only the first factor should lead to improvements in longevity and 305 milk production.

  13. Prediction of whole-genome risk for selection and management of hyperketonemia in Holstein dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, K A; Pralle, R S; Adams, H; Cho, K; Do, C; White, H M

    2017-06-01

    Hyperketonemia (HYK), a common early postpartum health disorder characterized by elevated blood concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), affects millions of dairy cows worldwide and leads to significant economic losses and animal welfare concerns. In this study, blood concentrations of BHB were assessed for 1,453 Holstein cows using electronic handheld meters at four time points between 5 and 18 days postpartum. Incidence rates of subclinical (1.2 ≤ maximum BHB ≤ 2.9 mmol/L) and clinical ketosis (maximum BHB ≥ 3.0 mmol/L) were 24.0 and 2.4%, respectively. Variance components, estimated breeding values, and predicted HYK phenotypes were computed on the original, square-root, and binary scales. Heritability estimates for HYK ranged from 0.058 to 0.072 in pedigree-based analyses, as compared to estimates that ranged from 0.071 to 0.093 when pedigrees were augmented with 60,671 single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes of 959 cows and 801 male ancestors. On average, predicted HYK phenotypes from the genome-enhanced analysis ranged from 0.55 mmol/L for first-parity cows in the best contemporary group to 1.40 mmol/L for fourth-parity cows in the worst contemporary group. Genome-enhanced predictions of HYK phenotypes were more closely associated with actual phenotypes than pedigree-based predictions in five-fold cross-validation, and transforming phenotypes to reduce skewness and kurtosis also improved predictive ability. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using repeated cowside measurement of blood BHB concentration in early lactation to construct a reference population that can be used to estimate HYK breeding values for genomic selection programmes and predict HYK phenotypes for genome-guided management decisions. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Using a family-based structure to detect the effects of genomic inbreeding on embryo viability in Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelland, D W; Weigel, K A; Coburn, A D; Wilson, R D

    2015-07-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that some of the decline in reproductive ability in dairy cattle has been caused by embryonic death. The current study compared expected genomic inbreeding from sire-dam mating pairs to genomic inbreeding from live progeny in an attempt to determine how embryonic inbreeding may affect fertility. A total of 11,484 Holstein cattle with 43,485 SNP markers and pedigree information were available for analysis. A total of 412 sire-dam-progeny trios in which all animals had reliable genotypes were discovered. After removal of trios because of parentage errors, 374 remained for analysis. Additionally, a total of 3,031 animals comprising 3,906 genotyped full-sibling pairs were available for comparison. Expected genomic inbreeding measures were calculated by predicting homozygosity independently per SNP (FPHE) in sire-dam mating pairs and by simulating progeny using phased haplotype information (FROHE and FPHE). Actual genomic inbreeding measures were calculated using the percent homozygosity of all SNP (FPH) and using runs of homozygosity (FROH). Average FPHE values (62.8±0.78%) were slightly lower than FPH (63.1±1.12%), when considering each SNP independently. After phasing haplotypes, FPHE (62.5±0.83%) was again slightly lower than FPH (62.7±1.16%), and FROHE (3.46±1.54%) was slightly lower than FROH (3.53±2.17%). Results suggest increases in expected genomic inbreeding do not explain a large effect on embryo viability at average levels of expected inbreeding. Higher variation in FROH values was present with sire-dam mating pairs exhibiting high FROHE, which may suggest high levels of genomic inbreeding are required for a noticeable effect on overall embryo viability. Genomic inbreeding between full siblings was also compared with moderate correlations (0.47-0.52) present. Overall, expected genomic inbreeding measures were calculated, but results did not suggest a large effect of expected inbreeding on embryo viability. Copyright

  15. Detection of genetic association and functional polymorphisms of UGDH affecting milk production trait in Chinese Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Qing

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously localized a quantitative trait locus (QTL on bovine chromosome 6 affecting milk production traits to a 1.5-Mb region between BMS483 and MNB-209 via genome scanning followed by fine mapping. Results Totally 15 genes were mapped within such linkage region through bioinformatic analysis of the cattle-human comparative map and bovine genome assembly. Of them, the UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UGDH was suggested as a potential positional candidate gene for milk production traits based on its corresponding physiological and biochemical functions and genetic effects. By sequencing all the coding exons and the untranslated regions in UGDH with pooled DNA of 8 sires represented the separated families detected in our previous studies, a total of ten SNPs were identified and genotyped in 1417 Holstein cows of 8 separation families. Individual SNP-based association analysis revealed 4 significant associations of SNP Ex1-1, SNP Int3-1, SNP Int5-1, and SNP Ex12-3 with milk yield (P protein percentage (F=4.15; P=0.0418 and fat percentage (F=5.18~7.25; P=0.0072~0.0231. Finally, by using an in vitro expression assay, we demonstrated that the A allele of SNP Ex1-1 and T allele of SNP Ex11-1of UGDH significantly decreases the expression of UGDH by 68.0% at the RNA, and 50.1% at the protein level, suggesting that SNP Ex1-1 and Ex11-1 represent two functional polymorphisms affecting expression of UGDH and may partly contributed to the observed association of the gene with milk production traits in our samples. Conclusions Taken together, our findings strongly indicate that UGDH gene could be involved in genetic variation underlying the QTL for milk production traits.

  16. An examination of positive selection and changing effective population size in Angus and Holstein cattle populations (Bos taurus using a high density SNP genotyping platform and the contribution of ancient polymorphism to genomic diversity in Domestic cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayes Ben

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying recent positive selection signatures in domesticated animals could provide information on genome response to strong directional selection from domestication and artificial selection. With the completion of the cattle genome, private companies are now providing large numbers of polymorphic markers for probing variation in domestic cattle (Bos taurus. We analysed over 7,500 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in beef (Angus and dairy (Holstein cattle and outgroup species Bison, Yak and Banteng in an indirect test of inbreeding and positive selection in Domestic cattle. Results Outgroup species: Bison, Yak and Banteng, were genotyped with high levels of success (90% and used to determine ancestral and derived allele states in domestic cattle. Frequency spectrums of the derived alleles in Angus and Holstein were examined using Fay and Wu's H test. Significant divergences from the predicted frequency spectrums expected under neutrality were identified. This appeared to be the result of combined influences of positive selection, inbreeding and ascertainment bias for moderately frequent SNP. Approximately 10% of all polymorphisms identified as segregating in B. taurus were also segregating in Bison, Yak or Banteng; highlighting a large number of polymorphisms that are ancient in origin. Conclusion These results suggest that a large effective population size (Ne of approximately 90,000 or more existed in B. taurus since they shared a common ancestor with Bison, Yak and Banteng ~1–2 million years ago (MYA. More recently Ne decreased sharply probably associated with domestication. This may partially explain the paradox of high levels of polymorphism in Domestic cattle and the relatively small recent Ne in this species. The period of inbreeding caused Fay and Wu's H statistic to depart from its expectation under neutrality mimicking the effect of selection. However, there was also evidence for selection

  17. An examination of positive selection and changing effective population size in Angus and Holstein cattle populations (Bos taurus) using a high density SNP genotyping platform and the contribution of ancient polymorphism to genomic diversity in Domestic cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEachern, Sean; Hayes, Ben; McEwan, John; Goddard, Mike

    2009-04-24

    Identifying recent positive selection signatures in domesticated animals could provide information on genome response to strong directional selection from domestication and artificial selection. With the completion of the cattle genome, private companies are now providing large numbers of polymorphic markers for probing variation in domestic cattle (Bos taurus). We analysed over 7,500 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in beef (Angus) and dairy (Holstein) cattle and outgroup species Bison, Yak and Banteng in an indirect test of inbreeding and positive selection in Domestic cattle. Outgroup species: Bison, Yak and Banteng, were genotyped with high levels of success (90%) and used to determine ancestral and derived allele states in domestic cattle. Frequency spectrums of the derived alleles in Angus and Holstein were examined using Fay and Wu's H test. Significant divergences from the predicted frequency spectrums expected under neutrality were identified. This appeared to be the result of combined influences of positive selection, inbreeding and ascertainment bias for moderately frequent SNP. Approximately 10% of all polymorphisms identified as segregating in B. taurus were also segregating in Bison, Yak or Banteng; highlighting a large number of polymorphisms that are ancient in origin. These results suggest that a large effective population size (N(e)) of approximately 90,000 or more existed in B. taurus since they shared a common ancestor with Bison, Yak and Banteng ~1-2 million years ago (MYA). More recently N(e) decreased sharply probably associated with domestication. This may partially explain the paradox of high levels of polymorphism in Domestic cattle and the relatively small recent N(e) in this species. The period of inbreeding caused Fay and Wu's H statistic to depart from its expectation under neutrality mimicking the effect of selection. However, there was also evidence for selection, because high frequency derived alleles tended to

  18. An examination of positive selection and changing effective population size in Angus and Holstein cattle populations (Bos taurus) using a high density SNP genotyping platform and the contribution of ancient polymorphism to genomic diversity in Domestic cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEachern, Sean; Hayes, Ben; McEwan, John; Goddard, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Background Identifying recent positive selection signatures in domesticated animals could provide information on genome response to strong directional selection from domestication and artificial selection. With the completion of the cattle genome, private companies are now providing large numbers of polymorphic markers for probing variation in domestic cattle (Bos taurus). We analysed over 7,500 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in beef (Angus) and dairy (Holstein) cattle and outgroup species Bison, Yak and Banteng in an indirect test of inbreeding and positive selection in Domestic cattle. Results Outgroup species: Bison, Yak and Banteng, were genotyped with high levels of success (90%) and used to determine ancestral and derived allele states in domestic cattle. Frequency spectrums of the derived alleles in Angus and Holstein were examined using Fay and Wu's H test. Significant divergences from the predicted frequency spectrums expected under neutrality were identified. This appeared to be the result of combined influences of positive selection, inbreeding and ascertainment bias for moderately frequent SNP. Approximately 10% of all polymorphisms identified as segregating in B. taurus were also segregating in Bison, Yak or Banteng; highlighting a large number of polymorphisms that are ancient in origin. Conclusion These results suggest that a large effective population size (Ne) of approximately 90,000 or more existed in B. taurus since they shared a common ancestor with Bison, Yak and Banteng ~1–2 million years ago (MYA). More recently Ne decreased sharply probably associated with domestication. This may partially explain the paradox of high levels of polymorphism in Domestic cattle and the relatively small recent Ne in this species. The period of inbreeding caused Fay and Wu's H statistic to depart from its expectation under neutrality mimicking the effect of selection. However, there was also evidence for selection, because high frequency

  19. A simple PCR-RFLP test for direct identification of Melanocortin Receptor 1 (MC1R alleles causing red coat colour in Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Valentini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A direct test to determine the presence of the recessive alleles causing red colour in Holstein cattle at DNA level is proposed.Digestions with two restriction enzymes were used to detect individuals carrying recessive alleles of MelanocortinReceptor 1 (MC1R gene, responsible for coat coloration. Direct sequencing of the PCR products confirmed the identifiedgenotypes. Compared to previously described methods this is an effective, relatively economic and quick method. Thistest could be employed not only to facilitate the detection of polymorphisms in populations but also to exclude animalscarrying alleles resulting in an undesired coat colour from breeding schemes.

  20. Season of birth is associated with first-lactation milk yield in Holstein Friesian cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eetvelde, M; Kamal, M M; Vandaele, L; Opsomer, G

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present research was to assess factors associated with first-lactation milk yield in dairy heifers, including maternal and environmental factors, factors related to the development of the heifer and factors related to its offspring such as gender of the calf. In addition, the potential underlying mechanism, in particular metabolic adaptations, was further explored. Data on body growth, reproduction and milk yield of 74 Holstein Friesian heifers on three herds in Flanders (Belgium) were collected. At birth, body measurements of the heifers were recorded and blood samples were taken (in order) to determine basal glucose and insulin concentrations. Body measurements were assessed every 3 months until first calving, and gender and weight of their first calf were recorded. Information on fertility and milk yield of the heifer and its dam were collected from the herd databases. Daily temperature and photoperiod were recorded from the database of the Belgian Royal Meteorological Institute. Linear mixed models were run with herd as a random factor, to account for differences in herd management. Heifers grew 867±80.7 g/day during their first year of life and were inseminated at 14.8±1.34 months. First calving took place at 24.5±1.93 months, at a weight of 642±61.5 kg and heifers produced 8506±1064 kg energy corrected milk during their first 305-day lactation. Regression models revealed that none of the maternal factors such as milk yield and parity, nor the growth of the heifer during the 1st year of life were associated with milk yield during first lactation. Age, and to a lesser extent BW at first parturition were positively associated with first-lactation milk yield. In addition, the season of birth, but not calving, had a significant influence on milk yield, with winter-born heifers producing less than heifers born in any other season. The lower yielding winter-born heifers had higher insulin concentrations at birth, whereas glucose concentrations

  1. Genetic variability and population structure in loci related to milk production traits in native Argentine Creole and commercial Argentine Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golijow C.D.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cattle breeds have been subjected to high selection pressure for production traits. Consequently, population genetic structure and allelic distribution could differ in breeds under high selection pressure compared to unselected breeds. Analysis of k-casein, aS1-casein and prolactin gene frequencies was made for Argentine Creole (AC and Argentine Holstein (AH cattle herds. The calculated FST values measured the degree of genetic differentiation of subpopulations, depending on the variances of gene frequencies.The AC breed had considerably more variation among herds at the aS1-casein and k-casein loci. Conservation strategies should consider the entire AC population in order to maintain the genetic variability found in this native breed.

  2. Comparison of Holstein-Friesian and Norwegian Red dairy cattle for estrus length and estrous signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveberg, G; Rogers, G W; Cooper, J; Refsdal, A O; Erhard, H W; Kommisrud, E; Buckley, F; Waldmann, A; Ropstad, E

    2015-04-01

    This study addressed the effect of breed on estrus length and estrous behavior by observing 20 Holstein-Friesian (HF) and 20 Norwegian Red (NRF) cows on an outdoor wood-chip pad through 1 estrous cycle (22d). Detailed behavioral data were collected by continuous (24 h) video monitoring of all cows. Accurate estimation of duration of estrous periods, behavioral signs (sum per period and counts per hour), and duration and number of sexually active groups were reported through all stages of mount estrus (prestand, standing estrus, and poststand). These dependent variables were analyzed with a basic statistical model that included fixed effects for breed and lactation group. Other independent variables (milk yield, body condition score, and number of cows in standing estrus) were added to the basic model one by one and included in an expanded model if they had an effect on the respective dependent variables. Estrus duration was considerably shorter in HF compared with NRF cows for all the major periods: mount estrus (11.2 ± 3.0 vs. 21.3 ± 2.7 h), standing estrus (7.1 ± 1.4 vs. 11.7 ± 1.3 h), mounting period (6.9 ± 2.7 vs. 18.2 ± 2.4 h), and mounted period (9.2 ± 2.8 vs. 17.5 ± 2.6 h). Additionally, the NRF cows spent more time in sexually active groups (36.1 ± 4.0 vs. 17.6 ± 4.8%) during standing estrus compared with HF cows. The NRF cows participated in a greater number of sexually active groups (9.6 ± 1.3 vs. 5.5 ± 1.3) with longer average duration (0.42 ± 0.04 vs. 0.20 ± 0.04 h) and continued to be more active in these groups through late stages of estrus (poststand) compared with the HF breed. Mounting activity differed between breeds as NRF mounted more times in total (46.3 ± 6.2 vs. 18.1 ± 6.3) and per hour (2.6 ± 0.4 vs. 1.5 ± 0.5) during mount estrus. In addition, NRF tended to express the primary estrous sign, standing when mounted, more often during standing estrus (32.4 ± 5.0 vs. 18.5 ± 5.2). The HF initiated more unsuccessful mounts (1

  3. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 gene are associated with performance in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Paul Mullen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 has been shown to be associated with fertility, growth and development in cattle. The aim of this study was to 1 identify novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the bovine IGF-1 gene and alongside previously identified SNPs 2 determine their association with traits of economic importance in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle. Nine novel SNPs were identified across a panel of 22 beef and dairy cattle by sequence analysis of the 5’ promoter, intronic and 3’ regulatory regions, encompassing ~ 5 kb of the IGF-1 gene. Genotyping and associations with daughter performance for milk production, fertility, survival and measures of body size were undertaken on 848 Holstein-Friesian AI sires. Using multiple regression analysis nominal associations (P<0.05 were identified between 6 SNPs (four novel and two previously identified and milk composition, survival, body condition score and body size. The C allele of AF017143 a previously published SNP (C-512T in the promoter region of IGF-1 predicted to introduce binding sites for transcription factors HSF1 and ZNF217 was associated (P<0.05 with increased cow carcass weight (i.e. an indicator of mature cow size. Novel SNPs were identified in the 3’ region of IGF-1 were associated (P<0.05 with functional survival and chest width. The remaining 4 SNPs, all located within introns of IGF-1 were associated (P<0.05 with milk protein yield, milk fat yield, milk fat concentration, somatic cell score, carcass conformation and carcass fat. Results of this study further demonstrate the multifaceted influences of IGF-1 on milk production and growth related traits in cattle.

  4. Detection of Theileria annulata carriers in Holstein-Friesian (Bos taurus taurus) and Sistani (Bos taurus indicus) cattle breeds by polymerase chain reaction in Sistan region, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidiani, Hamidreza; Nabavi, Reza; Ganjali, Maryam; Saadati, Dariush

    2016-12-01

    Theileria annulata is common in tropical and subtropical regions especially in Iran and causes great economic losses in cattle industry. In Iran the epidemiological aspects of bovine theileriosis in different breeds of cattle is poorly understood. The aim of present study is comparison of the number of T. annulata carriers in the two major cattle breeds (Holstein-Friesian and Sistani) in Sistan of Iran by giemsa and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. During winter 2013, 160 native cattle, from the two major breeds in Sistan, with the mean age of more than one year and without typical clinical symptoms of theileriosis were selected. At first, a thin layer smear was held from their ear sublime vein blood for Giemsa staining method. In order to do PCR assay, jugular vein blood sample of each cow was taken. The PCR employs primers specific for the 721-bp gene fragment encoding the 30-kDa major merozoite surface antigen of T. annulata. By PCR method, 38 (47.5 %) Holstein blood samples and 22 (27.5 %) Sistani blood samples had DNA of T. annulata and considered positive (The correlation was significant at values of P < 0.05). By checking 160 blood smears with light microscope and lens × 100, only 10 samples (6.25 %) were positive for T. annulata. Statistical comparison between PCR and smear method showed that the PCR method is more sensitive and accurate in comparison to Giemsa staining method to diagnose the asymptomatic carriers of T. annulata.

  5. Distribution and Functionality of Copy Number Variation across European Cattle Populations

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    Maulik Upadhyay

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Copy number variation (CNV, which is characterized by large-scale losses or gains of DNA fragments, contributes significantly to genetic and phenotypic variation. Assessing CNV across different European cattle populations might reveal genetic changes responsible for phenotypic differences, which have accumulated throughout the domestication history of cattle as consequences of evolutionary forces that act upon them. To explore pattern of CNVs across European cattle, we genotyped 149 individuals, that represent different European regions, using the Illumina Bovine HD Genotyping array. A total of 9,944 autosomal CNVs were identified in 149 samples using a Hidden Markov Model (HMM as employed in PennCNV. Animals originating from several breeds of British Isles, and Balkan and Italian regions, on average, displayed higher abundance of CNV counts than Dutch or Alpine animals. A total of 923 CNV regions (CNVRs were identified by aggregating CNVs overlapping in at least two animals. The hierarchical clustering of CNVRs indicated low differentiation and sharing of high-frequency CNVRs between European cattle populations. Various CNVRs identified in the present study overlapped with olfactory receptor genes and genes related to immune system. In addition, we also detected a CNV overlapping the Kit gene in English longhorn cattle which has previously been associated with color-sidedness. To conclude, we provide a comprehensive overview of CNV distribution in genome of European cattle. Our results indicate an important role of purifying selection and genomic drift in shaping CNV diversity that exists between different European cattle populations.

  6. Differences in Voluntary Cow Traffic between Holstein and Illawarra Breeds of Dairy Cattle in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C E F; Kwinten, N B P; van Gastel, D A J M; Kerrisk, K L; Lyons, N A; Garcia, S C

    2014-04-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm) for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra) on voluntary cow traffic as determined by gate passes at the Camden AMS research farm dairy facility. Daily data on days in milk, milk yield, gate passes and milking frequency for 158 Holstein Friesian cows and 24 Illawarra cows were collated by month for the 2007 and 2008 years. Illawarra cows had 9% more gate passes/day than Holstein cows over the duration of the study; however, the milking frequency and milk yield of both breeds were similar. Gate passes were greatest for both breeds in early lactation and in the winter (June to August) and summer (December to February) seasons. These findings highlight an opportunity to translate increased voluntary cow movement associated with breed selection into increased milking frequencies, milk production and overall pasture-based AMS performance.

  7. Effects of a polymer-coated urea product on nitrogen metabolism in lactating Holstein dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galo, E; Emanuele, S M; Sniffen, C J; White, J H; Knapp, J R

    2003-06-01

    different between diets, and estimated microbial CP was also similar. Coated urea was not effective at reducing nitrogen excretion by dairy cattle.

  8. Deep sequencing of Danish Holstein dairy cattle for variant detection and insight into potential loss-of-function variants in protein coding genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ashutosh; Panitz, Frank; Gregersen, Vivi Raundahl; Bendixen, Christian; Holm, Lars-Erik

    2015-12-09

    Over the last few years, continuous development of high-throughput sequencing platforms and sequence analysis tools has facilitated reliable identification and characterization of genetic variants in many cattle breeds. Deep sequencing of entire genomes within a cattle breed that has not been thoroughly investigated would be imagined to discover functional variants that are underlying phenotypic differences. Here, we sequenced to a high coverage the Danish Holstein cattle breed to detect and characterize single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertion/deletions (Indels), and loss-of-function (LoF) variants in protein-coding genes in order to provide a comprehensive resource for subsequent detection of causal variants for recessive traits. We sequenced four genetically unrelated Danish Holstein cows with a mean coverage of 27X using an Illumina Hiseq 2000. Multi-sample SNP calling identified 10,796,794 SNPs and 1,295,036 indels whereof 482,835 (4.5 %) SNPs and 231,359 (17.9 %) indels were novel. A comparison between sequencing-derived SNPs and genotyping from the BovineHD BeadChip revealed a concordance rate of 99.6-99.8 % for homozygous SNPs and 93.3-96.5 % for heterozygous SNPs. Annotation of the SNPs discovered 74,886 SNPs and 1937 indels affecting coding sequences with 2145 being LoF mutations. The frequency of LoF variants differed greatly across the genome, a hot spot with a strikingly high density was observed in a 6 Mb region on BTA18. LoF affected genes were enriched for functional categories related to olfactory reception and underrepresented for genes related to key cellular constituents and cellular and biological process regulation. Filtering using sequence derived genotype data for 288 Holstein animals from the 1000 bull genomes project removing variants containing homozygous individuals retained 345 of the LoF variants as putatively deleterious. A substantial number of the putative deleterious LoF variants had a minor allele frequency >0.05 in the

  9. Transcription Factor Binding Site Polymorphism in the Motilin Gene Associated with Left-Sided Displacement of the Abomasum in German Holstein Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mömke, Stefanie; Sickinger, Marlene; Rehage, Jürgen; Doll, Klaus; Distl, Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    Left-sided displacement of the abomasum (LDA) is a common disease in many dairy cattle breeds. A genome-wide screen for QTL for LDA in German Holstein (GH) cows indicated motilin (MLN) as a candidate gene on bovine chromosome 23. Genomic DNA sequence analysis of MLN revealed a total of 32 polymorphisms. All informative polymorphisms used for association analyses in a random sample of 1,136 GH cows confirmed MLN as a candidate for LDA. A single nucleotide polymorphism (FN298674:g.90T>C) located within the first non-coding exon of bovine MLN affects a NKX2-5 transcription factor binding site and showed significant associations (ORallele = 0.64; −log10Pallele = 6.8, −log10Pgenotype = 7.0) with LDA. An expression study gave evidence of a significantly decreased MLN expression in cows carrying the mutant allele (C). In individuals heterozygous or homozygous for the mutation, MLN expression was decreased by 89% relative to the wildtype. FN298674:g.90T>C may therefore play a role in bovine LDA via the motility of the abomasum. This MLN SNP appears useful to reduce the incidence of LDA in German Holstein cattle and provides a first step towards a deeper understanding of the genetics of LDA. PMID:22536407

  10. Transcription factor binding site polymorphism in the motilin gene associated with left-sided displacement of the abomasum in German Holstein cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Mömke

    Full Text Available Left-sided displacement of the abomasum (LDA is a common disease in many dairy cattle breeds. A genome-wide screen for QTL for LDA in German Holstein (GH cows indicated motilin (MLN as a candidate gene on bovine chromosome 23. Genomic DNA sequence analysis of MLN revealed a total of 32 polymorphisms. All informative polymorphisms used for association analyses in a random sample of 1,136 GH cows confirmed MLN as a candidate for LDA. A single nucleotide polymorphism (FN298674:g.90T>C located within the first non-coding exon of bovine MLN affects a NKX2-5 transcription factor binding site and showed significant associations (OR(allele = 0.64; -log(10P(allele = 6.8, -log(10P(genotype = 7.0 with LDA. An expression study gave evidence of a significantly decreased MLN expression in cows carrying the mutant allele (C. In individuals heterozygous or homozygous for the mutation, MLN expression was decreased by 89% relative to the wildtype. FN298674:g.90T>C may therefore play a role in bovine LDA via the motility of the abomasum. This MLN SNP appears useful to reduce the incidence of LDA in German Holstein cattle and provides a first step towards a deeper understanding of the genetics of LDA.

  11. Altered molecular expression of the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway in mammary tissue of Chinese Holstein cattle with mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Li, Lian; Sun, Yu; Huang, Shuai; Tang, Juan; Yu, Pan; Wang, Genlin

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mediated activation of the nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway by mastitis initiates expression of genes associated with inflammation and the innate immune response. In this study, the profile of mastitis-induced differential gene expression in the mammary tissue of Chinese Holstein cattle was investigated by Gene-Chip microarray and bioinformatics. The microarray results revealed that 79 genes associated with the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway were differentially expressed. Of these genes, 19 were up-regulated and 29 were down-regulated in mastitis tissue compared to normal, healthy tissue. Statistical analysis of transcript and protein level expression changes indicated that 10 genes, namely TLR4, MyD88, IL-6, and IL-10, were up-regulated, while, CD14, TNF-α, MD-2, IL-β, NF-κB, and IL-12 were significantly down-regulated in mastitis tissue in comparison with normal tissue. Analyses using bioinformatics database resources, such as the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis and the Gene Ontology Consortium (GO) for term enrichment analysis, suggested that these differently expressed genes implicate different regulatory pathways for immune function in the mammary gland. In conclusion, our study provides new evidence for better understanding the differential expression and mechanisms of the TLR4 /NF-κB signaling pathway in Chinese Holstein cattle with mastitis.

  12. Single nucleotide variants and InDels identified from whole-genome re-sequencing of Guzerat, Gyr, Girolando and Holstein cattle breeds.

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    Nedenia Bonvino Stafuzza

    Full Text Available Whole-genome re-sequencing, alignment and annotation analyses were undertaken for 12 sires representing four important cattle breeds in Brazil: Guzerat (multi-purpose, Gyr, Girolando and Holstein (dairy production. A total of approximately 4.3 billion reads from an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer generated for each animal 10.7 to 16.4-fold genome coverage. A total of 27,441,279 single nucleotide variations (SNVs and 3,828,041 insertions/deletions (InDels were detected in the samples, of which 2,557,670 SNVs and 883,219 InDels were novel. The submission of these genetic variants to the dbSNP database significantly increased the number of known variants, particularly for the indicine genome. The concordance rate between genotypes obtained using the Bovine HD BeadChip array and the same variants identified by sequencing was about 99.05%. The annotation of variants identified numerous non-synonymous SNVs and frameshift InDels which could affect phenotypic variation. Functional enrichment analysis was performed and revealed that variants in the olfactory transduction pathway was over represented in all four cattle breeds, while the ECM-receptor interaction pathway was over represented in Girolando and Guzerat breeds, the ABC transporters pathway was over represented only in Holstein breed, and the metabolic pathways was over represented only in Gyr breed. The genetic variants discovered here provide a rich resource to help identify potential genomic markers and their associated molecular mechanisms that impact economically important traits for Gyr, Girolando, Guzerat and Holstein breeding programs.

  13. Dominant Red Coat Color in Holstein Cattle Is Associated with a Missense Mutation in the Coatomer Protein Complex, Subunit Alpha (COPA Gene.

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    Ben Dorshorst

    Full Text Available Coat color in Holstein dairy cattle is primarily controlled by the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R gene, a central determinant of black (eumelanin vs. red/brown pheomelanin synthesis across animal species. The major MC1R alleles in Holsteins are Dominant Black (MC1RD and Recessive Red (MC1Re. A novel form of dominant red coat color was first observed in an animal born in 1980. The mutation underlying this phenotype was named Dominant Red and is epistatic to the constitutively activated MC1RD. Here we show that a missense mutation in the coatomer protein complex, subunit alpha (COPA, a gene with previously no known role in pigmentation synthesis, is completely associated with Dominant Red in Holstein dairy cattle. The mutation results in an arginine to cysteine substitution at an amino acid residue completely conserved across eukaryotes. Despite this high level of conservation we show that both heterozygotes and homozygotes are healthy and viable. Analysis of hair pigment composition shows that the Dominant Red phenotype is similar to the MC1R Recessive Red phenotype, although less effective at reducing eumelanin synthesis. RNA-seq data similarly show that Dominant Red animals achieve predominantly pheomelanin synthesis by downregulating genes normally required for eumelanin synthesis. COPA is a component of the coat protein I seven subunit complex that is involved with retrograde and cis-Golgi intracellular coated vesicle transport of both protein and RNA cargo. This suggests that Dominant Red may be caused by aberrant MC1R protein or mRNA trafficking within the highly compartmentalized melanocyte, mimicking the effect of the Recessive Red loss of function MC1R allele.

  14. Dominant Red Coat Color in Holstein Cattle Is Associated with a Missense Mutation in the Coatomer Protein Complex, Subunit Alpha (COPA) Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorshorst, Ben; Henegar, Corneliu; Liao, Xiaoping; Sällman Almén, Markus; Rubin, Carl-Johan; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Stothard, Paul; Van Doormaal, Brian; Plastow, Graham; Barsh, Gregory S.; Andersson, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Coat color in Holstein dairy cattle is primarily controlled by the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene, a central determinant of black (eumelanin) vs. red/brown pheomelanin synthesis across animal species. The major MC1R alleles in Holsteins are Dominant Black (MC1RD) and Recessive Red (MC1Re). A novel form of dominant red coat color was first observed in an animal born in 1980. The mutation underlying this phenotype was named Dominant Red and is epistatic to the constitutively activated MC1RD. Here we show that a missense mutation in the coatomer protein complex, subunit alpha (COPA), a gene with previously no known role in pigmentation synthesis, is completely associated with Dominant Red in Holstein dairy cattle. The mutation results in an arginine to cysteine substitution at an amino acid residue completely conserved across eukaryotes. Despite this high level of conservation we show that both heterozygotes and homozygotes are healthy and viable. Analysis of hair pigment composition shows that the Dominant Red phenotype is similar to the MC1R Recessive Red phenotype, although less effective at reducing eumelanin synthesis. RNA-seq data similarly show that Dominant Red animals achieve predominantly pheomelanin synthesis by downregulating genes normally required for eumelanin synthesis. COPA is a component of the coat protein I seven subunit complex that is involved with retrograde and cis-Golgi intracellular coated vesicle transport of both protein and RNA cargo. This suggests that Dominant Red may be caused by aberrant MC1R protein or mRNA trafficking within the highly compartmentalized melanocyte, mimicking the effect of the Recessive Red loss of function MC1R allele. PMID:26042826

  15. The effects of overstocking Holstein dairy cattle during the dry period on cortisol secretion and energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huzzey, J M; Nydam, D V; Grant, R J; Overton, T R

    2012-08-01

    The objective was to determine whether overstocking during the dry period could alter physiological parameters in dairy cattle associated with cortisol secretion and energy metabolism. Four groups of 10 late-gestation, nonlactating Holstein cows (6 multiparous cows and 4 heifers per group) were exposed to both a control [1 lying stall/cow and 0.67 m of linear feed bunk (FB) space/cow] and an overstocked (1 stall/2 cows and 0.34 m of FB space/cow) stocking density treatment in a replicated crossover design with 14-d treatment periods. On d 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 of each 14-d treatment period, blood and fecal samples were collected from each cow for the determination of plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose, insulin, and fecal cortisol metabolite (11,17-dioxoandrostane; 11,17-DOA) concentrations. Glucose and ACTH challenges were conducted on d 13 and 14, respectively, of each treatment period. Dry matter intake per cow was greater during the overstocked period than during the control period (15.9 vs. 14.9 ± 0.5 kg/d). Plasma NEFA and glucose concentrations were greater (0.11 vs. 0.09 ± 0.006 mEq/L and 65.3 vs. 64.2 ± 1.1mg/dL, respectively) and 11,17-DOA concentration tended to be greater (891 vs. 792 ± 86 ng/g of fecal dry matter) during the overstocked period than during the control period. Insulin concentration was the same during the overstocked (29.0 ± 2.1 μIU/mL) and control (31.2 ± 2.1 μIU/mL) periods. Overstocking was associated with slightly slower glucose clearance from circulation as evidenced by a greater area under the curve estimate for the glucose response curves (2,882 vs. 2,657 ± 165 mg/dL × 180 min) but a more attenuated insulin response (insulin area under the curve = 5,258 vs. 6,692 ± 1,104 μIU/mL × 180 min for the overstocked and control periods, respectively). Changes in tissue glucose uptake may be mediated by changes in pancreatic insulin secretion or peripheral tissue responses to insulin. The role of glucocorticoids in

  16. Genetic diversity and population structure of 20 North European cattle breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    kantanen, J; Olsaker, Ingrid; Holm, Lars-Erik

    2000-01-01

    population structures. The microsatellites BoLA-DRBP1 and CSSM66 were nonneutral markers according to the Ewens-Watterson test, suggesting some kind of selection imposed on these loci. North European cattle breeds displayed generally similar levels of multilocus heterozygosity and allelic diversity. However...... and geographical divisions of native breeding regions of indigenous cattle. Divergence estimates between Icelandic cattle and indigenous breeds suggested a separation time of more than 1,000 years between Icelandic cattle and Norwegian native breeds, a finding consistent with historical evidence....

  17. Anti-bovine herpesvirus and anti-bovine viral diarrhea virus antibody responses in pregnant Holstein dairy cattle following administration of a multivalent killed virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Billy I; Rieger, Randall H; Dickens, Charlene M; Schultz, Ronald D; Aceto, Helen

    2015-10-01

    To determine the effect of a commercially available multivalent killed virus vaccine on serum neutralizing (SN) and colostrum neutralizing (CN) antibodies against bovine herpesvirus (BHV) type 1 and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2 in pregnant dairy cattle. 49 Holstein dairy cattle. PROCEDURES :25 cattle were vaccinated (IM injection) at least 60 days prior to calving (ie, at the end of the lactation period or according to the expected calving date for heifers) and again 5 weeks later. The remaining 24 cattle were not vaccinated (control group). Titers of SN antibodies were measured at the 5-week time point. Titers of SN and CN antibodies were measured at parturition. 5 weeks after initial vaccination, titers of SN antibodies against BHV-1 and BVDV types 1 and 2 were 1:512, 1:128, and 1:2,048, respectively, in vaccinates and 1:64, 1:128, and 1:64, respectively, in unvaccinated controls. Equivalent SN antibody titers at parturition were 1:256, 1:64, and 1:512, respectively, in vaccinates and 1:128, 1:128, and 1:64, respectively, in controls. Median titers of CN antibodies against BHV-1 and BVDV types 1 and 2 were 1:1,280, 1:10,240, and 1:20,480, respectively, in vaccinates and 1:80, 1:1,280, and 1:2,560, respectively, in controls. Titers of antibodies against viral respiratory pathogens were significantly enhanced in both serum (BHV-1 and BVDV type 2) and colostrum (BHV-1 and BVDV types 1 and 2) in cattle receiving a killed virus vaccine (with no adverse reactions) before parturition. To maximize protection of bovine neonates, this method of vaccination should be considered.

  18. A novel point mutation within the EDA gene causes an exon dropping in mature RNA in Holstein Friesian cattle breed affected by X-linked anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia

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    Pariset Lorraine

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background X-linked anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is a disorder characterized by abnormal development of tissues and organs of ectodermal origin caused by mutations in the EDA gene. The bovine EDA gene encodes the ectodysplasin A, a membrane protein expressed in keratinocytes, hair follicles and sweat glands, which is involved in the interactions between cell and cell and/or cell and matrix. Four mutations causing ectodermal dysplasia in cattle have been described so far. Results We identified a new single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at the 9th base of exon 8 in the EDA gene in two calves of Holstein Friesian cattle breed affected by ectodermal dysplasia. This SNP is located in the exonic splicing enhancer (ESEs recognized by SRp40 protein. As a consequence, the spliceosome machinery is no longer able to recognize the sequence as exonic and causes exon skipping. The mutation determines the deletion of the entire exon (131 bp in the RNA processing, causing a severe alteration of the protein structure and thus the disease. Conclusion We identified a mutation, never described before, that changes the regulation of alternative splicing in the EDA gene and causes ectodermal dysplasia in cattle. The analysis of the SNP allows the identification of carriers that can transmit the disease to the offspring. This mutation can thus be exploited for a rational and efficient selection of unequivocally healthy cows for breeding.

  19. Variances and correlations of milk production, fertility, longevity, and type traits over time in Australian Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile-Mariam, M; Pryce, J E

    2015-10-01

    When using historical data, it is often assumed that the genetic correlation of the same trait recorded at different time points is reasonably close to 1. However, selection and possible changes in trait definitions means that this may not necessarily be the case. Regularly monitoring genetic parameters over time is important, as changes could reduce the accuracy of genetic evaluations. About 20 yr (1993 to 2012) of data on milk yield as well as functional and type traits from Australian Holstein dairy cattle were analyzed to assess changes in genetic correlations within and among traits over time by considering 2 traits at a time using linear random regression (RR) and multitrait (MT) models. Both residual and genetic variances for milk yield traits and calving interval (CI) increased over time, with the highest increase observed for protein yield. For most type traits some fluctuations over time were noted in both the residual and additive genetic variances. Genetic correlations among survival (i.e., from first to second lactation), milk yield traits, CI, and some type traits varied over time. The genetic correlation of the same trait (e.g., protein yield, fat yield, and some type traits) measured in different years was also less than 1.0 (0.1-0.9), which is likely to be due to selection or changes in trait definitions. Estimates of parameters from the RR model were generally similar to those from MT models that considered the same trait recorded in different year groups as different traits. However, in the case of survival and CI (i.e., lowly heritable traits), the genetic correlations over time obtained from the MT model were lower (0.21 to 0.75) than those from the RR models (0.9-1.0). Genetic correlations of survival with milk, fat, and protein yields declined from ~0.4 to 0.5 at the beginning of the study period (1993/94) to zero or negative at the end (2009/10), whereas the correlation between CI and milk yield became more unfavorable and increased from 0

  20. Molecular typing of isolates obtained from aborted foetuses in Brucella-free Holstein dairy cattle herd after immunisation with Brucella abortus RB51 vaccine in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareth, Gamal; Melzer, Falk; Böttcher, Denny; El-Diasty, Mohamed; El-Beskawy, Mohamed; Rasheed, Nesma; Schmoock, Gernot; Roesler, Uwe; Sprague, Lisa D; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2016-12-01

    Bovine brucellosis is endemic in Egypt in spite of application of surveillance and control measures. An increase of abortions was reported in a Holstein dairy cattle herd with 600 animals in Damietta governorate in Egypt after immunisation with Brucella (B.) abortus RB51 vaccine. Twenty one (10.6%) of 197 vaccinated cows aborted after 3 months. All aborted cows had been tested seronegative for brucellosis in the past 3 years. B. abortus was isolated from four foetuses. Conventional biochemical and bacteriological identification and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed two B. abortus biovar (bv.) 1 smooth and two B. abortus rough strains. None of the B. abortus isolates were identified as RB51. Genotyping analysis by multiple locus of variable number tandem repeats analysis based on 16 markers (MLVA-16) revealed two different profiles with low genetic diversity. B. abortus bv1 was introduced in the herd and caused abortions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of genetic components in traits related to superovulation, in vitro fertilization, and embryo transfer in Holstein cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to estimate variance components and identify regions of the genome associated with traits related to embryo transfer in Holsteins. Reproductive technologies are used in the dairy industry to increase the reproductive rate of superior females. A drawback of these met...

  2. Relationships between age at first calving, herd management criteria and lifetime milk, fat, and protein production in holstein cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data from 69,145 Holstein cows that calved for the first time in 2005 were evaluated to determine the influence of age at first calving (AFC) on first lactation and lifetime production in commercial dairy herds. A DHI database was divided into four herd management criteria (HMC). The four HMC were: ...

  3. Genome-wide association and biological pathway analysis for milk-fat composition in Danish Holstein and Danish Jersey cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buitenhuis, Bart; Janss, Luc L G; Poulsen, Nina Aagaard

    2014-01-01

    The milk fat profile of the Danish Holstein (DH) and Danish Jersey (DJ) show clear differences. Identification of the genomic regions, genes and biological pathways underlying the milk fat biosynthesis will improve the understanding of the biology underlying bovine milk fat production and may...

  4. Tissue mobilisation in Holstein-Friesian cattle selected for divergence in efficiency, defined as residual feed intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waghorn, G.C.; MacDonald, K.A.; Verwoerd, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed (energy) requirements of individuals, relative to the population mean. Two groups, of ~120 Holstein-Friesian heifer calves (aged 6–9 months), which differed in efficiency by ~20%, were reared and mated. Liveweight and body condition score (BCS) were

  5. Associations between novel single nucleotide polymorphisms in the Bos taurus growth hormone gene and performance traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, M P; Berry, D P; Howard, D J; Diskin, M G; Lynch, C O; Berkowicz, E W; Magee, D A; MacHugh, D E; Waters, S M

    2010-12-01

    Growth hormone, produced in the anterior pituitary gland, stimulates the release of insulin-like growth factor-I from the liver and is of critical importance in the control of nutrient utilization and partitioning for lactogenesis, fertility, growth, and development in cattle. The aim of this study was to discover novel polymorphisms in the bovine growth hormone gene (GH1) and to quantify their association with performance using estimates of genetic merit on 848 Holstein-Friesian AI (artificial insemination) dairy sires. Associations with previously reported polymorphisms in the bovine GH1 gene were also undertaken. A total of 38 novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified across a panel of 22 beef and dairy cattle by sequence analysis of the 5' promoter, intronic, exonic, and 3' regulatory regions, encompassing approximately 7 kb of the GH1 gene. Following multiple regression analysis on all SNP, associations were identified between 11 SNP (2 novel and 9 previously identified) and milk fat and protein yield, milk composition, somatic cell score, survival, body condition score, and body size. The G allele of a previously identified SNP in exon 5 at position 2141 of the GH1 sequence, resulting in a nonsynonymous substitution, was associated with decreased milk protein yield. The C allele of a novel SNP, GH32, was associated with inferior carcass conformation. In addition, the T allele of a previously characterized SNP, GH35, was associated with decreased survival. Both GH24 (novel) and GH35 were independently associated with somatic cell count, and 3 SNP, GH21, 2291, and GH35, were independently associated with body depth. Furthermore, 2 SNP, GH24 and GH63, were independently associated with carcass fat. Results of this study further demonstrate the multifaceted influences of GH1 on milk production, fertility, and growth-related traits in cattle. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Interleukin 8 haplotypes drive divergent responses in uterine endometrial cells and are associated with somatic cell score in Holstein-Friesian cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojkovic, Bojan; Mullen, Michael P; Donofrio, Gaetano; McLoughlin, Rachel M; Meade, Kieran G

    2017-02-01

    Interleukin 8 is a proinflammatory chemokine involved in neutrophil recruitment and activation in response to infection and also in the resolution of inflammation. Our previous studies identified a number of genetic polymorphisms in the bovine IL8 promoter region which segregate into two haplotypes, with balanced frequencies in the Holstein-Friesian (HF). We subsequently showed that these haplotypes confer divergent IL8 activity both in vitro in mammary epithelial cells and in vivo in response to LPS. In this study, we hypothesised that the balanced frequency of IL8 haplotype in HF could be explained by divergent selection pressures acting on this locus. To address this hypothesis, an association study was carried out aiming to identify a putative link between the IL8 haplotype and somatic cell score (SCS) in 5746 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. In addition, the basal and inducible promoter activity of the two IL8 haplotypes was characterised in bovine endometrial epithelial (BEND) cells and in monocyte-derived macrophages. Results showed a significant association between IL8 haplotype 2 (IL8-h2) with increased SCS (P<0.05). Functional analysis showed that the same haplotype was a more potent inducer of IL8 expression in BEND cells in response to LPS and TNFα stimulation. In contrast, co-transfection of the BEND cells with a DNA construct encoding a bovine herpesvirus 4 antigen, induced significantly higher IL8 expression from IL8-h1. The present study sheds light on the molecular mechanisms underlying selection for SCS and provides evidence that the balanced frequencies of the two IL8 haplotypes in HF cattle may occur as a result of opposing directional selection pressures of both bacterial and viral infection. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Genotype × environment interaction for fertility and milk yield traits in Canadian, Mexican and US Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo H. Montaldo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate genotype × environment  interaction (G×E between Canada, the United States and Mexico for fertility and milk yield traits using genetic correlations between countries estimated from genetic evaluations of sires. Genetic correlation between Mexican and Canadian Holsteins for age at first calving was ≤ 0.48 and lower than the simulated value obtained accounting for data structure and selection effects. For calving interval, genetic correlation between Mexico and Canada ranged from 0.48 to 0.69. Genetic correlation between calving interval in Mexico (multiplied by -1 and daughter pregnancy rate in the United States ranged from 0.64 to 0.73, and was lower than simulated and actual Canada-United States values. Genetic correlations between Mexico and Canada and the United States for milk yield traits were ≥ 0.83, similar to simulated genetic correlations, but lower than Canada-United States values (≥ 0.93. Heritability estimates for age at first calving, calving interval, milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fat content, and protein content for the Mexican Holstein population were 0.06, 0.03, 0.18, 0.20, 0.19, 0.46, and 0.49, respectively. G×E interaction effects between Canada and Mexico for age at first calving were high, whereas G×E interaction effects between Canada and Mexico for calving interval and between daughter pregnancy rate in the United States and calving interval in Mexico were moderate. G×E interaction effects for milk yield traits between Canada or the United States with Mexico in registered Holsteins were low.

  8. Distribution and functionality of copy number variation across European cattle populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upadhyay, Maulik; Silva, Da Vinicius Henrique; Megens, Hendrik Jan; Visker, Marleen H.P.W.; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Bâlteanu, Valentin A.; Dunner, Susana; Garcia, Jose F.; Ginja, Catarina; Kantanen, Juha; Groenen, Martien A.M.; Crooijmans, Richard P.M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Copy number variation (CNV), which is characterized by large-scale losses or gains of DNA fragments, contributes significantly to genetic and phenotypic variation. Assessing CNV across different European cattle populations might reveal genetic changes responsible for phenotypic differences, which

  9. A Comparative Study of Harnessing Cattle - An Important Chapter in the History of European Ethnology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Woitsch, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 38 (2017), s. 59-89 ISSN 1335-4116 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-03754S Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : harnessing cattle * European ethnology * history of ethnology Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  10. Monocyte-derived macrophages from Zebu (Bos taurus indicus) are more efficient to control Brucella abortus intracellular survival than macrophages from European cattle (Bos taurus taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, A A; Costa, E A; Silva, A P C; Paixão, T A; Santos, R L

    2013-02-15

    Brucellosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases in the world. Considering its strict zoonotic nature, understanding of the pathogenesis and immunity of Brucella spp. in natural animal hosts is essential to prevent human infections. Natural resistance against brucellosis has been demonstrated in cattle, and it is associated with the ability of macrophages to prevent intracellular replication of Brucella abortus. Identification of breeds that are resistant to B. abortus may contribute for controlling and eradicating brucellosis in cattle. This study aimed to compare macrophages from Nelore (Bos taurus indicus) or Holstein (Bos taurus taurus) regarding their resistance to B. abortus infection. Macrophages from Nelore were significantly more efficient in controlling intracellular growth of B. abortus when compared to Holstein macrophages even under intralysosomal iron restricting conditions. Furthermore, Nelore macrophages had higher transcription levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and TNF-α at 12h post-infection (hpi) and higher levels of IL-12 at 24 hpi when compared to Holstein macrophages. Conversely, Holstein macrophages had higher levels of IL-10 transcripts at 24 hpi. Macrohages from Nelore also generated more nitric oxide (NO) in response to B. abortus infection when compared to Holstein macrophages. In conclusion, cultured Nelore macrophages are more effective in controlling intracellular replication of B. abortus, suggesting that Nelore cattle is likely to have a higher degree of natural resistance to brucellosis than Holstein. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic effects on coat colour in cattle: dilution of eumelanin and phaeomelanin pigments in an F2-Backcross Charolais × Holstein population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiener Pamela

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In cattle, the gene coding for the melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R is known to be the main regulator of the switch between the two coat colour pigments: eumelanin (black pigment and phaeomelanin (red pigment. Some breeds, such as Charolais and Simmental, exhibit a lightening of the original pigment over the whole body. The dilution mutation in Charolais (Dc is responsible for the white coat colour of this breed. Using an F2-Backcross Charolais × Holstein population which includes animals with both pigment backgrounds, we present a linkage mapping study of the Charolais dilution locus. Results A Charolais × Holstein crossbred population was investigated for genetic effects on coat colour dilution. Three different traits representing the dilution of the phaeomelanin, eumelanin, and non-pigment-specific dilution were defined. Highly significant genome-wide associations were detected on chromosome 5 for the three traits analysed in the marker interval [ETH10-DIK5248]. The SILV gene was examined as the strongest positional and functional candidate gene. A previously reported non-synonymous mutation in exon 1 of this gene, SILV c.64A>G, was associated with the coat colour dilution phenotype in this resource population. Although some discrepancies were identified between this mutation and the dilution phenotype, no convincing recombination events were found between the SILV c.64A>G mutation and the Dc locus. Further analysis identified a region on chromosome 28 influencing the variation in pigment intensity for a given coat colour category. Conclusion The present study has identified a region on bovine chromosome 5 that harbours the major locus responsible for the dilution of the eumelanin and phaeomelanin seen in Charolais crossbred cattle. In this study, no convincing evidence was found to exclude SILV c.64A>G as the causative mutation for the Charolais dilution phenotype, although other genetic effects may influence the coat

  12. Genetic parameters across lactation for feed intake, fat and protein corrected milk, and live weight in first parity Holstein cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzanilla Pech, C.I.V.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Calus, M.P.L.; Zom, R.L.G.; Knegsel, van A.; Pryce, J.E.; Haas, de Y.

