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Sample records for european germplasm collection

  1. Commentary: Public germplasm collections and revolutions in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... Commentary: Public germplasm collections and revolutions in biotechnology. Frank M Dugan Aric Wiest Kevin McCluskey. Volume 36 Issue 2 June 2011 pp 205-209 ... Keywords. Antibiotics; endophyte; ex situ germplasm repository; green revolution; perennial crops; polymerase chain reaction ...

  2. Potato germplasm collecting expedition to Mexico in 1997 : taxonomy and new germplasm resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spooner, D.M.; Rivera-Pena, A.; Berg, van den R.G.; Schueler, K.

    2000-01-01

    Wild potato (Solanum sect. Petota) germplasm has been collected in Mexico on nine major expeditions, as determined by 20 collections or more from each expedition currently at the United States potato genebank, the National Research Support Program-6 (NRSP-6). These have resulted in 609 accessions

  3. Sample size for collecting germplasms – a polyploid model with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    germplasm collection/regeneration for diploid populations by earlier workers can be directly deduced from our general expression by assigning appropriate values of the corresponding parameters. A seed factor which influences the plant sample size has also been isolated to aid the collectors in selecting the appropriate.

  4. Morphological characterization of a Daucus L. germplasm collection in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Daucus includes about 25 recognized species worldwide. Northern Africa represents a major center of diversity of Daucus, with Tunisia containing at least 12 species and six subspecies. We assessed morphological diversity from a Daucus L. germplasm collection of 103 accessions at the Nation...

  5. Spacial analysis of avocado sunblotch disease in an avocado germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first visual symptoms of Avocado Sunblotch Viroid (ASBVd) were observed in a few plants of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) in the germplasm collection at the National Germplasm Repository at Miami in the early 1980s. However, the extent of the infection was unknown because infected trees can re...

  6. Ploidy of USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) world pear germplasm collection determined by flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Living germplasm collections representing world diversity of pear (Pyrus L.) are maintained by the U.S. Department of Agriculture at the National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) in Corvallis, Oregon, USA. Flow cytometry was performed on young leaf tissue from 1,284 genebank accessions to assess p...

  7. germplasm collection of highland palms of afikpo in eastern nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    groves. Height differences were generally very small in the tenera accessions than in the duras. The prospected fruits have been used to raise seedlings for future planting in the field gene banks following introgression into the breeding programme. Keywords: Afikpo, coefficient of variation, Edda grove, germplasm, ...

  8. Mating system and pollen dispersal in Eugenia dysenterica (Myrtaceae) germplasm collection: tools for conservation and domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Eduardo B; Collevatti, Rosane G; Chaves, Lázaro J; Moreira, Lucas R; Telles, Mariana P C

    2016-04-01

    Eugenia dysenterica DC. (Myrtaceae) is a perennial tree producing edible fruits and ornamental flowers of potential value widely distributed in Brazilian "Cerrados" (savannas), but available genetic resources and potential for future breeding programs must be evaluated. Here we evaluated the reproductive system and pollen-mediated gene flow in one generation of Eugenia dysenterica germplasm collection of Agronomy School, Federal University of Goiás (in Goiânia city, Central Brazil). We collected leaves from all adults from the germplasm collection (682 plants) and seeds (542) from 23 mother-trees. Genotypes were obtained for seven microsatellite loci. Genetic diversity was high and did not significantly differ between adults (H e = 0.777) and progeny arrays (H e = 0.617). Our results showed that E. dysenterica has an allogamous mating system in the germplasm collection (t m = 0.957), but with high and significant biparental inbreeding (t m - t s = 0.109). Because sibs are very close to each other, mating between closely related individuals is likely. Paternity correlation was also relatively high, indicating a 11.9 % probability that a randomly chosen pair of outcrossed progeny from the same array are full sibs. The maximum pollen dispersal distance (224 m), estimated using assignment test, corresponded to the boundaries of the orchard. We were able to assign the paternity to only 64 % of the 349 seeds analyzed, indicating potential pollen immigration to the germplasm collection. The variance effective population size estimated for one maternal family in the germplasm collection (N ev = 3.42) is very close to the theoretical maximum value for half-sibs (Nev = 4.0). Because E. dysenterica has a long life cycle and generation time, the maintenance of an effective population size of at least 100 in the germplasm collection is suggested, which can be achieved by maintaining a seed-trees number around 30 individuals.

