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Sample records for european historical demographer

  1. Demographics of the European apicultural industry.

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    Marie-Pierre Chauzat

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, many European and North American countries have reported a high rate of disorders (mortality, dwindling and disappearance affecting honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera. Although beekeeping has become an increasingly professional activity in recent years, the beekeeping industry remains poorly documented in Europe. The European Union Reference Laboratory for Honeybee Health sent a detailed questionnaire to each Member State, in addition to Kosovo and Norway, to determine the demographics and state of their beekeeping industries. Based on data supplied by the National Reference Laboratory for honeybee diseases in each European country, a European database was created to describe the beekeeping industry including the number and types of beekeepers, operation size, industry production, and health (notifiable diseases, mortalities. The total number of beekeepers in Europe was estimated at 620,000. European honey production was evaluated at around 220,000 tons in 2010. The price of honey varied from 1.5 to 40 €/kg depending on the country and on the distribution network. The estimated colony winter mortality varied from 7 to 28% depending on the country and the origin of the data (institutional survey or beekeeping associations. This survey documents the high heterogeneity of the apicultural industry within the European Union. The high proportion of non-professional beekeepers and the small mean number of colonies per beekeeper were the only common characteristics at European level. The tremendous variation in European apicultural industries has implication for any comprehensive epidemiological or economic analysis of the industry. This variability needs to be taken into account for such analysis as well as for future policy development. The industry would be served if beekeeping registration was uniformly implemented across member states. Better information on the package bee and queen production would help in understanding

  2. Demographics of the European apicultural industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauzat, Marie-Pierre; Cauquil, Laura; Roy, Lise; Franco, Stéphanie; Hendrikx, Pascal; Ribière-Chabert, Magali

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few years, many European and North American countries have reported a high rate of disorders (mortality, dwindling and disappearance) affecting honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera). Although beekeeping has become an increasingly professional activity in recent years, the beekeeping industry remains poorly documented in Europe. The European Union Reference Laboratory for Honeybee Health sent a detailed questionnaire to each Member State, in addition to Kosovo and Norway, to determine the demographics and state of their beekeeping industries. Based on data supplied by the National Reference Laboratory for honeybee diseases in each European country, a European database was created to describe the beekeeping industry including the number and types of beekeepers, operation size, industry production, and health (notifiable diseases, mortalities). The total number of beekeepers in Europe was estimated at 620,000. European honey production was evaluated at around 220,000 tons in 2010. The price of honey varied from 1.5 to 40 €/kg depending on the country and on the distribution network. The estimated colony winter mortality varied from 7 to 28% depending on the country and the origin of the data (institutional survey or beekeeping associations). This survey documents the high heterogeneity of the apicultural industry within the European Union. The high proportion of non-professional beekeepers and the small mean number of colonies per beekeeper were the only common characteristics at European level. The tremendous variation in European apicultural industries has implication for any comprehensive epidemiological or economic analysis of the industry. This variability needs to be taken into account for such analysis as well as for future policy development. The industry would be served if beekeeping registration was uniformly implemented across member states. Better information on the package bee and queen production would help in understanding the ability of

  3. Migration and Immigrants in Europe : A Historical and Demographic Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Mol, C.; de Valk, H.A.G.

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter we outline the general developments of migration within and towards Europe as well as patterns of settlement of migrants. We provide a comprehensive historical overview of the changes in European migration since the 1950s. Main phases in immigration, its backgrounds, and its

  4. Migration and Immigrants in Europe: A Historical and Demographic Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Mol, C.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Garcés-Mascareñas, B.; Penninx, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter we outline the general developments of migration within and towards Europe as well as patterns of settlement of migrants. We provide a comprehensive historical overview of the changes in European migration since the 1950s. Main phases in immigration, its backgrounds, and its

  5. Possible consequences of increasing life expectancy in Brazil: the perspective of a European historical demographer Possíveis conseqüências da crescente longevidade no Brasil: perspectiva de um demógrafo

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    Arthur E. Imhof

    1987-10-01

    Full Text Available Those over sixty years of age accounted for 6.6% of the total population of Brazil in 1985, in the Federal Republic of Germany this proportion was 20.3% in 1984. As early as 1950 it had been 14.5%. This proportion will not even be reached in Brazil in the year 2000 when persons aged sixty years and older are only projected to make up 8.8% of the total population. Similarly, in 1982/84 life expectancy at birth in the Federal Republic was 70.8 years for men and 77.5 for women; in Brazil the figures for 1980/85 were, by contrast, "only" 61.0 and 66.0. Against this background it is easy to understand why the discussion concerning an ageing society with its many related medical, economic, individual and social problems has been so slow in coming into its own in Brazil. As important as a more intensive consideration of these aspects may be in Brazil at present, they are, nevertheless, only one side of the story. For a European historical demographer with a long-term perspective of three of four hundred years, the other side of the story is just as important. The life expectancy which is almost ten years lower in Brazil is not a result of the fact that no one in Brazil lives to old age. In 1981 people sixty-five years and older accounted for 34.4% of all deaths! At the same time infants accounted for only 22.1% of total mortality. They are responsible, along with the "premature" deaths among youths and adults, for the low, "average" life expectancy figure. In Europe, by contrast, these "premature" deaths no longer play much of a role. In 1982/84 more than half of the women (52.8% in the Federal Republic of Germany lived to see their eightieth birthdays and almost half of the men (47.3% lived to see their seventy-fifth. Our biological existence is guaranteed to an extent today that would have been unthinkable a few generations ago. Then, the classic troika of "plague, hunger and war" threatened our forefathers all the time and everywhere. The radical

  6. A Historical Institutionalist Framework for European Spatial Planning

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    Faludi, A.K.F.

    2016-01-01

    Sorensen invokes historical institutionalism as a theoretical framework. This paper does so revisiting the making of the European SpatialDevelopment Perspective of 1990s vintage and the subsequent Territorial Agenda of the European Union. The context is EU Cohesion policy. Firstthe paper presents

  7. Historical sampling reveals dramatic demographic changes in western gorilla populations

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    Guschanski Katerina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Today many large mammals live in small, fragmented populations, but it is often unclear whether this subdivision is the result of long-term or recent events. Demographic modeling using genetic data can estimate changes in long-term population sizes while temporal sampling provides a way to compare genetic variation present today with that sampled in the past. In order to better understand the dynamics associated with the divergences of great ape populations, these analytical approaches were applied to western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla and in particular to the isolated and Critically Endangered Cross River gorilla subspecies (G. g. diehli. Results We used microsatellite genotypes from museum specimens and contemporary samples of Cross River gorillas to infer both the long-term and recent population history. We find that Cross River gorillas diverged from the ancestral western gorilla population ~17,800 years ago (95% HDI: 760, 63,245 years. However, gene flow ceased only ~420 years ago (95% HDI: 200, 16,256 years, followed by a bottleneck beginning ~320 years ago (95% HDI: 200, 2,825 years that caused a 60-fold decrease in the effective population size of Cross River gorillas. Direct comparison of heterozygosity estimates from museum and contemporary samples suggests a loss of genetic variation over the last 100 years. Conclusions The composite history of western gorillas could plausibly be explained by climatic oscillations inducing environmental changes in western equatorial Africa that would have allowed gorilla populations to expand over time but ultimately isolate the Cross River gorillas, which thereafter exhibited a dramatic population size reduction. The recent decrease in the Cross River population is accordingly most likely attributable to increasing anthropogenic pressure over the last several hundred years. Isolation of diverging populations with prolonged concomitant gene flow, but not secondary admixture, appears

  8. Historical sampling reveals dramatic demographic changes in western gorilla populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Today many large mammals live in small, fragmented populations, but it is often unclear whether this subdivision is the result of long-term or recent events. Demographic modeling using genetic data can estimate changes in long-term population sizes while temporal sampling provides a way to compare genetic variation present today with that sampled in the past. In order to better understand the dynamics associated with the divergences of great ape populations, these analytical approaches were applied to western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) and in particular to the isolated and Critically Endangered Cross River gorilla subspecies (G. g. diehli). Results We used microsatellite genotypes from museum specimens and contemporary samples of Cross River gorillas to infer both the long-term and recent population history. We find that Cross River gorillas diverged from the ancestral western gorilla population ~17,800 years ago (95% HDI: 760, 63,245 years). However, gene flow ceased only ~420 years ago (95% HDI: 200, 16,256 years), followed by a bottleneck beginning ~320 years ago (95% HDI: 200, 2,825 years) that caused a 60-fold decrease in the effective population size of Cross River gorillas. Direct comparison of heterozygosity estimates from museum and contemporary samples suggests a loss of genetic variation over the last 100 years. Conclusions The composite history of western gorillas could plausibly be explained by climatic oscillations inducing environmental changes in western equatorial Africa that would have allowed gorilla populations to expand over time but ultimately isolate the Cross River gorillas, which thereafter exhibited a dramatic population size reduction. The recent decrease in the Cross River population is accordingly most likely attributable to increasing anthropogenic pressure over the last several hundred years. Isolation of diverging populations with prolonged concomitant gene flow, but not secondary admixture, appears to be a typical

  9. Counting on Demographic Equity to Transform Institutional Cultures at Historically White South African Universities?

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    Booi, Masixole; Vincent, Louise; Liccardo, Sabrina

    2017-01-01

    The post-apartheid higher education transformation project is faced with the challenge of recruiting and retaining black academics and other senior staff. But when we shift the focus from participation rates to equality-inequality within historically white universities (HWUs), then the discourse changes from demographic equity and redress to…

  10. Chinese consumers and European beer: Associations between attribute importance, socio-demographics, and consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ou; Gellynck, Xavier; Verbeke, Wim

    2017-01-01

    The demand for western alcoholic beverages in China has increased tremendously in recent years. However, there is still a lack of understanding with regard to the behaviour of Chinese consumers towards European beer, which is a common western alcoholic beverage. This study explores associations between beer attribute importance scores, socio-demographic factors, general beer consumption frequency and country associations of European beer, and the consumption of imported European beer in China...

  11. Formulating a historical and demographic model of recent human evolution based on resequencing data from noncoding regions.

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    Guillaume Laval

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Estimating the historical and demographic parameters that characterize modern human populations is a fundamental part of reconstructing the recent history of our species. In addition, the development of a model of human evolution that can best explain neutral genetic diversity is required to identify confidently regions of the human genome that have been targeted by natural selection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have resequenced 20 independent noncoding autosomal regions dispersed throughout the genome in 213 individuals from different continental populations, corresponding to a total of approximately 6 Mb of diploid resequencing data. We used these data to explore and co-estimate an extensive range of historical and demographic parameters with a statistical framework that combines the evaluation of multiple models of human evolution via a best-fit approach, followed by an Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC analysis. From a methodological standpoint, evaluating the accuracy of the parameter co-estimation allowed us to identify the most accurate set of statistics to be used for the estimation of each of the different historical and demographic parameters characterizing recent human evolution. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results support a model in which modern humans left Africa through a single major dispersal event occurring approximately 60,000 years ago, corresponding to a drastic reduction of approximately 5 times the effective population size of the ancestral African population of approximately 13,800 individuals. Subsequently, the ancestors of modern Europeans and East Asians diverged much later, approximately 22,500 years ago, from the population of ancestral migrants. This late diversification of Eurasians after the African exodus points to the occurrence of a long maturation phase in which the ancestral Eurasian population was not yet diversified.

  12. Reconstructing the demographic history of divergence between European river and brook lampreys using approximate Bayesian computations

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    Quentin Rougemont

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Inferring the history of isolation and gene flow during species divergence is a central question in evolutionary biology. The European river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis and brook lamprey (L. planeri show a low reproductive isolation but have highly distinct life histories, the former being parasitic-anadromous and the latter non-parasitic and freshwater resident. Here we used microsatellite data from six replicated population pairs to reconstruct their history of divergence using an approximate Bayesian computation framework combined with a random forest model. In most population pairs, scenarios of divergence with recent isolation were outcompeted by scenarios proposing ongoing gene flow, namely the Secondary Contact (SC and Isolation with Migration (IM models. The estimation of demographic parameters under the SC model indicated a time of secondary contact close to the time of speciation, explaining why SC and IM models could not be discriminated. In case of an ancient secondary contact, the historical signal of divergence is lost and neutral markers converge to the same equilibrium as under the less parameterized model allowing ongoing gene flow. Our results imply that models of secondary contacts should be systematically compared to models of divergence with gene flow; given the difficulty to discriminate among these models, we suggest that genome-wide data are needed to adequately reconstruct divergence history.

  13. [Demographic and ideational change in the European Community].

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    Lesthaeghe, R; Meekers, D

    1987-01-01

    "It is argued in this article that family formation is conditioned not only by economic factors (more particularly changes in opportunity structures for the two sexes), but also by ideational trends. The economic factors could be seen as responsible for period fluctuations that are superimposed on a long term ideationally driven trend with marked cohort contrasts. Value orientations are explored and compared across countries and age groups using the international data set of the European Values Studies. The analysis identifies a scale for the degree of tolerance towards non-conformism (e.g. divorce, abortion, one-parent family, rejection of marriage as an institution...) and the meaning of parenthood. Both are related to a set of other scales (religiosity, morality, leftism, nationalism, materialism, etc.). Theoretical links are also established with the theories of, respectively, Easterlin and Simons concerning the reasons for the recent fertility decline in the West." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) excerpt

  14. Demographic history of european populations of Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    Olivier François

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana is successful at colonizing land that has recently undergone human-mediated disturbance. To investigate the prehistoric spread of A. thaliana, we applied approximate Bayesian computation and explicit spatial modeling to 76 European accessions sequenced at 876 nuclear loci. We find evidence that a major migration wave occurred from east to west, affecting most of the sampled individuals. The longitudinal gradient appears to result from the plant having spread in Europe from the east approximately 10,000 years ago, with a rate of westward spread of approximately 0.9 km/year. This wave-of-advance model is consistent with a natural colonization from an eastern glacial refugium that overwhelmed ancient western lineages. However, the speed and time frame of the model also suggest that the migration of A. thaliana into Europe may have accompanied the spread of agriculture during the Neolithic transition.

  15. European Welfare State in a Historical Perspective. A Critical Review

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    George Marian ŞTEFAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the historical evolution of the European welfare state, especially after the second half of the nineteenth century. Even if one considers that social protection systems have their origins in the period of German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, various social problems have been treated in European countries before the Bismarck’s social legislation, beginning with the sixteenth century. In this article we presented mainly (i the origins of social policy systems in Europe, as shown in the literature covered, (ii the conceptual evolution of the so-called “welfare state” and (iii the development of social security schemes based on International Labour Organization typology.

  16. Non-marital pregnancy and the second demographic transition in Australia in historical perspective

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    Gordon Carmichael

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Australia has remarkably detailed data on non-marital pregnancy dating from 1908. They both offer insight into long-term trends in childbearing resulting from non-marital sexual activity and reveal in historical context key features of the second demographic transition and its genesis. Objective: Trends are traced in rates of non-marital conception of children ultimately born both outside and within marriage. A range of related indices is also presented in examining how demographic behaviour surrounding non-marital pregnancy (i helped generate the second demographic transition and (ii unfolded as a component of it. Methods: Core indices are rates of non-marital conception partitioned into additive components associated with marital and non-marital confinement. Data on non-marital and early marital births (at marriage durations 0-7 months are lagged back 38 weeks to a date of and age at conception basis to facilitate a common, unmarried, population at risk. Results: Post-war weakening of parental oversight of courtship was a fundamental trigger to the broader rejection of normative and institutional values that underpinned the second demographic transition. In tandem with denying the unmarried access to oral contraception it generated rampant youthful non-marital pregnancy, which undermined Judeo-Christian values, especially once abortion law reform occurred. Conclusions: Childbearing following non-marital conception transitioned rapidly after the 1960s from primarily the unintended product of youthful intercourse in non-coresidential relationships to mainly intended behaviour at normative reproductive ages in consensual unions. Family formation increasingly mixed non-marital births and premaritally and/or maritally conceived marital births.

  17. Chinese consumers and European beer: Associations between attribute importance, socio-demographics, and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ou; Gellynck, Xavier; Verbeke, Wim

    2017-01-01

    The demand for western alcoholic beverages in China has increased tremendously in recent years. However, there is still a lack of understanding with regard to the behaviour of Chinese consumers towards European beer, which is a common western alcoholic beverage. This study explores associations between beer attribute importance scores, socio-demographic factors, general beer consumption frequency and country associations of European beer, and the consumption of imported European beer in China. The data (n = 541) were collected in two Chinese cities: Shanghai and Xi'an. Results of ordered logistic regression analyses show that the consumption of imported European beer is positively associated with importance attached to the product attributes Origin, Brand, Colour and Texture, and it is negatively associated with importance attached to Price and Alcoholic content. Furthermore, male gender, living in Shanghai city, a good financial situation, frequent beer consumption and a high-level employment position have a significantly positive influence on European beer consumption in China. In addition, about two thirds of the study participants associate imported European beer with 'Germany'. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. EUROPEAN CHEMICAL INDUSTRY COMPETITIVENESS: HISTORICAL TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS

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    Dmytro Gladkykh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to analyze historical trends and development prospects of the European chemical industry competitiveness. It is concluded that the chemical industry is one of the EU’s most successful spheres, boasting €527 billion in sales in 2013, making it the second-largest global manufacture. Methodology. To explain the competitiveness of the EU chemical branch in the global market, it is proposed the constant-market share methodology to chemical exports coupled with econometric analysis. Results. The constant market share (CMS approach to assessing competitiveness, developed in the 1970 s for analysis of trade, is based on the principle that changes in the geographic and product structures of exports will affect a country’s export growth relative to that of the world, and that is way its global export market share. There were analyzed the EU biggest exporters (Germany, France, Italy, UK, Spain, Netherlands, Belgium, Poland, the USA, Japan; China, India, Saudi Arabia, Brazil. Practical implication. The analysis presents the results of competitiveness assessment in a different way, showing the average annual growth rate of EU and world chemical exports in the top section and then decomposing the gap between the two into that thanks to growth dynamics (structure effect and competitive effect. It is defined a lot of factors that are important to industrial competitiveness. On the cost side, in many industries labor is a large enough share of overall production costs that international differences in salaries can have a large bearing on competitiveness. Costs are also affected by a variety of government policies. It is also defined that innovation is one of the most important factors, which opens up new opportunities both in terms of new products and more efficient processes for manufacturing existing products. Value/originality. Given analysis helps to understand the causes and factors that have an impact on the European

  19. Comparative phylogeography and demographic history of European shads (Alosa alosa and A. fallax) inferred from mitochondrial DNA.

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    Faria, Rui; Weiss, Steven; Alexandrino, Paulo

    2012-09-30

    Comparative broad-scale phylogeographic studies of aquatic organisms provide insights on biotic responses to the paleohydrological dynamics associated with climatic oscillations. These insights can be used to formulate a framework for understanding the evolutionary history of a species or closely related taxa as well as aid in predictive modeling of further responses to climate change. Anadromous fishes constitute interesting models for understanding the relative importance of environmental versus biological factors in shaping intraspecific genetic substructure on the interface between marine and freshwater realms. European shads, Alosa alosa and A. fallax are anadromous species that have persisted through historical large-scale environmental perturbations and now additionally face an array of anthropogenic challenges. A comprehensive phylogeographic investigation of these species is needed to provide insights on both the historical processes that have shaped their extant genetic structure and diversity, and the prospects for their future management and conservation. Despite introgressive hybridization, A. alosa and A. fallax are genetically divergent, congruent with previous studies. Three similarly divergent mtDNA clades were recognized within both A. fallax and A. alosa, most likely originating during common periods of isolation during the Pleistocene among the studied oceanographic regions. Periods of basin isolation apparently extended to the Black Sea as additional Alosa clades occur there. The present day geographic distribution of genetic diversity within European Alosa sp. suggests the existence of a strong but permeable barrier between the Atlantic and Mediterranean seas, as shown for a number of other aquatic species. Overall mtDNA diversity is considerably lower for A. alosa compared to A. fallax, suggesting that the former species is more sensitive to climatic as well as anthropogenic changes. For A. fallax, migration from the Mediterranean to the

  20. Comparative phylogeography and demographic history of European shads (Alosa alosa and A. fallax inferred from mitochondrial DNA

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    Faria Rui

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative broad-scale phylogeographic studies of aquatic organisms provide insights on biotic responses to the paleohydrological dynamics associated with climatic oscillations. These insights can be used to formulate a framework for understanding the evolutionary history of a species or closely related taxa as well as aid in predictive modeling of further responses to climate change. Anadromous fishes constitute interesting models for understanding the relative importance of environmental versus biological factors in shaping intraspecific genetic substructure on the interface between marine and freshwater realms. European shads, Alosa alosa and A. fallax are anadromous species that have persisted through historical large-scale environmental perturbations and now additionally face an array of anthropogenic challenges. A comprehensive phylogeographic investigation of these species is needed to provide insights on both the historical processes that have shaped their extant genetic structure and diversity, and the prospects for their future management and conservation. Results Despite introgressive hybridization, A. alosa and A. fallax are genetically divergent, congruent with previous studies. Three similarly divergent mtDNA clades were recognized within both A. fallax and A. alosa, most likely originating during common periods of isolation during the Pleistocene among the studied oceanographic regions. Periods of basin isolation apparently extended to the Black Sea as additional Alosa clades occur there. The present day geographic distribution of genetic diversity within European Alosa sp. suggests the existence of a strong but permeable barrier between the Atlantic and Mediterranean seas, as shown for a number of other aquatic species. Overall mtDNA diversity is considerably lower for A. alosa compared to A. fallax, suggesting that the former species is more sensitive to climatic as well as anthropogenic changes. For A

  1. Demographic history of Canary Islands male gene-pool: replacement of native lineages by European

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    Amorim António

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The origin and prevalence of the prehispanic settlers of the Canary Islands has attracted great multidisciplinary interest. However, direct ancient DNA genetic studies on indigenous and historical 17th–18th century remains, using mitochondrial DNA as a female marker, have only recently been possible. In the present work, the analysis of Y-chromosome polymorphisms in the same samples, has shed light on the way the European colonization affected male and female Canary Island indigenous genetic pools, from the conquest to present-day times. Results Autochthonous (E-M81 and prominent (E-M78 and J-M267 Berber Y-chromosome lineages were detected in the indigenous remains, confirming a North West African origin for their ancestors which confirms previous mitochondrial DNA results. However, in contrast with their female lineages, which have survived in the present-day population since the conquest with only a moderate decline, the male indigenous lineages have dropped constantly being substituted by European lineages. Male and female sub-Saharan African genetic inputs were also detected in the Canary population, but their frequencies were higher during the 17th–18th centuries than today. Conclusion The European colonization of the Canary Islands introduced a strong sex-biased change in the indigenous population in such a way that indigenous female lineages survived in the extant population in a significantly higher proportion than their male counterparts.

  2. Increasing weather-related impacts on European population under climate and demographic change

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    Forzieri, Giovanni; Cescatti, Alessandro; Batista e Silva, Filipe; Kovats, Sari R.; Feyen, Luc

    2017-04-01

    Over the last three decades the overwhelming majority of disasters have been caused by weather-related events. The observed rise in weather-related disaster losses has been largely attributed to increased exposure and to a lesser degree to global warming. Recent studies suggest an intensification in the climatology of multiple weather extremes in Europe over the coming decades in view of climate change, while urbanization continues. In view of these pressures, understanding and quantifying the potential impacts of extreme weather events on future societies is imperative in order to identify where and to what extent their livelihoods will be at risk in the future, and develop timely and effective adaptation and disaster risk reduction strategies. Here we show a comprehensive assessment of single- and multi-hazard impacts on the European population until the year 2100. For this purpose, we developed a novel methodology that quantifies the human impacts as a multiplicative function of hazard, exposure and population vulnerability. We focus on seven of the most impacting weather-related hazards - including heat and cold waves, wildfires, droughts, river and coastal floods and windstorms - and evaluated their spatial and temporal variations in intensity and frequency under a business-as-usual climate scenario. Long-term demographic dynamics were modelled to assess exposure developments under a corresponding middle-of-the-road scenario. Vulnerability of humans to weather extremes was appraised based on more than 2300 records of weather-related disasters. The integration of these elements provides a range of plausible estimates of extreme weather-related risks for future European generations. Expected impacts on population are quantified in terms of fatalities and number of people exposed. We find a staggering rise in fatalities from extreme weather events, with the projected death toll by the end of the century amounting to more than 50 times the present number of people

  3. Projecting Long-Term Care Expenditure in Four European Union Member States: The Influence of Demographic Scenarios

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    Costa-Font, Joan; Wittenberg, Raphael; Patxot, Concepcio; Comas-Herrera, Adelina; Gori, Cristiano; di Maio, Alessandra; Pickard, Linda; Pozzi, Alessandro; Rothgang, Heinz

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the sensitivity of future long-term care demand and expenditure estimates to official demographic projections in four selected European countries: Germany, Spain, Italy and the United Kingdom. It uses standardised methodology in the form of a macro-simulation exercise and finds evidence for significant differences in…

  4. A Historical Review of the Nixon Administration and European Political Cooperation

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    Thi Nguyen Hang Thuy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With a historical approach, this paper examines the Nixon administration’s policy and stance towards European Political Cooperation (EPC. In December 1969, at The Hague Summit the leaders of the European Community expressed their determination for deepening European integration. The final communiqué of The Hague Summit stressed that the European Community’s desire to achieve EPC and to parallel the European Community’s economic increasing strength with a role to play in the world affairs. With this in mind, the paper will examine the impacts that Nixon administration’s attempts to rebalance U.S. foreign relations reflected in the opening to China and the détente with the Soviet Union had on European political integration. Then, it will be argued that the Nixon administration’s shifting foreign policy priorities can be seen as one of the driving forces of EPC. The paper puts forth that a European Community, whose weight was increased by first its economic integration and then its political cooperation, was seen by the Nixon administration as a challenge to the United States. It is concluded that after a long time of consistently supporting European integration as a means to secure peace and prosperity in Europe, the United States under the Nixon administration had to re-consider its foreign relations and rebalance its focus on the global chessboard. This rebalancing certainly impacted EPC in particular and the European integration process in general.

  5. Historical variables of seismic effects: economic levels, demographic scales and building techniques

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    G. Ferrari

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available During the analysis of the historical seismicity of Italy, territorial and social elements emerged that in the long term have strongly influenced the effects of the earthquakes. These elements are here presented as historical variables of the degree of intensity. The Italian context is characterised by a long and continuous history of housing, with profound historical and economic changes. The effects of the earthquakes are influenced by population density, the verticalism of the buildings - from the thirteenth century - and the building techniques. The latter have always been highly diversified, not only in the various historical periods, but also within the same time-span, on the same territory, because of the strong geographic differences which characterise the Italian area (coasts, mountains, plains, etc.. This contribution provides a synthetic assessment of these variables in relation to the seismic effects described in the historical sources. The authors expect to be able to better calibrate in future the evaluation of the seismic effects in relation to building characteristics.

  6. Connecting the Real to the Representational: Historical Demographic Data in the Town of Pullman, 1880-1940

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    Andrew H. Bullen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Pullman House History Project is a part of the Pullman State Historic Site’s virtual museum and web site (http://www.pullman-museum.org/ which links together census, city directory, and telephone directory information to describe the people who lived in the town of Pullman, Illinois between 1881 and 1940. This demographic data is linked through a database/XML record system to online maps and Perl programs that allow the data to be represented in various useful combinations. This article describes the structure of the database and XML records, as well as the methods and code used to link the parts together and display the data.

  7. Historical and contemporary DNA indicate fisher decline and isolation occurred prior to the European settlement of California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody M Tucker

    Full Text Available Establishing if species contractions were the result of natural phenomena or human induced landscape changes is essential for managing natural populations. Fishers (Martes pennanti in California occur in two geographically and genetically isolated populations in the northwestern mountains and southern Sierra Nevada. Their isolation is hypothesized to have resulted from a decline in abundance and distribution associated with European settlement in the 1800s. However, there is little evidence to establish that fisher occupied the area between the two extant populations at that time. We analyzed 10 microsatellite loci from 275 contemporary and 21 historical fisher samples (1880-1920 to evaluate the demographic history of fisher in California. We did not find any evidence of a recent (post-European bottleneck in the northwestern population. In the southern Sierra Nevada, genetic subdivision within the population strongly influenced bottleneck tests. After accounting for genetic subdivision, we found a bottleneck signal only in the northern and central portions of the southern Sierra Nevada, indicating that the southernmost tip of these mountains may have acted as a refugium for fisher during the anthropogenic changes of the late 19(th and early 20(th centuries. Using a coalescent-based Bayesian analysis, we detected a 90% decline in effective population size and dated the time of decline to over a thousand years ago. We hypothesize that fisher distribution in California contracted to the two current population areas pre-European settlement, and that portions of the southern Sierra Nevada subsequently experienced another more recent bottleneck post-European settlement.

  8. Historical, Demographic, and Economic Correlates of Land-Use Change in the Republic of Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Joseph. Wright

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Panama recently experienced a limited forest transition. After five decades of decline, the total forest cover increased by 0.36% yr-1 between 1992 and 2000; however, mature forest cover simultaneously decreased by 1.3% yr-1. This limited forest transition at the national scale comprised two distinctly different patterns of recent forest-cover change related to historical land use. Districts that were largely deforested when the first national survey of forest cover was completed in 1947 experienced a strong forest transition between 1992 and 2000. In these, the proportion of the population employed in agriculture decreased by an average of 31% and natural secondary forest succession increased the total forest cover by an average of 85% between 1992 and 2000. In contrast, no forest transition was evident for districts that were largely forested in 1947. In these, the absolute number of people employed in agriculture remained constant, old-growth forest cover decreased by 8% on average, and natural secondary forest succession increased, so that the total forest cover tended to be static between 1992 and 2000. Historical land use, an index of human poverty, and the population density of agricultural workers explained 61% of the among-district variation in forest cover in 2000, with forest concentrated in areas where populations were small and poor. Historical land use and gross income per hectare from agriculture explained 23.5% of the among-district variation in forest-cover change between 1992 and 2000. The early history of forest loss, an uneven distribution of people, and disparities in farm income contributed to the limited forest transition observed in Panama.

  9. Cross-cultural and socio-demographic correlates of homophobic attitude among university students in three European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, G; Niolu, C; Déttore, D; Antonelli, P; Conte, S; Tuziak, B; Limoncin, E; Mollaioli, D; Carosa, E; Gravina, G L; Di Sante, S; Di Lorenzo, G; Fisher, A D; Maggi, M; Lenzi, A; Siracusano, A; Jannini, E A

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate homophobic attitudes in three European countries: Italy, Albania, and Ukraine. One thousand and forty-eight students were recruited in Italian (n = 766), Albanian (n = 180), and Ukrainian (n = 102) university centers. A socio-demographic questionnaire and Homophobia Scale (HS) were administered by our staff. Cross-cultural and significant differences among Italian, Albanian, and Ukrainian students were found on the Homophobia Scale (HS; Italy: mean = 22.26 ± 16.73; Albania: mean = 38.15 ± 17.28; Ukraine: mean = 59.18 ± 16.23). The analysis of socio-demographic characteristics revealed that the male gender emerged as main predictor of homophobic attitude in all the three countries, although also a conservative political orientation and the religious belief predict higher homophobia levels in Italy and Albania, particularly. This study revealed that in these European countries assessed, attitudes toward homosexuality are different. Ukrainians display higher levels of homophobia than Albanians and Italians, confirming the central role of cultural differences in homophobic attitudes. Nevertheless, some socio-demographic aspects such as identification as male have a similar influence on homophobic attitudes in all assessed populations.

  10. Historical European Martial Art a crossroad between academic research, martial heritage re-creation and martial sport practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaquet Daniel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Historical European martial arts (HEMA have to be considered an important part of our common European cultural heritage. Studies within this field of research have the potential to enlighten the puzzle posed by past societies, for example in the field of history, history of science and technology, or fields related to material culture.

  11. European public acceptance of euthanasia: socio-demographic and cultural factors associated with the acceptance of euthanasia in 33 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joachim; Marcoux, Isabelle; Bilsen, Johan; Deboosere, Patrick; van der Wal, Gerrit; Deliens, Luc

    2006-08-01

    In many European countries, the last decade has been marked by an increasing debate about the acceptability and regulation of euthanasia and other end-of-life decisions in medical practice. Growing public sensibility to a 'right to die' for terminally ill patients has been one of the main constituents of these debates. Within this context, we sought to describe and compare acceptance of euthanasia among the general public in 33 European countries. We used the European Values Study data of 1999-2000 with a total of 41125 respondents (63% response rate) in 33 European countries. The main outcome measure concerned the acceptance of euthanasia (defined as 'terminating the life of the incurably sick', rated on a scale from 1 to 10). Results showed that the acceptance of euthanasia tended to be high in some countries (e.g. the Netherlands, Denmark, France, Sweden), while a markedly low acceptance was found in others (e.g. Romania, Malta and Turkey). A multivariate ordinal regression showed that weaker religious belief was the most important factor associated with a higher acceptance; however, there were also socio-demographic differences: younger cohorts, people from non-manual social classes, and people with a higher educational level tended to have a higher acceptance of euthanasia. While religious belief, socio-demographic factors, and also moral values (i.e. the belief in the right to self-determination) could largely explain the differences between countries, our findings suggest that perceptions regarding euthanasia are probably also influenced by national traditions and history (e.g. Germany). Thus, we demonstrated clear cross-national differences with regard to the acceptance of euthanasia, which can serve as an important basis for further debate and research in the specific countries.

  12. Socio-demographic and attitudinal determinants of nutrition knowledge of food shoppers in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Wills, Josephine; Fernandez-Celemin, Laura

    2012-01-01

    unrelated to the rest. Attitude to healthy eating and use of different information sources were weakly but significantly related to level of nutrition knowledge. Direct effects of socio-demographic characteristics were stronger, and inter-country differences were pronounced, with highest scores for the UK......Nutrition knowledge is a prerequisite for processing nutrition-related information when making food choices. Insight into determinants of nutrition knowledge is important both for designing measures aimed at increasing levels of nutrition knowledge and for food industry attempting to position food...... products. Differences in the level of knowledge found were related to country, socio-demographic characteristics, attitude to healthy eating, and use of different sources of nutrition knowledge. Results showed that nutrition knowledge is multi-dimensional, with especially knowledge on calorie content being...

  13. Demographic and clinical data in acquired hemophilia A: results from the European Acquired Haemophilia Registry (EACH2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoebl, P; Marco, P; Baudo, F; Collins, P; Huth-Kühne, A; Nemes, L; Pellegrini, F; Tengborn, L; Lévesque, H

    2012-04-01

    Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is a rare autoimmune disease caused by autoantibodies against coagulation factor VIII and characterized by spontaneous hemorrhage in patients with no previous family or personal history of bleeding. Although data on several AHA cohorts have been collected, limited information is available on the optimal management of AHA. The European Acquired Hemophilia Registry (EACH2) was established to generate a prospective, large-scale, pan-European database on demographics, diagnosis, underlying disorders, bleeding characteristics, treatment and outcome of AHA patients. Five hundred and one (266 male, 235 female) patients from 117 centers and 13 European countries were included in the registry between 2003 and 2008. In 467 cases, hemostasis investigations and AHA diagnosis were triggered by a bleeding event. At diagnosis, patients were a median of 73.9 years. AHA was idiopathic in 51.9%; malignancy or autoimmune diseases were associated with 11.8% and 11.6% of cases. Fifty-seven per cent of the non-pregnancy-related cases were male. Four hundred and seventy-four bleeding episodes were reported at presentation, and hemostatic therapy initiated in 70.5% of patients. Delayed diagnosis significantly impacted treatment initiation in 33.5%. Four hundred and seventy-seven patients underwent immunosuppression, and 72.6% achieved complete remission. Representing the largest collection of consecutive AHA cases to date, EACH2 facilitates the analysis of a variety of open questions in AHA. © 2012 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  14. Socio-demographic and fertility-related characteristics and motivations of oocyte donors in eleven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennings, G; de Mouzon, J; Shenfield, F; Ferraretti, A P; Mardesic, T; Ruiz, A; Goossens, V

    2014-05-01

    Do the socio-demographic and fertility-related characteristics and motivations of oocyte donors differ in European countries? The socio-demographic and fertility-related characteristics and motivations of oocyte donors differ considerably across countries. There have been no other international studies comparing the characteristics of oocyte donors. Regarding their motivations, most studies indicate mixed motives. The proposed study was a transversal epidemiological study. Data were collected from 63 voluntarily participating assisted reproduction technology centres practising oocyte donation in 11 European countries (Belgium, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Greece, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Spain, UK and Ukraine). The survey was conducted between September 2011 and June 2012 and ran for 1-6 calendar months depending on the number of cycles of oocyte donation performed at the centre. The sample size was computed in order to allow an estimate of the percentage of a relatively rare characteristic (∼2%) with a precision (95% confidence interval) of 1%. The calculation gave 1118 donors. In total, 1423 forms were obtained from oocyte donors. All consecutive donors in these centres filled out an anonymous questionnaire when they started their hormonal stimulation, asking for their socio-demographic and fertility-related characteristics, their motivations and compensation. Population characteristics were described and compared by country of donation. Motives for donation and mean amount of money were compared between countries and according to the donors characteristics. The socio-demographic and fertility-related characteristics and motivations of oocyte donors varied enormously across European countries. The number of received forms corresponded with a participation rate of 61.9% of the cycles performed by the participating centres. Mean age was 27.4 years. About 49% of donors were fully employed, 16% unemployed and 15% student. The motivation in the total group of

  15. Conservation phylogeography: does historical diversity contribute to regional vulnerability in European tree frogs (Hyla arborea)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresnes, Christophe; Wassef, Jérôme; Ghali, Karim; Brelsford, Alan; Stöck, Matthias; Lymberakis, Petros; Crnobrnja-Isailovic, Jelka; Perrin, Nicolas

    2013-11-01

    Documenting and preserving the genetic diversity of populations, which conditions their long-term survival, have become a major issue in conservation biology. The loss of diversity often documented in declining populations is usually assumed to result from human disturbances; however, historical biogeographic events, otherwise known to strongly impact diversity, are rarely considered in this context. We apply a multilocus phylogeographic study to investigate the late-Quaternary history of a tree frog (Hyla arborea) with declining populations in the northern and western part of its distribution range. Mitochondrial and nuclear polymorphisms reveal high genetic diversity in the Balkan Peninsula, with a spatial structure moulded by the last glaciations. While two of the main refugial lineages remained limited to the Balkans (Adriatic coast, southern Balkans), a third one expanded to recolonize Northern and Western Europe, loosing much of its diversity in the process. Our findings show that mobile and a priori homogeneous taxa may also display substructure within glacial refugia ('refugia within refugia') and emphasize the importance of the Balkans as a major European biodiversity centre. Moreover, the distribution of diversity roughly coincides with regional conservation situations, consistent with the idea that historically impoverished genetic diversity may interact with anthropogenic disturbances, and increase the vulnerability of populations. Phylogeographic models seem important to fully appreciate the risks of local declines and inform conservation strategies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Added value from European Territorial Co-operation: the impact of demographic change in the Alps on the young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marot Naja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article sets demographic change in the Alps in the framework of European Territorial Cooperation programs. A statistical overview of selected regions in five Alpine countries serves as a basis for further policy analysis. The latter was undertaken to reveal how transnational projects tackle youth issues, including the difficulties within the labour and real estate markets that appeared to be the most problematic factors influencing (out migration of the youth. While there is only a minor recognition of the young in current policymaking on supranational, regional and local levels, the analysis showed that the added value of transnational programs for mountain regions and localities can be recognized in the development of multi-stakeholder environments, creating and transferring new solutions for the labour market as well as empowering youth participation in policy processes. However, the extent to which these solutions might contribute to overcoming the challenges of demographic change because of transnational programs is limited by various factors. Among these are the precise governance framework, administrative capacity, and population figures.

  17. Historical Development of NATO Stanag 6001 Language Standards and Common European Framework (CEF) and the Comparison of Their Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Ekrem

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the article is to shed light on the historical development of language studies in military and social context and to compare the current status of NATO Stanag (Standard Agreement) 6001 language scale with Common European Framework (CEF). Language studies in military context date back to World War II and the emergence of Army Specialized…

  18. A Shift in U.S. Foreign Policy under the Nixon Administration and European Political Cooperation: A Historical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Thuy Hang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available With a historical approach, this paper examines the Nixon administration’s policy and stance towards the European Political Cooperation (the EPC. In December 1969, at The Hague Summit the leaders of the European Community expressed their determination for deepening European integration. The final communiqué of The Hague Summit stressed the European Community’s desire to achieve the EPC and to parallel the European Community’s increasing economic strength with a role to play in the world affairs. With this in mind, the paper will examine the impacts that Nixon administration’s attempts to rebalance U.S. foreign relations reflected in the opening to China and the détente with the Soviet Union had on the European political integration. Then, it will be argued that the Nixon administration’s shifting of foreign policy priorities can be seen as one of the driving forces of the EPC. The paper puts forth that a European Community, whose weight was increased first by its economic integration and then by its political cooperation, was seen by the Nixon administration as a challenge to the United States. It is concluded that after a long time of consistently supporting European integration as a means to secure peace and prosperity in Europe, the United States under the Nixon administration had to reconsider its foreign relations and rebalance its focus on the global chessboard. This rebalancing certainly impacted the EPC in particular and the European integration process in general.

  19. Historical Y. pestis Genomes Reveal the European Black Death as the Source of Ancient and Modern Plague Pandemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyrou, Maria A; Tukhbatova, Rezeda I; Feldman, Michal; Drath, Joanna; Kacki, Sacha; Beltrán de Heredia, Julia; Arnold, Susanne; Sitdikov, Airat G; Castex, Dominique; Wahl, Joachim; Gazimzyanov, Ilgizar R; Nurgaliev, Danis K; Herbig, Alexander; Bos, Kirsten I; Krause, Johannes

    2016-06-08

    Ancient DNA analysis has revealed an involvement of the bacterial pathogen Yersinia pestis in several historical pandemics, including the second plague pandemic (Europe, mid-14(th) century Black Death until the mid-18(th) century AD). Here we present reconstructed Y. pestis genomes from plague victims of the Black Death and two subsequent historical outbreaks spanning Europe and its vicinity, namely Barcelona, Spain (1300-1420 cal AD), Bolgar City, Russia (1362-1400 AD), and Ellwangen, Germany (1485-1627 cal AD). Our results provide support for (1) a single entry of Y. pestis in Europe during the Black Death, (2) a wave of plague that traveled toward Asia to later become the source population for contemporary worldwide epidemics, and (3) the presence of an historical European plague focus involved in post-Black Death outbreaks that is now likely extinct. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Associations of commuting to school and work with demographic variables and with weight status in eight European countries: The ENERGY-cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Velde, Saskia J; Haraldsen, Eli; Vik, Frøydis N; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Jan, Natasa; Kovacs, Eva; Moreno, Luis A; Dössegger, Alain; Manios, Yannis; Brug, Johannes; Bere, Elling

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to assess the prevalence of different modes of commuting to school and work for 10-12year-olds and their parents; to assess the associations with demographic variables (country, sex, parental education and ethnicity) and with weight status in eight European countries. As part of the ENERGY project a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2010 in which modes of commuting and socio-demographic variables for children (N=7903) and one of their parents (n=6455) were measured by questionnaires. Children's weight and height were objectively measured; parents self-reported their weight and height. Logistic multilevel regression analyses assessed the associations between mode of commuting and overweight. Differences between countries and differences in mode of commuting according to demographic variables were tested using χ 2 -test and Marascuilo's Post-hoc analysis. There were marked differences between countries, especially regarding cycling to school, which was common in The Netherlands and Norway and rare in Greece and Spain. Demographic variables were associated with mode of commuting in children and parents. Mode of commuting was not associated with being overweight in children, after adjustment for demographic variables. Bicycling to work, but not other modes of commuting, was significantly inversely associated with being overweight among parents (OR=0.74 (95%CI 0.57-0.97)). Interventions targeting active commuting may promote cycling, and should take into account the differences regarding demographic variables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Selection on MHC in a Context of Historical Demographic Change in 2 Closely Distributed Species of Tuco-tucos (Ctenomys australis and C. talarum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrera, Ana Paula; Mora, Matías Sebastián

    2017-09-01

    Selection necessarily acts within the same current and historical demographic framework as neutral evolutionary processes, and the outcome of the interplay between these forces may vary according to their relative strength. In this study, we compare the variation at a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus (DRB exon 2), typically subject to strong diversifying selection, and mitochondrial diversity (D-loop) across populations encompassing the entire distribution of 2 species of South American subterranean rodents: Ctenomys australis and C. talarum (tuco-tucos). Although these species are parapatric along most of their distribution, historically they have followed distinct demographic trajectories associated with sea level changes during the Quaternary. We surveyed 8 populations of C. australis and 15 of C. talarum, from which we analyzed 70 and 212 D-loop haplotypes and 91 and 346 DRB genotypes, respectively. Both species have gone through a recent demographic expansion; however, the signal of this process only encompasses the entire distribution of one of the species: C. australis. While balancing selection on MHC in C. talarum-enhanced DRB diversity at the local level compared to D-loop, although not promoting divergence among populations, in C. australis local diversifying selection may have driven higher population differentiation at DRB than at D-loop. Our findings reinforce the idea that the relative strength of selection acting on MHC genes varies spatially and temporally within and among species, even between species using the same macrohabitat and exposed to similar immune challenges. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Promoting the health of Europeans in a rapidly changing world: a historical study of the implementation of World Health Organisation policies by the Nursing and Midwifery Unit, European Regional Office, 1970-2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Christine; Wagner, Lis

    2011-01-01

    HALLETT C and WAGNER L. Nursing Inquiry 2011; 18: 359-368 Promoting the health of Europeans in a rapidly changing world: a historical study of the implementation of World Health Organisation policies by the Nursing and Midwifery Unit, European Regional Office, 1970-2003 The World Health Organisat......HALLETT C and WAGNER L. Nursing Inquiry 2011; 18: 359-368 Promoting the health of Europeans in a rapidly changing world: a historical study of the implementation of World Health Organisation policies by the Nursing and Midwifery Unit, European Regional Office, 1970-2003 The World Health...... Organisation (WHO) was inaugurated in 1948. Formed in a period of post-war devastation, WHO aimed to develop and meet goals that would rebuild the health of shattered populations. The historical study reported here examined the work of the Nursing and Midwifery Unit (NMU) of WHO's European Regional Office...

  3. Historical perspectives : the European commercial exploitation of Arctic mineral resources after 1500 AD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, Frigga

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the commercial exploitation of Arctic mineral resources by European newcomers to the region. Minerals in demand were extracted in the North and transported to European markets for financial gain. This practice is bound up in the wider colonial history of the North and its

  4. Historical DNA reveals the demographic history of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in medieval and early modern Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ólafsdóttir, Guðbjörg Ásta; Westfall, Kristen M; Edvardsson, Ragnar; Pálsson, Snæbjörn

    2014-02-22

    Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) vertebrae from archaeological sites were used to study the history of the Icelandic Atlantic cod population in the time period of 1500-1990. Specifically, we used coalescence modelling to estimate population size and fluctuations from the sequence diversity at the cytochrome b (cytb) and Pantophysin I (PanI) loci. The models are consistent with an expanding population during the warm medieval period, large historical effective population size (NE), a marked bottleneck event at 1400-1500 and a decrease in NE in early modern times. The model results are corroborated by the reduction of haplotype and nucleotide variation over time and pairwise population distance as a significant portion of nucleotide variation partitioned across the 1550 time mark. The mean age of the historical fished stock is high in medieval times with a truncation in age in early modern times. The population size crash coincides with a period of known cooling in the North Atlantic, and we conclude that the collapse may be related to climate or climate-induced ecosystem change.