    2014-01-01

    Breeding values for dry matter intake (DMI) are important to optimize dairy cattle breeding goals for feed efficiency. However, generally, only small data sets are available for feed intake, due to the cost and difficulty of measuring DMI, which makes understanding the genetic associations between

  13. Effect of summer conditions and shade on behavioural indicators of thermal discomfort in Holstein dairy and Belgian Blue beef cattle on pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laer, E; Moons, C P H; Ampe, B; Sonck, B; Vandaele, L; De Campeneere, S; Tuyttens, F A M

    2015-09-01

    Using behavioural indicators of thermal discomfort, that is, shade seeking, panting scores (PS) and respiration rate (RR), we evaluated the effect of hot summer conditions and shade, for a herd of adult Holstein dairy cows and a herd of Belgian Blue beef cows kept on pasture in a temperate area (Belgium). During the summer of 2012, both herds were kept on pasture without access to shade (NS). During the summers of 2011 and 2013 each herd was divided into one group with (S) and one without (NS) access to shade. Shade was provided by young trees with shade cloth (80% reduction in solar radiation) hung between them. For S cows, we investigated how shade use was related to hot conditions as quantified by six climatic indices. The heat load index (HLI), which incorporates air temperature and humidity, solar radiation and wind speed, was the best predictor of the six indices tested. In 2011, there was a relatively high threshold for use of shade. When HLI=90, shade use probability reached 17% for dairy cows and 27% for beef cows. In 2013, however, at HLI=90, shade use probability reached 48% for dairy cows and 41% for beef cows. For animals from the NS treatment we determined the effect of hot summer conditions on RR and PS (with 0=no panting and 4.5=extreme panting). In both types of cattle, an increase in black globe temperature was the best predictor for increasing RR and PS. Furthermore, we determined how the effect of hot summer conditions on RR and PS was affected by the use of shade. Under hot conditions (black globe temperature ⩾ 30°C), >50% of the animals under shade retained normal PS and RR (PSthermal discomfort in cattle, as evidenced by increases in shade use, RR and PS, and that shade increases thermal comfort.

  14. Quality attributes and composition of meat from red deer (Cervus elaphus), fallow deer (Dama dama) and Aberdeen Angus and Holstein cattle (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureš, Daniel; Bartoň, Luděk; Kotrba, Radim; Hakl, Josef

    2015-08-30

    The consumption of venison from deer species has increased in recent years owing to presumably positive health effects. Therefore a comparison was made of the physical characteristics, chemical composition and sensory attributes of meat obtained from red deer, fallow deer and Aberdeen Angus and Holstein cattle raised under conditions typical for commercial farming practice and slaughtered at similar ages. Venison had one-quarter the crude fat content, lower total collagen and a higher proportion of heat-soluble collagen. It was darker and less yellow than beef. Deer species provided meat with higher polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio and lower atherogenic index. In addition, the venison of red deer contained five times as much n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as the beef. Steaks prepared from venison were scored higher than beef for flavour and aroma intensity; they were also tenderer and more easily chewable. Compared with beef, venison from two widely farmed deer species was superior in nutrient composition, thus offering potential benefits for human consumption, and it received higher scores for most of the sensory attributes examined. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Dam's infection progress and within-herd prevalence as predictors of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis ELISA response in Danish Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Hansen, Kira Frello; Kvist, Louise

    2016-01-01

    potentially important for MAP transmission control. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the dam's infection progress and the within-herd test-prevalence as predictors of MAP infection in Danish dairy cattle. MAP specific antibody ELISA records from 95,025 dam-offspring pairs were combined...... with test-prevalence estimates from 939 Danish Holstein herds. The odds of testing ELISA-positive given the within-herd test-prevalence and the time-period a dam had had MAP specific antibodies were estimated for the offspring. Both dams and offspring were tested as adults, and parity-group was used....... The odds of testing positive were about 1.5 to 2.5 times higher for these offspring, compared to offspring of dams that never tested positive. Furthermore, offspring born in high (>5% ELISA-positive) and medium (2.5 to 5% ELISA-positive) prevalence herds had 9 and 3, respectively, times higher odds...

  16. Localisation of aphidicolin-induced break points in Holstein-Friesian cattle (Bos taurus using RBG-banding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mernies Beatriz

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fragile sites (FS seem to play a role in genome instability and may be involved in karyotype evolution and chromosome aberrations. The majority of common fragile sites are induced by aphidicolin. Aphidicolin was used at two different concentrations (0.15 and 0.30 μM to study the occurrence of FS in the cattle karyotype. In this paper, a map of aphidicolin induced break points and fragile sites in cattle chromosomes was constructed. The statistical analysis indicated that any band with three or more breaks was significantly damaged (P r = 0.54. On the contrary, 21 FS were identified on negative R bands while 9 FS were located on positive R bands.

  17. Comparison of genomic predictions using medium-density (~54,000) and high-density (~777) single nucleotide polymorphism marker panels in Nordic Holstein and Red Dairy Cattle populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Guosheng; Brøndum, Rasmus Froberg; Ma, Peipei

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated genomic prediction using medium density (54k) and high density marker panels (777k), based on data from Nordic Holstein and Red dairy cattle (RDC). The Holstein data comprised 4,539 progeny-tested bulls, and the RDC data 4,403 progeny-tested bulls. The data were divided...... into reference data and test data using 2001-10-01 as a cut-off date (birth date of the bulls). This resulted in about 25% genotyped bulls in the Holstein test data, and 20% in the RDC test data. For each breed, three datasets of markers were used to predict breeding values: 1) 54k dataset with missing genotypes......, 2) 54k dataset where missing genotypes were imputed, and 3) imputed high density (HD) marker dataset which was created by imputing the 54k data to HD data based on 557 bulls genotyped using a 777k SNP chip in Holstein, and 706 bulls in RDC. Based on the three marker datasets, direct genomic breeding...

  18. Genetic Evaluation of Age at First Calving, Open Days and Milk Production of Holstein Cattle in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bitaraf Sani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters coupled with genetic and phonotypic trends for age at first calving (AFC, open days(OD and milk yield(MY of first lactation in Iranian Holstein cows. Records of reproduction and production for genetic evaluation from 1984 to 2005 for AFC, OD and MY were 71736, 20126 and 20126, respectively. Single and two-variable animal models were used to estimate genetic parameters by restricted maximum likelihood procedures and WOMBAT software. heritability of AFC, OD and MY was estimated 0.20±0.02 , 0.04±0.01 , 0.47±0.9 respectively. Genetic and phonotypic trends of AFC were negative so that phenotype and breeding value average had decreased from 1984 to 2005. Genetic and phonotypic trends of OD and MY were positive. The genetic and phonotypic correlations between OD and MY were +0.23 and +0.07 respectively.

  19. Genetic parameters for fatty acids in Danish Holstein cattle based on SNP markers using a Bayesian approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Kristian; Poulsen, Nina Aagaard; Larsen, Mette Krogh

    2013-01-01

    . To be able to change the UFA and SFA content of the milk by breeding it is important to know whether there is a genetic component underlying the individual FA in the milk. We have estimated the heritability for individual FA in the milk of Danish Holstein. For this purpose we used information of SNP markers...... instead of the traditional pedigree relationships. Results Estimates of heritability were moderate within the range of 0.10 for C18:1 trans-11 to 0.34 for C8:0 and C10:0, whereas the estimates for saturated fatty acids and unsat urated fatty acids were 0.14 and 0.18, respectively. Posterior standard...... deviations were in the range from 0.07 to 0.17. The correlation estimates showed a general pattern of two groups , one group mainly consisting of saturated fatty acids and one group mainly consisting of unsaturated fatty acids. The phenotypic correlation ranged from −0.95 (saturated fatty acids a nd...

  20. Endocrine Measurements and Calving Performance of Swedish Red and White and Swedish Holstein Dairy Cattle with Special Respect to Stillbirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafsson H

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available During 3 consecutive calving seasons, calving performance, placental characteristics and endocrine profiles of total 98 pregnancies of late pregnant Swedish Red and White (SRB and Swedish Holstein (SLB dairy heifers and cows, were investigated. Ninety-four singleton pregnancies and 4 sets of twins were recorded. In animals with singleton pregnancy, 8 stillbirths, 7 weak calves, 3 premature parturitions and 1 abortion were registered. In the SLB heifers, 19% of stillbirth (5/26 were observed, while 5% (2/42 were noted for the SRB heifers. One stillborn calf derived from the SRB cows and none was found from the SLB cows. In the heifers and cows delivering a normal living calf with unassisted parturition, the placentome thickness monitored by ultrasonography was constant towards the end of pregnancy. The numbers of foetal cotyledons varied individually between animals but in total, fewer cotyledons were found in the foetal membranes of the SRB animals than in the SLB animals (69 ± 19 vs. (88 ± 29 (p 2α metabolite (PG-metabolite, cortisol, oestrone sulphate (E1SO4 and pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAGs were not different by breeds and parities. In animals carrying stillbirth, higher levels of E1SO4 were found in 3 SRB animals and 1 SLB heifer, whereas lower levels of E1SO4 were recorded in 3 SLB heifers during the last week of pregnancy, compared to the profiles found in animals with unassisted parturition. Additionally, the levels of PAGs remained low and constant in 1 SRB cow (delivering a stillborn calf, 1 SRB heifer (giving birth prematurely, 4 animals (carrying twins and 1 aborting SRB cow. Our results show a very high rate of stillbirth in especially SLB heifers and deviating profiles of E1SO4 and PAGs in animals with impaired parturition were recorded.

  1. Divergence for residual feed intake of Holstein-Friesian cattle during growth did not affect production and reproduction during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, K A; Thomson, B P; Waghorn, G C

    2016-11-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between actual and predicted dry matter intake (DMI) of individual animals. Recent studies with Holstein-Friesian calves have identified an ~20% difference in RFI during growth (calf RFI) and these groups remained divergent in RFI during lactation. The objective of the experiment described here was to determine if cows selected for divergent RFI as calves differed in milk production, reproduction or in the profiles of BW and body condition score (BCS) change during lactation, when grazing pasture. The cows used in the experiment (n=126) had an RFI of -0.88 and +0.75 kg DM intake/day for growth as calves (efficient and inefficient calf RFI groups, respectively) and were intensively grazed at four stocking rates (SR) of 2.2, 2.6, 3.1 and 3.6 cows/ha on self-contained farmlets, over 3 years. Each SR treatment had equal number of cows identified as low and high calf RFI, with 24, 28, 34 and 40/11 ha farmlet. The cows divergent for calf RFI were randomly allocated to each SR. Although SR affected production, calf RFI group (low or high) did not affect milk production, reproduction, BW, BCS or changes in these parameters throughout lactation. The most efficient animals (low calf RFI) lost similar BW and BCS as the least efficient (high calf RFI) immediately post-calving, and regained similar BW and BCS before their next calving. These results indicate that selection for RFI as calves to increase efficiency of feed utilisation did not negatively affect farm productivity variables (milk production, BCS, BW and reproduction) as adults when managed under an intensive pastoral grazing system.

  2. Diagnostic and Prognostic Significance of Lipid Profiles in Holstein Dairy Cattle with Displaced Abomasum: Before and After Surgical Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arafat Khalphallah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to describe the pattern of changes in clinical findings and lipid metabolism profiles in dairy cattle with displacement of the abomasum (DA from day 0 until day 30 after operation. The study was conducted on DA cattle (n= 25 belonged to dairy farms in Hokkaido area, Japan. Cows were examined and sampled at days 0 (operation, 7 and 30. They were clinically and biochemically examined to estimate BCS and many serum biochemical constituents such as lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT and apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100, β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs and aspartate amino transferase (AST. Based on blood BHBA at day 0, DA cows were classified into three categories; DA only (<1.2 mmol/l, DA with subclinical ketosis (DA SCK (1.2-2.4 mmol/l and DA with clinical ketosis (DA CK (≥2.5 mmol/l. The changes in the pattern of serum biochemical constituents throughout this study indicated recovery of diseased cows and significant effect of surgical operation. Serum biochemical constituents returned to their physiological values indicating that these cows were restoring their normal physiological status. This was reflected through a significant (P<0.05 elevation of LCAT, apoB-100, and cholesterol and a significant (P<0.05 reduction in AST, NEFAs and BHBA (Not in DA group, in all DA groups particularly at day 30 when their values compared with those at day 0. The current study also recorded no remarkable changes (P>0.05 between the diseased groups except for NEFA and BHBA (at day 0 between DA group and the other two groups at any of the three sampling days.

  3. Short communication: Relationship between competitive success during displacements at an overstocked feed bunk and measures of physiology and behavior in Holstein dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huzzey, J M; Grant, R J; Overton, T R

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate how behavioral and physiological parameters are affected based on a cow's level of success at displacing others at an overstocked feed bunk. Forty Holstein nonlactating, late-gestation dairy cattle were housed in an overstocked pen [5 stalls/10 cows and 0.34 m of linear feed bunk (FB) space/cow] in groups of 10 (4 heifers and 6 multiparous cows) for 14 d. Plasma nonesterified fatty acids, glucose, and fecal cortisol metabolites (11,17-dioxoandrostanes) were measured in blood and feces sampled every 2d. A glucose tolerance test and an ACTH challenge were conducted on all cows on d 13 and 14, respectively to further explore the effects of competitive success on energy metabolism and stress physiology. Feeding behavior and displacements at the FB were recorded between d 7 to 10 of the observation period. A competition index (CInd) was calculated for each cow by dividing the number of times the cow displaced another at the FB by the total number of displacements the cow was involved in, either as an actor or reactor. Cows were then divided into 3 subgroups based on their CInd: high success (HS: CInd ≥0.6), medium success (0.4 ≤ CInd cows in the LS group had greater daily nonesterified fatty acid and 11,17-dioxoandrostane concentrations relative to cows in the HS group. No differences existed in cortisol response to an ACTH stimulation test between CInd categories. During the glucose tolerance test, glucose response curves were the same between all 3 CInd categories; however, the peak insulin response of LS cows was 130 μIU/mL greater than the peak HS response, indicating that LS cows may have decreased tissue responses to insulin or increased pancreatic responses to glucose. In an overstocked environment, dairy cattle physiology is associated with a cow's level of success at displacing other individuals at the feed bunk. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic architecture of complex traits and accuracy of genomic prediction: coat colour, milk-fat percentage, and type in Holstein cattle as contrasting model traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben J Hayes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of genetic merit using dense SNP genotypes can be used for estimation of breeding values for selection of livestock, crops, and forage species; for prediction of disease risk; and for forensics. The accuracy of these genomic predictions depends in part on the genetic architecture of the trait, in particular number of loci affecting the trait and distribution of their effects. Here we investigate the difference among three traits in distribution of effects and the consequences for the accuracy of genomic predictions. Proportion of black coat colour in Holstein cattle was used as one model complex trait. Three loci, KIT, MITF, and a locus on chromosome 8, together explain 24% of the variation of proportion of black. However, a surprisingly large number of loci of small effect are necessary to capture the remaining variation. A second trait, fat concentration in milk, had one locus of large effect and a host of loci with very small effects. Both these distributions of effects were in contrast to that for a third trait, an index of scores for a number of aspects of cow confirmation ("overall type", which had only loci of small effect. The differences in distribution of effects among the three traits were quantified by estimating the distribution of variance explained by chromosome segments containing 50 SNPs. This approach was taken to account for the imperfect linkage disequilibrium between the SNPs and the QTL affecting the traits. We also show that the accuracy of predicting genetic values is higher for traits with a proportion of large effects (proportion black and fat percentage than for a trait with no loci of large effect (overall type, provided the method of analysis takes advantage of the distribution of loci effects.

  5. Effects of lactic acid bacteria silage inoculation on methane emission and productivity of Holstein Friesian dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J L; Hindrichsen, I K; Klop, G; Kinley, R D; Milora, N; Bannink, A; Dijkstra, J

    2016-09-01

    Inoculants of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are used to improve silage quality and prevent spoilage via increased production of lactic acid and other organic acids and a rapid decline in silage pH. The addition of LAB inoculants to silage has been associated with increases in silage digestibility, dry matter intake (DMI), and milk yield. Given the potential change in silage and rumen fermentation conditions accompanying these silage additives, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of LAB silage inoculants on DMI, digestibility, milk yield, milk composition, and methane (CH4) production from dairy cows in vivo. Eight mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were grouped into 2 blocks of 4 cows (multiparous and primiparous) and used in a 4×4 double Latin square design with 21-d periods. Methane emissions were measured by indirect calorimetry. Treatments were grass silage (mainly ryegrass) with no inoculant (GS), with a long-term inoculant (applied at harvest; GS+L), with a short-term inoculant (applied 16h before feeding; GS+S), or with both long and short-term inoculants (GS+L+S). All diets consisted of grass silage and concentrate (75:25 on a dry matter basis). The long-term inoculant consisted of a 10:20:70 mixture of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis, and Lactobacillus buchneri, and the short-term inoculant was a preparation of Lc. lactis. Dry matter intake was not affected by long-term or short-term silage inoculation, nor was dietary neutral detergent fiber or fat digestibility, or N or energy balance. Milk composition (except milk urea) and fat and protein-corrected milk yield were not affected by long- or short-term silage inoculation, nor was milk microbial count. However, milk yield tended to be greater with long-term silage inoculation. Methane expressed in units of grams per day, grams per kilogram of DMI, grams per kilogram of milk, or grams per kilogram of fat and protein-corrected milk yield was not affected by long- or short

  6. Evaluation of inbreeding depression in Holstein cattle using whole-genome SNP markers and alternative measures of genomic inbreeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelland, D W; Weigel, K A; Vukasinovic, N; Nkrumah, J D

    2013-07-01

    The effects of increased pedigree inbreeding in dairy cattle populations have been well documented and result in a negative impact on profitability. Recent advances in genotyping technology have allowed researchers to move beyond pedigree analysis and study inbreeding at a molecular level. In this study, 5,853 animals were genotyped for 54,001 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP); 2,913 cows had phenotypic records including a single lactation for milk yield (from either lactation 1, 2, 3, or 4), reproductive performance, and linear type conformation. After removing SNP with poor call rates, low minor allele frequencies, and departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, 33,025 SNP remained for analyses. Three measures of genomic inbreeding were evaluated: percent homozygosity (FPH), inbreeding calculated from runs of homozygosity (FROH), and inbreeding derived from a genomic relationship matrix (FGRM). Average FPH was 60.5±1.1%, average FROH was 3.8±2.1%, and average FGRM was 20.8±2.3%, where animals with larger values for each of the genomic inbreeding indices were considered more inbred. Decreases in total milk yield to 205d postpartum of 53, 20, and 47kg per 1% increase in FPH, FROH, and FGRM, respectively, were observed. Increases in days open per 1% increase in FPH (1.76 d), FROH (1.72 d), and FGRM (1.06 d) were also noted, as well as increases in maternal calving difficulty (0.09, 0.03, and 0.04 on a 5-point scale for FPH, FROH, and FGRM, respectively). Several linear type traits, such as strength (-0.40, -0.11, and -0.19), rear legs rear view (-0.35, -0.16, and -0.14), front teat placement (0.35, 0.25, 0.18), and teat length (-0.24, -0.14, and -0.13) were also affected by increases in FPH, FROH, and FGRM, respectively. Overall, increases in each measure of genomic inbreeding in this study were associated with negative effects on production and reproductive ability in dairy cows. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc

  7. Effect of summer conditions and shade on behavioural indicators of thermal discomfort in Holstein dairy and Belgian Blue beef cattle on pasture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Laer, E; Moons, C P H; Ampe, B; Sonck, B; Vandaele, L; De Campeneere, S; Tuyttens, F A M

    2015-01-01

    ...) and respiration rate (RR), we evaluated the effect of hot summer conditions and shade, for a herd of adult Holstein dairy cows and a herd of Belgian Blue beef cows kept on pasture in a temperate area (Belgium...

  8. DNA sequence polymorphisms in a panel of eight candidate bovine imprinted genes and their association with performance traits in Irish Holstein-Friesian cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies in mice and humans have shown that imprinted genes, whereby expression from one of the two parentally inherited alleles is attenuated or completely silenced, have a major effect on mammalian growth, metabolism and physiology. More recently, investigations in livestock species indicate that genes subject to this type of epigenetic regulation contribute to, or are associated with, several performance traits, most notably muscle mass and fat deposition. In the present study, a candidate gene approach was adopted to assess 17 validated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their association with a range of performance traits in 848 progeny-tested Irish Holstein-Friesian artificial insemination sires. These SNPs are located proximal to, or within, the bovine orthologs of eight genes (CALCR, GRB10, PEG3, PHLDA2, RASGRF1, TSPAN32, ZIM2 and ZNF215) that have been shown to be imprinted in cattle or in at least one other mammalian species (i.e. human/mouse/pig/sheep). Results Heterozygosities for all SNPs analysed ranged from 0.09 to 0.46 and significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions (P ≤ 0.01) were observed at four loci. Phenotypic associations (P ≤ 0.05) were observed between nine SNPs proximal to, or within, six of the eight analysed genes and a number of performance traits evaluated, including milk protein percentage, somatic cell count, culled cow and progeny carcass weight, angularity, body conditioning score, progeny carcass conformation, body depth, rump angle, rump width, animal stature, calving difficulty, gestation length and calf perinatal mortality. Notably, SNPs within the imprinted paternally expressed gene 3 (PEG3) gene cluster were associated (P ≤ 0.05) with calving, calf performance and fertility traits, while a single SNP in the zinc finger protein 215 gene (ZNF215) was associated with milk protein percentage (P ≤ 0.05), progeny carcass weight (P ≤ 0.05), culled cow carcass weight (P ≤ 0.01), angularity (P

  9. DNA sequence polymorphisms in a panel of eight candidate bovine imprinted genes and their association with performance traits in Irish Holstein-Friesian cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mullen Michael P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in mice and humans have shown that imprinted genes, whereby expression from one of the two parentally inherited alleles is attenuated or completely silenced, have a major effect on mammalian growth, metabolism and physiology. More recently, investigations in livestock species indicate that genes subject to this type of epigenetic regulation contribute to, or are associated with, several performance traits, most notably muscle mass and fat deposition. In the present study, a candidate gene approach was adopted to assess 17 validated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and their association with a range of performance traits in 848 progeny-tested Irish Holstein-Friesian artificial insemination sires. These SNPs are located proximal to, or within, the bovine orthologs of eight genes (CALCR, GRB10, PEG3, PHLDA2, RASGRF1, TSPAN32, ZIM2 and ZNF215 that have been shown to be imprinted in cattle or in at least one other mammalian species (i.e. human/mouse/pig/sheep. Results Heterozygosities for all SNPs analysed ranged from 0.09 to 0.46 and significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions (P ≤ 0.01 were observed at four loci. Phenotypic associations (P ≤ 0.05 were observed between nine SNPs proximal to, or within, six of the eight analysed genes and a number of performance traits evaluated, including milk protein percentage, somatic cell count, culled cow and progeny carcass weight, angularity, body conditioning score, progeny carcass conformation, body depth, rump angle, rump width, animal stature, calving difficulty, gestation length and calf perinatal mortality. Notably, SNPs within the imprinted paternally expressed gene 3 (PEG3 gene cluster were associated (P ≤ 0.05 with calving, calf performance and fertility traits, while a single SNP in the zinc finger protein 215 gene (ZNF215 was associated with milk protein percentage (P ≤ 0.05, progeny carcass weight (P ≤ 0.05, culled cow carcass weight (P ≤ 0

  10. Mitochondrial DNA analysis shows a Near Eastern Neolithic origin for domestic cattle and no indication of domestication of European aurochs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ceiridwen J; Bollongino, Ruth; Scheu, Amelie; Chamberlain, Andrew; Tresset, Anne; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Baird, Jillian F; Larson, Greger; Ho, Simon Y.W; Heupink, Tim H; Shapiro, Beth; Freeman, Abigail R; Thomas, Mark G; Arbogast, Rose-Marie; Arndt, Betty; Bartosiewicz, László; Benecke, Norbert; Budja, Mihael; Chaix, Louis; Choyke, Alice M; Coqueugniot, Eric; Döhle, Hans-Jürgen; Göldner, Holger; Hartz, Sönke; Helmer, Daniel; Herzig, Barabara; Hongo, Hitomi; Mashkour, Marjan; Özdogan, Mehmet; Pucher, Erich; Roth, Georg; Schade-Lindig, Sabine; Schmölcke, Ulrich; Schulting, Rick J; Stephan, Elisabeth; Uerpmann, Hans-Peter; Vörös, István; Voytek, Barbara; Bradley, Daniel G; Burger, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    The extinct aurochs (Bos primigenius primigenius) was a large type of cattle that ranged over almost the whole Eurasian continent. The aurochs is the wild progenitor of modern cattle, but it is unclear whether European aurochs contributed to this process. To provide new insights into the demographic history of aurochs and domestic cattle, we have generated high-confidence mitochondrial DNA sequences from 59 archaeological skeletal finds, which were attributed to wild European cattle populations based on their chronological date and/or morphology. All pre-Neolithic aurochs belonged to the previously designated P haplogroup, indicating that this represents the Late Glacial Central European signature. We also report one new and highly divergent haplotype in a Neolithic aurochs sample from Germany, which points to greater variability during the Pleistocene. Furthermore, the Neolithic and Bronze Age samples that were classified with confidence as European aurochs using morphological criteria all carry P haplotype mitochondrial DNA, suggesting continuity of Late Glacial and Early Holocene aurochs populations in Europe. Bayesian analysis indicates that recent population growth gives a significantly better fit to our data than a constant-sized population, an observation consistent with a postglacial expansion scenario, possibly from a single European refugial population. Previous work has shown that most ancient and modern European domestic cattle carry haplotypes previously designated T. This, in combination with our new finding of a T haplotype in a very Early Neolithic site in Syria, lends persuasive support to a scenario whereby gracile Near Eastern domestic populations, carrying predominantly T haplotypes, replaced P haplotype-carrying robust autochthonous aurochs populations in Europe, from the Early Neolithic onward. During the period of coexistence, it appears that domestic cattle were kept separate from wild aurochs and introgression was extremely rare. PMID

  11. Farmer’s views and values to focus on cattle conservation policies: the case of eight European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandini, G.; Martin-Collado, D.; Colinet, F.; Duclos, D.; Hiemstra, S.J.; Soini, K.; Diaz, C.

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to identify elements useful in designing policies and programmes for conservation of farm animal genetic resources, taking as case study a group of European local cattle breeds. We first investigated the implications of differences among countries in the policies and programmes to be

  12. A de novo missense mutation of FGFR2 causes facial dysplasia syndrome in Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; McEvoy, Fintan; Heegaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Background Surveillance for bovine genetic diseases in Denmark identified a hitherto unreported congenital syndrome occurring among progeny of a Holstein sire used for artificial breeding. A genetic aetiology due to a dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance or a mosaic germline mutation w...

  13. Danish holsteins favor bull offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model and contr......In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model...... and contrary to the findings in the US, we found that cows produced higher volumes of milk if they had a bull calf compared to a heifer calf. We found a significantly higher milk production of 0.28% in the first lactation period for cows giving birth to a bull calf, compared to a heifer calf. This difference...... was even higher when cows gave birth to another bull calf, so having two bull calves resulted in a difference of 0.52% in milk production compared to any other combination of sex of the offspring. Furthermore, we found that farmer assisted calvings were associated with a higher milk yield. Cows...

  14. Trajectories of evolution and drivers of change in European mountain cattle farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martínez, A; Olaizola, A; Bernués, A

    2009-01-01

    In the last few decades, significant changes in livestock farming systems and land use were observed in European mountain areas with large implications for the sustainability of grazing agro-ecosystems. System dynamic studies become essential to understand these changes, identify the drivers involved and trying to anticipate what might happen in the future. The objectives of this study were as follows: (i) to analyse the main recent changes that occurred in mountain cattle farming in the Spanish Pyrenees; (ii) to typify diverse trajectories of evolution of these systems; and (iii) to establish drivers of change that might help understand the evolution of mountain agriculture. A constant sample of mountain cattle farms was analysed for the period 1990 to 2004. In total, 30% of farms have disappeared during this time interval. For the remaining farms, the most important general changes observed were as follows: increment of size; change of productive orientation from mixed beef-dairy to pure beef production; extensification of grazing management; reduction of family labour and increase of pluriactivity; reduction of unitary variable costs; and increase of labour productivity. After the elimination of common temporal effects between dates, multivariate techniques allowed for the identification of three patterns and six specific trajectories of evolution that are profiled in the text. Relationships between the patterns of evolution and other variables referring the farm, the household and the socio-economic environment were identified as drivers of change: (i) the specific location of the farm in relation to the capital village of the municipality and the evolution other sectors of the economy, in particular tourism; (ii) the size of the family labour, presence of successors and degree of dynamism of the farmer; and (iii) the initial orientation of production.

  15. Effect of DGAT1 gene variants on milk quantity and quality in Holstein, Simmental and Brown Swiss cattle breeds in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Dokso, Admir; Ivanković, Ante; Zečević, Ervin; Brka, Muhamed

    2015-01-01

    Cilj ovog istraživanja bio je utvrditi frekvenciju alela diacilglicerol-0-transferase 1 gena (DGAT1) K232A polimorfnog mjesta i utjecaja alelnih varijanti K i A na količinu i kvalitetu mlijeka tri pasmine krava, mliječnog i dvojnog tipa proizvodnje u Hrvatskoj. Istraživanje je uključivalo 371 jedinku holstein, simentalske i smeđe pasmine krava. DNA je izolirana iz dlake, kodogena regija DGAT1p.K232A gena umnožena je korištenjem PCR-RFLP metode. Dominantna frekvencija alela K utvrđena je kod s...

  16. Interacting Holstein and extended-Holstein bipolarons

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Monodeep; Tezuka, Masaki; Min, B. I.

    2013-01-01

    Employing the recently developed self-consistent variational basis generation scheme, we have investigated the bipolaron-bipolaron interaction within the purview of Holstein-Hubbard and the extended-Holstein-Hubbard (F2H) model on a discrete one-dimensional lattice. The density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method has also been used for the Holstein-Hubbard model. We have shown that there exists no bipolaron-bipolaron attraction in the Holstein-Hubbard model. In contrast, we have obtain...

  17. Association of bovine leptin polymorphisms with energy output and energy storage traits in progeny tested Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle sires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waters Sinead M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptin modulates appetite, energy expenditure and the reproductive axis by signalling via its receptor the status of body energy stores to the brain. The present study aimed to quantify the associations between 10 novel and known single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes coding for leptin and leptin receptor with performance traits in 848 Holstein-Friesian sires, estimated from performance of up to 43,117 daughter-parity records per sire. Results All single nucleotide polymorphisms were segregating in this sample population and none deviated (P > 0.05 from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Complete linkage disequilibrium existed between the novel polymorphism LEP-1609, and the previously identified polymorphisms LEP-1457 and LEP-580. LEP-2470 associated (P Conclusions Several leptin polymorphisms (LEP-2470, LEP-1238, LEP-963, Y7F and R25C associated with the energetically expensive process of lactogenesis. Only SNP Y7F associated with energy storage. Associations were also observed between leptin polymorphisms and calving difficulty, gestation length and calf perinatal mortality. The lack of an association between the leptin variants investigated with calving interval in this large data set would question the potential importance of these leptin variants, or indeed leptin, in selection for improved fertility in the Holstein-Friesian dairy cow.

  18. Effect of prepubertal and postpubertal growth and age at first calving on production and reproduction traits during the first 3 lactations in Holstein dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krpálková, L; Cabrera, V E; Vacek, M; Stípková, M; Stádník, L; Crump, P

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), average daily weight gain (ADG), and age at first calving (AFC) of Holstein heifers on production and reproduction parameters in the 3 subsequent lactations. The data set consisted of 780 Holstein heifers calved at 2 dairy farms in the Czech Republic from 2007 to 2011. Their BW and BCS were measured at monthly intervals during the rearing period (5 to 18 mo of age), and the milk production and reproduction data of the first 3 lactations were collected over an 8-yr period (2005 to 2012). The highest milk yield in the first lactation was found in the group with medium ADG (5 to 14 mo of age; 0.949 to 0.850 kg of ADG). The highest average milk yield over lifetime performance was detected in heifers with the highest total ADG (≥ 0.950 kg/d). The difference in milk yield between the evaluated groups of highest ADG (in total and postpubertal growth ≥ 0.950 kg/d and in prepubertal growth ≥ 0.970 kg/d) and the lowest ADG (≤ 0.849 kg/d) was approximately 1,000 kg/305 d per cow. The highest milk yield in the first lactation was found in the group with the highest AFC ≥ 751 d, for which fat and protein content in the milk was not reduced. Postpubertal growth (11 to 14 mo of age) had the greatest effect on AFC. The group with lowest AFC ≤ 699 d showed a negative effect on milk yield but only in the first 100 d of the first parity. The highest ADG was detrimental to reproduction parameters in the first lactation. The highest BW at 14 mo (≥ 420 kg) led to lower AFC. Groups according to BCS at 14 mo showed no differences in AFC or milk yield in the first lactation or lifetime average production per lactation. We concluded that low AFC ≤ 699 d did not show a negative effect on subsequent production and reproduction parameters. Therefore, a shorter rearing period is recommended for dairy herds with suitable management. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science

  19. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in IL8 and TLR4 Genes as Candidates for Digital Dermatitis Resistance/Susceptibility in Holstein Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shafaey, El-Sayed; Ateya, Ahmed; Ramadan, Hazem; Saleh, Rasha; Elseady, Yousef; Abo El Fadl, Eman; El-Khodery, Sabry

    2017-04-03

    Relatedness between single nucleotide polymorphisms in IL8 and TLR4 genes and digital dermatitis resistance/susceptibility was investigated in seventy Holstein dairy cows. Animals were assigned into two groups, affected group (n = 35) and resistant group (n = 35) based on clinical signs and previous history of farm clinical records. Blood samples were collected for DNA extraction to ampliy fragments of 267-bp and 382-bp for IL8 and TLR4 genes, respectively. PCR-DNA sequencing revealed three SNPs in each of IL8 and TLR4 genes. The identified SNPs associated with digital dermatitis resistance were C94T, A220G, and T262A for IL8 and C118T for TLR4. However, the G349C and C355A SNPs in TLR4 gene were associated with digital dermatitis susceptibility. Chi-square analysis for comparison the distribution of all identified SNPs in both IL8 and TLR4 genes between resistant and affected animals showed no significant variation among the identified SNPs in IL8 gene. Meanwhile, there was a significant variation in case of TLR4 gene. As a pilot study, the present results revealed that identified SNPs in IL8 and TLR4 genes can be used as a genetic marker and predisposing factor for resistance/susceptibility to digital dermatitis in dairy cows. However, TLR4 gene may be a potential candidate for such disease.

  20. Prognostic value of plasma L-lactate concentration measured cow-side with a portable clinical analyzer in Holstein dairy cattle with abomasal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Monica D; Nydam, Daryl V; Perkins, Gillian A; Mitchell, Hilda M; Divers, Thomas J

    2006-01-01

    L-Lactate has been used as a prognostic indicator for ill humans and animals. A portable analyzer that measures L-lactate could help veterinarians decide to proceed with correction of a displaced abomasum. The likelihood of a dairy cow with a displaced abomasum remaining in the herd can be predicted by lactate concentration and other variables. Thirty-four healthy early-lactation dairy cows, and 131 cows with abomasal displacements (DA) presented to Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. Plasma L-lactate was measured using a commercial analyzer (i-STAT). A cow had a positive outcome (PO) if she remained in the herd 30 days after surgical correction of the displaced abomasum and a negative outcome (NO) if she was culled or died in that time. A multivariable model with physical examination and clinicopathologic variables for predicting NO for cows with right-sided abomasal displacements was constructed. The median plasma L-lactate was 0.54 mM/L (interquartile range, 0.42-0.74) in healthy lactating Holstein cows. In cows with right-sided displaced abomasa, median plasma L-lactate concentrations were higher in cows with NO (5.88 mM/L) versus PO (3.23 mM/L) (P = .002). In a multivariable model, which identified chloride, heart rate, and L-lactate as the best fitting variables for cows with right-sided displacements, the probability of NO increased as L-lactate increased. Plasma L-lactate concentration might be a useful predictor of productive outcomes in cows with right-sided abomasal disorders.

  1. Evaluation of efficiency of sire model and animal model in Holstein Friesian crossbred cattle considering first lactation production and fertility traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakti Kant Dash

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present investigation was conducted for evaluating the efficacy of estimating breeding values (BVs using univariate animal model in comparison to sire model. The various parameters considered for evaluating the efficiency of both linear models were coefficient of determination (R2, coefficient of variation (CV, within sire variance or error variance and spearman’s rank correlation estimates. Materials and Methods: Data for the present investigation were spread over a period of 34 years from 1978 to 2012 and consisted of a total of 1988 lactation records of Holstein Friesian crossbred cows sired by 186 crossbred bulls. Results: The percentage of sires having BV (estimated by animal model more than the average BV for the traits viz. age at first calving (AFC, first service period (FSP, first lactation length (FLL, first calving interval (FCI, first lactation 305 day milk yield (F305MY, first lactation total milk yield (FTMY, milk yield per day of first lactation length (MY/FLL and milk yield per day of first calving interval (MY/FCI were 48.05, 49.39, 55.07, 49.21, 50.00, 51.39, 48.67, 50.39%, respectively. The animal model had higher R2, lower CV and error variance for most of the fertility and production traits. The spearman’s rank correlation estimates indicated similarity of rankings by both the linear models as the animal model is an improvement of sire model. Conclusion: Animal model had a wider range of BVs indicating the greater differentiating ability of the model. Based on R2, CV and error variance animal model was found to be superior in comparison to sire model.

  2. Genetic Parameters of Milk β-Hydroxybutyric Acid and Acetone and Their Genetic Association with Milk Production Traits of Holstein Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SeokHyun Lee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to estimate the genetic parameters of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA and acetone concentration in milk by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy along with test-day milk production traits including fat %, protein % and milk yield based on monthly samples of milk obtained as part of a routine milk recording program in Korea. Additionally, the feasibility of using such data in the official dairy cattle breeding system for selection of cows with low susceptibility of ketosis was evaluated. A total of 57,190 monthly test-day records for parities 1, 2, and 3 of 7,895 cows with pedigree information were collected from April 2012 to August 2014 from herds enrolled in the Korea Animal Improvement Association. Multi-trait random regression models were separately applied to estimate genetic parameters of test-day records for each parity. The model included fixed herd test-day effects, calving age and season effects, and random regressions for additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. Abundance of variation of acetone may provide a more sensitive indication of ketosis than many zero observations in concentration of milk BHBA. Heritabilities of milk BHBA levels ranged from 0.04 to 0.17 with a mean of 0.09 for the interval between 4 and 305 days in milk during three lactations. The average heritabilities for milk acetone concentration were 0.29, 0.29, and 0.22 for parities 1, 2, and 3, respectively. There was no clear genetic association of the concentration of two ketone bodies with three test-day milk production traits, even if some correlations among breeding values of the test-day records in this study were observed. These results suggest that genetic selection for low susceptibility of ketosis in early lactation is possible. Further, it is desirable for the breeding scheme of dairy cattle to include the records of milk acetone rather than the records of milk BHBA.

  3. Estimation of genetic parameters and detection of chromosomal regions affecting the major milk proteins and their post translational modifications in Danish Holstein and Danish Jersey cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitenhuis, Bart; Poulsen, Nina A; Gebreyesus, Grum; Larsen, Lotte B

    2016-08-02

    In the Western world bovine milk products are an important protein source in human diet. The major proteins in bovine milk are the four caseins (CN), αS1-, αS2-, β-, and k-CN and the two whey proteins, β-LG and α-LA. It has been shown that both the amount of specific CN and their isoforms including post-translational modifications (PTM) influence technological properties of milk. Therefore, the aim of this study was to 1) estimate genetic parameters for individual proteins in Danish Holstein (DH) (n = 371) and Danish Jersey (DJ) (n = 321) milk, and 2) detect genomic regions associated with specific milk protein and their different PTM forms using a genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach. For DH, high heritability estimates were found for protein percentage (0.47), casein percentage (0.43), k-CN (0.77), β-LG (0.58), and α-LA (0.40). For DJ, high heritability estimates were found for protein percentage (0.70), casein percentage (0.52), and α-LA (0.44). The heritability for G-k-CN, U-k-CN and GD was higher in the DH compared to the DJ, whereas the heritability for the PD of αS1-CN was lower in DH compared to DJ, whereas the PD for αS2-CN was higher in DH compared to DJ. The GWAS results for the main milk proteins were in line what has been earlier published. However, we showed that there were SNPs specifically regulating G-k-CN in DH. Some of these SNPs were assigned to casein protein kinase genes (CSNK1G3, PRKCQ). The genetic analysis of the major milk proteins and their PTM forms revealed that these were heritable in both DH and DJ. In DH, genomic regions specific for glycosylation of k-CN were detected. Furthermore, genomic regions for the major milk proteins confirmed the regions on BTA6 (casein cluster), BTA11 (PEAP), and BTA14 (DGAT1) as important regions influencing protein composition in milk. The results from this study provide confidence that it is possible to breed for specific milk protein including the different PTM forms.

  4. The Larson Blue coat color phenotype in Holsteins: Characteristics and effects on body temperature regulation and production in lactating cows in a hot climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we reported a previously-undescribed coat color phenotype in Holstein cattle. Larson Blue Holsteins, located on a dairy in south Florida, exhibit a coloration pattern that is similar to that of black and white or red and white Holsteins except that, instead of being black or red, darker region...

  5. Genetic correlations between the cumulative pseudo-survival rate, milk yield, and somatic cell score during lactation in Holstein cattle in Japan using a random regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, O; Aihara, M; Nishiura, A; Takeda, H

    2017-09-01

    Trends in genetic correlations between longevity, milk yield, and somatic cell score (SCS) during lactation in cows are difficult to trace. In this study, changes in the genetic correlations between milk yield, SCS, and cumulative pseudo-survival rate (PSR) during lactation were examined, and the effect of milk yield and SCS information on the reliability of estimated breeding value (EBV) of PSR were determined. Test day milk yield, SCS, and PSR records were obtained for Holstein cows in Japan from 2004 to 2013. A random subset of the data was used for the analysis (825 herds, 205,383 cows). This data set was randomly divided into 5 subsets (162-168 herds, 83,389-95,854 cows), and genetic parameters were estimated in each subset independently. Data were analyzed using multiple-trait random regression animal models including either the residual effect for the whole lactation period (H0), the residual effects for 5 lactation stages (H5), or both of these residual effects (HD). Milk yield heritability increased until 310 to 351 d in milk (DIM) and SCS heritability increased until 330 to 344 DIM. Heritability estimates for PSR increased with DIM from 0.00 to 0.05. The genetic correlation between milk yield and SCS increased negatively to under -0.60 at 455 DIM. The genetic correlation between milk yield and PSR increased until 342 to 355 DIM (0.53-0.57). The genetic correlation between the SCS and PSR was -0.82 to -0.83 at around 180 DIM, and decreased to -0.65 to -0.71 at 455 DIM. The reliability of EBV of PSR for sires with 30 or more recorded daughters was 0.17 to 0.45 when the effects of correlated traits were ignored. The maximum reliability of EBV was observed at 257 (H0) or 322 (HD) DIM. When the correlations of PSR with milk yield and SCS were considered, the reliabilities of PSR estimates increased to 0.31-0.76. The genetic parameter estimates of H5 were the same as those for HD. The rank correlation coefficients of the EBV of PSR between H0 and H5 or HD were

  6. Genetic diversity measures of local European beef cattle breeds for conservation purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Albano

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was undertaken to determine the genetic structure, evolutionary relationships, and the genetic diversity among 18 local cattle breeds from Spain, Portugal, and France using 16 microsatellites. Heterozygosities, estimates of Fst, genetic distances, multivariate and diversity analyses, and assignment tests were performed. Heterozygosities ranged from 0.54 in the Pirenaica breed to 0.72 in the Barrosã breed. Seven percent of the total genetic variability can be attributed to differences among breeds (mean Fst = 0.07; P

  7. Kappa-casein gene polymorphism in Holstein and Iranian native ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caseins amount to nearly 80% of the protein output in cow milk. Caseins are biologically important proteins and they are also a raw material for the cheese making industry. The aim of this study was to identify kappa-casein genotype in Holstein and Iranian native cattle. DNA was extracted from 457 blood samples of 247 ...

  8. Congenital aganglionosis in a 3-day-old Holstein calf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Necropsy of a 3-day-old Holstein heifer revealed proximal megacolon and distal colorectal hypoplasia. Histologically, the hypoplastic distal colon and rectum lacked submucosal and myenteric ganglia. Clinical history, physical examination, and pathologic findings were consistent with intestinal aganglionosis, a congenital anomaly well documented in humans and foals but not previously reported in cattle. PMID:15943121

  9. Genetic parameters for test-day milk yield in tropical Holstein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accurate estimates of genetic parameters are essential for genetic improvement of milk yield in dairy cattle and for setting up breeding programmes. Estimates of genetic parameters from test-day models, particularly for Holstein Friesian cattle maintained in tropical environments, are scant in the literature. The objective of ...

  10. The diversity of leptin gene in Iranian native, Holstein and Brown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We examined exon 2 of the leptin gene from 587 individuals in six different populations of Iranian native cattles (86 Sarabi, 66 Taleshi, 94 Sistani, 76 Golpayegani, 104 Brown Swiss and 161 Holstein cattle) using PCR-RFLP method. Analysis of the frequencies of the various alleles in each breed indicated that allele C in ...

  11. The diversity of leptin gene in Iranian native, Holstein and Brown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... This study describes genetic variability in the leptin in Iranian native, Brown Swiss and Holstein cattle. (Bos Indicus and Bos Taurus). This is the first study of genetic polymorphism of the leptin gene in. Iranian native cattle. We examined exon 2 of the leptin gene from 587 individuals in six different.

  12. A Quasi-Exclusive European Ancestry in the Senepol Tropical Cattle Breed Highlights the Importance of the slick Locus in Tropical Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Flori, Laurence; Gonzatti, Mary Isabel; Thevenon, Sophie; Chantal, Isabelle; Pinto, Joar; Berthier, David; Aso, Pedro M.; Gautier, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Senepol cattle breed (SEN) was created in the early XXth century from a presumed cross between a European (EUT) breed (Red Poll) and a West African taurine (AFT) breed (N'Dama). Well adapted to tropical conditions, it is also believed trypanotolerant according to its putative AFT ancestry. However, such origins needed to be verified to define relevant husbandry practices and the genetic background underlying such adaptation needed to be characterized. Methodology/Principal Fin...

  13. Characterization of Genetic Variation in Icelandic Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars-Erik; Das, Ashutosh; Momeni, Jamal

    Identification of genetic variation in cattle breeds using next-generation sequencing technology has focused on the modern production cattle breeds. We focused on one of the oldest indigenous breeds, the Icelandic cattle breed. Sequencing of two individuals enabled identification of more than 8...... million SNPs and more than one million short indels. Annotation of the genetic variants identified a substantial number of functional SNPs and variants. The number of genetic variants identified in the Icelandic cattle breed is on the same level as previously seen in other studies on Holstein cattle...

  14. Genetic variation in the population of three Polish cattle breeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic variation in the population of three Polish cattle breeds included into the programme of genetic resources protection and Holstein-Friesian breed, estimation on the basis of polymorphism of 24 microsatellite DNA sequences.

  15. Parallel distribution of sexes within left and right uterine horns in Holstein dairy cows: evidence that the effect of side of pregnancy on sex ratio could be breed-specific in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharagozlou, F; Vojgani, M; Akbarinejad, V; Niasari-Naslaji, A; Hemmati, M; Youssefi, R

    2013-11-30

    Dissimilar distribution of male and female calves within left and right uterine horns has been observed in beef cows. A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the effect of side of pregnancy on secondary sex ratio in Holstein dairy cows. Data associated with sex of calves, side of pregnancy, sire, dam, parity number of dam, AI technician, season and year were retrieved from the database of a Holstein dairy farm. In total, data consisted of 6515 birth records from 3155 dams and 244 sires across years 2001-2010. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. There was no difference in proportion of male and female calves between left (52.9% and 47.1%, respectively) and right (53.2% and 46.8%, respectively) uterine horns (P>0.05). AI technician, year, season and parity of dam did not affect secondary sex ratio (P>0.05). Secondary sex ratio of left and right uterine horns, and consequently, overall secondary sex ratio (53.1%) were skewed toward males as compared with hypothetical secondary sex ratio of 50% (Phorns in Holstein dairy cows. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nutritive value and meat quality of domestic cattle (Bos taurus, zubron (Bos taurus × Bison bonasus and European bison (Bison bonasus meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Łozicki

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to study the nutritive value and meat quality aspects of domestic cattle (Bos taurus, zubron (Bos taurus × Bison bonasus and European bison (Bison bonasus meat. The bulls and zubrons were fattened to 600–650 kg of body weight using the same feeding regimen. The European bison meat was from selective shooting of males. The meat was analysed for chemical composition, fatty acid composition, meat quality characteristics and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS value. Compared to beef, zubron and European bison meat had a lower content of crude fat, crude ash and a higher moisture content. The meat of the zubrons and European bison showed a lower content of saturated fatty acids and a higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids compared to beef. The shear force of meat was highest for European bison meat and lowest for beef. Higher a* and b* colour parameters were established in European bison and zubron meat. The highest TBARS value was found in beef.