  9. Rebuilding Hawaii’s Anthurium germplasm collection for cultivar and species preservation, breeding, and biotechnological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthurium is the third most important floriculture crop in Hawaii, grown mainly as a cut flower. The University of Hawaii (UH) has a well-established anthurium breeding program since 1950, with a germplasm collection assembled from backyard growers, hobbyists, researchers and collection trips from c...

  10. Assembling Germplasm Collections of Nuttall's Povertyweed (Monolepis nuttalliana (Schult.) Greene) and Other Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) Allies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-ARS North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station in Ames, Iowa maintains an extensive working collection of Spinacia germplasm, both of cultivated and wild types, as part of the US National Plant Germplasm System. We seek to expand these collections by acquiring samples of allied gene...

  11. Conservation of the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System Apple Collection using dormant bud cryopreservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System maintains a grafted collection of apple accessions representing 49 taxa in Geneva, NY. Since 1993, dormant buds of many of these accessions have been routinely cryopreserved at the USDA-ARS National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation (NCGRP) in For...

  12. Variability of seed oil content and fatty acid composition in the entire USDA sesame germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesame (Sesame indicum L.) is one of the oldest oilseed crops with a long history of cultivation for its edible seeds and oil. The U.S. sesame germplasm collection (containing about 1,232 accessions) is a useful genetic resource for improving seed quality and enhancing grain yield. Variability of se...

  13. Proanthocyanidin diversity in the EU 'HealthyHay' sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) germplasm collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringano, Elisabetta; Hayot Carbonero, Christine; Smith, Lydia M J; Brown, Ronald H; Mueller-Harvey, Irene

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated 37 diverse sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) accessions from the EU 'HealthyHay' germplasm collection for proanthocyanidin (PA) content and composition. Accessions displayed a wide range of differences: PA contents varied from 0.57 to 2.80 g/100 g sainfoin; the mean degree of polymerisation from 12 to 84; the proportion of prodelphinidin tannins from 53% to 95%, and the proportion of trans-flavanol units from 12% to 34%. A positive correlation was found between PA contents (thiolytic versus acid-butanol degradation; P<0.001; R(2)=0.49). A negative correlation existed between PA content (thiolysis) and mDP (P<0.05; R(2)=-0.30), which suggested that accessions with high PA contents had smaller PA polymers. Cluster analysis revealed that European accessions clustered into two main groups: Western Europe and Eastern Europe/Asia. In addition, accessions from USA, Canada and Armenia tended to cluster together. Overall, there was broad agreement between tannin clusters and clusters that were based on morphological and agronomic characteristics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic variation, population structure, and linkage disequilibrium in European elite germplasm of perennial ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazauskas, Gintaras; Lenk, Ingo; Pedersen, Morten Greve

    2011-01-01

    Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is a highly valued temperate climate grass species grown as forage crop and for amenity uses. Due to its outbreeding nature and recent domestication, a high degree of genetic diversity is expected among cultivars. The aim of this study was to assess the extent...... of linkage disequilibrium (LD) within European elite germplasm and to evaluate the appropriate methodology for genetic association mapping in perennial ryegrass. A high level of genetic diversity was observed in a set of 380 perennial ryegrass elite genotypes when genotyped with 40 SSRs and 2 STS markers...... and occurred within 0.4 cM across European varieties, when population structure was taken into consideration. However, an extended LD of up to 6.6 cM was detected within the variety Aberdart. High genetic diversity and rapid LD decay provide means for high resolution association mapping in elite materials...

  15. High-throughput genotyping for species identification and diversity assessment in germplasm collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Annaliese S; Zhang, Jing; Tollenaere, Reece; Vasquez Teuber, Paula; Dalton-Morgan, Jessica; Hu, Liyong; Yan, Guijun; Edwards, David; Redden, Robert; Batley, Jacqueline

    2015-09-01

    Germplasm collections provide an extremely valuable resource for breeders and researchers. However, misclassification of accessions by species often hinders the effective use of these collections. We propose that use of high-throughput genotyping tools can provide a fast, efficient and cost-effective way of confirming species in germplasm collections, as well as providing valuable genetic diversity data. We genotyped 180 Brassicaceae samples sourced from the Australian Grains Genebank across the recently released Illumina Infinium Brassica 60K SNP array. Of these, 76 were provided on the basis of suspected misclassification and another 104 were sourced independently from the germplasm collection. Presence of the A- and C-genomes combined with principle components analysis clearly separated Brassica rapa, B. oleracea, B. napus, B. carinata and B. juncea samples into distinct species groups. Several lines were further validated using chromosome counts. Overall, 18% of samples (32/180) were misclassified on the basis of species. Within these 180 samples, 23/76 (30%) supplied on the basis of suspected misclassification were misclassified, and 9/105 (9%) of the samples randomly sourced from the Australian Grains Genebank were misclassified. Surprisingly, several individuals were also found to be the product of interspecific hybridization events. The SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) array proved effective at confirming species, and provided useful information related to genetic diversity. As similar genomic resources become available for different crops, high-throughput molecular genotyping will offer an efficient and cost-effective method to screen germplasm collections worldwide, facilitating more effective use of these valuable resources by breeders and researchers. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Variation and Correlations among European and North American Orchardgrass Germplasm for Herbage Yield and Nutritive Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph G. Robins