  5. Population Structure, Historical Biogeography and Demographic History of the Alpine Toad Scutiger ningshanensis in the Tsinling Mountains of Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hongzhe; Li, Xiaochen; Qiao, Penghai

    2014-01-01

    Population genetic structure, historical biogeography and historical demography of the alpine toad Scutiger ningshanensis were studied using the combined data mtDNA cytochrome b (cyt b) and the mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) as the molecular markers. This species has high genetic variation. There was a significant genetic differentiation among most populations. Three lineages were detected. The phylogenetic relationship analyses and the SAMOVA (spatial analysis of molecular variance) results showed significant phylogeographic structure. 82.15% genetic variation occurred among populations whereas differentiation within populations only contributed 17.85% to the total. Mantel test results showed a significant correlation between the pairwise calculated genetic distance and pairwise calculated geographical distance of the populations (regression coefficient  = 0.001286, correlation coefficient  = 0.77051, p (rrand≥robs)  = 0.0185climatic changes and repetitive population expansion/contraction together led to the high level of genetic variation in S. ningshanensis. A total of three management units (MUs) was determined, which must be considered when conservation policy is made in the future. PMID:24956389

  6. Population structure, historical biogeography and demographic history of the alpine toad Scutiger ningshanensis in the Tsinling Mountains of Central China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhe Meng

    Full Text Available Population genetic structure, historical biogeography and historical demography of the alpine toad Scutiger ningshanensis were studied using the combined data mtDNA cytochrome b (cyt b and the mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI as the molecular markers. This species has high genetic variation. There was a significant genetic differentiation among most populations. Three lineages were detected. The phylogenetic relationship analyses and the SAMOVA (spatial analysis of molecular variance results showed significant phylogeographic structure. 82.15% genetic variation occurred among populations whereas differentiation within populations only contributed 17.85% to the total. Mantel test results showed a significant correlation between the pairwise calculated genetic distance and pairwise calculated geographical distance of the populations (regression coefficient  = 0.001286, correlation coefficient  = 0.77051, p (rrand≥robs  = 0.0185<0.05, indicating the existence of isolation-by-distance pattern of genetic divergence for cyt b + COI sequence, which suggests that the distribution of genetic variation is due to geographical separation rather than natural selection. The population expansion or contraction and genetic differentiation between populations or lineages could be explained by topography and the repetitive uplifts of the Tsinling Mountains and the climatic cycles during the late Pliocene and Pleistocene. S. ningshanensis experienced a rapid population expansion about 40,000 years before present. The current decline in population size was probably caused by anthropogenic disturbance. Current populations of S. ningshanensis are from different refugia though the location of these refugia could not be determined in our study. Topography, climatic changes and repetitive population expansion/contraction together led to the high level of genetic variation in S. ningshanensis. A total of three management units (MUs was determined

  7. The European physical and rehabilitation medicine journal network: historical notes on national journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, S; Ilieva, E; Moslavac, S; Zampolini, M; Giustini, A

    2010-06-01

    In the last 40 years, physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) has made significant steps forward in Europe with the foundation of the European Federation of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (EFPMR) (1963) which gave rise to the European Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ESPRM) (2004) the European Academy of Rehabilitation Medicine (1970), the PRM Section of the European Union of Medical Specialists (1974), and the European Board of PRM (1991). Our journal, formerly Europa Medico-physica (1964), the official journal of the EFPMR, now European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (EJPRM) and official journal of the ESPRM since 2008, is distinct for its steadfast European vocation, long-standing Mediter-ranean interests and connections with various national scientific societies. Jointly with the ESPRM, efforts are under way to set up the European Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Journal Network (EPRMJN). The aim of this article is to present a profile of the national journals in the EPRMJN so as to give a better overview of how the scientific part of PRM in Europe has developed within a national perspective. A profile of the following national journals is presented: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (France), Fizikalna i rehabilitacijska medicina (Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine) (Croatia), Neurorehabilitation (Bulgaria), Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Portuguese Society Journal (Portugal), Physical Medicine, Rehabilitaton, Health (Bulgaria), Physikalische Medizin - Rehabilitationsmedizin - Kurort-medizin/Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (Germany and Austria) Prevention and Rehabilitation (Bulgaria), Rehabilitacija (Rehabilitation) (Slovenia), Rehabilitación (Madr) (Spain), Turkish Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (Turkey). Some national journals in Europe have a very long history and tradition of research and education. Having a better knowledge of these realities, usually

  8. Non-linear changes in rhythmic variability of European art music: Quantitative support for historical musicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Chr.; Sadakata, Makiko; Pearce, Marcus

    It is a long-held belief in historical musicology that the prosody of composers’ native languages is reflected in the rhythmic and melodic properties of their music. Applying the normalised Pairwise Variability Index (nPVI) to speech alongside musical scores, research has established quantitative...... similarities between durational variability in language and music. This work capitalises on the fact that syllable-timed languages like Italian and French have low nPVI while stress-timed languages like German and Austro-German have high nPVI. Extending this approach to analyses of historical developments......, a recent paper ascribed linearly increasing nPVI in Austro-German music, but not Italian music, to waning Italian influence on Austro-German music after the Baroque Era. This “Italian Influence Hypothesis” is, however, a post-hoc hypothesis, and since we cannot perform controlled experiments on historical...

  9. Palaeoecological evidence of a historical collapse of corals at Pelorus Island, inshore Great Barrier Reef, following European settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roff, George; Clark, Tara R.; Reymond, Claire E.; Zhao, Jian-xin; Feng, Yuexing; McCook, Laurence J.; Done, Terence J.; Pandolfi, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) have undergone significant declines in water quality following European settlement (approx. 1870 AD). However, direct evidence of impacts on coral assemblages is limited by a lack of historical baselines prior to the onset of modern monitoring programmes in the early 1980s. Through palaeoecological reconstructions, we report a previously undocumented historical collapse of Acropora assemblages at Pelorus Island (central GBR). High-precision U-series dating of dead Acropora fragments indicates that this collapse occurred between 1920 and 1955, with few dates obtained after 1980. Prior to this event, our results indicate remarkable long-term stability in coral community structure over centennial scales. We suggest that chronic increases in sediment flux and nutrient loading following European settlement acted as the ultimate cause for the lack of recovery of Acropora assemblages following a series of acute disturbance events (SST anomalies, cyclones and flood events). Evidence for major degradation in reef condition owing to human impacts prior to modern ecological surveys indicates that current monitoring of inshore reefs on the GBR may be predicated on a significantly shifted baseline. PMID:23135672

  10. Attachment styles and demographic factors as predictors of sociocultural and psychological adjustment of Eastern European immigrants in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polek, Elzbieta; van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; ten Berge, Jos M. F.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between adult attachment styles and psychological and sociocultural adjustment of Polish, Russian, and Hungarian immigrants (N=631) to Dutch society. In addition, it also examined the relationship between demographic factors and adjustment and compared the

  11. Catching up: the state and potential of historical catch data from Svalbard in the European Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, Frigga

    2016-01-01

    Svalbard in the European Arctic has a well-documented history of natural-resource exploitation. Since its discovery in 1596, the archipelago has witnessed phases of commercial whaling, sealing, fur-hunting, and fishing. Scientific expeditions, mass tourism, and mining have also added to the

  12. European Education Policy: A Historical and Critical Approach to Understanding the Impact of Neoliberalism in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriazu Muñoz, Rubén

    2015-01-01

    Education constitutes an essential core of the political strategies adopted in the European Union. From the Treaty of Paris in 1951, educational policy in Europe has been consolidated through a combination of programs in different levels and contexts. However, a neoliberal economic model has guided the implementation and development of these…

  13. Attachment styles and demographic factors as predictors of sociocultural and psychological adjustment of Eastern European immigrants in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polek, Elżbieta; van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Ten Berge, Jos M F

    2008-10-01

    The present study examined the relationship between adult attachment styles and psychological and sociocultural adjustment of Polish, Russian, and Hungarian immigrants (N = 631) to Dutch society. In addition, it also examined the relationship between demographic factors and adjustment and compared the predictive value of attachment styles and demographic factors for immigrants' adjustment. The Attachment Style Questionnaire was used to assess respondents' attachment. Psychological adjustment was measured with the Psychological Health Scale and the Satisfaction With Life Scale. Sociocultural adjustment was measured with the Social Support List - Interactions scale. Two scales for measuring identification and contact with the native and with the Dutch culture were developed and used as indicators of cultural adjustment. We found relations between attachment styles and psychological and sociocultural adjustment. Secure attachment was positively related (ppsychological and sociocultural adjustment, fearful attachment was negatively (ppsychological adjustment, and more negatively with identification with the Dutch culture than with identification with the native culture. Preoccupied attachment was negatively related (ppsychological adjustment and to identification with the Dutch culture. Dismissing attachment was weakly negatively related (padjustment. Correlation patterns across the three immigrants' samples indicate that dismissing individuals remain relatively indifferent towards their native and the Dutch culture. Regarding demographic factors we found that education and age at immigration were positively associated with psychological and sociocultural adjustment, and length of residence appeared to be positively related to sociocultural adjustment. In general, demographic factors showed a stronger association with sociocultural than with psychological adjustment. Regression analysis revealed that attachment styles were better predictors of immigrants' psychological

  14. Nonlinear Changes in the Rhythm of European Art Music: Quantitative Support for Historical Musicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Christian; Sadakata, Makiko; Pearce, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Research has used the normalized pairwise variability index (nPVI) to examine relationships between musical rhythm and durational contrast in composers’ native languages. Applying this methodology, linearly increasing nPVI in Austro-German, but not Italian music has recently been ascribed to waning...... Italian and increasing German influence on Austro-German music after the Baroque Era. The inapplicability of controlled experimental methods to historical data necessitates further replication with more sensitive methods and new repertoire. Using novel polynomial modelling procedures, we demonstrate...... an initial increase and a subsequent decrease in nPVI in music by 34 French composers. Moreover, previous findings for 21 Austro-German (linear increase) and 15 Italian composers (no change) are replicated. Our results provide promissory quantitative support for accounts from historical musicology...

  15. Historic Building Information Modelling - Adding intelligence to laser and image based surveys of European classical architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Maurice; McGovern, Eugene; Pavia, Sara

    2013-02-01

    Historic Building Information Modelling (HBIM) is a novel prototype library of parametric objects, based on historic architectural data and a system of cross platform programmes for mapping parametric objects onto point cloud and image survey data. The HBIM process begins with remote collection of survey data using a terrestrial laser scanner combined with digital photo modelling. The next stage involves the design and construction of a parametric library of objects, which are based on the manuscripts ranging from Vitruvius to 18th century architectural pattern books. In building parametric objects, the problem of file format and exchange of data has been overcome within the BIM ArchiCAD software platform by using geometric descriptive language (GDL). The plotting of parametric objects onto the laser scan surveys as building components to create or form the entire building is the final stage in the reverse engineering process. The final HBIM product is the creation of full 3D models including detail behind the object's surface concerning its methods of construction and material make-up. The resultant HBIM can automatically create cut sections, details and schedules in addition to the orthographic projections and 3D models (wire frame or textured) for both the analysis and conservation of historic objects, structures and environments.

  16. Changing trends in European alcoholic beverage drinking: selected social, demographic, economic factors, drinking's related harms, and prevention control policies between the 1960s and 2000s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voller, Fabio; Maccari, Francesco; Pepe, Pasquale; Allamani, Allaman

    2014-10-01

    This study confirms that during the decades following WW II there was a tendency towards closure of consumption of alcoholic beverages among the European countries. The Northern countries, which during the 1960s manifested the lowest rates of alcohol consumption, ended up with greater consumption rates than the Southern countries, manifested the opposite trend; greater amounts of consumptions in the 1960s and lower consumptions in the 2000s. During the same some period, social, demographic and economic indicators--urbanization, rate of elderly males, Income, female education, female employment and mother's age at their childbirths, tended to increase, while the alcoholic beverage control policy strategies showed differences according to the country. Liver disease-related mortality, decreased in most countries. Study limitations are noted.

  17. Breakfast habits and factors influencing food choices at breakfast in relation to socio-demographic and family factors among European adolescents. The HELENA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallström, Lena; Vereecken, Carine A; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Patterson, Emma; Gilbert, Chantal C; Catasta, Giovina; Díaz, Ligia-Esperanza; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; González Gross, Marcela; Gottrand, Frédéric; Hegyi, Adrienn; Lehoux, Claire; Mouratidou, Theodora; Widham, Kurt; Aström, Annika; Moreno, Luis A; Sjöström, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Breakfast consumption has been shown to be an important indicator of a healthy lifestyle. Little is known however about factors influencing breakfast consumption and food choices at breakfast in adolescents. The aim of the present study was therefore to describe breakfast habits, and factors influencing food choices at breakfast within the framework of the EU-funded HELENA Study, in 3528 adolescents from ten European cities. Additionally, socio-demographic differences in breakfast habits and in influencing factors were investigated. Half of the adolescents (and fewer girls than boys) indicated being regular breakfast consumers. Girls with mothers with a high level of education, boys from 'traditional' families and boys who perceived low family affluence were positively associated with breakfast consumption. Boys whose parents gave encouragement and girls whose peers ate healthily were more likely to be regular breakfast consumers. 'Hunger', 'taste', 'health concerns' and 'parents or guardian' were the most important influences on the adolescents' food choices at breakfast. Adolescents from southern Europe and girls reported to be more influenced by personal and socio-environmental factors. Socio-demographic differences, in particular regional and gender differences, need to be considered in discussions surrounding the development of nutritional intervention programs intended for adolescents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An ethnopharmacological and historical analysis of "Dictamnus", a European traditional herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Francés, V; Rivera, D; Heinrich, M; Obón, C; Ríos, S

    2015-12-04

    "Dictamnus" was a popular name for a group of medicinal herbaceous plant species of the Rutaceae and Lamiaceae, which since the 4th century have been used for gynaecological problems and other illnesses BCE and still appear in numerous ethnobotanical records. This research has as four overarching aims: Determining the historical evolution of medical preparations labelled "Dictamnus" and the different factors affecting this long-standing herbal tradition. Deciphering and differentiating those medicinal uses of "Dictamnus" which strictly correspond to Dictamnus (Rutaceae), from those of Origanum dictamnus and other Lamiaceae species. Quantitatively assessing the dependence from herbal books, and pharmaceutical tradition, of modern Dictamnus ethnobotanical records. Determining whether differences between Western and Eastern Europe exist with regards to the Dictamnus albus uses in ethnopharmacology and ethnomedicine. An exhaustive review of herbals, classical pharmacopoeias, ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological literature was conducted. Systematic analysis of uses reported which were standardized according to International Classification of Diseases - 10 and multivariate analysis using factorial, hierarchical and neighbour joining methods was undertaken. The popular concept "Dictamnus" includes Origanum dictamnus L., Ballota pseudodictamnus (L.) Benth. and B. acetabulosa (L.) Benth. (Lamiaceae), as well as Dictamnus albus L. and D. hispanicus Webb ex Willk. (Rutaceae), with 86 different types of uses. Between 1000 and 1700 CE numerous complex preparations with "Dictamnus" were used in the treatment of 35 different pathologies. On biogeographical grounds the widespread D. albus is a far more likely prototypical "Dictamnus" than the Cretan endemic Origanum dictamnus. However both form integral parts of the "Dictamnus" complex. Evidence exists for a sufficiently long and coherent tradition for D. albus and D. hispanicus, use to treat 47 different categories of diseases

  19. The convergence process in European Higher Education and its historical cultural impact on Spanish clinical nursing training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles González, J; Ruiz, Ma C Solano

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to promote student reflection on the historical and cultural impact of the implementation of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) on the nursing practicum course in Spain. The objective was to demonstrate the relevance of a clinical practice diary as a facilitative tool for reflection, metacognition and self-evaluation during the practicum. The theoretical framework for this study was based on the socio-critical and critical thinking and comparative education paradigms. Methodologically, we used reflection and educational, ethnography-based resources. Theoretical and methodological competencies were perceived as requiring more time and effort (records, nursing process: 29%/35% respectively), whereas the technical skills that related to community work are perceived as involving the least amount of time and effort requiring (13%/10% respectively). The conclusion we have reached is that the primary difficulties in implementing the EHEA are in the cultural transformations that result from the new system of student-centred learning. A clinical practice diary is an effective tool with which to contextualise the nursing practicum and its impact on cultural characteristics, ways of thinking and the reflections of the students. This clinical practice diary facilitates the achievement of competences through the processes of reflection and metacognition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Geographic variation and socio-demographic determinants of the co-occurrence of risky health behaviours in 27 European Union member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippidis, F T; Agaku, I T; Vardavas, C I

    2016-06-01

    Risky health behaviours such as tobacco and alcohol abuse, physical inactivity and poor diet may play an important role in disease development. The aim of the present study was to assess the geographical distribution and socio-demographic determinants of risky health-related behaviours in 27 member states (MSs) of the European Union (EU). Data from the 2009 Eurobarometer survey (wave 72.3; n = 26 788) were analysed. Tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical activity and fruit consumption were assessed through a self-reported questionnaire provided to participants from 27 EU MSs. Within the analyses, participants with three or more lifestyle risk factors were classified as individuals with co-occurrence of risk factors. Among respondents aged 15 or older, 28.2% had none of the aforementioned behavioural risk factors, whereas 9.9% had three or more lifestyle risk factors. Males [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.50; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.17-2.88] and respondents of middle (aOR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.36-1.89) or lower income (aOR = 2.63; 95% CI: 2.12-3.26) were more likely to report co-occurrence of behavioural risk factors, as well as respondents in Northern (aOR = 1.43; 95% CI: 1.14-1.78), Western (aOR = 1.28; 95% CI: 1.06-1.56) and Eastern Europe (aOR = 1.28; 95% CI: 1.06-1.55), when compared with Southern European respondents. The above analyses indicate significant geographical and social variation in the distribution of the co-occurrence of behavioural risk factors for disease development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Patient use of email for health care communication purposes across 14 European countries: an analysis of users according to demographic and health-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Nikki; Lupiáñez-Villanueva, Francisco; Codagnone, Cristiano; Atherton, Helen

    2015-03-06

    The use of the Internet for health purposes is growing steadily, yet the use of asynchronous communication tools for health care purposes remains undeveloped. The introduction of email as a method of communication in health care has the potential to impact on both patients and health care professionals. This study aims to describe the characteristics of people who have sent or received an email to or from their doctor, nurse, or health care organization, by country and in relation to demographics, health care resource use, and health status factors. We conducted a secondary analysis of data (N=14,000) collected from the online Citizens and Information Communication Technology for Health survey, a project undertaken in 2011 by the Institute for Prospective Technology Studies of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre. The survey was developed to understand and characterize European citizens' use of information communication technologies for health. Descriptive and statistical analyses of association were used to interpret the data. Denmark reported the highest level of emails sent/received (507/1000, 50.70%). The lowest level reported was by participants in France (187/1000, 18.70%). Men used email communication for health care more than women, as did respondents in the 16-24 age group and those educated to tertiary level or still within the education system. As self-reported health state worsens, the proportion of people reporting having sent or received an email within the context of health care increases. Email use, poor health, multimorbidity, and number of visits to a physician are positively correlated. The use of email communication within the context of European health care is extremely varied. The relationship between high email use, poor health, doctor visits, and multimorbidity is especially pertinent: provision of asynchronous communication for such groups is favored by policymakers. Low reported email use by country may not necessarily reflect

  2. Patient Use of Email for Health Care Communication Purposes Across 14 European Countries: An Analysis of Users According to Demographic and Health-Related Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupiáñez-Villanueva, Francisco; Codagnone, Cristiano; Atherton, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of the Internet for health purposes is growing steadily, yet the use of asynchronous communication tools for health care purposes remains undeveloped. The introduction of email as a method of communication in health care has the potential to impact on both patients and health care professionals. Objective This study aims to describe the characteristics of people who have sent or received an email to or from their doctor, nurse, or health care organization, by country and in relation to demographics, health care resource use, and health status factors. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of data (N=14,000) collected from the online Citizens and Information Communication Technology for Health survey, a project undertaken in 2011 by the Institute for Prospective Technology Studies of the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre. The survey was developed to understand and characterize European citizens’ use of information communication technologies for health. Descriptive and statistical analyses of association were used to interpret the data. Results Denmark reported the highest level of emails sent/received (507/1000, 50.70%). The lowest level reported was by participants in France (187/1000, 18.70%). Men used email communication for health care more than women, as did respondents in the 16-24 age group and those educated to tertiary level or still within the education system. As self-reported health state worsens, the proportion of people reporting having sent or received an email within the context of health care increases. Email use, poor health, multimorbidity, and number of visits to a physician are positively correlated. Conclusions The use of email communication within the context of European health care is extremely varied. The relationship between high email use, poor health, doctor visits, and multimorbidity is especially pertinent: provision of asynchronous communication for such groups is favored by policymakers. Low

  3. Reconstructing historical snow depth surfaces to evaluate changes in critical demographic rates and habitat components of snow‐dependent and snow‐restricted species

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manning, Jeffrey A; Garton, Edward O

    2012-01-01

    .... As many demographic studies depend on long‐term population data that extend back beyond available sources of spatially continuous snow depth data, reliable hindcasting of snow depth surface maps is needed. 2.  We developed a two...

  4. Radiocarbon test for demographic events in written and oral history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinborough, Kevan; Porčić, Marko; Martindale, Andrew; Brown, Thomas Jay; Supernant, Kisha; Ames, Kenneth M

    2017-11-21

    We extend an established simulation-based method to test for significant short-duration (1-2 centuries) demographic events known from one documented historical and one oral historical context. Case study 1 extrapolates population data from the Western historical tradition using historically derived demographic data from the catastrophic European Black Death/bubonic plague (Yersinia pestis). We find a corresponding statistically significant drop in absolute population using an extended version of a previously published simulation method. Case study 2 uses this refined simulation method to test for a settlement gap identified in oral historical records of descendant Tsimshian First Nations communities from the Prince Rupert Harbour region of the Pacific Northwest region of British Columbia, Canada. Using a regional database of n = 523 radiocarbon dates, we find a significant drop in relative population using the extended simulation-based method consistent with Tsimshian oral records. We conclude that our technical refinement extends the utility of radiocarbon simulation methods and can provide a rigorous test of demographic predictions derived from a range of historical sources.

  5. Genetic Population Structure and Demographic History of the Widespread Common Shipworm Teredo navalis Linnaeus 1758 (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Teredinidae in European Waters Inferred from Mitochondrial COI Sequence Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny Weigelt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The first documented scientific reports of the common marine shipworm Teredo navalis (Bivalvia for Central European waters date back to the time between 1700 and 1730 in the Netherlands. During the following centuries there were several irregular mass occurrences reported for both the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. These events were accompanied by massive destruction of wooden ships and coastal protection structures. In this study, the first population analysis of T. navalis is presented with the aim to detect the genetic population structure in the waters of Central Europe. The mtDNA COI (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I locus was found as suitable molecular marker and hence a 675 bp gene fragment was studied. A total of 352 T. navalis specimens from 13 different sampling sites distributed across Central Europe were examined. Subsequently, various population genetic indices including FST values and an AMOVA analysis were applied for the description of the population structure. To visualize the distribution of haplotypes at the different sampling sites two median-joining networks were calculated. In addition, the past demographic structure of the T. navalis population was analyzed, among others by calculating Tajima's D, Fu's F and the mismatch distribution. Finally, all computations of the population genetic indices could not reveal differentiated populations or any kind of distinct population structure in T. navalis. The network analyses revealed “star-like” patterns without differentiated substructures or demes. Therefore, it can be assumed that a sudden expansion of this species took place without any indications of neither a bottleneck nor a founder effect for the study area. The results of this study support the concept of a regional panmictic population in the waters of Central Europe with unhindered migration of individuals (e.g., via pelagic larvae between the various sampling sites as reflected by a high gene flow.

  6. Cross Sectional Associations between Socio-Demographic Factors and Cognitive Performance in an Older British Population: The European Investigation of Cancer in Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabina A Hayat

    Full Text Available Cognition covers a range of abilities, such as memory, response time and language, with tests assessing either specific or generic aspects. However differences between measures may be observed within the same individuals.To investigate the cross-sectional association of cognitive performance and socio-demographic factors using different assessment tools across a range of abilities in a British cohort study.Participants of the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC in Norfolk Study, aged 48-92 years, underwent a cognitive assessment between 2006 and 2011 (piloted between 2004 and 2006 and were investigated over a different domains using a range of cognitive tests.Cognitive measures were available on 8584 men and women. Though age, sex, education and social class were all independently associated with cognitive performance in multivariable analysis, different associations were observed for different cognitive tests. Increasing age was associated with increased risk of a poor performance score in all of the tests, except for the National Adult Reading Test (NART, an assessment of crystallized intelligence. Compared to women, men were more likely to have had poor performance for verbal episodic memory, Odds Ratio, OR = 1.99 (95% Confidence Interval, 95% CI 1.72, 2.31, attention OR = 1.62, (95% CI 1.39, 1.88 and prospective memory OR = 1.46, (95% CI 1.29, 1.64; however, no sex difference was observed for global cognition, OR = 1.07 (95%CI 0.93, 1.24. The association with education was strongest for NART, and weakest for processing speed.Age, sex, education and social class were all independently associated with performance on cognitive tests assessing a range of different domains. However, the magnitude of associations of these factors with different cognitive tests differed. The varying relationships seen across different tests may help explain discrepancies in results reported in the current literature, and provides insights into

  7. Modeling Alcohol Use Intensity among Students at a Historically Black University: The Role of Social Norms, Perceptions for Risk, and Selected Demographic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Todd F.; Likis-Werle, Elizabeth; Fulton, Cheryl L.

    2012-01-01

    Drinking patterns and rates at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCU) are not well understood. Social norms and perceptions of risk are two explanatory mechanisms that have accounted for a significant amount of variance in college student drinking at predominantly White campuses. However, these models have not been examined among…

  8. Assessing current genetic status of the Hainan gibbon using historical and demographic baselines: implications for conservation management of species of extreme rarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, J V; Gottelli, D; Zeng, X; Hong, X; Chan, B P L; Fellowes, J R; Zhang, Y; Luo, J; Durrant, C; Geissmann, T; Chatterjee, H J; Turvey, S T

    2016-08-01

    Evidence-based conservation planning is crucial for informing management decisions for species of extreme rarity, but collection of robust data on genetic status or other parameters can be extremely challenging for such species. The Hainan gibbon, possibly the world's rarest mammal, consists of a single population of ~25 individuals restricted to one protected area on Hainan Island, China, and has persisted for over 30 years at exceptionally low population size. Analysis of genotypes at 11 microsatellite loci from faecal samples for 36% of the current global population and tissue samples from 62% of existing historical museum specimens demonstrates limited current genetic diversity (Na = 2.27, Ar = 2.24, He  = 0.43); diversity has declined since the 19th century and even further within the last 30 years, representing declines of ~30% from historical levels (Na = 3.36, Ar = 3.29, He  = 0.63). Significant differentiation is seen between current and historical samples (FST  = 0.156, P = 0.0315), and the current population exhibits extremely small Ne (current Ne  = 2.16). There is evidence for both a recent population bottleneck and an earlier bottleneck, with population size already reasonably low by the late 19th century (historical Ne  = 1162.96). Individuals in the current population are related at the level of half- to full-siblings between social groups, and full-siblings or parent-offspring within a social group, suggesting that inbreeding is likely to increase in the future. The species' current reduced genetic diversity must be considered during conservation planning, particularly for expectations of likely population recovery, indicating that intensive, carefully planned management is essential. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. SOCIAL DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE AND AUTISM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    KAYUET LIU; NOAM ZERUBAVEL; PETER BEARMAN

    2010-01-01

    ...—is strongly associated with an increased risk of autism. By turning a social demographic lens on the historical patterning of concordance among twin pairs, we identify a central mechanism for this association...

  10. Joining of the historical research and future prediction as a support tool for the assessment of management strategy for European beech-dominated forests in protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Machar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available European beech-dominated forests are crucial for maintaining biodiversity in forested mountain landscapes of the European temperate zone. This paper presents the results of research and assessment of management strategy for mountain beech-dominated forests in the Jeseníky Mountains (Czech Republic. Our approach is based on combining research on historical development of the forest ecosystem, assessment of its current state, and predictions of future dynamics using a forest growth simulation model. Using such a method makes it possible to understand the current state of the mountain beech-dominated forest ecosystem and predict its future development as a response to specific management strategies. The application of this method is therefore appropriate for assessing the suitability of selected management strategies in mountain protected areas. Our results show that a non-intervention management for mountain beech forest in the next 80 years complies with the Natura 2000 requirement to maintain the existing character of the forest habitat. Thus, the current management plan for the beech-dominated forests in the Jeseníky Mountains does not require significant corrections in the context of its conservation targets (i.e. maintaining biodiversity and current character of the forest ecosystem dominated by beech. The results of this study suggest that combining the knowledge on historical development with forest growth simulation can be used as a suitable support tool to assess management strategies for forest habitats in protected areas.

  11. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  12. Memory endowed US cities and their demographic interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Hernando, A; Plastino, A; Zambrano, E

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative understanding of cities' demographic dynamics is becoming a potentially useful tool for planning sustainable growth. The concomitant theory should reveal details of the cities' past and also of its interaction with nearby urban conglomerates for providing a reasonably complete picture. Using the exhaustive database of the Census Bureau in a time window of 170 years, we exhibit here empirical evidence for time and space correlations in the demographic dynamics of US counties, with a characteristic memory-time of 25 years and typical distances of interaction of 200 km. These correlations are much larger than those observed in an European country (Spain), giving to the US a more coherent evolution. We also measure the resilience of US cities to historical events, finding a demographical post-traumatic amnesia after wars (as the Civil War) or economic crisis (as the 1929 Stock Market Crash).

  13. Multi-annual fluctuations in reconstructed historical time-series of a European lobster (Homarus gammarus population disappear at increased exploitation levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Sundelöf

    Full Text Available Through the history of ecology, fluctuations of populations have been a dominating topic, and endogenous causes of fluctuations and oscillations have been recognized and studied for more than 80 years. Here we analyzed an historical dataset, covering more than 130 years, of European lobster (Homarus gammarus catches. The data shows periodic fluctuations, which are first dampened and then disappear over time. The disappearance of the periodicity coincided with a substantial increase in fishing effort and the oscillations have not reappeared in the time series. The shifting baseline syndrome has changed our perception of not only the status of the stock, but also the regulating pressures. We describe the transition of a naturally regulated lobster population into a heavily exploited fisheries controlled stock. This is shown by the incorporation of environmental and endogenous processes in generalized additive models, autocorrelation functions and periodicity analyses of time-series.

  14. Multi-Annual Fluctuations in Reconstructed Historical Time-Series of a European Lobster (Homarus gammarus) Population Disappear at Increased Exploitation Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundelöf, Andreas; Bartolino, Valerio; Ulmestrand, Mats; Cardinale, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    Through the history of ecology, fluctuations of populations have been a dominating topic, and endogenous causes of fluctuations and oscillations have been recognized and studied for more than 80 years. Here we analyzed an historical dataset, covering more than 130 years, of European lobster (Homarus gammarus) catches. The data shows periodic fluctuations, which are first dampened and then disappear over time. The disappearance of the periodicity coincided with a substantial increase in fishing effort and the oscillations have not reappeared in the time series. The shifting baseline syndrome has changed our perception of not only the status of the stock, but also the regulating pressures. We describe the transition of a naturally regulated lobster population into a heavily exploited fisheries controlled stock. This is shown by the incorporation of environmental and endogenous processes in generalized additive models, autocorrelation functions and periodicity analyses of time-series. PMID:23573187

  15. Historical divergence versus contemporary gene flow: evolutionary history of the calcicole Ranunculus alpestris group (Ranunculaceae) in the European Alps and the Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paun, O.; Schönswetter, P.; Winkler, M.; Tribsch, A.

    2010-01-01

    Although many species have similar total distributional ranges, they might be restricted to very different habitats and might have different phylogeographic histories. In the European Alps, our excellent knowledge of the evolutionary history of silicate-dwelling (silicicole) plants is contrasted by a virtual lack of data from limestone-dwelling (calcicole) plants. These two categories exhibit fundamentally different distribution patterns within the Alps and are expected to differ strongly with respect to their glacial history. The calcicole Ranunculus alpestris group comprises three diploid species of alpine habitats. Ranunculus alpestris s. str is distributed over the southern European mountain system, while R. bilobus and R. traunfellneri are Southern Alpine narrow endemics. To explore their phylogenetic relationships and phylogeographic history, we investigated the correlation between information given by nuclear and chloroplast DNA data. Analyses of AFLP fingerprints and matK sequences gave incongruent results, indicative for reticulate evolution. Our data highlight historical episodes of range fragmentation and expansion, occasional long distance dispersal and on-going gene flow as important processes shaping the genetic structure of the group. Genetic divergence, expressed as a rarity index (“frequency-down-weighted marker values”) seems a better indicator of historical processes than patterns of genetic diversity, which rather mirror contemporary processes as connectivity of populations and population sizes. Three phylogeographical subgroups have been found within the R. alpestris group, neither following taxonomy nor geography. Genetic heterogeneity in the Southern Alps contrasts with Northern Alpine uniformity. The Carpathians have been stepwise colonised from the Eastern Alpine lineage resulting in a marked diversity loss in the Southern Carpathians. The main divergence within the group, separating the ancestor of the two endemic species from R

  16. The Emergence and Historical Development of Informatics and Computing Disciplines in Selected European Countries and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Smutný

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an overview that compares the historical tendencies in defining informatics as a new discipline, subject area or field of study focused on the design and application of computer technology. Apart from computer construction, the focus is on two major areas: computational processes and information processes. The article first considers the development in the United States of America (USA, which differed substantially from Europe. In the USA the development concerned disciplines referred to as computer science, computer engineering and (library and information science. The article then discusses the situation in France and Germany. Consequently, the development in the USA and Western Europe is contrasted with the development in the Soviet Union, particularly with the crucial role of cybernetics in this region. The time range considered in the article is limited to the 1960s and 1970s. The article introduces the individual regional concepts of informatics and discusses the social, economic and political background of the emergence and development of these concepts. This view makes it possible to present an original approach to the ambiguous interpretation of “What is informatics as a scientific discipline in an international context”, while respecting the distinctions given by the outset and historical development in different countries.

  17. Food-borne diseases associated with frozen berries consumption: a historical perspective, European Union, 1983 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavoschi, L; Severi, E; Niskanen, T; Boelaert, F; Rizzi, V; Liebana, E; Gomes Dias, J; Nichols, G; Takkinen, J; Coulombier, D

    2015-07-23

    Epidemiological investigations of outbreaks of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and norovirus (NoV) infections in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) in the last five years have highlighted frozen berries as a vehicle of infection. Given the increasing berry consumption in the EU over the last decades, we undertook a review of the existing evidence to assess the potential scale of threat associated with this product. We searched the literature and four restricted-access online platforms for outbreak/contamination events associated with consumption of frozen berries. We performed an evaluation of the sources to identify areas for improvement. The review revealed 32 independent events (i.e. outbreak, food contamination) in the period 1983–2013, of which 26 were reported after 2004. The identified pathogens were NoV, HAV and Shigella sonnei. NoV was the most common and implicated in 27 events with over 15,000 cases reported. A capture–recapture analysis was performed including three overlapping sources for the period 2005–2013. The study estimated that the event-ascertainment was 62%. Consumption of frozen berries is associated with increasing reports of NoV and HAV outbreaks and contamination events, particularly after 2003. A review of the risks associated with this product is required to inform future prevention strategies. Better integration of the available communication platforms and databases should be sought at EU/EEA level to improve monitoring, prevention and control of food-borne-related events.

  18. Implications of demographic change for vocational education and training in the EU: European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (Cedefop)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekamper, P.; Lipinska, P.; Tessaring, M.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents short-, medium- and longterm projections (with focus on the period up to 2030) of the future number of vocational education and training students and graduates, aged 15-24, in the 27 Member States of the European Union. The analysis is based on Eurostat population projections

  19. A comparative historical and demographic study of the neuromodulation management techniques of deep brain stimulation for dystonia and cochlear implantation for sensorineural deafness in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, V E; Elniel, A; Ughratdar, I; Zebian, B; Selway, R; Lin, J P

    2017-01-01

    European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Is there a Demographic Time-bomb?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2006-01-01

    The article discuss whether the demographic transition in Europe will have any impact on the future of the European welfare states......The article discuss whether the demographic transition in Europe will have any impact on the future of the European welfare states...

  1. Untrained consumer assessment of the eating quality of European beef: 2. Demographic factors have only minor effects on consumer scores and willingness to pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, S P F; Gardner, G E; Pethick, D W; Allen, P; Legrand, I; Wierzbicki, J; Farmer, L J; Polkinghorne, R J; Hocquette, J-F

    2017-08-01

    The beef industry must become more responsive to the changing market place and consumer demands. An essential part of this is quantifying a consumer's perception of the eating quality of beef and their willingness to pay for that quality, across a broad range of demographics. Over 19 000 consumers from Northern Ireland, Poland, Ireland and France each tasted seven beef samples and scored them for tenderness, juiciness, flavour liking and overall liking. These scores were weighted and combined to create a fifth score, termed the Meat Quality 4 score (MQ4) (0.3×tenderness, 0.1×juiciness, 0.3×flavour liking and 0.3×overall liking). They also allocated the beef samples into one of four quality grades that best described the sample; unsatisfactory, good-every-day, better-than-every-day or premium. After the completion of the tasting panel, consumers were then asked to detail, in their own currency, their willingness to pay for these four categories which was subsequently converted to a proportion relative to the good-every-day category (P-WTP). Consumers also answered a short demographic questionnaire. The four sensory scores, the MQ4 score and the P-WTP were analysed separately, as dependant variables in linear mixed effects models. The answers from the demographic questionnaire were included in the model as fixed effects. Overall, there were only small differences in consumer scores and P-WTP between demographic groups. Consumers who preferred their beef cooked medium or well-done scored beef higher, except in Poland, where the opposite trend was found. This may be because Polish consumers were more likely to prefer their beef cooked well-done, but samples were cooked medium for this group. There was a small positive relationship with the importance of beef in the diet, increasing sensory scores by about 4% in Poland and Northern Ireland. Men also scored beef about 2% higher than women for most sensory scores in most countries. In most countries, consumers were

  2. Associations between obesity (BMI and waist circumference) and socio-demographic factors, physical activity, dietary habits, life events, resilience, mood, perceived stress and hopelessness in healthy older Europeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-Knox, Barbara; E Duffy, Maresa; Bunting, Brendan; Parr, Heather; Vas de Almeida, Maria Daniel; Gibney, Mike

    2012-06-11

    It is important to understand the psycho-social context of obesity to inform prevention and treatment of obesity at both the individual and public health level. Representative samples of middle-aged adults aged ≥43 years were recruited in Great Britain (GB) (n = 1182) and Portugal (n = 540) and interviewed to explore associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), demographic factors, physical activity, dietary habits (FFQ), life events (LES), Resilience (RS11), Mood (MS), Hopelessness (BDI) and Perceived Stress (PSS4). BMI (kg/m2) and WC (cm) were dependent variables in separate multiple linear regression models for which predictors were entered in 4 blocks: 1. demographic factors; 2. stressful life events; 3. diet/activity; and, 4. psychological measures. In the GB sample, BMI (kg/m2) was predicted by less education, illness in a close friend or relative, frequent alcohol consumption and sedentary behaviour. Among the Portuguese, higher BMI (kg/m2) was predicted by lower resilience. Being male and less education were independent predictors of having a larger WC (cm) in both countries. Within GB, not working, illness in a close friend or relative, sedentary lifestyle and lower resilience were also independent predictors of a larger WC (cm). These data suggest that intervention to treat and/or prevent obesity should target males, particularly those who have left education early and seek to promote resilience. In GB, targeting those with high alcohol consumption and encouraging physical activity, particularly among those who have experienced illness in a close friend or relative may also be effective in reducing obesity.

  3. Associations between obesity (BMI and waist circumference and socio-demographic factors, physical activity, dietary habits, life events, resilience, mood, perceived stress and hopelessness in healthy older Europeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart-Knox Barbara

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is important to understand the psycho-social context of obesity to inform prevention and treatment of obesity at both the individual and public health level. Methods Representative samples of middle-aged adults aged ≥43 years were recruited in Great Britain (GB (n = 1182 and Portugal (n = 540 and interviewed to explore associations between body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, demographic factors, physical activity, dietary habits (FFQ, life events (LES, Resilience (RS11, Mood (MS, Hopelessness (BDI and Perceived Stress (PSS4. BMI (kg/m2 and WC (cm were dependent variables in separate multiple linear regression models for which predictors were entered in 4 blocks: 1. demographic factors; 2. stressful life events; 3. diet/activity; and, 4. psychological measures. Results In the GB sample, BMI (kg/m2 was predicted by less education, illness in a close friend or relative, frequent alcohol consumption and sedentary behaviour. Among the Portuguese, higher BMI (kg/m2 was predicted by lower resilience. Being male and less education were independent predictors of having a larger WC (cm in both countries. Within GB, not working, illness in a close friend or relative, sedentary lifestyle and lower resilience were also independent predictors of a larger WC (cm. Conclusions These data suggest that intervention to treat and/or prevent obesity should target males, particularly those who have left education early and seek to promote resilience. In GB, targeting those with high alcohol consumption and encouraging physical activity, particularly among those who have experienced illness in a close friend or relative may also be effective in reducing obesity.

  4. Evaluation of large-scale genetic structure in complex demographic and historical scenarios: the mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome pools of the Iberian Atlantic façade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardiñas, Antonio F; Roca, Agustín; García-Vazquez, Eva; López, Belén

    2014-04-01

    Genetic structural patterns of human populations are usually a combination of long-term evolutionary forces and short-term social, cultural, and demographic processes. Recently, using mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome loci, various studies in northern Spain have found evidence that the geographical distribution of Iron Age tribal peoples might have influenced current patterns of genetic structuring in several autochthonous populations. Using the wealth of data that are currently available from the whole territory of the Iberian Peninsula, we have evaluated its genetic structuring in the spatial scale of the Atlantic façade. Hierarchical tree modeling procedures, combined with a classic analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), were used to model known sociocultural divisions from the third century BCE to the eighth century CE, contrasting them with uniparental marker data. Our results show that, while mountainous and abrupt areas of the Iberian North bear the signals of long-term isolation in their maternal and paternal gene pools, the makeup of the Atlantic façade as a whole can be related to tribal population groups that predate the Roman conquest of the Peninsula. The maintenance through time of such a structure can be related to the numerous geographic barriers of the Iberian mainland, which have historically conditioned its settlement patterns and the occurrence of genetic drift processes. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Detailed sedimentology and geomorphology elucidate mechanisms of formation of modern and historical sequences of minor moraines in the European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyshnytzky, Cianna; Lukas, Sven

    2016-04-01

    Suites of closely-spaced minor moraines may help further understanding of glacier retreat and predict its geomorphological effects through the observations of moraine formation on short timescales. This research is common in lowland, maritime settings (Sharp, 1984; Boulton, 1986; Krüger, 1995; Reinardy et al., 2013), but remains sparse in high-mountain settings (Hewitt, 1967; Ono, 1985; Beedle et al., 2009; Lukas, 2012). This research presents detailed sedimentological and geomorphological research on minor moraines at two high-mountain settings in the Alps: Silvrettagletscher, Switzerland, as a modern setting and Schwarzensteinkees, Austria, as a historical setting. Geomorphological investigations included mapping and measurements through field observations and assessing aerial imagery. Additionally, terrestrial laser scanning and ground-penetrating radar data were collected in the Schwarzensteinkees foreland. Detailed sedimentological investigations followed excavation of seven moraines at Silvrettagletscher and five moraines at Schwarzensteinkees and include multiple scales of observation and measurements to support interpretations of sediment transport and deposition (e.g. Evans and Benn, 2004). The modern moraines at Silvrettagletscher, in the immediately proglacial foreland, have been forming since before 2003. Four mechanisms of formation show distinct sedimentological signatures: formerly ice-cored moraines (e.g. Kjær & Krüger, 2001; Lukas, 2012; Reinardy et al., 2013) , push moraine formation on a reverse bedrock slope (e.g. Lukas, 2012), push moraine formation incorporating sediments deposited in a former proglacial basin, and basal freeze-on (e.g. Andersen & Sollid, 1971; Krüger, 1995; Reinardy et al., 2013). Schwarzensteinkees still exists but is currently restricted to steeply-dipping bedrock slabs above the main valley. This study therefore investigates the moraines in the foreland that formed between approximately 1850 and 1930. The minor

  6. Historic, pre-European settlement, and present-day contribution of wild ruminants to enteric methane emissions in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, A N

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this analysis were to estimate historic (pre-European settlement) enteric CH(4) emissions from wild ruminants in the contiguous United States and compare these with present-day CH(4) emissions from farmed ruminants. The analysis included bison, elk (wapiti), and deer (white-tailed and mule). Wild ruminants such as moose, antelope (pronghorn), caribou, and mountain sheep and goat were not included in the analysis because their natural range is mostly outside the contiguous United States or because they have relatively small population sizes. Data for presettlement and present-day population sizes, animal BW, feed intake, and CH(4) emission factors were adopted from various sources. Present-day CH(4) emissions from livestock were from recent United States Environmental Protection Agency estimates. The most important factor determining CH(4) emissions from wild ruminants in the presettlement period was the size of the bison population. Overall, enteric CH(4) emissions from bison, elk, and deer in the presettlement period were about 86% (assuming bison population size of 50 million) of the current CH(4) emissions from farmed ruminants in the United States. Present-day CH(4) emissions from wild ruminants (bison, elk, and deer) were estimated at 0.28 Tg/yr, or 4.3% of the emissions from domestic ruminants. Due to its population size (estimated at 25 million), the white-tailed deer is the most significant present-day wild ruminant contributor to enteric CH(4) emissions in the contiguous United States.

  7. Demographic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, N

    1986-01-01

    In this review of the literature, the author focuses on the changes in demographic anthropology, generally since 1970, with greater emphasis on the literature since 1980. 20 years ago the literature on population in the field of anthropology was sparse, inconsistent, and frequently full of factual and logical errors. Part of the problem was that anthropologists did not apply demographic techniques to their research. In the 1980s, communication between anthropology and demography has increased significantly. Methodological advances in demography have helped anthropologists overcome problems in describing and estimating parameters of populations. New techniques include estimations of demographic parameters from the close study of kinship, computer simulations, model life tables, and techniques in paleodemography. The author discusses microanalysis and includes examples of some of the best known and most detailed quantitative studies of small populations from the 1970s and 1980s. The author then reviews macrostudies where attention is directed to the problems of boundedness of small populations and their rates of change and influence from outside over time, including 1) basic research on concepts; 2) primate population and social organization; 3) paleodemography; 4) population problems in huter-gatherer studies; 5) population problems in archeology; 6) the origin of agriculture; and 7) diet and population. Next the author discusses theoretical overviews of 3 areas of demography: 1) population and demography, 2) population and social structure, and 3) population and cultural evolution. Implications for future research include 1) creating a standard methodology for studying populations; 2) creating a clear vocabulary; 3) publishing in high quality journals; 4) establishing a data bank to encourage secondary analysis of materials and their use in comparative studies; 5) reconsidering and republishing previous research; 6) saving raw data, producing descriptive tables

  8. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...... critical whiteness studies to emerge, its relation to the U.S. theoretical framework, as well as the particularities of the European context need to be taken into account.. The article makes a call for a multi-layered approach to take over from the identity politics so often employed in the fields of U...

  9. Geography of European Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhitin Dmitry V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the role of international migration has increased dramatically in most European countries. The growth in migration has made some authors proclaim the beginning of a second Migration Period that could transform the social and cultural identity of Europe. The article presents an analysis of international migration geography in Europe in the last twenty-five years. The authors identify the main trends in migration, provide migration profiles of European countries, and propose a classification based on the recent changes in the migrant stock. Changes in the migrant stock (total emigration and immigration reflect the level of involvement in international and global processes. They can serve as an indicator of a country’s attractiveness for both foreigners and the country’s citizens. The study shows that European countries are increasingly split into ‘immigrant’ and ‘emigrant’ states. The authors describe spatial patterns of migration. The volume and localisation of migration flows in Europe are affected not only by cultural and historical circumstance, such as a colonial past or a common language. The scale of immigrant influx often does not depend on a donor country’s demographic potential or the level of its socio-economic development. The links between the place of origin and destination are often more complex than it might initially seem. The authors stress the importance of a differentiated immigration policy taking into account ethnic and cultural features of host societies.

  10. The historical supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, David H

    1977-01-01

    The Historical Supernovae is an interdisciplinary study of the historical records of supernova. This book is composed of 12 chapters that particularly highlight the history of the Far East. The opening chapter briefly describes the features of nova and supernova, stars which spontaneously explode with a spectacular and rapid increase in brightness. The succeeding chapter deals with the search for the historical records of supernova from Medieval European monastic chronicles, Arabic chronicles, astrological works etc., post renaissance European scientific writings, and Far Eastern histories and

  11. THE PROCESS AND EFFECTS OF DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION IN PENANG, MALAYSIA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Usman Haji Yaakob; Nik Norliati Fitri Md Nor

    2013-01-01

      This article describes the demographic transition in Penang, Malaysia based on the demographic transition theory, which explains the decline of birth and death rates in European countries during the 18th century...

  12. [Peruvian demographic transition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajal Chirinos, C

    1988-06-01

    The demographic transition is conceptualized as the historic change from high to low fertility and mortality rates in a population. Peru's population was reduced by an estimated 80% as a result of new diseases, destruction of the economy, and the brutal regime of colonial exploitation after the Spanish conquest. From colonial times to the least the 1940s, Peru's principal population problem was the scarcity of manpower. The population grew at an annual rate of about .03% between 1650 and 1800, increasing to about 1.3% between 1876 and 1940. High fertility throughout the 19th century and a stabilization of mortality due to reduced incidence and deadliness of epidemics contributed to the increased growth rate. In the 1940s the process of demographic transition was initiated by abrupt declines in mortality. The crude death rate declined from 27/1000 in 1940 to 16/1000 in 1961 and 9/1000 in 1988, with the rate still declining. Fertility remained high and possibly increased slightly. The crude birth rate was estimated at 45/1000 in 1940 and 45.4/1000 in 1961. Improvements in infant and general mortality rates in developing countries like Peru result from diffusion of technological advances in prevention and control of diseases and improvement in health services rather than from changes in the economic and social structure. The 3rd phase of the demographic transition began with declines in fertility from 45.4/1000 in 1961 to 42.0/1000 in 1972 and 36.0/1000 in 1981. Despite declines, mortality and fertility continue to be elevated in Peru. The theory of demographic transition views the reduction of infant mortality, improvements in health and educational conditions and the condition of women, and more equitable income distribution as essential for a true decline in birth rates. In Peru, however, fertility has declined in a context of deteriorating living conditions and in the absence of effective family planning programs. The process of demographic transition must be

  13. Social demographic change and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kayuet; Zerubavel, Noam; Bearman, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Parental age at child's birth--which has increased for U.S. children in the 1992-2000 birth cohorts--is strongly associated with an increased risk of autism. By turning a social demographic lens on the historical patterning of concordance among twin pairs, we identify a central mechanism for this association: de novo mutations, which are deletions, insertions, and duplications of DNA in the germ cells that are not present in the parents' DNA. Along the way, we show that a demographic eye on the rising prevalence of autism leads to three major discoveries. First, the estimated heritability of autism has been dramatically overstated. Second, heritability estimates can change over remarkably short periods of time because of increases in germ cell mutations. Third, social demographic change can yield genetic changes that, at the population level, combine to contribute to the increased prevalence of autism.