  17. Spatial Clustering of Escherichia coli with Reduced Susceptibility to Cefotaxime and Ciprofloxacin among Dairy Cattle Farms Relative to European Starling Night Roosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhanie, G A; Pearl, D L; McEwen, S A; Guerin, M T; Jardine, C M; Schrock, J; LeJeune, J T

    2017-05-01

    European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) have been implicated in the dispersal of zoonotic enteric pathogens. However, their role in disseminating antimicrobial-resistant organisms through their home range has not been clearly established. The aim of this study was to determine whether starling night roosts served as foci for spreading organisms with reduced susceptibility to antimicrobials among dairy cattle farms. Bovine faecal pats were collected from 150 dairy farms in Ohio. Each farm was visited twice (in summer and fall) between 2007 and 2009. A total of 1490 samples (10 samples/farm over two visits) were tested for Escherichia coli with reduced susceptibility to cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin. Using a spatial scan statistic, focal scans were conducted to determine whether clusters of farms with a high prevalence of organisms with reduced susceptibility to cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin surrounded starling night roosts. Faecal pats 13.42% and 13.56% of samples carried Escherichia coli with reduced susceptibility to cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin, respectively. Statistically significant (P Escherichia coli showing reduced susceptibility to cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin were identified around these night roosts. This finding suggests that the risk of carriage of organisms with reduced susceptibility to antimicrobials in cattle closer to starling night roosts was higher compared to cattle located on farms further from these sites. Starlings might have an important role in spreading antimicrobial-resistant E. coli to livestock environments, thus posing a threat to animal and public health. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Environmental sensitivity in dairy cattle with focus on fertility traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismael, Ahmed; Løvendahl, Peter; Strandberg, Erling

    2012-01-01

    Dairy cattle differ in production, fertility, health, and other important traits in the different environment as both the phenopypic and genetic level (Winding et la., 2005 and Calus et al., 2005). Fertility of Nordic dairy cattle breeds (Holstein, Red, Jersey) is a complex trait...

  19. Effect of β-lactoglobulin, κ-casein and αs1-casein polymorphic allelic variant on milk production traits in Croatian population of Holstein, Simmental and Brown cattle breed

    OpenAIRE

    DOKSO, ADMIR; Ivanković, Ante; Brka, Muhamed; Zečević, Ervin; Ivkić, Zdenko

    2014-01-01

    Cilj ovoga rada bio je istražiti utjecaj polimorfnih varijanti β-laktoglobulina, κ-kazeina i αs1-kazeina na ukupnu proizvodnju mlijeka te prosječni udio mliječne masti i bjelančevina u mlijeku holstein, simentalske i smeđe pasmine goveda u Hrvatskoj tijekom prve tri laktacije. Premda su uočeni određeni utjecaji polimorfnih varijanti β-laktoglobulina, κ-kazeina i αs1-kazeina na visinu proizvodnje mlijeka istraženih pasmina goveda, razlike nisu bile značajne. Istraživanjem su utvrđeni utjecaji ...

  20. Research and Comparisons Regarding the Evolution of Cattle Population in Romania and Some Member States of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Ciolac

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cattle husbadry occupy and will occupy a priority place in the economy of animal production in our country. Their increasing importance is given by the variety of products that they provide. Cattle husbadry is a traditional activity of the country. Variety of products they carry out, reduced energy consumption and nature kind of feed they consume, gives growth and and exploitation of cattle activities a sustainable and perpective character. There is also the possibility to export beef cattle witch can provide large profits for producers. Can be regarded as a source for trade and also provide stability of employment in rural and mountain area. According to Euromonitor International study, Romania is placed first among states in developing the annual average growth of the dairy market in the 1998-2006 period, namely 25.8%. The Romanian market of dairy products was estimated at nearly one billion dollars last year. According to the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Rural Development informations, demand for milk and milk products in Romania went up with 1.5% until 231.1 kilograms per inhabitant.

  1. Dual Origins of Dairy Cattle Farming – Evidence from a Comprehensive Survey of European Y-Chromosomal Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Ceiridwen J; Genja, Catarina; Kantanen, Juha

    2011-01-01

    Background: Diversity patterns of livestock species are informative to the history of agriculture and indicate uniqueness of breeds as relevant for conservation. So far, most studies on cattle have focused on mitochondrial and autosomal DNA variation. Previous studies of Y-chromosomal variation, ...

  2. Improved accuracy of genomic prediction for dry matter intake of dairy cattle from combined European and Australian data sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de Y.; Calus, M.P.L.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Wall, E.; Coffey, M.P.; Daetwyler, H.D.; Hayes, B.J.; Pryce, J.

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of increasing the accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values for dry matter intake (DMI) in dairy cattle, data from Australia (AU), the United Kingdom (UK), and the Netherlands (NL) were combined using both single-trait and multi-trait models. In total, DMI records were available on

  3. Seroprevalance of Brucellosis, Listeriosis and Toxoplasmosis in Cattle in Adana Province of Turkey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sükran Yagci Yücel; Mehmet Yaman; Cemal Kurt; Cahit Babür; Bekir Çelebi; Selçuk Kiliç; Dogukan Özen

    2014-01-01

      Objective : This study was conducted to identify the seroprevalance of diseases which are zoonotic and responsible from abortion such as toxoplasmosis, listeriosis and brucellosis in Holstein crossbred cattle of...

  4. Holstein light quantum polarons

    OpenAIRE

    Barisic, O. S.

    2006-01-01

    The polaron formation is investigated in the intermediate regime of the Holstein model by using an exact diagonalization technique for the one-dimensional infinite lattice. The numerical results for the electron and phonon propagators are compared with the nonadiabatic weak- and strong-coupling perturbation theories, as well as with the harmonic adiabatic approximation. A qualitative explanation of the crossover regime between the self-trapped and free-particle-like behaviors, not well-unders...

  5. The Holstein Polaron

    OpenAIRE

    Bonca, J.; Trugman, S. A.; Batistic, I.

    1998-01-01

    We describe a variational method to solve the Holstein model for an electron coupled to dynamical, quantum phonons on an infinite lattice. The variational space can be systematically expanded to achieve high accuracy with modest computational resources (12-digit accuracy for the 1d polaron energy at intermediate coupling). We compute ground and low-lying excited state properties of the model at continuous values of the wavevector $k$ in essentially all parameter regimes. Our results for the p...

  6. Polymorphisms in twelve candidate genes are associated with growth, muscle lipid profile and meat quality traits in eleven European cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevane, N; Armstrong, E; Wiener, P; Pong Wong, R; Dunner, S

    2014-07-01

    Current customers' demands focus on the nutritional and sensory quality of cattle meat. Candidate gene approach allows identification of genetic polymorphisms that have a measurable effect on traits of interest. The aim of this work is to identify new molecular markers for beef production through an association study using 27 candidate genes and 314 purebred bulls from 11 European cattle breeds. Twelve genes were found associated with different lipid and meat quality traits, and among these stand out the considerable effect of CAST on fatness score, CGGBP1 on growth traits, HSPB1 on the percentage of lauric acid (12:0) and phospholipid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 22:6 n - 3), RORA on the ratio of light absorption (K) to light scattering (S) (K/S), and TNFA on lightness (L*). Most of these traits are related to post-mortem muscle biochemical changes, which are key factors controlling meat quality and consumers' acceptance. Also, the variations produced on muscle fatty acid profiles, such as those of AANAT, CRH, CSN3, HSPB1, and TNFA, give insights into the genetic networks controlling these complex traits and the possibility of future improvement of meat nutritional quality.

  7. Expression and imprinting of DIO3 and DIO3OS genes in Holstein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WENZHI YANG

    2017-06-17

    Jun 17, 2017 ... opposite orientation to DIO3, multiple noncoding and alternatively splicing isoforms from maternal allele. In this study, the five splice variants of DIO3OS were identified in Holstein cattle and had complex, tissue-specific expression patterns observed in eight tissues, including heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, ...

  8. The economic value of somatic cell count in South African Holstein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Somatic cell count (SCC) is of economic importance in dairy production as it directly influences the revenue from the sale of milk. The current study was carried out to determine the economic value of SCC in South African Holstein and Jersey cattle, in order to establish its relative emphasis in breeding objectives. Bulk-tank ...

  9. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens isolated from cattle in different European countries: 2002-2004

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, R.S.; Mevius, D.J.; Schroeter, A.; Teale, C.; Meunier, D.; Butaye, P.; Franco, A.; Utinane, A.; Amado, A.; Moreno, M.; Greko, C.; Stark, K.D.; Berghold, C.; Myllyniemi, A.L.; Wasyl, D.; Sunde, M.; Aerestrup, F.

    2008-01-01

    Background The project "Antibiotic resistance in bacteria of animal origin ¿ II" (ARBAO-II) was funded by the European Union (FAIR5-QLK2-2002-01146) for the period 2003¿2005, with the aim to establish a continuous monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility among veterinary laboratories in European

  10. MILKABILITY IN HOLSTEIN COWS

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Strapák; Zuzana Súkeníková; Peter Antalík

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was evaluation of milkability in Holstein cows. We collected a total 63 milk flow curves, using electronic mobile milk flow meter – lactocorder. The measuring was carried out in cows from 5 to 305 days in milk. The average milk yield per milking was 15.63 kg, with average milk flow rate 2.84 kg.min-1 and average maximum milk flow rate of 4.49 kg.min-1. The average duration of incline phase was 1.09 min., duration of plateau phase was 1.82. min, and duration of decline pha...

  11. Factors Affecting SSR in Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Heravi Mosavi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Secondary sex ratio (SSR is the proportion of males to females at birth. It has been shown in many different mammalian species, many factors are associated with SSR. Changes in secondary sex ratio in dairy cows is considered economically important and the ability to change it could affect the revenues and profitability of a dairy farm. Thus, sperm or embryo sexing techniques in recent years has attracted more attention. Most breed of dairy cattle are more likely to have female calf is born to use them as replacement heifers and in order to maintain their productive herd number. On the contrary, when the goal is the production of meat, bull calves due to higher growth rates and production efficiency, are more convenient and more economically efficient. The aim of present study was to investigate some key factors affecting SSR in Iranian Holstein cows. According to Fisher, the sex ratio in the population under the control of natural selection is not always the same. There is overwhelming evidence to support the theory that shows Fisher Primary and secondary sex ratio sex ratio can deviate from this balance and natural selection caused a change in this ratio can be in certain circumstances. For example, the secondary sex ratio of 52:48 has been reported in dairy cows. Studies on mammalian species suggest that several factors, including latitude of the location, the dominant regional climate model, time and frequency of mating to ovulation, diet, age of parents, physical score, breed and produced eggs from ovarian left or right can have a significant effect on the secondary sex ratio. Weather conditions may modify the internal environment and the effect on physiological mechanisms or through the impact on the frequency and type of foods available to parents, the secondary sex ratio is impressive. The impact on the quantity and quality of parent's access to food sources in many species of mammals, the sex ratio has been fixed. Previous

  12. A quasi-exclusive European ancestry in the Senepol tropical cattle breed highlights the importance of the slick locus in tropical adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flori, Laurence; Gonzatti, Mary Isabel; Thevenon, Sophie; Chantal, Isabelle; Pinto, Joar; Berthier, David; Aso, Pedro M; Gautier, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    The Senepol cattle breed (SEN) was created in the early XX(th) century from a presumed cross between a European (EUT) breed (Red Poll) and a West African taurine (AFT) breed (N'Dama). Well adapted to tropical conditions, it is also believed trypanotolerant according to its putative AFT ancestry. However, such origins needed to be verified to define relevant husbandry practices and the genetic background underlying such adaptation needed to be characterized. We genotyped 153 SEN individuals on 47,365 SNPs and combined the resulting data with those available on 18 other populations representative of EUT, AFT and Zebu (ZEB) cattle. We found on average 89% EUT, 10.4% ZEB and 0.6% AFT ancestries in the SEN genome. We further looked for footprints of recent selection using standard tests based on the extent of haplotype homozygosity. We underlined i) three footprints on chromosome (BTA) 01, two of which are within or close to the polled locus underlying the absence of horns and ii) one footprint on BTA20 within the slick hair coat locus, involved in thermotolerance. Annotation of these regions allowed us to propose three candidate genes to explain the observed signals (TIAM1, GRIK1 and RAI14). Our results do not support the accepted concept about the AFT origin of SEN breed. Initial AFT ancestry (if any) might have been counter-selected in early generations due to breeding objectives oriented in particular toward meat production and hornless phenotype. Therefore, SEN animals are likely susceptible to African trypanosomes which questions the importation of SEN within the West African tsetse belt, as promoted by some breeding societies. Besides, our results revealed that SEN breed is predominantly a EUT breed well adapted to tropical conditions and confirmed the importance in thermotolerance of the slick locus.

  13. A quasi-exclusive European ancestry in the Senepol tropical cattle breed highlights the importance of the slick locus in tropical adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Flori

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Senepol cattle breed (SEN was created in the early XX(th century from a presumed cross between a European (EUT breed (Red Poll and a West African taurine (AFT breed (N'Dama. Well adapted to tropical conditions, it is also believed trypanotolerant according to its putative AFT ancestry. However, such origins needed to be verified to define relevant husbandry practices and the genetic background underlying such adaptation needed to be characterized. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We genotyped 153 SEN individuals on 47,365 SNPs and combined the resulting data with those available on 18 other populations representative of EUT, AFT and Zebu (ZEB cattle. We found on average 89% EUT, 10.4% ZEB and 0.6% AFT ancestries in the SEN genome. We further looked for footprints of recent selection using standard tests based on the extent of haplotype homozygosity. We underlined i three footprints on chromosome (BTA 01, two of which are within or close to the polled locus underlying the absence of horns and ii one footprint on BTA20 within the slick hair coat locus, involved in thermotolerance. Annotation of these regions allowed us to propose three candidate genes to explain the observed signals (TIAM1, GRIK1 and RAI14. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results do not support the accepted concept about the AFT origin of SEN breed. Initial AFT ancestry (if any might have been counter-selected in early generations due to breeding objectives oriented in particular toward meat production and hornless phenotype. Therefore, SEN animals are likely susceptible to African trypanosomes which questions the importation of SEN within the West African tsetse belt, as promoted by some breeding societies. Besides, our results revealed that SEN breed is predominantly a EUT breed well adapted to tropical conditions and confirmed the importance in thermotolerance of the slick locus.

  14. Interacting-Holstein and extended-Holstein bipolarons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Monodeep; Tezuka, Masaki; Min, B. I.

    2014-01-01

    Employing the recently developed self-consistent variational basis generation scheme, we have investigated the bipolaron-bipolaron interaction within the purview of the Holstein-Hubbard and the extended-Holstein-Hubbard (F2H) models on a discrete one-dimensional lattice. The density-matrix renormalization group method has also been used for the Holstein-Hubbard model. We have shown that there exists no bipolaron-bipolaron attraction in the Holstein-Hubbard model. In contrast, we have obtained clear-cut bipolaron-bipolaron attraction in the F2H model. Composite bipolarons are formed above a critical electron-phonon coupling strength, which can survive the finite Hubbard U effect. We have constructed the phase diagram of F2H polarons and bipolarons, and discussed the phase separation in terms of the formation of composite bipolarons.

  15. Identification of loci associated with susceptibility to mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) tissue infection in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johne’s disease is a contagious bacterial infection of cattle caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (Map). A previous genome-wide association analysis (GWAA) in Holstein cattle identified QTL on BTA3 and BTA9 that were highly associated (P < 5 × 10-7) and on BTA1, BTA16, and BTA21 that...

  16. Genome-association analysis of Korean Holstein milk traits using genomic estimated breeding value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghyun Shin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective Holsteins are known as the world’s highest-milk producing dairy cattle. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic regions strongly associated with milk traits (milk production, fat, and protein using Korean Holstein data. Methods This study was performed using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP chip data (Illumina BovineSNP50 Beadchip of 911 Korean Holstein individuals. We inferred each genomic estimated breeding values based on best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP and ridge regression using BLUPF90 and R. We then performed a genome-wide association study and identified genetic regions related to milk traits. Results We identified 9, 6, and 17 significant genetic regions related to milk production, fat and protein, respectively. These genes are newly reported in the genetic association with milk traits of Holstein. Conclusion This study complements a recent Holstein genome-wide association studies that identified other SNPs and genes as the most significant variants. These results will help to expand the knowledge of the polygenic nature of milk production in Holsteins.

  17. Local and global patterns of admixture and population structure in Iranian native cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Karim; Strucken, Eva M; Moghaddar, Nasir; Ferdosi, Mohammad H; Esmailizadeh, Ali; Gondro, Cedric

    2016-07-15

    Two separate domestication events gave rise to humped zebu cattle in India and humpless taurine cattle in the Fertile Crescent of the Near and Middle East. Iran covers the Eastern side of the Fertile Crescent and exhibits a variety of native cattle breeds, however, only little is known about the admixture patterns of Iranian cattle and their contribution to the formation of modern cattle breeds. Genome-wide data (700 k chip) of eight Iranian cattle breeds (Sarabi N = 19, Kurdi N = 7, Taleshi N = 7, Mazandarani N = 10, Najdi N = 7, Pars N = 7, Kermani N = 9, and Sistani N = 9) were collected from across Iran. For a local assessment, taurine (Holstein and Jersey) and indicine (Brahman) outgroup samples were used. For the global perspective, 134 world-wide cattle breeds were included. Between breed variation amongst Iranian cattle explained 60 % (p populations most accurately explained the admixture of 44 selected representative cattle breeds (standard error 0.4617). Low levels of African ancestry were identified in Iranian cattle breeds (on average 7.5 %); however, the signal did not persist through all analyses. Admixture and migration analyses revealed minimal introgression from Iranian cattle into other taurine cattle (Holstein, Hanwoo, Anatolian breeds). The eight Iranian cattle breeds feature a discrete genetic composition which should be considered in conservation programs aimed at preserving unique species and genetic diversity. Despite a complex admixture pattern among Iranian cattle breeds, there was no strong introgression from other world-wide cattle breeds into Iranian cattle and vice versa. Considering Iran's central location of cattle domestication, Iranian cattle might represent a local domestication event that remained contained and did not contribute to the formation of modern breeds, or genetics of the ancestral population that gave rise to modern cattle is too diluted to be linked directly to any current cattle

  18. Genetic analysis of calf and heifer losses in Danish Holstein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuerst-Walti, B; Sørensen, Morten Kargo

    2010-01-01

    calving was higher than the stillbirth rate. Genetic and phenotypic variation seemed to be sufficiently high to genetically improve the trait calf and heifer mortality. Hence, a routine genetic evaluation would be valuable for monitoring and for selecting fitter animals in the Danish Holstein cattle......Mortality in dairy cattle is not only relevant with regard to economic losses but also to animal health and welfare. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to explore the genetic background of postnatal mortality in calves and replacement heifers in different age groups until first calving...... first calving or a maximum age of 1,200 d if no calving was reported, and the full period P5=d 1 until the day before first calving or a maximum age of 1,200 d if no calving was reported. Records of animals slaughtered or exported within a defined period were set to missing for this and following...

  19. Systems Genetics and Transcriptomics of Feed Efficiency in Dairy Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Salleh, Suraya Binti Mohamad; Hoglund, J.; Løvendahl, P.; Kadarmideen, Haja

    2015-01-01

    Feed is the largest variable cost in milk production industries, thus improving feed efficiency will give better use of resources. This project works closely on definitions of feed efficiency in dairy cattle and uses advanced integrated genomics, bioinformatics and systems biology methods linking transcriptomics differences to important attributes or traits related to dairy cattle feed efficiency. Twenty cows (10 Jersey; 10 Holstein Friesian) will be used in the experiment. These two groups o...

  20. Heterogeneidade de variância e avaliação genética de bovinos da raça Holandesa no Brasil Heterogeneity of variance and genetic evaluation of Holstein cattle in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robledo de Almeida Torres

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Dados de 109.200 lactações foram utilizados para verificar o efeito da heterogeneidade de variância sobre a avaliação genética de vacas e touros da raça Holandesa criados no Brasil. A produção total de leite ajustada para idade adulta foi usada para classificar os rebanhos em três classes de desvio-padrão fenotípico: baixo (1625 kg. Dados das primeiras lactações foram analisados considerando a produção total de leite ajustada para idade adulta (TOTAJU e produção total de leite ajustada para idade adulta e para 305 dias de lactação (TAJU305. As produções de leite médias e os componentes de variância genética, residual e fenotípica aumentaram com o aumento do desvio-padrão da classe. Para as classes de baixo e médio, baixo e alto e médio e alto desvios-padrão, as correlações genéticas foram 0,97; 0,89; e 0,91 para TOTAJU e 0,97; 0,92; e 0,96 para TAJU305, respectivamente. As correlações entre os valores genéticos para as classes de baixo, médio e alto desvios-padrão obtidos nas análises conjuntas (considerando como diferentes a expressão da característica nas três classes e os obtidos na análise geral (todas as classes como única característica foram próximas à unidade. Entretanto, os reprodutores apresentaram maiores valores genéticos em rebanhos das classes de alto desvio-padrão. Na avaliação genética, é importante considerar a variabilidade entre rebanhos, pois, sob seleção, as classes mais variáveis contribuíram com a maior parte dos animais, e a avaliação genética do animal poderia ser função não apenas do seu potencial genético, mas também do ambiente no qual suas progênies expressaram a característica.Data of 109.200 lactations were used to verify the effects of heterogeneity of variance on genetic evaluation of cows and bulls of Holstein breed raised in Brazil. Total milk production adjusted for adult age was used to classify the herds among three classes of phenotypic

  1. A single nucleotide polymorphism in COQ9 affects mitochondrial and ovarian function and fertility in Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    A single missense mutation at position 159 of COQ9 (GàA) has been associated with genetic variation in fertility in Holstein cattle, with the A allele associated with higher fertility. COQ9 is involved in the synthesis of coenzyme COQ10, a component of the electron transport system of the mitochondr...

  2. Respiratory heat loss of Holstein cows in a tropical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos Maia, Alex Sandro; Gomes Dasilva, Roberto; Battiston Loureiro, Cintia Maria

    2005-05-01

    In order to develop statistical models to predict respiratory heat loss in dairy cattle using simple physiological and environmental measurements, 15 Holstein cows were observed under field conditions in a tropical environment, in which the air temperature reached up to 40°C. The measurements of latent and sensible heat loss from the respiratory tract of the animals were made by using a respiratory mask. The results showed that under air temperatures between 10 and 35°C sensible heat loss by convection decreased from 8.24 to 1.09 W m-2, while the latent heat loss by evaporation increased from 1.03 to 56.51 W m-2. The evaporation increased together with the air temperature in almost a linear fashion until 20°C, but it became increasingly high as the air temperature rose above 25°C. Convection was a mechanism of minor importance for respiratory heat transfer. In contrast, respiratory evaporation was an effective means of thermoregulation for Holsteins in a hot environment. Mathematical models were developed to predict both the sensible and latent heat loss from the respiratory tract in Holstein cows under field conditions, based on measurements of the ambient temperature, and other models were developed to predict respiration rate, tidal volume, mass flow rate and expired air temperature as functions of the ambient temperature and other variables.

  3. Genome-wide detection of selective signature in Chinese Holstein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunfei Pan

    Full Text Available Selective signatures in whole genome can help us understand the mechanisms of selection and target causal variants for breeding program. In present study, we performed Extended Haplotype Homozygosity (EHH tests to identify significant core regions harboring such signals in Chinese Holstein, and then verified the biological significance of these identified regions based on commonly-used bioinformatics analyses. Results showed a total of 125 significant regions in entire genome containing some of important functional genes such as LEP, ABCG2, CSN1S1, CSN3 and TNF based on the Gene Ontology database. Some of these annotated genes involved in the core regions overlapped with those identified in our previous GWAS as well as those involved in a recently constructed candidate gene database for cattle, further indicating these genes under positive selection maybe underlie milk production traits and other important traits in Chinese Holstein. Furthermore, in the enrichment analyses for the second level GO terms and pathways, we observed some significant terms over represented in these identified regions as compared to the entire bovine genome. This indicates that some functional genes associated with milk production traits, as reflected by GO terms, could be clustered in core regions, which provided promising evidence for the exploitability of the core regions identified by EHH tests. Findings in our study could help detect functional candidate genes under positive selection for further genetic and breeding research in Chinese Holstein.

  4. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens isolated from cattle in different European countries: 2002–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stärk Katharina

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The project "Antibiotic resistance in bacteria of animal origin – II" (ARBAO-II was funded by the European Union (FAIR5-QLK2-2002-01146 for the period 2003–2005, with the aim to establish a continuous monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility among veterinary laboratories in European countries based on validated and harmonised methodologies. Available summary data of the susceptibility testing of the bacterial pathogens from the different laboratories were collected. Method Antimicrobial susceptibility data for several bovine pathogens were obtained over a three year period (2002–2004. Each year the participating laboratories were requested to fill in excel-file templates with national summary data on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance from different bacterial species. A proficiency test (EQAS – external quality assurance system for antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted each year to test the accuracy of antimicrobial susceptibility testing in the participating laboratories. The data from this testing demonstrated that for the species included in the EQAS the results are comparable between countries. Results Data from 25,241 isolates were collected from 13 European countries. For Staphylococcus aureus from bovine mastitis major differences were apparent in the occurrence of resistance between countries and between the different antimicrobial agents tested. The highest frequency of resistance was observed for penicillin. For Mannheimia haemolytica resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulphonamide were observed in France, the Netherlands and Portugal. All isolates of Pasteurella multocida isolated in Finland and most of those from Denmark, England (and Wales, Italy and Sweden were susceptible to the majority of the antimicrobials. Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus uberis isolates from Sweden were fully susceptible. For the other countries some resistance was observed to

  5. MILKABILITY IN HOLSTEIN COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Strapák

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was evaluation of milkability in Holstein cows. We collected a total 63 milk flow curves, using electronic mobile milk flow meter – lactocorder. The measuring was carried out in cows from 5 to 305 days in milk. The average milk yield per milking was 15.63 kg, with average milk flow rate 2.84 kg.min-1 and average maximum milk flow rate of 4.49 kg.min-1. The average duration of incline phase was 1.09 min., duration of plateau phase was 1.82. min, and duration of decline phase was 2.26 min. Percentage of bimodal milk flow curves was 52 %, on average. The highest average milk flow rate (3.01 kg.min-1 and the highest average peak milk flow rate (4.96 kg.min-1 were found in cows in second lactation, in comparison with primiparous cows (2.87 kg.min-1, and 4.37 kg.min-1 and cows in another lactation (2.7 kg.min-1, and 4.3 kg.min-1.

  6. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens isolated from cattle in different European countries: 2002–2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Mevius, Dik J; Schroeter, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    (2002-2004). Each year the participating laboratories were requested to fill in excelfile templates with national summary data on the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance from different bacterial species. A proficiency test (EQAS - external quality assurance system) for antimicrobial susceptibility...... to the other bacterial species investigated. Conclusion: In general, isolates from Denmark, England (and Wales), the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland showed low frequencies of resistance, whereas many isolates from Belgium, France, Italy, Latvia and Spain were resistant to most antimicrobials tested......Background: The project "Antibiotic resistance in bacteria of animal origin - II" (ARBAO-II) was funded by the European Union (FAIR5-QLK2-2002-01146) for the period 2003 - 2005, with the aim to establish a continuous monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility among veterinary laboratories...

  7. Evaluation of tickGARD(PLUS), a novel vaccine against Boophilus microplus, in lactating Holstein-Friesian cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, N N; Matschoss, A L; Pepper, P; Green, P E; Albrecht, M S; Hungerford, J; Ansell, J

    2000-03-01

    The effects of vaccination with the Bm 86 vaccine TickGARD(PLUS) against infestation with cattle tick (Boophilus microplus) and of holding cattle on a feedpad until 09:00 hours after the morning milking was tested on 40 mid lactation Holstein cattle using a factorial design. Vaccination resulted in a 56% reduction in tick numbers in the field over one generation, and a 72% reduction in laboratory measures of the reproductive efficiency of ticks. The liveweight gain of vaccinated cattle over 27 weeks was 18.6 kg higher than that of controls, and vaccinated cattle tended to have lower somatic cell count in milk (SCC). There were no other significant differences in measures of production. Cattle kept on the feedpad after the morning milking carried 26% more ticks than those returned immediately to their paddocks.

  8. A molecular study of congenital erythropoietic porphyria in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Thulstrup, Peter Waaben; Bjerrum, Morten Jannik

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) in cattle is caused by an inherited deficiency of the enzyme uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS) encoded by the UROS gene. In this study, we have established the pedigree of an extended Holstein family in which the disease...

  9. Technical note: Use of a simplified equation for estimating glomerular filtration rate in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, I; Miyano, A; Sasaki, Y; Hirata, T; Ichijo, T; Satoh, H; Sato, S; Furuhama, K

    2013-11-01

    This study was performed to clarify whether a formula (Holstein equation) based on a single blood sample and the isotonic, nonionic, iodine contrast medium iodixanol in Holstein dairy cows can apply to the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) for beef cattle. To verify the application of iodixanol in beef cattle, instead of the standard tracer inulin, both agents were coadministered as a bolus intravenous injection to identical animals at doses of 10 mg of I/kg of BW and 30 mg/kg. Blood was collected 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after the injection, and the GFR was determined by the conventional multisample strategies. The GFR values from iodixanol were well consistent with those from inulin, and no effects of BW, age, or parity on GFR estimates were noted. However, the GFR in cattle weighing less than 300 kg, ageddynamic changes in renal function at young adult ages. Using clinically healthy cattle and those with renal failure, the GFR values estimated from the Holstein equation were in good agreement with those by the multisample method using iodixanol (r=0.89, P=0.01). The results indicate that the simplified Holstein equation using iodixanol can be used for estimating the GFR of beef cattle in the same dose regimen as Holstein dairy cows, and provides a practical and ethical alternative.

  10. Congenital syndactyly in cattle: four novel mutations in the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 gene (LRP4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drögemüller, Cord; Leeb, Tosso; Harlizius, Barbara; Tammen, Imke; Distl, Ottmar; Höltershinken, Martin; Gentile, Arcangelo; Duchesne, Amandine; Eggen, André

    2007-02-23

    Isolated syndactyly in cattle, also known as mulefoot, is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait with variable penetrance in different cattle breeds. Recently, two independent mutations in the bovine LRP4 gene have been reported as the primary cause of syndactyly in the Holstein and Angus cattle breeds. We confirmed the previously described LRP4 exon 33 two nucleotide substitution in most of the affected Holstein calves and revealed additional evidence for allelic heterogeneity by the identification of four new LRP4 non-synonymous point mutations co-segregating in Holstein, German Simmental and Simmental-Charolais families. We confirmed a significant role of LRP4 mutations in the pathogenesis of congenital syndactyly in cattle. The newly detected missense mutations in the LRP4 gene represent independent mutations affecting different conserved protein domains. However, the four newly described LRP4 mutations do still not explain all analyzed cases of syndactyly.

  11. Congenital syndactyly in cattle: four novel mutations in the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 gene (LRP4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Höltershinken Martin

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isolated syndactyly in cattle, also known as mulefoot, is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait with variable penetrance in different cattle breeds. Recently, two independent mutations in the bovine LRP4 gene have been reported as the primary cause of syndactyly in the Holstein and Angus cattle breeds. Results We confirmed the previously described LRP4 exon 33 two nucleotide substitution in most of the affected Holstein calves and revealed additional evidence for allelic heterogeneity by the identification of four new LRP4 non-synonymous point mutations co-segregating in Holstein, German Simmental and Simmental-Charolais families. Conclusion We confirmed a significant role of LRP4 mutations in the pathogenesis of congenital syndactyly in cattle. The newly detected missense mutations in the LRP4 gene represent independent mutations affecting different conserved protein domains. However, the four newly described LRP4 mutations do still not explain all analyzed cases of syndactyly.

  12. Craniometrical estimation of the native Japanese Mishima cattle, using multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Y; Daigo, M; Amasaki, H

    1989-01-01

    The present study on measurement of the skull of Mishima cattle, which has been postulated as the only pure representative breed of native Japanese cattle, was performed using craniometrical multivariate analysis. The data of the skull of Mishima cattle was compared with 17 breeds of cattle, i.e. Korean cattle (Hamhung, Pyongyang, Chinju Suwon, and Kwangju), Mongolian cattle, Hainan Tao cattle, northeastern Chinese cattle (Shuangliao, Shenyang, Tongliao, Lüta, and Chilin), Astatic Water Buffalo, Yak, Bos Banteng, American Bison, and Holstein-Friesian. The Mishima cattle was included in the group of Korean breeds, especially it was closed on the group of Pyongyang and Chinju breeds. The distance on the craniometrical multivariate analyzing co-ordinate between Mishima cattle and Hainan Tao breed of Zebu cattle was larger than the distance between Mishima cattle and Korean breeds. While result, as a above the present study was very important for the origin of "Wagyu" (native Japanese cattle). Since the northern route theory of the origin of Mishima cattle has been reported on the type of serum enzymes and hemotypes. It was suggested that the craniometrical multivariate analysis supported to the northern route theory of the origin of Mishima cattle.

  13. Plasma antimullerian hormone as a predictor of ovarian antral follicular population in Bos indicus (Nelore) and Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, E O S; Macedo, G G; Sala, R V; Ortolan, M D D V; Sá Filho, M F; Del Valle, T A; Jesus, E F; Lopes, R N V R; Rennó, F P; Baruselli, P S

    2014-06-01

    In Bos taurus cattle, antimullerian hormone (AMH) has been demonstrated to have a high degree of correlation with ovarian antral follicle count and the number of healthy follicles and oocytes. To document the correlation between the plasma concentration of AMH and follicular number in Bos indicus and Bos taurus heifers, Nelore (Bos indicus, n = 16) and Holstein heifers (Bos taurus, n = 16) had their ovarian follicular waves synchronized. After synchronization, ovarian antral follicular population (AFP) was evaluated three times at 60-day (d) intervals (T-120 d, 120 days before plasma AMH determination; T-60 d, 60 days before; and T0, at the time of plasma AMH determination). The plasma AMH concentration was positively correlated with the number of ovarian follicles on the day of the follicular wave emergence in Bos indicus (Nelore) and Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers at each evaluation time (p taurus (Holstein) heifers (p taurus (Holstein) heifers (p taurus (Holstein) heifers. Furthermore, Bos indicus (Nelore) heifers presented both greater plasma AMH concentrations and AFP than Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Crossbreeding Holstein-Friesian with Ethiopian Boran cattle in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    supplementation, hand milking and bucket-feeding of unweaned calves were followed for all genetic groups. A two step method was used to estimate the crossbreeding parameters. In the first step, all traits were analyzed by fitting a fixed effect model using the least-squares procedure of the generalized linear model (GLM),.

  15. Incidence of UMP synthas€ deficiency in South African Holstein cattle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    timing of artificial insemination on ewe fertility. llth Intemational. Congress on Animal Production and Artificial Insemination, Univ. College Dublin, Ireland, June 23-30. Vol. 3, Paper 274. MILLAR, R.P., & AEIINELT, C., 1977. Application of ovine luteinizing hormone (LII) radioimmuno-assay in the quantitation of LH in different ...

  16. Acute phase proteins in cattle after exposure to complex stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomborg, S. R.; Nielsen, L. R.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Stressors such as weaning, mixing and transportation have been shown to lead to increased blood concentrations of acute phase proteins (APP), including serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin, in calves. This study was therefore undertaken to assess whether SAA and haptoglobin levels...... concentrations of SAA and haptoglobin increased significantly in response to the stressors (P...... in blood mirror stress in adult cattle. Six clinically healthy Holstein cows and two Holstein heifers were transported for four to six hours to a research facility, where each animal was housed in solitary tie stalls. Blood samples for evaluation of leukocyte counts and serum SAA and haptoglobin...

  17. Graphene susceptibility in Holstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousavi, Hamze, E-mail: hamze.mousavi@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nano Science and Nano Technology Research Center, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    We study the effects of the electron-phonon interaction on the temperature dependence of the orbital magnetic susceptibility of monolayer graphene. We use the linear response theory and Green's function formalism within the Holstein Hamiltonian model. The results show that the effects of the electron-phonon interaction on the susceptibility of graphene sheet have different behaviors in two temperature regions. In the low temperature region, susceptibility increases when the electron-phonon coupling strength increases. On the other hand, the susceptibility reduces with increasing the electron-phonon coupling strength in the high temperature region. - Highlights: Effect of electron-phonon interaction on the susceptibility of graphene is studied. Linear response theory and Green's function technique in Holstein model are used. Effect of electron-phonon on susceptibility has different behaviors in two temperature regions.

  18. Hofnachfolge in Schleswig-Holstein

    OpenAIRE

    Tietje, Hendrik

    2004-01-01

    Die große Mehrheit der Unternehmen im landwirtschaftlichen Sektor sind Familienbetriebe, bei denen Eigentum und Management innerhalb der Familie von einer Generation an die nächste weitergegeben werden. Die vorliegende Arbeit widmet sich der Analyse der Hofnachfolgeentscheidung in landwirtschaftlichen Familienbetrieben auf regionaler und einzelbetrieblicher Ebene. Datengrundlage der einzelbetrieblichen Analyse ist eine Befragung zur Hofnachfolge von Landwirten in Schleswig-Holstein, die um Bu...

  19. Phylogenetic relationships among the European and American bison and seven cattle breeds recon structed using the Bovine SNP50 Illumina Genotyping BeadChip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertoldi, Cino; Wójcik, Jan M; Kawalko, Agata

    2010-01-01

    and wood bison. A linkage disequi librium based program (LDNE) was used to estimate the effective population size (Ne) for the cattle breeds; Ne was generally low, relative to the census size of the breeds (cattle breeds: mean Ne = 299.5, min Ne = 18.1, max Ne = 755.0). BOTTLENECK 1.2 de tected signs...... to have sur vived se vere bottlenecks, which has likely had large effects on genetic diversity within and differentiation among groups....... bison Bi on bison athabascae (WB) and seven (PB), the wood bison (WB) and seven cattle Bostaurus breeds. Our aims were to (1) reconstruct their evolutionary relationships, (2) detect any genetic signature of past bottlenecks and to quantify the con sequences of bottle necks on the genetic distances...

  20. Optic pathway degeneration in Japanese black cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHIBA, Shiori; FUNATO, Shingo; HORIUCHI, Noriyuki; MATSUMOTO, Kotaro; INOKUMA, Hisashi; FURUOKA, Hidefumi; KOBAYASHI, Yoshiyasu

    2014-01-01

    Degeneration of the optic pathway has been reported in various animal species including cattle. We experienced a case of bilateral optic tract degeneration characterized by severe gliosis in a Japanese black cattle without any obvious visual defects. To evaluate the significance, pathological nature and pathogenesis of the lesions, we examined the optic pathway in 60 cattle (41 Japanese black, 13 Holstein and 6 crossbreed) with or without ocular abnormalities. None of these animals had optic canal stenosis. Degenerative changes with severe gliosis in the optic pathway, which includes the optic nerve, optic chiasm and optic tract, were only observed in 8 Japanese black cattle with or without ocular abnormalities. Furthermore, strong immunoreactivity of glial fibrillary acidic protein was observed in the retinal stratum opticum and ganglion cell layer in all 5 cattle in which the optic pathway lesions could be examined. As etiological research, we also examined whether the concentrations of vitamin A and vitamin B12 or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection was associated with optic pathway degeneration. However, our results suggested that the observed optic pathway degeneration was probably not caused by these factors. These facts indicate the presence of optic pathway degeneration characterized by severe gliosis that has never been reported in cattle without bilateral compressive lesions in the optic pathway or bilateral severe retinal atrophy. PMID:25421501

  1. FACTORS AFFECTING HEAT TOLERANCE IN CROSSBRED CATTLE IN CENTRAL BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepta Margaret McManus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the adaptation traits in common crosses of crossbred dairy cattle in central Brazil. Twenty animals of each of three genetic groups were used: zebu (Bos indicus, Simmental x Zebu (SZ and Holstein x Zebu (HZ. The test measured variations in rectal temperature (RT, respiration rate (RR and heart rate (HR of animals in the shade and after exposure to the sun, as well as mean daily milk production throughout the lactation period. The procedure was repeated three times. There were significant interactions between test group and genetic group for the traits investigated and the correlations among traits were low. The RR of the crossbred groups may be controlling body temperature in such a way as not to cause an increase in RT. Milk production influenced RR in crossbred cows exposed to the sun, confirming their poorer adaptation in comparison with zebu cows. We observed that the adaptation can be measured in terms of production within the same genetic group. In conclusion, the crosses with European breeds produced more milk than zebu, although they were influenced by heat/solar radiation.

  2. Genetics of heat tolerance for milk yield and quality in Holsteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, M L; Bignardi, A B; Pereira, R J; Stefani, G; El Faro, L

    2017-01-01

    Tropical and sub-tropical climates are characterized by high temperature and humidity, during at least part of the year. Consequently, heat stress is common in Holstein cattle and productive and reproductive losses are frequent. Our objectives were as follows: (1) to quantify losses in production and quality of milk due to heat stress; (2) to estimate genetic correlations within and between milk yield (MY) and milk quality traits; and (3) to evaluate the trends of genetic components of tolerance to heat stress in multiple lactations of Brazilian Holstein cows. Thus, nine analyses using two-trait random regression animal models were carried out to estimate variance components and genetic parameters over temperature-humidity index (THI) values for MY and milk quality traits (three lactations: MY×fat percentage (F%), MY×protein percentage (P%) and MY×somatic cell score (SCS)) of Brazilian Holstein cattle. It was demonstrated that the effects of heat stress can be harmful for traits related to milk production and milk quality of Holstein cattle even though most herds were maintained in a modified environment, for example, with fans and sprinklers. For MY, the effect of heat stress was more detrimental in advanced lactations (-0.22 to -0.52 kg/day per increase of 1 THI unit). In general, the mean heritability estimates were higher for lower THI values and longer days in milk for all traits. In contrast, the heritability estimates for SCS increased with increasing THI values in the second and third lactation. For each trait studied, lower genetic correlations (different from unity) were observed between opposite extremes of THI (THI 47 v. THI 80) and in advanced lactations. The genetic correlations between MY and milk quality trait varied across the THI scale and lactations. The genotype×environment interaction due to heat stress was more important for MY and SCS, particularly in advanced lactations, and can affect the genetic relationship between MY and milk quality

  3. Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC)1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Patricia; Feltrin, Fabiola; Cordaro, Gessica; Porrero, María Concepción; Kraushaar, Britta; Argudín, María Angeles; Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Monaco, Monica; Stegger, Marc; Aarestrup, Frank M; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Battisti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Sequence Type (ST)1, Clonal Complex(CC)1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA-) lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected in Italian dairy cattle herds. The aim of this study was to analyse the differences between ST1 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) from cattle and pig herds in Italy and Europe and human isolates. Sixty-tree animal isolates from different holdings and 20 human isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa-typing, SCCmec typing, and by micro-array analysis for several virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and strain/host-specific marker genes. Three major PFGE clusters were detected. The bovine isolates shared a high (≥90% to 100%) similarity with human isolates and carried the same SCCmec type IVa. They often showed genetic features typical of human adaptation or present in human-associated CC1: Immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes sak and scn, or sea; sat and aphA3-mediated aminoglycoside resistance. Contrary, typical markers of porcine origin in Italy and Spain, like erm(A) mediated macrolide-lincosamide-streptograminB, and of vga(A)-mediated pleuromutilin resistance were always absent in human and bovine isolates. Most of ST(CC)1 MRSA from dairy cattle were multidrug-resistant and contained virulence and immunomodulatory genes associated with full capability of colonizing humans. As such, these strains may represent a greater human hazard than the porcine strains. The zoonotic capacity of CC1 LA-MRSA from livestock must be taken seriously and measures should be implemented at farm-level to prevent spill-over.

  4. Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Alba

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA Sequence Type (ST1, Clonal Complex(CC1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA- lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected in Italian dairy cattle herds. The aim of this study was to analyse the differences between ST1 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA from cattle and pig herds in Italy and Europe and human isolates. Sixty-tree animal isolates from different holdings and 20 human isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, spa-typing, SCCmec typing, and by micro-array analysis for several virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and strain/host-specific marker genes. Three major PFGE clusters were detected. The bovine isolates shared a high (≥90% to 100% similarity with human isolates and carried the same SCCmec type IVa. They often showed genetic features typical of human adaptation or present in human-associated CC1: Immune evasion cluster (IEC genes sak and scn, or sea; sat and aphA3-mediated aminoglycoside resistance. Contrary, typical markers of porcine origin in Italy and Spain, like erm(A mediated macrolide-lincosamide-streptograminB, and of vga(A-mediated pleuromutilin resistance were always absent in human and bovine isolates. Most of ST(CC1 MRSA from dairy cattle were multidrug-resistant and contained virulence and immunomodulatory genes associated with full capability of colonizing humans. As such, these strains may represent a greater human hazard than the porcine strains. The zoonotic capacity of CC1 LA-MRSA from livestock must be taken seriously and measures should be implemented at farm-level to prevent spill-over.

  5. Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC)1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Patricia; Feltrin, Fabiola; Cordaro, Gessica; Porrero, María Concepción; Kraushaar, Britta; Argudín, María Angeles; Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Monaco, Monica; Stegger, Marc; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Battisti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Sequence Type (ST)1, Clonal Complex(CC)1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA-) lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected in Italian dairy cattle herds. The aim of this study was to analyse the differences between ST1 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) from cattle and pig herds in Italy and Europe and human isolates. Sixty-tree animal isolates from different holdings and 20 human isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa-typing, SCCmec typing, and by micro-array analysis for several virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and strain/host-specific marker genes. Three major PFGE clusters were detected. The bovine isolates shared a high (≥90% to 100%) similarity with human isolates and carried the same SCCmec type IVa. They often showed genetic features typical of human adaptation or present in human-associated CC1: Immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes sak and scn, or sea; sat and aphA3-mediated aminoglycoside resistance. Contrary, typical markers of porcine origin in Italy and Spain, like erm(A) mediated macrolide-lincosamide-streptograminB, and of vga(A)-mediated pleuromutilin resistance were always absent in human and bovine isolates. Most of ST(CC)1 MRSA from dairy cattle were multidrug-resistant and contained virulence and immunomodulatory genes associated with full capability of colonizing humans. As such, these strains may represent a greater human hazard than the porcine strains. The zoonotic capacity of CC1 LA-MRSA from livestock must be taken seriously and measures should be implemented at farm-level to prevent spill-over. PMID:26322785

  6. Recovery with a regular dose of antibiotics from bacillary hemoglobinuria in a Holstein cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Mitsuhiro; Kohyama, Moeko; Ono, Tetsushi; Adachi, Satoshi; Shirao, Daiji; Tamura, Hidenori; Taniguchi, Masayasu; Yabuki, Akira; Yamato, Osamu

    2016-12-01

    One Holstein cow housed with 21 other cows exhibited clinical signs of pyrexia, anorexia and diarrhea along with severe hemoglobinuria. Hematological and biochemical analyses conducted before and after antibiotic therapy indicated severe hemolytic anemia and disruption of hepatic function. A general improvement in conditions was observed after an 11-day program of treatment comprising a regular dose of antibiotics and prescribed supportive therapies. A tentative diagnosis of bacillary hemoglobinuria was made based on the clinical and clinico-pathologic features on day 7. A molecular diagnosis was made by a PCR amplification of the flagellin gene of Clostridium haemolyticum using DNA extracted from the whole blood. The cow was diagnosed with the first recorded occurrence of bacillary hemoglobinuria of Holstein cattle in Japan.

  7. The Holstein polaron problem revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebi, Amin; Zelevinsky, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    The Holstein Hamiltonian was proposed half a century ago; since then, decades of research have come up empty handed in the pursuit of a closed-form solution. An exact solution to the two-site Holstein model is presented in this paper. The obtained results provide a clear image of the Hamiltonian structure and allow for the investigation of the symmetry, energy level crossings and polaronic characteristics of the system. The main mathematical tool is a three-term recurrence relation between the wave function amplitudes, which was obtained using the properties of a family of orthogonal functions, namely the Poisson-Charlier polynomials. It is shown that, with the appropriate choice of basis, the eigenfunctions of the problem naturally fall into two families (parities) associated with the discrete {{{Z}}}2 symmetry of the Hamiltonian. The asymptotic solution to the recurrence relation is found by using the Birkhoff expansion. The asymptotic sets the truncation criterion for the wave function, which ensures the accurate calculation of the energy levels for any strength of electron-phonon interaction. The level crossing of states with different parities is discussed and the exact points of broken symmetry are found analytically. The results are used as the building blocks for studying a four-site system. The inherited symmetries lead to the formation of a sparse matrix that is convenient for numerical calculations.

  8. Mining of lethal recessive genetic variation in Danish cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    The widespread use of artificial insemination in cattle breeding Worldwide leads to reduced effective population sizes and increased inbreeding levels. Increased inbreeding result in increased probalility of expression of recessive defective alleles, which probably is reflected in a decline...... in fertility. The primary objective of this PhD projekt was to identify recessive lethal gentic variants in the main Danish dairy cattle breed. Holstein-Friesian utilzing next generation sequencing (NGS) data. This study shows a potential for the use of the NGS-based reverse genetic approach in identifying...

  9. Serological surveillance of bluetongue virus in cattle in central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Noaman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence and distribution of antibodies to the bluetongue virus (BTV among dairy Holstein cattle of central Iran. From September 2010 to August 2011, 892 blood samples from Holstein dairy cattle were collected from healthy animals. Blood samples were divided according to type of farm (industrial and non-industrial, season (warm and cold, location (North, South, East, and West, cattle production groups (calf, heifer, dairy and dry and age groups (under 6 months, 6 months-2 years and over 2 years. The sera were screened using a commercially competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA kit. Twenty-four sera (2.69 % were found to be positive for BTV. Bluetongue virus seroprevalence was significantly higher (χ2 = 8.29, df = 3, p 2 years showed a relatively higher seroprevalence, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.06. No statistically significant difference in BTV seroprevalence was noted between farming systems, seasons and cattle production groups (p > 0.05. The results demonstrate that the seroprevalence of BTV is low in cattle from the Isfahan province, central Iran. Further studies are needed to determine the serotypes and vectors of BTV in the central region of Iran.

  10. Genomic evaluation, breed identification, and population structure of North American, English and Island Guernsey dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic evaluations of dairy cattle in the United States have been available for Brown Swiss, Holsteins, and Jerseys since 2009 and for Ayrshires since 2013. As of February 2015, 2,281 Guernsey bulls and cows had genotypes from collaboration between the United States, Canada, England, and the island...

  11. Diversity and population-genetic properties of copy number variations and multicopy genes in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The diversity and population-genetics of copy number variation (CNV) in domesticated animals are not well understood. In this study, we analyzed 75 genomes of major taurine and indicine cattle breeds (including Angus, Brahman, Gir, Holstein, Jersey, Limousin, Nelore, Romagnola), sequenced to 11-fold...

  12. Inclusion of various amounts of steam-flaked soybeans in lactating dairy cattle diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    While most soybean feedstuffs have been extensively investigated for use in ruminant diets, there is a lack of information regarding steam-flaked soybeans. This research evaluated various inclusion rates of steam-flaked soybeans (SFSB) in lactating dairy cattle diets. Twelve multiparous Holstein cow...

  13. Cattle Differ in Ability to Adapt to Small Intestinal Digestion of Starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of post-ruminal starch digestion on inflammatory response in dairy cattle. Six cull, nonpregnant, nonlactating, multiparous cannulated Holstein dairy cows (BW 804±101 kg) were fed a high forage diet ad libitum starting 15 d before the infusion p...