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to improve water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC concentrations are common in perennial forage grass breeding. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne breeding has been very successful in developing new cultivars with high WSC and high agronomic performance. Breeding efforts are ongoing to improve the WSC of other perennial forage grasses, such as orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata. The United States Department of Agriculture Forage and Range and Deutsche Saatveredelung orchardgrass breeding programs cooperated to characterize the expression and genotype by environment interaction (GEI of water-soluble carbohydrates in a collection of orchardgrass populations from both breeding programs. Additionally, the effort characterized the relationship between water-soluble carbohydrates and other agronomic and nutritive value traits in these populations. Overall, the Deutsche Saatveredelung populations had higher herbage mass (15%, rust resistance (59%, and later maturity. The Forage and Range Research populations had higher water-soluble carbohydrates (4%, nutritive value, and earlier maturity. However, results were highly dependent on GEI. Differences were very pronounced at the French and German field locations, but less pronounced at the two US locations. Combining the germplasm from the Forage and Range Research and Deutsche Saatveredelung programs may be a way to develop an improved base germplasm source that could then be used separately in the EU and US for water-soluble carbohydrate and other trait improvement.

  17. Evaluation of soybean germplasm conserved in NIAS genebank and development of mini core collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaga, Akito; Shimizu, Takehiko; Watanabe, Satoshi; Tsubokura, Yasutaka; Katayose, Yuichi; Harada, Kyuya; Vaughan, Duncan A.; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variation and population structure among 1603 soybean accessions, consisted of 832 Japanese landraces, 109 old and 57 recent Japanese varieties, 341 landrace from 16 Asian countries and 264 wild soybean accessions, were characterized using 191 SNP markers. Although gene diversity of Japanese soybean germplasm was slight lower than that of exotic soybean germplasm, population differentiation and clustering analyses indicated clear genetic differentiation among Japanese cultivated soybeans, exotic cultivated soybeans and wild soybeans. Nine hundred ninety eight Japanese accessions were separated to a certain extent into groups corresponding to their agro-morphologic characteristics such as photosensitivity and seed characteristics rather than their geographical origin. Based on the assessment of the SNP markers and several agro-morphologic traits, accessions that retain gene diversity of the whole collection were selected to develop several soybean sets of different sizes using an heuristic approach; a minimum of 12 accessions can represent the observed gene diversity; a mini-core collection of 96 accession can represent a major proportion of both geographic origin and agro-morphologic trait variation. These selected sets of germplasm will provide an effective platform for enhancing soybean diversity studies and assist in finding novel traits for crop improvement. PMID:23136496

  18. Identification of resistance gene analogs in Korean wild apple germplasm collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, D E; Choi, C

    2013-02-27

    Several plant disease resistance gene (R-gene) classes have been identified on the basis of specific conserved functional domains. Cloning of disease-resistance apple genes would be useful for breeding programs and for studying resistance mechanisms. We used a PCR approach with degenerate primers designed from conserved NBS-LRR (nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat) regions of known R-genes to amplify and clone homologous sequences from six Korean wild apple germplasm collections and an individual plant of the Siberian wild apple, Malus baccata. One hundred and twenty-four sequenced clones showed high similarity at multiple NBS motifs with the R-genes of other plants. The clones OLE 2-9, BP 6-11, OLE 1-22, and OLE 5-13 shared 45% identity with the R-gene of other plants. The conserved sequence, which plays an important role in resistance, was found in our isolated resistance gene analogs (RGAs). The sequences of isolated apple RGAs showed more similarity to Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-NBS-LRR than non-TIR-NBS-LRR. We suggest using a marker for this resistance gene region as well as for identifying potential material for disease-resistant breeding among Korea wild apple germplasms. This is the first step in preparing a comprehensive analysis of the RGAs in Korean wild apple germplasm.