  14. The community impact of the 2009 influenza pandemic in the WHO European region: a comparison with historical seasonal data from 28 countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martirosyan, L.; Paget, W.J.; Jorgensen, P.; Brown, C.S.; Meerhoff, T.J.; Pereyaslov, D.; Mott, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The world has recently experienced the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century that lasted 14 months from June 2009 to August 2010. This study aimed to compare the timing, geographic spread and community impact during the winter wave of influenza pandemic A (H1N1) 2009 to historical

  15. European Industry, 1700 - 1870

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broadberry, Stephen; Fremdling, Rainer; Solar, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of the development of European industry between 1700 and 1870, drawing in particular on the recent literature that has emerged following the formation of the European Historical Economics Society in 1991. The approach thus makes use of economic analysis and quantitative

  16. A European Drought Reference Database: Design and Online Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stagge, J.H.; Tallaksen, L.M.; Kohn, I.; Stahl, K.; Loon, van A.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the structure and status of the online European Drought Reference (EDR) database. This website provides detailed historical information regarding major historical European drought events. Each drought event is summarized using climatological drought indices, hydrological drought

  17. Individualism and demographic change

    OpenAIRE

    Kolev, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a counterweight to the omnipresent gloomy analyses of demographic change in Western societies. The central argument is that the strains and challenges which demographic change poses for different sub-orders of society can lead to a higher appreciation of the individual in these sub-orders, possibly entailing self-correcting properties of the process of demographic change. First, a two-fold division is provided for the causes of demographic change, distinguishing bet...

  18. Demographic Dividends Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey G. Williamson

    2013-01-01

    This paper revisits demographic dividend issues after almost 2 decades of debate. In 1998, David Bloom and I used a convergence model to estimate the impact of demographic-transition-driven age structure effects and calculated what the literature has come to call the “demographic dividend.” These early estimates seem to be similar to those coming from more recent overlapping generation models, when properly estimated. Research has shown that the demographic dividend is not simply a labor part...

  19. INSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS OF THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES VIOLATION OF FINANCIAL STABILITY: HISTORICAL RETROSPECTIVE AND CURRENT UKRAINIAN REALITIES IN THE CONTEXT OF CHALLENGES OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Novikova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the institutional aspect of the causes and consequences of violations of financial stability. Done analysis of famous historical examples of the emergence of inflationary bursts, as well as ways of establishing a financial equilibrium. In particular, states that often main cause of violations of financial stability becomes inflationary boom, which arose by wars, socio-economic and political contradictions. It was considered role of institutional instability in the context of the emergence of contemporary geopolitical challenges and socio-economic changes in Ukraine. The paper examines the impact of modern social and economic challenges on growth in inflation and on the deterioration of other macroeconomic indicators in Ukraine. At the end, was provided of the recommendations to overcome the financial problems in the national economy. Emphasized importance of the exchange rate stability of the currency.

  20. The Europeanness of European cinema: Identity, meaning, globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Willems, Gertjan

    2015-01-01

    According to its editors, the aim of The Europeanness of European cinema is ‘to revisit the issue of the significance of European cinema as a category in the wake of the recent acceleration in transnational filmmaking and globalization as a whole’ (p. 7). Taking the transnational prominence of European cinema as a starting point, the anthology’s introduction presents some brief reflections about what ‘Europeanness’ – the central, overarching concept for the various chapters – has meant histor...

  1. Sensitivity of June near-surface temperatures and precipitation in the eastern United States to historical land cover changes since European settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strack, J.E.; Pielke, R.A.; Steyaert, L.T.; Knox, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Land cover changes alter the near surface weather and climate. Changes in land surface properties such as albedo, roughness length, stomatal resistance, and leaf area index alter the surface energy balance, leading to differences in near surface temperatures. This study utilized a newly developed land cover data set for the eastern United States to examine the influence of historical land cover change on June temperatures and precipitation. The new data set contains representations of the land cover and associated biophysical parameters for 1650, 1850, 1920, and 1992, capturing the clearing of the forest and the expansion of agriculture over the eastern United States from 1650 to the early twentieth century and the subsequent forest regrowth. The data set also includes the inferred distribution of potentially water-saturated soils at each time slice for use in the sensitivity tests. The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System, equipped with the Land Ecosystem-Atmosphere Feedback (LEAF-2) land surface parameterization, was used to simulate the weather of June 1996 using the 1992, 1920, 1850, and 1650 land cover representations. The results suggest that changes in surface roughness and stomatal resistance have caused present-day maximum and minimum temperatures in the eastern United States to warm by about 0.3??C and 0.4??C, respectively, when compared to values in 1650. In contrast, the maximum temperatures have remained about the same, while the minimums have cooled by about 0.1??C when compared to 1920. Little change in precipitation was found. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. The Historical Supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Green, D.A.; F. R. Stephenson

    2003-01-01

    The available historical records of supernovae occurring in our own Galaxy over the past two thousand years are reviewed. These accounts include the well-recorded supernovae of AD 1604 (Kepler's SN), 1572 (Tycho's SN), 1181, 1054 (which produced the Crab Nebula) and 1006, together with less certain events dating back to AD 185. In the case of the supernovae of AD 1604 and 1572 it is European records that provide the most accurate information available, whereas for earlier supernovae records a...

  3. Mining Subsidence-generated legacy sediments in a Mid-European low-order stream floodplain as an archive for historic human activity and flooding events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchty-Lemke, Michael; Lehmkuhl, Frank; Frings, Roy; Henkel, Sebastian; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Legacy sediments, which were deposited as a consequence of mining subsidence in a floodplain area, can be used as an archive for human activity and past flooding. The morphodynamics of the Wurm River, a low-order stream in the Lower Rhine Embayment at the border between Germany and the Netherlands, is significantly influenced by a long colliery history, which caused alterations in the natural river landscape. In addition, substances which are transported via municipal wastewaters as well as contaminants emitted by specific regional industries were deposited in the floodplain sediments. This study aims at the reconstruction of human activity and past flooding events derived from geochemical and sedimentological data for different time slices within the 20st century. The spatial and chronological distribution of contaminants is investigated on the basis of several sections and drilling cores along the middle reaches of the Wurm River. Sections within mining subsidence areas and outside of those are compared regarding their sedimentation rates and element contents. Additional information is gathered from digital terrain models, historical documents such as the Tranchot map (early 19th century), and interviews of contemporary witnesses. Sedimentation rates derived from Cs-137 measurements allow a temporal assignment of the legacy sediments. A section within a segment of the Siegfried Line (Westwall), constructed in 1939, that crosses the Wurm River shows a significant increase in sedimentation rates in contrast to the floodplain area that is unaffected by subsidence processes. Furthermore, source-specific contaminants can be used to refine the stratigraphy, since source and period of emission are known. The evaluation of past flooding events is supported by numerical modeling of flood scenarios, which provides detailed information about flooded areas depending on the discharge, particularly for the areas which are under influence of mining subsidence. Besides the

  4. Dancing with Demographers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Heather-Jane

    2000-01-01

    Demographic projections concerning the shortage of teachers in Canada, their pay scale, the feminization of teaching, the gender gap in salaries, and teacher autonomy have often been incorrect, or correct for the wrong reasons. Instead of relying on demographic predictions, teachers should contemplate who they really want to be professionally,…

  5. The business of demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C

    1984-06-01

    The emergence of "demographics" in the past 15 years is a vital tool for American business research and planning. Tracing demographic trends became important for businesses when traditional consumer markets splintered with the enormous changes since the 1960s in US population growth, age structure, geographic distribution, income, education, living arrangements, and life-styles. The mass of reliable, small-area demographic data needed for market estimates and projections became available with the electronic census--public release of Census Bureau census and survey data on computer tape, beginning with the 1970 census. Census Bureau tapes as well as printed reports and microfiche are now widely accessible at low cost through summary tape processing centers designated by the bureau and its 12 regional offices and State Data Center Program. Data accessibility, plummeting computer costs, and businessess' unfamiliarity with demographics spawned the private data industry. By 1984, 70 private companies were offering demographic services to business clients--customized information repackaged from public data or drawn from proprietary data bases created from such data. Critics protest the for-profit use of public data by companies able to afford expensive mainframe computer technology. Business people defend their rights to public data as taxpaying ceitzens, but they must ensure that the data are indeed used for the public good. They must also question the quality of demographic data generated by private companies. Business' demographic expertise will improve when business schools offer training in demography, as few now do, though 40 of 88 graduate-level demographic programs now include business-oriented courses. Lower cost, easier access to business demographics is growing as more census data become available on microcomputer diskettes and through on-line linkages with large data bases--from private data companies and the Census Bureau itself. A directory of private and

  6. From demographic dividend to demographic burden: The impact of population ageing on economic growth in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gaag, N.L.; de Beer, J.A.A.

    2015-01-01

    In the coming years, the share of the working-age population in the total population will start to decline in all countries of the European Union. All other things remaining equal, this so-called demographic burden will have a downward effect on economic growth. This paper examines whether the

  7. Laboratory Demographics Lookup Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This website provides demographic information about laboratories, including CLIA number, facility name and address, where the laboratory testing is performed, the...

  8. Complexity and Demographic Explanations of Cumulative Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Adrien Querbes; Krist Vaesen; Wybo Houkes

    2014-01-01

    Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century) to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing--while favoured by increasing--population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limit...

  9. European Industry, 1700-1870

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broadberry, Stephen; Fremdling, Rainer; Solar, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of the development of European industry between 1700 and 1870, drawing in particular on the recent literature that has emerged following the formation of the European Historical Economics Society in 1991. The approach thus makes use of economic analysis and quantitative

  10. Adult Education and European Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negt, Oskar

    2008-01-01

    Europe is coming together. This is a historic project; for the first time in modern history, will and consciousness are used for bringing political, social and cultural unity to the European continent. In this process lifelong learning and hence adult education are gaining in importance. The European project takes place in an age characterised by…

  11. La movilidad residencial europea actual en el contexto de la relación histórica España-Europa (Current European residential mobility in the context of the historic relationship between Spain and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modesto García Jiménez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En la primera década del presente siglo, España, que ya tenía una larga trayectoria como destino turístico privilegiado, se dispone a acoger una verdadera avalancha de personas del norte y centro de Europa que eligen nuestro país como lugar de residencia. El fenómeno puede caracterizarse como un paso más en la elección de estilos de vida propios de las sociedades contemporáneas, y como uno de los más importantes ensayos de libertad de circulación internacional y de ejercicio de los derechos de la ciudadanía de todos los europeos. Este texto quiere ahondar en aspectos de la interacción social y la relación antropológica de los nuevos residentes y la población autóctona, también europeos; a la vez que hacerse eco de las diversas actitudes críticas que este experimento social despierta en las ciencias sociales. Y va a procurar hacerlo ubicándolo en el contexto de las relaciones históricas de España y Europa y de cierta desesperanza que provoca la situación de crisis mundial que vivimos.Abstract: In the first decade of this century, Spain, which already had a long trajectory as an exceptional tourist destination, prepared to receive a deluge of people from North and Central Europe, who chose our country as their place of residence. The phenomenon could be characterised as a further step in the choosing of lifestyles in contemporary societies, and as one of the most important tests of international freedom of movement and the rights of citizenship of all Europeans. This text wishes to expand on aspects of social interaction and the anthropological relationship of the new residents and the native population, also European; at the same time as echoing the diverse critical attitudes that this social experiment provokes in the social sciences. It will attempt to achieve this by placing it in the context of the historical relations between Spain and Europe and the sense of desperation caused by the situation of the world

  12. [The keys to the western demographic "miracle"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguiere, A

    1991-09-01

    Unlike most historical disciplines which had access to copious sources of data before refining their analytical methods, historical demography has almost simultaneously acquired data and developed rigorous analytical methods. French parish records did not attract detailed scrutiny until after World War II, but family reconstitution and other methods of exploitation were soon perfected. The continuing paradox of historical demography is that its statistical methods are rigorous but data remain sparse. Several dozen villages and a few cities have emerged from a vast obscurity but entire regions remain unexplored. Nonetheless, the study of preindustrial populations has progressed more in the past 20 years than has study of populations in the industrial era. Complex phenomena such as the fertility decline and incipient control of birth rates in late 18th century Europe have been studied or explained more adequately than has the inverse phenomenon, the baby boom of the 1940s. A major impetus to historical demography in Europe was the desire of demographers at the National Institute of Demographic Studies to understand Europe's fertility decline through knowledge of the mechanisms that initially caused it to occur. The diversity of apparent demographic models that have resulted from the works of historical demographers has caused various regional models to be proposed for France in the 17th and 18th centuries. It is clear from statistical analysis of available data that by the 18th century, fertility control was practiced by the mass of the French population, but the interpretation of this fact is problematic. The change in fertility behavior must reflect a deeper change in mentalities. The diffusion of contraception in the 18th century did not represent a transgression of the teachings of the Catholic Church as much as a change in attitudes toward life in which the future security of children was increasingly sought in education and improved living standards, and in

  13. DEMOGRAPHIC SECURITY: THEORY, METHODOLOGY, EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail V. Karmanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the theoretical aspects of demographic security. Reviewed and analyzed the point of view of various scholars to the definition of demographic security. The main directions of statistical analysis of demographic security.

  14. Demographic changes and nationalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevskii, A G

    1995-01-01

    This article examines the different characteristics of the many peoples inhabiting what used to be the Soviet Union and communist Eastern Europe, including Yugoslavia. The differences among these nationalities, or ethnic groups, are illustrated using the example of demographic modernization, showing how different peoples have or have not passed through the demographic transition process. The author looks at ethnic differences in mortality, fertility, natural increase, and migration, as well as economic and social inequalities among ethnic groups. The prospects for inter-ethnic conflict are assessed.

  15. Serbian demographers on demography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašević Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this paper is to collect the opinions of the leading demographers in Serbia on four significant matters. The matters are: development, state and future of demography, the successfulness of researchers in this scientific discipline, improvement of the Stanovništvo journal, as well as the population priority of our society and range of population policies. Method: A qualitative interview was chosen as the instrument for data collection. Namely, a structured interview, based on nine questions was sent by e-mail to eleven addresses of relevant demographers in the second half of October 2013. The basic reason for sending questions by e-mail was the aspiration to obtain authentic replies which require time for contemplation. Ten completed questionnaires were returned within two weeks. On the one hand, an integral picture on the chosen themes for research was attempted to be obtained in the analysis of received opinions to certain groups of questions and on the other hand to portray the spectrum of different observations. The responses of our prominent demographers were analyzed and compared to clearly pronounced standpoints of eminent demographers published in world journals on similar themes and with findings of internet researches among members of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population. Results: The results show that there is a high level of consent among demographers in Serbia regarding the well positioning of demography in relation to other social studies and its good perspectives. The interviewed experts see the future of demography in its integration with a wide circle of sciences, the application of demography and/or greater engagement of researchers in carrying out public policies. However, the estimations of the interviewed demographers as regards the development and state of demography in Serbia are divided. Although a large number of topics had been listed, migrations and population

  16. Historical centres: changing definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lazzarotti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the Second World War, the architectural and planning culture has been showing a fluctuating attention to the theme of historical centres and their enhancement. First of all this uneven progress explains the difficulty to reach a homogeneous definition and this is still lacking. During a long phase of this period, the historical parts of the town were considered as objects to be preserved in an integral way, as urban monuments. This is mostly due to the high symbolic value of these settlements, that represent fundamental landmarks. Identity building and empowerment of local communities are indispensable conditions for any development programme, especially in the case of centres or other historic environments at risk of abandonment. The progressive evolution of this concept brings awareness of the impossibility of separating – either in analytical or in planning terms ­ historical centres from their urban and territorial contexts, which are linked by mutual, deep relationships. This article attempts to retrace the steps signaled by the publication of international documents and conventions, from the Charter of Gubbio (1960 to the Charter of Krakow and the European Landscape Convention (2000; they obviously represent particular points of view, not exhaustive of the richness of the positions in the debate, but extremely significant in terms of diffusion and consensus.

  17. Informal and formal reconciliation strategies of older peoples’ working carers: the European carers@work project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hoff

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Faced with a historically unprecedented process of demographic ageing, many European societies implemented pension reforms in recent years to extend working lives. Although aimed at rebalancing public pension systems, this approach has the unintended side effect that it also extends the number of years in which working carers have to juggle the conflicting demands of employment and caregiving. This not only impinges on working carers’ well-being and ability to continue providing care but also affects European enterprises’ capacity to generate growth which increasingly relies on ageing workforces. The focus of this paper will thus be a cross-national comparison of individual reconciliation strategies and workplace-related company policies aimed at enabling working carers to reconcile both conflicting roles in four different European welfare states: Germany, Italy, Poland, and the United Kingdom.

  18. Changing Hispanic Demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Emily Gantz

    This report provides a demographic overview of Hispanics in the United States. Information was drawn largely from recent census figures. The following highlights are reported: (1) Hispanic Americans are the youngest and fastest growing minority group, but they are also more likely than non-Hispanics to drop out of school, be unemployed or…

  19. Hispanic Demographics: Looking Ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Emily G.

    This paper provides an overview of the current socioeconomic characteristics of Hispanics in the United States, and suggests factors of particular significance in projecting future Hispanic demographics and their implications for the Hispanic community and the broader American population. Hispanics are the second largest minority group and more…

  20. Demographic Change and Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Siren, Anu Kristiina; Framke, Elisabeth

    This report is the literature review on demographic changes and transport of Work Package 1 of the EU project CONSOL, “CONcerns and SOLutions – Road Safety in the Ageing Societies” (contract period: 2011-2013). The report is a state-of-the art report that combines current knowledge with new...

  1. [Israel: the demographic stake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussault, G

    1984-01-01

    A review of trends in Jewish migration to and from Israel from the late nineteenth century to the present day is provided. Consideration is also given to Arab migration and to the demographic implications of Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza Strip.

  2. Changing demographics affecting sprawl

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Dwyer; Susan I. Stewart

    1999-01-01

    Demographic changes including population growth, racial/ethnic diversity, aging, expansion of urban areas, and migration to rural areas can bring significant population increases in particular areas that may encourage sprawl. Areas where the pressures for sprawl are likely to be the greatest include the periphery of urban areas, popular retirement destinations, places...

  3. The Political History of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz-Forberg, Hagen; Stråth, Bo

    This book adopts a historical perspective to explore the tensions between the idea of a European democracy through a European market, and the observations that there are signs of increasing social disintegration, political extremism and populism in the wake of economic integration. It was shortli....... It was shortlisted for the European Book Prize 2011...

  4. Statistical methods and applications from a historical perspective selected issues

    CERN Document Server

    Mignani, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    The book showcases a selection of peer-reviewed papers, the preliminary versions of which were presented at a conference held 11-13 June 2011 in Bologna and organized jointly by the Italian Statistical Society (SIS), the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT) and the Bank of Italy. The theme of the conference was "Statistics in the 150 years of the Unification of Italy." The celebration of the anniversary of Italian unification provided the opportunity to examine and discuss the methodological aspects and applications from a historical perspective and both from a national and international point of view. The critical discussion on the issues of the past has made it possible to focus on recent advances, considering the studies of socio-economic and demographic changes in European countries.

  5. Historical demography of common carp estimated from individuals collected from various parts of the world using the pairwise sequentially markovian coalescent approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zihao; Huang, Wei; Liu, Shikai; Xu, Peng; Dunham, Rex; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2018-01-03

    The inference of historical demography of a species is helpful for understanding species' differentiation and its population dynamics. However, such inference has been previously difficult due to the lack of proper analytical methods and availability of genetic data. A recently developed method called Pairwise Sequentially Markovian Coalescent (PSMC) offers the capability for estimation of the trajectories of historical populations over considerable time periods using genomic sequences. In this study, we applied this approach to infer the historical demography of the common carp using samples collected from Europe, Asia and the Americas. Comparison between Asian and European common carp populations showed that the last glacial period starting 100 ka BP likely caused a significant decline in population size of the wild common carp in Europe, while it did not have much of an impact on its counterparts in Asia. This was probably caused by differences in glacial activities in East Asia and Europe, and suggesting a separation of the European and Asian clades before the last glacial maximum. The North American clade which is an invasive population shared a similar demographic history as those from Europe, consistent with the idea that the North American common carp probably had European ancestral origins. Our analysis represents the first reconstruction of the historical population demography of the common carp, which is important to elucidate the separation of European and Asian common carp clades during the Quaternary glaciation, as well as the dispersal of common carp across the world.

  6. Historically Black

    OpenAIRE

    Pennington, Whitney

    2012-01-01

    Historically Black is a short documentary that looks at recruitment of non-black students at Texas Southern University, one of the nation’s largest Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). By chronicling Texas Southern’s efforts to diversify and its impact on the campus community, the film explores the changing role of HBCUs in post-segregated America and addresses what this might mean for the future of these deep-rooted institutions. 

  7. [Family planning and demographic regression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer Regales, M

    1979-06-01

    The problem of demographic explosion must be reexamined in the light of what has happened during the last 15-20 years in all industrialized countries, which have all experienced a sharp decrease in fertility rates due to the introduction of modern contraceptive technics, decreased mortality, and the possibility of easily obtaining induced legal abortion. Countries such as West Germany, England, Scotland, and Luxembourg have already reached zero population growth; countries such as Austria, Norway, Finland, Sweden have a growth rate of merely 0.2%. In most western countries average parity is 1.8 children per woman, when 2.18 children are needed to guarantee replacement. The sharpest decrease in fertility rates took place in West Germany and in France; should the tendency in those countries continue West Germany population would go from 60 million inhabitants to 39 million in 2030, and France would go from 53 million to 16 million. Demographic aging is another phenomenon related to fertility decrease; in 1977 in the United States 11% of the population was already over 65. Results of fertility decrease have been so sharp and so rapid that many Eastern European countries have already introduced incentives to reverse the trend, and/or to make abortion more difficult to obtain. This policy of incentives to encourage population growth has reached West Germany where since 1978 very young couples are given monetary help. Beside contraceptive availability population decrease has been fostered by the enormous increase in the rate of divorces and by the very liberal abortion laws. A large number of today's births are illegitimate, due mainly to the practice of trial marriages, without intention of real marriage, among adolescents.

  8. Historical Paper

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 23; Issue 1. Historical Paper: On Simple Gas Reactions by H Eyring and M Polanyi. Classics Volume 23 Issue 1 January 2018 pp 103-128. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/023/01/0103-0128 ...

  9. Demographic factors and land-use planning in the small islands of Southern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliani, Lamberto; Rossi, Orazio

    1992-09-01

    Since the end of the 1970s, the southern European countries have shown an exceptional reduction in fertility rate. From the highest levels among the developed nations, these countries dropped beneath the substitution rate level: in Greece there is an average of about 1.5 children per woman, and Italy (starting three to four years ago), with 1.3 children per woman, is now the country with the lowest fecundity rate in the world. Land-use planning in southern European small islands therefore requires substantial revision. In the areas where western civilization began, which are highly populated and have a long history, cultural and ethnic aspects of tradition are fundamental to environmental management and to the defense of historical heritage. They also place a strong value on sustaining tourism, the most relevant economic activity, that allows them to survive and maintain a high welfare level. For some decades they have had populations with a marked presence of young people and high emigration rates, but now they are fast becoming dominated by the elderly and must prepare for a period of fast reduction in youth of the workforce, while the peripheral areas of Asia and Africa are entering a sudden demographic growth phase. The demographic structure has also been deeply altered both by previous migrations and by random variations, as usually happens in all small communities. Social services for younger and older people have had to be adapted rapidly, reorganizing high-school management, hospital and health-care structures, in-house assistance, and so on. There is a need to rethink the job market and favor the immigration of highly specialized workers, which is a necessity for technical evolution. Sustainable development is constrained nowadays not only by the scarcity of natural resources, but also by the quality and quantity of human resources. Proper policies for population and land-use planning are highly correlated factors; they have to be considered with respect

  10. Complexity and demographic explanations of cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querbes, Adrien; Vaesen, Krist; Houkes, Wybo

    2014-01-01

    Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century) to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing--while favoured by increasing--population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limited role in sustaining cumulative culture in case formal models deploy Herbert Simon's definition of complexity rather than the particular definitions of complexity hitherto assumed. Given that currently available empirical evidence doesn't afford discriminating proper from improper definitions of complexity, our robustness analyses put into question the force of recent demographic explanations of particular episodes of cultural change.

  11. Complexity and demographic explanations of cumulative culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Querbes

    Full Text Available Formal models have linked prehistoric and historical instances of technological change (e.g., the Upper Paleolithic transition, cultural loss in Holocene Tasmania, scientific progress since the late nineteenth century to demographic change. According to these models, cumulation of technological complexity is inhibited by decreasing--while favoured by increasing--population levels. Here we show that these findings are contingent on how complexity is defined: demography plays a much more limited role in sustaining cumulative culture in case formal models deploy Herbert Simon's definition of complexity rather than the particular definitions of complexity hitherto assumed. Given that currently available empirical evidence doesn't afford discriminating proper from improper definitions of complexity, our robustness analyses put into question the force of recent demographic explanations of particular episodes of cultural change.

  12. Spatial extent in demographic research - approach and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the starting methodological problems in demographic research is the definition of spatial extent, which mostly doesn’t correspond to spatial extent already defined by different levels of administrative-territorial unitsthat are used for distribution of usable statistical data. That’s why determining the spatial extent of a demographic research is closely tied with administrative-territorial division of the territory that is being researched, wherein the fact that differentiation of demographic phenomena and processes cannot be the only basis of setting the principles of regionalization must be strictly acknowledged. This problem is particularly common in historical demographic analyses of geographically determined wholes, which are in administratively-territorial sense represented by one or more smaller territorial units, with their borders changing through the history, which directly affects comparability of the statistical data, and makes it considerably more difficult to track demographic change through longer time intervals. The result of these efforts is usually a solution based on a compromise which enables us to examine the dynamics of population change with little deviation from already defined borders of regional geographic wholes. For that reason in this paper the problem of defining spatial extent in demographic research is examined trough several different approaches in case of Eastern Serbia, as a geographically determined region, a historic area, a spatially functioning whole and as a statistical unit for demographic research, with no judgment calls in regard to any of the regionalization principles. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 47006

  13. EJSCREEN Version 1, Demographic Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays demographic data used in EJSCREEN. All demographic data were derived from American Community Survey 2006-2010 estimates. EJSCREEN is an...

  14. Transnational European Television Drama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib; Redvall, Eva Novrup; Helles, Rasmus

    This book deals with the role of television drama in Europe as enabler of transnational, cultural encounters for audiences and the creative community. It demonstrates that the diversity of national cultures is a challenge for European TV drama but also a potential richness and source of creative...... variation. Based on data on the production, distribution and reception of recent TV drama from several European countries, the book presents a new picture of the transnational European television culture. The authors analyse main tendencies in television policy and challenges for national broadcasters...... coming from new global streaming services. Comparing cases of historical, contemporary and crime drama from several countries, this study shows the importance of creative co-production and transnational mediated cultural encounters between national cultures of Europe....

  15. Demographic trends in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present note, we present the main features of recent trends in vital family-demographic behavior in Sweden. For this purpose, published indices of marriage, divorce, and childbearing risks by calendar year are updated by adding another two or three years of observation to our series. We demonstrate that the latest trend reversal in Swedish birth rates, which occurred at the end of the 1990s, continued to manifest itself in increasing propensities for childbearing during the early years of the 21st century. The rise pertains to all birth orders. Marriage propensities showed an increase as well, however, to a large extent expressed in a short-term development that was prevalent at the turn of the millennium. The previous long-term trend of rising divorce risks leveled off during the first two years of the new century.

  16. Leaks in the pipeline: separating demographic inertia from ongoing gender differences in academia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allison K. Shaw; Daniel E. Stanton

    2012-01-01

    .... We construct a simple model of the academic career that can be used to identify general trends, and separate the demographic effects of historical differences from ongoing biological or cultural gender differences...

  17. Demographic change and carbon dioxide emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Brian C; Liddle, Brant; Jiang, Leiwen; Smith, Kirk R; Pachauri, Shonali; Dalton, Michael; Fuchs, Regina

    2012-07-14

    Relations between demographic change and emissions of the major greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO(2)) have been studied from different perspectives, but most projections of future emissions only partly take demographic influences into account. We review two types of evidence for how CO(2) emissions from the use of fossil fuels are affected by demographic factors such as population growth or decline, ageing, urbanisation, and changes in household size. First, empirical analyses of historical trends tend to show that CO(2) emissions from energy use respond almost proportionately to changes in population size and that ageing and urbanisation have less than proportional but statistically significant effects. Second, scenario analyses show that alternative population growth paths could have substantial effects on global emissions of CO(2) several decades from now, and that ageing and urbanisation can have important effects in particular world regions. These results imply that policies that slow population growth would probably also have climate-related benefits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Demographic studies in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, H

    1998-01-01

    Studies on population and migration have gained growing popularity in the federal government, in universities, and among historians, economists, sociologists, and research institutions in Germany. Research institutions were expanded, and some received special funding from the Federal Society of Scientific Research for studies on demography and migration. Achievements in these subjects include monographs on the history and/or present demographic situation, book series, academic research reports, and consultative reports on contemporary population issues. Information exchanges with the rest of the world also heightened considerably. This paper focuses on major research institutions in Germany that specifically work on demography and population issues. It discusses the characteristics of their research, as well as their research subjects. These institutions include: 1) the Institute for Migration Research and Intercultural Studies at the University of Osnabruck, established after the German unification in 1991; 2) the Wiesbaden-based Federal Institute for Population Research, founded in 1973; and 3) the Institute for Population Research and Social Policy of the University of Bielefeld, founded in 1980. At present, Germany has two population research societies: the German Society for Population Research and the GDR Society for Population Research.

  19. Demographic Evolution of the Small Towns in the North-East Development Region in the Post-Communist Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL CAMARĂ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Romania's population has declined steadily from 23.2 million in 1990 to 21.5 million inhabitants in 2007. This overall decline in population is not entirely true for the towns and cities of the North-East Region, as during the same period they recorded both decreases and increases in population due to positive natural balance. The North-East Region (partially superimposed over the historic region of the western Moldova is considered the poorest region in the European Union and a disadvantaged area. The rural young population of Moldova is a reservoir which supplies urban areas and especially large cities. In these circumstances, the small towns of the North-East Region are seeking balance (demographic, economic, functional. This paper examines the demographic evolution of the small towns located in the area under analysis, in the post-communist period, illustrating the types of fluctuations in statistical methods as regards demographic changes and the risk of depopulation in the future, correlated with a lower overall population of Romania.

  20. Demographics and remote locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppus, G. [Dynawise Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Within the next decade, the number of people leaving the workforce will exceed the number of new entrants. The demand for workers is expected to increase in Alberta due to oil sands industry growth. Sixty-four per cent of all responding federal, provincial, and municipal government organizations have reported shortages in their work environments, and almost 8 in 10 organizations predict they will continue to be understaffed in the next 3 to 5 years. Tightness in the general labour market will have an impact on employers in remote locations, and planning is essential to avoid the creation of a mercenary culture and a reliance on compensation. Challenges found in remote locations include high turnover rates among recent hires; critical gaps in service length; aggressive retirement; and the fact that the local population is often seen as unqualified for many industrial jobs. This Power Point presentation suggested that although decisions to join or quit a company are often based on considerations such as the organizational environment and amount of compensation, the relationship between employees and management is the most important attribute in many career decisions. Rigorous quantitative analysis of current demographics combined with forecasting analysis may help to forestall recruitment difficulties for many companies. Productivity analyses, and the effects of work overload on absenteeism, attrition and quality of workmanship must also be examined. Many companies are now focusing on retention and development strategies on mid-career staff to address depletion, as well as redesigning procedures to operate with less skilled staff. It was concluded that extra efforts are now being made to attract non-traditional employees, and non-traditional employment models are being considered by some companies. refs., tabs., figs.

  1. Demographic Consequences of Defeating Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrilov, Leonid A.; Gavrilova, Natalia S.

    2010-01-01

    A common objection against starting a large-scale biomedical war on aging is the fear of catastrophic population consequences (overpopulation). This fear is only exacerbated by the fact that no detailed demographic projections for radical life extension scenario have been conducted so far. This study explores different demographic scenarios and population projections, in order to clarify what could be the demographic consequences of a successful biomedical war on aging. A general conclusion o...

  2. Brexit and the problem of European disintegration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosamond, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The Brexit referendum provokes speculation about the likelihood of European disintegration. This article discusses how scholarship might deal with the issue of disintegration and argues that it should be thought of as an indeterminate process rather than an identifiable outcome. Within the EU...... within which European integration has been embedded historically....

  3. European communion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on ‘sharing’ or ‘communion......’, provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as ‘integration’ or ‘co-operation’. The concept of ‘European communion’ is defined as the ‘subjective sharing of relationships’, understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing...... relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European...

  4. Historical somersaults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, R

    1993-01-01

    The author and his youngest sister attended a mass at the Mission San Diego in California where the Monsignor discussed the life of Father Serra who founded the Mission in 1769. A letter to Father Serra from another priest showed the priest's distress over an abortion done to an Indian woman living at the Mission. Recollecting this historical letter was used to express the Monsignor's views on abortion today. He then reminded the congregation of the upcoming presidential election. He claimed that either Indians or people claiming to be Indians are trying to prevent the canonization of Father Serra without explaining why these people objected. He argued that the secular world cannot judge this man by contemporary standards. Yet, he had earlier implored the congregants to make secular political choices based on the absolute standards of the church. The objections to Father Serra by various secular people where he had been a member of the Spanish Inquisition and the missions he established served as forced confinement for the Indians. Supposedly, Father Serra and other priests kept Indian women in the missions to protect them from the brutality of Spanish soldiers. In fact, the pregnant Indian mentioned in the Monsignor's sermon was most likely raped by a Spaniard. Women in the missions were forced to stay in the missions while men could at least go to the fields. Unsanitary conditions were very unhealthy for the women, leading to considerable mortality. The child mortality rate was higher than 20%. Women who tried to control their fertility were harshly punished. The Catholic Church would do better if it canonized Father de las Casas who defended the autonomy and intellectual credibility of Indian culture. The author concludes that it is indeed unfair to judge Father Serra by contemporary standards, just as it is unfair and unreasonable to force Catholic standards on others.

  5. Patterns of genetic variation in the endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola L., 1761).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabria, Maria Teresa; Gonzalez, Elena G; Gomez-Moliner, Benjamin J; Michaux, Johan R; Skumatov, Dimitry; Kranz, Andreas; Fournier, Pascal; Palazon, Santiago; Zardoya, Rafael

    2015-07-17

    The European mink (Mustela lutreola, L. 1761) is a critically endangered mustelid, which inhabits several main river drainages in Europe. Here, we assess the genetic variation of existing populations of this species, including new sampling sites and additional molecular markers (newly developed microsatellite loci specific to European mink) as compared to previous studies. Probabilistic analyses were used to examine genetic structure within and between existing populations, and to infer phylogeographic processes and past demography. According to both mitochondrial and nuclear microsatellite markers, Northeastern (Russia, Estonia and Belarus) and Southeastern (Romania) European populations showed the highest intraspecific diversity. In contrast, Western European (France and Spain) populations were the least polymorphic, featuring a unique mitochondrial DNA haplotype. The high differentiation values detected between Eastern and Western European populations could be the result of genetic drift in the latter due to population isolation and reduction. Genetic differences among populations were further supported by Bayesian clustering and two main groups were confirmed (Eastern vs. Western Europe) along with two contained subgroups at a more local scale (Northeastern vs. Southeastern Europe; France vs. Spain). Genetic data and performed analyses support a historical scenario of stable European mink populations, not affected by Quaternary climate oscillations in the Late Pleistocene, and posterior expansion events following river connections in both North- and Southeastern European populations. This suggests an eastern refuge during glacial maxima (as already proposed for boreal and continental species). In contrast, Western Europe was colonised more recently following either natural expansions or putative human introductions. Low levels of genetic diversity observed within each studied population suggest recent bottleneck events and stress the urgent need for

  6. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  7. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  8. Societal implication and challenges of demographic change – some introductory remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Černič-Mali Barbara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This introduction into the special issue of European Countryside describes the need to move from knowledge to action and from simplification to complexification in contemporary discourses about demographic change. While the first movement arguably refers to the contributions of this issue the latter is a plea towards more specification and differentiation when investigating and assessing phenomena of demographic change.

  9. Responding to Demographic Change: What Do Suburban District Leaders Need to Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarrassouba, Nagnon; Johnson, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the demographic shifts in a medium-sized school district in West Michigan and the responses developed as a result of these changes during the last two decades. Findings indicated that the district's school demographics changed from being European American to minority dominant. As a result of these changes in student population…

  10. National Register Historic Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The National Register Historic District layer is a shape file showing the boundaries of Historic Districts that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

  11. Demographic Change and Bank Profitability.Empirical Evidence from German Savings Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Berlemann, Michael; Oestmann, Marco; Thum, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    Most European economies will experience significant demographic changes in the decades ahead. Due to low birth rates, populations are shrinking and ageing at the same time. This paper explores the impact of demographic change on the banking industry. A unique data set, which contains detailed information on almost 2.5 million accounts in 11 German savings banks, allows us estimating the socio-demographic determinants of retail profitability. Using a simulation model, we are able to predict th...

  12. Parameters of measuring of european political consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Pikula

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author analyzes the parameters of European political consciousness, i.e. European research field of political consciousness in qualitative and quantitative terms, which may be based on different indicators. The issue of emergence and development of European political consciousness becomes topical because firstly, its formation as the subjective dimension of European integration policy is not a spontaneous process and, secondly, European integration is carried out not only from the top but from the bottom, requiring deliberate interference of the public with the process; the public possesses the formed European political consciousness. Since the latter is a specific mental construct, the author offers to apply the triad «criteria ­ parameters – indicators». The characteristic that makes it possible to evaluate certain processes or phenomena in the system of Europeanness / Europeanism and specifies the quality system of views and opinions, which are realized in European behavior, is considered to be the criterion of European political consciousness. The European political consciousness parameters are seen to include the relevant historical memory, trends of public opinion and awareness regarding the European Union and position of its members in the European integration process, including the assessment of the existence and development of the EU; knowledge and views on the main EU institutions, assessing the importance of the main institutions of the EU and trust in them; a positive vision for the future of the European Union etc. The author considers the performance and objective characteristics and dimensions, including positive correlation of national and European levels of identity (European identity and European behavior to be the indicatiors of European political awareness. On the basis of these indicators the control of the condition and trends of European political consciousness development will be carried out.

  13. Demographic controls of future global fire risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, W.; Arneth, A.; Jiang, L.

    2016-08-01

    Wildfires are an important component of terrestrial ecosystem ecology but also a major natural hazard to societies, and their frequency and spatial distribution must be better understood. At a given location, risk from wildfire is associated with the annual fraction of burned area, which is expected to increase in response to climate warming. Until recently, however, only a few global studies of future fire have considered the effects of other important global environmental change factors such as atmospheric CO2 levels and human activities, and how these influence fires in different regions. Here, we contrast the impact of climate change and increasing atmospheric CO2 content on burned area with that of demographic dynamics, using ensembles of climate simulations combined with historical and projected population changes under different socio-economic development pathways for 1901-2100. Historically, humans notably suppressed wildfires. For future scenarios, global burned area will continue to decline under a moderate emissions scenario, except for low population growth and fast urbanization, but start to increase again from around mid-century under high greenhouse gas emissions. Contrary to common perception, we find that human exposure to wildfires increases in the future mainly owing to projected population growth in areas with frequent wildfires, rather than by a general increase in burned area.

  14. European Integration through Economic Convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savoiu Gheorghe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The thematic topicality of the main issues of European integration through convergence, in the context subsequent to financial-inspired global recession, is relevant through both the ever more extended international impact of the inertiality of a number of integration processes, and the specific developments of convergence in the Eurozone or the European Monetary Union (EMU. The regionally structured system of the European economy, approached aggregatively from the micro-economic to the macro-economic level, like the physical system or molecularly investigated system, from economic transactions, as a major milestone, to the complexity of the transactions tissue or flows, or activities, similar to biological systems, is permanently faced with various specific disturbing factors. The European Union (EU has historically evolved in an alternative manner, sometimes divergently or towards differentiation through separation, and sometimes convergently or coherently towards unity, fusion, integrity, evincing divergence or convergence trends, with the latter eventually becoming prevalent in the contemporary world.

  15. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2016 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  16. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  17. [Demographic change and political representation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, S

    1990-06-01

    The political implications of demographic aging in Italy are reviewed. The main features identified are a shift in the balance of the electorate toward the south, and the increasing electoral importance of older voters.

  18. The Professoriate: A Demographic Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Shirley M.; Corcoran, Mary

    1987-01-01

    An analysis of college faculty demographics looks at faculty distribution over institution types, the relationships of career status, sex, age, and salary, and three emergent faculty subgroups: women, minorities, and part-time faculty. (MSE)

  19. DEMOGRAPHIC VULNERABILITIES IN TECUCI PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Adrian ŞORCARU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on analyzing and mapping 8 indicators considered to best reflect the demographic vulnerability in Tecuci Plain in the year 2010 and proposes a model of aggregation which finally allows us to distinguish three major types of demographic vulnerability (low, medium and high. Mapping the final values also shows significant disparities in the territorial administrative units that broadly overlap the plain, the most vulnerable being Tecuci city and the peripheral communes, towards Vrancea and Vaslui Counties.

  20. Demographic change and income distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Weizsacker, R K

    1989-03-01

    This paper examines the interactions between demographic change and income distribution, especially in the context of government. Starting from a simple, descriptive life-cycle model of individual income, this paper established an explicit link between the age composition of a population and the personal distribution of incomes. Demographic effects on income inequality are derived. Next, 2 income maintenance programs are introduced: a redistributive tax-transfer scheme and a pay-as-you-go financed state pension system. The resulting government budget constraints entail interrelations between fiscal and demographic variables, causing an additional, indirect demographic impact on the distribution. This is shown not only to change, but in some cases even to reverse the distributional incidence of demographic trends. The superimposition of different age structures on populations of otherwise identical characteristics is non-neutral with respect to income distribution: disregarding state interventions, population aging increases income inequality. This result may no longer generally hold if redistribution policies are taken into account. The paper provides an example of how indirect demographic effects may lead to a reversal of sign. In the absence of any government program, a higher ratio of pensioners to active workers raises income inequality. In the presence of a redistributive tax-transfer scheme and pay-as-you-go financed state pension system, a higher dependency ratio decreases income dispersion. The restoration of government budget equilibrium induces unintended distributional effects which put the incidence of demographic shifts in a different light. Varying important aging indicator with realistic forecast bounds leads to inequality fluctuations up to 35%. This illustrates the quantitative scale and hence the political importance of demographically caused inequality distortions.

  1. Demographic Future of Gorski Kotar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Lajić

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Demographic development of Gorski Kotar has largely been a reflection of unfavourable natural-geographic and socio-economic circumstances, which had impelled emigration of the population from this region already by the end of the 19th century, and this process has not stopped till nowadays. The decrease in the total number of inhabitants has been strongly influenced by decades of emigration. Since the 1960s, negative natural movements have significantly contributed to total depopulation. Based on the analysis of negative demographic processes in the Gorski Kotar region, several kinds of demographic projections have been made for the period until 2021. According to these projections, further negative demographic tendencies and additional diminution of the Gorski Kotar population, as well as a negative birth-rate and the erosion of all demographic and economic structures are expected. Population ageing will be a fundamental determinant of future demographic development of the observed area, because every third inhabitant will be more than 60 years old and this points to potential problems in the social and economic development of the region.

  2. Communist-built Industrial Towns, the History of Newly Built Towns and Cities. Distinctive Historical Development Paths of Hungarian ‘Socialist’ and Western European Industrial Towns in the Second Half of the Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAKI, Ildikó

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In my study, I intend to give a brief overview of the development of Hungarian communist built and Western-European industrial towns. What makes this topic worthwhile for exploration is that towns currently experience a number of core changes in their fabric. Naturally, these stem from their history, which in turn aff ects the current urban development schemes, the landscape of towns, and modifications in spatial arrangements. Another important aspect is that substantial variations are observable between the Western European and the Hungarian urban development models. On the one hand, past development policies refl ected the economic and political realities of each country, which was further coupled with the east-west divide, thus impacting development priorities. As a consequence, there are still clear divergences among the countries surveyed despite the current trend toward more uniformity in urban development goals. The article provides a detailed analysis of the various models, emphasizing peculiarities and specific features. It aims to establish viable forms for spontaneous and micro-managed paths of urban development.

  3. Geo-Demographic Risks in the Apuseni Mountains. Demographic Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA-ALINA MUREŞAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The territorial system of the Apuseni Mountains can be considered a critical region from a geo-demographic viewpoint. This is due to two major geo-demographic risks that affect it at present, namely the massive migration, mainly of the young and adult population, and the severe decrease in birth rate, also as a consequence of migration. These two processes determine the main two geo-demographic risks within the Apuseni Mountains: on the one hand, depopulation and the geo-demographic decline of the settlements and, on the other hand, population ageing. The present study aims to analyse the latter by focussing on the Land of the Moţi. Conclusions emphasise a rather severe process of demographic ageing. The rate of the old age group increased from 17.9% in 1992 to 25.2% in 2011. All the 16 administrative-territorial units under analysis recorded an increase in the rate of the old age group. In 2011, the ratio of the extreme age groups (young population/old age group is above the unit (1 both in the region as a whole and in the majority of its administrative units.

  4. [Historic malignant tumour: 27 observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparsa, A; Doffoel-Hantz, V; Durox, H; Gaston, J; Delage-Core, M; Bédane, C; Labrousse, F; Sannajust, J P; Bonnetblanc, J-M

    2012-03-01

    When used in the French medical literature to describe a pathological state, the word "historic" normally refers to tumours of startling appearance because of their size. It is difficult to understand how a patient can allow such tumours to continue to grow. We attempt to define this concept. Two dermatologists carried out a retrospective, independent and comparative selection of photographs taken between 1978 and 2008 of malignant cutaneous tumours of unusual size given the histological diagnosis. Socio-professional, demographic, clinical, histological psychological data, and details of treatment history and progress were collected. Twenty-seven patients (11 M, 16 F) of mean age 74 years (34-99 years) presented a "historic" tumour. Twelve patients lived in rural regions. Five patients were company executives. The average duration of development of the "historic" tumours was 4.5 years (6-420 months). The tumours were classed histologically as epidermoid carcinomas (nine) and melanomas (seven). The mean size was 13 cm (6-30 cm). Psychiatric problems, membership of sects or dementia were noted for 13 patients. Treatment consisted of chemotherapy, radiotherapy or, less frequently, surgery. Eighteen patients died on average 13 months after diagnosis. "Historic" malignant tumour (also described in the literature as "giant" tumour) is a real-life fact. No studies have been made of a series of such patients. Despite histological diagnosis, the size was associated with slow tumoral progress and/or late treatment, chiefly accounted for by psychiatric disorders. Socio-professional data indicate that "historic" tumours are equally common in urban and rural areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Demographic inference through approximate-Bayesian-computation skyline plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navascués, Miguel; Leblois, Raphaël; Burgarella, Concetta

    2017-01-01

    The skyline plot is a graphical representation of historical effective population sizes as a function of time. Past population sizes for these plots are estimated from genetic data, without a priori assumptions on the mathematical function defining the shape of the demographic trajectory. Because of this flexibility in shape, skyline plots can, in principle, provide realistic descriptions of the complex demographic scenarios that occur in natural populations. Currently, demographic estimates needed for skyline plots are estimated using coalescent samplers or a composite likelihood approach. Here, we provide a way to estimate historical effective population sizes using an Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) framework. We assess its performance using simulated and actual microsatellite datasets. Our method correctly retrieves the signal of contracting, constant and expanding populations, although the graphical shape of the plot is not always an accurate representation of the true demographic trajectory, particularly for recent changes in size and contracting populations. Because of the flexibility of ABC, similar approaches can be extended to other types of data, to multiple populations, or to other parameters that can change through time, such as the migration rate.