  14. Exonization of a LINE1 fragment implicated in X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg

    2011-01-01

    A case of X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XHED) was identified in a family of Danish Red Holstein cattle. The ectodysplasin-signalling protein (EDA) is known to be central in the normal development of ectodermal structures, and mutations in the ectodysplasin A (EDA) gene have been rep...

  15. Genomic analysis of lactation persistency in four breeds of dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to determine gains in reliability from the addition of genomic information to genetic evaluations for best predictions of lactation persistency in US Ayrshire (AY), Brown Swiss (BS), Holstein (HO), and Jersey (JE) cattle, and to identify genomic regions with large e...

  16. Impact of potential changes to the current bovine spongiform encephalopathy surveillance programs for slaughter cattle and fallen stock in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Katsuaki; Murray, Noel; Shinoda, Naoki; Onodera, Takashi

    2009-07-01

    Cattle slaughtered in Japan for human consumption, regardless of their age, have been tested for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) since October 2001. Beginning in April 2004, all fallen stock from 24 months of age also have been tested. We evaluated the impact of potential changes to the current BSE surveillance programs for both slaughter cattle and fallen stock using a simple stochastic model. We calculated the probability that a BSE-infected dairy cow, Wagyu beef animal, Wagyu-Holstein cross steer or heifer, or Holstein steer slaughtered for human consumption or arising as fallen stock would be tested and detected. Four surveillance strategies were explored for cattle slaughtered for human consumption, with the minimum age at testing set at 0, 21, 31, or 41 months. Three surveillance strategies were explored for fallen stock, with the minimum age at testing set at 24, 31, or 41 months. Increasing the minimum age of testing from 0 to 21 months for both dairy cattle and Wagyu beef cattle had very little impact on the probability that a BSE-infected animal slaughtered for human consumption would be detected. Although increasing the minimum age at testing from 21 to 31 or 41 months would lead to fewer slaughtered animals being tested, the impact on the probability of detecting infected animals would be insignificant. The probability of infected Wagyu-Holstein crosses and Holstein steers being detected at slaughter or as fallen stock would be very low under all surveillance strategies.

  17. Offshore wind power systems in Schleswig-Holstein; Offshore in Schleswig-Holstein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, W. [Ministerium fuer Finanzen und Energie des Landes Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    At a Rotarian meeting on Helgoland, Secretary of State Wilfried Voigt of the Schleswig-Holstein Energy Ministry held a much-discussed plea in favour of offshore wind power. [German] Anlaesslich einer Veranstaltung der Rotarier auf der Insel Helgoland hat Staatssekretaer Wilfried Voigt, Energieministerium Schleswig-Holstein, ein vielbeachtetes Plaedoyer fuer den Offshore Einsatz der Windenergie gehalten. (orig.)

  18. 150 years of petroleum production in Schleswig-Holstein; 150 Jahre Oelfoerderung in Schleswig-Holstein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangerin, G. [OeKM-Wangerin, Weddingstedt (Germany)

    2007-01-15

    The contribution describes the geological history of Schleswig-Holstein, the oil fields north of the Elbe river, land reclamation measures after termination of petroleulm production, and future perspectives of petroleum production in Germany. Es wird berichtet ueber: geologische Entwicklung Schleswig-Holsteins; die Oelfelder noerdlich der Elbe; Rueckbaumassnahmen nach Einstellung der Oelfoerderung; Zukunftsperspektiven der Oelfoerderung in Deutschland.

  19. Main causes of mortality in Holstein calves on rural properties in the Bragantina region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Moraes de Olivera

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on two dairy farms that breed Holstein cattle in the municipality of Bragança Paulista, São Paulo. The study included 11 female calves that were one to three months old. The animals were autopsied. Tissue samples of affected organs were collected for histopathological and microbiological examination and blood was collected for serological tests. The aim of this study was to identify the main causes of death in calves of dairy cattle from the Bragantina region. Among the causes, the frequency of dysentery and respiratory diseases was similar. The samples evalulated identified a higher frequency of macroscopic and microscopic lung lesions when compared to intestinal lesions. The etiological agents associated with the diseases found were Salmonella sp., Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, Pasteurella spp., syncytial virus and coronavirus, which affect the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems and can lead to septicemia and death.

  20. Seroprevalence of neosporosis in beef and dairy cattle breeds in Northeast Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornok, S; Edelhofer, Renate; Hajtós, I

    2006-12-01

    In order to assess the seroprevalence of bovine neosporosis with indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), blood samples were collected randomly from 1063 beef and dairy cattle belonging to 12 different breeds in Northeast Hungary. Antibodies to Neospora caninum were detected in 27 (2.5%) of the animals, kept on 19 of the 42 settlements included in this survey. Since samples were collected on 50 farms, herd prevalence amounted to 38%. The percentage of cattle with seroconversion increased with age, suggesting a postnatal source of infection. The highest rate of positivity was detected in Aberdeen Angus (3.3%) and Holstein-Friesian cows (3.2%), and the lowest in Limousine (0.9%), but no breed predisposition was statistically substantiated. Neosporosis was more prevalent in dairy (3.4%) than in beef (1.9%) cattle, although the difference was not significant. Only three out of the seropositive cows, all of them Holstein-Friesians, had a history of abortion.

  1. Differences in the Rumen Methanogen Populations of Lactating Jersey and Holstein Dairy Cows under the Same Diet Regimen▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Erin E.; Smith, Rachel P.; St-Pierre, Benoit; Wright, André-Denis G.

    2011-01-01

    In the dairy cattle industry, Holstein and Jersey are the breeds most commonly used for production. They differ in performance by various traits, such as body size, milk production, and milk composition. With increased concerns about the impact of agriculture on climate change, potential differences in other traits, such as methane emission, also need to be characterized further. Since methane is produced in the rumen by methanogenic archaea, we investigated whether the population structure of methanogen communities would differ between Holsteins and Jerseys. Breed-specific rumen methanogen 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed from pooled PCR products obtained from lactating Holstein and Jersey cows, generating 180 and 185 clones, respectively. The combined 365 sequences were assigned to 55 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Twenty OTUs, representing 85% of the combined library sequences, were common to both breeds, while 23 OTUs (36 sequences) were found only in the Holstein library and 12 OTUs (18 sequences) were found only in the Jersey library, highlighting increased diversity in the Holstein library. Other differences included the observation that sequences with species-like sequence identity to Methanobrevibacter millerae were represented more highly in the Jersey breed, while Methanosphaera-related sequences and novel uncultured methanogen clones were more frequent in the Holstein library. In contrast, OTU sequences with species-level sequence identity to Methanobrevibacter ruminantium were represented similarly in both libraries. Since the sampled animals were from a single herd consisting of two breeds which were fed the same diet and maintained under the same environmental conditions, the differences we observed may be due to differences in host breed genetics. PMID:21705541

  2. Independent polled mutations leading to complex gene expression differences in cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Wiedemar

    Full Text Available The molecular regulation of horn growth in ruminants is still poorly understood. To investigate this process, we collected 1019 hornless (polled animals from different cattle breeds. High-density SNP genotyping confirmed the presence of two different polled associated haplotypes in Simmental and Holstein cattle co-localized on BTA 1. We refined the critical region of the Simmental polled mutation to 212 kb and identified an overlapping region of 932 kb containing the Holstein polled mutation. Subsequently, whole genome sequencing of polled Simmental and Holstein cows was used to determine polled associated genomic variants. By genotyping larger cohorts of animals with known horn status we found a single perfectly associated insertion/deletion variant in Simmental and other beef cattle confirming the recently published possible Celtic polled mutation. We identified a total of 182 sequence variants as candidate mutations for polledness in Holstein cattle, including an 80 kb genomic duplication and three SNPs reported before. For the first time we showed that hornless cattle with scurs are obligate heterozygous for one of the polled mutations. This is in contrast to published complex inheritance models for the bovine scurs phenotype. Studying differential expression of the annotated genes and loci within the mapped region on BTA 1 revealed a locus (LOC100848215, known in cow and buffalo only, which is higher expressed in fetal tissue of wildtype horn buds compared to tissue of polled fetuses. This implicates that the presence of this long noncoding RNA is a prerequisite for horn bud formation. In addition, both transcripts associated with polledness in goat and sheep (FOXL2 and RXFP2, show an overexpression in horn buds confirming their importance during horn development in cattle.

  3. Independent Polled Mutations Leading to Complex Gene Expression Differences in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemar, Natalie; Tetens, Jens; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Menoud, Annie; Neuenschwander, Samuel; Bruggmann, Rémy; Thaller, Georg; Drögemüller, Cord

    2014-01-01

    The molecular regulation of horn growth in ruminants is still poorly understood. To investigate this process, we collected 1019 hornless (polled) animals from different cattle breeds. High-density SNP genotyping confirmed the presence of two different polled associated haplotypes in Simmental and Holstein cattle co-localized on BTA 1. We refined the critical region of the Simmental polled mutation to 212 kb and identified an overlapping region of 932 kb containing the Holstein polled mutation. Subsequently, whole genome sequencing of polled Simmental and Holstein cows was used to determine polled associated genomic variants. By genotyping larger cohorts of animals with known horn status we found a single perfectly associated insertion/deletion variant in Simmental and other beef cattle confirming the recently published possible Celtic polled mutation. We identified a total of 182 sequence variants as candidate mutations for polledness in Holstein cattle, including an 80 kb genomic duplication and three SNPs reported before. For the first time we showed that hornless cattle with scurs are obligate heterozygous for one of the polled mutations. This is in contrast to published complex inheritance models for the bovine scurs phenotype. Studying differential expression of the annotated genes and loci within the mapped region on BTA 1 revealed a locus (LOC100848215), known in cow and buffalo only, which is higher expressed in fetal tissue of wildtype horn buds compared to tissue of polled fetuses. This implicates that the presence of this long noncoding RNA is a prerequisite for horn bud formation. In addition, both transcripts associated with polledness in goat and sheep (FOXL2 and RXFP2), show an overexpression in horn buds confirming their importance during horn development in cattle. PMID:24671182

  4. Neuropathology of organophosphate poisoning in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulvian Sani

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate pathological changes in brain tissues of Frisien Holstein dairy cattle affected by organophosphate (OP. The study was directed to anticipate spongiform encephalopathy. Samples consisted of animal feeds, sera and brain tissues were collected from Lembang, West Java. Animal feeds (fodders and commercial feed were collected directly from the dairy farms around Lembang. Sera (31 samples were from dairy cattle owned by the local farmers and brain tissues were from the local animal slaughter house. Pesticide residues were analysed following a standard procedure using gas chromatography (GC. There was an interaction between pesticide residues in animal feeds, residue level of pesticides in sera and brain tissues to cause encephalopathy in dairy cattle. Pesticide contamination in animal feeds was regarded as the source of encephalopathy in dairy cattle. The total average of OP residues (16.8 ppb were lower than organochlorines/OC (18.7 ppb in fodder, showing that pesticides were originated from the contaminated soils. On the other hand, the total average of OP residues in commercial feeds (12.0 ppb, sera (85.6 ppb and brain tissues (22.7 ppb were higher than OC (1.8; 16.7; and 5.1 ppb. The OP appears more frequently used for dairy farm activity as insecticides. Histopathological examination for brain tissues of dairy cattle showed that most cattle were diagnosed as encephalopathy with microscopic changes of vacuolation, neuronal necrosis, chromatolysis of neurons and nucleolysis of neurons. The encephalopathy was confirmed in rats intoxicated with chlorpyrifos methyl as severe brain damage with spongiform-like lesions.

  5. Relationship between physical attributes and heat stress in dairy cattle from different genetic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo, Evelyn Priscila München; Barbosa da Silva, Marcos Vinicius Gualberto; dos Santos Daltro, Darlene; Stumpf, Marcelo Tempel; Dalcin, Vanessa Calderaro; Kolling, Giovani; Fischer, Vivian; McManus, Concepta Margaret

    2016-02-01

    Dairy cattle raised under harsh conditions have to adapt and prevent heat stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate physical characteristics and their association with heat tolerance in different genetic groups of dairy cattle. Thickness of the skin and coat, length and number of hairs, body measurements, as well as physiological parameters and body temperatures by infrared thermography were determined in 19 Holstein and 19 Girolando (½ and ¾ Holstein) cows. The Holstein cattle were less tolerant to heat stress than Girolando (GH50 and GH75 Holstein), because of the difficulty in dissipating heat due to the larger body size, as well as thicker and longer hairs. The correlations between physical characteristics, physiological parameters, and thermographic measurements prove to be inconsistent among genetic groups and therefore are not predictive of heat tolerance, while the regressions of morphometric characteristics on physiological and thermographic measures were not significant. Thus, the physical characteristics were not good predictors of physiological indices and thermographic temperature and so should not be used.

  6. 33 CFR 147.831 - Holstein Truss Spar safety zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Holstein Truss Spar safety zone. 147.831 Section 147.831 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.831 Holstein Truss Spar safety zone. (a) Description. Holstein, Green Canyon 645 ...

  7. Contribution of rare and low-frequency whole-genome sequence variants to complex traits variation in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Calus, Mario P L; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

    2017-01-01

    variants classified according to their MAF compared with the variance explained by the pedigree-based additive genetic relationship matrix for 17 traits in Nordic Holstein dairy cattle. RESULTS: Imputed sequence variants were grouped into seven classes according to their MAF (0.001-0.01, 0.01-0.05, 0......-related traits than for production traits (

  8. GENOMIC VARIABILITY AMONG CATTLE POPULATIONS BASED ON RUNS OF HOMOZYGOSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Šidlová

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the distribution of different lengths ROH (runs of homozygosity in six cattle breeds was described. A total of 122 animals from six cattle breeds (Holstein, Simmental, Austrian Pinzgau, Ayrshire, MRI-Meuse Rhine Issel and Slovak Pinzgau were analysed. The ROH approach was used to distinguish Slovak Pinzgau population from other investigated breeds as well as to differentiate between ancient and recent inbreeding. The average number of ROH per animal ranged from 17.06 in Holstein to 159.22 in Ayrshire. The highest number of short ROH (ancient inbreeding was found in Simmental, followed by Ayrshire. The Ayrshire and MRI had a higher proportion of longer ROH distributed across the whole genome, revealing recent inbreeding. ROH were identified and used to estimate molecular inbreeding coefficients (FROH. The highest level of inbreeding from the investigated breeds was found out in Ayrshire with the same tendency for all length categories compared to Slovak Pinzgau with higher ancient inbreeding. Ancient inbreeding was only observed in Holstein population. A similar trend is becoming apparent even for Slovak Pinzgau, showing the second smallest recent inbreeding. Therefore, it is necessary to preserve the given population in the original phenotype and prevent further increase of inbreeding especially in endangered breeds.

  9. Bovine renal lipofuscinosis: prevalence, genetics and impact on milk production and weight at slaughter in Danish cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agerholm, Jørgen S; Christensen, Knud; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Flagstad, Pia

    2009-02-12

    Bovine renal lipofuscinosis (BRL) is an incidental finding in cattle at slaughter. Condemnation of the kidneys as unfit for human consumption was until recently considered the only implication of BRL. Recent studies have indicated a negative influence on the health of affected animals. The present study investigated the prevalence, genetics and effect of BRL on milk yield and weight at slaughter. BRL status of slaughter cattle was recorded at four abattoirs during a 2-year-period. Data regarding breed, age, genetic descent, milk yield and weight at slaughter were extracted from the Danish Cattle Database. The prevalence of BRL was estimated stratified by breed and age-group. Furthermore, total milk yield, milk yield in last full lactation and weight at slaughter were compared for BRL-affected and non-affected Danish Holsteins and Danish Red cattle. 433,759 bovines were slaughtered and 787 of these had BRL. BRL was mainly diagnosed in Danish Red, Danish Holstein and crossbreds. The age of BRL affected animals varied from 11 months to 13 years, but BRL was rarely diagnosed in cattle less than 2 years of age.The total lifelong energy corrected milk (ECM) yields were 3,136 and 4,083 kg higher for BRL affected Danish Red and Danish Holsteins, respectively. However, the median life span of affected animals was 4.9 months longer, and age-corrected total milk yield was 1,284 kg lower for BRL affected Danish Red cows. These cows produced 318 kg ECM less in their last full lactation. Weight at slaughter was not affected by BRL status.The cases occurred in patterns consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance and several family clusters of BRL were found. Analysis of segregation ratios demonstrated the expected ratio for Danish Red cattle, but not for Danish Holsteins. The study confirmed that BRL is a common finding in Danish Holsteins and Danish Red cattle at slaughter. The disorder is associated with increased total milk yield due to a longer production life. However, a

  10. Bovine renal lipofuscinosis: Prevalence, genetics and impact on milk production and weight at slaughter in Danish cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flagstad Pia

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine renal lipofuscinosis (BRL is an incidental finding in cattle at slaughter. Condemnation of the kidneys as unfit for human consumption was until recently considered the only implication of BRL. Recent studies have indicated a negative influence on the health of affected animals. The present study investigated the prevalence, genetics and effect of BRL on milk yield and weight at slaughter. Methods BRL status of slaughter cattle was recorded at four abattoirs during a 2-year-period. Data regarding breed, age, genetic descent, milk yield and weight at slaughter were extracted from the Danish Cattle Database. The prevalence of BRL was estimated stratified by breed and age-group. Furthermore, total milk yield, milk yield in last full lactation and weight at slaughter were compared for BRL-affected and non-affected Danish Holsteins and Danish Red cattle. Results 433,759 bovines were slaughtered and 787 of these had BRL. BRL was mainly diagnosed in Danish Red, Danish Holstein and crossbreds. The age of BRL affected animals varied from 11 months to 13 years, but BRL was rarely diagnosed in cattle less than 2 years of age. The total lifelong energy corrected milk (ECM yields were 3,136 and 4,083 kg higher for BRL affected Danish Red and Danish Holsteins, respectively. However, the median life span of affected animals was 4.9 months longer, and age-corrected total milk yield was 1,284 kg lower for BRL affected Danish Red cows. These cows produced 318 kg ECM less in their last full lactation. Weight at slaughter was not affected by BRL status. The cases occurred in patterns consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance and several family clusters of BRL were found. Analysis of segregation ratios demonstrated the expected ratio for Danish Red cattle, but not for Danish Holsteins. Conclusion The study confirmed that BRL is a common finding in Danish Holsteins and Danish Red cattle at slaughter. The disorder is associated with

  11. The Holstein polaron: beyond the standard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Carl J.; Marsiglio, Frank

    2014-03-01

    The paradigm for describing the polaron is the Holstein model, where only local interactions between the electron and optical phonon modes are considered. We present several variants of this model and discuss the impact on various observables, such as the effective mass. Possible variations include further than nearest neighbour hopping, longer range interactions, and even models that go beyond the Holstein/Frohlich coupling, i.e. the BLF/SSH (Barisic-Labbe-Friedel/Su-Schrieffer-Heeger) model. Recent progress on these models will be described.

  12. Genetic analysis of leukosis incidence in United States Holstein and Jersey populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, E A; Rosa, G J M; Weigel, K A; Byrem, T

    2013-09-01

    Bovine leukosis (BL) is a retroviral disease caused by the bovine leukosis virus that affects only cattle. It is associated with decreased milk production and increased cull rates due to development of lymphosarcoma. The virus also affects the immune system. Infected cows display a weak response to some vaccinations. It is important to determine if the heritability of BL susceptibility is greater than zero, or if the environment is the only factor that can be used to reduce the transmission and incidence of the disease. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to estimate the heritability for BL incidence and the genetic merit of sires for leukosis resistance in Holstein and Jersey cattle. Continuous scores and binary milk ELISA results for 13,217 Holstein cows from 114 dairy herds across 16 states and 642 Jersey cows from 8 dairy herds were considered. Data were obtained from commercial testing records at Antel BioSystems (Lansing, MI). Out of the 13,859 animals tested, 38% were found to be infected with the disease. Linear and threshold animal models were used to analyze the continuous and binary data, respectively. Results from both models were similar in terms of estimated breeding values and variance components in their respective scales. Estimates of heritability obtained with the 2 approaches were approximately 8% for both breeds, indicating a considerable genetic component underlying BL disease incidence. The correlation between the estimated breeding values from the 2 models was larger than 0.90, and the lists of top 10% bulls selected from each model had about 80% overlap for both breeds. In summary, results indicate that a simple linear model using the continuous ELISA scores as the response variable was a reasonable approach for the genetic analysis of BL incidence in cattle. In addition, the levels of heritability found indicate that genetic selection could also be used to decrease susceptibility to bovine leukosis virus infection in Holstein and Jersey

  13. Two-dimensional Hubbard-Holstein bipolaron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macridin, A.; Sawatzky, G. A.; Jarrell, M

    We present a diagrammatic Monte Carlo study of the properties of the Hubbard-Holstein bipolaron on a two-dimensional square lattice. With a small Coulomb repulsion U and with increasing electron-phonon interaction, and when reaching a value about two times smaller than the one corresponding to the

  14. Congenital desmoid fibromatosis in a Holstein heifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Richard; Sweet, Wade; Desrochers, André

    2008-01-01

    An 11-month-old, Holstein heifer was presented for a progressive swelling on the left side of the face that had been present since birth. A diagnosis of fibromatosis was made, based on macroscopic and microscopic examination of the abnormal infiltrative tissue. Because of the poor prognosis the animal was euthanized. PMID:19043487

  15. Schleswig-Holstein Energie 2020. Green paper. More power, more economy. - Schleswig-Holstein; Schleswig-Holstein Energie 2020. Gruenbuch. Mehr Energie. Mehr Wirtschaft - Schleswig-Holstein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, G.W. (comp.)

    2007-06-15

    The paper shows that Schleswig-Holstein, Germany's northermost state, will by 2020 be capable of covering more than 100 percent of its power demand on the basis of wind power and biomass. Wind power is an important technological, economic, labour-political and exports factor. (orig.)

  16. The comparative performance of primiparous Holstein Friesland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The comparative performance of primiparous Holstein Friesland and Jersey cows on complete diets during summer in a temperate climate. C.J.C. Muller* and J.A. Botha. Department of Agriculture: Western Cape, Private Bag X1, Elsenburg,. 7607 Republic of South Africa. Received 7 April 1997; accepted 20 May 1998.

  17. Effects of bovine leukemia virus infection on crossbred and purebred dairy cattle productive performance in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Souza Rajão

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of bovine leukemia virus (BLV infection on productive performance of dairy cattle in Brazil. A total of 158 blood samples from lactating adult cows, purebred Holstein and crossbred Holstein X Zebu, were analyzed by Agar Gel Immunodifusion Test (AGID and leukogram. According to AGID and leukogram results, animals were grouped into three categories: seronegative, seropositive without persistent lymphocytosis, and seropositive with persistent lymphocytosis. Milk production data were compared between groups, according to breed. BLV infected females showed lower milk yield than uninfected ones, both purebred and crossbred ones. There was no difference between milk yield of seropositive cows with or without persistent lymphocytosis. These results indicate an association between BLV infection and reduction of milk production, and this study is the first one to show these effects in crossbred Holstein X Zebu cows.

  18. Correlation between acid, TBA, peroxide and iodine values, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities of chicken, cattle and camel meat during refrigerated storage

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Reza Gheisari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was correlation determination between fat putrefaction indices and antioxidative enzymes in chicken, cattle and camel meat during refrigerated storage. Longissimus dorsi muscle of three Iranian dromedary one humped camel and three Holstein cattle and breast muscle of three broiler breeder chicken were obtained from the carcasses 3 days postmortem. The samples were ground and stored at 4 °C for 0, 2, or 4 days. Peroxide, TBA, acid and iodine values, catalase and ...

  19. Exploring the genetic background of parasite resistance in selected lines of black and white cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Brügemann, Kerstin; May, Katharina; Scheper, Carsten; Strube, Christina; König, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Regaining importance of keeping dairy cows in grassland systems implies a detailed evaluation of breeding strategies on genetic resistances against endoparasite infections. The present study aimed on i) a comparison of different black and white cattle selection lines for three endoparasite traits, and ii) the estimation of genetic parameters for parasite resistances. A research design was implemented to create three different genetic lines within herds on the basis of a German Holstein cow (G...

  20. Phonon spectral function of the Holstein polaron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, J [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic); Hohenadler, M [Institute for Theoretical and Computational Physics, TU Graz (Austria); Alvermann, A [Institute of Physics, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University Greifswald (Germany); Fehske, H [Institute of Physics, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University Greifswald (Germany)

    2006-08-09

    The phonon spectral function of the one-dimensional Holstein model is obtained within weak-coupling and strong-coupling approximations based on analytical self-energy calculations. The characteristic excitations found in the limit of small charge-carrier density are related to the known (electronic) spectral properties of Holstein polarons such as the polaron band dispersion. Particular emphasis is laid on the different physics occurring in the adiabatic and anti-adiabatic regimes, respectively. Comparison is made with a cluster approach exploiting exact numerical results on small systems to yield an approximation for the thermodynamic limit. This method, similar to cluster perturbation theory, confirms the analytical findings, and also yields accurate results in the intermediate-coupling regime.

  1. Urine N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase activity in healthy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, R; Nakajima, N; Soeta, S; Sato, J; Naito, Y

    1997-11-01

    To measure urine N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity of healthy cattle, using 3 substrates (4-methylumbelliferyl-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide, sodio-m-cresolsulfonphthaleinyl-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminid e, and p-nitrophenyl-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide), and to determine the relations between the obtained values and age and sex of cattle. 50 healthy lactating Holstein-Friesian cows and 10 healthy Holstein-Friesian steers. Untimed urine samples were collected, and urine NAG activity was measured, using the 3 aforementioned methods. Urine creatinine concentration also was measured, and NAG activity was expressed as units per gram of creatinine (NAG index). Correlations between urine NAG activity and age and sex of cattle were investigated. Furthermore, correlations among data obtained by each of the 3 methods were determined. Urine NAG activity in cows measured by each of the 3 methods was < 3.0 U/L. Urine NAG activity in steers was significantly higher than that in cows. However, there was no significant difference between the sexes in NAG index. There were no significant differences in mean values of NAG activity and index among cows of various age groups. Individual values of urine NAG activity determined by each method correlated significantly with each other. Urine NAG activity and NAG index of healthy cattle will be useful for determining diagnostic criteria of renal disease in cattle.

  2. European consumer acceptance of safety-improving interventions in the beef chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens O.

    2011-01-01

    of the beef chain: primary production (adjusting cattle feed), slaughtering (decontaminating cattle hides) and processing (applying treatments). This paper presents original findings from a quantitative study with beef consumers (n ¼ 2520) from five European countries (France, Germany, Poland, Spain...

  3. Spectral Properties of Holstein and Breathing Polarons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slezak, Cyrill [University of Cincinnati; Macridin, Alexandru [University of Cincinnati; Sawatzky, George [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Jarrell, Mark [University of Cincinnati; Maier, Thomas A [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    We calculate the spectral properties of the one-dimensional Holstein and breathing polarons using the self-consistent Born approximation. The Holstein model electron-phonon coupling is momentum independent while the breathing coupling increases monotonically with the phonon momentum. We find that for a linear or tight binding electron dispersion: i) for the same value of the dimensionless coupling the quasiparticle renormalization at small momentum in the breathing polaron is much smaller, ii) the quasiparticle renormalization at small momentum in the breathing polaron increases with phonon frequency unlike in the Holstein model where it decreases, iii) in the Holstein model the quasiparticle dispersion displays a kink and a small gap at an excitation energy equal to the phonon frequency $\\omega_0$ while in the breathing model it displays two gaps, one at excitation energy $\\omega_0$ and another one at $2\\omega_0$. These differences have two reasons: first, the momentum of the relevant scattered phonons increases with increasing polaron momentum and second, the breathing bare coupling is an increasing function of the phonon momentum. These result in an effective electron-phonon coupling for the breathing model which is an increasing function of the total polaron momentum, such that the small momentum polaron is in the weak coupling regime while the large momentum one is in the strong coupling regime. However the first reason does not hold if the free electron dispersion has low energy states separated by large momentum, as in a higher dimensional system for example, in which situation the difference between the two models becomes less significant.

  4. Fine mapping QTL for female fertility on BTA04 and BTA13 in dairy cattle using HD SNP and sequence data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglund, Johanna; Sahana, Goutam; Brøndum, Rasmus Froberg

    2014-01-01

    Female fertility is important for the maintenance of the production in a dairy cattle herd. Two QTL regions on BTA04 and on BTA13 previously detected in Nordic Holstein (NH) and validated in the Danish Jersey (DJ) and Nordic Red (NR) were investigated further in the present study to further refine...

  5. Genomic prediction for dry matter intake of dairy cattle from an international data set consisting of research herds in Europe, North America and Australasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de Y.; Pryce, J.E.; Calus, M.P.L.; Wall, E.; Berry, D.P.; Lovendahl, P.; Krattenmacher, N.; Miglior, F.; Weigel, K.; Spurlock, D.; MacDonald, K.A.; Hulsegge, B.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2015-01-01

    With the aim of increasing the accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values for dry matter intake (DMI) in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle, data from 10 research herds in Europe, North America, and Australasia were combined. The DMI records were available on 10,701 parity 1 to 5 records from 6,953

  6. The Agersoe cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Withen, K.B.; Brüniche-Olsen, A.; Pedersen, Bo Vest

    2011-01-01

    A phenotypically interesting strain of cattle existed on the small island of Agersoe, on the west coast of Zealand, Denmark, in the beginning of the last decade. The cattle share a great resemblance to the extinct Danish breed, the Island cattle. The objective of this study was to genetically...

  7. Genome-wide estimates of coancestry, inbreeding and effective population size in the Spanish Holstein population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Teresa Rodríguez-Ramilo

    Full Text Available Estimates of effective population size in the Holstein cattle breed have usually been low despite the large number of animals that constitute this breed. Effective population size is inversely related to the rates at which coancestry and inbreeding increase and these rates have been high as a consequence of intense and accurate selection. Traditionally, coancestry and inbreeding coefficients have been calculated from pedigree data. However, the development of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms has increased the interest of calculating these coefficients from molecular data in order to improve their accuracy. In this study, genomic estimates of coancestry, inbreeding and effective population size were obtained in the Spanish Holstein population and then compared with pedigree-based estimates. A total of 11,135 animals genotyped with the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip were available for the study. After applying filtering criteria, the final genomic dataset included 36,693 autosomal SNPs and 10,569 animals. Pedigree data from those genotyped animals included 31,203 animals. These individuals represented only the last five generations in order to homogenise the amount of pedigree information across animals. Genomic estimates of coancestry and inbreeding were obtained from identity by descent segments (coancestry or runs of homozygosity (inbreeding. The results indicate that the percentage of variance of pedigree-based coancestry estimates explained by genomic coancestry estimates was higher than that for inbreeding. Estimates of effective population size obtained from genome-wide and pedigree information were consistent and ranged from about 66 to 79. These low values emphasize the need of controlling the rate of increase of coancestry and inbreeding in Holstein selection programmes.

  8. Genome-wide estimates of coancestry, inbreeding and effective population size in the Spanish Holstein population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ramilo, Silvia Teresa; Fernández, Jesús; Toro, Miguel Angel; Hernández, Delfino; Villanueva, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of effective population size in the Holstein cattle breed have usually been low despite the large number of animals that constitute this breed. Effective population size is inversely related to the rates at which coancestry and inbreeding increase and these rates have been high as a consequence of intense and accurate selection. Traditionally, coancestry and inbreeding coefficients have been calculated from pedigree data. However, the development of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms has increased the interest of calculating these coefficients from molecular data in order to improve their accuracy. In this study, genomic estimates of coancestry, inbreeding and effective population size were obtained in the Spanish Holstein population and then compared with pedigree-based estimates. A total of 11,135 animals genotyped with the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip were available for the study. After applying filtering criteria, the final genomic dataset included 36,693 autosomal SNPs and 10,569 animals. Pedigree data from those genotyped animals included 31,203 animals. These individuals represented only the last five generations in order to homogenise the amount of pedigree information across animals. Genomic estimates of coancestry and inbreeding were obtained from identity by descent segments (coancestry) or runs of homozygosity (inbreeding). The results indicate that the percentage of variance of pedigree-based coancestry estimates explained by genomic coancestry estimates was higher than that for inbreeding. Estimates of effective population size obtained from genome-wide and pedigree information were consistent and ranged from about 66 to 79. These low values emphasize the need of controlling the rate of increase of coancestry and inbreeding in Holstein selection programmes.

  9. Energy policy for Schleswig-Holstein. Priority to industry; Energiepolitik fuer Schleswig-Holstein. Mehr Wirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschfeld, Markus; Fehlau, Karin (comps.)

    2010-03-15

    This is a publication of the Schleswig-Holstein state government, stating its goals in energy policy and the resulting political priorities, positions and important milestones and projects in Schleswig-Holstein. The energy policy focuses on the following aspects: Enhancement of renewable energy sources; Energy conservation and higher energy efficiency; Establishing a balanced energy mix; Support to the expansion of the existing power grids; Support to competition in the energy markets; Reliable supervision to ensure uninterrupted energy supply, and innovations in the energy sector.

  10. Heritability estimates for methane emission in Holstein cows using breath measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jan; Madsen, Jørgen; Løvendahl, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Enteric methane emission from ruminants contributes substantially to the greenhouse effect. Few studies have focused on the genetic variation in enteric methane emission from dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to estimate the heritability for enteric methane emission from Danish Holstein...... cows. On a total of 683 dairy cows a Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR) measuring unit was used to make large scale individual methane emission records. The cows were measured in 7 herds during their visits to automatic milking systems (AMS). The FTIR unit air inlet was mounted in the front part...... of an AMS close to the cows head for 7 days, recording continuously every 5 seconds. The phenotype analysed was the mean methane to carbon dioxide ratio across visits during the measuring period, as this ratio reflects the proportion of the metabolisable energy exhaled as methane. The statistical linear...

  11. A case of ocular thelaziasis in a 2.5 years old Holstein heifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Daradka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 2.5-years-old, Holstein lactating dairy cow was presented to the Veterinary Health Center with severe conjunctivitis and exuberant granulation tissue formation of the left eye. Upon close examination of the eye, a 2-cm long slender-shaped nematode was found in the conjunctival sac. The nematode was examined by a veterinary parasitologist and determined to be Thelazia species. The exuberant granulation tissue was surgically removed and a total of 0.5 mL of 1% levamisole was injected subconjunctivally. Levamesole was also injected subcutaneously at a dose of 10 mg/kg of body weight and repeated after 15 days. The cow made a complete recovery within 25 days following treatment. This is the first case report of ocular thelaziasis in dairy cattle in Jordan.

  12. Different management methods on prevalence of lameness in 25 Holstein-Friesian herds in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudaj R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lameness in dairy cattle is the third most expensive outbreak after mastitis and reproductive disorders. 25 Holstein-Friesian herds in Hungary were observed for two years to estimate the impact of different trimming methods and managements for the controll of the incidence of lameness. Professional trimming was found to be more effective on farms with no nutritional disorders and where refurnishment works were carried out. The greatest decrease in the prevalence of lameness was observed on farms which provided professional trimming, effective footbathing, improved walking and resting surfaces and which treated severely lame cows between regular trimmings. The greatest increase in occurrence of lameness was reported on farms with on-farm trimmers and where building projects were carried out and nutritional disorders found.

  13. Transcriptome analysis and identification of significantly differentially expressed genes in Holstein calves subjected to severe thermal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Krishnamoorthy; Lee, Eunjin; Kwan, Anam; Lim, Youngjo; Lee, Junyep; Jang, Gulwon; Chung, Hoyoung

    2017-09-01

    RNA-Seq analysis was used to characterize transcriptome response of Holstein calves to thermal stress. A total of eight animals aged between 2 and 3 months were randomly selected and subjected to thermal stress corresponding to a temperature humidity index of 95 in an environmentally controlled house for 12 h consecutively for 3 days. A set of 15,787 unigenes were found to be expressed and after a threshold of threefold change, and a Q value genes were found to be differentially expressed on days 1, 2, and 3 out of which 343, 261 and 256 genes were upregulated and 159, 133, and 120 genes were downregulated. Only 356 genes out of these were expressed on all 3 days, and only they were considered as significantly differentially expressed. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that ten pathways were significantly enriched; the top two among them were protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum and MAPK signaling pathways. These results suggest that thermal stress triggered a complex response in Holstein calves and the animals adjusted their physiological and metabolic processes to survive. Many of the genes identified in this study have not been previously reported to be involved in thermal stress response. The results of this study extend our understanding of the animal's response to thermal stress and some of the identified genes may prove useful in the efforts to breed Holstein cattle with superior thermotolerance, which might help in minimizing production loss due to thermal stress.

  14. Transcriptome analysis and identification of significantly differentially expressed genes in Holstein calves subjected to severe thermal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Krishnamoorthy; Lee, Eunjin; Kwan, Anam; Lim, Youngjo; Lee, Junyep; Jang, Gulwon; Chung, Hoyoung

    2017-11-01

    RNA-Seq analysis was used to characterize transcriptome response of Holstein calves to thermal stress. A total of eight animals aged between 2 and 3 months were randomly selected and subjected to thermal stress corresponding to a temperature humidity index of 95 in an environmentally controlled house for 12 h consecutively for 3 days. A set of 15,787 unigenes were found to be expressed and after a threshold of threefold change, and a Q value protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum and MAPK signaling pathways. These results suggest that thermal stress triggered a complex response in Holstein calves and the animals adjusted their physiological and metabolic processes to survive. Many of the genes identified in this study have not been previously reported to be involved in thermal stress response. The results of this study extend our understanding of the animal's response to thermal stress and some of the identified genes may prove useful in the efforts to breed Holstein cattle with superior thermotolerance, which might help in minimizing production loss due to thermal stress.

  15. Use of F1 progeny of HolsteinxZebu cross cattle as oocyte donors for in vitro embryo production and gene microinjection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Armas, R; Solano, R; Riego, E; Pupo, C A; Aguilar, A; Ramos, B; Aguirre, A; de la Fuente, J; Castro, F O

    1994-11-01

    This study was designed to determine the possibility of using F1 crossbreed cattle (HolsteinxZebu) as donors of oocytes for in vitro fertilization (IVF) and for pronuclear gene microinjection into in vitro-produced embryos. In the first part of the experiment oocytes from Bos taurus (Holstein), Bos indicus (Zebu) and F1 crossbred Bos taurusxBos indicus (HolsteinxZebu) genotypes were inseminated with Bos taurus (Holstein) semen and were allocated for in vitro embryo production using conventional IVF procedures. No differences were observed on the in vitro maturation (IVM) rates between breeds (HolsteinxHolstein:85%, ZebuxHolstein:84% and ZebuxHolsteinxHolstein:88%). Holstein cows yielded the highest number of cumulus oocyte complexes (6.8 per ovary) for in vitro maturation, differing (P<0.05) from ZebuxHolstein and ZebuxHolsteinxHolstein F1 by 5.1 and 5.8, respectively. However, the Holstein breed also yielded the lowest percentage of cleavage (45.1 vs 71.9% for ZebuxHolstein and 65.1% for ZebuxHolsteinxHolstein). Of the 3 genotypes, the hybrid F1 breed was the most efficient source of oocytes for the production of embryos capable of reaching morulae and blastocyst stages (76/250; P<0.001). In the second part of the study, 599 oocytes from the F1 breed were fertilized in vitro, 1 group of 150 oocytes was used for the determination of the optimal pronuclear visualization period. The highest number of oocytes with 2 pronuclei was observed between 24 to 28 h after IVF (27 to 42%). The remaining 399 oocytes were microinjected with a gene construct bearing the bacterial lacZ gene as the reporter for gene expression. Survival of embryos to microinjection was 73.8%, and 45.5% of them (50/110) cleaved in culture. Of the microinjected embryos, 1 out of 50 showed beta-galactosidase activity. These findings indicate that a tropical crossbreed of cattle (ZebuxHolsteinxHolstein) can be used as a source of oocytes for IVF programs and gene microinjection studies.

  16. International genetic evaluation for fertility traits in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Canavesi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to review and discuss the results of the first international evaluation for female fertility of Holstein dairy cattle. Fifteen countries, including Italy, provided breeding values of bulls and joined the evaluation. Four trait groups were used to analyze animal’s ability to became pregnant and animal’s ability to recycle after calving. Italy submitted three traits: days to first service (DTFS, non-return rate at 56 days (NR56 and calving interval (CI. Genetic correlation between Italy and the other countries ranged from 0.72 to 0.94 for DTFS, from 0.25 to 0.90 for NR56 and from 0.67 to 0.87 for CI. Results represent another step forward in the international trade of dairy cattle genetic material.

  17. Genetic parameters for dry matter intake in primiparous Holstein, Nordic Red, and Jersey cows in the first half of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B; Fikse, W F; Lassen, J; Lidauer, M H; Løvendahl, P; Mäntysaari, P; Berglund, B

    2016-09-01

    Dry matter intake (DMI) is a key component of feed efficiency in dairy cattle. In this study, we estimated genetic parameters of DMI over the first 24 lactation weeks in 3 dairy cattle breeds: Holstein, Nordic Red, and Jersey. In total, 1,656 primiparous cows (717 Holstein, 663 Nordic Red, and 276 Jersey) from Denmark, Finland, and Sweden were studied. For each breed, variance components, heritability, and repeatability for weekly DMI were estimated in 6 consecutive periods of the first 24 lactation weeks based on a repeatability animal model. Genetic correlations for DMI between different lactation periods were estimated using bivariate models. Based on our results, Holstein and Nordic Red cows had similar DMI at the beginning of lactation, but later in lactation Holstein cows had a slightly higher DMI than Nordic Red cows. In comparison, Jersey cows had a significantly lower DMI than the other 2 breeds within the first 24 lactation weeks. Heritability estimates for DMI ranged from 0.20 to 0.40 in Holsteins, 0.25 to 0.41 in Nordic Red, and 0.17 to 0.42 in Jerseys within the first 24 lactation weeks. Genetic and phenotypic variances for DMI varied along lactation within each breed and tended to be higher in the middle of lactation than at the beginning of the lactation. High genetic correlations were noted for DMI in lactation wk 5 to 24 in all 3 breeds, whereas DMI at early lactation (lactation wk 1 to 4) tended to be genetically different from DMI in the middle of lactation. The 3 breeds in this study might differ in their genetic variances for DMI, but the differences were not statistically significant in most of the studied periods. Breed differences for the genetic variance tended to be more obvious than for heritability. The potential breed differences in genetic variation for DMI should be considered in a future study using feed intake information from multiple breeds. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  18. Long-term soil monitoring in Schleswig-Holstein; Boden-Dauerbeobachtung in Schleswig-Holstein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, A. [Landesamt fuer Natur und Umwelt des Landes Schleswig-Holstein, Flintbek (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    Since 1989 in Schleswig-Holstein are 37 Soil-Monitoringsites are established, where soil chemistry, soil physic and (soil)biology are investigated. The investigation-sites are chosen with the intention to longterm changing of soils regarding to earth-science criteria, deposition- and landuse-situation as well as integrated into the integrational environmental monitoring. (orig.)

  19. Seroprevalence fo Anaplasma marginale in dairy cattle and, studies on the dynamics of natural infection of Holstein calves in Southern Brazil/ Soroprevalência de Anaplasma marginale em bovinos leiteiros e estudos sobre a dinâmica da infecção natural em bezerros holandeses no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora S. Kano

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Sera of 708 animals (cows, heifers and calves from 13 dairy herds in the Londrina region of Paraná, Brazil, were tested for antibodies to Anaplasma marginale by a competitive ELISA assay (cELISA. Ten 2 to 20 days old Holstein calves, from one of the 13 herds studied, were monitored during one year. Blood samples from each calf were collected monthly and tick burden counting was performed every fortnight. Percentage of infected erythrocytes was established by Giemsa-stained smears, and sera samples were examined by cELISA to detect antibodies against A. marginale. In the 13 herds, 92.94% of the animals were seropositive to A. marginale, which indicates that Londrina is an area of enzootic stability. Among the three animal categories (cows, heifers and calves, the rates were 98.29%, 96.64% and 81.25%, respectively. Passive transfer of maternal antibodies to calves was demonstrated by cELISA. From ten calves, nine (90% were seropositive at the first sampling, revealing colostral antibodies anti-A . marginale. These antibodies remained in calves for 2 to 3 months. After this period the calves were infected with ticks, and then all of them were seropositive to Anaplasma. Five 4 to 7 months old calves showed rickettsemia ranging from 0.1% to 3.8%. Two of them were treated with tetracycline. The rickettsemia and clinical signs of anaplasmosis of these calves were coincident with tick burden increase.Soros de 708 animais (vacas, novilhas e bezerros oriundos de 13 propriedades leiteiras da região de Londrina, Estado do Paraná, Brasil, foram testados para a presença de anticorpos contra Anaplasma marginale pelo teste ELISA competitivo (cELISA. Dez bezerros recém nascidos, pertencentes a um dos 13 rebanhos utilizados no levantamento sorológico, foram monitorados durante um ano. De cada bezerro foram colhidas amostras de sangue mensalmente e a cada quinze dias foi realizada a contagem de carrapatos. A porcentagem de eritrócitos parasitados foi

  20. Correlações genéticas e fenotípicas entre características de tipo e produção de leite em bovinos da raça Holandesa Genetic and phenotypic correlations between type traits and milk production in Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.C. Esteves

    2004-08-01

    traits were greater for conformation traits and udder traits. Some type traits presented high genetic correlations between them, suggesting that some of them could be excluded from the genetic programs for linear type traits adopted by Holstein Breed Association in Brazil.

  1. Estudo técnico e econômico de um sistema de produção de leite com gado mestiço F1 Holandês-Zebu Technical and economic evaluation on of a milk production system for F1 Holstein-Zebu cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.A. Moraes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a viabilidade técnica e a rentabilidade de um sistema de produção de leite com gado mestiço, mediante análise de custos e receitas da atividade e avaliação da rentabilidade. Os dados foram obtidos de uma unidade experimental da EPAMIG, situada no município de Felixlândia, MG, e referem-se a dois períodos iguais de um ano cada. As variáveis analisadas foram: rentabilidade nos períodos de análise, custo de cria do bezerro e sua importância sobre a receita da atividade. A viabilidade do sistema foi demonstrada pela rentabilidade de 20,2% no ano 1 e 37,6% no ano 2; a venda dos bezerros à desmama representou 25% da receita total.The economic viability of a milk production system with crossbred (F1 cattle, through analysis of costs and income of the activity and assessment of benefit/total income index was evaluated. Data were from the Research Experimental Unit of EPAMIG, located at Felixlandia City, Minas Gerais State, and refer to two equal periods of 1 year each. The following parameters were analyzed: benefit/total income, raising cost of calves and its importance upon income. The viability of the system was demonstrated by the benefit/total income index of 20.2% and 37.6% for year 1 and 2, respectively. The calf sale accounted for 25% of the total income.

  2. Integrated energy concept and climate concept for Schleswig-Holstein; Integriertes Energie- und Klimakonzept fuer Schleswig-Holstein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-10-15

    For the first time, the state government of Schleswig-Holstein (Federal Republic of Germany) presents an integrated energy and climate concept. In this paper, first of all the challenges, goals and strategies of the integrated energy policy and climate policy are presented. Subsequently, the selected action areas of the integrated policy on climate change and energy policy in Schleswig-Holstein are described.

  3. Two-dimensional Hubbard-Holstein bipolaron

    OpenAIRE

    Macridin, Alexandru; Sawatzky, George A.; Jarrell, Mark

    2004-01-01

    We present a diagrammatic Monte Carlo study of the properties of the Hubbard-Holstein bipolaron on a two-dimensional square lattice. With a small Coulomb repulsion, U, and with increasing electron-phonon interaction, and when reaching a value about two times smaller than the one corresponding to the transition of light polaron to heavy polaron, the system suffers a sharp transition from a state formed by two weakly bound light polarons to a heavy, strongly bound on-site bipolaron. Aside from ...

  4. Analog superconducting quantum simulator for Holstein polarons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Feng; Stojanović, Vladimir M.; Siddiqi, Irfan; Tian, Lin

    2013-12-01

    We propose an analog quantum simulator for the Holstein molecular-crystal model based on a superconducting circuit QED system in the dispersive regime. By varying the driving field on the superconducting resonators, one can access both the adiabatic and antiadiabatic regimes of this model, and the strong electron-phonon coupling required for small-polaron formation can be readily reached. We show that a small-polaron state of arbitrary quasimomentum can be generated by applying a microwave pulse to the resonators. We also show that significant squeezing in the resonator modes can be achieved in the polaron-crossover regime through a measurement-based scheme.

  5. Tunable Holstein model with cold polar molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Felipe; Krems, Roman V. [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2011-11-15

    We show that an ensemble of polar molecules trapped in an optical lattice can be considered as a controllable open quantum system. The coupling between collective rotational excitations and the motion of the molecules in the lattice potential can be controlled by varying the strength and orientation of an external dc electric field as well as the intensity of the trapping laser. The system can be described by a generalized Holstein Hamiltonian with tunable parameters and can be used as a quantum simulator of excitation energy transfer and polaron phenomena. We show that the character of excitation energy transfer can be modified by tuning experimental parameters.

  6. Simultaneous introgression of three POLLED mutations into a synthetic breed of Chinese cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Yi Chen

    Full Text Available The polled phenotype of cattle is increasingly becoming favourable mainly because of the enhanced emphasis on animal welfare, for which the causative mutations have been reported during the past years. The Shuxuan cattle are a new synthetic breed by crossing the indigenous cattle with both Simmental and Holstein semen in Sichuan of Southwest China, in which about 15% of polled individuals have newly emerged. Because official record about POLLED genotypes for the historically imported sires is unavailable, we therefore genotyped the proposed POLLED variants of P202ID, P80kbID and P219ID among 48 polled and 16 horned Shuxuan cattle. It was first revealed that all three candidate mutations have been simultaneously introgressed into Shuxuan cattle, whereas the P202ID mutation is dominant. Furthermore, one polled animal still remains to carry none of the three candidate mutations, which suggests that further mutation(s would also exist. Additionally, we sequenced mitochondrial DNA and found that Shuxuan cattle are composed of two matrilineal origins of Bos taurus (65.6% and B. indicus (34.4%; and there is no origin-biased distribution of polled phenotype. In conclusion, our study first supports the recently reported novel candidate mutation of P219ID and detects simultaneous presences of all three known POLLED mutations within a cattle breed.