  19. Diversity of Sex Types and Seasonal Sexual Plasticity in a Cucumber Germplasm Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dou Xinxin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The sex type of a cucumber plant is determined by the proportion of male, female and hermaphrodite flowers that it bears and is an important factor that affects fruit yield. In this paper, the sex types and seasonal sexual stabilities of 322 accessions of cucumber germplasm were identified. This germplasm collection displayed a great variety of sex types. We used an updated 10-type sex classification system based on the flower types present and the proportion of nodes with pistillate flowers (PNPF. The PNPF ranges of all the accessions were 2.12%–100% in spring and 0–100% in autumn. A total of 81.37% of the accessions had PNPFs of 10%–50% in spring, but most (84.78% accessions were reduced to 0–20% PNPF in autumn. The range of reduction of PNPF from spring to autumn was 0–67.91%. In other words, most of the germplasm was normal monoecious (31.68% or subandroecious (62.73% in spring, but 94.10% of the accessions were subandroecious in autumn. According to the statistical evaluation of the difference in PNPFs between the two seasons, each accession could be classified into one of three groups: seasonally stable, seasonally sensitive and highly seasonally sensitive, accounting for 10.56%, 20.50% and 68.94% of the accessions, respectively. With a few exceptions, the seasonal PNPF differences were positively correlated with the PNPFs in a given season for most accessions. These results provided useful information and materials for sex expression mechanism research and for breeding cucumbers with high and stable yields.

  20. Semi-High Throughput Screening for Potential Drought-tolerance in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) Germplasm Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knepper, Caleb; Mou, Beiquan

    2015-04-17

    This protocol describes a method by which a large collection of the leafy green vegetable lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) germplasm was screened for likely drought-tolerance traits. Fresh water availability for agricultural use is a growing concern across the United States as well as many regions of the world. Short-term drought events along with regulatory intervention in the regulation of water availability coupled with the looming threat of long-term climate shifts that may lead to reduced precipitation in many important agricultural regions has increased the need to hasten the development of crops adapted for improved water use efficiency in order to maintain or expand production in the coming years. This protocol is not meant as a step-by-step guide to identifying at either the physiological or molecular level drought-tolerance traits in lettuce, but rather is a method developed and refined through the screening of thousands of different lettuce varieties. The nature of this screen is based in part on the streamlined measurements focusing on only three water-stress indicators: leaf relative water content, wilt, and differential plant growth following drought-stress. The purpose of rapidly screening a large germplasm collection is to narrow the candidate pool to a point in which more intensive physiological, molecular, and genetic methods can be applied to identify specific drought-tolerant traits in either the lab or field. Candidates can also be directly incorporated into breeding programs as a source of drought-tolerance traits.

  1. Genetic Variation and Association Mapping of Protein Concentration in Brown Rice Using a Diverse Rice Germplasm Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein is the second most abundant constituent in the rice grain next to starch. Association analysis for protein concentration in brown rice was performed using a “Mini-Core” collection, which represents the germplasm diversity found in the USDA world rice collection. Protein concentration was det...

  2. Analysis of the genetic diversity and structure across a wide range of germplasm reveals prominent gene flow in apple at the European level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrestarazu, Jorge; Denancé, Caroline; Ravon, Elisa; Guyader, Arnaud; Guisnel, Rémi; Feugey, Laurence; Poncet, Charles; Lateur, Marc; Houben, Patrick; Ordidge, Matthew; Fernandez-Fernandez, Felicidad; Evans, Kate M; Paprstein, Frantisek; Sedlak, Jiri; Nybom, Hilde; Garkava-Gustavsson, Larisa; Miranda, Carlos; Gassmann, Jennifer; Kellerhals, Markus; Suprun, Ivan; Pikunova, Anna V; Krasova, Nina G; Torutaeva, Elnura; Dondini, Luca; Tartarini, Stefano; Laurens, François; Durel, Charles-Eric