  6. Demographic Evolution in Romania – Convergence or Peripherisation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Veronica Litra

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Romania began its demographic transition about one century later than the developed countries. We put the blame of this gap on the delayed economic, social and political development in comparison with the Western Europe. But also, it could not be forgotten the shift from a population forced and subdue by the totalitary regime, to a free people to decide when to have a child or how large should be the family. During transition, Romania has pointed many negative demographic evolutions, as compared with the other european countries. It may be said that the transition in Romania over the period 1990-2004 adjusted the classical pattern of demographic evolution. Not fully felt at this moment, we will probably find ourselves few decades later older, less, deprived of skilled labor force and unbalanced as gender ratio.

  7. European visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, (on the right) visited the CMS assembly hall accompanied by Jim Virdee, Deputy Spokesman of CMS (on the left), and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN. The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, visited CERN on Tuesday 31 January. He was welcomed by the Director-General, Robert Aymar, who described the missions and current activities of CERN to him, in particular the realisation of the LHC with its three components: accelerator, detectors, storage and processing of data. The European Commissioner then visited the CMS assembly hall, then the hall for testing the LHC magnets and the ATLAS cavern. During this first visit since his appointment at the end of 2004, Janez Potočnik appeared very interested by the operation of CERN, an example of successful scientific co-operation on a European scale. The many projects (30 on average) that CERN and the European Commission carry out jointly for the benefit of res...

  8. Genetic models reveal historical patterns of sea lamprey population fluctuations within Lake Champlain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy C. D’Aloia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The origin of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus in Lake Champlain has been heavily debated over the past decade. Given the lack of historical documentation, two competing hypotheses have emerged in the literature. First, it has been argued that the relatively recent population size increase and concomitant rise in wounding rates on prey populations are indicative of an invasive population that entered the lake through the Champlain Canal. Second, recent genetic evidence suggests a post-glacial colonization at the end of the Pleistocene, approximately 11,000 years ago. One limitation to resolving the origin of sea lamprey in Lake Champlain is a lack of historical and current measures of population size. In this study, the issue of population size was explicitly addressed using nuclear (nDNA and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA markers to estimate historical demography with genetic models. Haplotype network analysis, mismatch analysis, and summary statistics based on mtDNA noncoding sequences for NCI (479 bp and NCII (173 bp all indicate a recent population expansion. Coalescent models based on mtDNA and nDNA identified two potential demographic events: a population decline followed by a very recent population expansion. The decline in effective population size may correlate with land-use and fishing pressure changes post-European settlement, while the recent expansion may be associated with the implementation of the salmonid stocking program in the 1970s. These results are most consistent with the hypothesis that sea lamprey are native to Lake Champlain; however, the credibility intervals around parameter estimates demonstrate that there is uncertainty regarding the magnitude and timing of past demographic events.

  9. Determinants of subjective job insecurity in 5 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muñoz de Bustillo, R.; de Pedraza, P.

    2007-01-01

    The present study searches for subjective job insecurity predictors in five European Countries (Spain, Belgium, Finland, The Netherlands and Germany). The results find conclusions regarding demographic variables, such as age, gender, educational level; type of contract; family life variables, such

  10. European Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different

  11. Logistics Dynamics and Demographic Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumpp, Matthias; Abidi, Hella; Bioly, Sascha; Buchkremer, Rüdiger; Ebener, Stefan; Sandhaus, Gregor; Freitag, Michael; Kotzab, Herbert; Pannek, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Change and dynamics in logistics are interestingly driven at the same time by external as well as internal forces. This contribution outlines a big data literature review methodology to overview recognizable external changes and analyzes the interaction of one major trend—demographic change—further

  12. [The demographic history of Majorca].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, A; Suau, J

    1986-03-01

    Data from parochial records, censuses, and other sources are analyzed to study the demographic changes that occurred between 1590 and 1789 in the Spanish island of Majorca. Topics covered include population density, spatial distribution, urbanization, infant mortality, and fertility. A bibliography of 86 references is included.

  13. [The demographic transition in Latin America and Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala De Cosio, M E

    1992-12-01

    This work describes and analyzes the "European model of demographic transition" and compares it to the fertility transition in Latin America, arguing that two different types of demographic transition coexist in Latin America. Chesnais has defined 3 principal postulates of the theory of demographic transition that he believes are universally valid: the precedence in time of mortality decline; the occurrence of reproductive transition in 2 phases, limitation of marriages followed by limitation of births; and the influence of economic growth on the initiation of the secular fertiilty decline. This work is largely limited to discussion of the first 2 postulates. In all the European transitions analyzed, mortality has declined before the occurrence of fertility changes. Exceptions cited in the literature have probably been caused by omissions or other problems in the data. The level of mortality at the beginning of the transition and the rate of decline differ, giving unique character to each transition. Imbalances resulting from mortality decline are at the root of modern fertility transitions. The French demographic transition was distinguished by early appearance of birth limitation by married couples, as part of the regulation of population growth. In the rest of Europe, during the pretransitional period, the traditional system of reproduction was regulated primarily by control of nuptiality. Only at a second stage was marital fertiity controlled, when limitation of marriage was no longer sufficient or had exceeded the limits of social acceptability. All countries of Northern and Western Europe recorded increased proportions definitively single as the demographic situation began to change, until the moment when couples began to limit births. The demographic transition in Latin America began at the end of the 19th century, with mortality decline. Fertility increased initially in Latin America as it had in Europe and for the same reasons, but the impact was greater

  14. Historical Arctic Rawinsonde Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Note: This data set is now on FTP so references to CD-ROM are historic and no longer applicable. The Historical Arctic Rawinsonde Archive is on FTP, and it contains...

  15. Exploring Historical Illiteracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furr, L. Allen

    1992-01-01

    Finds that powerlessness, social isolation, dogmatic nationalism, age, and gender significantly predict historical illiteracy (unfamiliarity with historical facts) and that a completed college history course reduced the effects of the predicting factors. (SR)

  16. VT Historic Preservation Grant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The State-funded Historic Preservation Grant Program helps municipalities and non-profit organizations rehabilitate the historic buildings that are a vital part of...

  17. European Languages: Instruments and Symbols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Ožbot

    2008-07-01

    Further, the role of Latin as the single most important European language over the centuries and as a unifying feature of European culture is discussed. Parallels are drawn between Latin as the historical European lingua franca on the one hand and English as the modern language of international communication on the other: the importance of both languages started growing after substantial territorial expansion of their speakers and it was especially the political and economic power associated to these languages that played a significant role in their diffusion and long-term influence. Taking into consideration the instrumental as well as the symbolic function of languages, the question about the relationship between English and other European languages in today’s Europe is dealt with; it is suggested that the European languages are in principle not endangered as a result of the spread of English, with the exception of those instances in which English has been taking over the functions they have traditionally performed as national or community languages. It is emphasized that the future of Europe lies in the promotion of biand multilingualism, which have, in actual fact, been present on this continent throughout its history, and which in the cases of some European languages (e.g. Catalan, Basque, Irish, etc. have been successfully enhanced over the past decades.

  18. Historical land use databases: a new layer of information for geographical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, H.; Mücher, C.A.; Hazeu, G.W.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe how historical land use information has been derived for the whole of Europe, using the World Atlas of Agriculture, scale 1: 2,500,000. This paper describes the process of converting the analog land-use maps to a digital European historical land-use database, the Historical

  19. From savanna to campus woodlot: the historical ecology of farm woodlots in southern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. M. Ruffner; A. Trieu; S. Chandy; M. D. Davis; D. Fishel; G. Gipson; J. Lhotka; K. Lynch; P. Perkins; S. van de Gevel; W. Watson; E. White

    2003-01-01

    The historical ecology of Thompson Woods, a 4.1 ha forest remnant on the campus of Southern Illinois University-Carbondale, was investigated through stand structure analysis, dendroecology, and historical records. Historical records indicate the area was a savanna ecosystem prior to European settlement dominated by large, open grown mixed oak-hickory trees. No trees in...

  20. Demographic model of the Neolithic transition in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Galeta

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Several recent lines of evidence indicate more intensive contact between LBK farmers and indigenous foragers in Central Europe (5600–5400 calBC. Strong continuity has been identified between Mesolithic and Neolithic material cultures; faunal assemblages, and isotopic analyses of diet have revealed a greater role of hunting in LBK communities; genetic analyses have suggested that the modern Central European gene pool is mainly of Palaeolithic origin. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to demographic aspects of the Neolithic transition. In our study, demographic simulations were performed to assess the demographic conditions that would allow LBK farmers to spread across central Europe without any admixture with Mesolithic foragers. We constructed a stochastic demographic model of changes in farming population size. Model parameters were constrained by data from human demography, archaeology, and human ecology. Our results indicate that the establishment of farming communities in Central Europe without an admixture with foragers was highly improbable. The demographic conditions necessary for colonization were beyond the potential of the Neolithic population. Our study supports the integrationists’ view of the Neolithic transition in Central Europe.

  1. What Is Medieval European Literature?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Borsa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The editors of Interfaces: A Journal of Medieval European Literatures explain the scope and purpose of the new journal by mapping out the significance and possible meanings of the three key terms of the subtitle: ‘literature,’ ‘medieval,’ ‘Europe.’ The specific theme of Issue 1 is introduced: ‘Histories of Medieval European Literatures: New Patterns of Representation and Explanation.’ With respect to this theme, theoretical problems concerning teleology and the present possibilities for literary historical narratives are raised. Finally the editors state the journal’s commitment to a scholarly forum which is non-profit and open-access. The bibliography refers to key critical reading which shapes the journal’s approach to medieval European literatures.

  2. Democracy and Historical Writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, we try to clarify the relationship between democracy and historical writing. The strategy is first exploring the general relationship between democracy and historical awareness, and then, studying the relationship between democracy and historical writing itself to find out whether

  3. Taxonomy of the European Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca (Aves: Muscicapidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvador, Rodrigo B.; Van der Jeugd, Henk; Tomotani, Barbara M.

    2017-01-01

    The convoluted taxonomy of the European Pied Flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca ([Pallas], 1764) (Aves: Passeriformes: Muscicapidae) might present a challenge for researchers working in other areas of biology. We present here a historical review of this species’ nomenclature, discuss its generic

  4. Demographic development in selected microregions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Palát

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at the population development analysis of the Běleč, Lučina, Cézava and Podluží regions. In the studied period an increase in the mid-year population occurred, the proportion of women was predominant. As for demographic indicators, following parameters were evaluated: the number of population, the structure of population according to sex and age, death rate, birth-rate, marriage rate, divorce rate and migration. To express the development prediction of these indicators methods of time series were used. The population is getting older due to the extending live expectancy and decreasing mortality rate. The demographic aging of the population brings about a number of economic and social impacts, which require treatment both on the all-society and regional level.

  5. Bet Hedging against Demographic Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, BingKan; Leibler, Stanislas

    2017-09-01

    Biological organisms have to cope with stochastic variations in both the external environment and the internal population dynamics. Theoretical studies and laboratory experiments suggest that population diversification could be an effective bet-hedging strategy for adaptation to varying environments. Here we show that bet hedging can also be effective against demographic fluctuations that pose a trade-off between growth and survival for populations even in a constant environment. A species can maximize its overall abundance in the long term by diversifying into coexisting subpopulations of both "fast-growing" and "better-surviving" individuals. Our model generalizes statistical physics models of birth-death processes to incorporate dispersal, during which new populations are founded, and can further incorporate variations of local environments. In this way, we unify different bet-hedging strategies against demographic and environmental variations as a general means of adaptation to both types of uncertainties in population growth.

  6. Genome-wide Ancestry and Demographic History of African-Descendant Maroon Communities from French Guiana and Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes-Lima, Cesar; Gessain, Antoine; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Migot-Nabias, Florence; Bellis, Gil; Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Restrepo, Berta Nelly; Rojas, Winston; Avendaño-Tamayo, Efren; Bedoya, Gabriel; Orlando, Ludovic; Salas, Antonio; Helgason, Agnar; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Sikora, Martin; Schroeder, Hannes; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel

    2017-11-02

    The transatlantic slave trade was the largest forced migration in world history. However, the origins of the enslaved Africans and their admixture dynamics remain unclear. To investigate the demographic history of African-descendant Marron populations, we generated genome-wide data (4.3 million markers) from 107 individuals from three African-descendant populations in South America, as well as 124 individuals from six west African populations. Throughout the Americas, thousands of enslaved Africans managed to escape captivity and establish lasting communities, such as the Noir Marron. We find that this population has the highest proportion of African ancestry (∼98%) of any African-descendant population analyzed to date, presumably because of centuries of genetic isolation. By contrast, African-descendant populations in Brazil and Colombia harbor substantially more European and Native American ancestry as a result of their complex admixture histories. Using ancestry tract-length analysis, we detect different dates for the European admixture events in the African-Colombian (1749 CE; confidence interval [CI]: 1737-1764) and African-Brazilian (1796 CE; CI: 1789-1804) populations in our dataset, consistent with the historically attested earlier influx of Africans into Colombia. Furthermore, we find evidence for sex-specific admixture patterns, resulting from predominantly European paternal gene flow. Finally, we detect strong genetic links between the African-descendant populations and specific source populations in Africa on the basis of haplotype sharing patterns. Although the Noir Marron and African-Colombians show stronger affinities with African populations from the Bight of Benin and the Gold Coast, the African-Brazilian population from Rio de Janeiro has greater genetic affinity with Bantu-speaking populations from the Bight of Biafra and west central Africa. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Demographic Processes in Hungary and their Manifestation in Small Towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRÁS TRÓCSÁNYI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Hungary, belonging more and more to the prestigious group of developed countries, can be characterised increasingly by the demographic characteristics of that type. Ageing population, decreasing number of live births, decreasing population size are commonly used terms when analysing the demographic profile of our country. This simplified picture can be modulated and coloured with the help of spatial data. In spite of the comparatively small-sized and relatively homogenous structure of Hungary, several differences can be found. The network of small towns could be an obvious and representative sample for the spatial investigations since it almost totally covers the area of Hungary, it is numerous enough but still easy to handle. Within a Hungarian geographical context, settlements having a maximum of 30,000 inhabitants and possessing city rank can be defined as small towns. Because of their size and functions, small towns are sensitive enough to illustrate the national demographic tendencies, but they are numerous enough to be split into different groups according to their remarkably diverse character. Traditional historic small towns widely differ from the ones located in the rapidly urbanising agglomerations, even though the socialist new towns, having similar origin, reflect significant demographic variants.

  8. Demographic consequences of defeating aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Leonid A; Gavrilova, Natalia S

    2010-01-01

    A common objection against starting a large-scale biomedical war on aging is the fear of catastrophic population consequences (overpopulation). This fear is only exacerbated by the fact that no detailed demographic projections for radical life extension scenario have been conducted so far. This study explores different demographic scenarios and population projections, in order to clarify what could be the demographic consequences of a successful biomedical war on aging. A general conclusion of this study is that population changes are surprisingly slow in their response to a dramatic life extension. For example, we applied the cohort-component method of population projections to 2005 Swedish population for several scenarios of life extension and a fertility schedule observed in 2005. Even for very long 100-year projection horizon, with the most radical life extension scenario (assuming no aging at all after age 60), the total population increases by 22% only (from 9.1 to 11.0 million). Moreover, if some members of society reject to use new anti-aging technologies for some religious or any other reasons (inconvenience, non-compliance, fear of side effects, costs, etc.), then the total population size may even decrease over time. Thus, even in the case of the most radical life extension scenario, population growth could be relatively slow and may not necessarily lead to overpopulation. Therefore, the real concerns should be placed not on the threat of catastrophic population consequences (overpopulation), but rather on such potential obstacles to a success of biomedical war on aging, as scientific, organizational, and financial limitations.

  9. Regional Economic Integration: The European Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Jacquet

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Regional initiatives have flourished since the end of the Cold War. Given the degree of integration it has achieved, the European Union is often cited as a model of regional integration. This article argues that European integration has been the product of very specific historical conditions, implying that the politics and dynamics of regional integration in Europe may not be appropriate for and replicable in other regions. It also discusses European monetary union (EMU and argues that integration within EMU is still incomplete in particular because economic policies are not sufficiently coordinated. Finally, it discusses the contribution of regional integration to global governance and suggests that the "European model" can be a source of inspiration for the rest of the world not as much as a process to emulate as for the lessons that can be learned from the dynamics and experience of European integration about some important issues in managing economic interdependence.

  10. Economic Effects of Demographic Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litra A.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Romania goes through profound changes due to unprecedented demographic developments. As a result of declining birth rates and emigration after 1990, by the year 2060 is looming a possible doubling of the percentage of the population 65 years and over, from 15 to 30%, and the working age population to fall by about 30 percent. Deterioration of the relationship between labour force and inactive population leads to pressure on the public budget and tax system, strains on pension and social security systems, redefining consumer preferences, type and size of the saved or spent amounts, higher demand for healthcare services, increasing poverty risk for elderly households.

  11. Future harvesting pressure on European forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabuurs, G.J.; Pussinen, A.; Brusselen, van J.; Schelhaas, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    We provide quantitative insight in the spatial distribution of the future supply of wood as a raw material from European forests (27 countries) until 2060. This supply is tested for two scenarios: `projection of historical management¿ and `new management trends¿ and compared against a benchmark

  12. Vocation or Vocational? Reviewing European Union Education and Mobility Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, Amelia; Summerby-Murray, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the role that education plays in European Union (EU) integration. We ask whether efforts which historically have been designed to endow European students with a "knowledge of Europe" in terms of an understanding of culture, politics and sensibility have been circumscribed by, or augmented, by the recently…

  13. European approaches to changing patterns of energy consumption and supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepetit, P. [Centre Francais sur les Etats-Unis, 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-07-01

    In the case of the broad debate on the security of energy supply, launched by the european commission on november 2000, this document presents the historical european facts and figures, stress the dramatic changes since 1990 and discussed the policy opinions (nuclear energy, tax policy, further progress in opening market and promoting international trade and investment). (A.L.B.)

  14. Challenges of Adolescent Psychology in the European Identity Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannegrand-Willems, Lyda; Barbot, Baptiste

    2015-01-01

    In Europe, the question of identity and youth civic engagement constitutes a challenge both for the European Union (EU) and for research on adolescent psychology. In this article, we discuss the European historical context and the current initiatives from the EU that aim to encourage civic engagement among young people. Then, we suggest some…

  15. Historical transformation and epistemological discontinuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Močnik Rastko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from recent formulas of EU bureaucracy for subordinating scientific and educational apparatuses to the needs of the capital and to the requests of its political representatives, the article analyses the interconnection between the historical transformation of the ideological state apparatuses (universities, higher education institutions, research institutes etc. and the epistemological discontinuity provoked by the triumph of technosciences. The hypothesis to be tested is the following: While the crisis of West European-North American capitalism requires an ever tighter submission of ideological state apparatuses, and especially of scientific and academic apparatuses to the needs of the capital, theoretical practices in the humanities and social sciences have come to the point where they entered into an open conflict with the domination of the capital and have, as a consequence, started to subvert their own institutional supports in the ideological apparatuses of the capitalist state. For this purpose, the article reconsiders social sciences as a compromise formation and, eventually, reassesses the historical materialism as a non-Cartesian modern science.

  16. Demographics of paediatric renal replacement therapy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chesnaye, Nicholas; Bonthuis, Marjolein; Schaefer, Franz

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry collects data on European children with end-stage renal disease receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT) who are listed on national and regional renal registries in Europe. In this paper we report on the analysis of demographic data collected from 2009...... to 2011. METHODS: Data on primary renal disease, incidence, prevalence, 4-year survival, transplantation rate and causes of death in paediatric patients receiving RRT were extracted from the ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry for 37 European countries. RESULTS: The incidence of RRT in paediatric patients in Europe...... during the study period was 5.5 cases per million age-related population (pmarp) in patients aged 0-14 years and varied markedly between countries (interquartile range 3.4-7.0 years). The prevalence of RRT was 27.9 pmarp and increased with age, with 67 % of prevalent patients living with a functioning...

  17. Historical Dictionaries and Historical Dictionary Research: Papers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    The papers collected in this volume were originally presented at an Interna- tional Conference on Historical Lexicography and Lexicology organized by. Julie Coleman, and meant to fill the gap created by the two International. Round Table Conferences in Florence and Leyden in 1971 and 1977 respec- tively. The purpose ...

  18. Continuity and Change in the Politics of European Scientific Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Hallonsten

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Intergovernmental collaboration in the area of big science has been an important resource for European science since the 1950s. Yet, as a policy area, it has traditionally been left outside of the political integration work of the European Community/Union. Despite this formal detachment, the political realities of the collaborations often draw upon and reflect the (geopolitical dynamics of Europe. This article reports on a study of two big projects in the making (the European Spallation Source and the European X-ray Free Electron Laser, and uses two historical cases for comparison (the European Laboratory for Nuclear Research and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. It highlights critical issues in establishing and operating collaborations, relates these to the broader context of European political integration, and discusses, on the basis of this, signs of continuity and change in this distinct area of European research policy.

  19. Lagos Historical Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Lagos Historical Review is an international and interdisciplinary journal publishing papers with a historical focus. The journal generates and participates in debates to advance the discipline of history and promote its relevance to development. The journal aims to serve the academic community with a bias towards ...

  20. Physical activity locations in Georgia: frequency of use by socio-demographic group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln R. Larson; Jason W. Whiting; Gary T. Green; J. M. Bowker

    2014-01-01

    Active outdoor recreation helps to mitigate health consequences associated with sedentary behavior. Enhanced understanding of socio-demographic differences in physical activity (PA) location preferences could therefore contribute to health promotion.This study examined frequency o fuse fo rvarious PA locations in Georgia,a state with historically high levels of...

  1. Socio-Demographic Determinants of Economic Growth: Age-Structure, Preindustrial Heritage and Sociolinguistic Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, Edward; Robison, Kristopher

    2010-01-01

    This study establishes a socio-demographic theory of international development derived from selected classical and contemporary sociological theories. Four hypotheses are tested: (1. population growth's effect on development depends on age-structure; (2. historic population density (used here as an indicator of preindustrial social complexity)…

  2. Historizing epistemology in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Gordana

    2010-12-01

    The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.

  3. A Demographic Approach to Evaluating Tree Population Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey R. Halpin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative criteria for assessing demographic sustainability of tree populations would be useful in forest conservation, as climate change and a growing complex of invasive pests are likely to drive forests outside their historic range of variability. In this paper, we used CANOPY, a spatially explicit, individual‐tree model, to examine the effects of initial size distributions on sustainability of tree populations for 70 northern hardwood stands under current environmental conditions. A demographic sustainability index was calculated as the ratio of future simulated basal area to current basal area, given current demographic structure and density‐dependent demographic equations. Only steeply descending size distributions were indicated to be moderately or highly sustainable (final basal area/initial basal area ≥0.7 over several tree generations. Five of the six principal species had demographic sustainability index values of <0.6 in 40%–84% of the stands. However, at a small landscape scale, nearly all species had mean index values >1. Simulation experiments suggested that a minimum sapling density of 300 per hectare was required to sustain the initial basal area, but further increases in sapling density did not increase basal area because of coincident increases in mortality. A variable slope with high q‐ratios in small size classes was needed to maintain the existing overstory of mature and old‐growth stands. This analytical approach may be useful in identifying stands needing restoration treatments to maintain existing species composition in situations where forests are likely to have future recruitment limitations.

  4. From Complementarity to Conflict: A Historical Analysis of Farmer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper provides a socio-historical analysis of conflict between Fulbe pastoralists and farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa. The discussion examines various structural factors that have fostered conditions conducive to conflict generation and intensification, including international development projects, demographic changes ...

  5. Use of molecular genetics and historical records to reconstruct the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent advances in molecular genetics made the inference of past demographic events through the analysis of gene pools from modern populations possible. The technology uses genetic markers to provide previously unavailable resolution into questions of human evolution, migration and the historical relationship of ...

  6. Provoking Innovation: Creating Grassroots and Intersectional Programming at Historical Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Jody

    2009-01-01

    Historical organizations cannot continue to compete in the modern marketplace using traditional models for education program development. Social networking sites and new applications are shaping the way our audiences approach their work, even more so as Generation Y/Millennials begin to flood into the workforce, changing the demographic makeup,…

  7. India's demographic change: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, K S

    2011-07-29

    This paper discusses emerging demographic patterns and its opportunities and challenges for India. It investigates the specificities in the demographic transition in terms of various demographic parameters and the lack of homogeneity in the transition across states in the country. It presents some opportunities that can arise from having demographic changes, particularly the demographic dividend and interstate migration to overcome labor shortage in some parts. At the same time, there are serious challenges in the form of enhancing human capital development, addressing the issue of skewed sex ratio, and the possible rise in social and political unrest and conflict.

  8. Investigating European genetic history through computer simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currat, Mathias; Silva, Nuno M

    2013-01-01

    The genetic diversity of Europeans has been shaped by various evolutionary forces including their demographic history. Genetic data can thus be used to draw inferences on the population history of Europe using appropriate statistical methods such as computer simulation, which constitutes a powerful tool to study complex models. Here, we focus on spatially explicit simulation, a method which takes population movements over space and time into account. We present its main principles and then describe a series of studies using this approach that we consider as particularly significant in the context of European prehistory. All simulation studies agree that ancient demographic events played a significant role in the establishment of the European gene pool; but while earlier works support a major genetic input from the Near East during the Neolithic transition, the most recent ones revalue positively the contribution of pre-Neolithic hunter-gatherers and suggest a possible impact of very ancient demographic events. This result of a substantial genetic continuity from pre-Neolithic times to the present challenges some recent studies analyzing ancient DNA. We discuss the possible reasons for this discrepancy and identify future lines of investigation in order to get a better understanding of European evolution.

  9. 5th European Rheology Conference

    CERN Document Server

    1998-01-01

    Global sustainable development of the world economy requires better understanding and utilization of natural recourses. In this endeavor rheology has an indispensable role. The Rheology Conferences are therefore always an important event for science and technology. The Fifth European Rheology Conference, held from September 6 to 11 in the Portoro-z, Slovenia, will be the first AlI-European rheology meeting after the formal constitution of the European Society ofRheology. As such it will be a special historical event. At this meeting the European Society of Rheology will introduce the Weissenberg Medal, to be bestowed every four years to an individual for hislhers contribution to the field of Rheology. The recipient ofthe first award will be professor G. Marrucci ofthe Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Italy. Two mini Symposia will be part of the Conference. The first, on Industrial Rheology, will commemorate the late professor G. Astarita. The second will honor the eightieth birthday of professor N.W. Tschoeg...

  10. The potential of historical hydrology in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetter, Oliver

    2017-11-01

    hydrological studies of smaller catchments have been requested by the responsible local authorities. The course for further publicly requested historical hydrological analysis seems thus to have been set. This paper therefore intends to discuss the potential of historical hydrological analysis, with a focus on the specific situation in Switzerland. 1Guideline 2007/60/EG of the European Parliament and Council from 23 October 2007 on assessment and management of flood risks, Official Journal of the European Union, L 288, 27-34, Brussels, 2007.

  11. The potential of historical hydrology in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Wetter

    2017-11-01

    historical hydrological studies of smaller catchments have been requested by the responsible local authorities. The course for further publicly requested historical hydrological analysis seems thus to have been set. This paper therefore intends to discuss the potential of historical hydrological analysis, with a focus on the specific situation in Switzerland. 1Guideline 2007/60/EG of the European Parliament and Council from 23 October 2007 on assessment and management of flood risks, Official Journal of the European Union, L 288, 27–34, Brussels, 2007.

  12. Assisted reproductive technologies are an integrated part of national strategies addressing demographic and reproductive challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziebe, Søren; Devroey, Paul; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2012-01-01

    The decline in the total fertility rate in the latter half of the 20th century in many European countries is becoming increasingly important in determining the demographic composition of Europe and its individual member states. This review focuses on discussion surrounding how assisted reproductive...

  13. The Age Parameters of the Starting Demographic Events across Russian Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanova, E. S.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents comparisons of the ages and facts of starting demographic events in Russia based on the findings of three large-scale surveys: the European Social Survey, 2006; the Generations and Gender Survey, 2004, 2007, and 2011; and Person, Family, Society, 2013. This study focuses on the intergenerational and gender differences in the…

  14. History of Historical Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Schuyler

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available On Sunday April 19, 1998 Jean Carl Harrington (known to the profession as J.C. or "Pinky" Harrington passed away at his home in Richmond, Virginia. At 96 Harrington's life almost spanned the 20th century and did encompass the rise and establishment of professional Historical Archaeology in North America. Many consider Harrington to be the founder or "father" of Americanist Historical Archaeology. In 1936 he took over the newly created NPS-CCC project at Jamestown, Virginia and that event is arguably the inception of Historical Archaeology as an organized, scholarly discipline.

  15. Russian Federation: From the first to second demographic transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Zakharov

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The demographic transition in Russia was accelerated by several social cataclysms during the "Soviet type" modernization. Frequent changes in the timing of births and marriages engendered a mass "abortion culture". Contraceptive devices of poor quality were produced on a limited scale. The Soviet regime promulgated pronatalism and considered contraception to contradict this ideology. There have been two waves of government policy interventions. In the 1930s and 1940s restrictive and propaganda measures prevailed. These failed to yield serious effects. In the 1980s, policies aimed at lessening the tension between full-time employment and maternal roles. These generated shifts in birth timing, namely shorter birth intervals and earlier second and third births, however increase in completed cohort fertility was minimal. A third wave started in 2007. Preoccupied with continuous depopulation, authorities intend to boost births by substantially increasing benefits. The mid-1990s was a turning point in the change of fertility and nuptiality models. The 1970s birth cohorts marry and become parents later. They delay first and second births and increasingly begin partnerships with cohabitation. Contraception is replacing abortion. New attitudes and perceptions about family, partnership, childbearing, and family planning are emerging. A major transformation typical for developed countries, the Second Demographic Transition, is underway. Nevertheless, many neo-traditional features of fertility and nuptiality remain. These distinguish Russia from most European countries and will persist in the near future. Completed fertility, however, hardly differs from the average European level.

  16. The neolithic demographic transition in Europe: correlation with juvenility index supports interpretation of the summed calibrated radiocarbon date probability distribution (SCDPD as a valid demographic proxy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean S Downey

    Full Text Available Analysis of the proportion of immature skeletons recovered from European prehistoric cemeteries has shown that the transition to agriculture after 9000 BP triggered a long-term increase in human fertility. Here we compare the largest analysis of European cemeteries to date with an independent line of evidence, the summed calibrated date probability distribution of radiocarbon dates (SCDPD from archaeological sites. Our cemetery reanalysis confirms increased growth rates after the introduction of agriculture; the radiocarbon analysis also shows this pattern, and a significant correlation between both lines of evidence confirms the demographic validity of SCDPDs. We analyze the areal extent of Neolithic enclosures and demographic data from ethnographically known farming and foraging societies and we estimate differences in population levels at individual sites. We find little effect on the overall shape and precision of the SCDPD and we observe a small increase in the correlation with the cemetery trends. The SCDPD analysis supports the hypothesis that the transition to agriculture dramatically increased demographic growth, but it was followed within centuries by a general pattern of collapse even after accounting for higher settlement densities during the Neolithic. The study supports the unique contribution of SCDPDs as a valid demographic proxy for the demographic patterns associated with early agriculture.

  17. CONSEQUENCES OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU RADU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Major dysfunctionalities can arise from the demographic decline, both on a social level and from the perspective of the economic-financial evolution of the world’s states. The obvious aging of the industrialized states’ population overlapping the import of cheap workforce in the developing countries can start mutations whose consequences are somewhat predictable but discouraging. An accelerated urbanization of the states is foreseen, as well as the decrease of birthrates, negative external migration, increase of mortality and its stagnation in a larger value than that of the birthrate, and not least the population’s aging will hinder a part of the developing countries to sustain a high rhythm of long-term economical increase. The socialeconomic consequences will be reflected in the labor market, the householders’ amount of income as well as in the education’s level. All of these aspects call for a rethinking of the public politics, especially of the social insurance’s system and of the education, a reorientation of the economy based on the increase of specializing in production and productivity, as well as a financial stability unburdened by the politics’ interference in the business environment.

  18. Historical Climatology Series

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Historical Climatology Series (HCS) is a set of climate-related publications published by NOAA's National Climatic Data Center beginning in 1978. HCS is...

  19. Iowa Historic Cemeteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This shape file represents Iowa Historic Cemeteries. Originally it was based on an Iowa DNR point file marking cemetery locations as found on 7.5 min. USGS quad...

  20. Premier Hospital Historical Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — To provide a historical overview of the participating hospitals, before the first project report, Premier Healthcare Informatics has used data already available for...

  1. VT Roadside Historic Markers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Roadside Historic Site Marker program has proven an effective way to commemorate Vermont’s many people, events, and places of regional, statewide, or national...

  2. Historical Survey Data Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To preserve NEFSC historical data, images of biological and oceanographic data sheets (1948-1975) were scanned to digital format and can be queried through a portal...

  3. Historically defined autobiographical periods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Norman R.; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Lee, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    over time and theoretical implications are discussed, notably by introducing a new approach to autobiographical memory, Transition Theory, which assumes that autobiographical memory is organized by transitional events that can be selfinitiated or externally imposed - historically defined...

  4. Exploring the premises of European education systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moutsios, Stavros

    This paper (part of a project carried out under the EU’s Marie Curie programme of Intra-European Fellowships, FP7-People-2011-IEF, CETH, 298656) explores the emergence of the European education systems in Modernity. As the paper argues, the institution of education in Europe was associated....... Understanding the historical premises of European education would allow us to understand the trajectory that education systems have had till today, in Europe and beyond........ This fundamental antinomy, between autonomy and rational control, explicated by Castoriadis, constitutes the very particularity of the European imaginary, which has been incarnated, as the paper argues, in the institution of education since the Enlightenment – although its first traces appeared much earlier...

  5. Are we Europeans?: Correlates and the relation between national and European identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihić Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches of the correlates of the national identity are plentiful both in Serbian and foreign literature. However, in the past decade or so, a new social identity starts to make its way into the researches of the social psychologists-European identity or the sense of belonging to the Europe and the Europeans. This paper deals with the relation between national and European identity, as well as with the correlates of both of these, or one of them. The sample consisted of 451 subjects, all residents of major cities in the Vojvodina region (northern Serbia, divided into several categories-ethnicity (Serbs and Hungarians, educational level (primary and secondary school or University degree, gender and age. Several scales have been used: Cinnirela's national and European identity scale, Collective self-esteem scale, scale measuring attitudes towards the European integration-STEIN and Social dominance orientation scale-SDO. The questionnaire with the demographic characteristics has also been the part of the instrument. The research has been conducted in 2005 and 2006 in the all of the major Vojvodinian cities. Results show the relation between national and European identity is foggy, but general conclusion is that we can observe them as independent identities. The correlates of the national identity were ethnicity, high social dominance orientation, high collective self-esteem and negative attitude towards the European integrations. Correlates of the European identity were fewer: ethnicity, positive attitude towards the European integration and low social dominance orientation.

  6. Historic center of Oporto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Gómez-Ferrer

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available At the last General Assembly of the World Heritage Committee, held in Mérida, Mexico, the Historic Centre of Porto was included in the list of World Heritage ensembles. The architect Álvaro Gómez-Ferrer, who presented the report submitted by Porto Municipal Corporation, makes some points about its historic, patrimonial and urbanistic value, putting special emphasis on the legal protection and management of the rehabilitation works

  7. Historic center of Oporto

    OpenAIRE

    Álvaro Gómez-Ferrer

    1997-01-01

    At the last General Assembly of the World Heritage Committee, held in Mérida, Mexico, the Historic Centre of Porto was included in the list of World Heritage ensembles. The architect Álvaro Gómez-Ferrer, who presented the report submitted by Porto Municipal Corporation, makes some points about its historic, patrimonial and urbanistic value, putting special emphasis on the legal protection and management of the rehabilitation works

  8. Historical Documents Modernization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Miguel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Historical documents are mostly accessible to scholars specialized in the period in which the document originated. In order to increase their accessibility to a broader audience and help in the preservation of the cultural heritage, we propose a method to modernized these documents. This method is based in statistical machine translation, and aims at translating historical documents into a modern version of their original language. We tested this method in two different scenarios, obtaining very encouraging results.

  9. Mayan Historical drought trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco Hererra, V.; Mendoza, B. E.; García-Acosta, V.

    2007-05-01

    In this work we present a more objective and general cycle-length determination of catalogues of past drought data for the Yucatan Peninsula between 1502 and 1900 coming from historical written documentation. We use the wavelet transformation based on the Morlet wavelet, and found that the most prominent frequencies of the historical drought series are ~ 3,4, 7, 12, 20, 43 and 70 years. We studied the relation between historical droughts and several large-scale climate phenomena represented by the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). Our results indicate that historical droughts and the cold phase of the AMO coincide, while the influence of the SOI is less clear. The strongest coincidences between historical droughts and AMO occurred around periodicities of 40 yrs. A further study of wavelet coherence shows that there are also common signal along time between droughts and various solar activity phenomena, in particular Be10, a proxy of cosmic rays. Comparing natural terrestrial and solar phenomena, we realize that the most sustained and strongest modulation of historical drought occurrence is at ~ 60-64 yrs and is between droughts and the solar proxy Be10.

  10. A Demographic Perspective on Family Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Suzanne M

    2014-03-01

    Demographic analysis seeks to understand how individual microlevel decisions about child-bearing, marriage and partnering, geographic mobility, and behaviors that influence health and longevity aggregate to macrolevel population trends and differentials in fertility, mortality and migration. In this review, I first discuss theoretical perspectives-classic demographic transition theory, the perspective of the "second demographic transition," the spread of developmental idealism-that inform demographers' understanding of macrolevel population change. Then, I turn to a discussion of the role that demographically informed data collection has played in illuminating family change since the mid-20th century in the United States. Finally, I discuss ways in which demographic theory and data collection might inform future areas of family research, particularly in the area of intergenerational family relationships and new and emerging family forms.

  11. The Intrinsic Demographics of Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urry, C. Megan; Mao, Peiyuan; Brandt, Timothy D.

    2017-08-01

    Blazar surveys over the past three decades have revealed a range of spectral energy distributions (SEDs), with large systematic differences depending on survey wavelength. This means blazar samples suffer from strong selection effects. To date there has been no agreement on how to infer intrinsic population demographics from these samples, with a key issue being whether blazar jet power is related to the shape of the spectral energy distribution. We investigate this issue using Monte Carlo simulations of BL Lac and flat-spectrum radio quasar populations. We rule out the hypothesis that the SED shape is not linked to luminosity, as the simulated samples in that case disagree strongly with observed surveys. This means that the low-power blazars found primarily in X-ray surveys must be more common than the high-power blazars found primarily in radio surveys. Given an intrinsic correlation between luminosity and SED shape, our simulations predict distributions of flux, redshift, luminosity, and spectral index consistent with existing surveys. We also show that the observed evolution of X-ray-selected blazars, as measured through the average V/Vmax ratio, appears to be negative even when the underlying evolution is actually mildly positive. The apparent negative evolution of X-ray bright BL Lacs is a selection effect caused by redshifting a steeply falling UV-to-X-ray spectrum out of the X-ray band. As this conclusion would suggest, our simulations also show that the deeper the X-ray flux limit and/or the lower the frequency of the synchrotron peak in the SED, the less negative the apparent evolution.

  12. Alcohol in Early Southeastern Nigeria | Okonkwo | Lagos Historical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There exists several misconceptions on the origin of gin distillation and importation in eastern Nigeria .The historical reality is that prior to the coming of Europeans to the coastal region of the area, the only alcohol brand known to the people was palm wine. It was used for various rituals and social gatherings until the ...

  13. The welfare state and demographic dividends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Abío

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The demographic transition experienced by developed countries produces initial positive effects on economic growth ‒ the first demographic dividend ‒ which can be extended into a second demographic dividend if baby boomers' savings increase capital accumulation. Nevertheless, aging might reverse this process if dissaving of elderly baby boomers and the pressure on the pay-as-you-go financed welfare state reduce savings and capital. Objective: The aim of this paper is to evaluate the extent to which demographic dividends in Spain provide an opportunity for the reform of the welfare state system for an aging population. Methods: We decompose demographic dividends using a general equilibrium overlapping generations model with realistic demography and public transfers from the National Transfer Accounts database. This allows us to capture the endogenous evolution of savings and capital accumulation and, hence, the second demographic dividend. Results: When baby boomers enter the labor market, the purely demographic support ratio increases and this positive effect is extended by composition changes in the age structure of workers. When they start saving, the second demographic dividend arises, while its total net effect depends both on the strength of the aging process and on transfer size. Conclusions: The derived decomposition shows that the second demographic dividend might also disappear. Sharp population aging in Spain implies that capital will shrink drastically after 2040. Before this, there seems to be margin for reforms; however, an extension of the welfare state toward the Nordic model would considerably reduce capital. Contribution: This paper contributes to the debate on the effects of demographics on economic growth by decomposing demographic dividends and investigating the impact of different welfare state transfer systems on the second demographic dividend.

  14. European Security in an Evolving World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-18

    With a working definition of twenty-first century power in hand, the paper then examines the historical record regarding the power relationships... definition of power? These are some of the questions this paper will address and attempt to answer in this section. Over two millennia ago...challenge.10 In Europe and other parts of the world, the major demographic concern is no longer overpopulation , but a stagnant and aging population

  15. New Challenges and Opportunities for Putting into Value the Diversity of the Danube Territorial Capital, as a “European Axis” in light of Bio-Resources Supply during 2030-2050, in the context of Global Demographic Projections for 2100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Bogdan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of the Danube territorial capital is the part of World Heritage public investment - biodiversity, environmental protection, sustainable development, reducing poverty and increasing social inclusion, continued development of the global economic welfare, promote a healthy environment, conservation of bio-resources as a ―European Axis‖ , business development in the context of eco-bio-economic, diplomatic instruments promoting eco-bio-economic development, food security, public health, are only several ideas of a smart modern world, which can be attached to development philosophy type ―smart power‖ and contextual intelligence world for Sustainable Development Smart (Smart Sustainable Development by Sustainable Diplomacy Smart (Smart Sustainable Diplomacy in diversity of the Danube territorial capital, which can be a key ingredient of success for Excellence in Foreign Affairs Diplomatic and intelligence dedicated Environmental and Eco- Bio-Economy (SMART & Excellence in Environmental and Eco-Bio-Economic Affairs.

  16. Organization and targets of the European Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldi, R.

    1997-12-01

    After a short historical review of the formation, objectives and organization of the International Geothermal Association (IGA), this paper describes the functions, goals and activities of the IGA European Branch. In particular, the paper illustrates the plan of action established for the periods 1993-`95 and 1996-`98, and the issues dealt with by the European Forum as of August 1996. The last section of the paper outlines the main problems to be faced in the near future in order to facilitate the aggregation of efforts, the amalgamation of promotional initiatives and the coordination of the basic activities needed for the consolidation and growth of the geothermal community in Europe. (orig.)

  17. EUROPEAN AUSTERITY WITHOUT GROWTH? EUROPEAN GROWTH WITHOUT EUROPEAN DEMOCRACY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montani Guido

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The European project is facing a crisis. Citizens no longer understand what the EU is about. Young people and the new ruling class have forgotten the clear message of the European project launched just after the Second World War "No wars ever again among Europeans." The founding fathers of the European Union are mentioned in history textbooks, but today Europe is felt as an irritating bureaucracy. In Europe, peace and economic stability are considered as a natural state, a gift from above. Why keep a useless EU alive? The state of the European Union is swiftly degenerating. In almost all the member states, the anti-European forces are gaining ground. Populism is not a new ideology and is not necessarily European: let's recall Peronism. In today's Europe populism is the new manifestation of nationalism. In Italy the Lega Nord is in Berlusconi's eurosceptic government. In France, the National Front is endangering UMP's hegemony. In Belgium the rows between the Flemish and the Walloons threatens the state's unity. In the Netherlands, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Austria and Finland, populist forces are either in the government or strongly influencing the government. National-populism is different from the nationalism of the past. De Gaulle's nationalism was an ideology founded on the "grandeur" of France's history and on a certain idea of Europe, which was "l'Europe de patrie", a kind of European unity accepting French leadership in world politics. Today national-populism is a form of micro-nationalism: it opposes the European project but without having a serious alternative. This is why populism is dangerous. Its real goal is not only the breaking down of the European Union but also the disintegration of the old nation states into micro-ethnic states, as what happened in former Yugoslavia.

  18. Demographic transitions in Europe and the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, Frans

    The demographic transition is a universal phenomenon. All regions of the world experience a change from high levels of mortality and fertility to low levels. The onset and pace of the demographic transition vary between regions and countries because of differences in timing of events and conditions

  19. The Unaddressed Costs of Changing Student Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Leslie S.; Owings, William A.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the impact of changing student demographics on financing education and on our national wellbeing. We begin by examining the research of current student demographics and their relationship to learning and education costs. We then calculate a 1% cost factor from the average per-pupil expenditure based on the 2011 "Digest…

  20. Demographic and Sociocultural Characteristics of Sickle Anaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significantly highernumber of people fromlowest socioeconomic class practice scarification (p=0.0001). Demographic and sociocultural factors do not appear to influence the prevalence of HBsAg among childrenwith SCAinEnugu,Nigeria. Sickle cell anaemia; Hepatitis B surface antigenaemia, Demographic, Sociocultural ...

  1. Demographic transitions in Europe and the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, F.J.; Matthijs, K.; Neels, K.; Timmerman, C.; Haers, J.; Mels, S.

    2016-01-01

    Willekens, F. (2015) Demographic transitions in Europe and the world. In: K. Matthijs, K. Neels, C. Timmerman. J. Haers and S. Mels eds. Population change at work in Europe, the Middle-East and North Africa. Beyond the demographic divide. Ashgate (International Population Studies Series) pp. 13-44.

  2. Bias and ignorance in demographic perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, D; Guay, B; Marghetis, T

    2017-08-31

    When it comes to knowledge of demographic facts, misinformation appears to be the norm. Americans massively overestimate the proportions of their fellow citizens who are immigrants, Muslim, LGBTQ, and Latino, but underestimate those who are White or Christian. Previous explanations of these estimation errors have invoked topic-specific mechanisms such as xenophobia or media bias. We reconsidered this pattern of errors in the light of more than 30 years of research on the psychological processes involved in proportion estimation and decision-making under uncertainty. In two publicly available datasets featuring demographic estimates from 14 countries, we found that proportion estimates of national demographics correspond closely to what is found in laboratory studies of quantitative estimates more generally. Biases in demographic estimation, therefore, are part of a very general pattern of human psychology-independent of the particular topic or demographic under consideration-that explains most of the error in estimates of the size of politically salient populations. By situating demographic estimates within a broader understanding of general quantity estimation, these results demand reevaluation of both topic-specific misinformation about demographic facts and topic-specific explanations of demographic ignorance, such as media bias and xenophobia.

  3. Demographic profile of patients diagnosed with intracranial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Meningiomas are common brain tumours and display gender, racial and ethnic differences in their demographic profile. The demographic profile of our patients diagnosed with intracranial meningiomas is presented and compared with the literature. Objectives: To determine the age, gender, racial and ethnic ...

  4. Biblical Interpretation Beyond Historicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biblical Interpretation beyond Historicity evaluates the new perspectives that have emerged since the crisis over historicity in the 1970s and 80s in the field of biblical scholarship. Several new studies in the field, as well as the ‘deconstructive’ side of literary criticism that emerged from...... East leads to the need for an evidence-based history of Palestine. This volume analyses the consequences of the question: “If the Bible is not history, what is it then?” The editors, Hjelm and Thompson are members of the Copenhagen School, which was formed in the light of this question...

  5. [Contemplations on demographic theories (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, W

    1979-03-01

    All demographic theories make statements on the relationship between population developments and economic developments. The demographic teachings of Adam Smith, Thomas Robert Malthus, and Karl Marx are embedded in their specific economic theories and contain ideologic statements which are not detrimental to demographic and economic sciences but a stimulus for research. The demographic theories which developed with the onset of the industrial revolution of the 19th century are all sceptical of too high populations independent of their analysis of the market mechanisms or of capitalistic production relationships. This has remained unchanged to date. The statistical evaluation of the 1980's underlines this problem. The reproductive behaviour and demographic theory of a highly industrialized economy can not be based on experience alone but must also be based on rational findings. The rejection of the prestige value of children on the reproductive behaviour which is independent of circumstances must be recognized.