  7. Factors affecting the reproductive traits of Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Flavia Vilas Boas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For dairy cattle breeds, mainly the taurine ones, the selection emphasized for many years the increase in milk yields and, as a consequence, the adaptive and reproductive traits were negatively affected. The aim of this study was to verify the influence of genetic and environmental effects on the reproductive traits in a dairy herd selected for high milk production levels. The data set comprised 1,737 first lactations Holsteins cows of Agrindus Farm, located at Southeastern region of Brazil. The records of the following reproductive traits: calving to first heat interval (CFHI, calving to conception interval (CCI and first to second calving interval (FCI were analyzed as dependent variables by least squares method using GLM procedure (SAS. Linear models were considered including two production levels (1= less than 9,500 kg and 2= more than 9,501 kg of total milk yield, contemporary group (year and months calving, management group, sire of cow, and the sire used to breeding cows, as classificatory variables. As covariates were included for all traits the peak milk yield in lactation (linear effect, age at calving only for CFHI (linear and quadratic effects since this effect was not significant for other traits, and CFHI (linear effect only for FCI. The coefficients of determination represented 24%, 74% and 75%, respectively for CFHI, FCI and CCI models. Production level, peak milk yield and sire effects were significant (P<0.05 for all traits. The average estimated for high and low milk production level were 73 and 79 days, 500 and 601 days, 227 and 330 days for CFHI, FCI and CCI, respectively, suggesting that cows with higher genetic potential for milk had worse reproductive performance. Similarly, lactation peak showed significant effect (P<0.05 for all traits, suggesting higher peaks cows showed also poorer reproductive rates. Sire effect also was a variable that showed significant effect (P<0.01 for all traits, which means that there was

  8. Heterocedasticidade entre estados para produção de leite em vacas da raça Holandesa, usando métodos Bayesianos via amostrador de Gibbs An evaluation of heteroscedasticity of variances of milk yield of Holstein cattle in different states using Bayesian inference via Gibbs sampler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alencariano José da Silva Falcão

    2006-04-01

    305 days milk yield records of Holstein cows calving from 1980 to 1993 in the states of MG, SP, PR, SC, and RS were used to investigate heterogeneity of variance and to evaluate the genotype by environment interaction. Milk production from each State was considered as a different trait and variances were assumed heterogeneous. Milk production was also analyzed using a single-trait model assuming homogeneity of variance. (Covariance components and genetic parameters were estimated by Bayesian inference, via Gibbs sampler (GS, using a model which included season of calving, genetic group, herd-year of calving and parity as fixed effects and animal additive genetic, permanent environmental and residual as random effects. Convergence of the GS chain to the stationary distribution was diagnosed using the method described by Heidelberg & Welch (1983. The posterior precision of the variance components and the heritability were high in the single-trait analysis. Posterior mean and standard deviation (SD of heritability of milk yield were 0,278±0,012. For the multiple-trait analysis, posterior precisions of the (covariance components were larger for SP and PR states. Posterior means and standard errors of heritability for MG, SP, PR, SC, and RS were 0.280±0.021, 0.233±0.015, 0.280±0.012, 0.393±0.026, and 0.382±0.022, respectively. Genetic correlations for milk yield between the five states were very low and ranged from 0.070 to 0.364, suggesting the presence of genotype by environment interaction. Differences in genetic and residual variances of milk yield among the states indicate it would be necessary to account for heterogeneous variances in genetic evaluations.

  9. Claw Lesions Causing Clinical Lameness in Lactating Holstein Frisian Crossbred Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Nazir Zahid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify claw lesions causing clinical lameness in lactating Holstein Frisian (HF crossbred cows in dairy cattle. Seventy dairy farmers were interviewed at the monthly meetings of Progressive Dairy Farmers Association of Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Ten dairy farms were randomly selected as per probability proportional to size and a total of 450 lactating HF crossbred cows were taken into the study. All the lactating cows were scored for locomotion and rear leg view index. Trimming was done in all the clinically lame animals (animals with locomotion scores 2 and 3 and equal number of animals selected randomly from those with locomotion scores 0 and 1. Various claw lesions were evaluated in both the groups. There was a significant relationship between locomotion score and rear leg view index to identify lameness. Sole ulcers and white line fissures were the lesions responsible for clinical lameness. Other lesions did not cause clinical lameness but increased the asymmetry in lactating HF crossbred cows. Both locomotion score and rear leg view index could be reliably used to identify clinical lameness in lactating cattle.

  10. Emission trading north - benefits for the economy and the environment. A pilot project of the Energy Foundation Schleswig-Holstein in co-operation with the Association of the Chambers of Industry and Commerce in Schleswig-Holstein and the Union of Employers' Associations in Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barzantny, Katja [Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Hahn, Michael [ERM Lahmeyer Int. GmbH, Neu-Isenburg (Germany); Kruska, Martin [EUtech Energie plus Umwelt, Technik plus Management, Aachen (Germany); Klein, Michael [500 PPM Gesellschaft fuer Emissionshandel und Beratung mbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    In co-operation with the Association of the Chambers of Industry and Commerce in Schleswig-Holstein and the Union of Employers' Associations in Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein the Energy Foundation Schleswig-Holstein is carrying out the pilot project Emission Trading North. Its primary target is the regional application of the flexible mechanisms (ET, JI, CDM) together with the industry of Schleswig-Holstein. In detail, it focuses on capacity building on behalf of the different parties involved, a smooth transition to real ET and the positioning of the Energy Foundation in a future ET system. The project cycle consists of 3 phases (Phase 0: preparatory work; Phase 1: development of emission inventories, identification and evaluation of emission reduction measures; Phase 2: simulation of ET). Participating companies located in Schleswig-Holstein and Hamburg, representing the power sector, cement production, paper and pulp production, non-ferrous metals as well as the renewable energy sector, dealt with the central question of allocation of emission allowances. During in-depth energy analyses emission reduction measures were identified and evaluated with respect to their volume of emission reductions and related costs. Participating companies developed mid and long-term trading strategies taking into account investment cycles, project risks and market prices. The strategy was tested during a multi-period trading simulation. With respect to the national allocation plan, a central element of the future European emission trading system, the pilot project proposes consistent solutions relating to CHP, capacity limits, process emissions, fuel substitutes, new entrants and shut-down of installations.

  11. Short communication: Impact of the intensity of milk production on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions in Portuguese cattle farms

    OpenAIRE

    José Pereira; Henrique Trindade

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was evaluate the relationship between the intensity of milk production for a wide range of Portuguese commercial cattle farms and NH3 and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from manure management and enteric fermentation. A survey was carried out at 1471 commercial dairy cattle farms (Holstein-Friesian) and the NH3, N2O and CH4 emissions at each stage of manure management were estimated as well as CH4 losses from enteric fermentation. Gaseous emissions were estimated by a ma...

  12. Effects of Supplements with Different Protein Contents on Nutritional Performance of Grazing Cattle During the Rainy Season

    OpenAIRE

    J. F. Figueiras; E. Detmann; M. O. Franco; E. D. Batista; W. L. S. Reis; M. F. Paulino; S. C. Valadares Filho

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplements with different crude protein (CP) contents on grazing cattle intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation pattern, and nitrogen (N) metabolism characteristics during the rainy season. Five ruminal and abomasal cannulated Holstein?Zebu steers (296 kg body weight, BW) were used in a 5?5 Latin square design. The animals grazed five signal grass paddocks (0.34 ha). The five treatments evaluated were: Control (no supplement) and...

  13. Identification of Genetic Associations and Functional Polymorphisms of SAA1 Gene Affecting Milk Production Traits in Dairy Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shaohua; Gao, Yahui; Zhang, Shengli; Zhang, Qin; Sun, Dongxiao

    2016-01-01

    Our initial RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed that the Serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) gene was differentially expressed in the mammary glands of lactating Holstein cows with extremely high versus low phenotypic values of milk protein and fat percentage. To further validate the genetic effect and potential molecular mechanisms of SAA1 gene involved in regulating milk production traits in dairy cattle, we herein performed a study through genotype-phenotype associations. Six identified SNPs were signif...

  14. Polymorphism of CSN3, Pit-1, LGB and its impact on milk performance traits at the Czech Fleckvieh and Holstein breed

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    Ivan Manga

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of known CSN3, Pit-1 and LGB genes single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP on milk performance traits (milk yield, protein, fat and lactose content, count of somatic cells at the Czech Fleckvieh and the Holstein cattle breed was estimated. For more exact results, tested cows of each breed came from one source, and were selected into two groups according to their lactation. We tested around 100 animals at the first and 25 at the high (more than five lactation of both breeds. Our attention was aimed particularly on combined genotypes of favourable alleles. We confirmed the positive tendention of the cheese yield valuable CSN3/BB with Pit-1/AA combined genotype for high milk production. By estimation of single gene effect, we found out significant association (P ≤ 0.01 between milk yield (kg and Pit-1 genotypes at Holstein cows with the high lactation. This dependence was observed at the Czech Fleckvieh breed too, even it didn’t get conclusive value. Among all tested individuals, CSN3 genotypes significantly influenced milk yield (AA > BB, P ≤ 0.01, milk fat (BB > AA, P ≤ 0.01 and protein content (BB > AA, P ≤ 0.01. The genotypes AB and BB of the LGB gene at Holstein cows were joined with higher milk yield in selected cattle groups opposite to AA genotype (P ≤ 0.01, P ≤ 0.05. The influence of LGB on the somatic cell count in created cattle groups was not confirmed. Estimation of allele and genotype frequency according to lactation stage didn’t reveal higher differences at non of tested genes in both breeds.

  15. [Hyperextension of fetlock joints in German Holstein and German Holstein-Limousin crossbred calves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bähr, C; Baum, B; Hewicker-Trautwein, M; Scholz, H; Distl, O

    2005-01-01

    In two different dairy farms six calves exhibiting bilateral flexion of the fetlock joints in front or rear legs were born in 2000 to 2002. Four of the affected calves from the same farm were crossbred between German Holstein cows with red and white coat colour and a bull of the breed Limousin. The other two affected calves born on another farm were purebred German Holsteins with a black and white coat colour. The tests for BVD virus antigen and antibodies were negative in all affected calves. Three of the calves showed a lower selen and a higher glutamate dehydrogenase concentration in the analyses of blood metabolites. Two crossbred calves showed a degeneration of the liver with a progressive periportal fibrosis in a histological examination. In one calf an edema of astrocytes of the central nervous system was seen. The analysis of the pedigrees revealed for the four crossbred calves the Limousin bull as common ancestor and the mothers of the calves as relatives. For the affected purebred German Holstein calves also a sire was identified as a common ancestor. The pedigrees support inheritance through a monogenic autosomal recessive locus or more recessive gene loci with variable expressivity. However, the analysis could not clarify whether different gene loci are responsible for the congenital anomalies observed in the calves from the two farms and thus, the observed anomalies may be different genetic entities. Obvious environmental reasons were not found.

  16. Unique cultural values of Madura cattle: is cross-breeding a threat?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tri Satya Mastuti Widi, Tri; Udo, H.M.J.; Oldenbroek, J.K.; Budisatria, I.G.S.; Baliarti, E.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2013-01-01

    In Indonesia, cross-breeding local cattle with European beef breeds is widely promoted to stimulate beef production. This cross-breeding is threatening local breeds that have often different functions, including cultural roles. This study analysed the cultural values of Madura cattle and the effects

  17. Spectral functions of the spinless Holstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, J [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic); Hohenadler, M [Institute for Theoretical and Computational Physics, TU Graz (Austria); Fehske, H [Institute for Physics, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University Greifswald (Germany)

    2006-03-01

    An analytical approach to the one-dimensional spinless Holstein model is proposed, which is valid at finite charge-carrier concentrations. Spectral functions of charge carriers are computed on the basis of self-energy calculations. A generalization of the Lang-Firsov canonical transformation method is shown to provide an interpolation scheme between the extreme weak-coupling and strong-coupling cases. The transformation depends on a variationally determined parameter that characterizes the charge distribution across the polaron volume. The relation between the spectral functions of the polaron and electron, the latter corresponding to the photoemission spectrum, is derived. Particular attention is paid to the distinction between the coherent and incoherent parts of the spectra, and their evolution as a function of band filling and model parameters. Results are discussed and compared with recent numerical calculations for the many-polaron problem.

  18. Genetic polymorphism of beta-casein gene and its associations with milk traits in Holstein-Friesian cows

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    Teodor Bugeac

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In animal breeding finding and using effective genetic markers for improving important traits it is a continuous challenge. In this respect, several genetic markers were associated in cattle with increased milk production or a better milk quality. This proved to be a useful tool for improving certain traits by selecting individuals carriers of allelic variants that have an effect on a desirable trait. In particular, positive associations between certain alleles found at the milk protein loci with some milk production traits convincingly demonstrated in several cattle breeds. Although, in some cases the results obtained in various studies were not in agreement and varied between breeds or populations. Therefore the objective of this study was to establish associations (if any between alleles found at the beta-casein (CSN2 locus and some milk production traits (milk yield and fat, protein, casein and lactose content in a Holstein-Friesian population reared in Romania. Genetic variants at CSN2 locus were identified by isoelectric focusing (IEF of milk samples. In order to determine milk composition the samples were analysed with MilkoScan FT 6000. For the statistical analysis of data SPSS v.19 for Windows was used. At the CSN2 locus four alleles and seven genotypes were identified in the analyzed cattle population. The cows carriers of CSN2 A2 allele produced the highest milk yield and the highest milk protein content, this result being in agreement with other previous studies.

  19. A multi breed reference improves genotype imputation accuracy in Nordic Red cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum, Rasmus Froberg; Ma, Peipei; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2012-01-01

    the subsequent effect of the imputed HD data on the reliability of genomic prediction. HD genotype data was available for 247 Danish, 210 Swedish and 249 Finnish Red bulls, and for 546 Holstein bulls. A subset 50 of bulls from each of the Nordic Red populations was selected for validation. After quality control...... 612,615 SNPs on chromosome 1-29 remained for analysis. Validation was done by masking markers in true HD data and imputing them using Beagle v. 3.3 and a reference group of either national Red, combined Red or combined Red and Holstein bulls. Results show a decrease in allele error rate from 2.64, 1......The objective of this study was to investigate if a multi breed reference would improve genotype imputation accuracy from 50K to high density (HD) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker data in Nordic Red Dairy Cattle, compared to using only a single breed reference, and to check...

  20. A multi breed reference improves genotype imputation accuracy in Nordic Red cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum, Rasmus Froberg; Ma, Peipei; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    the subsequent effect of the imputed HD data on the reliability of genomic prediction. HD genotype data was available for 247 Danish, 210 Swedish and 249 Finnish Red bulls, and for 546 Holstein bulls. A subset 50 of bulls from each of the Nordic Red populations was selected for validation. After quality control...... 612,615 SNPs on chromosome 1-29 remained for analysis. Validation was done by masking markers in true HD data and imputing them using Beagle v. 3.3 and a reference group of either national Red, combined Red or combined Red and Holstein bulls. Results show a decrease in allele error rate from 2.64, 1......The objective of this study was to investigate if a multi breed reference would improve genotype imputation accuracy from 50K to high density (HD) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker data in Nordic Red Dairy Cattle, compared to using only a single breed reference, and to check...

  1. Genomic Selection Improves Heat Tolerance in Dairy Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, J B; Douglas, M L; Williams, S R O; Wales, W J; Marett, L C; Nguyen, T T T; Reich, C M; Hayes, B J

    2016-09-29

    Dairy products are a key source of valuable proteins and fats for many millions of people worldwide. Dairy cattle are highly susceptible to heat-stress induced decline in milk production, and as the frequency and duration of heat-stress events increases, the long term security of nutrition from dairy products is threatened. Identification of dairy cattle more tolerant of heat stress conditions would be an important progression towards breeding better adapted dairy herds to future climates. Breeding for heat tolerance could be accelerated with genomic selection, using genome wide DNA markers that predict tolerance to heat stress. Here we demonstrate the value of genomic predictions for heat tolerance in cohorts of Holstein cows predicted to be heat tolerant and heat susceptible using controlled-climate chambers simulating a moderate heatwave event. Not only was the heat challenge stimulated decline in milk production less in cows genomically predicted to be heat-tolerant, physiological indicators such as rectal and intra-vaginal temperatures had reduced increases over the 4 day heat challenge. This demonstrates that genomic selection for heat tolerance in dairy cattle is a step towards securing a valuable source of nutrition and improving animal welfare facing a future with predicted increases in heat stress events.

  2. Evaluation of cardiac troponin I alterationsin dairy cattle with septicmetritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    majid fartashvand

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Metritis is an important disease in dairy cattle which causes economical loses including decrease in milk yield, increase calving interval, treatment costs and death of ill cases. Septic metritis usually occurs within 2-10 days after parturition, and characterized clinically with sever toxemia associated with purulent odorous uterine discharge with or without retained placenta. In this study, serum levels of cTnI were measured in 50 female Holstein cattle with septicmetritis and compared with normal cows. cTnI of serum in disease and control groups were 0.017 ± 0.008 and 0.005 ± 0.000 ng/dl, respectively. Heart rate, respiratory rate and rectal temperature in disease cases were significantly higher than normal cattle. There was significant correlation with cTnI and heart rate and rectal temperature. Endotoxemia is one of possible reasons of elevation of serum cTnI. Cytokines and endotoxins originated from gram negative bacteria that cause myocardium depression and ventricular dilatation. Furthermore impairment of left ventricle function is a significant effect of septic shock.

  3. Genetic parameters of calving ease using sire-maternal grandsire model in Korean Holsteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboob Alam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective Calving ease (CE is a complex reproductive trait of economic importance in dairy cattle. This study was aimed to investigate the genetic merits of CE for Holsteins in Korea. Methods A total of 297,614 field records of CE, from 2000 to 2015, from first parity Holstein heifers were recorded initially. After necessary data pruning such as age at first calving (18 to 42 mo, gestation length, and presence of sire information, final datasets for CE consisted of 147,526 and 132,080 records for service sire calving ease (SCE and daughter calving ease (DCE evaluations, respectively. The CE categories were ordered and scores ranged from CE1 to CE5 (CE1, easy; CE2, slight assistance; CE3, moderate assistance; CE4, difficult calving; CE5, extreme difficulty calving. A linear transformation of CE score was obtained on each category using Snell procedure, and a scaling factor was applied to attain the spread between 0 (CE5 and 100% (CE1. A sire-maternal grandsire model analysis was performed using ASREML 3.0 software package. Results The estimated direct heritability (h2 from SCE and DCE evaluations were 0.11±0.01 and 0.08±0.01, respectively. Maternal h2 estimates were 0.05±0.02 and 0.04±0.01 from SCE and DCE approaches, respectively. Estimates of genetic correlations between direct and maternal genetic components were −0.68±0.09 (SCE and −0.71±0.09 (DCE. The average direct genetic effect increased over time, whereas average maternal effect was low and consistent. The estimated direct predicted transmitting ability (PTA was desirable and increasing over time, but the maternal PTA was undesirable and decreasing. Conclusion The evidence on sufficient genetic variances in this study could reflect a possible selection improvement over time regarding ease of calving. It is expected that the estimated genetic parameters could be a valuable resource to formulate sire selection and breeding plans which would be directed towards the reduction of

  4. Effect of a high-concentrate diet on milk components and mammary health in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Z L; Zhang, J; Zhang, D M; Li, J F; Lin, Y H

    2017-03-22

    In order to evaluate the milk yield, milk quality, and health of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate (HC) diet, eight lactating Holstein dairy cattle were randomly assigned to HC or low-concentrate (LC) diet groups and fed for 50 days, and the auto-control studying before and after treatment with the two diets was used. During the experiment, plasma and milk samples were collected and measured. With regard to milk component, HC feeding led to higher milk production (P milk protein percentage (P milk protein yield (P milk fat percentage (P Milk somatic cell count and N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase activity (P health. The amino acid content was lower, suggesting that depletion of amino acids, resulting in depleted milk protein, affects milk quality.

  5. Quantitative trait locus affecting birth weight on bovine chromosome 5 in a F2 Gyr x Holstein population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Gasparin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Segregation between a genetic marker and a locus influencing a quantitative trait in a well delineated population is the basis for success in mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL. To detect bovine chromosome 5 (BTA5 birth weight QTL we genotyped 294 F2 Gyr (Bos indicus x Holstein (Bos taurus crossbreed cattle for five microsatellite markers. A linkage map was constructed for the markers and an interval analysis for the presence of QTL was performed. The linkage map indicated differences in the order of two markers relative to the reference map (http://www.marc.usda.gov. Interval analysis detected a QTL controlling birth weight (p < 0.01 at 69 centimorgans (cM from the most centromeric marker with an effect of 0.32 phenotypic standard-error. These results support other studies with crossbred Bos taurus x Bos indicus populations.

  6. CNV discovery for milk composition traits in dairy cattle using whole genome resequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yahui; Jiang, Jianping; Yang, Shaohua; Hou, Yali; Liu, George E; Zhang, Shengli; Zhang, Qin; Sun, Dongxiao

    2017-03-29

    Copy number variations (CNVs) are important and widely distributed in the genome. CNV detection opens a new avenue for exploring genes associated with complex traits in humans, animals and plants. Herein, we present a genome-wide assessment of CNVs that are potentially associated with milk composition traits in dairy cattle. In this study, CNVs were detected based on whole genome re-sequencing data of eight Holstein bulls from four half- and/or full-sib families, with extremely high and low estimated breeding values (EBVs) of milk protein percentage and fat percentage. The range of coverage depth per individual was 8.2-11.9×. Using CNVnator, we identified a total of 14,821 CNVs, including 5025 duplications and 9796 deletions. Among them, 487 differential CNV regions (CNVRs) comprising ~8.23 Mb of the cattle genome were observed between the high and low groups. Annotation of these differential CNVRs were performed based on the cattle genome reference assembly (UMD3.1) and totally 235 functional genes were found within the CNVRs. By Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analyses, we found that genes were significantly enriched for specific biological functions related to protein and lipid metabolism, insulin/IGF pathway-protein kinase B signaling cascade, prolactin signaling pathway and AMPK signaling pathways. These genes included INS, IGF2, FOXO3, TH, SCD5, GALNT18, GALNT16, ART3, SNCA and WNT7A, implying their potential association with milk protein and fat traits. In addition, 95 CNVRs were overlapped with 75 known QTLs that are associated with milk protein and fat traits of dairy cattle (Cattle QTLdb). In conclusion, based on NGS of 8 Holstein bulls with extremely high and low EBVs for milk PP and FP, we identified a total of 14,821 CNVs, 487 differential CNVRs between groups, and 10 genes, which were suggested as promising candidate genes for milk protein and fat traits.

  7. Increasing imputation and prediction accuracy for Chinese Holsteins using joint Chinese-Nordic reference population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Peipei; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Ding, X

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of including Nordic Holsteins in the reference population on the imputation accuracy and prediction accuracy for Chinese Holsteins. The data used in this study include 85 Chinese Holstein bulls genotyped with both 54K chip and 777K (HD) chip, 2862 Chinese cows g...... to increase reference population rather than increasing marker density......This study investigated the effect of including Nordic Holsteins in the reference population on the imputation accuracy and prediction accuracy for Chinese Holsteins. The data used in this study include 85 Chinese Holstein bulls genotyped with both 54K chip and 777K (HD) chip, 2862 Chinese cows...... in Chinese Holstein were assessed. The allele correct rate increased around 2.7 and 1.7% in imputation from the 54K to the HD marker data for Chinese Holstein bulls and cows, respectively, when the Nordic HD-genotyped bulls were included in the reference data for imputation. However, the prediction accuracy...

  8. DETECCIÓN SEROLÓGICA DEL BLV EN MUESTRAS DE LECHE EN UNA POBLACIÓN DE VACAS HOLSTEIN, ANTIOQUIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA ÚSUGA MONROY

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Bovine Leukosis Virus (BLV is the etiological agent of the Enzootic Bovine Leukemia (EBL, this disease is infectious, chronic and specifically cattle, presenting a low percentage of patients with clinical manifestations. Between 30-70% of infected animals can develop persistent lymphocytosis (LP and between 0,1-10% of cattle over three years of infection suffers some form of lymphosarcoma (LS. The aim of this work was serologically detection of BLV in milk samples from Holstein cows in three dairy herds in the department of Antioquia. Were taken 133 milk samples from Holstein cows three dairy herds located in the municipality of Medellin and Belmira, was conducted an indirect ELISA against gp51 envelope protein of the virus. The ELISA test showed a seroprevalence of 79,69% (106/133 for all samples tested. The herd was the largest herd seroprevalence 1 (82,86%, followed by the herd 2 (80% and finally the herd 3 (77,08%. The presence of the BLV has increased in recent years in Antioquia, so fast and efficient diagnosis through reliable methodologies allow control over the spread of the disease in dairy herds.

  9. Unraveling proteome changes of Holstein beef M. semitendinosus and its relationship to meat discoloration during post-mortem storage analyzed by label-free mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qianqian; Wu, Wei; Tian, Xiaojing; Hou, Man; Dai, Ruitong; Li, Xingmin

    2017-02-10

    Label-free proteomics was applied to characterize the effect of post-mortem storage time (0, 4, and 9days at 4°C±1°C) on the proteome changes of M. semitendinosus (SM) in Holstein cattle, and correlations between differentially abundant proteins and meat color traits were investigated. The redness (a*) value decreased significantly (Pchanges (fold change>1.5, Pmeat. Bioinformatics analyses revealed that most of these proteins were involved in glycolysis and energy metabolism, electron-transfer processes, and the antioxidation function, which implied an underlying connection between meat discoloration and these biological processes. It is always a challenge for scientists to improve the stability of meat color during post-mortem storage and retail display. However, the mechanism involved in meat discoloration has not been unraveled completely, and the application of label-free proteomics in studying meat discoloration has not been reported. Our work discovers some key proteins in SM muscle of Holstein cattle that were correlated with a* value of meat via label-free proteomics. Bioinformatics analyses revealed that some of these differentially abundant proteins were involved in glycolysis and energy metabolism, electron-transfer processes, and the antioxidation function, which implied an underlying connection between meat discoloration and these biological processes. These results provide the theoretic basis on understanding of complicated biochemical changes and underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for meat discoloration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. ESTIMATION OF OPTIMUM FIRST DRY PERIOD IN KARAN FRIES CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K.Panja

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Study for estimation of optimum first dry period was conducted on 571 Karan Fries Cattle (Crossing Tharparkar and Sahiwal cows with American Holstein Friesian Sires at National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana. The data were corrected for non-genetic factors by using least squares analysis. The genetic and phenotypic parameters were estimated using standard statistical methods. The overall least squares mean for first dry period estimated as 64.47 ± 1.46 days. The relationship between first dry period and second lactation production traits were studied by using polynomial regression analysis and class interval method. Six classes of first dry period was used. Optimum first dry period was identified on the basis of higher second lactation milk production and numbers of animals in various classes as 51-70 days. However, to determine optimum level maximum profit to be taken into account.

  11. Acute phase protein response during acute ruminal acidosis in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danscher, A. M.; Thoefner, M. B.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2011-01-01

    acids. In humans, inflammation has been linked to metabolic diseases. In cattle, studies into the possible links between acid-base changes, inflammation/innate immunity and metabolic disease are warranted as this might improve our understanding of the production disease complexes occurring in particular......The aim of the study was to describe the acute phase protein and leukocyte responses in dairy heifers during acute, oligofructose-induced ruminal acidosis. The study included 2 trials involving oral oligofructose overload (17g/kg BW) to nonpregnant Danish Holstein heifers. Trial 1 included 12...... than control heifers at 18 and 24h after overload (max. 13.7±4.3 billions/L). Feeding had no effect on plasma fibrinogen concentrations or WBC in Trial 1.Acute ruminal and systemic acidosis caused by oligofructose overload resulted in distinct acute phase protein and leukocyte responses in dairy...

  12. Production indices for dual purpose cattle in central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepta McManus

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of crossbreeding low genetic potential cows of Bos indicus origin characterized by Gyr crossed with Holstein-Friesian and Simmental bulls to produce animals in a low input dual purpose system. The farm is situated near Brasilia, in the savannah region of Brazil. The climate of the region is classified as Aw by Köppen. Data was available on 1580 calvings and completed lactations of cows with three genetic types: Gyr, Holstein-Friesian × Gyr and Simmental × Gyr. The bulls ran with the cows all year round and the diet comprised of pasture (mainly Brachiaria and Andropogon during the summer (rainy season and milled sugar cane with added urea during the winter (dry season. A mineral salt mixture was available ad libitum. Data was analysed using Statistical Analysis System. The results show that, under low input management conditions, the crossbred cows produce approximately twice the volume of milk per lactation, calve at a younger age and have a shorter open period, but there are no significant differences between crosses for growth rates of the calves or body condition of the cows. In this system, crossbred cows had production higher indices than zebu cattle. The best indices were found for cows calving in the rainy season (September to December and thinner cows (with body condition 3-5 on a scale of 9.

  13. Estimation of Genetic Parameters of Holstein Dairy Cattle for Production Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Teimurian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic parameters for milk production and milk fat traits for first to third parities were estimated using single, multi trait and repeatability models. The genetic parameters for test day milk records were also estimated using random regression model. The test day records and 305 day milk records of 17055 cows from 10 herds collected between years 1996-2007 in Khorasan Razavi province were used in the analyses. The highest heritability values for milk yield and milk fat were observed in the first parity. There were high genetic and phenotypic correlations between parities. The correlations were reduced by increasing the differences in parity numbers. Single-trait random regression model was applied to estimate variance components and genetic parameters for test-day records of milk yields in the first lactation. Phenotypic variance of milk yield trait was not constant during the lactation and it was higher at the beginning and at the end of lactation period. Residual variance for milk yield was maximum in early lactation. Minimum and maximum values for additive genetic variances for this trait were estimated at the beginning and 8th month of the lactation, respectively. Estimates of heritabilities were found to be lowest during early lactation (0.07 and were increased up to mid lactation and were maximized nearly at the 8th month of lactation (0.28.

  14. Monitoring inbreeding trends and inbreeding depression for economically important traits of Holstein cattle in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokouei, M; Torshizi, R Vaez; Shahrbabak, M Moradi

    2010-01-01

    by the inbreeding of the dam, indicating that highly inbred cows had a higher incidence of difficult calvings. The estimate of inbreeding depression for somatic cell score was low and significant only for the third lactation. However, animals with high inbreeding coefficient tended to have higher somatic cell...... scores than animals with low inbreeding coefficients. For type traits, the influence of inbreeding was significant only for stature, chest width, body depth, size, rear udder height, suspensory ligament, udder depth, and front and rear teat placement. Cows with high levels of inbreeding coefficient were...

  15. Milk Yield and Quality of Holstein and Jersey Breeds of Cattle in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Friesian cows were used to evaluate the effects of breed, month of lactation and milking time on the milk yield and quality of commercial dairy cows under the tropical climate of Nigeria. Mean milk yield and milk protein were significantly higher ...

  16. Non-additive genetic effects for fertility traits in Canadian Holstein cattle (Open Access publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miglior Filippo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of additive, dominance, additive by dominance, additive by additive and dominance by dominance genetic effects on age at first service, non-return rates and interval from calving to first service were estimated. Practical considerations of computing additive and dominance relationships using the genomic relationship matrix are discussed. The final strategy utilized several groups of 1000 animals (heifers or cows in which all animals had a non-zero dominance relationship with at least one other animal in the group. Direct inversion of relationship matrices was possible within the 1000 animal subsets. Estimates of variances were obtained using Bayesian methodology via Gibbs sampling. Estimated non-additive genetic variances were generally as large as or larger than the additive genetic variance in most cases, except for non-return rates and interval from calving to first service for cows. Non-additive genetic effects appear to be of sizeable magnitude for fertility traits and should be included in models intended for estimating additive genetic merit. However, computing additive and dominance relationships for all possible pairs of individuals is very time consuming in populations of more than 200 000 animals.

  17. Genomic prediction using imputed whole-genome sequence data in Holstein Friesian cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, van R.; Calus, M.P.L.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Schrooten, C.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2015-01-01

    Background In contrast to currently used single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panels, the use of whole-genome sequence data is expected to enable the direct estimation of the effects of causal mutations on a given trait. This could lead to higher reliabilities of genomic predictions compared to

  18. Accuracy of imputation to whole-genome sequence data in Holstein Friesian cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, van R.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Calus, M.P.L.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Hayes, B.J.; Hulsegge, B.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of whole-genome sequence data can lead to higher accuracy in genome-wide association studies and genomic predictions. However, to benefit from whole-genome sequence data, a large dataset of sequenced individuals is needed. Imputation from SNP panels, such as the Illumina

  19. Genetic analysis of female fertility traits in South African Holstein cattle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bobby

    Keywords: Candidate genes, overall leg action, fatness, association, pig. # Corresponding author. E-mail: bfan@iastate.edu. Leg and feet soundness play a major economic role in the commercial pig industry. Next to reproductive failure, feet and leg abnormalities are the most frequent reasons for culling of young sows.

  20. Dissection of additive, dominance, and imprinting effects for production and reproduction traits in Holstein cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although genome-wide association and genomic selection studies have primarily focused on additive effects, dominance and imprinting effects play an important role in mammalian biology and development. The degree to which these non-additive genetic effects contribute to phenotypic variation and wheth...

  1. Developmental potential of vitrified holstein cattle embryos fertilized in vitro with sex-sorted sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Guo, Z; Su, L; Nedambale, T L; Zhang, J; Schenk, J; Moreno, J F; Dinnyés, A; Ji, W; Tian, X C; Yang, X; Du, F

    2006-07-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a feasible way to utilize sex-sorted sperm to produce offspring of a predetermined sex in the livestock industry. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of various factors on bovine IVF and to systematically improve the efficiency of IVF production using sex-sorted sperm. Both bulls and sorting contributed to the variability among differential development rates of embryos fertilized by sexed sperm. Increased sorting pressures (275.8 to 344.75 kPa) did not have a significant effect on the in vitro fertility of the sorted sperm; neither did an extended period of 9 to 14 h from semen collection to sorting. As few as 600 sorted sperm were used to fertilize an oocyte, resulting in blastocyst development of 33.2%. Postwarming of vitrified sexed IVF embryos resulted in high morphological survival (96.3%) and hatching (84.4%) rates, similar to those fertilized by nonsexed sperm (93.1 and 80.6%, respectively). A 40.9% pregnancy rate was established following the transfer of 3,627 vitrified, sexed embryos into synchronized recipients. This was not different from the rates with nonsexed IVF (41.9%, n = 481), or in vivo-produced (53.1%, n = 192) embryos. Of 458 calves born, 442 (96.5%) were female and 99.6% appeared normal. These technologies (sperm sexing-IVF-vitrification-embryo transfer) provide farmers, as well as the livestock industry, with a valuable option for herd expansion and heifer replacement programs. In summary, calves were produced using embryos fertilized by sex-sorted sperm in vitro and cryopreserved by rapid cooling vitrification.

  2. Genetic parameters for pathogen-specific mastitis resistance in Danish Holstein Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, L P; Madsen, P; Mark, T

    2009-01-01

    in this study should be considered as different traits. Genetic evaluation for pathogen-specific mastitis resistance may be beneficial despite lower heritabilities than unspecific mastitis because a pathogen-specific mastitis trait is a direct measure of an udder infection, and because the cost of a mastitis...... treatments in general is critical for a successful genetic evaluation of udder health. Also, economic values have to be specified for each pathogen-specific trait separately......The objective of this study was to estimate heritabilities for and genetic correlations among different pathogen-specific mastitis traits. The traits were unspecific mastitis, which is all mastitis treatments regardless of the causative pathogen as well as mastitis caused by Streptococcus...

  3. Estimation of ancestral inbreeding effects on stillbirth, calving ease and birthweight in German Holstein dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, D; Bennewitz, J; Wellmann, R; Thaller, G

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the effect of different measurements of ancestral inbreeding on birthweight, calving ease and stillbirth were analysed. Three models were used to estimate the effect of ancestral inbreeding, and the estimated regression coefficient of phenotypic data on different measurements of ancestral inbreeding was used to quantify the effect of ancestral inbreeding. The first model included only one measurement of inbreeding, whereas the second model included the classical inbreeding coefficients and one alternative inbreeding coefficient. The third model included the classical inbreeding coefficients, the interaction between classical inbreeding and ancestral inbreeding, and the classical inbreeding coefficients of the dam. Phenotypic data for this study were collected from February 1998 to December 2008 on three large commercial milk farms. During this time, 36,477 calving events were recorded. All calves were weighed after birth, and 8.08% of the calves died within 48 h after calving. Calving ease was recorded on a scale between 1 and 4 (1 = easy birth, 4 = surgery), and 69.95, 20.91, 8.92 and 0.21% of the calvings were scored with 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. The average inbreeding coefficient of inbred animals was 0.03, and average ancestral inbreeding coefficients were 0.08 and 0.01, depending on how ancestral inbreeding was calculated. Approximately 26% of classically non-inbred animals showed ancestral inbreeding. Correlations between different inbreeding coefficients ranged between 0.46 and 0.99. No significant effect of ancestral inbreeding was found for calving ease, because the number of animals with reasonable high level of ancestral inbreeding was too low. Significant effects of ancestral inbreeding were estimated for birthweight and stillbirth. Unfavourable effects of ancestral inbreeding were observed for birthweight. However, favourable purging effects were estimated for stillbirth, indicating that purging could be partly beneficial for genetic improvement of stillbirth. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Large-radius Holstein polaron and the problem of spontaneous symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhno, V. D.

    2014-07-01

    A translation-invariant solution is found for a large-radius Holstein polaron whose energy in the strong coupling limit is lower than that obtained by Holstein [T. Holstein, Annals Phys., 8, 325 (1959)]. The wave function corresponding to this solution is delocalized. A conclusion is drawn about the absence of spontaneous symmetry breaking in the quantum system discussed.

  5. Diagenetic and thermal evolution of Rotliegend sandstones from onshore Schleswig-Holstein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoener, R.; Gaupp, R. [Universitaet Jena, (Germany). Institut fuer Geowissenschaften

    2004-07-01

    The investigation of diagenetic processes in deeply buried Rotliegend sandstones, which are a major target of hydrocarbon exploration, is an important tool to understand fluid evolution and migration during basin subsidence. In the area of Schleswig-Holstein at the northern margin of the Central European Basin (CEB), relatively few deep wells have been drilled in past, compared to the intensely explored southern part of the basin. e.g. in the region north of Hannover. Concordantly, little is known about Rotliegend diagenesis in the subsurface of northernmost Germany. To examine the diagenetic evolution of Rotliegend sandstones in this area, core material from three deep exploration wells, which have been released within the DFG research program (SPP) 1135, were investigated in detail with petrographic and geochemical methods. The burial and thermal history was calculated using PetroMod 1D (IES Juelich, version 8). (orig.)

  6. The slick hair coat locus maps to chromosome 20 in Senepol-derived cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariasegaram, M; Chase, C C; Chaparro, J X; Olson, T A; Brenneman, R A; Niedz, R P

    2007-02-01

    The ability to maintain normal temperatures during heat stress is an important attribute for cattle in the subtropics and tropics. Previous studies have shown that Senepol cattle and their crosses with Holstein, Charolais and Angus animals are as heat tolerant as Brahman cattle. This has been attributed to the slick hair coat of Senepol cattle, which is thought to be controlled by a single dominant gene. In this study, a genome scan using a DNA-pooling strategy indicated that the slick locus is most likely on bovine chromosome 20 (BTA20). Interval mapping confirmed the BTA20 assignment and refined the location of the locus. In total, 14 microsatellite markers were individually genotyped in two pedigrees consisting of slick and normal-haired cattle (n = 36), representing both dairy and beef breeds. The maximum LOD score was 9.4 for a 4.4-cM support interval between markers DIK2416 and BM4107. By using additional microsatellite markers in this region, and genotyping in six more pedigrees (n = 86), the slick locus was further localized to the DIK4835 - DIK2930 interval.

  7. INFLUENCE OF AGE, GENDER AND SIRE LINE ON YOUNG CATTLE BEHAVIOUR TRAITS

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Broucek; Michal Uhrincat; Clive W. ARAVE; Theodore Friend; Miloslav Soch; Jan Travnicek; Vladimir Tancin; Zuzana Palkovicova; Anton Hanus; Marcela Raabova; Petr TEJML; Jana TASTN; Pavel NOVK

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test effects of age, gender, and sire line on dairy cattle behaviour. We have analyzed results of ethological tests for 40 Holstein breed animals (23 males and 17 females), offsprings of three sires. Maintenance behaviour were observed at the age of 90, 130 and 170 days. Behaviour in the maze was conducted at the age of 119 days, an open-field test was applied at the age of 124, 168, and 355 days. The social behaviour was determined by feeding on 155th day of the ...

  8. Energy report 1995 for Schleswig-Holstein. Situation, focal areas, examples; Energiebericht Schleswig-Holstein 1995. Situation, Schwerpunkte, Beispiele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Since 1988 the Land of Schleswig Holstein has been going new ways in its energy policy. Its declared aims are energy saving in heat and electricity supply, efficient energy utilisation, a greater utilisation of renewable energy resources, and, of principal importance, the phase-out of nuclear energy. As the legislative competence of the Laender is very restricted in matters relating to energy, the new policy has primarily been designed as a means of demonstrating by way of example that there actually are considerable potentials for saving energy and that they can be exploited. The present report gives an overview of the results of Schleswig Holstein`s energy policy of the last seven years. (orig./RHM) [Deutsch] Seit 1988 geht das Land Schleswig-Holstein energiepolitisch neue Wege. Das erklaerte Ziel: Energieeinsparung im Waerme- und Strombereich, rationelle Energieverwendung, staerkere Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien. Und grundsaetzlich: Ausstieg aus der Kernenergie. Da die Bundeslaender nur ueber eine sehr eingeschraenkte Gesetzgebungskompetenz im Energiebereich verfuegen, zielte die neue Energiepolitik zunaechst darauf ab, durch Foerderprogramme beispielhaft zu zeigen, dass tatsaechlich erhebliche Einsparpotentiale bestehen und auch umsetzbar sind. Der Bericht gibt einen Ueberblick ueber die Ergebnisse der Energiepolitik der letzten sieben Jahre in Schleswig-Holstein. (orig./RHM)

  9. Triennial Lactation Symposium: Opportunities for improving milk production efficiency in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, E E; Hutchison, J L; Olson, K M; Norman, H D

    2012-05-01

    Increasing feed costs and the desire to improve environmental stewardship have stimulated renewed interest in improving feed efficiency of livestock, including that of US dairy herds. For instance, USDA cost projections for corn and soybean meal suggest a 20% increase over 2010 pricing for a 16% protein mixed dairy cow ration in 2011, which may lead to a reduction in cow numbers to maintain profitability of dairy production. Furthermore, an October 2010 study by The Innovation Center for US Dairy to assess the carbon footprint of fluid milk found that the efficiency of feed conversion is the single greatest factor contributing to variation in the carbon footprint because of its effects on methane release during enteric fermentation and from manure. Thus, we are conducting research in contemporary US Holsteins to identify cows most efficient at converting feed to milk in temperate climates using residual feed intake (RFI), a measure used successfully to identify the beef cattle most efficient at converting feed to gain. Residual feed intake is calculated as the difference between predicted and actual feed intake to support maintenance and production (e.g., growth in beef cattle, or milk in dairy cattle). Heritability estimates for RFI in dairy cattle reported in the literature range from 0.01 to 0.38. Selection for a decreased RFI phenotype can reduce feed intake, methane production, nutrient losses in manure, and visceral organ weights substantially in beef cattle. We have estimated RFI during early lactation (i.e., to 90 d in milk) in the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center Holstein herd and observed a mean difference of 3.7 kg/d (P 0.20) in mean BW, ADG, or energy-corrected milk exhibited between the 2 groups. These results indicate promise for using RFI in dairy cattle to improve feed conversion to milk. Previous and current research on the use of RFI in lactating dairy cattle are discussed, as well as opportunities to improve production efficiency of dairy

  10. Manure nutrient excretion by Jersey and Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, K F; Wilkerson, V A; Casper, D P; Mertens, D R

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate feces, urine, and N excretion by Jersey and Holstein cows. Sixteen multiparous cows (n=8 per breed) were fed 2 experimental rations at calving in a switchback experimental design. Diets were 50% forage and based on corn meal (control) or whole cottonseed. Half the cows in each breed started on the control diet and half started on the whole cottonseed diet. Cows were switched to the other diet at 60 d in milk and switched back to their original diet at 165 d in milk. Pairs of cows were moved into open-circuit respiration chambers on d 49, 154, and 271 of lactation for 7-d measurement periods. While in the chambers, total collection of feed refusals, milk, recovered hair, feces, and urine was conducted. No effect of the interaction of diet and breed was observed for measures of nutrient digestibility and manure excretion. Total daily manure excretion was lower in Jersey cows than in Holstein cows, with reductions generally proportional to changes in feed intake. Jersey cows consumed 29% less feed and excreted 33% less wet feces and 28% less urine than Holstein cows. Intake, fecal, and urinary N were reduced by 29, 33, and 24%, respectively, in Jersey cows compared with Holstein cows. Equations from American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers underpredicted observed values for all manure measures evaluated (urine, manure solids, N, wet manure), and breed bias was observed in equations predicting excretion of urine, N, and wet manure. Although these equations include animal and dietary factors, intercepts of regression of observed values on predicted values differed between Holsteins and Jerseys for those 3 measures. No breed bias was observed in the prediction of manure solids excretion, however, making that equation equally appropriate for Jerseys and Holsteins. The effect of breed on manure and nutrient excretion has significant nutrient management implications. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science

  11. Anthelmintics for cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, R K

    1986-07-01

    A number of anthelmintics are available for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle. In North America, O. ostertagi, Cooperia spp., lung worm, and F. hepatica probably cause the greatest losses in production. The older anthelmintics are often deficient in their action against some of these parasites. Recently, the Paratect morantel tartrate slow-release bolus has provided a mechanism for the prevention of infections with gastrointestinal nematodes and lung worm, to some extent, and this has been shown to produce considerable economic benefits. Fenbendazole removes arrested O. ostertagi larvae; thus, its availability is an important step in the prevention of type-2 ostertagiasis. It also has a very broad spectrum of activity that includes most other nematodes and tapeworms and is a very safe anthelmintic. Ivermectin is highly effective against almost all cattle nematodes and also has great value for the control of arthropod ectoparasites. In addition, it and levamisole are the only anti-nematode drugs that can be administered to cattle by injection. Clorsulon is a new, safe anthelmintic that provides good control of liver fluke and, thus, fills a gap in the control of helminths of cattle in North America. The efficient use of anthelmintics in association with management based on a knowledge of parasite epidemiology can ensure that cattle do not rapidly become re-infected. In this way, the benefits from the use of anthelmintics can be very considerable and far greater than the costs of control.

  12. Effect of Holstein phonons on the electronic properties of graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauber, T [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Peres, N M R [Center of Physics and Department of Physics, University of Minho, P-4710-057, Braga (Portugal)

    2008-02-06

    We obtain the self-energy of the electronic propagator due to the presence of Holstein polarons within the first Born approximation. This leads to a renormalization of the Fermi velocity of 1%. We further compute the optical conductivity of the system at the Dirac point and at finite doping within the Kubo formula. We argue that the effects due to Holstein phonons are negligible and that the Boltzmann approach, which does not include inter-band transitions and can thus not treat optical phonons due to their high energy of {Dirac_h}{omega}{sub 0} {approx} 0.1-0.2 eV, remains valid.

  13. Microsatellite genotyping of medieval cattle from central Italy suggests an old origin of Chianina and Romagnola cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eGargani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of DNA from archaeological remains is a valuable tool to interpret the history of ancient animal populations. So far most studies of ancient DNA target mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, which reveals maternal lineages, but only partially the relationships of current breeds and ancient populations. In this study we explore the feasibility of nuclear DNA analysis. DNA was extracted from 1000-years old cattle bone collected from Ferento, an archaeological site in central Italy. Amplification of 15 microsatellite FAO-recommended markers with PCR products yielded genotypes for four markers. Expected heterozygosity was comparable with values of modern breeds, but observed heterozygosity was underestimated due to allelic loss. Genetic distances suggested a position intermediate between (1 Anatolian, Balkan, Sicilian and South-Italian cattle and (2 the Iberian, North-European and Central-European cattle, but also a clear relationship with two central-Italian breeds, Chianina and Romagnola. This suggests that these breeds are derived from medieval cattle living in the same area. Our results illustrate the potential of ancient DNA for reconstructing the history of local cattle husbandry.

  14. Detection of faecal Cryptosporidium parvum antigen in diarrheic Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiei, K; Pourjafar, M; Ghane, M

    2011-08-01

    Over a one-year period, based on a random cluster sampling design, 661 faecal samples from natural cases of diarrheic calves were taken in Fars province of Iran. The samples were taken from the 267 diarrheic calves of high and 394 diarrheic calves of average producing Holstein dairy cows. Faecal samples were collected directly from the rectum. Herd selection was based on geographical location and density of cattle in the region. Samples were collected based on 5 percent of herd population in 4 geographical regions: North, West, East and South of Fars province. The herds were stratified into small, medium and large size. Laboratory investigation consisted of a direct identification test for antigen of Cryptosporidium parvum. All herds had HPDC and APDC Cryptosporidium-infected diarrheic calves in their population. Diarrheic Cryptosporidium infected HPDC calves in southern region of Fars province were at much lower risk (P2 to 3years) showed a higher rate of infection when compared to diarrheic HPDC Cryptosporidium infected ones. There were no differences among the occurrence of Cryptosporidium infection in diarrheic HPDC and APDC calves of different herd size groups.

  15. Metabolic level recognition of progesterone in dairy Holstein cows using probabilistic models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila N. Turino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Administration of exogenous progesterone is widely used in hormonal protocols for estrous (resynchronization of dairy cattle without regarding pharmacological issues for dose calculation. This happens because it is difficult to estimate the metabolic level of progesterone for each individual cow before administration. In the present contribution, progesterone pharmacokinetics has been determined in lactating Holstein cows with different milk production yields. A Bayesian approach has been implemented to build two probabilistic progesterone pharmacokinetic models for high and low yield dairy cows. Such models are based on a one-compartment Hill structure. Posterior probabilistic models have been structurally set up and parametric probability density functions have been empirically estimated. Moreover, a global sensitivity analysis has been done to know sensitivity profile of each model. Finally, posterior probabilistic models have adequately recognized cow’s progesterone metabolic level in a validation set when Kullback-Leibler based indices were used. These results suggest that milk yield may be a good index for estimating pharmacokinetic level of progesterone.