    2016-06-08

    The amount and structure of genetic diversity in dessert apple germplasm conserved at a European level is mostly unknown, since all diversity studies conducted in Europe until now have been performed on regional or national collections. Here, we applied a common set of 16 SSR markers to genotype more than 2,400 accessions across 14 collections representing three broad European geographic regions (North + East, West and South) with the aim to analyze the extent, distribution and structure of variation in the apple genetic resources in Europe. A Bayesian model-based clustering approach showed that diversity was organized in three groups, although these were only moderately differentiated (FST = 0.031). A nested Bayesian clustering approach allowed identification of subgroups which revealed internal patterns of substructure within the groups, allowing a finer delineation of the variation into eight subgroups (FST = 0.044). The first level of stratification revealed an asymmetric division of the germplasm among the three groups, and a clear association was found with the geographical regions of origin of the cultivars. The substructure revealed clear partitioning of genetic groups among countries, but also interesting associations between subgroups and breeding purposes of recent cultivars or particular usage such as cider production. Additional parentage analyses allowed us to identify both putative parents of more than 40 old and/or local cultivars giving interesting insights in the pedigree of some emblematic cultivars. The variation found at group and subgroup levels may reflect a combination of historical processes of migration/selection and adaptive factors to diverse agricultural environments that, together with genetic drift, have resulted in extensive genetic variation but limited population structure. The European dessert apple germplasm represents an important source of genetic diversity with a strong historical and patrimonial value. The present

  3. Duplication in the Domestica Apple Collection within the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System in Geneva, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System maintains more than 1300 named accessions of Malus x domestica in a field collection in Geneva, NY. Seven microsatellite markers (GD12, GD15, GD96, GD103, GD142, GD147, GD162) were used to identify duplicates within a set of 1240 domestica accessions with...

  4. Genetic and economic aspects of marker-assisted reduction of redundancy from a wild potato germplasm collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treuren, van R.; Magda, A.; Hoekstra, R.; Hintum, van T.J.L.

    2004-01-01

    The wild potato germplasm collection of the series Acaulia, maintained at the Centre for Genetic Resources, The Netherlands, consists of 314 accessions. In previous investigations, 15 potential duplication groups with a total of 36 accessions were identified based on AFLP analysis of a limited

  5. Five-year agronomic and phenotypic data summary for a replicated cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss of genetic diversity found in centers of origin necessitates the establishment of ex situ germplasm collections for long-term conservation. Cacao genetic resources have been acquired, preserved and evaluated at the USDA-ARS, Tropical Agriculture Research Station in Mayaguez (TARS), Puerto Rico...

  6. Genetic Diversity and Phenotypic Variation for Drought Resistance in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Germplasm Collected for Drought Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drought is a major environmental factor hampering alfalfa productivity worldwide. Gene banks provide an array of trait diversity, frequently consisting of specific seed collection projects that focused on acquiring germplasm adapted to specific traits such as drought tolerance. These subsets provide...

  7. Past and future of a century old Citrus tristeza virus collection: a California citrus germplasm tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinbo; Bozan, Orhan; Kwon, Sun-Jung; Dang, Tyler; Rucker, Tavia; Yokomi, Raymond K.; Lee, Richard F.; Folimonova, Svetlana Y.; Krueger, Robert R.; Bash, John; Greer, Greg; Diaz, James; Serna, Ramon; Vidalakis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates collected from citrus germplasm, dooryard and field trees in California from 1914 have been maintained in planta under quarantine in the Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP), Riverside, California. This collection, therefore, represents populations of CTV isolates obtained over time and space in California. To determine CTV genetic diversity in this context, genotypes of CTV isolates from the CCPP collection were characterized using multiple molecular markers (MMM). Genotypes T30, VT, and T36 were found at high frequencies with T30 and T30+VT genotypes being the most abundant. The MMM analysis did not identify T3 and B165/T68 genotypes; however, biological and phylogenetic analysis suggested some relationships of CCPP CTV isolates with these two genotypes. Phylogenetic analysis of the CTV coat protein (CP) gene sequences classified the tested isolates into seven distinct clades. Five clades were in association with the standard CTV genotypes T30, T36, T3, VT, and B165/T68. The remaining two identified clades were not related to any standard CTV genotypes. Spatiotemporal analysis indicated a trend of reduced genotype and phylogenetic diversity as well as virulence from southern California (SC) at early (1907–1957) in comparison to that of central California (CC) isolates collected from later (1957–2009) time periods. CTV biological characterization also indicated a reduced number and less virulent stem pitting (SP) CTV isolates compared to seedling yellows isolates introduced to California. This data provides a historical insight of the introduction, movement, and genetic diversity of CTV in California and provides genetic and biological information useful for CTV quarantine, eradication, and disease management strategies such as CTV-SP cross protection. PMID:24339822