  6. A Demographic Perspective on Family Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Suzanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Demographic analysis seeks to understand how individual microlevel decisions about child-bearing, marriage and partnering, geographic mobility, and behaviors that influence health and longevity aggregate to macrolevel population trends and differentials in fertility, mortality and migration. In this review, I first discuss theoretical perspectives—classic demographic transition theory, the perspective of the “second demographic transition,” the spread of developmental idealism—that inform demographers’ understanding of macrolevel population change. Then, I turn to a discussion of the role that demographically informed data collection has played in illuminating family change since the mid-20th century in the United States. Finally, I discuss ways in which demographic theory and data collection might inform future areas of family research, particularly in the area of intergenerational family relationships and new and emerging family forms. PMID:26078785

  7. European Flood Awareness System - now operational

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alionte Eklund, Cristina.; Hazlinger, Michal; Sprokkereef, Eric; Garcia Padilla, Mercedes; Garcia, Rafael J.; Thielen, Jutta; Salamon, Peter; Pappenberger, Florian

    2013-04-01

    The European Commission's Communication "Towards a Stronger European Union Disaster Response" adopted and endorsed by the Council in 2010, underpins the importance of strengthening concerted actions for natural disasters including floods, which are amongst the costliest natural disasters in the EU. The European Flood Awareness System (EFAS) contributes in the case of major flood events. to better protection of the European Citizen, the environment, property and cultural heritage. The disastrous floods in Elbe and Danube rivers in 2002 confronted the European Commission with non-coherent flood warning information from different sources and of variable quality, complicating planning and organisation of aid. Thus, the Commission initiated the development of a European Flood Awareness System (EFAS) which is now going operational. EFAS has been developed and tested at the Joint Research Centre, the Commission's in house science service, in close collaboration with the National hydrological and meteorological services, European Civil Protection through the Monitoring and Information Centre (MIC) and other research institutes. EFAS provides Pan-European overview maps of flood probabilities up to 10 days in advance as well as detailed forecasts at stations where the National services are providing real time data. More than 30 hydrological services and civil protection services in Europe are part of the EFAS network. Since 2011, EFAS is part of the COPERNICUS Emergency Management Service, (EMS) and is now an operational service since 2012. The Operational EFAS is being executed by several consortia dealing with different operational aspects: • EFAS Hydrological data collection centre —REDIAM and ELIMCO- will be collecting historic and realtime discharge and water levels data in support to EFAS • EFAS Meteorological data collection centre —outsourced but running onsite of JRC Ispra. Will be collecting historic and realtime meteorological data in support to EFAS

  8. Historicity in development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyra, Maria C. D. P.; Valsiner, Jaan

    2011-01-01

    Human development entails the establishment, widening, and abbreviation of new behavioural and psychological phenomena. This leads to the central role of historicity in developmental science—a look at presently happening events in terms of their constructive borrowing from the past and anticipati...

  9. Fort Monroe Historic Viewsheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    chives in Philadelphia, PA. During these visits, researchers collected ar- chival information such as historic photographs, art work, maps, and ar...John Johns of the Diocese of the Protestant Episcopal Church of Virginia in 1858. The Chapel (Building 166) is a Carpenter Gothic structure expanded

  10. Why Digitise Historical Television?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, John

    2012-01-01

    abstractDigitisation of historic TV material is driven by the widespread perception that archival material should be made available to diverse users. Yet digitisation alters the material, taking away any lingering sense of presence. Digitisation and online access, however, offer startling new

  11. Historical dictionary of librarianship

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, Mary Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The Historical Dictionary of Librarianship focuses on librarianship as a modern, organized profession, emphasizing the period beginning in the mid-nineteenth century. Author Mary Ellen Quinn relates the history of this profession through a chronology, an introductory essay, appendixes, and an extensive bibliography.

  12. Lagos Historical Review: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Submissions can be made by sending a word processing computer file in MS Word format by e-mail to sarlek@yahoo.com, or by mailing three paper copies to the Editorial Office. Authors should keep a computer file version of their manuscript, as Lagos Historical Review will require a disk version upon acceptance for ...

  13. Historical versus contemporary medicinal plant uses in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soelberg, Jens; Asase, A; Akwetey, G

    2015-01-01

    . This provides a unique opportunity to gain insight to the historical materia medica of Ghana and compare this to contemporary medicinal plant uses. By critical literary and taxonomic review, the present study (re-)establishes the earliest known history of many important Ghanaian medicinal plants, and assesses...... of Copenhagen Herbarium (C) and British Museum of Natural History (BM). The classification and synonymy of the specimens were updated for the study, and the historical vernacular names and medicinal uses of the plants compared with 20th/21st century literature. The plants of the historical Ga materia medica......ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Three extraordinary, historical documents stemming from observations made in 1697, 1803 and 1817 quote medicinal plant uses among the Fante, Ga and Ashanti people of present-day Ghana, and can be linked to original botanical specimens in European herbaria...

  14. How to study the history of European law?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    the emerging academic field of European law was deeply involved in legitimating the jurisprudence of the Court of Justice in the 1960s. In the second part of the article, the starting point is to place mainstream legal and political science studies of European law in a historical perspective in order...... of the development of European law. To historians, mainstream legal and political science scholarship rather seems to be part of the research object....... constituted by the Commission’s legal service, transnationally organised pro-European jurists and the European Parliament. When the Court of Justice in the two key judgments, Van Gend en Loos (1963) and Costa V. ENEL (1964), took the decisive steps to transform European law into a semi-federal legal order...

  15. An atlas of cassava in Africa : historical, agroecological and demographic aspects of crop distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, S.; Fresco, L.O.; Jones, P.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains 6 chapters covering: the dynamics of cassava in Africa; the introduction and diffusion of cassava in Africa; current distribution of cassava in Africa; the relationship of cassava distribution to environment and population; distribution and change in cassava production in Nigeria,

  16. A European perspective on e-learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone

    2004-01-01

    E-learning at Work , edited by Anne Marie Kanstrup. Roskilde Universitetsforlag, pages Pp.15-29. 2004 Short description: Based on a survey of 149 European e-learning and adult vocational training projects, the author presents examples of how ICT facilitates a positive change and development...... that focus is on designing the technical tools rather than on the use of tools for e-learning in general, where ICT is just one integrated element among many: objective, motivation, ways to learning, profession, workplace etc. The rojects also reveal that different European countries move at different paces...... of workplace-related learning. Abstract: Based on a survey of 149 European e-learning and adult vocational training projects, the author presents examples of how ICT facilitates a positive change and development of workplace-related learning.The chapter ends with a suggestion for a historical categorisation...

  17. Educating in European Identity?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Enrique Banús

    2007-01-01

    In the last decades, the claim for a "European identity" has been manifested sometimes as a solution for the citizens' distance to the European project, sometimes also as a precondition for a further...

  18. Demographic and dispositional characteristics as predictors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Demographic and dispositional characteristics as predictors of organisational citizenship behaviour. ... as important predictors of OCB. The study identified some future directions for personality research in industrial, work, and organizational psychology and concludes with some caveats and directions for future research.

  19. Revolution without ideology: demographic transition in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, T D

    1980-01-01

    The acceleration of demographic transition in East Asia is a process of great potential import for the world. The most rapid and large scale transformation of demographic pattern in world history is being accomplished in this region. Demographic processes in other countries and regions have been viewed in the light of past events. Demographic transition has been accepted as a desirable goal, but its realization was believed subject to certain constraints. These include the need to attain high rates of economic growth in order to stimulate the transition and the longer period of time required to accomplish the transition. It was assumed that at least 2 generations would be subject to gradually diminishing rates of increase and slow cultural modification before transition entered its last phase. This interpretation of the preconditions and specific character of demographic transition has been subject to increasing challenge, and recent events in East Asia accentuate such doubts. Most new views begin with the premises that contemporary pretransition societies are not European in culture and the 1970s are not the 1880s. East Asia also differs culturally from other developing areas, including South and Southeast Asia. The most significant regional features are cultural. Demographic transition in the region began after World War 2 and somewhat differently in each East Asian country. The process began first in Japan. The 3rd phase was accomplished rapidly but not as a specific consequence of the modernization process. The end of World War 2 and the spurt in births accompanying military demobilization contributed to a population surge. The cultural factors of practicality, homogeneity, social discipline, and nearly universial literacy were decisive here. Abortion was legalized in 1948 and other forms of birth control were made readily available. Between 1947 and 1957 the birthrate was halved to 17/1000. In Taiwan and South Korea public concern about high rates of

  20. Exile and demographic population growth in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Stevanović Radoslav

    2005-01-01

    The data of the 2002 population census on refugee population are analyzed in this paper with a basic aim to determine the significance (contribution) of refugee corpus in demographic development of the Republic of Serbia. By analyzing the data, it has been determined that the refugee corpus does not significantly differ from the domicile population in the basic, above all demographic and other qualitative characteristics. The differences which can be noticed with certain (primarily socio-econ...

  1. Gender inequalities from the demographic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devedžić Mirjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the meaning of the phrase "the woman’s status in the society" that is recognized in demography as an important cultural factor of demographic development and transitional changes. The analysis indicates qualitative shifts in the woman’s status and simultaneously reveals its importance at present, not only in traditional, but also in modern and developed societies. On the other hand, it explains the importance of sex as a biodemographic determinant, and introduces the concept of gender that sheds another light on the concepts of sex and woman’s status in the society and integrates them. Gender regimes that subsume the inferiority of women in public and private social structures are examined from demographic perspective, albeit only in those phenomenological aspects that can be supported by demographic research, theories, and analyses. To this end, the paper analyzes the effects of strengthening gender equalities on the fertility and mortality transitions, the gender’s impact on the population distribution by sex in South Asian countries, and highlights the key role of gender in interpreting certain social and economic structures. It also stresses the establishing of gender equality as an important element of population policies. The global dimension of the patriarchal society is illustrated through a series of examples of demographic phenomena from various societies. Gender regimes underlie all of these phenomena. The paper puts foreword certain theoretical hypotheses about gender inequalities, and finds their connections with demographic behaviors and demographic indicators. Finally, it summarizes the role of demography in gender (inequality research and the demographic perspective of the way and the speed the demographic equality is being established. Demography is seen as an irreplaceable discipline in examining gender inequalities, especially at the global level. With the advance of qualitative methods in demography

  2. Sustainability and Distance Learning: A Diverse European Experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Simon; Douce, Chris; Caeiro, Sandra; Teixeira, Antonio; Martín-Aranda, Rosa; Otto, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Higher Education (HE) is experiencing disruption from technologies, demographics, the globalising world and longer life expectancy. Historically Higher Education has had a legacy of being seen as the requirement for an educated "elite", there has been a policy ambition set in various countries (including the UK) for it to become the…

  3. ICT and historical skills

    OpenAIRE

    De Keyser, Raphael; Rogiers, Kathleen; Truyen, Fred

    2008-01-01

    The rapidly changing present-day information society creates new needs and opportunities for the history teacher. He can help young people to develop the skills necessary for life-long learning. The heuristic methods and the critical analyses of texts (written texts but also images, moving pictures etc.) characteristic for the historical discipline are easy transferable to other domains of knowledge acquisition. The use of information and communication technology in history instruction can he...

  4. Why Digitise Historical Television?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ellis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Digitisation of historic TV material is driven by the widespread perception that archival material should be made available to diverse users. Yet digitisation alters the material, taking away any lingering sense of presence. Digitisation and online access, however, offer startling new possibilities. The article offers three: use of material in language teaching and learning; use in dementia therapy; and applications as data in medical research. All depend on ordinary TV for their effectivity.

  5. Historical Variable Star Catalogs

    OpenAIRE

    Pagnotta, Ashley; Graur, Or; Murray, Zachary; Kruk, Julia; Christie-Dervaux, Lucien; Chen, Dong Yi

    2015-01-01

    Slides from my talk during one of the Historical Astronomy Division sessions at AAS 225 in Seattle, WA (January 2015). A brief history of the variable star catalogs Henrietta Swan Leavitt and Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin assembled at Harvard, and the update to them that some of our students at AMNH have done.(Figshare only previews the first few slides. Download the PDF to see all of them!)

  6. Molecular evidence for a recent demographic expansion in the puma (Puma concolor (Mammalia, Felidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice M. Matte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The puma is an iconic predator that ranges throughout the Americas, occupying diverse habitats. Previous phylogeographic analyses have revealed that it exhibits moderate levels of genetic structure across its range, with few of the classically recognized subspecies being supported as distinct demographic units. Moreover, most of the species' molecular diversity was found to be in South America. To further investigate the phylogeographic structure and demographic history of pumas we analyzed mtDNA sequences from 186 individuals sampled throughout their range, with emphasis on South America. Our objectives were to refine the phylogeographic assessment within South America and to investigate the demographic history of pumas using a coalescent approach. Our results extend previous phylogeographic findings, reassessing the delimitation of historical population units in South America and demonstrating that this species experienced a considerable demographic expansion in the Holocene, ca. 8,000 years ago. Our analyses indicate that this expansion occurred in South America, prior to the hypothesized re-colonization of North America, which was therefore inferred to be even more recent. The estimated demographic history supports the interpretation that pumas suffered a severe demographic decline in the Late Pleistocene throughout their distribution, followed by population expansion and re-colonization of the range, initiating from South America.

  7. APFO Historical Availability of Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The APFO Historical Availability ArcGIS Online web map provides an easy to use reference of what historical imagery is available by county from the Aerial...

  8. Colorado statewide historic bridge inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of the Colorado statewide historic bridge inventory was to document and evaluate the National : Register of Historic Places eligibility all on-system highway bridges and grade separation structures built in : Colorado between 1959 and 196...

  9. The War Film: Historical Perspective or Simple Entertainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    making of combat or war films; the general characteristics and demographics of the soldier; identification and a brief description of historical...of 70 the color from the completed film to give it more of a sepia tone. Spielberg felt that more color glamorizes the war.112 Spielberg openly...receiving a wound. The officers portrayed in these films provided a variety of leadership examples that articulate the characteristics of the officer corps

  10. Journal of Contemporary European Research User You are logged in as... jcer_editor My Profile Log Out Subscribe... Sign up for issue alerts Follow JCER on Twitter Font Size Make font size smaller Make font size default Make font size larger Journal Content Search Search Scope Browse By Issue By Author By Title Information For Readers For Authors For Librarians Journal Help Keywords CFSP Communication ESDP EU EU enlargement EU trade policy Energy, EU, External Policy Europe European Commission European Parliament European Union European integration Europeanisation Euroscepticism First Enlargement Germany Liberty Lisbon Treaty Poland Russia Security The UACES Blog Power shift? The EU’s pivot to Asia 100 Books on Europe to be Remembered For a Global European Studies? EU Member State Building in the... Same aims, different approaches?... Open Journal Systems Home About User Home Search Current Archives Announcements UACES Home > Vol 9, No 4 (2013 > De Ville The Promise of Critical Historical Institutionalism for EU Trade Policy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdi de Ville

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to convince the reader of the potential of a critical version of historical institutionalism (HI as a theoretical perspective for EU trade policy analysis. It argues that critical HI sensitises the analyst to important but hitherto often neglected factors including: the influence of the past on EU trade policy; the complex, multiarena and multilevel nature of contemporary trade policy; and issues of distributional conflict. The core concept in critical HI is ‘reactive sequencing’, conceiving of policy evolution as a chain of events produced by reactions and counter-reactions. This paper demonstrates that this is invaluable to understand contemporary EU trade politics. Some examples of EU trade policy decisions and its general strategic evolution since the conclusion of the Uruguay Round are given to show the value of critical HI. Finally, the external dimension of “Europe 2020” as the latest trade policy strategy is analysed from a critical historical institutionalist angle.

  11. The European company, perspectives after Brexit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Ioan Dumitru

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of the companies has proven to all of us that this area may have a dynamic similar to the most energetic ones in life. The human societies have changed and developed and together with them the companies were forced to adapt themselves in order to exist and to function over the times. The creation of the European Union brought probably the biggest changes is these fields and the European countries, now member states, have adapted their judicial system in order to have a more uniform and harmonized system. The degree of this status quo, with the rich and eventful historical, cultural and political background is highly debatable and very subjective. With the desire to build a common market, to increase trade and welfare, one of the most significant challenge was the creation of an European company (known also as Societas Europea or SE. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the evolution of the European company and to present a perspective of it after the new evolutions in EU, mainly BREXIT. Using a comparative method on the main issues that were solved or not by the creation of the European company, the article tries to show the clash of business cultures, especially British and German ones, which affected the evolution of the entire European corporate legislation. The conclusions are guided mainly by the future possible evolution of the provisions regarding the European company after one of the strongest business cultures, namely the British one, will withdraw from the continuous fight that kept the development business forms more in the hands of the member states and less in the ones of an harmonized European structure.

  12. The Historical Justification of Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, Matti

    2008-01-01

    The article deals with various aspects of justifying music historically. In Matti Huttunen's opinion Western music culture has been strongly historical since the nineteenth century. The article attempts to elucidate the historical nature of music, as well as the canon of music, the selective nature of music history, and the influence of aesthetic…

  13. Demographic history and rare allele sharing among human populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravel, Simon; Henn, Brenna M.; Gutenkunst, Ryan N.; Indap, Amit R.; Marth, Gabor T.; Clark, Andrew G.; Yu, Fuli; Gibbs, Richard A.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Altshuler, David L.; Durbin, Richard M.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Bentley, David R.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Clark, Andrew G.; Collins, Francis S.; De La Vega, Francisco M.; Donnelly, Peter; Egholm, Michael; Flicek, Paul; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Knoppers, Bartha M.; Lander, Eric S.; Lehrach, Hans; Mardis, Elaine R.; McVean, Gil A.; Nickerson, Debbie A.; Peltonen, Leena; Schafer, Alan J.; Sherry, Stephen T.; Wang, Jun; Wilson, Richard K.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Deiros, David; Metzker, Mike; Muzny, Donna; Reid, Jeff; Wheeler, David; Wang, Jun; Li, Jingxiang; Jian, Min; Li, Guoqing; Li, Ruiqiang; Liang, Huiqing; Tian, Geng; Wang, Bo; Wang, Jian; Wang, Wei; Yang, Huanming; Zhang, Xiuqing; Zheng, Huisong; Lander, Eric S.; Altshuler, David L.; Ambrogio, Lauren; Bloom, Toby; Cibulskis, Kristian; Fennell, Tim J.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Jaffe, David B.; Shefler, Erica; Sougnez, Carrie L.; Bentley, David R.; Gormley, Niall; Humphray, Sean; Kingsbury, Zoya; Koko-Gonzales, Paula; Stone, Jennifer; McKernan, Kevin J.; Costa, Gina L.; Ichikawa, Jeffry K.; Lee, Clarence C.; Sudbrak, Ralf; Lehrach, Hans; Borodina, Tatiana A.; Dahl, Andreas; Davydov, Alexey N.; Marquardt, Peter; Mertes, Florian; Nietfeld, Wilfiried; Rosenstiel, Philip; Schreiber, Stefan; Soldatov, Aleksey V.; Timmermann, Bernd; Tolzmann, Marius; Egholm, Michael; Affourtit, Jason; Ashworth, Dana; Attiya, Said; Bachorski, Melissa; Buglione, Eli; Burke, Adam; Caprio, Amanda; Celone, Christopher; Clark, Shauna; Conners, David; Desany, Brian; Gu, Lisa; Guccione, Lorri; Kao, Kalvin; Kebbel, Andrew; Knowlton, Jennifer; Labrecque, Matthew; McDade, Louise; Mealmaker, Craig; Minderman, Melissa; Nawrocki, Anne; Niazi, Faheem; Pareja, Kristen; Ramenani, Ravi; Riches, David; Song, Wanmin; Turcotte, Cynthia; Wang, Shally; Mardis, Elaine R.; Wilson, Richard K.; Dooling, David; Fulton, Lucinda; Fulton, Robert; Weinstock, George; Durbin, Richard M.; Burton, John; Carter, David M.; Churcher, Carol; Coffey, Alison; Cox, Anthony; Palotie, Aarno; Quail, Michael; Skelly, Tom; Stalker, James; Swerdlow, Harold P.; Turner, Daniel; De Witte, Anniek; Giles, Shane; Gibbs, Richard A.; Wheeler, David; Bainbridge, Matthew; Challis, Danny; Sabo, Aniko; Yu, Fuli; Yu, Jin; Wang, Jun; Fang, Xiaodong; Guo, Xiaosen; Li, Ruiqiang; Li, Yingrui; Luo, Ruibang; Tai, Shuaishuai; Wu, Honglong; Zheng, Hancheng; Zheng, Xiaole; Zhou, Yan; Li, Guoqing; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Marth, Gabor T.; Garrison, Erik P.; Huang, Weichun; Indap, Amit; Kural, Deniz; Lee, Wan-Ping; Leong, Wen Fung; Quinlan, Aaron R.; Stewart, Chip; Stromberg, Michael P.; Ward, Alistair N.; Wu, Jiantao; Lee, Charles; Mills, Ryan E.; Shi, Xinghua; Daly, Mark J.; DePristo, Mark A.; Altshuler, David L.; Ball, Aaron D.; Banks, Eric; Bloom, Toby; Browning, Brian L.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Fennell, Tim J.; Garimella, Kiran V.; Grossman, Sharon R.; Handsaker, Robert E.; Hanna, Matt; Hartl, Chris; Jaffe, David B.; Kernytsky, Andrew M.; Korn, Joshua M.; Li, Heng; Maguire, Jared R.; McCarroll, Steven A.; McKenna, Aaron; Nemesh, James C.; Philippakis, Anthony A.; Poplin, Ryan E.; Price, Alkes; Rivas, Manuel A.; Sabeti, Pardis C.; Schaffner, Stephen F.; Shefler, Erica; Shlyakhter, Ilya A.; Cooper, David N.; Ball, Edward V.; Mort, Matthew; Phillips, Andrew D.; Stenson, Peter D.; Sebat, Jonathan; Makarov, Vladimir; Ye, Kenny; Yoon, Seungtai C.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Clark, Andrew G.; Boyko, Adam; Degenhardt, Jeremiah; Gravel, Simon; Gutenkunst, Ryan N.; Kaganovich, Mark; Keinan, Alon; Lacroute, Phil; Ma, Xin; Reynolds, Andy; Clarke, Laura; Flicek, Paul; Cunningham, Fiona; Herrero, Javier; Keenen, Stephen; Kulesha, Eugene; Leinonen, Rasko; McLaren, William M.; Radhakrishnan, Rajesh; Smith, Richard E.; Zalunin, Vadim; Zheng-Bradley, Xiangqun; Korbel, Jan O.; Stütz, Adrian M.; Humphray, Sean; Bauer, Markus; Cheetham, R. Keira; Cox, Tony; Eberle, Michael; James, Terena; Kahn, Scott; Murray, Lisa; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Ye, Kai; De La Vega, Francisco M.; Fu, Yutao; Hyland, Fiona C. L.; Manning, Jonathan M.; McLaughlin, Stephen F.; Peckham, Heather E.; Sakarya, Onur; Sun, Yongming A.; Tsung, Eric F.; Batzer, Mark A.; Konkel, Miriam K.; Walker, Jerilyn A.; Sudbrak, Ralf; Albrecht, Marcus W.; Amstislavskiy, Vyacheslav S.; Herwig, Ralf; Parkhomchuk, Dimitri V.; Sherry, Stephen T.; Agarwala, Richa; Khouri, Hoda M.; Morgulis, Aleksandr O.; Paschall, Justin E.; Phan, Lon D.; Rotmistrovsky, Kirill E.; Sanders, Robert D.; Shumway, Martin F.; Xiao, Chunlin; McVean, Gil A.; Auton, Adam; Iqbal, Zamin; Lunter, Gerton; Marchini, Jonathan L.; Moutsianas, Loukas; Myers, Simon; Tumian, Afidalina; Desany, Brian; Knight, James; Winer, Roger; Craig, David W.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Steve M.; Christoforides, Alexis; Kurdoglu, Ahmet A.; Pearson, John V.; Sinari, Shripad A.; Tembe, Waibhav D.; Haussler, David; Hinrichs, Angie S.; Katzman, Sol J.; Kern, Andrew; Kuhn, Robert M.; Przeworski, Molly; Hernandez, Ryan D.; Howie, Bryan; Kelley, Joanna L.; Melton, S. Cord; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Li, Yun; Anderson, Paul; Blackwell, Tom; Chen, Wei; Cookson, William O.; Ding, Jun; Kang, Hyun Min; Lathrop, Mark; Liang, Liming; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Scheet, Paul; Sidore, Carlo; Snyder, Matthew; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zöllner, Sebastian; Awadalla, Philip; Casals, Ferran; Idaghdour, Youssef; Keebler, John; Stone, Eric A.; Zilversmit, Martine; Jorde, Lynn; Xing, Jinchuan; Eichler, Evan E.; Aksay, Gozde; Alkan, Can; Hajirasouliha, Iman; Hormozdiari, Fereydoun; Kidd, Jeffrey M.; Sahinalp, S. Cenk; Sudmant, Peter H.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Chen, Ken; Chinwalla, Asif; Ding, Li; Koboldt, Daniel C.; McLellan, Mike D.; Dooling, David; Weinstock, George; Wallis, John W.; Wendl, Michael C.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Durbin, Richard M.; Albers, Cornelis A.; Ayub, Qasim; Balasubramaniam, Senduran; Barrett, Jeffrey C.; Carter, David M.; Chen, Yuan; Conrad, Donald F.; Danecek, Petr; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Hu, Min; Huang, Ni; Hurles, Matt E.; Jin, Hanjun; Jostins, Luke; Keane, Thomas M.; Le, Si Quang; Lindsay, Sarah; Long, Quan; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Montgomery, Stephen B.; Parts, Leopold; Stalker, James; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Walter, Klaudia; Zhang, Yujun; Gerstein, Mark B.; Snyder, Michael; Abyzov, Alexej; Balasubramanian, Suganthi; Bjornson, Robert; Du, Jiang; Grubert, Fabian; Habegger, Lukas; Haraksingh, Rajini; Jee, Justin; Khurana, Ekta; Lam, Hugo Y. K.; Leng, Jing; Mu, Xinmeng Jasmine; Urban, Alexander E.; Zhang, Zhengdong; Li, Yingrui; Luo, Ruibang; Marth, Gabor T.; Garrison, Erik P.; Kural, Deniz; Quinlan, Aaron R.; Stewart, Chip; Stromberg, Michael P.; Ward, Alistair N.; Wu, Jiantao; Lee, Charles; Mills, Ryan E.; Shi, Xinghua; McCarroll, Steven A.; Banks, Eric; DePristo, Mark A.; Handsaker, Robert E.; Hartl, Chris; Korn, Joshua M.; Li, Heng; Nemesh, James C.; Sebat, Jonathan; Makarov, Vladimir; Ye, Kenny; Yoon, Seungtai C.; Degenhardt, Jeremiah; Kaganovich, Mark; Clarke, Laura; Smith, Richard E.; Zheng-Bradley, Xiangqun; Korbel, Jan O.; Humphray, Sean; Cheetham, R. Keira; Eberle, Michael; Kahn, Scott; Murray, Lisa; Ye, Kai; De La Vega, Francisco M.; Fu, Yutao; Peckham, Heather E.; Sun, Yongming A.; Batzer, Mark A.; Konkel, Miriam K.; Walker, Jerilyn A.; Xiao, Chunlin; Iqbal, Zamin; Desany, Brian; Blackwell, Tom; Snyder, Matthew; Xing, Jinchuan; Eichler, Evan E.; Aksay, Gozde; Alkan, Can; Hajirasouliha, Iman; Hormozdiari, Fereydoun; Kidd, Jeffrey M.; Chen, Ken; Chinwalla, Asif; Ding, Li; McLellan, Mike D.; Wallis, John W.; Hurles, Matt E.; Conrad, Donald F.; Walter, Klaudia; Zhang, Yujun; Gerstein, Mark B.; Snyder, Michael; Abyzov, Alexej; Du, Jiang; Grubert, Fabian; Haraksingh, Rajini; Jee, Justin; Khurana, Ekta; Lam, Hugo Y. K.; Leng, Jing; Mu, Xinmeng Jasmine; Urban, Alexander E.; Zhang, Zhengdong; Gibbs, Richard A.; Bainbridge, Matthew; Challis, Danny; Coafra, Cristian; Dinh, Huyen; Kovar, Christie; Lee, Sandy; Muzny, Donna; Nazareth, Lynne; Reid, Jeff; Sabo, Aniko; Yu, Fuli; Yu, Jin; Marth, Gabor T.; Garrison, Erik P.; Indap, Amit; Leong, Wen Fung; Quinlan, Aaron R.; Stewart, Chip; Ward, Alistair N.; Wu, Jiantao; Cibulskis, Kristian; Fennell, Tim J.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Garimella, Kiran V.; Hartl, Chris; Shefler, Erica; Sougnez, Carrie L.; Wilkinson, Jane; Clark, Andrew G.; Gravel, Simon; Grubert, Fabian; Clarke, Laura; Flicek, Paul; Smith, Richard E.; Zheng-Bradley, Xiangqun; Sherry, Stephen T.; Khouri, Hoda M.; Paschall, Justin E.; Shumway, Martin F.; Xiao, Chunlin; McVean, Gil A.; Katzman, Sol J.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Blackwell, Tom; Mardis, Elaine R.; Dooling, David; Fulton, Lucinda; Fulton, Robert; Koboldt, Daniel C.; Durbin, Richard M.; Balasubramaniam, Senduran; Coffey, Allison; Keane, Thomas M.; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Palotie, Aarno; Scott, Carol; Stalker, James; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Gerstein, Mark B.; Balasubramanian, Suganthi; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Knoppers, Bartha M.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Gharani, Neda; Gibbs, Richard A.; Jorde, Lynn; Kaye, Jane S.; Kent, Alastair; Li, Taosha; McGuire, Amy L.; McVean, Gil A.; Ossorio, Pilar N.; Rotimi, Charles N.; Su, Yeyang; Toji, Lorraine H.; TylerSmith, Chris; Brooks, Lisa D.; Felsenfeld, Adam L.; McEwen, Jean E.; Abdallah, Assya; Juenger, Christopher R.; Clemm, Nicholas C.; Collins, Francis S.; Duncanson, Audrey; Green, Eric D.; Guyer, Mark S.; Peterson, Jane L.; Schafer, Alan J.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Altshuler, David L.; Auton, Adam; Brooks, Lisa D.; Durbin, Richard M.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Hurles, Matt E.; McVean, Gil A.

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing technology enables population-level surveys of human genomic variation. Here, we examine the joint allele frequency distributions across continental human populations and present an approach for combining complementary aspects of whole-genome, low-coverage data and targeted high-coverage data. We apply this approach to data generated by the pilot phase of the Thousand Genomes Project, including whole-genome 2–4× coverage data for 179 samples from HapMap European, Asian, and African panels as well as high-coverage target sequencing of the exons of 800 genes from 697 individuals in seven populations. We use the site frequency spectra obtained from these data to infer demographic parameters for an Out-of-Africa model for populations of African, European, and Asian descent and to predict, by a jackknife-based approach, the amount of genetic diversity that will be discovered as sample sizes are increased. We predict that the number of discovered nonsynonymous coding variants will reach 100,000 in each population after ∼1,000 sequenced chromosomes per population, whereas ∼2,500 chromosomes will be needed for the same number of synonymous variants. Beyond this point, the number of segregating sites in the European and Asian panel populations is expected to overcome that of the African panel because of faster recent population growth. Overall, we find that the majority of human genomic variable sites are rare and exhibit little sharing among diverged populations. Our results emphasize that replication of disease association for specific rare genetic variants across diverged populations must overcome both reduced statistical power because of rarity and higher population divergence. PMID:21730125

  14. Ten Thousand Voices on Marine Climate Change in Europe: Different Perceptions among Demographic Groups and Nationalities

    KAUST Repository

    Buckley, Paul J.

    2017-07-11

    Over the past few decades, substantial funding has been directed toward improving scientific understanding and management of impacts of climate change in the marine environment. Following concerns that the key messages from these studies were not reaching the public, a comprehensive opinion poll of 10,000 European citizens in 10 countries was conducted to establish levels of awareness, concern, and trust among different demographic groups (by age, gender, proximity to the coast) and nationalities. Citizens exhibited varying levels of self-declared

  15. Demographic patterns and trends in patenting: Gender, age, and education of inventors

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Taehyun; Ejermo, Olof

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses register-linked patent records covering an extended period 1985-2007 to analyze detailed demographic profiles of inventors. The analysis covers about 80 percent of all inventors with Swedish addresses listed on European Patent Office records. Examining temporal trends of gender, age, and education shows that the body of inventors is becoming more balanced in gender, younger, and more educated. However, the rate at which female inventors are entering into patenting has slowed d...

  16. The European-American exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, F

    1993-01-01

    The European-American exchange of infectious diseases was responsible for the demographic havoc of the native population in the New World after 1492. Prior to this date medical writers describe the presence in Spain of viral diseases like influenza, parotitis, smallpox, measles, poliomyelitis, and rabies; there were also rickettsiasis, diphtheria, salmonellosis, plague, tubercolosis, leprosy, malaria, scabies and tinea. In America, before European arrivals, there were no records of human viral diseases, though there were records of rickettsiasis, treponematosis--pinta, yaws and syphilis--leihsmaniasis, amibiasis and perhaps leprosy. With the discovery of America in 1492, Columbus's sailors were contaminated by yaws and spread this disease into Europe. In 1493 influenza, as a zoonosis, was introduced into Santo Domingo and was responsible for the annihilation of the natives of the Antilles in less than a quarter of a century; in 1518 smallpox was also introduced in Santo Domingo and then to the American continent by negro slaves: by the same means measles were introduced in 1531. The previous existence or introduction of other infectious diseases in America is also discussed.

  17. Quantitative historical hydrology in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, G.; Brázdil, R.; Herget, J.; Machado, M. J.

    2015-08-01

    In recent decades, the quantification of flood hydrological characteristics (peak discharge, hydrograph shape, and runoff volume) from documentary evidence has gained scientific recognition as a method to lengthen flood records of rare and extreme events. This paper describes the methodological evolution of quantitative historical hydrology under the influence of developments in hydraulics and statistics. In the 19th century, discharge calculations based on flood marks were the only source of hydrological data for engineering design, but were later left aside in favour of systematic gauge records and conventional hydrological procedures. In the last two decades, there has been growing scientific and public interest in understanding long-term patterns of rare floods, in maintaining the flood heritage and memory of extremes, and developing methods for deterministic and statistical application to different scientific and engineering problems. A compilation of 46 case studies across Europe with reconstructed discharges demonstrates that (1) in most cases present flood magnitudes are not unusual within the context of the last millennium, although recent floods may exceed past floods in some temperate European rivers (e.g. the Vltava and Po rivers); (2) the frequency of extreme floods has decreased since the 1950s, although some rivers (e.g. the Gardon and Ouse rivers) show a reactivation of rare events over the last two decades. There is a great potential for gaining understanding of individual extreme events based on a combined multiproxy approach (palaeoflood and documentary records) providing high-resolution time flood series and their environmental and climatic changes; and for developing non-systematic and non-stationary statistical models based on relations of past floods with external and internal covariates under natural low-frequency climate variability.

  18. Europeanization and transnational states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsson, Bengt; Lægreid, Per; Pedersen, Ove K.

    This work investigates what happens to an organized political unit when it becomes part of a larger entity and, in particular, how increased European integration and the tentative moves towards a transnational state will affect the European Union's nation state. Europeanization and the transforma......This work investigates what happens to an organized political unit when it becomes part of a larger entity and, in particular, how increased European integration and the tentative moves towards a transnational state will affect the European Union's nation state. Europeanization...... in central government agencies. It concludes that the consequences of Europeanization can be described as the growth of a transnational administration where identities as well as loyalties are created in processes that transcend the borders of states....

  19. European Integration and Labour Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julda Kielyte

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper studies how European integration might affect the migration of workers in the enlarged EU. Unlike the reduced-form migration models, we base our empirical analysis on the theory of economic geography à la Krugman (1991, which provides an alternative modelling of migration pull and push factors. Parameters of the theoretical model are estimated econometrically using historical migration data. Our empirical findings suggest that European integration would trigger selective migration between the countries in the enlarged EU. In the Baltics, Lithuania would gain about 7.25% of the total work force. In the Visegrád Four, the share of the mobile labour force would increase the most in Hungary, 8.35%, compared to the pre-integration state. Our predictions for the East-West migration are moderate and lower than those of reduced-form models: between 5.44% (from the Baltics and 3.61% (from the Visegrád Four would emigrate to the EU North. Because migrants not only follow market potential, but also shape the region’s market potential, the long-run agglomeration forces are sufficiently weak to make a swift emergence of a core-periphery pattern in the enlarged EU very unlikely.

  20. Applied Historical Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, F. Richard

    2014-01-01

    F. Richard Stephenson has spent most of his research career -- spanning more than 45 years -- studying various aspects of Applied Historical Astronomy. The aim of this interdisciplinary subject is the application of historical astronomical records to the investigation of problems in modern astronomy and geophysics. Stephenson has almost exclusively concentrated on pre-telescopic records, especially those preserved from ancient and medieval times -- the earliest reliable observations dating from around 700 BC. The records which have mainly interested him are of eclipses (both solar and lunar), supernovae, sunspots and aurorae, and Halley's Comet. The main sources of early astronomical data are fourfold: records from ancient and medieval East Asia (China, together with Korea and Japan); ancient Babylon; ancient and medieval Europe; and the medieval Arab world. A feature of Stephenson's research is the direct consultation of early astronomical texts in their original language -- either working unaided or with the help of colleagues. He has also developed a variety of techniques to help interpret the various observations. Most pre-telescopic observations are very crude by present-day standards. In addition, early motives for skywatching were more often astrological rather than scientific. Despite these drawbacks, ancient and medieval astronomical records have two remarkable advantages over modern data. Firstly, they can enable the investigation of long-term trends (e.g. in the terrestrial rate of rotation), which in the relatively short period covered by telescopic observations are obscured by short-term fluctuations. Secondly, over the lengthy time-scale which they cover, significant numbers of very rare events (such as Galactic supernovae) were reported, which have few -- if any-- counterparts in the telescopic record. In his various researches, Stephenson has mainly focused his attention on two specific topics. These are: (i) long-term changes in the Earth's rate of

  1. General energy competence in the primary law of the European Union. An analysis of Article 194 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union in the Lisbon version in consideration of the historical development of energy competence; Die allgemeine Energiekompetenz im Primaerrecht der Europaeischen Union. Eine Analyse des Artikels 194 des Vertrags ueber die Arbeitsweise der Europaeischen Union in der Fassung des Vertrags von Lissabon unter Beruecksichtigung der historischen Entwicklung der Energiekompetenz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacklaender, Daniel

    2010-07-01

    With the coming into force of the Lisbon treaty, the internal measures and policies of the European Union were supplemented by the independent title ''Energy''. While the need for supranational management of energy-political task was recognized at an early stage already, the legal instruments for this purpose were lacking. Article 194 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union now provides a legal basis for a comprehensive, interdisciplinary energy policy on a European scale. The author investigates the content of the energy article. He shows that the modification of the treaty has brought about greater competences of the Union, especially in the field of energy supply assurance which is greatly influenced by the new regulations on energy solidarity. The book also discusses problems of competing legislation resulting from interdependences between the energy article on the one hand and competence standards with other goals on the other hand and also attempts to define the specific limits of energy competence. (orig.)

  2. Retrieving Historical Electrorefining Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, Meagan Daniella [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-18

    Pyrochemical Operations began at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) during 1962 (1). Electrorefining (ER) has been implemented as a routine process since the 1980’s. The process data that went through the ER operation was recorded but had never been logged in an online database. Without a database new staff members are hindered in their work by the lack of information. To combat the issue a database in Access was created to collect the historical data. The years from 2000 onward were entered and queries were created to analyze trends. These trends will aid engineering and operations staff to reach optimal performance for the startup of the new lines.

  3. Expiration of Historical Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toman, David

    2001-01-01

    We present a technique for automatic expiration of data in a historical data warehouse that preserves answers to a known and fixed set of first-order queries. In addition, we show that for queries with output size bounded by a function of the active data domain size (the number of values that have...... ever appeared in the warehouse), the size of the portion of the data warehouse history needed to answer the queries is also bounded by a function of the active data do-main size and therefore does not depend on the age of the warehouse (the length of the history)....

  4. Einstein: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos-Buchwald, Diana

    2015-04-01

    In late 1915, Albert Einstein (1879-1955) completed as series of papers on a generalized theory of gravitation that were to constitute a major conceptual change in the history of modern physics and the crowning achievement of his scientific career. But this accomplishment came after a decade of intense intellectual struggle and was received with muted enthusiasm. Einstein's previously unpublished writings and massive correspondence, edited by the Einstein Papers Project, provide vivid insights into the historical, personal, and scientific context of the formulation, completion, and reception of GR during the first decades of the 20th century.

  5. Reconstructing European forest management from 1600 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, M. J.; Luyssaert, S.; Meyfroidt, P.; Kaplan, J. O.; Bürgi, M.; Chen, Y.; Erb, K.; Gimmi, U.; McInerney, D.; Naudts, K.; Otto, J.; Pasztor, F.; Ryder, J.; Schelhaas, M.-J.; Valade, A.

    2015-07-01

    Because of the slow accumulation and long residence time of carbon in biomass and soils, the present state and future dynamics of temperate forests are influenced by management that took place centuries to millennia ago. Humans have exploited the forests of Europe for fuel, construction materials and fodder for the entire Holocene. In recent centuries, economic and demographic trends led to increases in both forest area and management intensity across much of Europe. In order to quantify the effects of these changes in forests and to provide a baseline for studies on future land-cover-climate interactions and biogeochemical cycling, we created a temporally and spatially resolved reconstruction of European forest management from 1600 to 2010. For the period 1600-1828, we took a supply-demand approach, in which supply was estimated on the basis of historical annual wood increment and land cover reconstructions. We made demand estimates by multiplying population with consumption factors for construction materials, household fuelwood, industrial food processing and brewing, metallurgy, and salt production. For the period 1829-2010, we used a supply-driven backcasting method based on national and regional statistics of forest age structure from the second half of the 20th century. Our reconstruction reproduces the most important changes in forest management between 1600 and 2010: (1) an increase of 593 000 km2 in conifers at the expense of deciduous forest (decreasing by 538 000 km2); (2) a 612 000 km2 decrease in unmanaged forest; (3) a 152 000 km2 decrease in coppice management; (4) a 818 000 km2 increase in high-stand management; and (5) the rise and fall of litter raking, which at its peak in 1853 resulted in the removal of 50 Tg dry litter per year.

  6. Demographic aspects of social security in region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Gennad'evna Leont'eva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a situational analysis of the level of life safety in the field of demographic regions of the Ural Federal District. The analysis is based on data from the Federal Statistics and covers the period 2000-2010. We have developed a system of indicators for evaluating safety in the demographic sphere. We set the main threats to the social and economic stability in the regions. The system of thresholds includes three blocks: the reproduction of the population, marriage and family relationships and health. We have presented a quantitative description of the main threats. Identified priority areas of social protection, providing increased stability of the regional socio-economic development, reducing the likelihood of social conflicts and improve the demographic situation.

  7. A unified framework of demographic time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffe, Tim; Schöley, Jonas; Villavicencio, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Demographic thought and practice is largely conditioned by the Lexis diagram, a two-dimensional graphical representation of the identity between age, period, and birth cohort. This relationship does not account for remaining years of life, total length of life, or time of death, whose use in demographic research is both underrepresented and incompletely situated. We describe an identity between these six demographic time measures and describe the sub-identities and diagrams that pertain to this identity. We provide an application of this framework to the measurement of late-life morbidity prevalence. We generalize these relationships to higher order identities derived from an arbitrary number of events in calendar time. Our examples are based on classic human demography, but the concepts we present can reveal patterns and relationships in any event history data, and contribute to the study of human or non-human population dynamics measured on any scale of calendar time.

  8. GENDER DEMOGRAPHIC DISPARITIES IN BACAU COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Ancuta Stangaciu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gender demographic disparities existing in Bacau County were determined by means of some demographic indicators such as: population, natural growth, live births, marriages, divorces, indicators which have been broken down by gender. The assessment of the disparities between men and women from the point of view of the demographic phenomena emphasize the fact that on the level of Bacau County there is a surplus of female population, as during the whole period subjected to the analysis, the positive and respectively the negative natural growth for the male population were lower and higher respectively than the one registered in the case of the female population. The birth rate, marriage rate and divorce rate phenomena also changed significantly after 1990 ; thus, the average age of marriage increased, and the gender difference also had a certain growth, which caused a shift in the fertility intensity from the age group 20-24 to the very next one - the 25-29 age group.

  9. Life and traditions of Caucasian Circassians: historical-comparative probe of travelogues of European travellers from the beginning of the 16th century to the half of the 19th century (Život a zvyky kaukazských Čerkesov: historicko-komparatívna sondáž cestopisov európskych cestovateľov od začiatku 16. do polovice 19. storočia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Šmigeľ

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to clarify evolution of life and traditions of Circassian society in a historically comparative perspective. It is based on published travelogues and diaries of European travellers who visited various parts of Caucasian Circassia from the 16th century to the half of the 19th century. Although they had described various aspects of life of this varied mountain ethnic group, the study focuses on just a few of them: anthropological appearance, language, religion, clothing, traditions, social activities and social structure of the Circassians. This data shows that Circassia embodied tribal formation that was split, speaking different languages without existence of any mutual language of interethnic communication. Despite this fact, different tribes had been somehow connected. This variedness was based on the Circassians mentality and religious issues as well. Isolation of the Circassia area, underdevelopment of external relations, absence of migration processes and peculiarities of the population mentality conditioned weak development of craft, industry, trade and character of social activities at all.

  10. Dividing united Europe. Stereotypes, prejudices and the European (economic) crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierp, Aline; Karner, Christian

    2017-01-01

    This special issue brings together scholars who examine the nexus between the (economic) crisis, national identities and the use of historical images, prejudices and stereotypes by focusing particularly on media and political discourses in different European countries. Pictures of Angela Merkel in a

  11. [The demographic policy on the regional level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultanaeva, Z M

    2010-01-01

    The study and assessment of demographic processes in the Republic of Bashkortostan during 1984-2008 was implemented. During the examined period, the decrease of marriage rate, the increase of divorce rate and mortality rate accompanied with the decrease of birth rate. From 2001, the positive trend is noted, especially in the area of marriage rate increase. However, the instability of the divorce rate index continues to persist. The important demographic target is to proceed with the reduction of reproductive losses, primarily at the expense of the decrease of the postneonatal losses and mortinatality.

  12. Historical versus contemporary medicinal plant uses in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soelberg, J; Asase, A; Akwetey, G; Jäger, A K

    2015-02-03

    Three extraordinary, historical documents stemming from observations made in 1697, 1803 and 1817 quote medicinal plant uses among the Fante, Ga and Ashanti people of present-day Ghana, and can be linked to original botanical specimens in European herbaria. This provides a unique opportunity to gain insight to the historical materia medica of Ghana and compare this to contemporary medicinal plant uses. By critical literary and taxonomic review, the present study (re-)establishes the earliest known history of many important Ghanaian medicinal plants, and assesses the scale of change and loss of medicinal plant knowledge in Ghana over time. The study provides the foundation to reconstruct lost or discontinued Ghanaian plant uses in local or ethnopharmacological contexts. Historical botanical specimens were located in the herbaria of University of Copenhagen Herbarium (C) and British Museum of Natural History (BM). The classification and synonymy of the specimens were updated for the study, and the historical vernacular names and medicinal uses of the plants compared with 20th/21st century literature. The plants of the historical Ga materia medica were (re-)collected to aid in semi-structured interviews. The interviews aimed to document the contemporary uses and names of the plants among the Ga, and to determine to what extent the historical medicinal uses and names are extant. The study identified 100 species in historical medicinal use in Ghana, which could be linked to 134 unique uses and 105 vernacular names in Twi (Ashanti/Fante) and Ga. Most of the plants are common in Ghana. At least 52% of the historical vernacular names appear to still be in use today. Of the specific historical uses, 41 (31%) were traced among contemporary medicinal plant uses in Ghana and represent some of the most important Ghanaian medicinal plant species. However, 93 (69%) of the historical uses could not be traced and appears to be discontinued or forgotten. Among the Ga, two medicinal

  13. Finding rendezvous: An approach to locating Rocky Mountain Rendezvous sites through use of historic documents, geophysical survey, and LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Rory J.

    The general locations of the Rocky Mountain Rendezvous have been known to historians through documentary evidence since the mid to late 1800s. While the approximate locations of the rendezvous sites provided through historic documents have sufficed for the placement of signs and markers commemorating these annual events, archaeologists seeking to learn more about the yearly gathering of mountain men and native peoples through excavations need a more precise area to begin their search on the landscape. The exact locations of the Rocky Mountain Rendezvous are yet unknown in the sense of an archaeologist visiting a rendezvous site, trowel in hand, and hoping to unearth a small portion of fur trade history. In this study, I present a method for moving from the approximate locations for the Rocky Mountain Rendezvous sites provided by historic documents to identifying specific rendezvous archaeological sites through use of historic documents, geophysical survey, and GIS modeling. The first paper in this dissertation examines the demographics of the rendezvous. By use of historic documents, I present a method for estimating the number of people who may have been present at the rendezvous and winter camps from 1825 through 1829. By using this method for estimating people at the rendezvous, it becomes clear more native people were in attendance at the rendezvous and winter camps than trappers and traders of European descent. Once armed with the knowledge a rendezvous site should more closely resemble the archaeological signature of a Protohistoric native camp than a historic Euroamerican archaeological site, the search for a Protohistoric native camp to be mapped with geophysical survey instruments can begin. During this study, such a search resulted in the successful mapping of a portion of the camp surrounding a fur trading post on the banks of Powder River in east-central Wyoming. The final section in the dissertation will address the issue of where and how to focus a

  14. Impact of European Media Education Strategies on Russian Media Education Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaleva, Galina V.