  16. The effects of supplemental protease enzymes on production variables in lactating Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekin Sucu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to examine the effects of supplemental dietary protease enzymes on production variables in dairy cattle. Ninety-six multiparous lactating Holstein cows (624±62 kg body weight and 154±104 days in milk were blocked according to parity, days in milk, and previous milk production and randomly assigned to a control total mix ration (TMR or a TMR containing a blend of supplemental protease enzymes (PE; 4 g/cow/d in a crossover design with two 21-day experimental periods. Daily pen milk yield and dry matter intake (DMI were recorded and milk composition from all cows was determined on d 15, 17, 19 and 21 of each period. There was no treatment effect on milk yield (37.6 kg/d, but supplemental PE-fed cows consumed less DMI (P<0.05 compared to controls and therefore tended to have improved feed efficiency (P=0.06. Feeding supplemental PE decreased blood urea nitrogen (P<0.05 compared to the control cows. However, feeding PE had no effect on milk fat and protein content but tended (P=0.08 to increase milk lactose concentration and tended (P=0.10 to decrease milk urea nitrogen levels and somatic cell score. Results indicate that supplemental PE may enhance production efficiency and improve parameters of nitrogen status.

  17. Conception Rates of Holstein-Friesian Cows Inseminated Artificially with Reducing Frozen Semen Doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke Anggraeni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Conception rates of Holstein Friesian (HF acceptors were evaluated in artificial insemination (AI mating using three frozen semen doses of the straws per volume of 0.25 cc.  Frozen semen consisted of a standard dose by 25 x 106 sperms (L.1 and two reduced doses by 20 x 106 sperms (L.2 and 15x106 sperms (L.3.  This field study was conducted in dairy cattle area of Lembang NBMCU, from August 2011 to March 2012.  Frozen semens were obtained from two HF national progeny tested young bulls. Conception was detected by rectal palpation, around 60-90 days after AI mating. Conception rates (CR % were calculated as a ratio between pregnant acceptors to the total AI mated cows.  Some general linear model analyzes were conducted by considering fixed variables of semen dose (3, bull (2, inseminator (6 and parity (5.  The results showed that three frozen semen doses did not significantly affect (P>0.05 on CR (%.  By decreasing semen dose to L.3 gave CR (% similar to L2 even to L1.  It was concluded that frozen semen doses of HF bulls at the levels of 20 million to 15 million sperms per straw per volume of 0.25 cc resulted CR (% similar to the standard one.

  18. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure...... the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits......, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While...

  19. Application of the Support Vector Machine to Predict Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazira Mammadova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presented a potentially useful alternative approach to ascertain the presence of subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cows using support vector machine (SVM techniques. The proposed method detected mastitis in a cross-sectional representative sample of Holstein dairy cattle milked using an automatic milking system. The study used such suspected indicators of mastitis as lactation rank, milk yield, electrical conductivity, average milking duration, and control season as input data. The output variable was somatic cell counts obtained from milk samples collected monthly throughout the 15 months of the control period. Cattle were judged to be healthy or infected based on those somatic cell counts. This study undertook a detailed scrutiny of the SVM methodology, constructing and examining a model which showed 89% sensitivity, 92% specificity, and 50% error in mastitis detection.

  20. Application of the Support Vector Machine to Predict Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammadova, Nazira

    2013-01-01

    This study presented a potentially useful alternative approach to ascertain the presence of subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cows using support vector machine (SVM) techniques. The proposed method detected mastitis in a cross-sectional representative sample of Holstein dairy cattle milked using an automatic milking system. The study used such suspected indicators of mastitis as lactation rank, milk yield, electrical conductivity, average milking duration, and control season as input data. The output variable was somatic cell counts obtained from milk samples collected monthly throughout the 15 months of the control period. Cattle were judged to be healthy or infected based on those somatic cell counts. This study undertook a detailed scrutiny of the SVM methodology, constructing and examining a model which showed 89% sensitivity, 92% specificity, and 50% error in mastitis detection. PMID:24574862

  1. Exposure to allergens of different cattle breeds and their relevance in occupational allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heutelbeck, Astrid R R; Junghans, Carsten; Esselmann, Hermann; Hallier, Ernst; Schulz, Thomas G

    2009-10-01

    Cattle are an important source of allergens in the working area of farmers. Asthma caused by cow allergens is a significant occupational problem. Yet in allergological testing, the results of in vivo and in vitro diagnostic tests are often inconsistent even in cases with clearly cattle-related symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate four different commercial cow allergen extracts and to compare them with self prepared extracts of different cattle breeds by means of SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting using the sera of 42 German farmers with asthma and rhino-conjunctivitis caused by cattle contact. The commercial extracts investigated in this study showed only minor differences in protein pattern. Using sera in immunoblotting experiments distinct bands were found for all symptomatic farmers, even in 13 farmers with a negative result in commercially available serological allergy tests. Bands with molecular weights in the range between about 11 and 67 kDa were observed; reactivity with the major allergen Bos d 2 at about 20 kDa was detected in all farmers, although it was not the strongest band in all cases. We demonstrate for the first time the allergenic relevance of additional proteins with molecular weights of 14, 30, 55 and approx. 67-97 kDa in more than 50% of farmers with cattle related symptoms. One of our most striking results was that 32% of the investigated farmers with cattle related symptoms showed negative results with commercial serological tests but distinct reactions with cow allergen in immunoblotting experiments. The Bos d 2 content in hair showed differences between certain breeds whereas German Brown and Simmental had particularly higher quantities of Bos d 2 in their hair than breeds such as Holstein-Friesian. These results strongly support the following recommendation: test results with commercial extracts that are contradictory to the clinical symptoms should be supplemented by skin tests using extracts of the hair of the farmers' own

  2. Importance of cattle breeding in the nourishment safety of families in the rural area of Paipa, Boyaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Milena Soler Fonseca

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the rural municipality of Paipa, Boyaca many families rely on cattle breeding to obtain from this activity, suficient income and resources to meet their basic needs, however little is known about the true role of this species in the nourishment safety of rural families in the municipality of Paipa in Boyacá, for that reason, this study aimed to analyze the importance of general breeding cattle in the nourishment safety of thirty peasant families in the municipality of Paipa, Boyacá and get to know the social and cultural roles that are generated by this livestock activity. The obtained result was that the cale are raised as a second choice in the pursuit of economic resources, after the birds. In cattle production an average of  five animals per farm are raised, the widely used breeds are the Normando, Holstein and crosses between them; milk production dominates with an average yield of 150 liters/week per family; income and costs production depend on the number of cattle raised, the gained income is used to purchase food for home, but savings are not encouraged; the consumption of dairy products is very low and beef cattle is not consumed within the household; animals management is in charge of all family members (both genders. In general, cattle farming make interesting economic contributions to the countryside families, but these revenues are used to purchase food of high nutritional value, also a2ecting the nourishment safety of the studied families.

  3. Does skin cancer screening save lives? A detailed analysis of mortality time trends in Schleswig-Holstein and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Andreas; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz

    2016-02-01

    After a pilot study on skin cancer screening was performed between 2003 and 2004 in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, the country implemented what to the authors' knowledge is the first nationwide skin cancer screening program in the world in 2008. The objective of the current study was to provide details regarding mortality trends in Schleswig-Holstein and Germany in relation to the screening. Annual age-standardized mortality rates for skin melanoma (using the 10th Revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems [ICD-10] code C43) and malignant neoplasms of ill-defined, secondary, and unspecified sites (ICD-10 code C76-C80) were analyzed. The European Standard population was used for age standardization. A bias analysis was performed to estimate the number of skin melanoma deaths that may have been incorrectly counted as ICD-10 code C76-C80 when the skin melanoma mortality declined in Schleswig-Holstein. The observed mortality decline in Schleswig-Holstein 5 years after the pilot study was accompanied by a considerable increase in the number of deaths due to malignant neoplasms of ill-defined, secondary, and unspecified sites (ICD-10 code C76-C80) that is not explainable by an increase in the incidence of these neoplasms. Incorrect assignment of 8 to 35 and 12 to 23 skin melanoma deaths per year among men and women, respectively, as ICD-10 code C76-C80 during 2007 through 2010 could explain the transient skin melanoma mortality decline observed in Schleswig-Holstein. Five years after implementation of the program, the nationwide skin melanoma mortality increased (age-standardized rate change of +0.4 per 100,000 person-years [95% confidence interval, 0.2-0.6] in men and +0.1 per 100,000 person-years [95% confidence interval, -0.1 to 0.2] in women). Although the current analyses raise doubts that the skin cancer screening program in Germany can reduce the skin cancer mortality rate, the authors do not believe the program

  4. Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC)1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alba, Patricia; Feltrin, Fabiola; Cordaro, Gessica

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Sequence Type (ST)1, Clonal Complex( CC) 1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA-) lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected in ...

  5. [Sporadic cutaneous lymphosarcoma of T-cell origin with involvement of lymph nodes and internal organs in a Holstein cow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freick, M; Lapko, L; Neubert, M; Hardt, M; Behn, H; Passarge, O; Schöniger, S

    2016-01-01

    Sporadic lymphosarcomas in adult cattle are rare entities with an unknown etiology. This case report describes the course of the disease in a 3.5-year-old cow of the breed German Holstein, which was presented to the veterinarian due to multifocal nodular skin lesions. Several superficial lymph nodes (Lymphonodi mandibulares, parotidei and mammariae) were enlarged, had a tight-elastic consistency and were freely movable. The histopathological and immunohistochemical examination of skin biopsies showed the presence of multifocal cutaneous T-cell lymphosarcomas consistent with a skin leukosis. Bovine leukemia virus infection was excluded by serological investigation of a milk sample and virological examination of a tissue sample, respectively. Seven weeks after the first clinical examination, the cow deteriorated rapidly and was euthanized. A post mortem examination revealed the presence of neoplastic cells within lymph nodes (all superficial lymph nodes of the carcass and Lymphonodi pulmonales), kidney and lungs as well as a liver rupture. Additionally, an overview of the case reports of sporadic bovine cutaneous lymphosarcomas published during the previous 15 years will be provided. The legal background for a further utilization of affected animals for milk and meat production will be discussed. This case report illustrates that sporadic bovine leukosis represents an important differential diagnosis for viral-, bacterial- and parasitic-induced skin lesions and enlargement of lymph nodes in adult cattle.

  6. Polymorphism of κ-casein and β-lactoglobulin genes in Busha and Holstein Friesian dairy cows in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Maletić

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of κ-casein (κ-CN and β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg genotypes in the autochtonous (Busha and dairy (Holstein-Friesian, HF cattle breeds with PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism. For the amplification of κ-CN and β-Lg gene fragments specific primers were used. After digestion with specific endonucleases genotypes were determined for both genes in 18 Busha and 19 HF cows. The results showed that κ-CN gene was represented with the AA genotype in 31.58 % HF cows, AB in 52.63 % cows, whilst the genotype BB was found in 15.79 % cows only. Among the examined Busha cattle 44.44 % cows had AA genotype and 55.56 % genotype AB for κ CN. As for β-Lg gene in HF breed, AA genotype was found in 26.31 % cows, AB in 63.16 % and BB in 10.53 % cows. In Busha cows the following genotypes were established for β-Lg gene: AA in 44.44 % cows and AB in 55.56 %, whilst BB genotype was not found. These results indicate that Busha cows had a higher presence of A allelic forms of both genes (k-CN and β-lactoglobulin than HF cows.

  7. Electrophoretic study of whey proteins in Holstein cows with clinical and subclinical mastitis by Agarose gel procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Davasaz Tabrizi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is one the most important economic diseases in dairy cattle industry, which causes reduction in milk production, treatment expenses, reduction in herd genetic progress and fall in quality of milk. The aim of this study was to examine the milk proteins of Holstein dairy cows with different grades of clinical and subclinical mastitis. During the sampling period, none of the cows were in late pregnancy or at early lactation and also had no parasitemia and any other inflammatory diseases.  Clinical and laboratory examinations which were carried out completely revealed the cows were all healthy. They were fed on corn silage, concentrate and alfalfa. In this study, the cows were divided into five groups, each group with 25 cases. For this purpose, milk samples were collected from 125 dairy cattle of two large dairy farms in Tabriz. All the cows were in the lactation period and they were milked three times a day. The groups consist of the control group with negative California mastitis test and negative culture, 2+ subclinical groups, 3+ subclinical group, sub acute clinical group and acute clinical group. The results of the whey electrophoresis using Agarose gel procedure indicated significant difference in albumin levels in all groups except the 2+ subclinical group compared with the control group (p

  8. Selection for profit in cattle: I. Economic weights for purebred dairy cattle in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfová, M; Wolf, J; Kvapilík, J; Kica, J

    2007-05-01

    A bioeconomic model for dairy cattle production was used to estimate economic values of 18 traits for dairy sires in purebred Holstein and Czech Fleckvieh populations. Economic values were defined as partial derivatives of the profit function with respect to each trait in a closed production system with dairy cow herds and integrated fattening of bulls. All revenues and costs associated with cows calving in the herds within one year and with their progeny were discounted at 5% per annum back to the date of calving. Calculations were carried out for the situation in the Czech Republic in 2005 (scenario 1: market quotas for milk yield and fat percentage) and for the expected situation in 2015 (scenario 2: free market). The relative economic importance of each trait was expressed as a ratio of the standardized economic value of that trait (its marginal economic value multiplied by its genetic standard deviation) to the standardized economic value of 305-d milk yield, with average fat and protein percentages. In addition to milk yield, somatic cell score was the second most important trait, achieving 32% to 43% of the value for milk yield in both scenarios. The relative importance of milk components differed notably between scenarios. The relative importance was approximately zero for protein and from -14 to -23% for fat percentage in scenario 1, but changed to 38% for protein and 27 to 31% for fat percentage in scenario 2. In both scenarios and for both breeds, the relative economic values for somatic cell score and length of productive life of cows were similar to those for fat and protein percentages in scenario 2. The smallest relative economic values (less than 4% of the relative importance of milk yield) were for birth weight, conception rate of heifers, and carcass traits. In conclusion, relative emphasis among traits in the breeding objective for Czech dairy cattle should be reassessed according to the expected situation after shifting to a free market economy

  9. Survival, lifetime production, and profitability of Normande × Holstein, Montbéliarde × Holstein, and Scandinavian Red × Holstein crossbreds versus pure Holsteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heins, B J; Hansen, L B; De Vries, A

    2012-02-01

    Pure Holstein (HO) cows (n=416) were compared with Normande (NO) × HO (n=251), Montbéliarde (MO) × HO (n=503), and Scandinavian Red (SR) × HO (n=321) crossbred cows for survival, lifetime production, and profitability in 6 commercial herds in California. The SR crossbred cows were sired by both Swedish Red and Norwegian Red bulls. Cows calved from June 2002 to January 2009. For analysis of survival to subsequent calvings, lifetime production, and profitability, data were restricted to 3 of 6 herds because they had at least 20 cows in each of the breed groups. All cows had the opportunity to calve at least 4 times. Best prediction, which is used by USDA for national genetic evaluations in the United States, was used to determine lifetime production to 4 yr (1,461 d) in the herd after first calving from test-day observations. Production and survival were estimated after 4 yr to calculate lifetime profit. A profit function was defined to include revenues and expenses for milk, fat, protein, and other solids production; somatic cell count; reproduction; feed intake; calf value; salvage value; dead cow disposal; and fixed cost. The NO × HO (1.2%), MO × HO (2.0%), and SR × HO cows (1.6%) had significantly fewer deaths than did pure HO cows (5.3%) during the first 305 d of first lactation. All crossbred groups had significantly more cows that calved a second, third, and fourth time, and had mean survival that was 300 to 400 d longer than did pure HO cows. The NO × HO, MO × HO, and SR × HO cows had significantly higher lifetime fat plus protein production than did pure HO cows up to 1,461 d after first calving. For profitability (ignoring possible differences in health costs), NO × HO cows had 26% greater projected lifetime profit per cow, but 6.7% less profit per cow-day, than did pure HO cows. On the other hand, MO × HO and SR × HO cows had 50 to 44%, respectively, more projected lifetime profit per cow and 5.3 to 3.6%, respectively, more projected profit

  10. Interaction between genotype and climates for Holstein milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the interaction between genotype and climate for milk and fat production traits of Iranian Holstein dairy herds. Milk and fat production data were grouped in 5 climates, on the basis of Extended De Martonne method. (Co)Variance components and genetic parameters of first lactation ...

  11. Bilateral exophthalmos in a Holstein cow with lymphosarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Malatestinic, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    A 4-year-old Holstein cow presented with severe bilateral exophthalmos. A complete blood cell count revealed late stage lymphoma; the agar gel immunodiffusion test for enzootic bovine leukosis was positive. The cow was euthanized 1 wk after presentation. Necropsy revealed generalized lymphadenopathy and tumors in most organs. Final diagnosis was lymphosarcoma.

  12. Genomic Regions Affecting Cheese Making Properties Identified in Danish Holsteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Vivi Raundahl; Bertelsen, Henriette Pasgaard; Poulsen, Nina Aagaard

    The cheese renneting process is affected by a number of factors associated to milk composition and a number of Danish Holsteins has previously been identified to have poor milk coagulation ability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify genomic regions affecting the technological...

  13. Evidence of Heterogeneity of Variance in Milk Yield among Holstein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three thousand, nine hundred and seventy five lactation records of Holstein- Friesian cows between 1968 and 1984 were used to investigate the existence of heterogeneity of variance in milk yield in Kenya. Coefficient of variation and standard deviations across herds were used to test heterogeneity of variance. Average ...

  14. Spectral density method to Anderson-Holstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chebrolu, Narasimha Raju, E-mail: narasimharaju.phy@gmail.com; Chatterjee, Ashok [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Two-parameter spectral density function of a magnetic impurity electron in a non-magnetic metal is calculated within the framework of the Anderson-Holstein model using the spectral density approximation method. The effect of electron-phonon interaction on the spectral function is investigated.

  15. Nagaoka's Theorem in the Holstein-Hubbard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyao, Tadahiro

    2017-09-01

    Nagaoka's theorem on ferromagnetism in the Hubbard model is extended to the Holstein-Hubbard model. This shows that Nagaoka's ferromagnetism is stable even if the electron-phonon interaction is taken into account. We also prove that Nagaoka's ferromagnetism is stable under the influence of the quantized radiation field.

  16. Violence and Aggression in Schools in Schleswig-Holstein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebel, Gabriele; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reports on a study of the extent and distribution of several forms of aggression and violence in schools in Schleswig-Holstein (Germany). Includes responses from 2,382 persons in a representative sample. Finds a slight increase in violence during the past three years but a high frequency of verbal aggression. (CFR)

  17. Spectral density method to Anderson-Holstein model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebrolu, Narasimha Raju; Chatterjee, Ashok

    2015-06-01

    Two-parameter spectral density function of a magnetic impurity electron in a non-magnetic metal is calculated within the framework of the Anderson-Holstein model using the spectral density approximation method. The effect of electron-phonon interaction on the spectral function is investigated.

  18. CLOSTAT alters the serum metabolome of Holstein Steer Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probiotics are gaining increased interest in calf feeding operations as some producers seek novel, non-antibiotic technologies to improve health and performance. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate changes in serum metabolomic compounds of Holstein steer calves supplemented with C...

  19. Verifying Holstein heifer heart girth to body weight prediction equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The estimation of Holstein heifer body weight (BW) from heart girth (HG) measurements is needed as many farms do not have animal scales to make the management decisions that require BW. The correlation between HG and BW is known to vary with differing animal conformation. The previous equation to co...

  20. Metabolic acclimation to heat stress in farm housed Holstein cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of body condition score to metabolic acclimation in heat stressed Holstein cows. Body condition of cows had no effect on any of the tested parameters during the thermal neutral period, except for the percentage of protein in milk. Heat stress has been demonstrated to have ...

  1. Economic weights for Holstein Friesian traits in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1998-07-16

    Jul 16, 1998 ... in this study economic weights for production and functional traits of the Holstein. Friesians in South Africa ... traits were milk, butterfat, protein and lactose yield and the functional traits included ... A major advance in selection theory occurred when Smith (1937) and Hazel (1943) constructed the selection ...

  2. Genomic inbreeding and relationships among Holsteins, Jerseys, and Brown Swiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic measures of relationship and inbreeding within and across breeds were compared with pedigree measures using genotypes for 43,385 loci of 25,219 Holsteins, 3,068 Jerseys, and 872 Brown Swiss. Adjustment factors were estimated for means and regressions of genomic on pedigree relationships, for...

  3. Growth parameters of Holstein-Friesland heifers reared on complete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    –6, 6–10, 10–13, 13–18 months and 18 .... Table 1 Composition and nutrient content of complete diets containing different roughages fed to Holstein-Friesland heifers ... They were left in a dry lot from 10:30-14:00 for exercise and group.

  4. Nagaoka's theorem in the Holstein-Hubbard model

    OpenAIRE

    Miyao, Tadahiro

    2016-01-01

    Nagaoka's theorem on ferromagnetism in the Hubbard model is extended to the Holstein-Hubbard model. This shows that Nagaoka's ferromagnetism is stable even if the electron-phonon interaction is taken into account. We also prove that Nagaoka's ferromagnetism is stable under the influence of the quantized radiation field.

  5. Analysis of beta-casein gene (CSN2 polymorphism in different breeds of cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Miluchová

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of work was identification of b - casein gene polymorphism in different breeds of cow. The beta - casein constitutes up to 45 % of the casein of bovine milk. The most common forms of beta-casein in dairy cattle breeds are A1 and A2, while B is less common. The b-casein A1 variant was associated with the incidence of diabetes mellitus 1st type, coronary heart disease and autism. The A2 variant reduces serum cholesterol. The material involved 287 cows (Simmental breed – 111 cows, Pinzgau breed – 89 cows, Holstein breed – 87 cows. Bovine genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood by using commercial kit and used in order to estimate b - casein genotypes by means of PCR-RFLP method. In the populations included in the study were detected all three genotypes – homozygote genotype A1A1, heterozygote genotype A1A2 and homozygote genotype A2A2 with frequencies 0.1261, 0.3333 and 0.5405 in Simmental breed; 0.1379, 0.4598 and 0.4023 in Holstein breed, 0.3034, 0.5168 and 0.1798 in Pinzgau breed. In population of Simmental breed and Holstein breed was higher frequency of allele A2 (0.7072 and 0.6322. In opposite, in population of Pinzgau breed was present higher frequency of the allele A1 (0.5618.

  6. Short communication: Estimating lactation curves for highly inhomogeneous milk yield data of an F2 population (Charolais × German Holstein).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, N; Trißl, S; Nürnberg, G

    2017-11-01

    Fitting of lactation curves is a common tool to obtain the entire milk yield as well as to estimate the main curve characteristic (such as day of peak milk yield) for a lactation. These models are primarily designed for dairy cattle, but have been applied to nondairy cattle breeds and also for other species. In this study we considered milk yield data of 197 F2 crossbred cows of Charolais and German Holstein (founder breeds) for the first and the beginning of the second lactation. The F2 cows showed a high variability regarding the length of lactation, which varied between 7 and 406 d in milk for the first lactation. Thus, the data also show high variation regarding the daily and overall milk yield. To obtain complete lactation curves, we evaluated the lactation models of Ali-Schaeffer and Wilmink. To compare the 2 lactation models, we evaluated the goodness of fit using 6 evaluation criteria. The results show that the model of Ali-Schaeffer performs better on these highly inhomogeneous data, in contrast to the model of Wilmink. We discuss our findings from a statistical point of view and present possible biological reasons for the high variability regarding milk yield within the F2 population. Hence our findings may be helpful when milk yield data of crosses between dairy and beef cows (dual purpose) are investigated, whose lactation curves may not show the typical characteristics of dairy cattle. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  7. Tick resistance and heat tolerance characteristics in cattle. III. Sweating rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília José Veríssimo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cattle in a sustainable tropical livestock should be heat tolerant and resistant to ticks. The relationship between Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus infestation and sweating rate, an important heat tolerance characteristic, was studied in six Nellore and four Holstein steers of seven-month-old. They were artificial infested (a.i. with 10,000 (Holstein and 20,000 (Nellore larvae in 16/Apr/2011. In days 20, 23 and 24 after the infestation, the 10 bigger females ticks found in whole animal were weighed and put in a chamber (27 oC and 80% RH, weighing the egg mass of each female tick fourteen days after. The sweating rate (SRskin, measured by Scheleger and Turner, 1963, method, in a shaved area of shoulder skin was evaluated in 14/Apr (2 days before the a.i. and in 05/May (19 days after a.i.. In 14/Apr the Scheleger and Turner, 1963, method was done on the coat not shaved (SRcoat. The sweating rate was measured in the afternoon (from 2 P.M., after 30 minutes of direct sunlight, on April. On May, the animals remained 60 minutes in direct sunlight because this day was colder. The experimental design was a non-probability sample restricted to the 10 available animals. Data from the steers’ sweating rate were analyzed using the General linear models of the SPSS® statistical package (version 12.0 using SRskin as dependent variable and breed and sampling date as independent variables. For SRcoat breed was the independent variable. Nellore, a tropical cattle breed, had higher SRskin (1,000.82 ± 64.59 g m-2 h-1, P< 0.001 than Holstein (620.45 ± 79.10 g m-2 h-1. SRskin was higher on May (1,187.33 ± 71.49 g m-2 h-1, P< 0.001 than on April (433.93 ± 71.49 g m-2 h-1. The correlation between the two different measurements of SR was positive and significant (r= 0,545, P<0,01, Pearson correlation. But in SRcoat the breed effect disappeared because the Holstein SRcoat increased (Holstein: 884.95 ± 472.12 g m-2 h-1 and Nellore: 1,060.72 ± 318.21 g m-2 h-1

  8. Microsatellite, blood group and transferrin protein diversity of Estonian dairy cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. VÄRV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates genetic diversity within and among three Estonian dairy cattle breeds (Estonian Native, Estonian Red and Estonian Holstein. A total of 36 markers (25 microsatellites, 10 blood group systems and transferrin protein were investigated and the within-breed diversity was quantified by expected heterozygosity, number of private alleles and mean allelic richness. The population structure was studied by computing the inbreeding coefficients, breed differentiation and relationships were investigated with random drift-based measures and a factorial correspondence analysis. In addition, a neighbour-joining tree was drawn summarising allele sharing distances for 195 individuals of the Estonian breeds, Western Finncattle, and Danish Jersey. The Estonian breeds displayed generally similar levels of within-population diversity. Depending on the set of markers used 6.2 or 4.3% of the total genetic variation can be explained by differences among the breeds. Construction of the tree for individuals revealed a distinctive pattern of grouping for Estonian Holstein, Estonian Red and Danish Jersey, but Estonian Native and Western Finncattle appeared on the same branches. This indicates that the gene pool of Estonian Native largely overlaps with that of Western Finncattle. However, our genetic marker analysis shows that the three Estonian breeds are genetically differentiated, suggesting that the current gene pool of Estonian dairy cattle is diverse.;

  9. Genetic characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus strains in Beijing, China and innate immune responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in persistently infected dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Xiao Gang; Song, Quan Jiang; Wu, Qiong; Liu, Ming Chao; Wang, Meng Ling; Wang, Jiu Feng

    2015-01-01

    To acquire epidemiological data on the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and identify cattle persistently infected (PI) with this virus, 4,327 samples from Holstein dairy cows were screened over a four-year period in Beijing, China. Eighteen BVD viruses were isolated, 12 from PI cattle. Based on genetic analysis of their 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR), the 18 isolates were assigned to subgenotype BVDV-1m, 1a, 1d, 1q, and 1b. To investigate the innate immune responses in the peripheral-blood mononuclear cells of PI cattle, the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like receptors, interferon-α (IFN-α), IFN-β, myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance 1 (MX1), and interferon stimulatory gene 15 (ISG15) was assessed by qPCR. When compared with healthy cattle, the expression of TLR-7, IFN-α, and IFN-β mRNA was downregulated, but the expression of MX1 and ISG-15 mRNA was upregulated in PI cattle. Immunoblotting analysis revealed that the expression of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) and IRF-7 was lower in PI cattle than in healthy cattle. Thus, BVDV-1m and 1a are the predominant subgenotypes in the Beijing region, and the strains are highly divergent. Our findings also suggest that the TLR-7/IRF-7 signaling pathway plays a role in evasion of host restriction by BVDV.

  10. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in dairy and beef cattle: Large-scale epidemiological study in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokelainen, Pikka; Tagel, Maarja; Mõtus, Kerli; Viltrop, Arvo; Lassen, Brian

    2017-03-15

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that thrives in Estonia. In this nationwide cross-sectional study, we tested sera from 3991 cattle, collected from 228 farms in 2012-2013, for anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies using a commercial direct agglutination test. Titer of 100 was set as cut-off: samples that tested positive at the dilution 1:100 were defined as positive. The apparent animal-level seroprevalence was 18.62%. At least one seropositive animal was found on 68.86% of the farms, and seropositive cattle were detected in all counties. The seroprevalence appeared to increase with age until five years (60-71 months) of age, but had no obvious pattern in the older animals. Animals of the local Estonian Red breed had higher odds to test seropositive than did animals of the Estonian Holstein breed. Whether the farm focused on dairy or beef cattle was not associated with an animal testing T. gondii seropositive nor with finding at least one T. gondii seropositive animal on the farm. The odds of finding at least one T. gondii seropositive animal on the farm were higher if the herd size was above median (105 in dairy and mixed dairy farms; 35 in beef and mixed beef farms). The results indicate that T. gondii is endemic within the agricultural setting in Estonia and present on the majority of cattle farms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Improvement of prediction ability for genomic selection of dairy cattle by including dominance effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanyu Sun

    Full Text Available Dominance may be an important source of non-additive genetic variance for many traits of dairy cattle. However, nearly all prediction models for dairy cattle have included only additive effects because of the limited number of cows with both genotypes and phenotypes. The role of dominance in the Holstein and Jersey breeds was investigated for eight traits: milk, fat, and protein yields; productive life; daughter pregnancy rate; somatic cell score; fat percent and protein percent. Additive and dominance variance components were estimated and then used to estimate additive and dominance effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. The predictive abilities of three models with both additive and dominance effects and a model with additive effects only were assessed using ten-fold cross-validation. One procedure estimated dominance values, and another estimated dominance deviations; calculation of the dominance relationship matrix was different for the two methods. The third approach enlarged the dataset by including cows with genotype probabilities derived using genotyped ancestors. For yield traits, dominance variance accounted for 5 and 7% of total variance for Holsteins and Jerseys, respectively; using dominance deviations resulted in smaller dominance and larger additive variance estimates. For non-yield traits, dominance variances were very small for both breeds. For yield traits, including additive and dominance effects fit the data better than including only additive effects; average correlations between estimated genetic effects and phenotypes showed that prediction accuracy increased when both effects rather than just additive effects were included. No corresponding gains in prediction ability were found for non-yield traits. Including cows with derived genotype probabilities from genotyped ancestors did not improve prediction accuracy. The largest additive effects were located on chromosome 14 near DGAT1 for yield traits for both

  12. Dry matter intake and feed efficiency profiles of 3 genotypes of Holstein-Friesian within pasture-based systems of milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, J; Berry, D P; Pierce, K M; Brennan, A; Horan, B

    2010-09-01

    The primary objective of the study was to quantify the effect of genetic improvement using the Irish total merit index (Economic Breeding Index) on dry matter intake and feed efficiency across lactation and to quantify the variation in performance among alternative definitions of feed efficiency. Three genotypes of Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle were established from within the Moorepark dairy research herd: 1) low Economic Breeding Index North American Holstein-Friesian representative of the Irish national average dairy cow, 2) high genetic merit North American Holstein-Friesian, and 3) high genetic merit New Zealand Holstein-Friesian. Animals from within each genotype were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 possible intensive pasture-based feed systems: 1) the Moorepark pasture system (2.64 cows/ha and 500 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation) and 2) a high output per hectare pasture system (2.85 cows/ha and 1,200 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation). A total of 128 and 140 spring-calving dairy cows were used during the years 2007 and 2008, respectively. Each group had an individual farmlet of 17 paddocks, and all groups were managed similarly throughout the study. The effects of genotype, feed system, and the interaction between genotype and feed system on dry matter intake, milk production, body weight, body condition score, and different definitions of feed efficiency were studied using mixed models with factorial arrangements of genotypes and feed systems accounting for the repeated cow records across years. No significant genotype-by-feed-system interactions were observed for any of the variables measured. Results showed that aggressive selection using the Irish Economic Breeding Index had no effect on dry matter intake across lactation when managed on intensive pasture-based systems of milk production, although the ranking of genotypes for feed efficiency differed depending on the definition of feed efficiency used. Performance of

  13. The genetic architecture of climatic adaptation of tropical cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laercio R Porto-Neto

    Full Text Available Adaptation of global food systems to climate change is essential to feed the world. Tropical cattle production, a mainstay of profitability for farmers in the developing world, is dominated by heat, lack of water, poor quality feedstuffs, parasites, and tropical diseases. In these systems European cattle suffer significant stock loss, and the cross breeding of taurine x indicine cattle is unpredictable due to the dilution of adaptation to heat and tropical diseases. We explored the genetic architecture of ten traits of tropical cattle production using genome wide association studies of 4,662 animals varying from 0% to 100% indicine. We show that nine of the ten have genetic architectures that include genes of major effect, and in one case, a single location that accounted for more than 71% of the genetic variation. One genetic region in particular had effects on parasite resistance, yearling weight, body condition score, coat colour and penile sheath score. This region, extending 20 Mb on BTA5, appeared to be under genetic selection possibly through maintenance of haplotypes by breeders. We found that the amount of genetic variation and the genetic correlations between traits did not depend upon the degree of indicine content in the animals. Climate change is expected to expand some conditions of the tropics to more temperate environments, which may impact negatively on global livestock health and production. Our results point to several important genes that have large effects on adaptation that could be introduced into more temperate cattle without detrimental effects on productivity.

  14. Reducing environmental impact of dairy cattle: a Czech case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlikova, Martina; Kroeze, Carolien

    2010-07-01

    We analyze options to reduce the future environmental impact of dairy cattle production, using an optimization model (DAIRY) applied to the Czech Republic. The DAIRY model can be used to calculate the overall environmental impact (OEI). We show that aquatic eutrophication and global warming are the 2 most important problems caused by dairy cattle. These problems are largely caused by nitrate leaching and emissions from animal housing. The DAIRY model indicates that the costs of reducing the OEI in 2020 by 20% are 12 MEuro. It is most cost effective to achieve this reduction by improving the efficiency of animal manure used as fertilizer. We tested the sensitivity of the model to assumptions about the following: 1) the relative importance of environmental problems as expressed in weighting factors, and 2) future cattle numbers and milk yield per milking cow. The first case indicates that disagreement on which problem is most urgent need not lead to disagreement about policies to be undertaken. Regardless of the weighting factors used, aquatic eutrophication and global warming are the most important problems. However, the overall costs of reducing the OEI differ with alternative sets of weighting factors, because the costs of emission reduction differ among pollutants. The second case shows that the DAIRY model results are more sensitive to changes in cattle numbers than to changes in milk yield. This study is the first integrated assessment of dairy cattle production for a Central European country and illustrates how systematic analyses may help to find optimal solutions. (c) 2010 SETAC.

  15. Citrus pulp for cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthington, John D; Kunkle, William E; Martin, Amy M

    2002-07-01

    Citrus pulp is classified as an energy concentrate by-product feed. Citrus by-products fed to beef cattle include citrus molasses, citrus meal, wet citrus pulp, dried citrus pulp, and pelleted citrus pulp; however, in current production systems, pulp (wet, dry, and pelleted) is the only by-product commonly used. Citrus pulp production in the United States is limited to specific subtropical regions, of which south central Florida remains the largest with additional production in California and Texas.

  16. Salmonella in Swedish cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ågren, Estelle

    2017-01-01

    In Sweden, all herds detected with salmonella are put under restrictions and measures aiming at eradication are required. The purpose of these studies was to provide a basis for decisions on how surveillance and control of salmonella in Swedish cattle can be made more cost-efficient. Results from a bulk milk screening were used to investigate seroprevalence of salmonella and to study associations between salmonella status and geographical location, local animal density, number of test pos...

  17. Correlation between acid, TBA, peroxide and iodine values, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities of chicken, cattle and camel meat during refrigerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Gheisari

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was correlation determination between fat putrefaction indices and antioxidative enzymes in chicken, cattle and camel meat during refrigerated storage. Longissimus dorsi muscle of three Iranian dromedary one humped camel and three Holstein cattle and breast muscle of three broiler breeder chicken were obtained from the carcasses 3 days postmortem. The samples were ground and stored at 4 °C for 0, 2, or 4 days. Peroxide, TBA, acid and iodine values, catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activities of the muscles were performed in each storage time. Catalase and GSH-Px activities were much higher in camel than in chicken and cattle and higher in cattle than in chicken. TBA value was lower in chicken than in camel. Camel had higher acid value than cattle. Chicken showed the highest and camel had the lowest iodine values. Catalase and GSH-Px activities and iodine values were quite stable during refrigerated storage. Acid values increased significantly over storage days in cattle. During the 4-day storage period, TBA and peroxide values increased. GSH-Px activity showed negative correlation with acid and TBA values in chicken and cattle. Acid value (for chicken and cattle and peroxide value (for 3 animal species showed positive correlation with TBA content. Iodine value had positive correlation with catalase activity in cattle and negative correlation with peroxide and TBA values in camel. In conclusion, our results indicate that peroxide and TBA values can be used as lipid quality indices in chicken, cattle and camel meat during 4 day storage in refrigerator. [Vet. World 2011; 4(4.000: 153-157

  18. Pesticide residues in brain tissues of dairy cattle in Lembang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indraningsih

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of pesticides to control plant diseases may cause residual formation in crops, its byproduct and environmental. Furthermore, the use of agriculture byproduct as animal feed may cause poisoning or residual formation in animal products. The purpose of this study is to investigate of pesticide residues in brain tissues of dairy cattle in relation to animal feed as a contamination source. Samples consisted of animal feeds (19 samples of fodder and 6 samples of feed, 31 samples of sera and 25 samples of brain tissues of dairy cattle collected from Lembang, West Java. Feeds and fodders were collected from dairy farms located in Lembang. Sera were directly collected from 31 heads of Frisien Holstein (FH cattle from the same location, while brain tissues of FH cattle were collected from a local animal slaughtering house. Pesticide residues were analysed using gas chromatography (GC. Both residues of organochlorines and organophosphates were detected from brain tissues with average residue concentration OP was 22.7 ppb and OC was 5.1 ppb and a total residue was 27.8 ppb. The pesticide residues in brain tissues are new information that should be taken into consideration since the Indonesian consumed this tissues as an oval. Although pesticides residue concentration was low, pathological changes were noted microscopically from the brain tissues including extracellular vacuolisation, focal necrosis, haemorrhages, dilatation of basement membrane without cellular infiltration. Both pesticide residues were also detected in sera, where OP (9.0 ppb was higher than OC (4.9 ppb. These pesticides were also detected in animal feeds consisting fodders and feeds. Residues of OP (12.0 ppb were higher than OC (1.8 ppb in feeds, but residues of OP (16.8 ppb were lower than OC (18.7 ppb in fodders. Although, pesticide residues in sera and brain tissues were below the maximum residue limits (MRL of fat, the presence of pesticides in brain tissues should be taken

  19. Babesial antibody dynamics after cattle immunisation with live vaccines, measured with an indirect immunofluorescence test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmone, A A; Lugaresi, C I; Volpogni, M M; Anziani, O S; Vanzini, V R

    1997-06-01

    The efficacy of vaccination of Argentinean cattle against babesiosis and anaplasmosis using live immunogens was tested to detect specific antibodies in samples obtained about 60 days after vaccination. Under these conditions a higher than expected proportion of cattle failed to show antibodies against Babesia bigemina. Therefore, a study was designed to evaluate if this failure was due to insensitivity of the routine test to detect antibodies to B. bigemina or to lack of infectivity of the live vaccine. Four groups (G) of cattle were each inoculated subcutaneously with 10 million Babesia bovis (vaccinal strain R1A), 10 million B. bigemina (vaccinal strain S1A) and 10 million Anaplasma centrale (strain M1). G1 and G2 consisted of ten Angus bulls 20-24 months old and ten Angus bulls 15-18 months old, respectively; G3 and G4 consisted of ten and 16 Holstein 1-month-old male calves, respectively. Blood samples were obtained on days 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 after vaccination and the sera were analysed with an indirect immunofluorescent (IFA) test to detect antibodies to B. bovis (baseline dilution for a positive result 1:60) and B. bigemina (baseline dilution 1:120). Positive IFA titres were considered as evidence of the infectivity of the Babesia vaccinal strains contained in the vaccine. All Angus bulls were found positive to antibodies against both Babesia species, by day 20 (B. bovis) and day 30 (B. bigemina), whereas 10-25% of Holstein calves were negative throughout. The partial lack of vaccine infectivity in the calves was considered to be a consequence of innate resistance of young calves to Babesia. Antibody titres to B. bovis and B. bigemina declined by day 60 after vaccination. However, all cattle that were positive to B. bovis antibodies on day 50 were still positive to the IFA test 10 days later while 10%, 30% and 12% of cattle of G1, G2 and G3 that were positive to B. bigemina antibodies on day 50 after vaccination were found negative to the IFA test

  20. Environmental and animal factors associated with gestation length in Holstein cows and heifers in two herds in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasek, R; Rezac, P; Havlicek, Z

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to assess the effects of the month of conception, month of calving, sex of the calf, and twins on gestation length (GL) in Holstein cows and heifers in two dairy herds with different milk yields. The study was performed in northeast Czech Republic over a 6-year period on two commercial dairy herds with a mean annual milk production of 11,060 kg per cow in the higher milk-producing herd and 8854 kg per cow in the lower milk-producing herd. Gestation length in cows that conceived in different months of the year was longer in the higher milk-producing herd than that in the lower milk-producing herd throughout the year (P Gestation length in cows that conceived in different months of the year was longer than that in heifers through the whole year in both herds (P Gestation length in cows and heifers that conceived in the first months of the year was longer than in those that conceived in the last months of the year in both herds (P Gestation length in cows and heifers that calved in late fall and throughout winter was longer than in those that calved in spring and summer in both herds (P Gestation length in females carrying male calves was longer than in those carrying female calves (P Gestation length in cows (P < 0.0001) and heifers (P < 0.05) carrying singles was longer than in those carrying twins in both herds. In conclusion, results indicate that GL in Holstein cattle is associated with the month of conception, month of calving, herd, parity, sex of the calf, and twins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Copper status, serum cholesterol, and milk fatty acid profile in Holstein cows fed varying concentrations of copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, T E; Fellner, V; Spears, J W

    2001-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary copper (Cu) on Cu status and lipid metabolism in Holstein cows. Three primiparous and 21 multiparous Holstein cows were utilized in this experiment. Groups of three cows similar in parity, days in milk, and milk yield were assigned randomly to one of the following three treatments: 1) control (no supplemental Cu), 2) 10 mg of Cu/kg of DM from Cu sulfate (CuSO4), and 3) 40 mg of Cu/kg of DM from CuSO4. Liver Cu concentrations were higher in Cu supplemented cows at the end of the 61-d study. Cows receiving 40 mg of Cu/kg of DM had higher liver Cu concentrations than cows receiving 10 mg of Cu. Plasma Cu concentrations were similar across treatments. Total serum cholesterol concentrations were higher in cows receiving supplemental Cu. Cows receiving 40 mg of Cu/kg of DM had higher serum cholesterol concentrations than cows receiving 10 mg of Cu. Dry matter intake, average daily milk production, and milk lipid, protein, and somatic cell numbers were similar across treatments. On d 61, milk fatty acids C18:1 trans and C18-conjugated dienes were lower in cows receiving supplemental Cu relative to the nonsupplemented controls. Cows receiving 40 mg of Cu/kg of DM had higher C12:0 and lower C18:2 and total polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk than cows receiving 10 mg of Cu/kg of DM. These results indicate that Cu supplementation alters lipid metabolism in high producing dairy cows and that Cu supplementation at 40 mg/kg of DM for 61 d can elevate liver Cu concentrations to levels considered to be marginally toxic in dairy cattle.

  2. Effect of Delayed Insemination on Holstein Cows’ Reproductive Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sehested, Jakob; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    Holstein cows’ fertility has decreased in the last decade, creating a need for new management methods to improve the reproductive performance which in this case was defined by pregnancy rates and number of artificial inseminations (AI) per pregnancy. Previous studies showed that deliberately...... and number of insemination to pregnancy) of 62 Holstein cows involved in a 16 months extended lactation trial was recorded and compared with the reproductive performance of the previous and following 10 months lactation of the same cows. It was hypothesized that a late rebreeding (at eight months, 16 months...... delaying rebreeding until after peak lactation can improve reproductive performance compared with the traditional rebreeding in early lactation. The objective was to compare the reproductive performance of cows in consecutive lactations of different lengths. The reproductive performance (pregnancy rate...

  3. Effect of Delayed Insemination on Holstein Cows’ Reproductive Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sehested, Jakob; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    Holstein cows’ fertility has decreased in the last decade, creating a need for new management methods to improve the reproductive performance which in this case was defined by pregnancy rates and number of artificial inseminations (AI) per pregnancy. Previous studies showed that deliberately...... delaying rebreeding until after peak lactation can improve reproductive performance compared with the traditional rebreeding in early lactation. The objective was to compare the reproductive performance of cows in consecutive lactations of different lengths. The reproductive performance (pregnancy rate...... and number of insemination to pregnancy) of 62 Holstein cows involved in a 16 months extended lactation trial was recorded and compared with the reproductive performance of the previous and following 10 months lactation of the same cows. It was hypothesized that a late rebreeding (at eight months, 16 months...

  4. Functional renormalization group study of the Anderson-Holstein model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, M. A.; Kennes, D. M.; Jakobs, S. G.; Meden, V.

    2014-02-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the spectral and transport properties in the Anderson-Holstein model both in and out of equilibrium using the functional renormalization group (fRG). We show how the previously established machinery of Matsubara and Keldysh fRG can be extended to include the local phonon mode. Based on the analysis of spectral properties in equilibrium we identify different regimes depending on the strength of the electron-phonon interaction and the frequency of the phonon mode. We supplement these considerations with analytical results from the Kondo model. We also calculate the nonlinear differential conductance through the Anderson-Holstein quantum dot and find clear signatures of the presence of the phonon mode.

  5. Mycoplasma bovis associated with decubital abscesses in Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinde, H; Daft, B M; Walker, R L; Charlton, B R; Petty, R

    1993-04-01

    Between April of 1990 and March of 1992, calves on a Holstein calf ranch experienced subcutaneous decubital abscesses involving the brisket region, dorsal aspect of the carpus, and lateral aspect of the stifle joints. Fifty out of 2,500 (2%) Holstein calves between the ages of 3 and 12 weeks were affected. Needle aspirates of brisket abscesses from 8 calves and 6 live or dead calves with 1 or more decubital abscesses were submitted for examination. Two of the 6 calves in addition had bronchopneumonia. Mycoplasma bovis was isolated from all abscesses and 1 lung. Formalin fixed tissues taken from the affected areas also revealed M. bovis by immunoperoxidase staining. No evidence of joint involvement was apparent, and no mycoplasma was isolated from the joints adjacent to affected areas. Attempts to isolate mycoplasma from milk and environmental samples were unsuccessful.

  6. Haplotype analysis of TLR4 gene and its effects on milk somatic cell score in Chinese commercial cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing Ping; Luoreng, Zhuo Ma; Gao, Shu Xin; Guo, Dong Sheng; Li, Jun Ya; Gao, Xue; Xu, Shang Zhong; Li, Feng; Chen, Gang; Wang, Jin Ren

    2014-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is a very complex and common disease of dairy cattle and a major source of economic losses to the dairy industry worldwide. In this study, the bovine TLR4 was taken as a candidate gene for mastitis resistance. This study aimed to analyze the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) or haplotype and somatic cell score (SCS) in 404 Chinese commercial dairy cattle including Chinese Holstein, Sanhe cattle and Chinese Simmental breeds. The polymerase chain reaction and sequencing methods were used for detecting genotype and allele frequency distribution of the two SNPs (rs8193062, rs8193064), statistical results showed that T allele at rs8193062 and C allele at rs8193064 were the predominate alleles. Moreover, six SNPs, including two SNPs (rs8193062, rs8193064) and four SNPs (rs8193060, rs8193069, rs29017188, rs8193046) which were chosen according the polymorphism level for the same cattle populations in previous studies, were used for haplotype analysis, the results revealed that twenty-one haplotypes were found in the mentioned animals, of which, Hap1 (30.5 %) and Hap2 (30.4 %) were the most common haplotypes. Hap2, Hap4 and Hap12 might negatively effect on milk SCS, whereas Hap13 might positively effect on milk SCS. The results in this study might assist in marker assisted selection and provided some reference to be implemented in breeding programs to improve the mastitis resistance of dairy cattle.

  7. Effects of grazing and feedlot finishing duration on the performance of three beef cattle genotypes in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asizua, Denis; Mpairwe, Denis; Kabi, Fred

    2017-01-01

    Beef production in Uganda is progressing from the traditional pastoral practices to sedentary semi-intensive systems. Consequently, farmers are continuously crossbreeding the indigenous cattle with exotic genotypes to improve meat yield. This study was conducted on-farm to evaluate the effects...... of feeding systems and feeding durations on performance of three locally available genotypes. A 2×3×3 factorial experiment was used to randomly allot 108 young bulls (9–15 months old), 36 for each of the three genotypes; Ankole x Holstein Friesian (AXF) (175±22 kg), pure Boran (208±34 kg) and a composite...

  8. Archäoprognose in Schleswig-Holstein

    OpenAIRE

    Mennenga, Moritz

    2016-01-01

    This is the slightly amended version of the authors Diplom-thesis in prehistoric archaeology. In the region of Eastern Holstein in Northern Germany a large amount of neolithic surface finds leading to potential settlements or burials. By using the data of the archäologische Landesaufnahme it was possible to date the sites and classify them. This data was used to do a predictive modelling by using a logistic regression analysis.

  9. Ruminal acidosis in a 21-month-old Holstein heifer

    OpenAIRE

    Golder, Helen M.; Celi, Pietro; Ian J Lean

    2014-01-01

    Rumen and blood biochemical profiles were monitored in 8 Holstein heifers exposed to a carbohydrate feeding challenge. One of the heifers had clinical signs consistent with acute ruminal acidosis on the day of, and subsequent to, the challenge. Within 24 h of challenge, 6 of 7 rumen volatile fatty acids measured were not detectable in this heifer and her rumen total lactate concentration was > 70 mM.

  10. Ruminal acidosis in a 21-month-old Holstein heifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golder, Helen M.; Celi, Pietro; Lean, Ian J.

    2014-01-01

    Rumen and blood biochemical profiles were monitored in 8 Holstein heifers exposed to a carbohydrate feeding challenge. One of the heifers had clinical signs consistent with acute ruminal acidosis on the day of, and subsequent to, the challenge. Within 24 h of challenge, 6 of 7 rumen volatile fatty acids measured were not detectable in this heifer and her rumen total lactate concentration was > 70 mM. PMID:24891639

  11. Interaction between genotype and climates for Holstein milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-21

    Sep 21, 2011 ... Number of sire Number of dam Number of inbreed animal Number of base animal Number of non-base animal. 3587. 92360. 27731. 30902. 143360. Table 2. Number of herds and animals ..... 0.29±0.01, respectively for California Holstein cows and to be 0.33±0.01, 0.35±0.01 and 0.3±0.01, respectively for.