  8. Past and future of a century old Citrus tristeza virus collection: a California citrus germplasm tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinbo; Bozan, Orhan; Kwon, Sun-Jung; Dang, Tyler; Rucker, Tavia; Yokomi, Raymond K; Lee, Richard F; Folimonova, Svetlana Y; Krueger, Robert R; Bash, John; Greer, Greg; Diaz, James; Serna, Ramon; Vidalakis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates collected from citrus germplasm, dooryard and field trees in California from 1914 have been maintained in planta under quarantine in the Citrus Clonal Protection Program (CCPP), Riverside, California. This collection, therefore, represents populations of CTV isolates obtained over time and space in California. To determine CTV genetic diversity in this context, genotypes of CTV isolates from the CCPP collection were characterized using multiple molecular markers (MMM). Genotypes T30, VT, and T36 were found at high frequencies with T30 and T30+VT genotypes being the most abundant. The MMM analysis did not identify T3 and B165/T68 genotypes; however, biological and phylogenetic analysis suggested some relationships of CCPP CTV isolates with these two genotypes. Phylogenetic analysis of the CTV coat protein (CP) gene sequences classified the tested isolates into seven distinct clades. Five clades were in association with the standard CTV genotypes T30, T36, T3, VT, and B165/T68. The remaining two identified clades were not related to any standard CTV genotypes. Spatiotemporal analysis indicated a trend of reduced genotype and phylogenetic diversity as well as virulence from southern California (SC) at early (1907-1957) in comparison to that of central California (CC) isolates collected from later (1957-2009) time periods. CTV biological characterization also indicated a reduced number and less virulent stem pitting (SP) CTV isolates compared to seedling yellows isolates introduced to California. This data provides a historical insight of the introduction, movement, and genetic diversity of CTV in California and provides genetic and biological information useful for CTV quarantine, eradication, and disease management strategies such as CTV-SP cross protection.

  9. Genetic diversity, population structure, and resistance to Phytophthora capsici of a worldwide collection of eggplant germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegele, Rachel P; Boyle, Samantha; Quesada-Ocampo, Lina M; Hausbeck, Mary K

    2014-01-01

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is an important solanaceous crop with high phenotypic diversity and moderate genotypic diversity. Ninety-nine genotypes of eggplant germplasm (species (S. melongena, S. incanum, S. linnaeanum and S. gilo), landraces and heirloom cultivars) from 32 countries and five continents were evaluated for genetic diversity, population structure, fruit shape, and disease resistance to Phytophthora fruit rot. Fruits from each line were measured for fruit shape and evaluated for resistance to two Phytophthora capsici isolates seven days post inoculation. Only one accession (PI 413784) was completely resistant to both isolates evaluated. Partial resistance to Phytophthora fruit rot was found in accessions from all four eggplant species evaluated in this study. Genetic diversity and population structure were assessed using 22 polymorphic simple sequence repeats (SSRs). The polymorphism information content (PIC) for the population was moderate (0.49) in the population. Genetic analyses using the program STRUCTURE indicated the existence of four genetic clusters within the eggplant collection. Population structure was detected when eggplant lines were grouped by species, continent of origin, country of origin, fruit shape and disease resistance.

  10. Genetic diversity, population structure, and resistance to Phytophthora capsici of a worldwide collection of eggplant germplasm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel P Naegele

    Full Text Available Eggplant (Solanum melongena L. is an important solanaceous crop with high phenotypic diversity and moderate genotypic diversity. Ninety-nine genotypes of eggplant germplasm (species (S. melongena, S. incanum, S. linnaeanum and S. gilo, landraces and heirloom cultivars from 32 countries and five continents were evaluated for genetic diversity, population structure, fruit shape, and disease resistance to Phytophthora fruit rot. Fruits from each line were measured for fruit shape and evaluated for resistance to two Phytophthora capsici isolates seven days post inoculation. Only one accession (PI 413784 was completely resistant to both isolates evaluated. Partial resistance to Phytophthora fruit rot was found in accessions from all four eggplant species evaluated in this study. Genetic diversity and population structure were assessed using 22 polymorphic simple sequence repeats (SSRs. The polymorphism information content (PIC for the population was moderate (0.49 in the population. Genetic analyses using the program STRUCTURE indicated the existence of four genetic clusters within the eggplant collection. Population structure was detected when eggplant lines were grouped by species, continent of origin, country of origin, fruit shape and disease resistance.

  11. Phenotypic Diversity and Genetic Variation within a Collection of Onion (Allium cepa L.) Germplasm from Peninsular India

    OpenAIRE

    Neelam Sunil, Vinod Kumar, Medagam Thirupathi Reddy, Venkateshwaran Kamala

    2014-01-01

    Twenty three diverse germplasm lines collected from varying agro-ecological regions of Peninsular India during 2007-08 were characterized and evaluated along with three controls viz. Nasik Red, Light Red and White Marglobe, in an augmented block design during kharif 2009-10, at NBPGR Regional Station, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad. The accessions exhibited good variation for qualitative traits like early seedling vigour, leaf cross section, leaf arrangement, stem shape, bulb shape, bulb skin color...