    2015-01-01

    The article attempts to examine the impact of European media education theories and approaches on Russian media education evolution basing on a comparative analysis of Russian and European media literacy promotion strategies in the historical context. This influence resulted in the appearance and development of socio-cultural models of media…

  15. The European Metropolis in the late Twentieth Century: Winners and Losers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Clark (Peter)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper offers a commentary on some of the recent work on globalisation in the context of the European city in the late 20th century. It points out that the current European urban hierarchy has a strong historical dimension. It notes the considerable degree of convergence in the

  16. Academic Entrepreneurialism vs. Changing Governance and Institutional Management Structures in European Universities (Chapter 5)

    OpenAIRE

    Kwiek, Marek

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter we will discuss a historically relatively new phenomenon in European higher education systems: academic entrepreneurialism – especially with regard to governance and management. Entrepreneurial universities seem to be increasingly important points of reference for international and European-level policy discussions about the future of higher education. Entrepreneurial institutions, functionally similar although variously termed, currently seem to be an almost natur...

  17. Plastic surgery in the European Union: A study of development, training, manpowerplanning and migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. Tan (King Hoen)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study is to clarify the role of plastic surgery in the European Union (the former European Connnnnity). The idea is that this will lead to a better understanding of the specialty among laymen., colleagnes and healthcare officials. To this end, the historical development

  18. Problems And Prospects Of The European Regional Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Dymova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the last few decades, the system of international relations continues to change. One of the key components of the emerging international order is the European regional order, which currently goes through deep transformations associated with changes of the international system and structural reconstruction of the European communities. The formation of the European regional system is a complex international political process, which is based on various political, social, economic, cultural, historical and other factors. Since the end of the World war II the European Union constitutes a political and institutional basis of relations both between member states and with the rest of the world. However, today the European Union runs through a systemic crisis embodied by ongoing economic and financial downturn as well as a crisis of socio-political structures and models of governance that now threaten the existence of the Union itself. Institutional problems are aggravated against the background of crises in highly sensitive areas such as economy and security, as well as uncertainties in the external international environment. All these factors undermine the ability of the EU to play a decisive role in building a European regional order. The emphasis is shifting towards particular countries, with the greater potential in shaping the international agenda and giving an effective response to modern challenges and threats. Building a stable architecture of the European security system is one of the essential conditions of the European regional order, however contradicting approaches of the parties acknowledge that political and ideological barriers between the East and the West continue to exist. In the context of increasing security threats transatlantic partnership does not lose the relevance though the tough course of the US and its desire to reinforce its leadership in Europe often meets the extreme disapproval on the part of the Europeans. Russian

  19. Historical Slovenian Language Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Erjavec

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACT:The paper presents three language resources enabling better full-text access to digitised printed historical Slovenian texts: a hand-annotated corpus, a hand-annotated lexicon of historical words and a collection of transcribed texts. The aim of the resources is twofold: on one hand they support empirical linguistic research (corpus, collection and represent a reference tool for the research of historical Slovenian (lexicon while on the other hand they may serve as training data for the development of Human Language Technologies enabling better full-text search in digital libraries containing Slovenian written cultural heritage, modernisation of historical texts, and the development of better technological solutions for text recognition and scanning. The hand annotated corpus of historical Slovenian contains the text from 1,000 pages sampled from the years 1750 to 1900, two texts date to the end of the 16th or 17th century. The corpus contains a little more than 250,000 word tokens; each of them being annotated with hand validated linguistic features: modernised form, lemma or base form, and morhpo-syntactic description. Thus the word token »ajfram« is annotated with the normalised form »ajfrom«, by the lemma »ajfer« and morphosyntactic description »Som« or »Samostalnik« (noun, »občni« (common, »moški« (masculine and a modernised form »gorečnost« (fervour. At first the corpus was annotated automatically and then manually verified and corrected. The lexicon was created automatically from the hand-annotated corpus. It contains only attested word-forms and examples of use. The word-forms are ordered under their modern equivalents. All the modern forms of a particular word constitute a dictionary entry, defined by its lemma with conjoint information i.e. the morpho-syntactic description and the closest contemporary synonyms. Thus the entry »ajfrer/Som/gorečnost« is annotated by two modernised words »ajfra

  20. Farmers demographic characteristics, awareness and perception of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study concludes that livestock technologies would be more result-oriented if adequate consideration is given to the demographic characteristics and perception of farmers among others which will in turn help the farmer in making decision to adopt. Keywords: Demography, livestock, technology, awareness, relevance ...

  1. Exploring the relationship between demographic factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring the relationship between demographic factors, performance and fortitude in a group of diverse 1st-year medical students. ... To explore, within the paradigm of positive psychology, the relationship between the self, family and support constructs of fortitude, and academic performance of 1st-year medical students.

  2. The demographic dynamics of small island societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, M; D'ayala, P G; Marcus, E; Mcelroy, J L; Rossi, O

    1987-01-01

    Small islands and microstates have demonstrated a unique demographic pattern, including cycles of swift population increases or decreases well beyond natural birth and death rate balances. These demographic fluctuations have been produced largely by rises or declines in market opportunities. The process of taking advantage of favorable opportunities is always followed by a specialization in the given activity, without regard to environmental protection issues or a longterm strategy for economic development and resource diversification. The population growth phase is associated with increasing fragility of the economic base, whether because of the external dangers of overspecialization or induced internal dysfunctions such as disease and resource depletion. Eventually complete collapse results, causing chronic outmigration or even depopulation. Case histories of maritime basins in the Mediterranean, Caribbean, and Pacific show that the demographic structure of small islands has been particularly sensitive to changing economic opportunities, the vagaries of market forces, and cataclysmic natural events. Experience in these areas suggests that balanced economic development of small islands should be based on diversification of activities, thus ensuring a relatively stable pattern of growth, sound environmental management, and control of dangerous demographic fluctuations. Special attention should be given to the development of broad-based research and cooperation to integrate specific island opportunities within a regional network.

  3. The Diagnosis of Dementia: Demographic Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Andrew C.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined demographic characteristics of 242 clinic outpatients evaluated for dementia. Each individual received comprehensive assessment of medical status, psychological functioning, and social abilities. Results add to knowledge of characteristics of individuals with Alzheimer's disease, multi-infarct dementia, or other related disorders.…

  4. A Visual Summary of Hispanic Demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Emily G.

    Eighteen graphic charts containing demographic data on Hispanic Americans are provided in this report. The headings of each table are as follows: (1) Hispanic Subgroups-1985; (2) Hispanic Residence by State, 1980; (3) Median Age-1985; (4) Unemployment Rates-1985; (5) Hispanic Unemployment-1985; (6) Median Family Income-1984; (7) Median Weekly…

  5. Disordered eating attitudes: demographic and clinico ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Our study observed disordered eating attitude to be prevalent among young adults, and demographic along with clinico-anthropometric factors constituted associated factors. Our findings strengthen the basis to incorporate health awareness programs aimed at improving nutrition and eating behavior among the ...

  6. Population demographics of Palaemon peringueyi (Macpherson ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The population demographics of the caridean shrimp Palaemon peringueyi was investigated monthly at four sites over a period of one year in the small, intermittently-open Grants River Estuary situated on the south-east coastline of southern Africa. Mean total abundance and biomass of P. peringueyi ranged between 0 and ...

  7. Demographic, ergonomic and psychosocial factors affecting work ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Work related musculoskeletal disorders have been associated with demographic factors, work stresses and psycho-social stress symptoms. The study aimed to evaluate factors associated with MSDs in different body regions among Indian tobacco processing workers. A group of 450 tobacco processing workers participated ...

  8. Understanding China's Demographic Dividends and Labor Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xizhe

    2013-01-01

    One of the major concerns about the one-child policy is its negative impact on the current and future labor force in China. People have talked about the Lewis Turning Point and the end of demographic dividends. Some of these arguments, however, can be misleading. The working-age population (ages 15 to 59) can be treated as the potential labor…

  9. Global Demographic Change and Climate Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlagh, Reyer; Jaimes Bonilla, Richard; Motavasseli, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Between 1950 and 2017, world average life expectancy increased from below-50 to above-70, while the fertility rate dropped from 5 to about 2.5. We develop and calibrate an analytic climate-economy model with overlapping generations to study the effect of such demographic change on capital markets

  10. Demographic and Lifestyle Variables Associated with Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Sheri L.; Lokken, Kristine; Pilcher, Kenneth; Boeka, Abbe

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Overweight and obesity rates are associated with chronic diseases and higher rates of disability and continue to rise in the United States and worldwide. The purpose of this study was to build on past research and further investigate demographic and lifestyle variables associated with increased body mass index (BMI: kg/m[squared]).…

  11. Demographic Characteristics Related To Wholesale Marketing Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the influence of the demographic attributes of wholesales yam marketers on their marketing cost, data were collected from 80 respondents randomly selected from 10 yam markets in two Local Government Areas of Delta State. Results of data analysis reveals that wholesale yam marketing in the study area ...

  12. The Macroeconomic Dynamics of Demographic Shocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijdra, B.J.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The paper employs an extended Yaari-Blanchard model of overlapping generations to study how the macroeconomy is affected over time by various demographic changes.It is shown that a proportional decline in fertility and death rates has qualitatively similar effects to capital income subsidies; both

  13. Demographic Group Differences in Adolescents' Time Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.; Dixson, Dante D.; Baik, Sharon H.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African…

  14. Demographic characteristics, leadership styles, job attitudes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This purpose of this study was to investigate the predictive influence of demographic characteristics, leadership styles, job attitudes and personality on job performance among civil servants in Southwest Nigeria. The sample consists of 400 civil servants (males = 275, females = 125) randomly selected from Southwestern ...

  15. Life Potential as a Basic Demographic Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerlich, Francisco J.; Soler, Angel

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an indicator that integrates life expectancy with the demographic structure of the population for a given society. By doing this, we have a simple indicator of mortality and aging combined, which could be very useful for developed societies. As is widely known, life expectancy at birth is independent of the demographic…

  16. Hyperopia: Prevalence, Demographic Associations, Pattern and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to determine the prevalence, demographic associations, pattern and physiologic determinants of hyperopia in the adult population of Imo State, Nigeria. Cross-sectional analytical study was undertaken, results showed that hyperopia was the commonest refractive error (35.2%) in which 60% of females in the study ...

  17. A unified framework of demographic time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riffe, Tim; Schöley, Jonas; Villavicencio, Francisco

    research is both underrepresented and incompletely situated. We describe a three-dimensional relationship between six different measures of demographic time: chronological age, time to death, lifespan, time of birth, time of death, and period. We describe four identities among subsets of these six measures...

  18. New Granadan native populations: recent demographic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamarin, J A

    1982-01-01

    A survey of recent work on the demographic history of the colonial native populations in the area that is now Colombia is presented, with emphasis on the study of the Chibcha Indians. Information is included on published data, sources, issues, and future research questions.

  19. Demographic drivers of functional composition dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muscarella, Robert; Lohbeck, Madelon; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Poorter, Lourens; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge Enrique; Breugel, van Michiel; Bongers, Frans

    2017-01-01

    Mechanisms of community assembly and ecosystem function are often analyzed using community-weighted mean trait values (CWMs). We present a novel conceptual framework to quantify the contribution of demographic processes (i.e., growth, recruitment, and mortality) to temporal changes in CWMs. We

  20. Understanding the Demographic and Health Transition in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The shift from high to low levels of mortality and fertility called the demographic transition occurred over a century ago in the developed world. While the reasons for the transition in Western Europe and North America are well documented, little is known about the transition in developing countries except that it is reported to ...

  1. Global demographic change and climate policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlagh, Reyer; Jaimes, Richard; Motavasseli, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Between 1950 and 2017, world average life expectancy increased from below-50 to above-70, while the fertility rate dropped from 5 to about 2.5. We develop and calibrate an analytic climate-economy model with overlapping generations to study the effect of such demographic change on capital markets

  2. demographic factors associated factors associated with malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    associated with malaria prevalence. Keywords: Malaria, Demographic, Plasmodiu. INTRODUCTION. Malaria is a parasitic disease,. Nigeria and many tropical and subtropic regions of the globe. It is caused by th protozoan parasite Plasmodium. Human malar is caused by four different species o. Plasmodium: P. falciparum ...

  3. Demographic and epidemiological characteristics of HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In view of the maturing HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa, better understanding of its epidemiology among older adults is necessary in order to design appropriate care and treatment programmes for them. Objectives: To describe the demographic and epidemiological characteristics of HIV opportunistic ...

  4. Demographic change in the northern forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth M. Johnson; Susan I. Stewart; Miranda H. Mockrin

    2012-01-01

    The Northern Forest spans more than 26 million acres across Maine, New Hampshire, New York, and Vermont. With densely settled urban cores, sprawling suburbs, struggling industrial and forest products towns, fast growing recreational areas, and isolated rural villages, the region includes many of the diverse strands that together compose the demographic fabric of the...

  5. Historical Supernova Explosions in Our Galaxy and Their Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David A.

    Supernova explosions mark the end points of stellar evolution, releasing large amounts of material and energy into the interstellar medium. In our Galaxy the expected rate of supernovae is about 1 in every 50 years or so, although it is only the relatively nearby ones that are expected to be visible optically, due to obscuration. Over the last two thousand years or so there are historical records of nine Galactic supernovae. The majority of these records are from East Asia (i.e. China, Japan and Korea), although the most recent historical supernovae have European records, and there are a variety of Arabic records also available for some events. Here I review these records of the historical supernovae, and the modern observations of the supernova remnants that they have produced.

  6. Issues In European Educational Change Over the Last 30 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Corner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pan-European integration, based on theories of neo-functionalism and inter-governmentalism dates back to the Treaty of Paris of 1951, and has been an important force in the development of education and social policy across Europe since that time. This paper concentrates on the social, political and educational changes that have come about in many of the 28 sovereign states that now claim membership and are therefore subject to the EU treaties that cover educational policy and training issues. Choosing a selection of education developments, social policy and historical changes within European member states, the author seeks to illustrate how and where change has occurred and the implications that follow. It argues that, whilst European integration has been an important force of social and educational change, there are counteracting forces of national and regional interests, linguistic and cultural factors and historical trends that severely limit inter-governmental action and intention.

  7. Critique of historical reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Richardson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available El enfoque aquí desarrollado presupone una nueva visión del mundo civilizado (Weltanschauungen. La idea del historiador de los hechos históricos presupone una visión global del mundo, a excepción de las sociedades que carecen de un lenguaje escrito. Por eso, la razón histórica discutida aquí se limita al tipo de historia que trata de civilizaciones más elevadas. El análisis de visiones del mundo aquí utilizado presupone que los símbolos son muy importantes y que pierden su poder simbólico si se cristalizan en un único sentido. Como en la teoría de Jung, un símbolo tiene la capacidad de estar activo en la mente como un transformador de la conciencia, libre de asociarse con nuevas experiencias y pensamientos. Esta teoría presta especial atención al problema de Dilthey: es decir, el problema de la calidad racional de los hechos históricos. Las visiones del mundo, que dan un significado profundo a muchos hechos históricos, se componen de símbolos y metáforas, incluyendo ideas, imágenes, valores y emociones. Estos tipos de visiones son casi todos instintivos. Es cierto que los historiadores pueden haber formulado, consciente definiciones de estos tipos de visiones del mundo así como ocurrió por las civilizaciones griega y china. Dado que la actual Weltbilt es mucho más compleja e inconsciente, se necesita algo más que una definición lógica para entenderla. Este artículo indica la forma en que puede ser alcanzada una comprensión racional de estas visiones del mundo._____________ABSTRACT:The approach here entertained presupposes a fresh theory of world pictures (Weltanschauungen of higher civilizations. For the historian's idea of historical facts presupposes a world picture, except for societies which lack a written language. That is why the historical reason discussed here is limited to the kind of history which deals with higher civilizations. The analysis of world pictures used here itself presupposes that symbols are

  8. Basavarajeeyam: A historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishteswar, K

    2011-10-01

    Basavarajeeyam is an important handbook for an Ayurvedic physician of Andhra region. It is a bilingual work and the content was presented in Sanskrit and Telugu languages. With regard to the place and date of Basavarajeeyam there is no common opinion among the present day scholars. Pt Govardhana Sharma Changani in his introduction to the Sanskrit version of Basavarajeeyam exposed a historical profile of Basavrajeeyam picturising him as Basava who was a staunch follower of Veerashaivism and a contemporary of king Bijjala (end of 12(th) cent. AD). The same statement is carried out in the works of Ayurvedic Itihasa written by Atredeva Vidyawalkan and Acharya Priyavrata Sharma. It appears that the historical evidence shown by these scholars is one sided and cannot stand any reason. Basavraju stated that he had started writing this work after a thorough study of many works such as Charaka, Nithyanatheeyam (1360 AD), Revenakalpam, Pujyapadiyam, Bahatam, Kashikhandam (1435 AD) etc. Basavraju has faithfully reproduced certain chapter of Vaidyachintamani, which is considered to be a work of 15(th) century. Basavraju not only mentioned Phirangiroga in the index of diseases described by him at the end of the book, but also indicated Phirangichekka (Madhusnuhi) in the management of Meharoga and Granthi. By this evidence Basavarajiyam should be considered as the work of post Bhavaprakasha period. Basavraju indicates in the Gulmaroga Chikitsa that Sankhadravaka should be administered in the dose of 'Ekanni'. The name Ekanni was given for a copper coin which came in to circulation of money during British India produced from Madras mint (1794 AD). Based on these internal evidences, it can be safely concluded that Basavraju belong to 18(th)century.

  9. Effects of Demographic History on the Detection of Recombination Hotspots from Linkage Disequilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapper, Amy L; Payseur, Bret A

    2017-10-17

    In some species, meiotic recombination is concentrated in small genomic regions. These "recombination hotspots" leave signatures in fine-scale patterns of linkage disequilibrium, raising the prospect that the genomic landscape of hotspots can be characterized from sequence variation. This approach has led to the inference that hotspots evolve rapidly in some species, but are conserved in others. Historic demographic events, such as population bottlenecks, are known to affect patterns of linkage disequilibrium across the genome, violating population genetic assumptions of this approach. Although such events are prevalent, demographic history is generally ignored when making inferences about the evolution of recombination hotspots. To determine the effect of demography on the detection of recombination hotspots, we use the coalescent to simulate haplotypes with a known recombination landscape. We measure the ability of popular linkage disequilibrium-based programs to detect hotspots across a range of demographic histories, including population bottlenecks, hidden population structure, population expansions and population contractions. We find that demographic events have the potential to greatly reduce the power and increase the false positive rate of hotspot discovery. Neither the power nor the false positive rate of hotspot detection can be predicted without also knowing the demographic history of the sample. Our results suggest that ignoring demographic history likely overestimates the power to detect hotspots and therefore underestimates the degree of hotspot are sharing between species. We suggest strategies for incorporating demographic history into population genetic inferences about recombination hotspots. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  10. Rapid isolation of microsatellite DNAs and identification of polymorphic mitochondrial DNA regions in the fish rotan (Perccottus glenii) invading European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Timothy L.; Eackles, Michael S.; Reshetnikov, Andrey N.

    2015-01-01

    Human-mediated translocations and subsequent large-scale colonization by the invasive fish rotan (Perccottus glenii Dybowski, 1877; Perciformes, Odontobutidae), also known as Amur or Chinese sleeper, has resulted in dramatic transformations of small lentic ecosystems. However, no detailed genetic information exists on population structure, levels of effective movement, or relatedness among geographic populations of P. glenii within the European part of the range. We used massively parallel genomic DNA shotgun sequencing on the semiconductor-based Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) sequencing platform to identify nuclear microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA sequences in P. glenii from European Russia. Here we describe the characterization of nine nuclear microsatellite loci, ascertain levels of allelic diversity, heterozygosity, and demographic status of P. glenii collected from Ilev, Russia, one of several initial introduction points in European Russia. In addition, we mapped sequence reads to the complete P. glenii mitochondrial DNA sequence to identify polymorphic regions. Nuclear microsatellite markers developed for P. glenii yielded sufficient genetic diversity to: (1) produce unique multilocus genotypes; (2) elucidate structure among geographic populations; and (3) provide unique perspectives for analysis of population sizes and historical demographics. Among 4.9 million filtered P. glenii Ion Torrent PGM sequence reads, 11,304 mapped to the mitochondrial genome (NC_020350). This resulted in 100 % coverage of this genome to a mean coverage depth of 102X. A total of 130 variable sites were observed between the publicly available genome from China and the studied composite mitochondrial genome. Among these, 82 were diagnostic and monomorphic between the mitochondrial genomes and distributed among 15 genome regions. The polymorphic sites (N = 48) were distributed among 11 mitochondrial genome regions. Our results also indicate that sequence reads generated

  11. Historic Preservation Information CFM Website

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA Historic Preservation Office keeps information about VA's programs to comply with Federal preservation requirements, and also interesting information about VA...

  12. The Second Demographic Transition in Israel: One for All?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Bystrov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores family behaviours and attitudes in Israel over the last decades through the lens of the Second Demographic Transition (SDT. Israel is divided by religious affiliation, the level of religiosity, ethnic origin and timing of immigration. Although fertility transition to replacement level among certain societal groups has been previously shown, the question of how the transition unfolds in other domains remains open. The goal of this paper is to highlight the diversity of marital and fertility transitions and non-transitions among various groups of this heterogeneous society, and to compare Israel's transitions to European ones. The data sources which are used are cross-national large scale surveys, national representative surveys, and Population Register data. The data were disaggregated by religion, religiousness and ethnic origin. Emancipative value change, postponement of marriage, alternative living arrangements and a growing variety of fertility regimes were analyzed. A full range of pre-transitional, transitional, and post-transitional elements was found among the groups. Such sign of the SDT as growing childlessness was not found, and the spread of other features as unmarried cohabitation and non-marital childbearing was found limited. Population composition effects were isolated. It was found that the level of religiosity and the country of origin are important factors which differentiate family behaviours and attitudes. The connection between value orientation of the groups within Israel and their family behaviours is discussed. The socio-structural and institutional constraints that might impede further progression of the Second Demographic Transition in Israel are also discussed. Further research directions are suggested.

  13. Matching current windstorms to historical analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Bernd; Maisey, Paul; Scannell, Claire; Vanvyve, Emilie; Mitchell, Lorna; Steptoe, Hamish

    2015-04-01

    European windstorms are capable of producing devastating socioeconomic impacts. They are capable of causing power outages to millions of people, closing transport networks, uprooting trees, causing walls, buildings and other structures to collapse, which in the worst cases has resulted in dozens of fatalities. In Europe windstorms present the greatest natural hazard risk for primary insurers and result in the greatest aggregate loss due to the high volume of claims. In the winter of 2013/2014 alone storms Christian, Xaver, Dirk and Tini cost the insurance industry an estimated EUR 2.5 bn. Here we make use of a high resolution (4 km) historical storm footprint catalogue which contains over 6000 storms. This catalogue was created using the 35 year ERA-Interim model reanalysis dataset, downscaled to 12 km and then to 4.4 km. This approach was taken in order to provide a long term, high resolution data set, consistent with Met Office high resolution deterministic forecast capability for Europe. The footprints are defined as the maximum 3 second gust at each model grid point over a 72 hour period during each storm. Matches between current/forecast storm footprints and footprints from the historical catalogue are found using fingerprint identification techniques, by way of calculating image texture derived from the gray-level-co-occurrence matrix (Haralick, 1973). The best match is found by firstly adding the current or forecast footprints to the stack of the historical storm catalogue. An "identical twin" or "best match" of this footprint is then sought from within this stack. This search is repeated for a set of measures (15 in total) including position of the strongest gusts, storm damage potential and 13 Haralick measures. Each time a candidate is found, the nearest neighbours are noted and a rank proximity measure is calculated. Finally, the Frobenius norm (distance between the two fields at each grid-point averaged) is calculated. This provides an independent

  14. THE EUROPEAN BUSINESS CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignat Ion

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The construction of European Monetary Union has raised several questions about the existence of a common business cycle, a European one. The lack of cyclical synchronization would complicate the monetary and fiscal policies in the Union, being a negative

  15. European Home Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.

    2009-01-01

    An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes......An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes...

  16. The European Programme Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Anne; Bergman, E.; Ehlers, S.

    The publication is a result of a cooperation between organisations in six European countries with the aim to develop a common European education for programme managers. It contains of a description of the different elements of the education together with a number of case-studies from the counties...

  17. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2003-01-01

    The theme adressed by this paper is the opportunities for European Works Councils (EWCs) of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme adressed by this paper is the opportunities for European Works Councils (EWCs) of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  18. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2004-01-01

    The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  19. Introduction: European climate leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurzel, R.K.W.; Liefferink, J.D.; Connelly, J.

    2017-01-01

    There is no shortage of would-be leaders in EU climate change politics. The EU institutions (e.g. European Council, Council of the EU, Commission and the European Parliament (EP)), member states and societal actors have all, though to varying degrees and at different time periods, tried to offer

  20. Europeanization : A Poststructuralist Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuman-Stanivukovic, Senka

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation begins from the hypothesis that the direction and extent of Europeanization depends on domestic perception of the European Union and its norms. Accordingly, it was my empirical ambition to study how competing articulations of the EU and its norms constructed debates in EU member

  1. European media law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castendyk, O.; Dommering, E.; Scheuer, A.

    2008-01-01

    European Union legislation concerning electronic communications media is firmly established as an essential part of the law in the field in Europe. From relevant provisions of the European Convention of Human Rights and the EC Treaty to numerous directives, the most recent being the Audiovisual

  2. Pharmaco-economic impact of demographic change on pharmaceutical expenses in Germany and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boecking, Wolfgang; Klamar, Anna; Kitzmann, Florian; Kirch, Wilhelm

    2012-10-23

    Most European health care systems are suffering from the impact of demographic change. In short, aging of society is leading to higher costs of treatment per capita, while reproduction rates below 2.1 children per woman lead to a reduced number of younger people to provide for the necessary contributions into the health insurance system.This research paper addresses the questions what impact the demographic development will have on one particular spending area, what are pharmaceutical expenditure in two of Europe's largest health care systems, Germany and France, and what the implications are for pharmaceutical companies. The research is based on publicly available data from German and French health ministries, the OECD, and institutes which focus on projection of demographic development in those countries. In a first step, data was clustered into age groups, and average spending on pharmaceuticals was allocated to that. In the second step, these figures were extrapolated, based on the projected change in the demographic structure of the countries from 2004 until 2050. This leads to a deeper understanding of demand for pharmaceutical products in the future due to the demographic development as a single driving factor. - Pharmaceutical expenses per head (patient) will grow only slightly until 2050 (0.5% p.a. in both countries). - Demographic change alone only provides for a slowly growing market for pharmaceutical companies both in Germany and in France, but for a relevant change in the consumption mix of pharmaceutical products, based on a shift of relevance of different age groups. Despite demographic changes pharmaceutical expenses per head (patient) and the overall pharmaceutical markets will grow only slightly until 2050 in Germany as well as in France. Nevertheless, the aging of society implies different challenges for pharmaceutical companies and also for the health care system. Companies have to cope with the shift of relevance of different age groups and

  3. Economic support ratios and the demographic dividend in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia Prskawetz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Support ratios and dependency ratios are widely used as indicators for measuring the effects of population ageing on economic development. Both of these indicators use fixed age limits to distinguish between the working and the dependent populations. Objective: We apply age-specific profiles of consumption and labour income instead of using arbitrary age limits. Based on these age-specific characteristics, we study the impact of changes in the age structure on the economy. In addition to looking at the compositional effect of age structure changes, we also consider savings/wealth effects. Methods: The National Transfer Accounts (NTA offer researchers a new method for comprehensively analysing economic flows across age groups. Because they combine micro (survey data and macro controls, the NTA provide detailed profiles of consumption and labour income by age, as well as age profiles of transfers and assets, through which the differences between consumption and labour income are covered. Results: The development of the "NTA support ratio" for 2010-2050 indicates that the compositional effect of the changing population structure on economic development will range from -11Š for the UK to -25Š for Slovenia, which exceed the values of the conventional support ratio. The positive saving/wealth effect is almost negligible for the countries studied, except for the UK, Germany, and Spain. Conclusions: Given the current profiles of consumption and labour income in the European NTA countries, the rates of growth in the support ratio induced by the changing demographic structure will be negative in these countries. A positive effect of increased saving/wealth can counteract this decline in the support ratio, but depends on the institutional settings in which the elderly finance their consumption. Comments: We offer for the first time a European comparative study on the effect of changes in the age structure in the economy based on NTA data.

  4. EU demographics: living longer and reproducing less

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beets, G.C.N.

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays late and low fertility is a European wide phenomenon. A return to the so called ‘fertility replacement level’ is not very likely. However a slightly higher period TFR may appear in the near future when the rise in the age at first birth comes to a halt and when the compatibility of family

  5. Historicity and theology, and the quest for historical Jesus1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Geyser

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of history and historicity is reviewed in this article. The efforts of New Historicism is brought to bear on this question in an effort to find a way out of the impasse created by the modernist demand for objectivity and the postmodern resignation to radical relativism. The possibility of historiography is explored in conjunction with the pragmatic approach and leads to the conclusion that a kind of historical knowledge is attainable which can be described as useful even if not perfect. The author concurs with Crossan and his working definition of history as the past reconstructed interactively by the present through argued evidence in public discourse. The intersubjective nature of any historical enterprise leads the author to the conclusion that the search for the historical Jesus can only be done in the dialectical approach of a both ... and: both the historical Jesus and the kerygmatic Christ

  6. Functional diversity underlies demographic responses to environmental variation in European forests

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Benito, P.; Jump, Alistair S.; Gómez Aparicio, Lorena; Zavala, Miguel A.

    2017-01-01

    Ruiz Benito, P. et al... 14 páginas.-- 3 figuras.-- 2 tablas.-- 50 referencias.-- Additional supporting information may be found in the online version of this article at the publisher’s web-site: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/geb.12515

  7. Spectators, who are they? A demographic analysis of theatre audiences in four European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, H.; Šorli, M.; Toome, H.-L.; Wilders, M.L.; Edelman, J.; Szabó, A.; Balkànyi, M.

    2015-01-01

    When speculating on how theatre functions in a society, the most obvious questions are how many people make use of the theatre that is on offer and, subsequently, which parts of the population make use of what types of theatrical events. In this article, both questions are answered for the cities of

  8. European Enlargement Across Rounds and Beyond Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enlargement has been an almost constant part of European integration history – going from an improvised exercise to the EU’s most developed foreign policy tool. However, neither the longevity nor the complexity of enlargement has been properly historicised. European Enlargement across Rounds...... and Beyond Borders offers three interdisciplinary, innovative, and indeed radical, new ways of understanding and analysing EC/EU enlargements: first, tracing Longue Durée developments; second, investigating enlargement Beyond the Road to Membership; and third, exploring the Entangled Exchanges and synergies...... between the EC/EU and its outside. This edited volume will provide fresh perspectives on enlargement as one of the defining processes in Europe in the second half of the 20th century: How are we to understand enlargement as a policy? How has it changed the EU? What is the historical role of the British...

  9. Multilocus Analyses Reveal Postglacial Demographic Shrinkage of Juniperus morrisonicola (Cupressaceae, a Dominant Alpine Species in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chun Huang

    Full Text Available Postglacial climate changes alter geographical distributions and diversity of species. Such ongoing changes often force species to migrate along the latitude/altitude. Altitudinal gradients represent assemblage of environmental, especially climatic, variable factors that influence the plant distributions. Global warming that triggered upward migrations has therefore impacted the alpine plants on an island. In this study, we examined the genetic structure of Juniperus morrisonicola, a dominant alpine species in Taiwan, and inferred historical, demographic dynamics based on multilocus analyses. Lower levels of genetic diversity in north indicated that populations at higher latitudes were vulnerable to climate change, possibly related to historical alpine glaciers. Neither organellar DNA nor nuclear genes displayed geographical subdivisions, indicating that populations were likely interconnected before migrating upward to isolated mountain peaks, providing low possibilities of seed/pollen dispersal across mountain ranges. Bayesian skyline plots suggested steady population growth of J. morrisonicola followed by recent demographic contraction. In contrast, most lower-elevation plants experienced recent demographic expansion as a result of global warming. The endemic alpine conifer may have experienced dramatic climate changes over the alternation of glacial and interglacial periods, as indicated by a trend showing decreasing genetic diversity with the altitudinal gradient, plus a fact of upward migration.

  10. Multilocus Analyses Reveal Postglacial Demographic Shrinkage of Juniperus morrisonicola (Cupressaceae), a Dominant Alpine Species in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Chun; Hsu, Tsai-Wen; Wang, Hao-Ven; Liu, Zin-Huang; Chen, Yi-Yen; Chiu, Chi-Te; Huang, Chao-Li; Hung, Kuo-Hsiang; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh

    2016-01-01

    Postglacial climate changes alter geographical distributions and diversity of species. Such ongoing changes often force species to migrate along the latitude/altitude. Altitudinal gradients represent assemblage of environmental, especially climatic, variable factors that influence the plant distributions. Global warming that triggered upward migrations has therefore impacted the alpine plants on an island. In this study, we examined the genetic structure of Juniperus morrisonicola, a dominant alpine species in Taiwan, and inferred historical, demographic dynamics based on multilocus analyses. Lower levels of genetic diversity in north indicated that populations at higher latitudes were vulnerable to climate change, possibly related to historical alpine glaciers. Neither organellar DNA nor nuclear genes displayed geographical subdivisions, indicating that populations were likely interconnected before migrating upward to isolated mountain peaks, providing low possibilities of seed/pollen dispersal across mountain ranges. Bayesian skyline plots suggested steady population growth of J. morrisonicola followed by recent demographic contraction. In contrast, most lower-elevation plants experienced recent demographic expansion as a result of global warming. The endemic alpine conifer may have experienced dramatic climate changes over the alternation of glacial and interglacial periods, as indicated by a trend showing decreasing genetic diversity with the altitudinal gradient, plus a fact of upward migration.

  11. Prospects for European labour demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, R M

    1988-07-01

    The impact of economic and technological trends upon the level and structure of labor demand is examined, exploring the methods used to model the labor market and making special reference to demography and technology. Evidence on recent and prospective changes in labor demand is reviewed for France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and the UK. The models used to explore future employment scenarios usually fail to incorporate the linkages required to fully analyze the various demographic-economic interactions. Further, this is not generally viewed as a limitation, given the time frame of most employment projections and their preoccupation with changes in the structure of labor demand. Medium-term multisectoral models tend to pay more attention to both demographic and technical change, but the treatment of both aspects is limited. The projections provide a framework for considering how both socioeconomic behavior and policy might change to achieve different outcomes. The greater a model's behavioral content, as expressed in its relationships between different variables, the greater the insight obtainable from simulation exercises. The 1st half of the 1970s was characterized by a reduction in German employment, representing the severest of European reactions to the oil crisis. The 2nd half of the decade recorded rapid growth in Italy and the Netherlands. The 1980s started with marked declines in Germany and the UK. Overall, the net gains of the 1970s were lost in the recession following the 2nd oil crisis. In none of the 5 countries studied does any realistic prospect emerge of achieving full employment before 2000. The most optimistic outcome is that unemployment will decline only slowly, it at all. The growth of both new forms and areas of employment will not compensate sufficiently for the loss of jobs elsewhere and the growth of labor supply. The industrial sector will continue to experience change in favor of the service sector but at a slower rate than during

  12. Demographic loss, genetic structure and the conservation implications for Indian tigers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondol, Samrat; Bruford, Michael W; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2013-07-07

    India is home to approximately 60 per cent of the world's remaining wild tigers, a species that has declined in the last few centuries to occupy less than 7 per cent of its former geographical range. While Indian tiger numbers have somewhat stabilized in recent years, they remain low and populations are highly fragmented. Therefore, the application of evidence-based demographic and genetic management to enhance the remaining populations is a priority. In this context, and using genetic data from historical and modern tigers, we investigated anthropogenic impacts on genetic variation in Indian tigers using mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers. We found a very high number of historical mitochondrial DNA variants, 93 per cent of which are not detected in modern populations. Population differentiation was higher in modern tigers. Simulations incorporating historical data support population decline, and suggest high population structure in extant populations. Decreased connectivity and habitat loss as a result of ongoing fragmentation in the Indian subcontinent has therefore resulted in a loss of genetic variants and increased genetic differentiation among tiger populations. These results highlight that anthropogenic fragmentation and species-specific demographic processes can interact to alter the partitioning of genetic variation over very short time scales. We conclude that ongoing strategies to maximize the size of some tiger populations, at the expense of losing others, is an inadequate conservation strategy, as it could result in a loss of genetic diversity that may be of adaptive significance for this emblematic species.

  13. Is the demographic dividend an education dividend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo Cuaresma, Jesús; Lutz, Wolfgang; Sanderson, Warren

    2014-02-01

    The effect of changes in age structure on economic growth has been widely studied in the demography and population economics literature. The beneficial effect of changes in age structure after a decrease in fertility has become known as the "demographic dividend." In this article, we reassess the empirical evidence on the associations among economic growth, changes in age structure, labor force participation, and educational attainment. Using a global panel of countries, we find that after the effect of human capital dynamics is controlled for, no evidence exists that changes in age structure affect labor productivity. Our results imply that improvements in educational attainment are the key to explaining productivity and income growth and that a substantial portion of the demographic dividend is an education dividend.

  14. Demographic and future supply working in Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Fernández Cordón

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The demographic situation in Spain is characterised by a very low birth rate: the lowest in Europe, a high life expectancy, the highest in the world and an immigration of foreign workers that was initiated in the 80s and that is increasing lately. The growing old of the population will increase in the future. Neither immigration nor the increase of birth rates will reverse this tendency. Therefore the ratio of dependence will be unavoidable. The creation of employment will be limited in the medium and the long term by a scarcity of employment, due to a foreseeable decrease of the population at a working age. In order to overcome this deficiency Spain cannot count on foreign immigration since this is not guaranteed in the future. Countries of origin are going through their own demographic transition, their population will also grow old in the long term while they attempt to improve their economic situation.

  15. Demographic variables in coal miners’ safety attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wen-wen; Wu, Xiang; Ci, Hui-Peng; Qin, Shu-Qi; Liu, Jia-Long

    2017-03-01

    To change unsafe behavior through adjusting people’s safety attitudes has become an important measure to prevent accidents. Demographic variables, as influential factors of safety attitude, are fundamental and essential for the research. This research does a questionnaire survey among coal mine industry workers, and makes variance analysis and correlation analysis of the results in light of age, length of working years, educational level and experiences of accidents. The results show that the coal miners’ age, length of working years and accident experiences correlate lowly with safety attitudes, and those older coal miners with longer working years have better safety attitude, as coal miners without experiences of accident do.However, educational level has nothing to do with the safety attitude. Therefore, during the process of safety management, coal miners with different demographic characteristics should be put more attention to.

  16. Using Twitter data for demographic research

    OpenAIRE

    Dilek Yildiz; Jo Munson; Agnese Vitali; Ramine Tinati; Jennifer A. Holland

    2017-01-01

    Background: Social media data is a promising source of social science data. However, deriving the demographic characteristics of users and dealing with the nonrandom, nonrepresentative populations from which they are drawn represent challenges for social scientists. Objective: Given the growing use of social media data in social science research, this paper asks two questions: 1) To what extent are findings obtained with social media data generalizable to broader populations, and 2) what i...

  17. Acute pancreatitis: Demographics, aetiological factors and outcomes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    an elevated urine amylase level supported the diagnosis. Acute pancreatitis: Demographics, aetiological factors and outcomes in a regional hospital in South Africa. F. Anderson, M. Med., F.C.s. (s.A.). s. r. ThoMson, Ch.M., F.r.C.s. d. L. CLArke, M.Med.sCI., F.C.s. (s.A.) e. LooTs, F.C.s. (s.A.) department of surgery, Addington ...

  18. Using Twitter data for demographic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Yildiz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social media data is a promising source of social science data. However, deriving the demographic characteristics of users and dealing with the nonrandom, nonrepresentative populations from which they are drawn represent challenges for social scientists. Objective: Given the growing use of social media data in social science research, this paper asks two questions: 1 To what extent are findings obtained with social media data generalizable to broader populations, and 2 what is the best practice for estimating demographic information from Twitter data? Methods: Our analyses use information gathered from 979,992 geo-located Tweets sent by 22,356 unique users in South East England between 23 June and 4 July 2014. We estimate demographic characteristics of the Twitter users with the crowd-sourcing platform CrowdFlower and the image-recognition software Face++. To evaluate bias in the data, we run a series of log-linear models with offsets and calibrate the nonrepresentative sample of Twitter users with mid-year population estimates for South East England. Results: CrowdFlower proves to be more accurate than Face++ for the measurement of age, whereas both tools are highly reliable for measuring the sex of Twitter users. The calibration exercise allows bias correction in the age-, sex-, and location-specific population counts obtained from the Twitter population by augmenting Twitter data with mid-year population estimates. Contribution: The paper proposes best practices for estimating Twitter users' basic demographic characteristics and a calibration method to address the selection bias in the Twitter population, allowing researchers to generalize findings based on Twitter to the general population.

  19. The Demographic Transition: Causes and Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galor, Oded

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops the theoretical foundations and the testable implications of the various mechanisms that have been proposed as possible triggers for the demographic transition. Moreover, it examines the empirical validity of each of the theories and their significance for the understanding of the transition from stagnation to growth. The analysis suggests that the rise in the demand for human capital in the process of development was the main trigger for the decline in fertility and the transition to modern growth.

  20. Demographic and management factors associated with biosecurity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Demographic and management factors associated with biosecurity measure compliance on pig farms in south west Nigeria. ... In the multivariable logistic regression, only the age of farmer/ manager (OR = 2.8; 95% CI 1.3 – 6.2), farm size (OR = 2.4; 95% CI 1.1 – 5.2) and pig mortality rate in past 1 year (OR = 2.2; 95% CI 1.1 ...

  1. Demographic Fluctuation and Institutional Response in Sparta

    OpenAIRE

    DORAN, TIMOTHY DONALD

    2011-01-01

    AbstractDemographic Fluctuation and Institutional Response in SpartabyTimothy Donald DoranDoctor of Philosophy in Ancient History and Mediterranean ArchaeologyUniversity of California, BerkeleyProfessor Emily Mackil, ChairThe Spartiate population declined from 8000 in the early fifth century to less than 1000 in the mid-fourth, and caused Sparta's political fortunes to drop dramatically from being the unofficial hegemon of the Greek-speaking peoples to a strictly local power in the Hellenisti...

  2. Demographic changes in towns in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Jakoš

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with population growth and changes in towns in Slovenia, whose characteristics are small towns. The latest population indicators show a decline in growth, which doesn’t necessarily represent stagnation but development in a new direction. In view of the present demographic trends, growth of larger towns in Slovenia will have to be qualitative and under no circumstances an account of smaller towns.

  3. Nutritional risk of European elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, C; Oliveira, B; Afonso, C; Lumbers, M; Raats, M; de Almeida, M D V

    2013-11-01

    The elderly constitute a population group with a high prevalence of non-communicable chronic diseases and high risk of malnutrition. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated to nutritional risk in free-living European elderly. The sample included 644 European citizens, free living in the community, aged 65 years or more. The sample was quota controlled for age groups (65-74, ≥75 years), gender (male/female) and living circumstances (living alone/with others). Logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with nutritional risk. Several variables regarding socio-demographic characteristics, food choice, health status and the satisfaction with food-related life were included in the analysis. According to the recoded score of the 'Determine your nutritional health' (NSI checklist), 53% of the elderly were at nutritional risk. Nutritional risk was more likely to occur in elderly who considered that it was more important to choose foods 'easy to chew'; with lower average number of fruit and vegetables (F&V) intake episodes and lower score for general health. It was also found in non-married participants; those that did not identify changes in their appetite; and those that felt changes in health status. In this sample, the lowest nutritional risk was found for body mass index (BMI) around 18.5 kg/m(2). Country of residence, gender and age were not found to have a significant effect on nutritional risk. Attention should be drawn to the living circumstances, changes in appetite or health, the general heath perception, F&V intake, choice of foods easy to chew and having a low or high BMI.

  4. A Model of Historical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seixas, Peter

    2017-01-01

    "Historical thinking" has a central role in the theory and practice of history education. At a minimum, history educators must work with a model of historical thinking if they are to formulate potential progression in students' advance through a school history curriculum, test that progression empirically, and shape instructional…

  5. What is Linked Historical Data?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meroño-Peñuela, A.; Hoekstra, R.; Janowicz, K.; Schlobach, S.; Lambrix, P.; Hyvönen, E.

    2014-01-01

    Datasets that represent historical sources are relative newcomers in the Linked Open Data (LOD) cloud. Following the standard LOD practices for publishing historical sources raises several questions: how can we distinguish between RDF graphs of primary and secondary sources? Should we treat archived

  6. What Is Linked Historical Data?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meroño-Peñuela, Albert; Hoekstra, Rinke; Janowicz, Krzysztof; Schlobach, Stefan; Lambrix, Patrick; Hyvönen, Eero

    2014-01-01

    Datasets that represent historical sources are relative new- comers in the Linked Open Data (LOD) cloud. Following the standard LOD practices for publishing historical sources raises several questions: how can we distinguish between RDF graphs of primary and secondary sources? Should we treat

  7. The Return of Historical Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rycik, Mary Taylor; Rosler, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Recently, historical fiction has begun to dominate major children's book awards. This article describes the values of using high-quality historical fiction in the classroom and presents different ways to respond to this genre including using modern technology. Two tables, one of picture books and one of novels, with paired nonfiction texts, are…

  8. Lagos Historical Review: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Lagos Historical Review is an international and interdisciplinary journal publishing papers with a historical focus. The journal generates and participates in debates to advance the discipline of history and promote its relevance to development. The journal aims to serve the academic community with a bias towards ...

  9. READING THE PSALMS HISTORICALLY. ANTIOCHENE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HISTORICALLY. ANTIOCHENE. EXEGESIS AND A HISTORICAL. READING Of PSALM 46. ABSTRACT. The Antiochene exegetes, most notably Diodore of Tarsus and Theodore of Mopsuestia read the ..... tation is often informed by the heading. In 2001 .... that it was given to them for meditation and performance. As Hill ...

  10. Rural Household Demographics, Livelihoods and the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sherbinin, Alex; Vanwey, Leah; McSweeney, Kendra; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Barbieri, Alisson; Henry, Sabina; Hunter, Lori M; Twine, Wayne

    2008-02-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes findings from scholarly work on linkages among rural household demographics, livelihoods and the environment. Using the livelihood approach as an organizing framework, we examine evidence on the multiple pathways linking environmental variables and the following demographic variables: fertility, migration, morbidity and mortality, and lifecycles. Although the review draws on studies from the entire developing world, we find the majority of micro-level studies have been conducted in either marginal (mountainous or arid) or frontier environments, especially Amazonia. Though the linkages are mediated by many complex and often context-specific factors, there is strong evidence that dependence on natural resources intensifies when households lose human and social capital through adult morbidity and mortality, and qualified evidence for the influence of environmental factors on household decision-making regarding fertility and migration. Two decades of research on lifecycles and land-cover change at the farm level have yielded a number of insights about how households make use of different land-use and natural resource management strategies at different stages. A thread running throughout the review is the importance of managing risk through livelihood diversification, ensuring future income security, and culture-specific norms regarding appropriate and desirable activities and demographic responses. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  11. Exile and demographic population growth in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Radoslav

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The data of the 2002 population census on refugee population are analyzed in this paper with a basic aim to determine the significance (contribution of refugee corpus in demographic development of the Republic of Serbia. By analyzing the data, it has been determined that the refugee corpus does not significantly differ from the domicile population in the basic, above all demographic and other qualitative characteristics. The differences which can be noticed with certain (primarily socio-economic characteristics, due to the proportionally small participation of refugee persons in relation to the total (domicile population, could not significantly influence the total demographic, socio-economic and other characteristics of the population of central Serbia and Vojvodina. The most significant contribution of refugee (classifying the refugee corpus in the country's total population is reflected in the mitigation of the depopulation trend, namely population growth, not only both micro-entities, but also lower administrative-territorial entities (districts depending on the enumerated refugee population in them. However, population projections indicate that by the middle of this century (2050 the positive effects of the basically larger number of inhabitants will be lost caused by the inflow of refugee population.

  12. Development of reprogenetics and its demographic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devedžić Mirjana M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of reprogenetics during the last two decades of the XX century has brought a new age of reproduction. The paper surveys different types of reprogenetics in a wider sense, i.e. different assisted reproductive technologies (ART that include manipulation of female reproductive cell out of a woman's womb. Development of reprogenetics is documented by available quantitative indicators of the number and success of ART procedures in developed countries at the beginning of the XXI century. Since 1978, when the first baby was born from in vitro fertilization, the number of children born that way has reached 1% of all children, and in some countries even over 3%. Moreover, existing documentation is incomplete and does not include all forms of assisted reproduction - in reality, the importance of assisted reproduction is even higher and becomes demographically significant. Hence the paper indicates existing and potential effects of the ART development on the demographic development i.e. on specific demographic aspects of this phenomenon. It also points out the effects on the level of fertility, on the changes of direct fertility determinants, and on the levels of mortality and infant mortality, as well as a new understanding of birth control, the possibility of affecting biological structures, and the changes of the fundaments of marriage and family. Development perspectives of reprogenetics are also being raised in the context of bioethical discussions and indicate ethical dilemmas related to assisted reproduction. Solutions to the dilemmas define the scope of applying new reproductive technologies in the future.