  12. Localization of large polarons in the disordered Holstein model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozer, Oliver Robert; Barford, William

    2014-04-01

    We solve the disordered Holstein model via the density-matrix renormalization group method to investigate the combined roles of electron-phonon coupling and disorder on the localization of a single charge or exciton. The parameter regimes chosen, namely the adiabatic regime, ℏω /4t0=ω'<1, and the large polaron regime, λ <1, are applicable to most conjugated polymers. We show that as a consequence of the polaron effective mass diverging in the adiabatic limit (defined as ω'→0 subject to fixed λ) self-localized, symmetry-breaking solutions are predicted by the quantum Holstein model for infinitesimal disorder, in complete agreement with the predictions of the Born-Oppenheimer Holstein model. For other parts of the (ω', λ) parameter space, however, self-localized Born-Oppenheimer solutions are not expected. If ω' is not small enough and λ is not large enough, then the polaron is predominately localized by Anderson disorder, albeit more than for a free particle, because of the enhanced effective mass. Alternatively, for very small electron-phonon coupling (λ ≪1) the disorder-induced localization length is always smaller than the classical polaron size, 2/λ, so that disorder always dominates. We comment on the implication of our results on the electronic properties of conjugated polymers.

  13. Ancient mtDNA Analysis of Early 16th Century Caribbean Cattle Provides Insight into Founding Populations of New World Creole Cattle Breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speller, Camilla F.; Burley, David V.; Woodward, Robyn P.; Yang, Dongya Y.

    2013-01-01

    The Columbian Exchange resulted in a widespread movement of humans, plants and animals between the Old and New Worlds. The late 15th to early 16th century transfer of cattle from the Iberian Peninsula and Canary Islands to the Caribbean laid the foundation for the development of American creole cattle (Bos taurus) breeds. Genetic analyses of modern cattle from the Americas reveal a mixed ancestry of European, African and Indian origins. Recent debate in the genetic literature centers on the ‘African’ haplogroup T1 and its subhaplogroups, alternatively tying their origins to the initial Spanish herds, and/or from subsequent movements of taurine cattle through the African slave trade. We examine this problem through ancient DNA analysis of early 16th century cattle bone from Sevilla la Nueva, the first Spanish colony in Jamaica. In spite of poor DNA preservation, both T3 and T1 haplogroups were identified in the cattle remains, confirming the presence of T1 in the earliest Spanish herds. The absence, however, of “African-derived American” haplotypes (AA/T1c1a1) in the Sevilla la Nueva sample, leaves open the origins of this sub-haplogroup in contemporary Caribbean cattle. PMID:23894505

  14. Numerical renormalization group study of probability distributions for local fluctuations in the Anderson-Holstein and Holstein-Hubbard models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewson, Alex C [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Bauer, Johannes [Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2010-03-24

    We show that information on the probability density of local fluctuations can be obtained from a numerical renormalization group calculation of a reduced density matrix. We apply this approach to the Anderson-Holstein impurity model to calculate the ground state probability density rho(x) for the displacement x of the local oscillator. From this density we can deduce an effective local potential for the oscillator and compare its form with that obtained from a semiclassical approximation as a function of the coupling strength. The method is extended to the infinite dimensional Holstein-Hubbard model using dynamical mean field theory. We use this approach to compare the probability densities for the displacement of the local oscillator in the normal, antiferromagnetic and charge ordered phases.

  15. Genetic footprints of Iberian cattle in America 500 years after the arrival of Columbus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Amparo M; Gama, Luis T; Cañón, Javier; Ginja, Catarina; Delgado, Juan V; Dunner, Susana; Landi, Vincenzo; Martín-Burriel, Inmaculada; Penedo, M Cecilia T; Rodellar, Clementina; Vega-Pla, Jose Luis; Acosta, Atzel; Alvarez, Luz A; Camacho, Esperanza; Cortés, Oscar; Marques, Jose R; Martínez, Roberto; Martínez, Ruben D; Melucci, Lilia; Martínez-Velázquez, Guillermo; Muñoz, Jaime E; Postiglioni, Alicia; Quiroz, Jorge; Sponenberg, Philip; Uffo, Odalys; Villalobos, Axel; Zambrano, Delsito; Zaragoza, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    American Creole cattle presumably descend from animals imported from the Iberian Peninsula during the period of colonization and settlement, through different migration routes, and may have also suffered the influence of cattle directly imported from Africa. The introduction of European cattle, which began in the 18th century, and later of Zebu from India, has threatened the survival of Creole populations, some of which have nearly disappeared or were admixed with exotic breeds. Assessment of the genetic status of Creole cattle is essential for the establishment of conservation programs of these historical resources. We sampled 27 Creole populations, 39 Iberian, 9 European and 6 Zebu breeds. We used microsatellite markers to assess the origins of Creole cattle, and to investigate the influence of different breeds on their genetic make-up. The major ancestral contributions are from breeds of southern Spain and Portugal, in agreement with the historical ports of departure of ships sailing towards the Western Hemisphere. This Iberian contribution to Creoles may also include some African influence, given the influential role that African cattle have had in the development of Iberian breeds, but the possibility of a direct influence on Creoles of African cattle imported to America can not be discarded. In addition to the Iberian influence, the admixture with other European breeds was minor. The Creoles from tropical areas, especially those from the Caribbean, show clear signs of admixture with Zebu. Nearly five centuries since cattle were first brought to the Americas, Creoles still show a strong and predominant signature of their Iberian ancestors. Creole breeds differ widely from each other, both in genetic structure and influences from other breeds. Efforts are needed to avoid their extinction or further genetic erosion, which would compromise centuries of selective adaptation to a wide range of environmental conditions.

  16. Genetic footprints of Iberian cattle in America 500 years after the arrival of Columbus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo M Martínez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: American Creole cattle presumably descend from animals imported from the Iberian Peninsula during the period of colonization and settlement, through different migration routes, and may have also suffered the influence of cattle directly imported from Africa. The introduction of European cattle, which began in the 18th century, and later of Zebu from India, has threatened the survival of Creole populations, some of which have nearly disappeared or were admixed with exotic breeds. Assessment of the genetic status of Creole cattle is essential for the establishment of conservation programs of these historical resources. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We sampled 27 Creole populations, 39 Iberian, 9 European and 6 Zebu breeds. We used microsatellite markers to assess the origins of Creole cattle, and to investigate the influence of different breeds on their genetic make-up. The major ancestral contributions are from breeds of southern Spain and Portugal, in agreement with the historical ports of departure of ships sailing towards the Western Hemisphere. This Iberian contribution to Creoles may also include some African influence, given the influential role that African cattle have had in the development of Iberian breeds, but the possibility of a direct influence on Creoles of African cattle imported to America can not be discarded. In addition to the Iberian influence, the admixture with other European breeds was minor. The Creoles from tropical areas, especially those from the Caribbean, show clear signs of admixture with Zebu. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Nearly five centuries since cattle were first brought to the Americas, Creoles still show a strong and predominant signature of their Iberian ancestors. Creole breeds differ widely from each other, both in genetic structure and influences from other breeds. Efforts are needed to avoid their extinction or further genetic erosion, which would compromise centuries of selective adaptation

  17. Variation in residual feed intake in Holstein-Friesian dairy heifers in southern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Y J; Pryce, J E; Grainger, C; Wales, W J; Linden, N; Porker, M; Hayes, B J

    2011-09-01

    Feed conversion efficiency of dairy cattle is an important component of the profitability of dairying, given that the cost of feed accounts for much of total farm expenses. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a useful measure of feed conversion efficiency, as it can be used to compare individuals with the same or differing levels of production during the period of measurement. If genetic variation exists in RFI among dairy cattle, selection for lower RFI could improve profitability. In this experiment, RFI was defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake, which was determined by regression of dry matter (DM) intake against mean body weight (BW) and growth rate. Nine hundred and three Holstein-Friesian heifer calves, aged between 5 and 7 mo, were measured for RFI in 3 cohorts of approximately 300 animals. Calves were housed under feedlot style conditions in groups of 15 to 20 for 85 to 95 d and had ad libitum access to a cubed alfalfa hay. Intakes of individual animals were recorded via an electronic feed recording system and BW gain was determined by weighing animals once or twice weekly, over a period of 60 to 70 d. Calves had DM intake (mean ± SD) of 8.3±1.37 kg of DM/d over the measurement period with BW gains of 1.1±0.17 kg/d. In terms of converting feed energy for maintenance and growth, the 10% most efficient calves (lowest RFI) ate 1.7 kg of DM less each day than the 10% least efficient calves (highest RFI) for the same rate of growth. Low-RFI heifers also had a significantly lower rate of intake (g/min) than high-RFI heifers. The heritability estimate of RFI (mean ± SE) was 0.27 (±0.12). These results indicate that substantial genetic variation in RFI exists, and that the magnitude of this variation is large enough to enable this trait to be considered as a candidate trait for future dairy breeding goals. A primary focus of future research should be to ensure that calves that are efficient at converting feed

  18. The Effect of Thawing Temperature on Sperm Quality of Friesian Holstein Bulls

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    Tri Utami

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The percentage of sperm motility and morphology are important criteria in evaluating the quality of sperm before it is used for artificial insemination (AI. This study was conducted to observe post thawing motility and abnormal morphology of spermatozoa Friesian Holstein (FH. The materials were used 10 straws of FH bulls in the form of 0.25 ml. A total of 10 straws then divided into two treatment groups of  thawing  in water at 37°C and water 8°C, respectively. An examination of the motility and morphology of spermatozoa abnormalities performed every two hours for two times. Calculating the percentage of sperm motility was done by calculating the percentage of spermatozoa moving forward in the field of view under a microscope with a magnification of 10x. the percentage of abnormal spermatozoa was  assessed by William's stain. Spermatozoa morphology was observed by using a microscope magnification of 100x. Abnormalities of spermatozoa were calculated from a total of 200 spermatozoa, either normal or abnormal. At the same thawing time, the motility of FH cattle sperms post thawing in water temperature 37°C had a higher preference than that of post thawing in water temperature 8°C, although it was not significantly different (P > 0.05.  Based on morphological aspects, frozen semen used in this study is within the tolerance limit for the total percentage of abnormal sperm morphology between 12% to 23% and normal morphology between 70% to 88%.

  19. Incidence Rates of Clinical Mastitis among Canadian Holsteins Classified as High, Average, or Low Immune Responders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the incidence rate of clinical mastitis (IRCM) between cows classified as high, average, or low for antibody-mediated immune responses (AMIR) and cell-mediated immune responses (CMIR). In collaboration with the Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network, 458 lactating Holsteins from 41 herds were immunized with a type 1 and a type 2 test antigen to stimulate adaptive immune responses. A delayed-type hypersensitivity test to the type 1 test antigen was used as an indicator of CMIR, and serum antibody of the IgG1 isotype to the type 2 test antigen was used for AMIR determination. By using estimated breeding values for these traits, cows were classified as high, average, or low responders. The IRCM was calculated as the number of cases of mastitis experienced over the total time at risk throughout the 2-year study period. High-AMIR cows had an IRCM of 17.1 cases per 100 cow-years, which was significantly lower than average and low responders, with 27.9 and 30.7 cases per 100 cow-years, respectively. Low-AMIR cows tended to have the most severe mastitis. No differences in the IRCM were noted when cows were classified based on CMIR, likely due to the extracellular nature of mastitis-causing pathogens. The results of this study demonstrate the desirability of breeding dairy cattle for enhanced immune responses to decrease the incidence and severity of mastitis in the Canadian dairy industry. PMID:23175290

  20. Genetic parameters of fatty acids in Italian Brown Swiss and Holstein cows

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    Emanuela Tullo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters and to predict experimental breeding values (EBVs for saturated (SFA, unsaturated (UFA, monounsaturated (MUFA and polyunsaturated (PUFA fatty acids, the ratio of fatty acids, and the productive traits in Italian Brown Swiss (BSW and Holstein Friesian (HOL cattle. Test-day yields from 235,658 HOL and 21,723 BSW cows were extracted from the Italian HOL and BSW Associations databases from November 2009 to October 2012 out of 3310 herds. The milk samples collected within the routine milk recording scheme were processed with the MilkoscanTM FT 6500 Plus (Foss, Hillerød, Denmark for the identification of SFA, UFA, MUFA and PUFA composition in milk. Genetic parameters for fatty acids and productive traits were estimated on 1,765,552 records in HOL and 255,592 records in BSW. Heritability values estimated for SFA, UFA, MUFA and PUFA ranged from 0.06 to 0.18 for the BSW breed and from 0.10 to 0.29 for HOL. The genetic trends for the fatty acids were consistent between traits and breeds. Pearson’s and Spearman’s correlations among EBVs for SFA, UFA, MUFA and PUFA and official EBVs for fat percentage were in the range 0.32 to 0.54 for BSW and 0.44 to 0.64 for HOL. The prediction of specific EBVs for milk fatty acids and for the ratio among them may be useful to identify the best bulls to be selected with the aim to improve milk quality in terms of fat content and fatty acid ratios, achieving healthier dairy productions for consumers.

  1. Transcriptional Profiling of Ileocecal Valve of Holstein Dairy Cows Infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis.

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    Randy J Hempel

    Full Text Available Johne's disease is a chronic infection of the small intestine caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP, an intracellular bacterium. The events of pathogen survival within the host cell(s, chronic inflammation and the progression from asymptomatic subclinical stage to an advanced clinical stage of infection, are poorly understood. This study examines gene expression in the ileocecal valve (ICV of Holstein dairy cows at different stages of MAP infection. The ICV is known to be a primary site of MAP colonization and provides an ideal location to identify genes that are relevant to the progression of this disease. RNA was prepared from ICV tissues and RNA-Seq was used to compare gene transcription between clinical, subclinical, and uninfected control animals. Interpretation of the gene expression data was performed using pathway analysis and gene ontology categories containing multiple differentially expressed genes. Results demonstrated that many of the pathways that had strong differential gene expression between uninfected control and clinical cows were related to the immune system, such as the T- and B-cell receptor signaling, apoptosis, NOD-like receptor signaling, and leukocyte transendothelial migration pathways. In contrast, the comparison of gene transcription between control and subclinical cows identified pathways that were primarily involved in metabolism. The results from the comparison between clinical and subclinical animals indicate recruitment of neutrophils, up regulation of lysosomal peptidases, increase in immune cell transendothelial migration, and modifications of the extracelluar matrix. This study provides important insight into how cattle respond to a natural MAP infection at the gene transcription level within a key target tissue for infection.

  2. Gene expression profile of Musculus longissimus dorsi in bulls of a Charolais × Holstein F2-cross with divergent intramuscular fat content

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    Katrin Komolka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptomes of Musculus longissimus dorsi (MLD were compared between bulls from a F2-cross derived from Charolais and Holstein Friesian. Two groups of 10 bulls were selected which differed significantly in intramuscular fat (IMF deposition despite standardized husbandry and feeding conditions and identical sires in both groups. Consequently, genetic factors underlying the different capability of IMF deposition should be identified. A total of 32 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were found of which 11 were up-regulated and 21 were down-regulated in the high IMF group. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA identified a gene network comprising DEGs with functions in carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism and molecular transport. The data from this study were deposited in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus and are accessible through GEO Series accession number GSE75347. We provide here a dataset which is of potential value to dissect molecular pathways influencing differences in IMF deposition in crossbred cattle with standardized genetic background.

  3. Gene expression profile of Musculus longissimus dorsi in bulls of a Charolais × Holstein F2-cross with divergent intramuscular fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komolka, Katrin; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Albrecht, Elke; Kühn, Christa; Wimmers, Klaus; Maak, Steffen

    2016-03-01

    Transcriptomes of Musculus longissimus dorsi (MLD) were compared between bulls from a F2-cross derived from Charolais and Holstein Friesian. Two groups of 10 bulls were selected which differed significantly in intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition despite standardized husbandry and feeding conditions and identical sires in both groups. Consequently, genetic factors underlying the different capability of IMF deposition should be identified. A total of 32 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found of which 11 were up-regulated and 21 were down-regulated in the high IMF group. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) identified a gene network comprising DEGs with functions in carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism and molecular transport. The data from this study were deposited in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus and are accessible through GEO Series accession number GSE75347. We provide here a dataset which is of potential value to dissect molecular pathways influencing differences in IMF deposition in crossbred cattle with standardized genetic background.

  4. Genetic variation of metabolite and hormone concentration in UK Holstein-Frisian calves and the genetic relationship with economically important traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayhurst, C; Flint, A P F; Løvendahl, P

    2009-01-01

    of free fatty acids (FFA), glucose, growth hormone (GH), insulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in male and female UK Holstein-Friesian dairy calves (average age ± SD; 126 ± 12.7 d) were analyzed during 2 studies: data set 1 (n = 496 females; 1996-2001; 7 commercial dairy herds) and data set 2......The decline of dairy cattle fertility worldwide remains a major concern, with conception rates to first service commonly below 40%. The length and severity of negative energy balance postpartum are unfavorably correlated with fertility, suggesting that the length and severity of negative energy...... balance and fertility are linked via several hormones or metabolites. These compounds therefore have the potential to predict fertility at a genetic level. The addition of a predictor trait for fertility into present fertility indices would accelerate genetic gain, particularly if it was expressed before...

  5. The relationship among vitamin C, beta-carotene, vitamin A, progesterone and oestradiol 17-beta concentrations in plasma and cyst fluid of Holstein cows with ovarian cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haliloglu, S; Erdem, H; Serpek, B; Tekeli, T; Bulut, Z

    2008-10-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the concentrations of the progesterone, oestradiol-17-beta, vitamin A, C and beta-carotene in plasma and cyst fluid and to relate these values with cystic diameter and membrane thickness of Holstein cattle with ovarian luteal cyst. 1650 Holstein cows were examined for the presence of the ovarian cyst and luteal and follicular cystic ovaries were obtained following slaughtering in personal slaughterhouse in Konya-Turkey. 15 Luteal and 15 follicular cystic ovaries were distinguished by rectal palpation and by post mortem ultrasonographic examination. Plasma and cyst fluid, hormone and vitamin analyses were carried out by EIA method and spectrophotometric measurement respectively. Although there was no relationship between beta-carotene and vitamin A in plasma and cyst fluid of both cyst type and hormone concentrations, the vitamin C concentration of cyst fluid was found significantly higher in luteal cyst than in follicular cyst. Moreover, there is a positive correlation among values of the vitamin C concentrations of cyst fluid and cystic membrane thickness, plasma and the cyst fluid progesterone concentrations, but there is a negative correlation among the vitamin C concentrations of cystic fluid and oestradiol 17beta levels of plasma and cyst fluid. In conclusion, vitamin C concentration of cyst fluid supported ultrasonographic and endocrinologic findings. Also, it can be postulated that vitamin C is probably effective on progesterone synthesis in the luteal tissue of cyst.

  6. Evaluation of milk yield traits of Holstein x Jersey crosses

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    Suelen Corrêa da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The crossbreeding practice between specialized dairy breeds is an usual method for dairy producers and recently the Holstein x Jersey crosses has continuously increased in some regions of Brazil. Motivating factors of this practice include an interest in improving the milk solids content, somatic cell count (SCC, fertility, longevity and calving ease, in addition to reduce the problems of consanguinity. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the milk components and milk yield of Holstein x Jersey crosses. Data set comprised 59,331 monthly records of 6,429 pure Holstein (H and Jersey (J and ½ H x ½ J crossed cows calving from 1992 to 2010. The traits analyzed were test-day milk yields (MT, somatic cell score (SCS and percentages of fat (%F and protein (%P. Since the SCC is not normal distributed it was converted to a logarithmic scale in SCS, using the following equation, SCS = log2 (SCC/100 + 3. The variables MT, SCS, %F and %P were analyzed as dependent variables by least square method using GLM procedure. There were considered linear models containing the effects of breed (H, J and ½ H x ½ J or F1, herd, year and month of test as classificatory variables. Age at calving (AC and days in milk (DM were included as covariates (linear and quadratic effects for all traits. The test-day milk yield was included as covariate for SCS model, %F and %P. All variables included in the model showed significant effects for MT, SCS, %F and %P. The estimated least square means for milk yield (19.13 H; 16.27 JH and 13.39 J showed statistically significant differences for the different genetic groups. The Holstein breed had higher test-day milk yields in comparison to Jersey breed that was an expected result since the frame of Holstein breed is greater and the selection has been practiced more intensively for production in this breed. When compared to F1 cows and Jersey, the mean of crossbreed animals was higher due to heterosis and due to difference of

  7. Intake, digestibility and nitrogen use efficiency in crossbred F1 Holstein × Zebu grazing cows

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    Stefanie Alvarenga Santos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate intake, digestibility and nitrogen (N compounds use efficiency in F1 Holstein × Zebu grazing cows. Eighteen crossbred cows (six Holstein × Gir, six Holstein × Guzerat, and six Holstein × Nellore were used in the experiment, constituting three experimental treatments in simple random samples, under the same feeding conditions. At the estimation of individual intake at grazing, titanium dioxide was used for estimating fecal excretion and indigestible neutral detergent fiber, in order to determine pasture intake. There was effect of the lactation period on nutrient intake, except for the intakes of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM and total digestible nutrients (TDN in % of body weight (BW, as well as those of non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC, in kg. The digestibility coefficients of crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDFap and the contents of TDN varied in function of the lactation period, whereas the coefficients of digestibility of DM, ether extract (EE and OM did not present such effect. The total milk production projected at 305 days of lactation for Holstein × Gir cows was superior in relation to Holstein × Guzerat and Holstein × Nellore cows. The excretion of urea into urine and of urea N into the milk and the plasma presented quadratic behavior in function of the lactation period. The utilization of the genetic group from Holstein × Zebu grazing cows does not cause alterations in intake, nutrient digestibility or nitrogen use efficiency; however, there is variation in function of the lactation period. Holstein × Gir cows presented greater accumulated production during lactation and persistence, followed by Holstein × Guzerat and Holstein × Nellore cows.

  8. An 8-year longitudinal sero-epidemiological study of bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) infection in dairy cattle in Turkey and analysis of risk factors associated with BLV seropositivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şevik, Murat; Avcı, Oğuzhan; İnce, Ömer Barış

    2015-04-01

    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) which is caused by bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) has an important economic impact on dairy herds due to reduced milk production and restrictions on livestock exports. This study was conducted to determine the BLV infection status in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey, an important milk production centre, and to examine the risk factors such as purchasing cattle, increasing cattle age, cattle breed and herd size associated with transmission of BLV infection. To estimate the rate of BLV infection, a survey for specific antibodies in 28,982 serum samples from animals belonging to 1116 different herds situated in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey were tested from January 2006 to December 2013. A generalized mixed linear model was used to evaluate the risk factors that influenced BLV seroprevalence. Antibodies against BLV were detected in 431 (2.28 %) of 18,822 Holstein and 29 (0.28 %) of 10,160 Brown Swiss cows. Among 1116 herds, 132 herds (11.82 %) had one or more positive animals. Also results of our study show that the prevalence of BLV infection increased from 2006 to 2011, and it tends to reduce with BLV control programme. Furthermore, we found positive associations between percentage of seropositive animal and increasing cattle age, herd size, cattle breed and purchased cattle. Age-specific prevalence showed that BLV prevalence increased with age. These factors should be taken into consideration for control of BLV infection.

  9. Evidence of a major gene influencing hair length and heat tolerance in Bos taurus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, T A; Lucena, C; Chase, C C; Hammond, A C

    2003-01-01

    Evidence was found that supports the existence of a major gene (designated as the slick hair gene), dominant in mode of inheritance, that is responsible for producing a very short, sleek hair coat. Cattle with slick hair were observed to maintain lower rectal temperatures (RT). The gene is found in Senepol cattle and criollo (Spanish origin) breeds in Central and South America. This gene is also found in a Venezuelan composite breed, the Carora, formed from the Brown Swiss and a Venezuelan criollo breed. Two sets of backcross matings of normal-haired sire breeds to Senepol crossbred dams assumed to be heterozygous for the slick hair gene resulted in ratios of slick to normal-haired progeny that did not significantly differ from 1:1. Data from Carora x Holstein crossbred cows in Venezuela also support the concept of a major gene that is responsible for the slick hair coat of the Carora breed. Cows that were 75% Holstein: 25% Carora in breed composition segregated with a ratio that did not differ from 1:1, as would be expected from a backcross matinginvolving a dominant gene. The effect of the slick hair gene on RT depended on the degree of heat stress and appeared to be affected by age and/or lactation status. The decreased RT observed for slick-haired crossbred calves compared to normal-haired contemporaries ranged from 0.18 to 0.4 degrees C. An even larger decrease in RT (0.61 degrees C; P < 0.01) was observed in lactating Carora x Holstein F1 crossbred cows, even though it did not appear that these cows were under severe heat stress. The improved thermotolerance of crossbred calves due to their slick hair coats did not result in increased weaning weights, possibly because both the slick and normal-haired calves were being nursed by slick-haired dams. There were indications that the slick-haired calves grew faster immediately following weaning and that their growth during the cooler months of the year was not compromised significantly by their reduced quantity of

  10. Quantitative comparisons of select cultured and uncultured microbial populations in the rumen of cattle fed different diets

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    Kim Minseok

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number and diversity of uncultured ruminal bacterial and archaeal species revealed by 16S rRNA gene (rrs sequences greatly exceeds that of cultured bacteria and archaea. However, the significance of uncultured microbes remains undetermined. The objective of this study was to assess the numeric importance of select uncultured bacteria and cultured bacteria and the impact of diets and microenvironments within cow rumen in a comparative manner. Results Liquid and adherent fractions were obtained from the rumen of Jersey cattle fed hay alone and Holstein cattle fed hay plus grain. The populations of cultured and uncultured bacteria present in each fraction were quantified using specific real-time PCR assays. The population of total bacteria was similar between fractions or diets, while total archaea was numerically higher in the hay-fed Jersey cattle than in the hay-grain-fed Holstein cattle. The population of the genus Prevotella was about one log smaller than that of total bacteria. The populations of Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, the genus Butyrivibrio, and R. albus was at least one log smaller than that of genus Prevotella. Four of the six uncultured bacteria quantified were as abundant as F. succinogenes, R. flavefaciens and the genus Butyrivibrio. In addition, the populations of several uncultured bacteria were significantly higher in the adherent fractions than in the liquid fractions. These uncultured bacteria may be associated with fiber degradation. Conclusions Some uncultured bacteria are as abundant as those of major cultured bacteria in the rumen. Uncultured bacteria may have important contribution to ruminal fermentation. Population dynamic studies of uncultured bacteria in a comparative manner can help reveal their ecological features and importance to rumen functions.

  11. The Behaviour of a Holstein-based dairy farming system in Brazil between 1980 and 1992.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waltrick, B.

    2001-01-01

    The Holstein breed is being used successfully for milk production in many countries, including Brazil, as long as good management lands practices are applied. This study gives an overview of the development of the Holstein-based dairy system in Brazil. An analysis of the behaviour of this system

  12. Effect of economic crisis on sustainability of Holstein dairy systems in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waltrick, B.; Koops, W.

    2002-01-01

    This analysis presents the development of the Holstein dairy system in Brazil, evaluating system sustainability during a time of crisis, based on changes in system productivity, stability, resilience and equity. Sustainability indicators are used to describe these changes. Records of Holstein cows

  13. Methods to improve genomic prediction and GWAS using combined Holstein populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiujin

    The thesis focuses on methods to improve GWAS and genomic prediction using combined Holstein populations and investigations G by E interaction. The conclusions are: 1) Prediction reliabilities for Brazilian Holsteins can be increased by adding Nordic and Frensh genotyped bulls and a large G by E ...

  14. SNP detection using RNA-sequences of candidate genes associated with puberty in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, M M; Cánovas, A; Mantilla-Rojas, C; Riley, D G; Luna-Nevarez, P; Coleman, S J; Speidel, S E; Enns, R M; Islas-Trejo, A; Medrano, J F; Moore, S S; Fortes, M R S; Nguyen, L T; Venus, B; Diaz, I S D P; Souza, F R P; Fonseca, L F S; Baldi, F; Albuquerque, L G; Thomas, M G; Oliveira, H N

    2017-03-22

    Fertility traits, such as heifer pregnancy, are economically important in cattle production systems, and are therefore, used in genetic selection programs. The aim of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) data from ovary, uterus, endometrium, pituitary gland, hypothalamus, liver, longissimus dorsi muscle, and adipose tissue in 62 candidate genes associated with heifer puberty in cattle. RNA-Seq reads were assembled to the bovine reference genome (UMD 3.1.1) and analyzed in five cattle breeds; Brangus, Brahman, Nellore, Angus, and Holstein. Two approaches used the Brangus data for SNP discovery 1) pooling all samples, and 2) within each individual sample. These approaches revealed 1157 SNPs. These were compared with those identified in the pooled samples of the other breeds. Overall, 172 SNPs within 13 genes (CPNE5, FAM19A4, FOXN4, KLF1, LOC777593, MGC157266, NEBL, NRXN3, PEPT-1, PPP3CA, SCG5, TSG101, and TSHR) were concordant in the five breeds. Using Ensembl's Variant Effector Predictor, we determined that 12% of SNPs were in exons (71% synonymous, 29% nonsynonymous), 1% were in untranslated regions (UTRs), 86% were in introns, and 1% were in intergenic regions. Since these SNPs were discovered in RNA, the variants were predicted to be within exons or UTRs. Overall, 160 novel transcripts in 42 candidate genes and five novel genes overlapping five candidate genes were observed. In conclusion, 1157 SNPs were identified in 62 candidate genes associated with puberty in Brangus cattle, of which, 172 were concordant in the five cattle breeds. Novel transcripts and genes were also identified.

  15. Comparative digestibility of low-quality grass hay by two breeds of cattle differing in mature live weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, A L; Dias-da-Silva, A; Santos, A S; Rodrigues, M A M; Cone, J W; Ferreira, L M M

    2014-06-01

    The digestive capacity of the Portuguese native breed of Barrosão cattle and the Holstein-Friesian breed was measured when fed meadow hay (72-74 g CP and 641-671 g NDF/kg dry matter), offered either alone or supplemented with soya bean meal (150 g/kg dry matter), at maintenance level. Four mature cows of each breed were used. Average initial live weight (LW) was 457 and 635 kg for the Barrosão and the Holstein-Friesian cows respectively. The organic matter digestibility (OMD) of the meadow hay was higher in Holstein-Friesian than in Barrosão cows (p 0.05). The results obtained in this study suggest a higher ability to digest fibre in the large dairy breed than in the small native breed. This suggestion is also supported by previous findings with sheep breeds largely differing in mature live weight. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Incorporation of aurochs into a cattle herd in Neolithic Europe: single event or breeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibler, Jörg; Elsner, Julia; Schlumbaum, Angela

    2014-07-01

    Domestication is an ongoing process continuously changing the lives of animals and humans and the environment. For the majority of European cattle (Bos taurus) genetic and archaeozoological evidence support initial domestication ca. 11'000 BP in the Near East from few founder aurochs (Bos primigenius) belonging to the mitochondrial DNA T macro-haplogroup. Gene flow between wild European aurochs of P haplogroup and domestic cattle of T haplogroup, coexisting over thousands of years, appears to have been sporadic. We report archaeozoological and ancient DNA evidence for the incorporation of wild stock into a domestic cattle herd from a Neolithic lake-dwelling in Switzerland. A complete metacarpus of a small and compact adult bovid is morphologically and genetically a female. With withers height of ca. 112 cm, it is comparable in size with small domestic cattle from contemporaneous sites in the area. The bone is directly dated to 3360-3090 cal BC and associated to the Horgen culture, a period of the secondary products revolution. The cow possessed a novel mtDNA P haplotype variant of the European aurochs. We argue this is either a single event or, based on osteological characteristics of the Horgen cattle, a rare instance of intentional breeding with female aurochs.

  17. Renewable energies and grid expansion. Chances and demands for Schleswig-Holstein; Erneuerbare Energien und Netzausbau. Chancen und Herausforderung fuer Schleswig-Holstein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boxberger, Matthias [Schleswig-Holstein Netz AG, Quickborn (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    For several years, Schleswig-Holstein is leading in the power generation from renewable energy sources. The boom in wind turbines, photovoltaic panels and biogas plants is unbroken. With the designation of additional areas suitable for wind power plants, the politics works on performance boost in the use of wind energy. Thus the opportunities growth. But also challenges for everyone are involved because the expansion of renewable energies in Schleswig-Holstein requires a comprehensive renovation and expansion of the energy infrastructure.

  18. Application of site and haplotype-frequency based approaches for detecting selection signatures in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Stephen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 'Selection signatures' delimit regions of the genome that are, or have been, functionally important and have therefore been under either natural or artificial selection. In this study, two different and complementary methods--integrated Haplotype Homozygosity Score (|iHS| and population differentiation index (FST--were applied to identify traces of decades of intensive artificial selection for traits of economic importance in modern cattle. Results We scanned the genome of a diverse set of dairy and beef breeds from Germany, Canada and Australia genotyped with a 50 K SNP panel. Across breeds, a total of 109 extreme |iHS| values exceeded the empirical threshold level of 5% with 19, 27, 9, 10 and 17 outliers in Holstein, Brown Swiss, Australian Angus, Hereford and Simmental, respectively. Annotating the regions harboring clustered |iHS| signals revealed a panel of interesting candidate genes like SPATA17, MGAT1, PGRMC2 and ACTC1, COL23A1, MATN2, respectively, in the context of reproduction and muscle formation. In a further step, a new Bayesian FST-based approach was applied with a set of geographically separated populations including Holstein, Brown Swiss, Simmental, North American Angus and Piedmontese for detecting differentiated loci. In total, 127 regions exceeding the 2.5 per cent threshold of the empirical posterior distribution were identified as extremely differentiated. In a substantial number (56 out of 127 cases the extreme FST values were found to be positioned in poor gene content regions which deviated significantly (p ST values were found in regions of some relevant genes such as SMCP and FGF1. Conclusions Overall, 236 regions putatively subject to recent positive selection in the cattle genome were detected. Both |iHS| and FST suggested selection in the vicinity of the Sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 5 gene on BTA18. This region was recently reported to be a major QTL with strong effects on productive life

  19. Methods for early prediction of lactation flow in Holstein heifers

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    Vesna Gantner

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to define methods for early prediction (based on I. milk control record of lactation flow in Holstein heifers as well as to choose optimal one in terms of prediction fit and application simplicity. Total of 304,569 daily yield records automatically recorded on a 1,136 first lactation Holstein cows, from March 2003 till August 2008., were included in analysis. According to the test date, calving date, the age at first calving, lactation stage when I. milk control occurred and to the average milk yield in first 25th, T1 (and 25th-45th, T2 lactation days, measuring monthcalving month-age-production-time-period subgroups were formed. The parameters of analysed nonlinear and linear methods were estimated for each defined subgroup. As models evaluation measures,adjusted coefficient of determination, and average and standard deviation of error were used. Considering obtained results, in terms of total variance explanation (R2 adj, the nonlinear Wood’s method showed superiority above the linear ones (Wilmink’s, Ali-Schaeffer’s and Guo-Swalve’s method in both time-period subgroups (T1 - 97.5 % of explained variability; T2 - 98.1 % of explained variability. Regarding the evaluation measures based on prediction error amount (eavg±eSD, the lowest average error of daily milk yield prediction (less than 0.005 kg/day, as well as of lactation milk yield prediction (less than 50 kg/lactation (T1 time-period subgroup and less than 30 kg/lactation (T2 time-period subgroup; were determined when Wood’s nonlinear prediction method were applied. Obtained results indicate that estimated Wood’s regression parameters could be used in routine work for early prediction of Holstein heifer’s lactation flow.

  20. Analysis of runs of homozygosity and their relationship with inbreeding in five cattle breeds farmed in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, Gabriele; Gaspa, Giustino; Sorbolini, Silvia; Dimauro, Corrado; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Valentini, Alessio; Williams, John L; Macciotta, Nicolò P P

    2015-04-01

    Increased inbreeding is an inevitable consequence of selection in livestock populations. The analysis of high-density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) facilitates the identification of long and uninterrupted runs of homozygosity (ROH) that can be used to identify chromosomal regions that are identical by descent. In this work, the distribution of ROH of different lengths in five Italian cattle breeds is described. A total of 4095 bulls from five cattle breeds (2093 Italian Holstein, 749 Italian Brown, 364 Piedmontese, 410 Marchigiana and 479 Italian Simmental) were genotyped at 54K SNP loci. ROH were identified and used to estimate molecular inbreeding coefficients (FROH ), which were compared with inbreeding coefficients estimated from pedigree information (FPED ) and using the genomic relationship matrix (FGRM ). The average number of ROH per animal ranged from 54 ± 7.2 in Piedmontese to 94.6 ± 11.6 in Italian Brown. The highest number of short ROH (related to ancient consanguinity) was found in Piedmontese, followed by Simmental. The Italian Brown and Holstein had a higher proportion of longer ROH distributed across the whole genome, revealing recent inbreeding. The FPED were moderately correlated with FROH > 1 Mb (0.662, 0.700 and 0.669 in Italian Brown, Italian Holstein and Italian Simmental respectively) but poorly correlated with FGRM (0.134, 0.128 and 0.448 for Italian Brown, Italian Holstein and Italian Simmental respectively). The inclusion of ROH > 8 Mb in the inbreeding calculation improved the correlation of FROH with FPED and FGRM . ROH are a direct measure of autozygosity at the DNA level and can overcome approximations and errors resulting from incomplete pedigree data. In populations with high linkage disequilibrium (LD) and recent inbreeding (e.g. Italian Holstein and Italian Brown), a medium-density marker panel, such as the one used here, may provide a good estimate of inbreeding. However, in populations with low LD and ancient

  1. Genetic Variation in FABP4 and Evaluation of Its Effects on Beef Cattle Fat Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goszczynski, Daniel E; Papaleo-Mazzucco, Juliana; Ripoli, María V; Villarreal, Edgardo L; Rogberg-Muñoz, Andrés; Mezzadra, Carlos A; Melucci, Lilia M; Giovambattista, Guillermo

    2017-07-03

    FABP4 is a protein primarily expressed in adipocytes and macrophages that plays a key role in fatty acid trafficking and lipid hydrolysis. FABP4 gene polymorphisms have been associated with meat quality traits in cattle, mostly in Asian breeds under feedlot conditions. The objectives of this work were to characterize FABP4 genetic variation in several worldwide cattle breeds and evaluate possible genotype effects on fat content in a pasture-fed crossbred (Angus-Hereford-Limousin) population. We re-sequenced 43 unrelated animals from nine cattle breeds (Angus, Brahman, Creole, Hereford, Holstein, Limousin, Nelore, Shorthorn, and Wagyu) and obtained 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) over 3,164 bp, including four novel polymorphisms. Haplotypes and linkage disequilibrium analyses showed a high variability. Five SNPs were selected to perform validation and association studies in our crossbred population. Four SNPs showed well-balanced allele frequencies (minor frequency > 0.159), and three showed no significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions. SNPs showed significant effects on backfat thickness and fatty acid composition (P < 0.05). The protein structure of one of the missense SNPs was analyzed to elucidate its possible effect on fat content in our studied population. Our results revealed a possible blockage of the fatty acid binding site by the missense mutation.

  2. Serum haptoglobin concentrations in dairy cattle with lameness due to claw disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Billy I; Kauffold, Johannes; Sherman, Lisa

    2010-11-01

    In cattle, elevated blood serum concentrations of haptoglobin, an acute phase protein, have been demonstrated in association with several diseases, but not with lameness. Serum haptoglobin was measured in 60 Holstein dairy cattle diagnosed with lameness due to four claw disorders, pododermatitis septica (PS; n=41), pododermatitis circumscripta (PC; n=8), interdigital necrobacillosis (IN; n=7), papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD; n=4). Haptoglobin was measured on day 1 (0-3 days after lameness was observed but before treatment) and on days 3 and 5. A total of 10 healthy cows served as controls (haptoglobin values <1.0 mg/dL). Each of the claw disorders was associated with elevated haptoglobin on day 1 (PS, PC, IN and PDD: 65.9%, 37.5%, 71.4% and 25.0%, respectively). Trimming and antibiotic treatment led to a reduction in the number of PS and IN cows with increased haptoglobin concentrations, respectively (P<0.05), but trimming did not lead to any reduction in cows with PC. The study showed that lameness due to claw disorders can be associated with a systemic acute phase response and elevated serum haptoglobin in dairy cattle. Based on the course of haptoglobin, treatments seemed effective for all claw disorders except for PC. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Nota técnica: Comportamiento productivo de machos Holstein x Cebú en silvopastoreo Technical note: Productive performance of Holstein x Zebu males under silvopastoral system conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Simón

    2009-06-01

    into 10 paddocks. A stocking rate of three animals/ha was used, which were weighed monthly to determine the changes of live weight, gains and tick invasion. The DM availability and chemical composition of the pastureland were determined for the rainy and dry seasons. Significant differences were found in the weight gain; the values were: 0,691a; 0,472b; 0,363b and 0,370b for F1, crossbred Siboney, Siboney and Mambí, respectively. Similar response was obtained in tick count, where F1 turned out to be significantly lower than the others (3,83a; 7,63b; 8,18b and 8,63b for each genotype. According to the results, the best gains were obtained in F1, followed by crossbred Siboney, Siboney and Mambí. In addition, the lowest quantity of ticks was found in F1, linked to the lowest percentage of Holstein blood and the highest thickness of the skin, which can be an adequate characteristic to evaluate the resistance of cattle to tick invasion.

  4. Holstein: la nodriza de los antioqueños

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Álvarez Múnera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes one of the most important events in the development of the dairy industry in the department of Antioquia: the Holstein Exhibition of La Ceja (1949-1959. We argue that exhibitions became the means through which the genetic improvements of local farms and the managerial techniques needed for their reproduction of said improvements were disseminated. Also, exhibitions affectively articulated the genetic level reached by the farms with those of the market, i.e. the needs of individual landowners, rural producers, suppliers and union entities.

  5. Local electronic structure in the Peyrard-Bishop-Holstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Jianxin; Rasmussen, K Oe; Balatsky, A V; Bishop, A R [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2007-04-04

    There is increasing evidence for polaronic effects on charge localization and dynamics in DNA. The Peyrard-Bishop-Holstein model has been previously suggested as an appropriate model for the description of such effects. Here we report a self-consistent study of local electronic structure within this model for both homopolymer and realistic viral P5 promoter segments. Our results indicate that both the inter-base-pair stacking interaction and the electron filling can qualitatively influence the polaronic properties in a specific DNA sequence, including features of two distinct length scales and competition with sequence-disorder induced localization.

  6. Mobility of Holstein Polaron at Finite Temperature: An Unbiased Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, A. S.; Nagaosa, N.; De Filippis, G.; de Candia, A.; Cataudella, V.

    2015-04-01

    We present the first unbiased results for the mobility μ of a one-dimensional Holstein polaron obtained by numerical analytic continuation combined with diagrammatic and worldline Monte Carlo methods in the thermodynamic limit. We have identified for the first time several distinct regimes in the λ -T plane including a band conduction region, incoherent metallic region, an activated hopping region, and a high-temperature saturation region. We observe that although mobilities and mean free paths at different values of λ differ by many orders of magnitude at small temperatures, their values at T larger than the bandwidth become very close to each other.

  7. INBREEDING AND INBREEDING DEPRESSION IN SLOVENIAN HOLSTEIN POPULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Potočnik, K.; M. Štepec; Krsnik, J.

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of inbreeding and inbreeding depression was done on the data of routine breeding value estimation for milk production data on Holstein population in Slovenia. A pedigree file of 106 433 animals born from 1952 to 2005 was investigated for the occurrence of inbreeding. The maximum inbreeding was 37.5. However average inbreeding coefficients of inbred cows (1.3 %) and of all cows with test day records (0.989 %) were low. Daily milk, protein, and fat yield of first five lactation for 86 ...

  8. Calf form bovine leukosis with lameness in a Holstein heifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfeeq, Mohammad Monir; Miura, Saori; Nakanishi, Yuuki; Sugimoto, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2012-09-01

    A 12-month-old Holstein heifer with anorexia, lameness, and enlargement of peripheral lymph nodes was suspected of having bovine leukosis. Although lymphocytosis was not observed, cytology of fine needle aspirate from a superficial cervical node, and increased serum lactate dehydrogenase and thymidine kinase activities, strongly suggested lymphosarcoma. Increased numbers of mononuclear cells as well as mitotic cells were observed in synovial fluid collected from swollen joints. Pathological examination confirmed B-cell calf form bovine leukosis and joint swelling related to neoplastic cell infiltration. Both interleukin-2 receptor and thymidine kinase 1 genes were highly expressed in cells from superficial cervical lymph node aspirate.

  9. Holstein polarons and triplet bipolarons with NNN hopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Monodeep; Taraphder, A.; Berciu, Mona

    2017-05-01

    We study the ground state of 1D Holstein single polaron with next nearest neighbour electron hopping (NNN), employing a variational approximation based on exact diagonalization. Our investigation reveals that, depending upon the sign and magnitude of the NNN hopping integral with respect to nearest neighbour hopping, the polaron band minima may occur at non-zero kGS. We compare the present scenario with the SSH polarons, where a similar feature is also observed, albeit, due to very different mechanism. Our initial investigation of triplet bipolarons, in presence of an attractive extended Hubbard interactions, further substantiates the differences between the present model and the SSH model.

  10. Integrating Sequence-based GWAS and RNA-Seq Provides Novel Insights into the Genetic Basis of Mastitis and Milk Production in Dairy Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lingzhao; Sahana, Goutam; Su, Guosheng; Yu, Ying; Zhang, Shengli; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Sørensen, Peter

    2017-03-30

    Connecting genome-wide association study (GWAS) to biological mechanisms underlying complex traits is a major challenge. Mastitis resistance and milk production are complex traits of economic importance in the dairy sector and are associated with intra-mammary infection (IMI). Here, we integrated IMI-relevant RNA-Seq data from Holstein cattle and sequence-based GWAS data from three dairy cattle breeds (i.e., Holstein, Nordic red cattle, and Jersey) to explore the genetic basis of mastitis resistance and milk production using post-GWAS analyses and a genomic feature linear mixed model. At 24 h post-IMI, genes responsive to IMI in the mammary gland were preferentially enriched for genetic variants associated with mastitis resistance rather than milk production. Response genes in the liver were mainly enriched for variants associated with mastitis resistance at an early time point (3 h) post-IMI, whereas responsive genes at later stages were enriched for associated variants with milk production. The up- and down-regulated genes were enriched for associated variants with mastitis resistance and milk production, respectively. The patterns were consistent across breeds, indicating that different breeds shared similarities in the genetic basis of these traits. Our approaches provide a framework for integrating multiple layers of data to understand the genetic architecture underlying complex traits.

  11. Vitamin deficiencies in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, T M; Williams, S N; Graham, T W

    1991-03-01

    Deficiencies of vitamins A, D, K, E and thiamin can cause severe limitations in beef production. In particular, vitamin A and E can be common causes of lost profit, secondary to limitations of reproductive and growth potential. Prolonged dry periods will reduce available A and E in pasture forage, as can ensiling and prolonged storage of harvested feedstuffs. Polioencephalomalacia is a thiamin responsive disorder, associated with high concentrate feeding and lush pastures. Antimetabolites, such as amprolium, will cause thiamine deficiency when fed in excess. Recent information has shown improved performance with supplemental beta carotene and niacin. The positive responses in reproductive performance, noted with cattle fed supplemental beta carotene, was independent of vitamin A. Supplementation of vitamins above National Research Council recommendations can be justified. However, proper evaluation of feed and animal status, and documentation of a response to supplementation is necessary before diagnosing deficiencies of specific nutrients.

  12. Associations between strain, herd size, age at first calving, culling reason and lifetime performance characteristics in Holstein-Friesian cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, K; Makulska, J; Jagusiak, W; Węglarz, A

    2017-02-01

    Cow longevity and lifetime performance traits are good indicators of breeding effectiveness and animal welfare. They are also interrelated with the economics of dairy herd. Unfortunately, a high milk yield is often associated with deteriorated cow health and fertility and, consequently, with an increased culling rate. This situation, observed also in the Polish population of Holstein-Friesian cattle, inspired us to undertake a study on the associations between some factors and lifetime performance characteristics. The data set consisted of the records on 135 496 cows, including 131 526 of the Black and White strain (BW), and 3970 of the Red and White strain (RW) covered by performance recording and culled in 2012. It was found that cows of the BW strain and those from the largest herds (>100 cows) reached higher lifetime and mean daily energy-corrected milk (ECM) yields than cows of the RW strain and those from smaller herds culled at a similar age. Cows youngest at first calving (cow culling. Cow longevity and lifetime productivity were considerably affected by the interactions between the studied factors.

  13. The evaluation of genetic parameters of the type of calving in the population of Holstein Friesian cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đedović Radica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic parameters (heritability coefficients and genetic correlations of the type of calving, number of stillbirths and birth weight have been evaluated in the population of Holstein Friesian cattle breed. Data sets have been analysed by means of the Mixed Least Square Model (LSMLMW. Besides a random effect of bull-sires, the model has also included the fixed effects of farm, season, sex, the evaluation of viability of calves and types of birth. Estimated heritability values and heritability errors for the type of calving (TC, number of stillbirths (SB and birth weight (BWT were low: 0.190 ± 0.062; 0.018 ± 0.006 and 0.149 ± 0.051, respectively. Heritabilities of the analysed traits were evaluated on the grounds of the calves` bull-sires additive value (direct heritability. The values of the genetic correlation coefficients between examined traits ranged from - 0.251 (correlation between the type of calving and number of stillbirths to 0.340 (correlation between the number of stillbirths and birth weight. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31086 i br. TR 46006

  14. Validation of PDE9A Gene Identified in GWAS Showing Strong Association with Milk Production Traits in Chinese Holstein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Hua Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Phosphodiesterase9A (PDE9A is a cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP-specific enzyme widely expressed among the tissues, which is important in activating cGMP-dependent signaling pathways. In our previous genome-wide association study, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP (BTA-55340-no-rsb located in the intron 14 of PDE9A, was found to be significantly associated with protein yield. In addition, we found that PDE9A was highly expressed in mammary gland by analyzing its mRNA expression in different tissues. The objectives of this study were to identify genetic polymorphisms of PDE9A and to determine the effects of these variants on milk production traits in dairy cattle. DNA sequencing identified 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and six SNPs in 5′ regulatory region were genotyped to test for the subsequent association analyses. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, all these identified SNPs were statistically significant for one or more milk production traits (p < 0.0001~0.0077. Interestingly, haplotype-based association analysis revealed similar effects on milk production traits (p < 0.01. In follow-up RNA expression analyses, two SNPs (c.-1376 G>A, c.-724 A>G were involved in the regulation of gene expression. Consequently, our findings provide confirmatory evidences for associations of PDE9A variants with milk production traits and these identified SNPs may serve as genetic markers to accelerate Chinese Holstein breeding program.