  12. Discovering the desirable alleles contributing to the lignocellulosic biomass traits in Saccharum germplasm collections for energy cane improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jianping [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Sandhu, Hardev [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2017-03-23

    1) The success in crop improvement programs depends largely on the extent of genetic variability available. Germplasm collections assembles all the available genetic resources and are critical for long-term crop improvement. This world sugarcane germplasm collection contains enormous genetic variability for various morphological traits, biomass yield components, adaptation and many quality traits, prospectively imbeds a large number of valuable alleles for biofuel traits such as high biomass yield, quantity and quality of lignocelluloses, stress tolerance, and nutrient use efficiency. The germplasm collection is of little value unless it is characterized and utilized for crop improvement. In this project, we phenotypically and genotypically characterized the sugarcane world germplasm collection (The results were published in two papers already and another two papers are to be published). This data will be made available for public to refer to for germplasm unitization specifically in the sugarcane and energy cane breeding programs. In addition, we are identifying the alleles contributing to the biomass traits in sugarcane germplasm. This part of project is very challenging due to the large genome and highly polyploid level of this crop. We firstly established a high throughput sugarcane genotyping pipeline in the genome and bioinformatics era (a paper is published in 2016). We identified and modified a software for genome-wide association analysis of polyploid species. The results of the alleles associated to the biomass traits will be published soon, which will help the scientific community understand the genetic makeup of the biomass components of sugarcane. Molecular breeders can develop markers for marker assisted selection of biomass traits improvement. Further, the development and release of new energy cane cultivars through this project not only improved genetic diversity but also improved dry biomass yields and resistance to diseases. These new cultivars

  13. Adaptation to mid-season drought in a sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam germplasm collection grown in Mozambique

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    Makunde Godwill S.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Drought has negative effects on sweetpotato production. Two experiments with two watering treatments (irrigated and water-stressed were conducted at Umbeluzi Research Station in 2015. The objectives were to (i determine response of 48 sweetpotato germplasms to mid-season drought, (ii determine best traits for improvement of storage root yield under mid-season drought and (iii assess the selection criteria for identifying drought tolerance in sweetpotato germplasms. The irrigated and water- stressed trials received 640 and 400 mm of water, respectively, throughout the season. Water stress was imposed from 30 to 70 days after planting. Each treatment had two replicates arranged in a randomized complete block design. Data collected on storage root and vine yield and derived drought tolerance indices including harvest index were subjected to analysis of variance in R. Sweetpotato germplasms with high storage root yield under mid-season drought were associated with a high harvest index. Harvest index stability and the geometric mean are key to identifying cultivars with high and stable storage root yield under both treatments. MUSGP0646-126, Irene and Ivone combined both low TOL, SSI, HI and high yield storage root yield across the treatments and over seasons. The use of drought and harvest indices is encouraged for selecting improved cultivars for varied production environments and their regular use in accelerated breeding schemes is suggested.

  14. Results of the 2009 ASBVd survey of avocado accessions in the national germplasm collection in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of Avocado Sunblotch Viroid (ASBVd) infection among the avocado (Persea americana Mill.) accessions in the National Germplasm Repository at Miami (NGR-Mia) was established in previous studies. An ASBVd specific reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocol was used t...

  15. Population genetics and structure of a global foxtail millet germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxtail millet is one among the most ancient crops of dryland agriculture. It is the second most important crop among millets, grown for grains or forage. Foxtail millet germplasm resources provide reservoirs of novel alleles and genes for crop improvement that have remained mostly unexplored. We ge...

  16. Germplasm morgue or gold mine? Enhancing the value of plant genetic resource collections for plant breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic diversity is the raw material that plant breeders require to develop cultivars that are productive, nutritious, pest and stress tolerant, and water and nutrient use efficient. The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) contains a wealth of genetic diversity, including improved varie...

  17. Evaluation of the National Plant Germplasm System's Garlic Collection for Seven Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The garlic (Allium sativum L.and A. longicuspis Regel.) germplasm maintained by the USDA-ARS Western Regional Plant Introduction Station (WRPIS) was screened for viruses. Over 200 accessions were rated for the incidence of symptomatic plants in July 2005 and June 2006. Symptoms indicative of viru...