  13. Rural Household Demographics, Livelihoods and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sherbinin, Alex; VanWey, Leah; McSweeney, Kendra; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Barbieri, Alisson; Henry, Sabina; Hunter, Lori M.; Twine, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes findings from scholarly work on linkages among rural household demographics, livelihoods and the environment. Using the livelihood approach as an organizing framework, we examine evidence on the multiple pathways linking environmental variables and the following demographic variables: fertility, migration, morbidity and mortality, and lifecycles. Although the review draws on studies from the entire developing world, we find the majority of micro-level studies have been conducted in either marginal (mountainous or arid) or frontier environments, especially Amazonia. Though the linkages are mediated by many complex and often context-specific factors, there is strong evidence that dependence on natural resources intensifies when households lose human and social capital through adult morbidity and mortality, and qualified evidence for the influence of environmental factors on household decision-making regarding fertility and migration. Two decades of research on lifecycles and land-cover change at the farm level have yielded a number of insights about how households make use of different land-use and natural resource management strategies at different stages. A thread running throughout the review is the importance of managing risk through livelihood diversification, ensuring future income security, and culture-specific norms regarding appropriate and desirable activities and demographic responses. Recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:19190718

  14. HISTORICAL ASPECTS OF PHALLOPLASTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Kyzlasov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of the penis in transgender operations, amputation of the penis, congenital deformities and anomalies of the penis was and remains today an important issue in plastic surgery of the urogenital region. The only method to restore the penis is phalloplasty. In general, over the past decades, generations of clinicians have different ways and flaps for total fallouretheral reconstruction. Thus was formulated the characteristics of an ideal flap for the formation of neophallos, which should be safe, sensitive, without hair, and with long leg. However, despite the fact that the characteristics of a perfect flap, nowadays there is no “gold standard” in the formation of neophallos, as phalloplasty is a fairly complicated surgery, and the choice of method depends on many factors. The choice of methodology is determined by the plastics surgeon and to each patient is individual, depends on the etiology of the disease and the possibility of choosing the form of the donor’s transplant. This article presents a literature review devoted to the historical aspects of phalloplasty. In the article, in chronological order reflected the evolution of the different forming methods neofallos, phallourethrоplasty, describes their advantages and disadvantages.

  15. Scientific and historical archive

    CERN Multimedia

    2017-01-01

    : International Archives Day, 9 June, is an opportunity to discover a little-known CERN resource. Unlike libraries, archives tend to be hidden away. You can’t browse among the shelves, or borrow files to use in the workplace, but sometimes they contain just the information you need. CERN’s rich heritage has many parts: its scientific data, the black and white photos recently put online by the Library, the audio-visual collection, currently being digitized by the IT department, historic objects in the care of the IR-ECO group, and much more - not least the memory of its people. The CERN Archive exists in the background, supporting other endeavours and preserving our documentary heritage for future generations. About 1000 shelf metres of files filled with letters, notes, reports, rough drafts, memos such as this report, by Miss Steel, are preserved. You can browse more examples on our timeline. It is a place for information on all aspects of CERN’s history. Sometimes documents pro

  16. Genomic Insights into the Ancestry and Demographic History of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homburger, Julian R.; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Nelson, Dominic; Sanchez, Elena; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Acevedo-Vasquez, Eduardo; Miranda, Pedro; Langefeld, Carl D.; Gravel, Simon; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2015-01-01

    South America has a complex demographic history shaped by multiple migration and admixture events in pre- and post-colonial times. Settled over 14,000 years ago by Native Americans, South America has experienced migrations of European and African individuals, similar to other regions in the Americas. However, the timing and magnitude of these events resulted in markedly different patterns of admixture throughout Latin America. We use genome-wide SNP data for 437 admixed individuals from 5 countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, and Argentina) to explore the population structure and demographic history of South American Latinos. We combined these data with population reference panels from Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas to perform global ancestry analysis and infer the subcontinental origin of the European and Native American ancestry components of the admixed individuals. By applying ancestry-specific PCA analyses we find that most of the European ancestry in South American Latinos is from the Iberian Peninsula; however, many individuals trace their ancestry back to Italy, especially within Argentina. We find a strong gradient in the Native American ancestry component of South American Latinos associated with country of origin and the geography of local indigenous populations. For example, Native American genomic segments in Peruvians show greater affinities with Andean indigenous peoples like Quechua and Aymara, whereas Native American haplotypes from Colombians tend to cluster with Amazonian and coastal tribes from northern South America. Using ancestry tract length analysis we modeled post-colonial South American migration history as the youngest in Latin America during European colonization (9–14 generations ago), with an additional strong pulse of European migration occurring between 3 and 9 generations ago. These genetic footprints can impact our understanding of population-level differences in biomedical traits and, thus, inform future medical

  17. Genomic Insights into the Ancestry and Demographic History of South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian R Homburger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available South America has a complex demographic history shaped by multiple migration and admixture events in pre- and post-colonial times. Settled over 14,000 years ago by Native Americans, South America has experienced migrations of European and African individuals, similar to other regions in the Americas. However, the timing and magnitude of these events resulted in markedly different patterns of admixture throughout Latin America. We use genome-wide SNP data for 437 admixed individuals from 5 countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, and Argentina to explore the population structure and demographic history of South American Latinos. We combined these data with population reference panels from Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas to perform global ancestry analysis and infer the subcontinental origin of the European and Native American ancestry components of the admixed individuals. By applying ancestry-specific PCA analyses we find that most of the European ancestry in South American Latinos is from the Iberian Peninsula; however, many individuals trace their ancestry back to Italy, especially within Argentina. We find a strong gradient in the Native American ancestry component of South American Latinos associated with country of origin and the geography of local indigenous populations. For example, Native American genomic segments in Peruvians show greater affinities with Andean indigenous peoples like Quechua and Aymara, whereas Native American haplotypes from Colombians tend to cluster with Amazonian and coastal tribes from northern South America. Using ancestry tract length analysis we modeled post-colonial South American migration history as the youngest in Latin America during European colonization (9-14 generations ago, with an additional strong pulse of European migration occurring between 3 and 9 generations ago. These genetic footprints can impact our understanding of population-level differences in biomedical traits and, thus, inform

  18. Genomic Insights into the Ancestry and Demographic History of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homburger, Julian R; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gignoux, Christopher R; Nelson, Dominic; Sanchez, Elena; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A; Acevedo-Vasquez, Eduardo; Miranda, Pedro; Langefeld, Carl D; Gravel, Simon; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2015-12-01

    South America has a complex demographic history shaped by multiple migration and admixture events in pre- and post-colonial times. Settled over 14,000 years ago by Native Americans, South America has experienced migrations of European and African individuals, similar to other regions in the Americas. However, the timing and magnitude of these events resulted in markedly different patterns of admixture throughout Latin America. We use genome-wide SNP data for 437 admixed individuals from 5 countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, and Argentina) to explore the population structure and demographic history of South American Latinos. We combined these data with population reference panels from Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas to perform global ancestry analysis and infer the subcontinental origin of the European and Native American ancestry components of the admixed individuals. By applying ancestry-specific PCA analyses we find that most of the European ancestry in South American Latinos is from the Iberian Peninsula; however, many individuals trace their ancestry back to Italy, especially within Argentina. We find a strong gradient in the Native American ancestry component of South American Latinos associated with country of origin and the geography of local indigenous populations. For example, Native American genomic segments in Peruvians show greater affinities with Andean indigenous peoples like Quechua and Aymara, whereas Native American haplotypes from Colombians tend to cluster with Amazonian and coastal tribes from northern South America. Using ancestry tract length analysis we modeled post-colonial South American migration history as the youngest in Latin America during European colonization (9-14 generations ago), with an additional strong pulse of European migration occurring between 3 and 9 generations ago. These genetic footprints can impact our understanding of population-level differences in biomedical traits and, thus, inform future medical

  19. Demographic Transformations of the Russian Regional Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Viktorovna Kurushina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the transformations of the quantitative components of human capital, which is the main driver of economic growth in the material, institutional and mental space. According to the author’s concept of stratified space, the processes of self-reproduction and self-renewal of a system are carried out in the material space. This can be determined by the indicators of fertility, mortality and migration in the demographic subsystem. The process of self-regulation of a system on the basis of legislative acts and behavior patterns is carried out in the institutional space. Institutional transformations are also manifested in the implementation of federal target programs for socio-economic development, affecting the state of the demographic subsystem. The processes of self-reflection, self-determination and self-development are carried out in the mental space. Mental transformations in the demographic subsystem are manifested in the change of value orientations. In accordance with the system of values that are conceptualized in modern development strategies the authors define the following models of Man: Economic Man, Socio-Economic Man (who lives in agglomeration centers and at the periphery, Socio-Natural Man (Environmental Man and Householder Man and Innovative Man. Demographic shifts are investigated in 83 Russian regions on the determinants of birth rate and mortality. The analyzed period of transformation covers 2005 and 2012. Methods of matrix analysis are used to visualize the process of demographic shifts. The assessment of transformation of the stratified regional space spheres is given on the basis of the multifactor models of the population natural growth rate. The paper reveals the reduction in the level and variation of mortality rate, the increasing importance and differentiation of regions according to fertility rate, and the effectiveness of introducing the institution of maternity capital from a perspective of the

  20. Historical Post Office Directory Parser (POD Parser Software From the AddressingHistory Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Osborne

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The POD Parser is Python software for parsing the OCR’d (optical character recognised text of digitised historical Scottish Post Office Directories (PODs to produce a consistent structured format for the data and for geocoding each address. The software was developed as part of the AddressingHistory project which sought to combine digitised historic directories with digitised and georeferenced historic maps.  The software has potential for reuse in multiple research contexts where historical post office directory data is relevant, and is therefore particularly of use in historical research into social, economic or demographic trends. The POD Parser is currently designed for use with Scottish directories but is extensible, perhaps with some adaptation, to use with other similarly formatted materials such as the English Trade Directories.

  1. Update of European bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2015-01-01

    , the principles of autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability are proposed as the most important ethical principles for respect for the human person in biomedical and biotechnological development. This approach to bioethics and biolaw is presented here in a short updated version that integrates the earlier......This paper presents an update of the research on European bioethics undertaken by the author together with Professor Peter Kemp since the 1990s, on Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. In this European approach to basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw...... research in a presentation of the present understanding of the basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw....

  2. Democratic Citizenship: European referents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María PUIG GUTIÉRREZ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Let’s sense beforehand in this article a tour concerning the educational European policies that favors the development of a democratic citizenship. The aim that we chase is to understand the way in which nowadays it is being interpreted and stimulated the Citizenship education from European Union. for it we offer a conceptual delimiting of «Citizenship education» and later, we show an analysis of the principal documents and materials elaborated principally by the Council of Europe that mark the way followed by European Union as for education for Democratic Citizenship (EDC.

  3. Historical trends and projections of land use for the South-Central United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SoEun Ahn; Andrew J. Plantinga; Ralph J. Alig

    2000-01-01

    This report presents historical trends and future projections of forest, agricultural, and urban and other land uses for the South-Central United States. A land use share model is used to investigate the relation between the areas of land in alternative uses and economic and demographic factors influencing land use decisions. Two different versions of the empirical...

  4. The 1977 Universal Primary Education in Tanzania: A Historical Base for Quantitative Enquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabates, Ricardo; Westbrook, Jo; Hernandez-Fernandez, Jimena

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the importance of increasing women's education as a result of Universal Primary Education (UPE) and its further impact on improving children's educational access in Tanzania. The study uses data from the 2007 Demographic Health Survey (DHS) for empirical analysis and it is informed by the historical accounts of the UPE reform…

  5. The CEDAR Project: Harmonizing the Dutch Historical censuses in the Semantic Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashkpour, Ashkan; Meroño-Peñuela, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Historical censuses are on the most consulted, reliable and large scale statistical data sources available which give an insight in the population characteristics of a nation: they provide a wealth of data on many issues in the course of time at the demographic, social and economic level. In the

  6. Inference of historical changes in migration rate from the lengths of migrant tracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pool, John E; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2009-01-01

    a theoretical framework describing the migrant tract length distribution and propose a likelihood inference method to test demographic hypotheses and estimate parameters related to a historical change in migration rate. Applying this method to data from the hybridizing subspecies Mus musculus domesticus and M...

  7. Arguing for a Contextual Approach to European Media Education Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Martens

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we focus on how various historical, contextual, and idiosyncratic factors shape the aims and methods of current European media educational practice. We start by briefly situating the history of European media education research and policymaking. We then discuss in more detail three important strands of media literacy initiatives within the Flemish Community (Belgium. While each of these diverging types of media education partly mirrors broader trends in European media research and policymaking, their aims and instructional methods also reveal the specificity of the Flemish media literacy context. In our discussion, we draw upon these findings to pinpoint a number of key determinants which may help to better understand similarities and differences within the European Union.

  8. Twenty Years of the European Information Systems Academy at ECIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Mari-Klara; Galliers, Robert D.; Whitley, Edgar A.

    2016-01-01

    While the information systems (IS) community is increasingly international, it is reasonable to expect that different regions might display different research approaches, interests and publication orientations. This paper contributes to the growing number of historical accounts in the IS field...... by further developing the profile of European IS research that was reported on in EJIS following the first 10 years of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS). On the basis of an analysis of all papers published in ECIS proceedings during the 10-year period 2003–2012, the paper highlights three...... key characteristics of the developing European IS research profile: (1) continuation of the traditional European IS research profile as developed in the first decade; (2) convergence with aspects of the North American tradition and (3) development of a distinct approach to design science. We place...

  9. CERN welcomes European science

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    On 3 and 4 October CERN will host a special workshop for Marie Curie fellows. This programme is a key plank in the EU's strategy for creating a European research area.     With thousands of scientists from all over the continent working together, CERN is already an exemplary European science showcase. On 3 and 4 October, the Laboratory will contribute further to unifying all European science by hosting a special workshop for EU-funded Marie Curie fellows. This scheme gives young researchers from around the continent the mobility to go to wherever Europe's best facilities in their chosen field happen to be. The event that will take place at CERN, entitled 'Special workshop of Marie Curie Fellows on research and training in physics and technology', organised together with the European Commission, is a continuation of a series of workshops with the aim, among others, of promoting young researchers, supporting their training and mobility, and facilitating the interdisciplinary dissemination of knowledge. Dur...

  10. European Economic Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, James A.

    1971-01-01

    Recounts the history and problems of European Economic Integration from the first post World War II organization, the OEEC, to the EEC (Common Market) and the EFTA. Suggestions for further reading are included. (JB)

  11. European Molecular Biology Laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    On 10 May an Agreement was signed at CERN setting up a new European Laboratory. It will be concerned with research in molecularbiology and will be located at Heidelberg in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  12. The European University Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraio, Cinzia; Bonaccorsi, Andrea; Geuna, Aldo

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a new and systematic characterization of 488 universities, from 11 European countries: Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland and UK. Using micro indicators built on the integrated Aquameth database, we characterize the Euro...

  13. European mobility cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick

    2016-01-01

    More targeted European policies promoting green travel patterns require better knowledge on differing mobility cultures across European regions. As a basis for this, we clustered the EU population into eight mobility styles based on Eurobarometer data. The mobility styles - including, for example......-economic resources. In a second step, the 28 EU member countries were clustered into six country clusters based on their representation of mobility styles. The country clusters indicate the existence of considerably different mobility cultures across the EU. Sub-regions can be identified that have highly different...... positions on the path towards sustainable mobility and therefore different requirements towards European platforms and support measures, e.g. for 'Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans'. The country clusters can provide a starting point for future communication and targeting of European efforts in sustainable...

  14. European Cyber Security Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Bendiek, Annegret

    2012-01-01

    The gradually developing European cyber security policy tries to establish minimum standards in all EU member states with regard to prevention, resilience and international cooperation. It aims to foster national security without compromising democratic principles or unduly limiting individual liberties. However, it is hard to find a balance between these goals, and the EU’s measures thus inevitably raise questions about the democratic implications of European cyber security policy. Are the i...

  15. Timetabling on European Corridors

    OpenAIRE

    Lischke, Andreas; Führer, B. (Bernhard); Garavagno, G.

    2005-01-01

    The Path Allocation Re-engineering of Timetable Networks for European Railways (PARTNER) project aims to demonstrate a new way of train path allocation and assembly along international corridors towards a faster and more coordinated railway infrastructure capacity management. PARTNER will assist two neighbour infrastructure managers to develop a common understanding of the effects of international train paths. The results of a survey of European infrastructure managers and railway underta...

  16. European Physical Society awards

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The winners of the 2004 Accelerator Prizes, awarded by the European Physical Society's Interdivisional Group on Accelerators (EPS-IGA), have been announced. Vladmir Shiltsev (Fermilab) and Igor Meshkov (JINR, Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna) will be presented with their awards during the 9th European Particle Accelerator Conference, EPAC'04, on 8 July 2004 in Lucerne. Both physicists will also give a talk about their work. More details on: http://epac.web.cern.ch/

  17. European Banking Union

    OpenAIRE

    Breuss, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing Euro crisis and the worse economic development in Europe than in the USA are grounded, not the least in the delayed implementation of reforms of the banking sector. Whereas the leaks in economic governance of EMU have been fixed the banking sector is still not stabilised, even five years after Lehman Brothers. From the grand solution of a "European Banking Union" (EBU) only the first pillar, the European Bank Supervision with the single supervisory mechanism (SSM) will come into e...

  18. European DHC Research Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltshire, Robin; Williams, Jonathan (Building Research Establishment, BRE, Bucknalls Lane, Watford (United Kingdom)); Werner, Sven (Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering, Halmstad (Sweden))

    2008-09-15

    Euroheat and Power is now working towards a European Technology Platform for District Heating and Cooling. In response to this important European DHC research initiative, a preliminary detailed list of research issues within 18 dimensions was elaborated and communicated to more than 100 people in February 2008. After additions and comments received, an updated list of research issues was again distributed in July 2008. This paper contains the current list of suggested research issues

  19. The Demographic Component in the Development of a Metropolis. Case-Study: Iaşi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA POPESCU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several peculiarities make Iaşi an outstanding city: it is a first-rank city in the national settlement system and the capital of the historical province of Moldova, numbers over 300,000 inhabitants and holds the 2nd position in the national urban hierarchy by demographic size, and a national growth pole since 2008 (Government Decision 998/2008. In view of the above, Iaşi has a significant demographic potential, also discharging complex functions and polarizing a large influence area, being one of the pillars of urban development in Romania. The aim of this paper is to outline the urban development strategy in the light of demographic structures and evolution. The demography today in the peri-urban space shows two characteristic features, namely the urban–rural migration, on the one hand, and the dominant agricultural functionality, on the other hand, as mirrored by the structure of employment. The development–related factors are the positive natural demographic balance, low level of population ageing and supply of a large workforce, a potential well-balanced local labour market. Concluding, the provision of Iaşi integrated urban and peri-urban strategy are pointed out.

  20. Spatial continuities and discontinuities in two successive demographic transitions: Spain and Belgium, 1880-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Lesthaeghe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a study of how the synergisms between cultural and structural factors, which played a major role during the historical fertility and nuptiality transition (first demographic transition or FDT, have continued to condition demographic innovations connected to the "second demographic transition" (SDT. The continuity or discontinuity from the "first" to the "second" demographic transition is studied for spatial aggregates over more than a century in two national contexts, i.e., Belgium and Spain. Special attention is paid to the role of successive secularization waves in shaping the geographical patterns of both transitions. The study also shows that the maps of the two aspects of the SDT, i.e., the "postponement" and the "non-conformism" transitions respectively, are shaped by different determinants. Explanations are offered using the "Ready, Willing, and Able" paradigm, which allows us to uncover the different conditioning and limiting factors involved. The "non-conformist" transitions (control of marital fertility during the FDT and rise of cohabitation and non-conventional family formation during the SDT more closely mirror the history of secularization and the "Willingness" condition, whereas the fertility postponement aspect of the SDT mainly reflects female education and employment, or the "Readiness" condition. This generalization holds in both countries. However, in Belgium spatial continuity from FDT to SDT is connected to stable patterns of secularization, whereas in Spain it is linked to long standing differences with respect to female literacy and education.

  1. Independent Demographic Responses to Climate Change among Temperate and Tropical Milksnakes (Colubridae: Genus Lampropeltis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, Sara; Torres-Carvajal, Omar; Burbrink, Frank T

    2015-01-01

    The effects of Late Quaternary climate change have been examined for many temperate New World taxa, but the impact of Pleistocene glacial cycles on Neotropical taxa is less well understood, specifically with respect to changes in population demography. Here, we examine historical demographic trends for six species of milksnake with representatives in both the temperate and tropical Americas to determine if species share responses to climate change as a taxon or by area (i.e., temperate versus tropical environments). Using a multilocus dataset, we test for the demographic signature of population expansion and decline using non-genealogical summary statistics, as well as coalescent-based methods. In addition, we determine whether range sizes are correlated with effective population sizes for milksnakes. Results indicate that there are no identifiable trends with respect to demographic response based on location, and that species responded to changing climates independently, with tropical taxa showing greater instability. There is also no correlation between range size and effective population size, with the largest population size belonging to the species with the smallest geographic distribution. Our study highlights the importance of not generalizing the demographic histories of taxa by region and further illustrates that the New World tropics may not have been a stable refuge during the Pleistocene.

  2. Risk society and the second demographic transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Hall

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Prominent “risk society” theorists such as Giddens and Beck have identified risk as a fundamental organizing principle of contemporary society. Importantly, a major cause of risk awareness and anxiety in modern society is individualism . . a concept Lesthaeghe linked to changes in family formation. In this regard, of the types of risk discussed in the sociological literature, “interpersonal risks” associated with cohabitation, marriage, and parenting are of obvious salience. This paper explores how the modern “risk society” thesis, and the concept of interpersonal risk could materially contribute to understanding the second demographic transition.

  3. DEMOGRAPHIC IMPERATIVES OF MODERNIZATION PROCESSES IN EDUCATIONAL POLICY (FOR EXAMPLE REGIONS OF INNER ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Innokentievna Garmaeva

    2017-02-01

    Methodological basis of the research are the historical, sociological methods, and also systematic and structural-functional analysis. The results of the research will help to determine the demographic processes in the cross-border regions of Inner Asia, in particular in the Republic of Buryatia (Russia, Autonomous Region of Inner Mongolia (China, Mongolia; the possibility of the higher education system’s development in the designated regions. The obtained results can be used in the work of public authorities involved in the development of public policy in the field of education, in reading of the lecture course, special seminars on pedagogy and history of education for the students and specialists of humanities.

  4. Modern-Day Demographic Processes in Central Europe and Their Potential Interactions with Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bański, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to evaluate the effect of contemporary transformations in the population of Central European countries on climate change, in addition to singling out the primary points of interaction between demographic processes and the climate. In analyzing the interactions between climate and demographics, we can formulate three basic hypotheses regarding the region in question: 1) as a result of current demographic trends in Central Europe, the influence of the region on its climate will probably diminish, 2) the importance of the "climatically displaced" in global migratory movements will increase, and some of those concerned will move to Central Europe, 3) the contribution of the region to global food security will increase. In the last decade most of what comprises the region of Central Europe has reported a decline in population growth and a negative migration balance. As a process, this loss of population may have a positive effect on the environment and the climate. We can expect ongoing climate change to intensify migration processes, particularly from countries outside Europe. Interactions between climate and demographic processes can also be viewed in the context of food security. The global warming most sources foresee for the coming decades is the process most likely to result in spatial polarization of food production in agriculture. Central Europe will then face the challenge of assuring and improving food security, albeit this time on a global scale.

  5. The Risk of Imbalances in the Financing of Social Protection in the Context of Demographic Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergil Voineagu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the next decades, developed countries will experience dramatic changes in their demographic trends. The retirement of the wide baby-boom generations, the increase in life expectancy and the decline in fertility ratios are likely to modify the size and the age-structure of their populations. The expected population ageing in European countries will burden the pension systems, especially wherever the pay-as-you-go pillar is predominant. Recently, migration has received a widespread attention as a solution to expected population decline and ageing in these countries. The flow of (young migrants to developed countries is perceived as a means to alleviate the financial burden of pension systems. The aim of this contribution is to clarify the issue of aging on labour and capital markets in a macroeconomic perspective. A special attention is given to the risk of imbalances in the financing of social protection in the context of demographic ageing.

  6. Exploring the secret history of the legal service of the European Executives, 1952-1967

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    In one of the great classical analyses of the early development of European law, American legal scholar, Eric Stein, argued that the legal service of the EEC Commission and its director Michel Gaudet were the originators of the groundbreaking interpretation of the Treaties of Rome, which the Court...... as a ‘constitutionalised’ European legal order. Recent historical and social science research in the early history of European law has highlighted the central role of the legal service and Michel Gaudet in the development of increasingly dense transnational networks of European minded jurists supporting and legitimising...

  7. Poverty, Population, Inequality, and Development: the Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chilosi, Alberto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Seen in historical perspective the main economic predicaments of the present world (such as poverty, inequality, backwardness appear in a somewhat different light than in many current discussions, especially by sociologists, radical economists and political scientists. In the present paper the achievements of the modern age, and in particular of the post- World War II period, are considered in the perspective of economic and demographic history, and in their connection with the systems of production and of international relations. Some considerations concerning future possible developments conclude the paper.

  8. FEMA Historical Disaster Declarations - shp

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Historical Disaster Declarations provides geospatial view to the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (referred to as the Stafford Act...

  9. Historical and Documentary Data Sets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past climate and environment from historical references and documentary evidence such as church records, harvest dates, and diaries. Parameter keywords...

  10. GDOT historic landscape mitigation evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-29

    Historic Landscapes are our nations finger prints of the past. They provide us a glimpse into the way people worked, lived, and admired : the land. As the earths population continues to grow, so does the need for infrastructure improvements suc...

  11. Historical sources and watershed evolution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stanley W. Trimble

    2012-01-01

    Historical data, including structures, documents, photographs and eyewitness reports, allow changes in some drainage basins to be documented in fine detail over time periods ranging from a few days to several decades...

  12. 2nd Historic Mortars Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, John; Groot, Caspar; Historic Mortars : Characterisation, Assessment and Repair

    2012-01-01

    This volume focuses on research and practical issues connected with mortars on historic structures. The book is divided into four sections: Characterisation of Historic Mortars, Repair Mortars and Design Issues, Experimental Research into Properties of Repair Mortars, and Assessment and Testing. The papers present the latest work of researchers in their field. The individual contributions were selected from the contributions to the 2nd Historic Mortars Conference, which took place in Prague, September, 22-24, 2010. All papers were reviewed and improved as necessary before publication. This peer review process by the editors resulted in the 34 individual contributions included in here. One extra paper reviewing and summarising State-of-the-Art knowledge covered by this publication was added as a starting and navigational point for the reader. The editors believe that having these papers in print is important and they hope that it will stimulate further research into historic mortars and related subjects. 

  13. Habermas on European Constitution and European Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Biró-Kaszás

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For the last two decades or so philosophers have been reflecting on a set of practical and political concerns in connection with the new political structural arrangements beyond the nation-state. In this article two essays by Jürgen Habermas shall be examined. An attempt shall be made to tackle Habermas’ philosophical concepts of personal and collective identity as well as the role that a constitution may play in building the post-national constellation. It has been shown that Habermas has normative answers. Firstly, according to him, the fragile balance between the legal order and the particular cultures and traditions of a community has to be protected by the constitutional state. For that reason the political culture has to be “decoupled” from the majority culture. Secondly, the democratically structured attempt to achieve shared meaning has to find the delicate balance between the context-transcending universal normative claims and the claims of particular individual and collective life. Thirdly, it is possible to expand legally mediated civil solidarity trans-nationally, across Europe – we may recognize this development as the emergence of European identity –, since the process of democratic will-formation of citizens may get loose from the structures provided by the state if both shared democratic political cultures as well as a European-wide public sphere exist. The European Constitution may have a catalytic function in materialization of these conditions. It has been shown that in his deliberations Habermas tried to find a reflective equilibrium between the normative and the empirical.

  14. [Demographic characteristics of dog population in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horisberger, U; Stärk, K D; Rüfenacht, J; Pillonel, C; Steiger, A

    2004-05-01

    Dog Registration data from three Cantons, patient data of 13 veterinary practices and registrations in the Swiss Dog Pedigree Book were collected, analysed and compared to results of a commercial household survey, to assess demographic characteristics of dog population in Switzerland. The proportion of "pure-bred" dogs was different depending on how the term was used, varying from 24% regarding registrations in the Swiss Dog Pedigree Book, to 75% regarding dogs with only one breed recorded in Veterinarian's patient-history-management systems. Most popular breeds were dogs called "German Shepherd/Shepherd", followed by the Labrador and Golden Retriever. Comparison of different data sources suggested regional differences in popularity of breeds. The average life expectancy was estimated on 10.5 and 11 years. Sex distribution was equal. One third of all male dogs and half of the female dogs were neutered. Regardless sex, neutering was more common in cross-bred dogs than in "pure-bred" dogs (OR = 1.9). Some bias in all sources had to be considered and there was a major concern regarding definition of breeds. However, the study was able to add different parameters out of different sources to a homogenous picture of demographic data of dog population in Switzerland.

  15. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: clinical and demographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Arshad; Amjad, Nida; Chand, Prem; Zaidi, Syed Sohail Zahoor; Rana, Muhammad Suleman; Ahmed, Khalid; Ibrahim, Shahnaz

    2014-08-01

    To determine the clinical and demographic characteristics of children diagnosed with Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). Case series. The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2000 to June 2012. A retrospective analysis was done, regarding medical charts of 43 children under the age of 16 years with a discharge diagnosis of SSPE. Demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded. RESULTS were expressed as percentages. Most of the 43 patients were male (72%). The average age at presentation was 8.7 years with average duration of symptoms being 100.6 days. History of measles was present in 17 patients (39.5%). All children had seizures at presentation and 65% had cognitive impairment. Most patients required poly therapy for control of seizures. Sodium valproate was the most commonly used anti-epileptic agent; Isoprinosine was tried in 22 (51%) patients. CSF for antimeasles antibodies was positive in approximately 86% of the 40 (93%) children. EEG showed burst suppression pattern in 36 (83.7%) cases. Forty-two patients (97.6%) were discharged home in a vegetative state. SSPE is progressive neurodegenerative disorder. It can be prevented by timely immunization against measles. Measles antibody in the CSF is diagnostic for SSPE and is helpful in early diagnosis. Most patients experience a gradual but progressive decline in motor and cognitive functions.

  16. Rwanda: a case of demographic entrapment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneux, L

    1994-12-17

    When King published 3 articles about demographic entrapment, he recommended that primary health care stop targeting child mortality, indeed that oral rehydration solutions be withheld, in order to reduce population size and evade the demographic trap of a region endangered by the growth of its own population. Using Rwanda as an example, it is possible to calculate the effect of decreasing child mortality on population growth. From 1970, when there were no programs to reduce child mortality, until 1993 the birth rate remained constant and the child mortality rate slowed so that an extra 0.5/5 children would survive to their fifth birthday. Thus, most of the population growth increase of 0.5% is probably attributable to decreased child mortality. If the high mortality rate had been maintained, the growth rate would have remained at 2.9% and the population doubling time would have been 24.2 years. The actual doubling time between 1970 and 1993 was 22.1 years, so only 2 years would have been gained by increased child mortality. The problem in Rwanda was not decreased child mortality, therefore, but the constant birth rate. Rwanda has a very Catholic population which embraces the Roman Catholic Church's anti-family planning policy. It is very hard for illiterate poor to refute the teachings of the church. The collapse of Rwanda caused by its overpopulation presents an example to the world of the devastating consequences of denying effective family planning to the poor.

  17. Demographic Characteristics of Strokes Types in Sanliurfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ižnanc

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Sanliurfa training and research hospital for diagnosis and treatment of patients with stroke admitted demographic features planned. We aimed to study demographic feature of stroke patient who admitted to Sanliurfa training and research hospital for diagnosis and treatment. Material and Method: 01/10/2011 and 01/9/2012, ischemic and hemorrhagic brain training and research hospital in Sanliurfa vascular disease diagnosis and treatment without any exclusion criteria, patient sequential 454 retrospectively.Results: 366%u2019si 88 were ischemic, hemorrhagic stroke. 54.6% by sex male,% 45.4 were women. Average age: 67.86 di.56.3% radiologically roaming the front circulation infarct brain infarct% found the rear 23.2. Hospital stay duration: 9.27 day.. Hemorrhagic stroke was longer this Sura in the group. Mortality rate 4.6% in all in packaging (21 patients, ischemic in boots in 1.9% (7 patients, hemorrhagic of boots were found at 15.9% (14 patients.Discussion: our study of Sanliurfa province stroke data in terms of the region together, although a portion of their valuable results. In the summer, the ischemic stroke incidence is higher.

  18. Feminism and nursing: historical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, S; Campbell, J C

    1990-07-01

    Feminists have often criticized nursing for lack of commitment to women's movements. This article addresses the contradictions and conflicts in the relationship of feminism and nursing from a historical perspective. Different feminist epistemologies, those of enlightened liberal, cultural, and radical feminism, are examined historically and their relevance to nursing is discussed. A reflexive theory, proposed by Harding, is used to conceptualize the differing responses, feminist and nonfeminist, of women and nurses, as alternative reactions to the many types of patriarchy they have encountered.

  19. Update of the review: Cultivation of energy crops in Poland against socio-demographic factors

    OpenAIRE

    Chodkowska-Miszczuk, Justyna; Szymańska, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    The article presents some of the socio-demographic factors conditioning the production of biomass in Poland. It considers urban-rural and rural gminas that grew energy crops for biomass production in the years 2007-2009 (836 gminas in 2007, 756 in 2008 and 618 in 2009). The article tries to answer the question whether there is a relation between the age of the inhabitants, their opinion on Poland's accession to the European Union and the education level of the local authorities and the area o...

  20. Professionals and Power Vacuums on Demographic Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni

    on programs that aim to enable choice about childbearing; in concrete terms this means measures such as one-off payments, improving childcare availability, and addressing worklife balance concerns.1 As an issue, low fertility is seen as a particular problem for a number of European and East Asian advanced...... industrialized countries. Germany and Japan stand out in having experienced especially low fertility over a sustained period of time, while countries with an established and generous welfare state or long traditions of migration appear to buck these trends among members of the Organisation for Economic Co...

  1. ‘What Europeans Saw of Europe’: Medial Construction of European Identity in Information Films and Newsreels in the 1950s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Bruch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines Austrian, British, French and German newsreels and European information films produced in the period from 1948 to 1958 either by private and semi-private newsreel companies or transnational, supranational and national institutions like the Economic Cooperation Administration, Council of Europe, European Coal and Steel Community. These newsreel items and short films are not only records from the beginning and consolidation of the European integration project but also political instruments in this process. On the one hand, they informed the public about the new institutions, their purposes as well as their decision-making procedures; on the other hand, they were intended to create a European identity by rewriting a collective cultural and historical memory. By means of these films, some of them being part of the public relations campaigns of various European institutions and newsreel companies, a consistent picture of ‘Europe’ was shaped. This audiovisual representation of Europe as a geographical and historical entity, or, respectively, ‘the idea of European integration’, was not only a result of a political discourse but also a cultural continuation of a centuries-old iconographic tradition. This article aims at broadening the academic debate on a European identity by analysing the political communication process of the European Integration in the 1950s.

  2. The use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) in the investigation of historical quarry abandonment in Svalbard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Benjamin; Kruse, Frigga

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates historical quarry abandonment in Svalbard in the European High Arctic. A short-lived British marble quarry in Kongsfjorden lay deserted after 1920. We ask why this attempt at the large-scale development of High Arctic marble was unproductive; whether there are structural

  3. [Demographic trends and the burden of financing retirement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnais, J

    1984-06-01

    The impact of demographic trends on the problem of financing the system of retirement pensions in France is analyzed. The demographic, economic, and sociopolitical factors affecting the pension system are first described, the influence of these factors during the period 1960-1982 is examined, and future prospects are assessed. Consideration is given both to demographic aging and to changes in the demographic structure of employment.

  4. Genetic structure characterization of Chileans reflects historical immigration patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyheramendy, Susana; Martinez, Felipe I.; Manevy, Federico; Vial, Cecilia; Repetto, Gabriela M.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the ancestral components of genomes of admixed individuals helps uncovering the genetic basis of diseases and understanding the demographic history of populations. We estimate local ancestry on 313 Chileans and assess the contribution from three continental populations. The distribution of ancestry block-length suggests an average admixing time around 10 generations ago. Sex-chromosome analyses confirm imbalanced contribution of European men and Native-American women. Previously known genes under selection contain SNPs showing large difference in allele frequencies. Furthermore, we show that assessing ancestry is harder at SNPs with higher recombination rates and easier at SNPs with large difference in allele frequencies at the ancestral populations. Two observations, that African ancestry proportions systematically decrease from North to South, and that European ancestry proportions are highest in central regions, show that the genetic structure of Chileans is under the influence of a diffusion process leading to an ancestry gradient related to geography. PMID:25778948

  5. Modern Dance: A Historical Consideration

    OpenAIRE

    Huxley, Michael

    2016-01-01

    HUXLEY, M. (1983) Early European modern dance. In: ADSHEAD, J. & LAYSON J. (eds.) Dance history: A methodology for study. London: Dance Books pp. 147-161. HUXLEY, M. (1988) A history of a dance: An analysis of Dark Elegies from written criticism. In: ADSHEAD, J. (ed.) Dance analysis: Theory and practice. London: Dance Books. pp. 141-160, 196-198. HUXLEY, M. (1994) European early modern dance. In: ADSHEAD-LANSDALE, J. & LAYSON, J. (eds.) Dance history: An introduction. London: Dance ...

  6. Chiropractors in Finland – a demographic survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malmqvist Stefan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Finnish chiropractic profession is young and not fully accepted by Finnish healthcare authorities. The demographic profile and style of practice has not been described to date. However, as the profession seems to be under rapid development, it would be of interest to stakeholders, both chiropractic and political, to obtain a baseline description of this profession with a view to the development of future goals and strategies for the profession. The purpose of this study was to describe the chiropractic profession in Finland in relation to its demographic background, the demographics of their clinics, practice patterns, interactions with other health care practitioners and some of the professions' plans for the future. Methods A structured questionnaire survey was conducted in 2005, in which all 50 members of the Finnish Chiropractic Union were invited to participate. Results In all, 44 questionnaires were returned (response rate 88%. Eighty percent of the respondents were men, and 77% were aged 30 to 44 years old, most of whom graduated after 1990 with either a university-based bachelors' or masters' degree in chiropractic. Solo practice was their main practice pattern. The vast majority described their scope of practice to be based on a musculoskeletal approach, using the Diversified Technique, performing Soft Tissue Therapy and about two-thirds also used an Activator Instrument (mechanical adjusting instrument. The mean number of patient visits reported to have been seen weekly was 59 of which nine were new patients. Most practitioners found this number of patients satisfactory. At the initial consultation, 80% of respondents spent 30–45 minutes with their patients, 75% spent 20–30 minutes with "new old" patients and on subsequent visits 80% of respondents spent 15–30 minutes. Interactions with other health care professions were reasonably good and most of chiropractors intended to remain within the profession

  7. The hesitant European history of Denmark's accession to the European Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    2005-01-01

    This article outlines the history of Denmark's accession to the European Community on 1 January 1973. Two large historical trends shaped the Danish road to EC-membership. On the one hand, the fight for survival that the Danish Nation-State had experienced from 1864-1945 produced a particular Danish......-membership from day one without seriously threatening Danish welfare legislation or Nordic co-operation. Confronted with significant internal opposition, the Social Democratic Party leadership proved instrumental in formulating the vision that not only held the party together, but also won the referendum on 2...

  8. The Pb isotopic record of historical to modern human lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamenov, George D., E-mail: kamenov@ufl.edu [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Florida, 241 Williamson Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Gulson, Brian L. [Graduate School of the Environment, Faculty of Science, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2014-08-15

    Human teeth and bones incorporate trace amounts of lead (Pb) from the local environment during growth and remodeling. Anthropogenic activities have caused changes in the natural Pb isotopic background since historical times and this is reflected in the Pb isotopes of historical European teeth. Lead mining and use increased exponentially during the last century and the isotopic compositions of modern human teeth reflect the modern anthropogenic Pb. USA teeth show the most radiogenic Pb and Australian teeth show the least radiogenic Pb, a result of different Pb ores used in the two regions. During the last century the Australian Pb was exported to Europe, Asia, South America, and Africa, resulting in swamping of the local environmental Pb signal by the imported Pb. As a result, the modern human teeth in Europe show a significant drop to lower isotopic values compared with historical times. Similarly, modern human teeth in other regions of the world show similar Pb isotopic ratios to modern European teeth reflecting the Pb imports. The specific pattern of human Pb exposure allows us to use the Pb isotopic signal recorded in the skeleton as a geo-referencing tool. As historical European teeth show a distinct Pb signal, we can identify early European skeletal remains in the New World and likely elsewhere. In modern forensic investigations we can discriminate to some extent Eastern Europeans from Western and Northern Europeans. Australians can be identified to some extent in any region in the world, although there is some overlap with Western European individuals. Lead isotopes can be used to easily identify foreigners in the USA, as modern USA teeth are distinct from any other region of the world. By analogy, USA individuals can be identified virtually in any other region of the world. - Highlights: • We present high-precision Pb isotope data for historical and modern human teeth. • Human teeth reflect human Pb exposure since historical times. • Modern teeth show

  9. The Europeanization of Eurosceptics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutceac Segesten, Anamaria; Bossetta Jr, Michael Joseph

    with the case of Sweden. Sweden is a good example because it has a high density of internet use, a politically active population as reflected in voter turnout and many politicians and political parties with a web presence. The main research questions of the paper are: Which actors are involved in the Swedish...... of a Europeanized network of anti-European voices for European integration and democracy. We plan to operationalize our research question through the use of webcrawling (i.e. Issue Crawler) and social media analytic softwares (Twitonomy and Bluenod). Using these softwares we will be able to discern whether...... or not non-Swedish Twitter users are participating in and/or affecting the Swedish Eurosceptic dialogue on social media....

  10. European Analytical Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, B.; Grasserbauer, M.; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    The European Analytical Column has once more invited a guest columnist to give his views on various matters related to analytical chemistry in Europe. This year, we have invited Professor Manfred Grasserbauer of the Vienna University of Technology to present some of the current challenges...... for European analytical chemistry. During the period 2002–07, Professor Grasserbauer was Director of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (EC), Ispra, Italy. There is no doubt that many challenges exist at the present time for all of us representing...... a major branch of chemistry, namely analytical chemistry. The global financial crisis is affecting all branches of chemistry, but analytical chemistry, in particular, since our discipline by tradition has many close links to industry. We have already noticed decreased industrial commitment with respect...

  11. European Universe Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, P.; Miley, G.; Westra van Holthe, F.; Schrier, W.; Reed, S.

    2011-10-01

    The European Universe Awareness (EU-UNAWE) programme uses the beauty and grandeur of the cosmos to encourage young children, particularly those from underprivileged backgrounds, to develop an interest in science and technology and to foster a sense of global citizenship. EU-UNAWE is already active in 40 countries and comprises a global network of almost 500 astronomers, teachers and other educators. The programme was recently awarded a grant of 1.9 million euros by the European Union so that it can be further developed in five European countries and South Africa. The grant will be used to organise teacher training workshops and to develop educational materials, such as an astronomy news service for children and games. During this presentation we will outline some of the biggest achievements of EU-UNAWE to date and discuss future plans for the programme.

  12. Beyond Demographics is Destiny: Understanding Economic Mitigation Strategies for Demographic Change in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Bangladesh, Russia, Japan, Mexico , Philippines, Ethiopia, Vietnam, Egypt, Turkey, Germany, Iran, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Thailand, France, United... prostitution .124 Concerns over economic impacts, demographic impacts, the imbalanced gender ratio and human rights have led many to believe that the one...are actually forced into prostitution .270 Overall, China appears likely to continue its high levels of employment of elderly workers, potentially

  13. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokola, Ryan A [ORNL; Mikkilineni, Aravind K [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  14. Digital divide in Serbia from demographic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Slavoljub M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital divide is a term that defines differences and inequality between various groups of population considering opportunities and abilities for access and use of information and communication technologies (ICT, particularly the Internet. Digital divide can be viewed from regional and global aspect, so there are significant differences between regions in a country and between countries, considering the use of ICT. On the global level, there are the countries where a great part of the population has access to ICT and countries where that is not the case. Serbia as a country that is in transition period belongs to the second group of countries. In addition, digital divide exists on a country level, because in south-east region of Serbia relatively small number of people has access to ICT comparing to the other regions. The paper just treats problem of digital divide on the example of Republic of Serbia, with specific view to demographic aspect of the problem.

  15. The European Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Martinelli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available European identity is not only a scientifically interesting question, but also a politically important issue: in fact, sixty years after the signing of the Treaty of Rome, the European Union finds itself for the first time facing risks that threaten its own existence. The European Union is a limited and incomplete project because Europe’s economic integration has not been accompanied by a genuine supranational political union and greater cultural integration. The deficit of democratic representation and cultural integration is due to the fact that the community process is based only on economic rationality and not on a feeling of common belonging. In the current situation in which the Union faces difficult challenges which threaten to undermine the future, it necessary to affirm the policy of interests with a policy of identity. In this essay, we will first concentrate on the concept of identity – that is on the nucleus of values and common institutions –; then we will discuss how the European identity has changed over time (also in relation to national identities and what are the mechanisms that may favour its taking root in the current situation. The European project of political unification needs to be re-emphasized, finding the way to a European collective identity, not contrasted with but alongside the different national identities, referring to loyalty and shared commitment to a whole collection of cultural values: fundamental human rights, civil liberties, democratic political institutions, rule of law, freedom of movement of people, goods and capital, social justice and non-violent resolution of conflicts.

  16. Typological surveys on the historic city. Actuality of Townhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Caja

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available After the rediscovery of the historical city by the Italian urban analysis of the fifties and sixties and the following European urban projects of critical reconstruction, it arises a new awareness of the historical city as an artifact built over time and the possibility of its continuity. This recovered temporal condition of consolidated contexts defines the margin within which it is defined the architectural design of urban living, here exemplified through some didactic experiments carried out in two cities (Berlin and Milan. Among the ways of interventions, almost in a surgical manner, emerges on often-unresolved urban sites the thematic confrontation with the urban block and the townhouse, intended as the minimum element of the architecture of the city.

  17. Extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis: Demographic, clinicoradiological, and inflammatory features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcin Sierra, Mariana; Arroyo, Mariana; Cadena Torres, May; Ramírez Cruz, Nancy; García Hernández, Fernando; Taboada, Diana; Galicia Martínez, Ángeles; Govezensky, Tzipe; Sciutto, Edda; Toledo, Andrea; Fleury, Agnès

    2017-06-01

    Extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis (ExPNCC), an infection caused by Taenia solium cysticerci that mainly occurs in the ventricular compartment (Ve) or the basal subarachnoid space (SAb), is more severe but less frequent and much less studied than parenchymal neurocysticercosis (ParNCC). Demographic, clinical, radiological, and lumbar cerebrospinal fluid features of patients affected by ExPNCC are herein described and compared with those of ParNCC patients. 429 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of neurocysticercosis, attending the Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía, a tertiary reference center in Mexico City, from 2000 through 2014, were included. Demographic information, signs and symptoms, radiological patterns, and lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) laboratory values were retrieved from medical records for all patients. Data were statistically analyzed to assess potential differences depending on cyst location and to determine the effects of age and sex on the disease presentation. In total, 238 ExPNCC and 191 ParNCC patients were included. With respect to parenchymal cysts, extraparenchymal parasites were diagnosed at an older age (P = 0.002), chiefly caused intracranial hypertension (P < 0.0001), were more frequently multiple and vesicular (P < 0.0001), and CSF from these patients showed higher protein concentration and cell count (P < 0.0001). SAb patients were diagnosed at an older age than Ve patients, and showed more frequently seizures, vesicular cysticerci, and higher CSF cellularity. Gender and age modulated some traits of the disease. This study evidenced clear clinical, radiological, and inflammatory differences between ExPNCC and ParNCC, and between SAb and Ve patients, and demonstrated that parasite location determines different pathological entities.