  15. Impact of the intensity of milk production on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions in Portuguese cattle farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, J.; Trindade, H.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was evaluate the relationship between the intensity of milk production for a wide range of Portuguese commercial cattle farms and NH3 and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from manure management and enteric fermentation. A survey was carried out at 1471 commercial dairy cattle farms (Holstein-Friesian) and the NH3, N2O and CH4 emissions at each stage of manure management were estimated as well as CH4 losses from enteric fermentation. Gaseous emissions were estimated by a mass flow approach and following the recommendations of IPCC guidelines. The manure management and enteric fermentation in a typical Portuguese cattle farm contributes with 7.5±0.15 g N/L milk produced as NH3 and 1.2±0.22 kg CO2 equivalent per litre of milk as GHG. Increasing milk production will significantly reduce NH3 and GHG emissions per litre of milk produced. It can be concluded that a win-win strategy for reducing NH3 and GHG emissions from dairy cattle farms will be the increase of milk production on these farms. This goal can be achieved by implementing animal breeding programs and improving feed efficiency in order to increase productivity. (Author)

  16. Short communication: Impact of the intensity of milk production on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions in Portuguese cattle farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluate the relationship between the intensity of milk production for a wide range of Portuguese commercial cattle farms and NH3 and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from manure management and enteric fermentation. A survey was carried out at 1471 commercial dairy cattle farms (Holstein-Friesian and the NH3, N2O and CH4 emissions at each stage of manure management were estimated as well as CH4 losses from enteric fermentation. Gaseous emissions were estimated by a mass flow approach and following the recommendations of IPCC guidelines. The manure management and enteric fermentation in a typical Portuguese cattle farm contributes with 7.5±0.15 g N/L milk produced as NH3 and 1.2±0.22 kg CO2 equivalent per litre of milk as GHG. Increasing milk production will significantly reduce NH3 and GHG emissions per litre of milk produced. It can be concluded that a win-win strategy for reducing NH3 and GHG emissions from dairy cattle farms will be the increase of milk production on these farms. This goal can be achieved by implementing animal breeding programs and improving feed efficiency in order to increase productivity.

  17. Total digestibility and in situ degradability of bulky diets with the inclusion of ionophores or probiotics for cattle and buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Maria Zeoula

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ionophores (monensin and probiotic (Saccharomyces cerevisiae + selenium + chromium in diets with 80% forage were evaluated on the digestibility of nutrients. Three buffaloes, Murrah (Bubalus bubalis and three cattle, Holstein (Bos taurus, with an average weight of 520 ± 30 kg and 480 ± 182 kg, respectively, with rumen cannula, over experimental design with two 3 x 3 Latin squares in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement, with the absence or presence of additives: ionophore or probiotic and two species, were used. The internal flow indicator of fecal dry matter (DM was the acid insoluble ash. DM, crude protein (CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF ruminal degradability of Tifton 85 hay was conducted for cattle and buffaloes. A diet containing probiotics had higher dry matter and organic matter digestibility in buffalo and cattle, indicating a good performance in bulky diets. The potential and effective dry matter degradability in diet with probiotic in buffaloes, were smaller than diet with ionophore, suggesting that there was a better digestion of nutrients in the intestine of these animals. The potential and effective degradability of neutral detergent fiber and crude protein in the diet containing ionophores were superior than diet containing probiotic. Buffaloes showed higher capacity of dry matter and fiber digestion than cattle.

  18. Productive and reproductive performance of crossbred Holstein x Gir cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Balancin Júnior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the productive and reproductive performance of Holtein-Frisian x Gir crossbred cows. The traits evaluated were: milk production up to 305 days (P305, total milk production (PTL, production per day of calving interval (PIP, age at first calving (IPP, calving interval (IDP, service period (PS and gestation length (PG, which were analyzed using mixed linear models. The Incomplete gamma function was used to estimate the parameters of lactation curves for each genetic group. The animals of genetic groups (GG 3/4H, 7/8H and pure by crosses (PC achieved higher performances for productive traits, and animals from the GG 1/2H achieved better performance for reproductive traits. The Holstein-Frisian PC animals presented the lactation curves with higher production levels and higher productions at the peak of the lactation but with less persistence. The 1/2H animals had slightly lower persistence in comparison to genetic groups 3/4H and 7/8H. Milk production in function of gestation length varied according to each group and Holstein-Frisian (PC presented greater decrease in milk yield after conception.

  19. Negative isotope effect in Hubbard-Holstein model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da

    In phonon mediated conventional s-wave superconductors, higher-frequency phonon (or smaller atomic mass) leads to a higher superconducting transition temperature, known as the isotope effect. However, in correlated systems, various competing electronic order (such as spin-density-wave, charge-density-wave, and unconventional superconductivity) arises and the effect of electron-phonon coupling on these orders is a long-standing problem. Using the functional renormalization group, here we investigated the interplay between the electron correlation and electron-phonon coupling in the Hubbard-Holstein model on a square lattice. At half-filling, we found spin-density-wave and charge-density-wave phases and the transition between them, while no superconducting phase arises. Upon finite doping, d-wave/s-wave superconductivity emerges in proximity to the spin-density-wave/charge-density-wave phase. Surprisingly, lower-frequency Holstein phonons are either less destructive or even beneficial to the various phases, resulting in a negative isotope effect. For the superconducting phases, such an effect is apparently beyond the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory.

  20. Super Bloch oscillations in the Peyrard–Bishop–Holstein model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero-Gómez, C. [GISC, Departamento de Física de Materiales, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Díaz, E., E-mail: elenadg@fis.ucm.es [GISC, Departamento de Física de Materiales, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Domínguez-Adame, F. [GISC, Departamento de Física de Materiales, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-01-09

    Recently, polarons in the Peyrard–Bishop–Holstein model under DC electric fields were established to perform Bloch oscillations, provided the charge–lattice coupling is not large. In this work, we study this model when the charge is subjected to an applied field with both DC and AC components. Similarly to what happens in the rigid lattice, we find that the carrier undergoes a directed motion or coherent oscillations when the AC field is resonant or detuned with respect to the Bloch frequency, respectively. The electric density current and its Fourier spectrum are also studied to reveal the frequencies involved in the polaron dynamics. -- Highlights: ► We study the Peyrard–Bishop–Holstein model under superimposed DC and AC fields. ► The detuning between the driven and the Bloch frequency sets the polaron dynamics. ► The carrier displays super Bloch oscillations for the non-resonant cases. ► The Morse potential sets the lattice motion which is decoupled of the carrier one. ► The nonlinear coupling leads to a distortion of the wave packet at long times.

  1. The influence of Ivermectin treatment of cattle on dung fauna and dung composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens; Nansen, Peter; Jespersen, Jørgen Brøchner

    1988-01-01

    Madsen, M., J. Gr¢nvold, P. Nansen, J.B. Jespersen, K.-M. Vagn Jensen, P. Holter and B. Overgaard Nielsen, 1988: The influence of Ivermectin treatment of cattle on dung fauna and dung composition. Programme and Abstracts of the Vth European Multicolloqui¬um of Parasitology, September 4-9, 1988...

  2. Multiplex ready flow cytometric immunoassay for total insulin like growth factor 1 in serum of cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Smits, N.G.E.; Haasnoot, W.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2010-01-01

    The European Union has banned the use of recombinant bovine somatotropins (rbST, growth hormones) to increase milk yield in dairy cattle. As direct detection of rbST in serum is problematic, methods based on the detection of changes in multiple rbST-dependent biomarkers have high potential for

  3. Evidence for placental compensation in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eetvelde, M; Kamal, M M; Hostens, M; Vandaele, L; Fiems, L O; Opsomer, G

    2016-08-01

    Prenatal development is known to be extremely sensitive to maternal and environmental challenges. In this study, we hypothesize that body growth and lactation during gestation in cattle reduce nutrient availability for the pregnant uterus, with consequences for placental development. Fetal membranes of 16 growing heifers and 27 fully grown cows of the Belgian Blue (BB) breed were compared to determine the effect of body growth on placental development. Furthermore, the fetal membranes of 49 lactating Holstein Friesian (HF) cows and 27 HF heifers were compared to study the impact of dam lactation compared to dam body growth. After parturition, calf birth weight and body measurements of dam and calf were recorded, as well as weight of total fetal membranes, cotyledons and intercotyledonary membranes. All cotyledons were individually measured to calculate both the surface of each individual cotyledon and the total cotyledonary surface per placenta. Total cotyledonary surface was unaffected by breed or the breed×parity interaction. Besides a 0.3 kg lower cotyledonary weight (P=0.007), heifer placentas had a smaller total cotyledonary surface compared with placentas of cows (0.48±0.017 v. 0.54±0.014 m2, respectively, P<0.001). Within the BB breed, fetal membranes of heifers had a 1.5 kg lower total weight and 1.0 kg lower intercotyledonary membrane weight (P<0.005) compared with cows. A cotyledon number of only 91±5.4 was found in multiparous BB dams, while growing BB heifers had a higher cotyledon number (126±6.7, P<0.001), but a greater proportion of smaller cotyledons (<40 cm2). Within the HF breed, no parity effect on intercotyledonary membrane weight, cotyledon number and individual cotyledonary surface was found. Placental efficiency (calf weight/total cotyledonary surface) was similar in HF and BB heifers but significantly higher in multiparous BB compared with multiparous HF dams (106.0±20.45 v. 74.3±12.27 kg/m2, respectively, P<0.001). Furthermore, a

  4. Zero-inflated Poisson regression models for QTL mapping applied to tick-resistance in a Gyr x Holstein F2 population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabyano Fonseca Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, an important and interesting alternative in the control of tick-infestation in cattle is to select resistant animals, and identify the respective quantitative trait loci (QTLs and DNA markers, for posterior use in breeding programs. The number of ticks/animal is characterized as a discrete-counting trait, which could potentially follow Poisson distribution. However, in the case of an excess of zeros, due to the occurrence of several noninfected animals, zero-inflated Poisson and generalized zero-inflated distribution (GZIP may provide a better description of the data. Thus, the objective here was to compare through simulation, Poisson and ZIP models (simple and generalized with classical approaches, for QTL mapping with counting phenotypes under different scenarios, and to apply these approaches to a QTL study of tick resistance in an F2 cattle (Gyr x Holstein population. It was concluded that, when working with zero-inflated data, it is recommendable to use the generalized and simple ZIP model for analysis. On the other hand, when working with data with zeros, but not zero-inflated, the Poisson model or a data-transformation-approach, such as square-root or Box-Cox transformation, are applicable.

  5. Tracing the maternal roots of the domestic Red Mountain Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Arne; Lieckfeldt, Dietmar; Hesse, Uwe G W; Froelich, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The Red Mountain Cattle (RHV) is an important native ancient breed from the lower mountain ranges of Central Europe, which was originally raised for milk and meat production and as draught animal. In the 1980s, the RHV was close to extinction and only the sperm of a single purebreed bull and a few cows were available for breed formation. In this study the mitogenomes were sequenced of RHV from six maternal founder lineages. We observed six novel mitogenomes which have not been found in any other cattle breed so far. The RHV mitogenomes are grouped phylogenetically in the T-haplogroup indicating a South European origin and supporting their primitive position within the taurine breeds.

  6. Molecular survey and genetic characterization of Anaplasma centrale, A. marginale and A. bovis in cattle from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rjeibi, M R; Ayadi, O; Rekik, M; Gharbi, M

    2017-10-16

    Bovine anaplasmosis could be caused by several Anaplasma species. The causative agents are transmitted by ticks and haematophagous arthropods with a high impact on both human and animal health. This study was conducted to estimate the infection rate and to characterize Anaplasma spp. in cattle from Algeria. A molecular survey was performed in Setif district (Northeast Algeria) where a total number of 180 cattle blood samples were collected and tested for the presence of Anaplasma spp. by PCR. Positive samples were genetically characterized based on the 16S rRNA and msp4 genes. PCRs revealed that the infection rates of Anaplasma spp., Anaplasma centrale, Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma bovis were 42.2%; 39.4%; 11.1% and 4.4%, respectively. All tested animals were negative for A. phagocytophilum. Co-infection occurred in 10% (18/180) of the tested animals, and the most common co-infection pattern was an association between A. centrale and A. marginale (5.5%). Five cattle (2.7%) were co-infected by the three Anaplasma species. Holstein animals (58.1%) were more infected by A. centrale than the other breeds (p = .01). The molecular prevalence of A. centrale was significantly higher in males (54.2%) than in females (34.1%) (p = .001). A. marginale msp4 genetic analysis indicated a high sequence diversity of Algerian strains, suggesting the importation of live cattle from different origins. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of A. bovis and A. centrale revealed a low degree of genetic diversity. Our study suggests that different species of Anaplasma are simultaneously present in the Algerian cattle. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first molecular study and genetic characterization of Anaplasma spp. in Algerian cattle. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Artificial induction of lactation in cattle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Priscila Ribeiro Corradi Freitas; Sandra Gesteira Coelho; Euler Rabelo; Ângela Maria Quintão Lana; Maria Alexandra Torres Artunduaga; Helton Mattana Saturnino

    2010-01-01

    Forty Holstein cows, with previous reproductive problems, empty, at second or more lactations, with an average milk production of 9,200 kg in the previous lactation and a dry period over than 50 days...

  8. Growth parameters of Holstein-Friesland heifers reared on complete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Animals were weighed once weekly, and girth circumference and wither height were measured monthly. From 13 months of age, heifers were observed daily for oestrus and inseminated provided .... completed a standard 300-day lactation period were obtained from the National Dairy Cattle Performance Testing Scheme,.

  9. Cattle drive Salmonella infection in the wildlife-livestock interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentaberre, G; Porrero, M C; Navarro-Gonzalez, N; Serrano, E; Domínguez, L; Lavín, S

    2013-11-01

    The genus Salmonella is found throughout the world and is a potential pathogen for most vertebrates. It is also the most common cause of food-borne illness in humans, and wildlife is an emerging source of food-borne disease in humans due to the consumption of game meat. Wild boar is one of the most abundant European game species and these wild swine are known to be carriers of zoonotic and food-borne pathogens such as Salmonella. Isolation of the pathogen, serotyping and molecular biology are necessary for elucidating epidemiological connections in multi-host populations. Although disease management at population level can be addressed using a number of different strategies, such management is difficult in free-living wildlife populations due to the lack of experience with the wildlife-livestock interface. Herein, we provide the results of a 4-year Salmonella survey in sympatric populations of wild boar and cattle in the Ports de Tortosa i Beseit National Game Reserve (NE Spain). We also evaluated the effects of two management strategies, cattle removal and increased wild boar harvesting (i.e. by hunting and trapping), on the prevalence of the Salmonella serovar community. The serovars Meleagridis and Anatum were found to be shared by cattle and wild boar, a finding that was confirmed by 100% DNA similarity patterns using pulse field gel electrophoresis. Cattle removal was more efficient than the culling of wild boar as a means of reducing the prevalence of shared serotypes, which underlines the role of cattle as a reservoir of Salmonella for wild boar. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to manage Salmonella in the wild, and the results have implications for management. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Clinical aspects of an outbreak of papillomatous digital dermatitis in a dairy cattle herd : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yeruham

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Digital skin lesions and lameness of several weeks duration, with a morbidity rate of 28.3 %, was reported in a group of 60 Holstein-Israeli dairy cows in various stages of lactation. A clinical survey was performed to monitor recovery and to confirm eradication of bovine papillomatous digital dermatitis in the herd. The combined effects of intensive individual treatment of the 4 lame cattle with procaine penicillin and metronidazole, and subjecting all animals in the herd to a foot bath with a solution composed of formaldehyde and sodium hydroxide twice a week for 12 weeks, were found to achieve a dramatic positive response in all affected cows in the herd. During a 1-year follow-up period no recurrence and/or new cases have been diagnosed.

  11. The remote monitoring system for the nuclear power plants in Schleswig-Holstein; Kernreaktorfernueberwachung in Schleswig-Holstein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geick, G.H.G. [Datenzentrale Schleswig-Holstein, Altenholz (Germany); Koch, D. [Ministerium fuer Soziales, Gesundheit und Verbraucherschutz des Landes Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Abt. Reaktorsicherheit; Weiss, H. [EnergieSystemeNord GmbH, Kiel (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The remote monitoring system for the nuclear power plants in Schleswig-Holstein is equipped with a new state-of-the-art measuring network for the ambient dose rate. This was realized within the unusual short span of nine months from submission until completion. The data transfer of 80 measuring devices takes place via radio transmission to three receivers, which submit the results to the main system. Another part of the network are 60 devices of the federal bureau for radiological protection, which are shared based on a cooperation. The article also gives a short overview about the existing monitoring system and first operational experiences on the new network. (orig.) [German] Das Kernreaktorfernueberwachungssystem Schleswig-Holstein wurde mit einem neuen, dem Stand von Wissenschaft und Technik entsprechenden Ortsdosisleistungs-Messnetz ausgeruestet. Dies erfolgte in der ungewoehnlich kurzen Zeitspanne von neun Monaten von der Ausschreibung bis zur Fertigstellung. Die Datenuebermittlung erfolgt von 80 Messstationen ueber Funk an drei Empfangsstationen, die die Resultate an das KFUeweiterleiten. Ein weiterer Bestandteil dieses Netzes sind 60 Messgeraete des Bundesamtes fuer Strahlenschutz, die im Rahmen einer Kooperation mit genutzt werden. Der Artikel gibt auch einen kurzen Ueberblick ueber das vorhandene KFUeund erste Betriebserfahrungen des neuen Netzes. (orig.)

  12. The current status and future of commercial embryo transfer in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, John F

    2003-12-15

    A commercially viable cattle embryo transfer (ET) industry was established in North America during the early 1970s, approximately 80 years after the first successful embryo transfer was reported in a mammal. Initially, techniques for recovering and transferring cattle embryos were exclusively surgical. However, by the late 1970s, most embryos were recovered and transferred nonsurgically. Successful cryopreservation of embryos was widespread by the early 1980s, followed by the introduction of embryo splitting, in vitro procedures, direct transfer of frozen embryos and sexing of embryos. The wide spread adoption of ethylene glycol as a cryoprotectant has simplified the thaw-transfer procedures for frozen embryos. The number of embryos recovered annually has not grown appreciably over the last 10 years in North America and Europe; however, there has been significant growth of commercial ET in South America. Within North America, ET activity has been relatively constant in Holstein cattle, whereas there has been a large ET increase in the Angus breed and a concomitant ET decrease in some other beef breeds. Although a number of new technologies have been adopted within the ET industry in the last decade, the basic procedure of superovulation of donor cattle has undergone little improvement over the last 20 years. The export-import of frozen cattle embryos has become a well-established industry, governed by specific health regulations. The international movement of embryos is subject to sudden and dramatic disturbances, as exemplified by the 2001 outbreak of foot and mouth disease in Great Britain. It is probable that there will be an increased influence of animal rights issues on the ET industry in the future. Several companies in North America are currently commercially producing cloned cattle. The sexing of bovine semen with the use of flow cytometry is extremely accurate and moderate pregnancy rates in heifers have been achieved in field trials, but sexed semen

  13. European communion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on ‘sharing’ or ‘communion......’, provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as ‘integration’ or ‘co-operation’. The concept of ‘European communion’ is defined as the ‘subjective sharing of relationships’, understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing...... relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European...

  14. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger; Jeppesen, Lisbeth Fruensgaard

    of total meat consumption 3. As a consequence of the consumers' demand for convenient shopping, butcher's share of total beef sales is rapidly decreasing in Europe. 4. Changes in meat consumption have traditionally been explained by relative price and per capita income, but these economic demand analyses...... can explain a rapidly decreasing share of the variation in beef consumption. 5. Studies show that beef consumption tends to increase with age; the heavy users are found among middle-aged men. Beef consumption also increases with income and social class. 6. The most important user-oriented quality...... characteristics determining the consumers' value perception of a piece of meat appear to be fat, tenderness, taste and freshness. 7. The primary production of beef is fragmented in most European countries and the average number of cattle at a European cattle farm is only slowly rising. Two thirds of the cows...

  15. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger

    's share of total meat consumption 3. As a consequence of the consumers' demand for convenient shopping, butcher's share of total beef sales is rapidly decreasing in Europe. 4. Changes in meat consumption have traditionally been explained by relative price and per capita income, but these economic demand...... analyses can explain a rapidly decreasing share of the variation in beef consumption. 5. Studies show that beef consumption tends to increase with age; the heavy users are found among middle-aged men. Beef consumption also increases with income and social class. 6. The most important user-oriented quality...... characteristics determining the consumers' value perception of a piece of meat appear to be fat, tenderness, taste and freshness. 7. The primary production of beef is fragmented in most European countries and the average number of cattle at a European cattle farm is only slowly rising. Two thirds of the cows...

  16. Factors associated with 56-day non-return rate in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Fouz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify factors associated with the 56-day non-return rate (56-NRR in dairy herds in the Galician region, Spain, and to estimate it for individual Holstein bulls. The experiment was carried out in herds originated from North-West Spain, from September 2008 to August 2009. Data of the 76,440 first inseminations performed during this period were gathered. Candidate factors were tested for their association with the 56-NRR by using a logistic model (binomial. Afterwards, 37 sires with a minimum of 150 first performed inseminations were individually evaluated. Logistic models were also estimated for each bull, and predicted individual 56-NRR rate values were calculated as a solution for the model parameters. Logistic regression found four major factors associated with 56-NRR in lactating cows: age at insemination, days from calving to insemination, milk production level at the time of insemination, and herd size. First-service conception rate, when a particular sire was used, was higher for heifers (0.71 than for lactating cows (0.52. Non-return rates were highly variable among bulls. Asignificant part of the herd-level variation of 56-NRR of Holstein cattle seems attributable to the service sire. High correlation level between observed and predicted 56-NRR was found.

  17. A common reference population from four European Holstein populations increases reliability of genomic predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mogens Sandø; de Ross, Sander PW; de Vries, Alfred G

    2011-01-01

    Background Size of the reference population and reliability of phenotypes are crucial factors influencing the reliability of genomic predictions. It is therefore useful to combine closely related populations. Increased accuracies of genomic predictions depend on the number of individuals added to...

  18. Activities of some stress enzymes as indicators of slaughter cattle welfare and their relationship with physico-chemical characteristics of beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chulayo, A-Y; Muchenje, V

    2017-09-01

    The study determined the activities of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in transported cattle as indicators of welfare and how they relate to beef quality. A total of 219 (n=219) (85 Beefmaster, 48 Charolaise, 32 Holstein-Friesian and 54 nondescript) cattle brought to the abattoir for slaughter were used in the study. Disposable vacutainer tubes with anticoagulant (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) were used to collect 4 ml of blood samples to determine the activities of CK and LDH. The measurements of pHu and colour coordinates (L*, a* and b*) were carried out at 48 h after slaughter on the representative samples of muscularis longissimuss thoracis et. lumborum (LTL). Longer distance travelled by cattle had a significant effect (P3000 to 5000) and those that travelled for 1263 km had lower CK activities (1000). The activities of LDH were observed in cattle that travelled for 366 and 1012 km (7000) and for those that travelled for 877 and 922 km (6000). Results of the principal component analysis showed that the first three principal components (PCs) explained about 53% of the total variability. The first PC was correlated with meat quality attributes (pHu, Tm, a* and b* values). The activities of CK and LDH were related and useful to define the second PC. However, CK and LDH were not related to beef quality. Therefore, CK and LDH can be used as indicators of welfare in slaughter cattle but cannot be used to predict the quality of meat.

  19. Explorations in genome-wide association studies and network analyses with dairy cattle fertility traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker Gaddis, K L; Null, D J; Cole, J B

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms and gene networks associated with 3 fertility traits in dairy cattle-daughter pregnancy rate, heifer conception rate, and cow conception rate-using different approaches. Deregressed predicted transmitting abilities were available for approximately 24,000 Holstein bulls and 36,000 Holstein cows sampled from the National Dairy Database with high-density genotypes. Of those, 1,732 bulls and 375 cows had been genotyped with the Illumina BovineHD Genotyping BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). The remaining animals were genotyped with various chips of lower density that were imputed to high density. Univariate and trivariate genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with both medium- (60,671 markers) and high-density (312,614 markers) panels were performed for daughter pregnancy rate, heifer conception rate, and cow conception rate using GEMMA (version 0.94; http://www.xzlab.org/software.html). Analyses were conducted using bulls only, cows only, and a sample of both bulls and cows. The partial correlation and information theory algorithm was used to develop gene interaction networks. The most significant markers were further investigated to identify putatively associated genes. Little overlap in associated genes could be found between GWAS using different reference populations of bulls only, cows only, and combined bulls and cows. The partial correlation and information theory algorithm was able to identify several genes that were not identified by ordinary GWAS. The results obtained herein will aid in further dissecting the complex biology underlying fertility traits in dairy cattle, while also providing insight into the nuances of GWAS. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Weight gain and resistance to gastrointestinal nematode infections in two genetically diverse groups of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglund, Johan; Hessle, Anna; Zaralis, Konstantinos; Arvidsson-Segerkvist, Katarina; Athanasiadou, Spiridoula

    2018-01-15

    Body weight gain (BWG) and gastrointestinal nematode challenge (GIN) were investigated in two genetically diverse groups of cattle. Thirty-two dairy calves (D=Swedish Red/Holstein) and 31 dairy×beef crosses (C=Swedish Red/Holstein×Charolais) pairwise matched by dam breed and birth dates, were monitored for ≈20 weeks on a pasture grazed by cattle in the previous year. At turn-out, animals (between 6 and 12 months age) from each genotype were either infected with 5000 third stage (L3) Ostertagia ostertagi (50%) and Cooperia oncophora (50%) larvae (H, high-exposure); or treated monthly with 0.5mg ivermectin (Noromectin®, Pour-on) per kg bodyweight to remove worms ingested (L, low-exposure). Animals were weighed every fortnight and individual BWG was calculated. Faecal and blood samples were collected every four weeks throughout the experiment for nematode faecal egg counts (FEC) and larvae cultures and serum pepsinogen concentrations (SPC), respectively. Nematode eggs were observed 29 days post turn-out in both H groups. FEC peaked to around 200 eggs per gram (epg) on days 58 and 85 respectively in both H groups. FEC were also observed in the L groups at the same time, but mean epg remained very low (3.5 IU tyrosine whereas only six DH animals reached similar pepsinogen levels. The level of infection (H and L) significantly affected BWG in both genotypes. Even though there was no statistically significant genotype (C or D)×treatment (H or L) interaction, there was a larger difference in body weight of H and L in C (37kg) compared to D (17kg) genotypes at the end of the experiment. Our data collectively support the view crossbred (C) animals experience the impact of gastrointestinal parasitism more severely compared to pure dairy (D) first season grazers. The mechanisms that underpin this remains speculative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative study of biogas from cattle dung and mixture of cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper compares the rate of biogas production of cattle dung and a mixture of plantain peels with cattle dung. 18kg of cattle dung mixed with 36kg of water were charged to a digester while 9kg each of cattle dung and plantain peels mixed together with 36kg of water were charged to a separate digester. Both digesters ...

  2. Milk urea concentration in Holstein and Simmental cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darija Bendelja

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining the urea concentration in milk is a useful indicator of the nutritional protein status of the organism as well as of the ratio between the energy and the protein in ruminant rations, with increasing practical usage. In addition to nutrition, milk urea concentration is influenced by a whole range of factors, for example: breed, stage and number of lactations, body weight, daily production and chemical composition of milk, somatic cell count, season and milking. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of the cow breed (Holstein and Simmental, the number of lactation (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, milking time (morning-evening and season (spring-summer and autumn-winter on milk urea concentration. The following was determined for each breed: daily milk yield, milk fat, protein and lactose content, urea concentration and somatic cell count in milk. Statistical data processing was carried out by applying General Linear Model procedure, SAS system (1999. The cow breed had a significant influence on daily milk yield and log somatic cell count (P<0.001, lactose content in milk (P<0.01, milk fat content and milk urea concentration (P<0.05. The number of lactations significantly influenced daily milk yield (P<0.001, protein content (P<0.001 and P<0.01 and milk urea concentration, but only for Holstein breed (P<0.05. Milking time significantly influenced the fat and protein content (P<0.001 in the milk of Holstein cows, that is, lactose content (P<0.05 and urea concentration (P<0.05 in the milk of Simmental cows. The season significantly influenced the fat and protein content of milk (P<0.001, that is, urea concentration and log somatic cell count (P<0.01. Determining of urea concentration in cow milk should also be systematically conducted in the Republic of Croatia, in order to determine standard physiological values characteristical for a particular cow breed, aiming to determine the balance of energy and protein in rations.

  3. A polymorphism in the insulin-like growth factor 1 gene is associated with postpartum resumption of ovarian cyclicity in Holstein-Friesian cows under grazing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolini, Paula; Carriquiry, Mariana; Meikle, Ana

    2013-02-14

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) gene is considered as a promising candidate for the identification of polymorphisms affecting cattle performance. The objectives of the current study were to determine the association of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) IGF-1/SnaBI with fertility, milk production and body condition traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows under grazing conditions. Seventy multiparous cows from a commercial herd were genotyped for the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI. Fertility measures evaluated were: interval to commencement of luteal activity (CLA), calving to first service (CFS) and calving to conception (CC) intervals. Milk production and body condition score were also evaluated. The study period extended from 3 wk before calving to the fourth month of lactation. Frequencies of the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI alleles A and B were 0.59 and 0.41, respectively. Genotype frequencies were 0.31, 0.54 and 0.14 for AA, AB and BB, respectively. Cows with the AA genotype presented an early CLA and were more likely to resume ovarian cyclicity in the early postpartum than AB and BB ones. No effect of the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI genotype was evidenced on body condition change over the experimental period, suggesting that energy balance is not responsible for the outcome of postpartum ovarian resumption in this study. Traditional fertility measures were not affected by the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI. To our knowledge this is the first report describing an association of the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI with an endocrine fertility measure like CLA in cattle. Results herein remark the important role of the IGF-1gene in the fertility of dairy cows on early lactation and make the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI an interesting candidate marker for genetic improvement of fertility in dairy cattle.

  4. Ultrasonographic imaging of the temporomandibular joint in healthy cattle and pathological findings in one clinical case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, N C; Weissengruber, G E; Huber, J; Kofler, J

    2016-11-01

    To describe the normal ultrasonographic appearance of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in cattle, and to describe the ultrasonographic pathology of the TMJ as assessed in one cow with TMJ disease. The TMJ of 12 healthy Holstein-Friesian cows were examined using a portable ultrasonographic unit with a 7.5 MHz linear probe and a 6.0 MHz convex probe. Each TMJ was scanned in a rostrolateral, lateral and caudolateral plane. In addition, the TMJ of one 2-year-old cow with clinical signs of food retention in the mouth, head tilt, swelling and pain in the right TMJ region and an infected horn fracture was examined ultrasonographically. The bone surfaces of the temporal process, the zygomatic process and the temporal bone, the larger muscles of the TMJ region, the superficial temporal vein, and the parotid salivary gland could be imaged in all normal healthy cattle. Using the linear probe, the joint capsule was visible in 17/24 (71%) cases in the caudolateral plane, but the articular disc could not be visualised. With the convex probe, the joint capsule could be imaged in all cases in the caudolateral plane, and the articular disc in 13/24 (54%) cases in the caudolateral plane. It was never possible to see the synovial pouch in healthy cattle using either probe. By contrast, in the cow diagnosed with septic arthritis of the right TMJ, a marked anechoic and heterogeneous hypoechoic effusion of the TMJ with distension of the joint capsule was visualised. The results of this descriptive study serve to provide a reference for ultrasonography of pathological conditions of the TMJ region in cattle. As many veterinarians are equipped with ultrasound machines with 5-8 MHz linear rectal probes, the authors recommend using these probes for further investigation of clinical cases with swelling of the TMJ region and/or masticatory problems of unclear origin to exclude or diagnose TMJ disorders.

  5. Association of ATP1A1 gene polymorphism with thermotolerance in Tharparkar and Vrindavani cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Kashyap

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: One of the major biochemical aspects of thermoregulation is equilibrium of ion gradient across biological membranes. Na+/K+-ATPase, a member of P type-ATPase family, is a major contributor to the mechanism that actively controls crossmembrane ion gradient. Thus, we examined ATP1A1 gene that encodes alpha-1 chain of Na+/K+-ATPase, for genetic polymorphisms. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 Vrindavani (composite cross strain of Hariana x Holstein-Friesian/Brown Swiss/Jersey and 64 Tharparkar (indigenous cattle were screened for genetic polymorphism in ATP1A1 gene, using polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism and DNA sequencing. For association studies, rectal temperature (RT and respiration rate (RR of all animals were recorded twice daily for 3 seasons. Results: A SNP (C2789A was identified in exon 17 of ATP1A1 gene. Three genotypes namely CC, CA, and AA were observed in both, Vrindavani and Tharparkar cattle. The gene frequencies in Tharparkar and Vrindavani for allele A were 0.51 and 0.48, and for allele C were 0.49 and 0.52, respectively, which remained at intermediate range. Association study of genotypes with RT and RR in both cattle population revealed that the animals with genotype CC exhibited significantly lower RT and higher heat tolerance coefficient than CA and AA genotypes. Conclusion: Differential thermoregulation between different genotypes of ATP1A1 gene indicate that the ATP1A1 gene could be potentially contributing to thermotolerance in both, Tharparkar, an indigenous breed and Vrindavani, a composite crossbred cattle.

  6. Diversity and population-genetic properties of copy number variations and multicopy genes in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickhart, Derek M; Xu, Lingyang; Hutchison, Jana L; Cole, John B; Null, Daniel J; Schroeder, Steven G; Song, Jiuzhou; Garcia, Jose Fernando; Sonstegard, Tad S; Van Tassell, Curtis P; Schnabel, Robert D; Taylor, Jeremy F; Lewin, Harris A; Liu, George E

    2016-06-01

    The diversity and population genetics of copy number variation (CNV) in domesticated animals are not well understood. In this study, we analysed 75 genomes of major taurine and indicine cattle breeds (including Angus, Brahman, Gir, Holstein, Jersey, Limousin, Nelore, and Romagnola), sequenced to 11-fold coverage to identify 1,853 non-redundant CNV regions. Supported by high validation rates in array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and qPCR experiments, these CNV regions accounted for 3.1% (87.5 Mb) of the cattle reference genome, representing a significant increase over previous estimates of the area of the genome that is copy number variable (∼2%). Further population genetics and evolutionary genomics analyses based on these CNVs revealed the population structures of the cattle taurine and indicine breeds and uncovered potential diversely selected CNVs near important functional genes, including AOX1, ASZ1, GAT, GLYAT, and KRTAP9-1 Additionally, 121 CNV gene regions were found to be either breed specific or differentially variable across breeds, such as RICTOR in dairy breeds and PNPLA3 in beef breeds. In contrast, clusters of the PRP and PAG genes were found to be duplicated in all sequenced animals, suggesting that subfunctionalization, neofunctionalization, or overdominance play roles in diversifying those fertility-related genes. These CNV results provide a new glimpse into the diverse selection histories of cattle breeds and a basis for correlating structural variation with complex traits in the future. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. Evaluation of cardiac injury biomarkers in cattle with acute clinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    meysam fllah

    2016-05-01

       This study was carried out on 30 Holstein dairy cattle with acute clinical mastitis (ACM and 30 healthy ones. After confirmation of ACM through clinical examination, venous blood samples were collected and cardiac troponin I (cTnI was measured using chemiluminescence assay. Cardiac enzymes activities including CK-MB, AST and LDH were analyzed with special kits and spectrophotometric method. According to the findings mean heart rate (p=0.001, respiratory rate (p=0.026, and rectal temperature (p=0.030 were significantly increased in diseased group. cTnI level was 1.018 ± 0.235 ng/ml in cattle with ACM, which was significantly higher than healthy cattle (0.011±0.006 ng/ml; p=0.000. Other cardiac biomarkers were increased in diseased group, however elevation of serum activities of AST (p=0.047 and CK-MB (p=0.000 were statically significant. Although serum LDH activity in diseased group was higher than control group; but this difference was statistically non-significant (p=0.454. There were significant positive correlations between cTnI concentration with heart rate (p=0.018; r=0.853, respiratory rate (p=0.024; r=0.671, and rectal temperature (p=0.038; r=0.542. Heart rates were significantly correlated with serum activities of CK-MB (p=0.047; r=0.722 and AST (p=0.035; r=0.649. These results indicate some degree of heart damage caused by acute clinical mastitis in dairy cattle.

  8. Detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus infections in young dairy and beef cattle in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban-Chmiel, Renata; Wernicki, Andrzej; Puchalski, Andrzej; Dec, Marta; Stęgierska, Diana; Grooms, Daniel L; Barbu, Nicolas I

    2015-03-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is a major contributor to bovine respiratory disease complex in dairy and beef calves, especially during the first year of life. There is a lack of comprehensive information about the prevalence of infection in cattle herds in Poland as well as in European countries outside the European Union. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of BRSV infections in young beef and dairy cattle in southeastern Poland, a region that has direct contact with non-EU countries. Animals & methods: Nasal swabs and sera (n = 120) were obtained from young cattle aged 6-12 months from 45 farms in eastern and southeastern Poland. BRSV antigen detection in the nasal swabs was carried out using a rapid immunomigration assay used in diagnosing human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) infections in humans, while antibodies to BRSV were detected in the sera by ELISA antibody detection. The study confirmed the presence of BRSV infections in young cattle under 12 months of age from both dairy and beef herds. BRSV was detected in 27 of the 45 herds (60%) sampled. Findings from this study indicate a high prevalence of BRSV infections in cattle in Poland, which may have a significant influence on health status and animal performance. The prevalence of infection is similar to that in other parts of Poland and other countries in Europe. Development of strategies to reduce BRSV infections is needed to improve health and productivity.

  9. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  10. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  11. Epidemiological profile of reproductive loss in dairy cattle

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    Raul Costa Mascarenhas Santana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Several agents can be present in dairy cattle with a history of abortion as Neospora caninum, Leptospira spp, Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1 (BHV-1 and Brucella abortus. Some of these are considered transmitters cosmopolitan zoonosis of great economic impact and risk to human and animal health. The aim of this work was draw an epidemiological profile of reproductive losses and to determine the prevalence of antibodies against the main agents of reproductive diseases in dairy cattle. The study was conducted on a property in São Carlos city. For determination of reproductive failure, pre-existing data of abortion and stillbirths were analyzed from January 2006 to December 2011 on an average of 274 dairy cows of Holstein and crossbred Holstein-Jersey. On March 1, 2012 blood serum samples were collected of 142 breeding animals of ages above two years, in which 21.1% showed cases of abortions or stillbirths of at least one pregnancy. We used serologic tests of microscopic agglutination test, immunofluorescent antibody technique, serum neutralization technique, tamponated acidified antigen test for detection of anti-Leptospira spp and anti-Neospora caninum, anti-Bovine Herpesvirus Type-1 (BHV-1 and anti- Brucella abortus, respectively. The tests were performed at Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu and Jaboticabal campi and EMBRAPA Southeast Livestock. During the study period, it was observed an average monthly rate of 1.7 abortions and 0.7 stillbirths, with an incidence of 63.6% and 58.0% of the cases observed, respectively, between November and April, period of higher pluviometric precipitation in the region. Among the cases of abortions observed, 76.2% happened between the fourth and sixth month of pregnancy. The serological tests carried out showed that 15.5% of the animals had titers greater than or equal to 1:200 of anti-Neospora caninum. Among the animals with a history of abortions or stillbirths, 28.58% and 11.22%, respectively, were serum

  12. Accuracy of direct genomic values in Holstein bulls and cows using subsets of SNP markers

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    Khatkar Mehar S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At the current price, the use of high-density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP genotyping assays in genomic selection of dairy cattle is limited to applications involving elite sires and dams. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of low-density assays to predict direct genomic value (DGV on five milk production traits, an overall conformation trait, a survival index, and two profit index traits (APR, ASI. Methods Dense SNP genotypes were available for 42,576 SNP for 2,114 Holstein bulls and 510 cows. A subset of 1,847 bulls born between 1955 and 2004 was used as a training set to fit models with various sets of pre-selected SNP. A group of 297 bulls born between 2001 and 2004 and all cows born between 1992 and 2004 were used to evaluate the accuracy of DGV prediction. Ridge regression (RR and partial least squares regression (PLSR were used to derive prediction equations and to rank SNP based on the absolute value of the regression coefficients. Four alternative strategies were applied to select subset of SNP, namely: subsets of the highest ranked SNP for each individual trait, or a single subset of evenly spaced SNP, where SNP were selected based on their rank for ASI, APR or minor allele frequency within intervals of approximately equal length. Results RR and PLSR performed very similarly to predict DGV, with PLSR performing better for low-density assays and RR for higher-density SNP sets. When using all SNP, DGV predictions for production traits, which have a higher heritability, were more accurate (0.52-0.64 than for survival (0.19-0.20, which has a low heritability. The gain in accuracy using subsets that included the highest ranked SNP for each trait was marginal (5-6% over a common set of evenly spaced SNP when at least 3,000 SNP were used. Subsets containing 3,000 SNP provided more than 90% of the accuracy that could be achieved with a high-density assay for cows, and 80% of the high-density assay

  13. The influence of ordinal number and stage of lactation on milkability traits in Holstein cows

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    Pero Mijić

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Milkability traits have an increasing importance in modern cattle production, although they are the secondary selective trait. The machine milking of cows has indicated that there is no complete alignment between the machine and the animals, what lead to increasing duration of milking and disturbances in health of udder. Because of that, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the ordinal number of lactation and stage of lactation on milkability traits (amount of milk per milking (KMM, maximum milk flow rate (MPM, average milk flow rate (PPM, duration of the start of milk flow (tS500, duration of the ascending phase of milking (tUFM, duration of the plateau phase of milking (tPFM, duration of the descending phase of milking (tSFM, duration of the main phase of milking (tGFM, and recommend the same for the selection work. The study was done on 322 Holstein cows in the period from the first to third lactation, arranged in three stages of lactation (the first of the 50-90 day, the second stage of the 91-135 day and a third of 136-180 day of lactation. The results showed that the ordinal number of lactation had a highly statistically significant influence (P<0.01 on KMM and MPM, and on the PPM and tGFM (P<0.05. Statistically significant influence of the stage of lactation on the KMM was recorded in the first and second lactation (P<0.05 respectively in the third lactation (P<0.01. Was recorded a significant positive influence of KMM (P<0.05 on the MPM, tPFM, tSFM and tGFM (r = from 0.22 to 0.52. The negative correlation of the MPM (P<0.05 was recorded with some parts of the milking phase duration (r = -0.14 to -0.47. The results indicate that there are opportunities for selection work to improve milkability traits, which can have a positive impact on the economy of expenditure of time during milking, and indirectly improve the health of the udder.

  14. Genetic Relationship of Productive Life, Production and Type Traits of Korean Holsteins at Early Lactations

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    Nidarshani Wasana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to study the genetic relationship of productive life with production and type traits of Korean Holsteins at first three lactations. The data for the analysis from 56,054, 28,997, and 11,816 animals of first, second and third parity cows which were born from 2006 to 2011 were collected by Dairy Cattle Improvement Center, National Agricultural Co-operative Federation. Milk, protein and fat yields adjusted for 305 days and average somatic cell score considered as production traits and analyzed type traits were stature, strength, body depth, dairy form, rump angle, rump width, rear leg side view, foot angle, front attachment placement, rear attachment height, rear attachment width, udder cleft, udder depth, front teat placement and front teat length. A multi trait genetic analysis was performed using Wombat program with restricted maximum likelihood animal model composed of fixed effect of birth year, farm and the random effect of animal and random residual effect according to the traits. Heritability estimates of productive life were between 0.06 and 0.13. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between production and productive life traits ranged from 0.35 to 0.04 for milk, 0.16 to 0.05 for protein and 0.18 to 0.02 f 15-0034 (2nd 150520 or fat. Somatic cells score showed a negative genetic and phenotypic correlation with productive life and also udder type traits, indicating that the selection for higher udder traits will likely to improve resistance to mastitis and persistence in the herd. Among all dairy form type traits, udder characters such as udder cleft showed a significant relationship with productive life. However, a specific change of heritabilities or correlations were not observed with the change of parity. Moreover, further studies are needed to further confirm the significance of the above traits and the effect of parity on above relationships in order to minimize both voluntary and involuntary culling

  15. Band to Mott transition in the infinite dimensional Holstein model

    CERN Document Server

    Hague, J P

    2001-01-01

    down at intermediate couplings in the limit of low phonon frequency where it is supposed to be most applicable. By examining the effective hopping and renormalized phonon frequency, I suggest an intuitive explanation for the breakdown of Migdal-Eliashberg theory. For completeness, a description of the breakdown of Migdal's theorem in the limit of high phonon frequency is considered via the Lang-Firsov canonical transformation. The Holstein model can be seen as providing an interpolation scheme between Hubbard-like and Falicov-Kimball like behaviour and it may therefore help elucidate the nature of the transition between band and Mott states. I describe a number of approximations to the self-energy. By comparing these with results from the exact solution in various limits, I find that a second order iterated perturbation scheme may be capable of describing the intermediate behaviour. Application of this method reveals a strongly renormalized hybrid behaviour between band and miniature-Mott states, with unusual...

  16. Prethermalization from a low-density Holstein-Primakoff expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcuzzi, M.; Marino, J.; Gambassi, A.; Silva, A.

    2016-12-01

    We consider the nonequilibrium dynamics arising after a quench of the transverse magnetic field of a quantum Ising chain, together with the sudden switch-on of a long-range interaction term. The dynamics after the quantum quench is mapped onto a fully connected model of hard-core bosons, after a suitable combination of a Holstein-Primakoff transformation and of a low-density expansion in the quasiparticles injected by the quench. This mapping holds for a broad class of initial states and for quenches which do not cross the critical point of the transverse field Ising model. We then study the algebraic relaxation in time of a number of observables towards a metastable, prethermal state, which becomes the asymptotic steady state in the thermodynamic limit.

  17. Optimal boson energy for superconductivity in the Holstein model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chungwei; Wang, Bingnan; Teo, Koon Hoo

    2016-06-01

    We examine the superconducting solution in the Holstein model, where the conduction electrons couple to the dispersionless boson fields, using the Migdal-Eliashberg theory and dynamical mean field theory. Although different in numerical values, both methods imply the existence of an optimal boson energy for superconductivity at a given electron-boson coupling. This nonmonotonous behavior can be understood as an interplay between the polaron and superconducting physics, as the electron-boson coupling is the origin of the superconductor, but at the same time traps the conduction electrons making the system more insulating. Our calculation provides a simple explanation of the recent experiment on sulfur hydride, where an optimal pressure for the superconductivity was observed. The validities of both methods are discussed.

  18. Genetic parameters for type traits in Holstein cows in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Viegas Campos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Data from 26,558 Holstein cows in 802 herds were used to estimate genetic, residual and phenotypic parameters for 22 type traits. The model included the fixed effects of herd-year, period of classification, classifier, stage of lactation and age of cows at calving (covariate and random genetic and residual effects. Heritability for type traits ranged from 0.10 to 0.39. The genetic variability in these traits suggested the possibility for moderate genetic gains through selection. The phenotypic correlations were moderated, mainly in the section conformation. Genetic correlations between type traits ranged from -0.44 to 0.85. High genetic correlations indicated that breeding programs could be successful without including all type traits. The selection for the final score at the expense of other traits must be performed with restraint, because in the long term, this may promote undesirable changes in some type traits.

  19. Periconceptional Heat Stress of Holstein Dams Is Associated with Differences in Daughter Milk Production during Their First Lactation.

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    Britni M Brown

    Full Text Available The fertility of lactating Holstein cows is severely reduced during periods of heat stress. Despite this reduction in fertility, however, some inseminations conducted during heat stress result in successful pregnancies from which heifer calves are born. Many of these heifer calves are retained and raised to enter the milking herd as replacement animals. Heat stress experienced by these females around the time they were conceived may confer long-lasting effects that alter subsequent milk production capacity. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between periconceptional heat stress and subsequent milk production of primiparous cows. National Dairy Herd Improvement Association data was obtained from Dairy Records Management Systems. Records included Holstein cows that had completed at least one lactation in one of three states with large populations of dairy cattle and which are known for having hot, humid summers: Georgia, Florida or Texas. Dates of conception were calculated by subtracting 276 d from the recorded birth date of each individual cow. Records for cows conceived within the months of June, July, and August were retained as heat stress-conceived (HSC cows (n = 94,440; cows conceived within the months of December, January, and February were retained as thermoneutral-conceived (TNC contemporaries (n = 141,365. In order to account for the effects of environmental conditions on total milk production for a given lactation, cows were blocked by season of calving (winter, spring, summer or fall. Adjusted 305-day mature-equivalent milk production was evaluated with a mixed model ANOVA using SAS, in which random effects were used to account for variability between herds. Of the cows that calved in the summer, fall and winter, TNC cows had higher milk yield than the HSC cows in all states. Interestingly, the cows that calved in the spring presented a unique relationship, with HSC cows producing more milk. Overall however

  20. The pharmacokinetics of transdermal flunixin meglumine in Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, M D; Van Engen, N K; Gorden, P J; KuKanich, B; Rajewski, S M; Walsh, P; Coetzee, J F

    2016-12-01

    This study describes the pharmacokinetics of topical and intravenous (IV) flunixin meglumine in Holstein calves. Eight male Holsteins calves, aged 6 to 8 weeks, were administered flunixin at a dose of 2.2 mg/kg intravenously. Following a 10-day washout period, calves were dosed with flunixin at 3.33 mg/kg topically (transdermal). Blood samples were collected at predetermined times from 0 to 48 h for the intravenous portions and 0 to 72 h following topical dosing. Plasma drug concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography with mass spectroscopy. Pharmacokinetic analysis was completed using noncompartmental methods. The mean bioavailability of topical flunixin was calculated to be 48%. The mean AUC for flunixin was determined to be 13.9 h × ug/mL for IV administration and 10.1 h × ug/mL for topical administration. The mean half-life for topical flunixin was 6.42 h and 4.99 h for the intravenous route. The C max following topical application of flunixin was 1.17 μg/mL. The time to maximum concentration was 2.14 h. Mean residence time (MRT) following IV injection was 4.38 h and 8.36 h after topical administration. In conclusion, flunixin when administered as a topical preparation is rapidly absorbed and has longer half-life compared to IV administration. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.