  18. Demographic estimation methods for plants with dormancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kéry, M.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Demographic studies in plants appear simple because unlike animals, plants do not run away. Plant individuals can be marked with, e.g., plastic tags, but often the coordinates of an individual may be sufficient to identify it. Vascular plants in temperate latitudes have a pronounced seasonal life–cycle, so most plant demographers survey their study plots once a year often during or shortly after flowering. Life–states are pervasive in plants, hence the results of a demographic study for an individual can be summarized in a familiar encounter history, such as 0VFVVF000. A zero means that an individual was not seen in a year and a letter denotes its state for years when it was seen aboveground. V and F here stand for vegetative and flowering states, respectively. Probabilities of survival and state transitions can then be obtained by mere counting. Problems arise when there is an unobservable dormant state, i.e., when plants may stay belowground for one or more growing seasons. Encounter histories such as 0VF00F000 may then occur where the meaning of zeroes becomes ambiguous. A zero can either mean a dead or a dormant plant. Various ad hoc methods in wide use among plant ecologists have made strong assumptions about when a zero should be equated to a dormant individual. These methods have never been compared among each other. In our talk and in Kéry et al. (submitted, we show that these ad hoc estimators provide spurious estimates of survival and should not be used. In contrast, if detection probabilities for aboveground plants are known or can be estimated, capturerecapture (CR models can be used to estimate probabilities of survival and state–transitions and the fraction of the population that is dormant. We have used this approach in two studies of terrestrial orchids, Cleistes bifaria (Kéry et al., submitted and Cypripedium reginae (Kéry & Gregg, submitted in West Virginia, U.S.A. For Cleistes, our data comprised one population with a

  19. Geriatric trauma: demographics, injuries, and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Julie M; Sciadini, Marcus F; Sinclair, Elizabeth; O'Toole, Robert V

    2012-09-01

    To identify injuries that elderly sustain during high-energy trauma and determine which are associated with mortality. Retrospective review of prospectively collected database. Academic trauma center. Patients selected from database of all trauma admissions from January 2004 through June 2009. Study population consisted of patients directly admitted from scene of injury who sustained high-energy trauma with at least one orthopaedic injury and were 65 years or older (n = 597). Review of demographics, trauma markers, injuries, and disposition statuses. Statistical analysis using χ test, Student t test, and logistic regression analysis. The most common fractures were of the rib, distal radius, pelvic ring, facial bones, proximal humerus, clavicle, ankle, and sacrum. The injuries associated with the highest mortality rates were fractures of the cervical spine with neurological deficit (47%), at the C2 level (44%), and of the proximal femur (25%), pelvic ring (25%), clavicle (24%), and distal humerus (24%). The fractures significantly associated with mortality were fractures of the clavicle (P = 0.001), foot joints (P = 0.001), proximal humerus or shaft and head of the humerus (P = 0.002), sacroiliac joint (P = 0.004), and distal ulna (P = 0.002). Elderly patients present with significantly worse injuries, remain in the hospital longer, require greater use of resources after discharge, and die at 3 times the rate of the younger population. Although the high mortality rates associated with cervical spine, hip, and pelvic ring fractures were not unexpected, the injuries that were statistically associated with mortality were unexpected. Injuries such as clavicle fracture were statistically associated with mortality. As our population ages and becomes more active, the demographic may gain in clinical importance. Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  20. Extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis: Demographic, clinicoradiological, and inflammatory features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Marcin Sierra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis (ExPNCC, an infection caused by Taenia solium cysticerci that mainly occurs in the ventricular compartment (Ve or the basal subarachnoid space (SAb, is more severe but less frequent and much less studied than parenchymal neurocysticercosis (ParNCC. Demographic, clinical, radiological, and lumbar cerebrospinal fluid features of patients affected by ExPNCC are herein described and compared with those of ParNCC patients.429 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of neurocysticercosis, attending the Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía, a tertiary reference center in Mexico City, from 2000 through 2014, were included. Demographic information, signs and symptoms, radiological patterns, and lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF laboratory values were retrieved from medical records for all patients. Data were statistically analyzed to assess potential differences depending on cyst location and to determine the effects of age and sex on the disease presentation. In total, 238 ExPNCC and 191 ParNCC patients were included. With respect to parenchymal cysts, extraparenchymal parasites were diagnosed at an older age (P = 0.002, chiefly caused intracranial hypertension (P < 0.0001, were more frequently multiple and vesicular (P < 0.0001, and CSF from these patients showed higher protein concentration and cell count (P < 0.0001. SAb patients were diagnosed at an older age than Ve patients, and showed more frequently seizures, vesicular cysticerci, and higher CSF cellularity. Gender and age modulated some traits of the disease.This study evidenced clear clinical, radiological, and inflammatory differences between ExPNCC and ParNCC, and between SAb and Ve patients, and demonstrated that parasite location determines different pathological entities.

  1. European Gas Dependency

    OpenAIRE

    Antonsen, Iben; Bieber, Martin; Gandrup, Tobias; Lehmann, Tina; Weinberger, Ashley

    2008-01-01

    The focal point of the project is, as it is implied in the title, European gas dependency, to be more specific; the dependency of Russian gas. We chose Russia, because the EU's import of gas is mainly supplied by Russia. We present background information and knowledge to describe why the case is of relevance and that a situation of dependency exists. We solely look at the dependency from the European Union's point of view, taking point of departure in the Green Paper. The Green Paper is a pap...

  2. European Values and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Theisen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Good Governance, Social Market Economy, Culture and Education are the decisive elements for Human Development. We need a third way between the extremes of the Utopian Global Free Market and a new nationalism. A Social Market Economy and the European Model of a Union could be such third way. For a new Social Market Economy we need a renaissance of the European dialectics between culture and society, idealism and materialism, religion and enlightenment, solidarity and profitability. The balancing of those poles is deeply rooted in our best traditions. 

  3. Energy: actions for the public. Good european practices; Energie: actions vers le grand public. Bonnes pratiques europeennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    Many actions and programs are implemented in european towns relative to the energy control and the environmental quality in urban areas. They are often different in function of political, environmental, historical or cultural factors. The knowledge and the dissemination of these european experiences appear as an asset for the french energy policy. In this framework, the actions of the people awareness are fundamental. This document presents the subject approach and the obtained results for eight experiences of european towns. (A.L.B.)

  4. European Union: Gender and politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žunić Natalija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Political representation is the central issue in contemporary debates on the level of democracy in political institutions and processes in the European Union. Underrepresentation of particular groups in political institutions, decision-making and policy-making processes is perceived as the problem of justice, legitimacy and effectiveness in democratic societies. In this paper, the author analyzes the gender aspects of democratic decision-making processes and political representation of women in the EU member states. The social, historical and political dimension of women's efforts to obtain and promote their civil status and political rights have been the framework for developing the principle of gender equality as one of the founding EU principles. In the past hundred years, one of the most significant trends in politics has been the expansion of formal political representation of women. Yet, even though it has been more than a hundered years since women won their political rights in the 19th and the 20th century (the right to vote and the right to be voted, gender differences in political rights are still a substantial part of debate. Today, women's political representation is still inadequate and their political capacity and power have not been exercised to a sufficient extent (or proportionally through their actual representation in parliament. In March 2012, the European Commisision published a report on gender equality in different areas of social life; the Eurobarometer survey shows that women are generally underrepresented in politics. In national parliaments, only one out of four MPs is a woman. In the European Parliament, three out of ten parliamentarians are women. The statistics shows a huge discrepancy among the EU Member States in terms of women's representation in parliament (44.7% in Sweden as contrasted to 13.3% in Romania. The prevailing view in many studies is that post-industrial democracies are deficient as they have failed

  5. Governance in new European regions: the case of Centrope

    OpenAIRE

    Coimbra Swiatek, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation analyses governance in the process of the formation of new regional alliances and spaces in Europe, by studying the case of the Central European Region - Centrope, which is both a region and a political project at the border area of Austria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary. This research aims at illuminating the historically founded relationship between emerging territories and new socioeconomic institutionalisations through unveiling the mode of governance in Cent...

  6. Towards a European History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. van Dijk (Henk)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractAlthough historical writing is a profession with a long tradition, history as an academic discipline is strongly related to the development of the nation state in the nineteenth century. Notwithstanding specialisations like e.g. cultural history and social and economic history put less

  7. Historical earthquake research in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerl, Christa

    2017-12-01

    Austria has a moderate seismicity, and on average the population feels 40 earthquakes per year or approximately three earthquakes per month. A severe earthquake with light building damage is expected roughly every 2 to 3 years in Austria. Severe damage to buildings ( I 0 > 8° EMS) occurs significantly less frequently, the average period of recurrence is about 75 years. For this reason the historical earthquake research has been of special importance in Austria. The interest in historical earthquakes in the past in the Austro-Hungarian Empire is outlined, beginning with an initiative of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the development of historical earthquake research as an independent research field after the 1978 "Zwentendorf plebiscite" on whether the nuclear power plant will start up. The applied methods are introduced briefly along with the most important studies and last but not least as an example of a recently carried out case study, one of the strongest past earthquakes in Austria, the earthquake of 17 July 1670, is presented. The research into historical earthquakes in Austria concentrates on seismic events of the pre-instrumental period. The investigations are not only of historical interest, but also contribute to the completeness and correctness of the Austrian earthquake catalogue, which is the basis for seismic hazard analysis and as such benefits the public, communities, civil engineers, architects, civil protection, and many others.

  8. The Historical Optimism of Boris Mironov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir G. Khoros

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to assess the contribution of B.N. Mironov’s monograph “The Russian Empire: From Tradition to Modernity” to historiography. The author has reviewed other books by Mironov. While the reviewer’s assessment is positive overall, a number of points defended by the author call for a rejoinder. The reviewer agrees with the main idea of the book: there was no permanent crisis and impoverishment of the working population in the history of imperial Russia in the 18th to the beginning of 20th centuries. On the contrary, there was some progress and achievements in terms of modernization. The revolutions in the beginning of the 20th century must be explained through other reasons. Credit undoubtedly belongs to Mironov for proof of this thesis. In such an approach, the Russian past appears more complicated and realistic than in many of the preceding investigations by Russian as well as by foreign scholars. An interesting feature of Mironov’s approach is historical optimism, that is, an interpretation of Russian historical evolution as successful. However, sometimes this optimism seems excessive. Key observations are the following. First, overcoming one extreme (the permanent crisis in Russia, Mironov, to some extent, ends up at another extreme – an underestimation of those social and cultural problems in Russian society that stimulated the revolutionary climate. Second, there is an overestimation of the role of the intelligentsia as an agent of revolution, its characteristics are excessively negative, and there is an underestimation of the impulse to protest from below and the popular character of the Russian revolution of 1917. Third, despite a number of interesting ideas concerning the process of modernization in Russia, Mironov identifies this modernization with Westernization (“Europeanization”. But the author himself rightly demonstrates the difference between Russian and European civilizational values. This

  9. Towards a European strategy for medicines research (2014-2020): The EUFEPS position paper on Horizon 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Rogério; Aksu, Buket; Cuine, Alain; Danhof, Meindert; Takac, Milena Jadrijevic-Mladar; Linden, Hans H; Link, Andreas; Muchitsch, Eva-Maria; Wilson, Clive G; Ohrngren, Per; Dencker, Lennart

    2012-12-18

    As to the alignment of "Horizon 2020", ir is a more integrated approach to European science policy than expressed in the proposals previously drafted, and specifically considers: (i) promoting excellence in Science, (ii) establishing a sound industrial leadership and (iii) expressing an ambition to address current and future societal challenges. In this respect, the quest for a knowledge-based economy in Europe should result in proposals for industrial and employment policies that will consolidate the major European advantages in the biomedical, healthcare and pharmaceutical sectors. Horizon 2020 also provides the possibility of adopting a more flexible and simplified management route to drive European research through innovation, research and development. What should be additionally considered? Unmet medical needs, under pressure from demographic changes, await the generation of new medicines and health technologies which will evolve into a driver for a unified European policy. We believe that this should be focused on harnessing pharmaceutical knowledge for clinical use, as part of a response to accommodate patient needs and economic growth based on a robust, scientific approach. The bolder ambition for European research is to unlock key bottlenecks currently undermining European competitiveness. The historical lack of an appropriate business/innovation environment with reduced access to adequate risk finance instruments has severed the path for economic growth and industrial development. These issues are of critical importance and a solution is urgently needed to foster translation from the university to the healthcare sector through the generation and support of start-ups, spin-offs, university-industry consortia, and other platforms, which support translational research. The ultimate goal is implementation of holistic programmes: the 'bench to bedside' paradigm of medicines and other healthcare products. The European Research Council supports the basic

  10. Causality in Europeanization Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet

    2012-01-01

    to develop discursive institutional analytical frameworks and something that comes close to the formulation of hypothesis on the effects of European Union (EU) policies and institutions on domestic change. Even if these efforts so far do not necessarily amount to substantive theories or claims of causality...

  11. Measuring European selves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antalikova, Radka

    Taking the perspective of cross-cultural psychology, the current thesis sets out to investigate self in a European context. For this purpose, the thesis first thoroughly reviews the most prominent conceptualizations of self in cross-cultural psychology, specifically focusing on disentangling...... to the field of cross-cultural psychology, specifically highlighting the utility of autobiographical memories as measures of self....

  12. European Psychology Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANA SCHÖN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Institute for Psychology Information (ZPID compiled an extensive list of European psycho-logical organizations, comprised of university departments, research institutions, professional associa-tions and publishing houses. The list is available on the ZPID website, together with a web mapping applet that indicates the exact geographical location of the organizations.

  13. European Pine Shoot Moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    William E. Miller; Arthur R. Hastings; John F. Wootten

    1961-01-01

    In the United States, the European pine shoot moth has caused much damage in young, plantations of red pine. It has been responsible for reduced planting of red pine in many areas. Although attacked trees rarely if ever die, their growth is inhibited and many are, deformed. Scotch pine and Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) are usually not so badly damaged. Swiss...

  14. Inequalities in European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musterd, S.; Ostendorf, W.; Smith, S.J.; Elsinga, M.; Eng, O.S.; Fox O’Mahony, L.; Wachter, S.

    2012-01-01

    The consequences of inequalities in European cities are a big fear for many governments at the state and urban levels. Journalists, as well as many scholars who are dealing with urban issues, express their fears about the development of social, ethnic, and spatial divisions. Population categories

  15. European 'Stabilisation through Association'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    ’s success in repeatedly reconciling a divided continent and complemented its efforts to build peace beyond its borders. But does the EU (continue to) deserve such praise? This contribution examines European peacebuilding from the early inte-gration of post-World War Two economies, through the uniting...

  16. European Integration and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bobica

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available According to many, the term globalization is able to explain any phenomenon whatsoever, be it positive or negative, that takes place within the global social system. It seems like a sort of magical formula, which is to be found in the speeches of all sorts of people, be they economists, politicians, businessmen or sociologists. However this magical formula of globalization has its limitations, since it encompasses a certain amount of quibbling, beyond which not many can pass. In the context of globalization there appears the question on its role in the process of European integration. Is European integration a part of this global process or, quite on the contrary, does it present certain distinctive features, as it moulds itself differently from the globalization phenomenon? A clear-cut answer seems difficult because of the various aspects involved. Not only the general phenomenon of globalization, but also the economic integration on European level is based on the liberalization of markets and on the opening of national economies towards the exterior,having as direct consequence the intensification of trade exchanges. If from a global point of view one may talk of a market fundamentalism in that the market principles know no boundary, European integration on the other hand implies not only market economy, but also a guided and monitored action of Member Statesaccording to the needs of the whole entity, also taking into consideration - as far as possible – all aspects and consequences on social level.

  17. Becoming Pan-European?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz-Forberg, Hagen; Brüggemann, Michael

    2009-01-01

    be platforms of a transnational European discourse. Four ideal-types of transnational media can be distinguished: (1) national media with a transnational mission, (2) international media, (3) pan-regional media and (4) global media. Within this framework the article analyses transnational media in Europe...

  18. European Metals Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Vereecken, Jean

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the papers that will be presented at 'EMC '91 '-the European Metals Conference-to be held in Brussels, Belgium, from 15 to 20 September 1991, and organized by Benelux Metallurgie, GDMB (Gesellschaft Deutscher Metallhutten­ und Bergleute) and IMM (the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy). 'EMC '91' is the first of an intended major series organized at the European level with the aim of bringing together all those who are involved with the extraction and processing of non-ferrous metals-European metallurgists and their international colleagues-to provide them with the opportunity to exchange views on the state and evolution of their industry. The programme covers all the different aspects of the metallurgy of non-ferrous metals from mining to fabricated products. Particular attention is being paid to the European non -ferrous industry with respect to changes in demand, the technology used, pressures on the environment and the competitive position of manufacturers. The contributions of the...

  19. AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regulations governing the production and use of genetically modified organisms have been developed in the United Kingdom since 1976. Regulations covering the release of transgenic organisms into the environment were initially voluntary. Since 1990, the European Economic Commission (EEC) Directive. 90/219 and ...

  20. European Music Year 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexanderson, Thomas; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Articles concerning music are included in this newsletter dedicated to cultural venture to be jointly carried out by the Council of Europe and the European communities. Many events will mark Music Year 1985, including concerts, dance performances, operas, publications, recordings, festivals, exhibitions, competitions, and conferences on musical…

  1. Historical earthquake investigations in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Makropoulos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The active tectonics of the area of Greece and its seismic activity have always been present in the country?s history. Many researchers, tempted to work on Greek historical earthquakes, have realized that this is a task not easily fulfilled. The existing catalogues of strong historical earthquakes are useful tools to perform general SHA studies. However, a variety of supporting datasets, non-uniformly distributed in space and time, need to be further investigated. In the present paper, a review of historical earthquake studies in Greece is attempted. The seismic history of the country is divided into four main periods. In each one of them, characteristic examples, studies and approaches are presented.

  2. Systematic musicology meets historical musicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Chr.

    , however, a post-hoc hypothesis (VanHandel, 2005), and since we cannot perform controlled experiments on historical data, replication with more sensitive methods and new repertoires is required. Turning to French music, we hypothesise both an initial increase and a subsequent decrease in nPVI, based......PVI while stress-timed languages like German have higher nPVI. Recent analyses of historical developments have ascribed linearly increasing nPVI in Austro-German, but not Italian music to waning Italian and increasing German influence on Austro-German music after the Baroque (Daniele & Patel, 2013). This is...... and investigating the advantage of more sophisticated analytical strategies to detect non-linear historical developments. Methods. Mean nPVIs were computed for 34 French composers (midpoint years: 1700-1941); previous data (Daniele & Patel, 2013) were available for 21 Austro-German (1672-1929) and 15 Italian...

  3. Adult Students in the European Higher Educational Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Gordiyenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the issue of accessibility of higher education for adults – the people of various ages and social status. The author analyzes the educational policy of the European Union and its different members, and demonstrates the priority of the given issue. The Bologna agreement involves the reforms aimed at guaranteeing the lifelong education at any level.The interest to the adults education in the European Union results from the rising education requirements in the labor market; tough demographic situation and aging of professionals; redistribution of young people’s educational preferences; prolonged educational programs; flexible and consistent adult education policies in the European Union. Various approaches to interpreting a definition of the adult student are analyzed; classification according to students’ motivation and social status is given. 

  4. A STRAINED EUROPEAN MODEL. IS EASTERN ENLARGEMENT TO BLAME?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Daianu

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available As anticipated, the recent enlargement has put considerable pressure on the European construction, as most of the EU15 member countries are economically and socially strained and policy-makers have a very hard time in devising proper answers to society’s ills. The paper examines various factors which have strained the European Social Model and which, arguably, make this period of Euro-pessimism quite peculiar. It looks at the race for competitiveness in today’s world and the economic rise of Asia; it looks at some inner dynamics in the European societies (demographics, the crisis of the welfare state, a sort of decadence and it tries to explore what lies ahead, including policy options. An underlying thesis herein is that eastern enlargement is not the culprit for the current pains of the EU member countries, though it may have accentuated some.

  5. Turkey between two worlds: a demographic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, C F

    1982-01-01

    A demographic view of Turkey is presented in this discussion. Turkey provides another example of a country, ravaged by war losses between 1914-1922, which took 4 decades, from the mid1920s to the mid1960s, to move from a pronatalist policy to an understanding of the social, economic, and most recently the political dangers of rampant population growth. The 1st census, taken in Turkey in 1927, showed a population of 13,648,270 living in an area of 299,294 square miles, substantially equal to its present dimensions. In mid1977 the population surpassed 42 million, and it reached 45.6 million in mid1980 estimates. The population grew by only 5.4% in the 1940-1945 intercensal period. With the return to normalcy following the war, Turkey's high wartime death rate (almost 40/1000 between 1940 and 1945) declined rapidly and population growth began to accelerate. It was toward the end of the 1950s that concern began to be expressed about the rapid population growth the country was experiencing. The Ministry of Health and Social Affairs and the State Planning Organization began to study the implications of the increase for future social and economic development. This reconsideration of the previous pronatalist policy, which had forbidden the dissemination of birth control supplies or information, received a stimulus following the coup of 1960 that brought the military to power. Under military rule from May 1960 to November 1961 an antinatalist position emerged and was incorporated in the 1963-1967 5 year plan and later in the Population Planning Law, No. 557, enacted in 1965. Law 557 was permissive yet essentially neutral. It did not interfere with the private decisions of couples to plan family size but it offered them contraceptive supplies and information free or at low cost as well as education in population matters. Abortion was legalized if the mother's health were endangered, but it was not allowed otherwise. Sterilization was prohibited. The implementation of these

  6. Real Analysis A Historical Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Stahl, Saul

    2011-01-01

    A provocative look at the tools and history of real analysis This new edition of Real Analysis: A Historical Approach continues to serve as an interesting read for students of analysis. Combining historical coverage with a superb introductory treatment, this book helps readers easily make the transition from concrete to abstract ideas. The book begins with an exciting sampling of classic and famous problems first posed by some of the greatest mathematicians of all time. Archimedes, Fermat, Newton, and Euler are each summoned in turn, illuminating the utility of infinite, power, and trigonome

  7. Reinterpreting the Historicity of the Nordic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauli Kettunen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In conventional images of the so-called Nordic model, the strong state is opposed to markets or civil society and co-operation is opposed to conflict. These opposites appear problematic if one takes seriously the Nordic market- and interest-centered language used for the practices of social regulation, including the stubborn use of “labor market parties” instead of the EU concept “social partners”. Applying an approach sensitive to the historical and political aspects of language and concepts, the paper argues that a particular notion of social citizenship developed in the Nordic countries, in which interests rather than rights were put into the center. Such a notion of social citizenship was associated with two intertwined ideas, important in the development of the Nordic pattern of social reform: the idea of symmetry between workers and employers and the idea of a virtuous circle between divergent interests. With these ideas democracy and citizenship were combined with paid work and conflicting interests. This combination has been questioned by the projects for competitive national (and European communities, responding to globalized and financialized capitalism. The vigorous comparisons of “models”, and the popularity of the concept of “the Nordic model”, can be seen as an aspect of this current transformation.

  8. Analyzing dialect variation in historical speech corpora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Margaret E L; Olsen, Rachel M

    2017-07-01

    The Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States is an extensive audio corpus of sociolinguistic interviews with 1121 speakers from eight southeastern U.S. states. Complete interviews have never been fully transcribed, leaving a wealth of phonetic information unexplored. This paper details methods for large-scale acoustic analysis of this historical speech corpus, providing a fuller picture of Southern speech than offered by previous impressionistic analyses. Interviews from 10 speakers (∼36 h) in southeast Georgia were transcribed and analyzed for dialectal features associated with the Southern Vowel Shift and African American Vowel Shift, also considering the effects of age, gender, and race. Multiple tokens of common words were annotated (N = 6085), and formant values of their stressed vowels were extracted. The effects of shifting on relative vowel placement were evaluated via Pillai scores, and vowel dynamics were estimated via functional data analysis and modeled with linear mixed-effects regression. Results indicate that European American speakers show features of the Southern Vowel Shift, though certain speakers shift in more ways than others, and African American speakers' productions are consistent with the African American Vowel Shift. Wide variation is apparent, even within this small geographic region, contributing evidence of the complexity of Southern speech.

  9. Delineating demographic units of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in Ontario: cautions and insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Shuter

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Delineating demographic structure across an organism’s range can reveal the extent to which population dynamics in different geographic areas are driven by local or external factors and can be crucial for effective conservation and management. Obtaining optimal data for such analyses can be time and resource-intensive and impending development and resource extraction pressures may necessitate the examination of existing data, even when they are less than ideal. We analyzed a historic telemetry dataset containing satellite radio-collar locations of 73 forest-dwelling woodland caribou in northern Ontario to determine demographic structure. We applied several clustering methods (i.e., agglomerative, divisive and fuzzy k-means to median seasonal locations. Results were used to distinguish demographic units and minimum convex polygons and fixed-kernel density estimates were used to delineate unit boundaries and core areas. For areas where sampling was considered representative of the distribution of caribou on the landscape, we assessed demographic distinctness by evaluating intra-individual variation in cluster membership, membership strength and distance between boundaries and core areas of adjacent units. The number and composition of clusters identified was similar among methods and caribou were grouped into 6 general clusters. The distinctions between the three clusters identified in the central portion of the province (i.e., Lac Seul, Wabakimi, Geraldton and the two clusters identified in the eastern portion of the province (i.e., Cochrane and Cochrane-Quebec were determined to represent demographic structuring. Additional distinctions in other areas (i.e., between The Red Lake and Lac Seul clusters in the west and between the central and eastern clusters may just be artifacts of the original sampling effort. Amongst demographic units, there was no evidence of individual flexibility in cluster membership and average membership strength was

  10. Social Inequalities in Self-Reported Health in Eastern European Countries: Findings from the European Social Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazhak, Iryna

    2017-01-01

    rounds (from 2002 to 2012) were included in the research. The study is limited to the population from 18 to 65 years old. The multilevel binomial logistic regression analysis was conducted to investigate socio-economic differences in health. The data was analyzed using IBM SPSS 22. The results...... European countries (Bulgaria, Czech republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Ukraine, and Russian Federation) by exploring the associations of the socio-economic determinants of health with poor self-reported health. Data for this study is derived from the European Social Survey. Respondents from six collected...... of this research show the existence of some socio-demographic and socio-economic inequalities in self-reported health among the population of seven Eastern European countries...

  11. Some Demographic Changes in the Population of Montenegro with the Projection of Future Demographic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Rajović

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dramatic demographic changes through which in recent decade’s passes Montenegrin society, the consequences arising from the new realities require a serious socio-political engagement. Process of population aging, that began the seventies of the 20th century, represents a significant problem. The process of demographic change was accompanied by an internal migration to major urban centers, primarily Podgorica and Montenegrin coast, leading to emptying the interior of Montenegro. Unfortunately, this development of the population structure of Montenegro opens a series of questions and challenges that would the creators of the future you should put high on the scale of its priorities. In this text we will point out on change of total number of citizens of Montenegro according to the base and chain indexes of 1921-2011 and population in Montenegro 2016–2091 (cohort model projections.

  12. Demographic and genetic connectivity: the role and consequences of reproduction, dispersal and recruitment in seagrasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Gary A; Orth, Robert J; Statton, John; Hovey, Renae; Ruiz Montoya, Leonardo; Lowe, Ryan J; Krauss, Siegfried L; Sinclair, Elizabeth A

    2017-05-01

    Accurate estimation of connectivity among populations is fundamental for determining the drivers of population resilience, genetic diversity, adaptation and speciation. However the separation and quantification of contemporary versus historical connectivity remains a major challenge. This review focuses on marine angiosperms, seagrasses, that are fundamental to the health and productivity of temperate and tropical coastal marine environments globally. Our objective is to understand better the role of sexual reproduction and recruitment in influencing demographic and genetic connectivity among seagrass populations through an integrated multidisciplinary assessment of our present ecological, genetic, and demographic understanding, with hydrodynamic modelling of transport. We investigate (i) the demographic consequences of sexual reproduction, dispersal and recruitment in seagrasses, (ii) contemporary transport of seagrass pollen, fruits and seed, and vegetative fragments with a focus on hydrodynamic and particle transport models, and (iii) contemporary genetic connectivity among seagrass meadows as inferred through the application of genetic markers. New approaches are reviewed, followed by a summary outlining future directions for research: integrating seascape genetic approaches; incorporating hydrodynamic modelling for dispersal of pollen, seeds and vegetative fragments; integrating studies across broader geographic ranges; and incorporating non-equilibrium modelling. These approaches will lead to a more integrated understanding of the role of contemporary dispersal and recruitment in the persistence and evolution of seagrasses. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  13. [On present demographic developments (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, W

    1979-02-01

    The present demographic situation in West Germany is discussed. The decrease in the population of West Germany can be attributed to the decrease in the number of marriages and the number of live births as well as the increase in the number of divorces in recent years. These tendencies are especially evident since 1970. Population models have the disadvantage of being constructed after the fact and cannot assume that a desired goal will be reached. 90% of the population of West Germany serves as employees. This, along with the increasing role of women in the work force from 1969-1976, affects marriage and birth rates. The point is reached where the state begins to play a role in order to maintain a stable level of population, usually through economic incentives. The moral aspect of such programs can not be ignored, as persons can be given a false sense of their duties by economic incentives. The importation of workers from other countries is feasible only ss long as these workers meet necessary qualifications and the domestic and foreign economic situations are favorable.

  14. Dhat syndrome in relation to demographic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nashi

    2005-01-01

    Background: The area of men's sexual health has been poorly understood, particularly with reference to South Asian cultures. The belief that losing semen is detrimental to health is a concept common to both Oriental and Occidental thinking. Aim: To estimate the number of patients with the dhat syndrome consulting different professionals in Lahore and to examine their demographic characteristics. Method: Seventy health professionals of various types were approached and asked to fill in a daily record form for all patients reporting at their clinics for a period of 1 month. Results: A total of 1777 patients were reported to attend the outpatient clinics of health professionals of various types over a period of 1 month. The majority of patients consulted hakims for professional help. Most of the patients were single, with a mean age of 24 years and had a monthly income of less than Rs 3000. Conclusion: These data have important implications for patients, professionals and researchers. The alarming number of people consulting various professionals to seek help for anxiety due to semen loss highlights the fact that research into and interventions for this neglected area of men's sexual health are urgently required.

  15. Incidence and Demographics of Pediatric Intracranial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillson, Natalie; Jones, Charlotte; Reem, Rachel E; Rogers, David L; Zumberge, Nicholas; Aylward, Shawn C

    2017-08-01

    We analyzed the incidence and demographic features of pediatric intracranial hypertension. Inpatient and outpatient encounters of children aged 18 years or younger who were diagnosed with primary (idiopathic) or secondary intracranial hypertension between January 2010 and December 2013 were identified. Data were collected from a subspecialty clinic devoted to intracranial hypertension and the sole children's hospital in a large Midwestern city of the United States. Estimated incidence rates were calculated based on the number of newly diagnosed patients in our hospital's primary service area, which includes seven central Ohio counties. Sex, race, body mass index, socioeconomic status, and geographic distribution were also noted. A total of 74 pediatric patients were diagnosed with intracranial hypertension (49 primary/idiopathic and 25 secondary) between January 2010 and December 2013. Using census data, we determined the pediatric population in our service area during the four-year period. The Ohio Hospital Association's database indicated that 92.3% of patients aged 0 to 17 years residing in the region sought care at our institution. By combining these data, we calculated an annual incidence of primary and secondary intracranial hypertension of 0.63 and 0.32 per 100,000 children, respectively. The estimated annual incidence of pediatric primary intracranial hypertension in our seven county service area in central Ohio is similar to previous pediatric reports from other countries and is 67% of that reported in the US adult population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Demographic evidence for adaptive theories of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitteldorf, J J

    2012-07-01

    Pleiotropic theories for the evolutionary origins of senescence have been ascendant for forty years (see, for example, G. Williams (1957) Evolution, 11, 398-411; T. Kirkwood (1977) Nature, 270, 301-304), and it is not surprising that interpreters of demographic data seek to frame their results in this context. But some of that evidence finds a much more natural explanation in terms of adaptive aging. Here we re-interpret the 1997 results of the Centenarian Study in Boston, which found in their sample of centenarian women an excess of late childbearing. The finding was originally interpreted as a selection effect: a metabolic link between late menopause and longevity. But we demonstrate that this interpretation is statistically strained, and that the data in fact indicate a causal link: bearing a child late in life induces a metabolic response that promotes longevity. This conclusion directly contradicts some pleiotropic theories of aging that postulate a "cost of reproduction", and it supports theories of aging as an adaptive genetic program.

  17. Policy options for the improvement of the European patent system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew J.

    2008-01-01

    This project has been initiated - and this report written - in order to assess how the European patent system best fulfils its objective of defining the exclusive rights granted to inventors so as to further the goal of enhancing social and economic welfare by means of encouraging inventions...... patent system has so far been a positive factor in promoting innovation. Therefore, it is not the objective of the report to evaluate whether such system should or should not exist. Rather, the report works from the starting position that the European patent system may be operating in certain ways...... and within certain sectors such that various improvements can be made. Thus, the aim of this report is: to analyze the historical and present impact of the European patent system on innovation and diffusion of knowledge to identify current key trends in the patent system to identify the challenges...

  18. Challenges of the European Union Social Market Economy in the Human Resource Management Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Liudmila Lobanova

    2014-01-01

    Peculiarities of European human resource management models are determined by the specifics of EU integration, development and enlargement processes that are centred on implementation of the social model in the development of the social market economy in the European continent under conditions of intensified cohesion processes. The article reveals the impact of the changing environmen and factors determining the transformation of human resource management models on historic evolution of approc...

  19. Filling the Eastern European gap in millennium-long temperature reconstructions

    OpenAIRE

    Büntgen, Ulf; Kyncl, Tomáš; Ginzler, Christian; Jacks, David S.; Esper, Jan; Tegel, Willy; Heussner, Karl-Uwe; Kyncl, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Tree ring–based temperature reconstructions form the scientific backbone of the current global change debate. Although some European records extend into medieval times, high-resolution, long-term, regional-scale paleoclimatic evidence is missing for the eastern part of the continent. Here we compile 545 samples of living trees and historical timbers from the greater Tatra region to reconstruct interannual to centennial-long variations in Eastern European May–June temperature back to 1040 AD. ...

  20. European core curriculum in neurorehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandrini, G.; Binder, H.; Homberg, V.; Saltuari, L.; Tarkka, I.; Smania, N.; Corradini, C.; Giustini, A.; Katterer, C.; Picari, L.; Diserens, K.; Koenig, E.; Geurts, A.C.; Anghelescu, A.; Opara, J.; Tonin, P.; Kwakkel, G.; Golyk, V.; Onose, G.; Perennou, D.; Picelli, A.

    2017-01-01

    To date, medical education lacks Europe-wide standards on neurorehabilitation. To address this, the European Federation of NeuroRehabilitation Societies (EFNR) here proposes a postgraduate neurorehabilitation training scheme. In particular, the European medical core curriculum in neurorehabilitation

  1. European and Integration Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Kaveshnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soviet scientific school of pan-European integration studies began to emerge in the 1960s at the Institute of World Economy and International Relations (Russian Academy of Science. Among the leading scientists who have developed methodological approaches of Soviet integration studies were M.M. Maximova, Y.A. Borko, Y. Shishkov, L.I. Capercaillie. Later, a new center for integration studies became the Institute of Europe, created in 1987. It was led by such renowned scientists as Academicians V.V. Zhurkin and N.P. Shmelev. In the 1980s the subject of the integration process in Europe attracted attention of experts from MGIMO. An important role in the development of school of integration research in the USSR was played by a MGIMO professor, head of the chair of history of international relations and foreign policy of the USSR V.B. Knyazhinskiy. His work contributed to the deliverance of the national scientific community from skepticism about the prospects for European integration. Ideas of V.B. Knyazhinsky are developed today in MGIMO by his followers A.V. Mal'gin and T.V. Ur'eva. In the mid-1990s, having retired from diplomatic service, professor Yu. Matveevskiy started to work at MGIMO. With a considerable practical experience in the field, he produced a series of monographs on the history of European integration. In his works, he analyses the development of integration processes in Western Europe from their inception to the present day, showing the gradual maturation of the necessary spiritual and material prerequisites for the start of integration and traces the various stages of the "integration". In the late 1990s, the growing demand from the domestic business and government for professionals who are capable of interacting with the European Union, has produced the necessary supply in the form of educational programs based on accumulated scientific knowledge. Setting up a discipline "European Integration" was a major step in the development

  2. Vesicoureteral reflux: A historical perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    K.N. DeCotiis

    2016-12-28

    Dec 28, 2016 ... Vesicoureteral reflux: A historical perspective. K.N. DeCotiisa,∗. , F.J. Pennab, M.A. Koylec, A.A. Caldamonea a The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, 2 Dudley Street, Suite 174, Providence, RI 02905, USA b Dartmouth | Geisel School of Medicine, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, ...

  3. Collaborative Action Research: Historical Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulyan, Lisa

    This paper presents a historical overview of the use of action research in education and describes the basic assumptions and expectations that continue to characterize collaborative research projects today. Action research was initiated in the 1930's by Kurt Lewin and adapted by educators in the 1940's. Interest in action research declined between…

  4. Fort Monroe Historic Image Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Figure 308: Mural in Coast Artillery Board Building, 1940 (NARA RG 111-SC Box 9 117168). .......................... 157 Figure 309: Mural in Coast...Artillery Board Building, 1940 (NARA RG 111-SC Box 9 117167). .......................... 158 Figure 310: Mural in Coast Artillery Board Building, 1940...Archives in Philadelphia, PA. During these visits researchers collected archival information such as historic photo- graphs, art work, maps, and

  5. The demographic sunset of the West?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnais, J C

    1997-01-01

    There is no global population issue, because there is no global government. Overpopulation as the world's monolithic population problem is overly simplistic and may lead to extreme positions. Problems are also caused by slow population growth, as for the 25% of the world's population who live in countries with age structure imbalances. Nearly all of world population growth comes from less-developed countries. By the year 2000, inhabitants of poor countries are expected to number 5 billion, a 5-fold increase in this century. Europe's population may decline from 728 million today to 563 million by 2050. The implosion of population in developed countries and the population explosion in developing ones creates problems. Nations must address these problems. A pronatalist policy in Europe would allow women to have the 2 children they desire, rather than the 1.5 they now have. The increase in fertility would eventually alleviate the age imbalance. Trade and economic policies could encourage trade rather than aid. European countries should also shift to more generous immigration policies, such as those in the United States. This could also ease the age dependency burden and demands for labor. Crucial to all efforts, however, is increasing fertility in Europe. It is now true that countries where women have the highest status (such as Scandinavian countries) often have higher fertility rates. Policies should be based on mutual understanding and recognition of the socioeconomic realities.

  6. How to introduce historically the normal distribution in engineering education: a classroom experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Mónica; Ginovart, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Little has been explored with regard to introducing historical aspects in the undergraduate statistics classroom in engineering studies. This article focuses on the design, implementation and assessment of a specific activity concerning the introduction of the normal probability curve and related aspects from a historical dimension. Following a teaching-learning approach inspired by history, this idea was put into practice at an engineering school. For this purpose a historical module on the normal curve elaborated by Katz and Michalowicz [V.J. Katz and K.D. Michalowicz (eds.), Historical Modules for the Teaching and Learning of Mathematics, The Mathematical Association of America, Washington, 2005] was adapted to develop different aspects of the topic. Since the activity fostered cross-curricular competences, it was designed in keeping with the guidelines of the European Higher Education Area.

  7. The Shoah within European identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In the Epilogue of Postwar, titled: From the House ofthe Dead: An essay on Modern European memory, Tony Judt concludes that: ‘those who would become full Europeans in the dawn of the twenty-first century must first assume a new and far more oppressive heritage. Today the pertinent European reference

  8. Future European biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, A. K.P.; Ehimen, E. A.; Holm-Nielsen, J. B.

    2017-01-01

    Biogas is expected to play an important role in reaching the future energy policy targets of the European Union (EU). The sustainability of biogas substrates has however been recently critically discussed due to the increasing shares of agricultural land used for energy crop production.The aim...... were animal manure, straw by-products from cereal production, and excess grass from rotational and permanent grasslands and meadows. The biogas energy potential from the investigated biomass was projected to range from 1.2·103 to 2.3·103 PJ y-1 in year 2030 in the EU28, depending on the biomass...... availability. Alone the biogas energy potential projected in the scenario representing low substrate availability corresponds to a doubling of the European biogas production in 2015. The results shows that sustainable alternatives to the use of maize are present in all the member states of the EU28...

  9. European Patterns of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrebye, Silas Fehmerling; Ejrnæs, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Social Survey (ESS) Round 4 (2008), the article finds that satisfaction/dissatisfaction with the government is an important predictor alongside the institutional macro-level variable. The article combines a critical tradition, which suggests that political participation is motivated by a feeling...... of dissatisfaction with the government and feelings of being member of a discriminated group affect the level of extra-parliamentary participation, and second, how different welfare regimes condition the extend to which these groups chose to act. In a comparative multilevel design, using data from the European...... of dissatisfaction with an institutional perspective in which certain institutional conditions are seen as enablers for citizens to actively participate in political life. Our results show that the overall level of extra-parliamentary activity in the Scandinavian countries is higher than in the other European...

  10. Chestnut, European (Castanea sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredoira, Elena; Valladares, Silvia; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Development of a system for direct transfer of antifungal candidate genes into European chestnut (Castanea sativa) would provide an alternative approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees that are tolerant to ink disease caused by Phytophthora spp. Overexpression of genes encoding PR proteins (such as thaumatin-like proteins), which display antifungal activity, may represent an important advance in control of the disease. We have used a chestnut thaumatin-like protein gene (CsTL1) isolated from European chestnut cotyledons and have achieved overexpression of the gene in chestnut somatic embryogenic lines used as target material. We have also acclimatized the transgenic plants and grown them on in the greenhouse. Here, we describe the various steps of the process, from the induction of somatic embryogenesis to the production of transgenic plants.

  11. Do Europeans Like Nudges?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Sunstein, Cass R.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, many governments have shown a keen interest in “nudges” — approaches to law and policy that maintain freedom of choice, but that steer people in certain directions. Yet to date, there has been little evidence on whether citizens of various societies support nudges and nudging. We...... report the results of nationally representative surveys in six European nations: Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, and the United Kingdom. We find strong majority support for nudges of the sort that have been adopted, or under serious consideration, in democratic nations. Despite the general...... European consensus, we find markedly lower levels of support for nudges in two nations: Hungary and Denmark. We are not, in general, able to connect support for nudges with distinct party affiliations....

  12. Pirating European Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Timus

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Open Science has gained a lot of attention not only within the academic community but also among policy-makers. Some international publishers have been active in moving towards open access publications and research data, but, overall, modest results have been achieved so far. In this context, the digital piracy engines emerge as vital actors in disseminating and determining the impact of research. This study examines the Sci-Hub downloads data in order to uncover patterns of piracy in European Studies research. We identify journals and the subjects of articles that have been pirated the most. We also study the geographical distribution of download requests. The analysis reveals that the readers are mostly interested in subjects reflecting the current major European challenges, specifically populism and the economic crisis. Both developing countries as well as the ‘old’ EU members are active in illegal downloads.

  13. Stature of early Europeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanussen, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The ancestors of modern Europeans arrived in Europe at least 40,000 years before present. Pre-glacial maximum Upper Palaeolithic males (before 16,000 BC) were tall and slim (mean height 179 cm, estimated average body weight 67 kg), while the females were comparably small and robust (mean height 158 cm, estimated average body weight 54 kg). Late Upper Palaeolithic males (8000-6600 BC) were of medium stature and robusticity (mean height 166 cm, estimated average body weight 62 kg). Stature further decreased to below 165 cm with estimated average body weight of 64 kg in Neolithic males of the Linear Band Pottery Culture, and to 150 cm with estimated average body weight of 49 kg in Neolithic females. The body stature of European males remained within the range of 165 to 170 cm up to the end of the 19th century.

  14. European Corporate Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik; Dorresteijn, Adriaan; Teichmann, Christoph

    This fully updated new edition provides the best-known practical overview of the law regarding companies, business activities, and capital markets in Europe, at both the European Union (EU) and Member State levels. It incorporates analysis of recent developments including the impact of global......; - a company’s freedom to incorporate in a jurisdiction not its own; - competition among the legal forms of different Member States; and - safeguarding of employee involvement in cross-border transactions. With respect to national law, the laws of Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain...... initiatives in such aspects of the corporate environment as regulation of financial institutions and non-financial reporting obligations with a view to sustainability and other social responsibility concerns. The authors, all leading experts in European corporate law, describe current and emerging trends...

  15. Telemedicine and European law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Stefaan

    2003-01-01

    A Directive of the European Union was first published in 2000, which dealt with telemedicine as part of its provisions. This E-Commerce Directive, as it became known, was subjected to further study which revealed some problems relative to the practice of telemedicine. Among the subjects discussed in this paper are those of privacy, data protection, free movement of services, the impact of electronic communication and ethical issues.

  16. European Automotive Congress

    CERN Document Server

    Clenci, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The volume includes selected and reviewed papers from the European Automotive Congress held in Bucharest, Romania, in November 2015. Authors are experts from research, industry and universities coming from 14 countries worldwide. The papers are covering the latest developments in fuel economy and environment, automotive safety and comfort, automotive reliability and maintenance, new materials and technologies, traffic and road transport systems, advanced engineering methods and tools, as well as advanced powertrains and hybrid and electric drives.

  17. Multiregional demographic projections in practice: a metropolitan example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, P

    1992-01-01

    "This paper examines options for local and regional projections which reflect both demographic interdependencies with jobs and housing at this area scale, and the inapplicability of traditional demographic projection methods to population or areal subdivisions. This context for local demographic projections requires constraints (for example, to job and housing forecasts or to higher area totals), the use of proxy or explanatory indicators to predict demographic rates or totals, and parameterization of demographic schedules, to facilitate comparison across numerous localities and to set future assumptions about demographic components. The traditional framework of self-contained projection by deterministic cohort survival is therefore widened to include regio-scientific and stochastic modelling concepts. The framework for empirical analysis is London [England] and its boroughs." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND GER) excerpt

  18. Epidemiology and demographics of aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susin, Cristiano; Haas, Alex N; Albandar, Jasim M

    2014-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies of aggressive periodontitis have used different study designs and a range of examination methods and case definitions, and this greatly complicates the study of disease prevalence in populations. The wide range of disease case definitions, in particular, profoundly impacts the reported rate of disease, and the use of a standard disease definition is strongly recommended. Surveys of aggressive periodontitis that use only clinical examinations, without radiographic examination to confirm the presence of a distinctive pattern of tissue loss, may overestimate the prevalence of this disease, particularly when a low threshold of attachment loss is used. The prevalence of aggressive periodontitis varies significantly between populations, and differences in race/ethnicities seem to be a key factor. Studies consistently show that aggressive periodontitis is most prevalent in Africa and in populations of African descent and is least prevalent in Caucasians in Europe and North America. Among children and young adults the prevalence of this disease is higher in older than in younger age groups. Most studies show comparable disease prevalence in male and female subjects. These findings show that aggressive periodontitis is a significant health problem in certain populations. This review also highlights a lack of information on the epidemiology and demographics of this disease in many parts of the world, particularly in Asia and Africa. Epidemiologic studies of aggressive periodontitis in high-risk populations are important and could provide vital data on the determinants of this disease, and this information is needed for the establishment of effective health-promotion measures. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Risk society and the second demographic transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall, David R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishProminent "risk society" theorists such as Giddens and Beck have identifiedrisk as a fundamental organizing principle of contemporary society. Importantly, a major cause of riskawareness and anxiety in modern society is individualism . . a concept Lesthaeghe linked to changes infamily formation. In this regard, of the types of risk discussed in the sociological literature,"interpersonal risks" associated with cohabitation, marriage, and parenting are of obvious salience.This paper explores how the modern "risk society" thesis, and the concept of interpersonal risk couldmaterially contribute to understanding the second demographic transition.FrenchDes theorists connu tells que Giddens et Beck qui promeuvent "la société de risqué" ont identifié le risqué comme un principe fundamental de l'organisation de la société contemporaine. De l'importance est que l'individualisme, … un concept que Lesthaeghe a relié aux changements dans la formation de la famille, est une cause majeuire de la reconnaissance du risqué et de l'anxiété dans la société moderne. En ce qui concerne le risqué, de tous les genres de risqué discutés dans la literature sociologique, les risques "interpersonnels" associés à la cohabitation, le marriage et l'élevement des enfants sont plus communs. Ce papier examine la possibilité que l'idée d'une "société de risqué" moderne, et le concept du risqué interpersonnel pourraient contribuer à la comprehension de la deuxiéme transition démographique.

  20. Demographic features of subjects with congenital glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamçelik, Nevbahar; Atalay, Eray; Bolukbasi, Selim; Çapar, Olgu; Ozkok, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Context: Congenital glaucoma is a potentially blinding ocular disease of the childhood. Identification of the possible associated risk factors and may be helpful for prevention or early detection of this public health problem. Aims: To demonstrate the demographic features of congenital glaucoma subjects. Setting and Design: The charts of congenital glaucoma patients referred to Tamcelik Glaucoma Center were retrospectively reviewed through the dates of 2000 and 2013. Materials and Methods: Analyzed data included diagnosis, age at first presentation, symptoms at first presentation, laterality of the disease, sex, presence of consanguinity, family history of congenital glaucoma, maturity of the fetus at delivery, and maternal age at conception. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19.0 by IBM (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Illinois, USA) was used to compare the mean of continuous variables with Student's t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) and χ2 test was used to test differences in proportions of categorical variables. Results: The data of 600 eyes of 311 patients were analyzed. The distribution of primary and secondary congenital glaucoma among the patients were 63.3% (n = 197) and 36.7% (n = 114), respectively. Of the 311 patients, 57.2% (n = 178) were male and 42.8% (n = 133) were female. The overall frequency of bilateral disease was 92.3% (n = 287). Overall rate of consanguinity and positive family history was 45.3% (n = 141) and 21.2% (n = 66), respectively. Conclusions: Bilateral disease in this study was more common than previously reported studies. Positive family history was more frequent in primary congenital glaucoma although not statistically significant. PMID:24881602