  18. Prospects of Genomic Prediction in the USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection: Historical Data Creates Robust Models for Enhancing Selection of Accessions

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    Diego Jarquin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The identification and mobilization of useful genetic variation from germplasm banks for use in breeding programs is critical for future genetic gain and protection against crop pests. Plummeting costs of next-generation sequencing and genotyping is revolutionizing the way in which researchers and breeders interface with plant germplasm collections. An example of this is the high density genotyping of the entire USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection. We assessed the usefulness of 50K single nucleotide polymorphism data collected on 18,480 domesticated soybean (Glycine max accessions and vast historical phenotypic data for developing genomic prediction models for protein, oil, and yield. Resulting genomic prediction models explained an appreciable amount of the variation in accession performance in independent validation trials, with correlations between predicted and observed reaching up to 0.92 for oil and protein and 0.79 for yield. The optimization of training set design was explored using a series of cross-validation schemes. It was found that the target population and environment need to be well represented in the training set. Second, genomic prediction training sets appear to be robust to the presence of data from diverse geographical locations and genetic clusters. This finding, however, depends on the influence of shattering and lodging, and may be specific to soybean with its presence of maturity groups. The distribution of 7608 nonphenotyped accessions was examined through the application of genomic prediction models. The distribution of predictions of phenotyped accessions was representative of the distribution of predictions for nonphenotyped accessions, with no nonphenotyped accessions being predicted to fall far outside the range of predictions of phenotyped accessions.

  19. Genetic diversity of a brazilian wine grape germplasm collection based on morphoagronomic traits

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    Patrícia Coelho de S. Leão

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of cultivars, to quantify the variability and to estimate the genetic distances of 66 wine grape accessions in the Grape Germplasm Bank of the EMBRAPA Semi-Arid, in Juazeiro, BA, Brazil, through the characterization of discrete and continuous phenotypic variables. Multivariate statistics, such as, principal components, Tocher's optimization procedure, and the graphic of the distance, were efficient in grouping more similar genotypes, according to their phenotypic characteristics. There was no agreement in the formation of groups between continuous and discrete morpho-agronomic traits, when Tocher's optimization procedure was used. Discrete variables allowed the separation of Vitis vinifera and hybrids in different groups. Significant positive correlations were observed between weight, length and width of bunches, and a negative correlation between titratable acidity and TSS/TTA. The major part (84.12% of the total variation present in the original data was explained by the four principal components. The results revealed little variability between wine grape accessions in the Grape Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Semi-Arid.

  20. Genetic relationship and diversity in a sesame (Sesamum indicum L. germplasm collection using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP

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    Karlovsky Petr

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sesame is an important oil crop in tropical and subtropical areas. Despite its nutritional value and historic and cultural importance, the research on sesame has been scarce, particularly as far as its genetic diversity is concerned. The aims of the present study were to clarify genetic relationships among 32 sesame accessions from the Venezuelan Germplasm Collection, which represents genotypes from five diversity centres (India, Africa, China-Korea-Japan, Central Asia and Western Asia, and to determine the association between geographical origin and genetic diversity using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP. Results Large genetic variability was found within the germplasm collection. A total of 457 AFLP markers were recorded, 93 % of them being polymorphic. The Jaccard similarity coefficient ranged from 0.38 to 0.85 between pairs of accessions. The UPGMA dendrogram grouped 25 of 32 accessions in two robust clusters, but it has not revealed any association between genotype and geographical origin. Indian, African and Chinese-Korean-Japanese accessions were distributed throughout the dendrogram. A similar pattern was obtained using principal coordinates analysis. Genetic diversity studies considering five groups of accessions according to the geographic origin detected that only 20 % of the total diversity was due to diversity among groups using Nei's coefficient of population differentiation. Similarly, only 5% of the total diversity was attributed to differences among groups by the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA. This small but significant difference was explained by the fact that the Central Asia group had a lower genetic variation than the other diversity centres studied. Conclusion We found that our sesame collection was genetically very variable and did not show an association between geographical origin and AFLP patterns. This result suggests that there was considerable gene flow among diversity centres

  1. GBS-Based Deconvolution of the Surviving North American Collection of Cold-Hardy Kiwifruit (Actinidia spp. Germplasm.

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    Arthur T O Melo

    Full Text Available Plant germplasm collections can be invaluable resources to plant breeders, provided they are well-characterized. After 140 years of acquisition and curation efforts by a wide and largely non-coordinated array of private and institutional actors, the current US collection of cold-hardy kiwifruit (Actinidia spp. is rife with misclassifications, misnomers, and mix-ups. To facilitate the systematic improvement and resource-efficient curation of these species of long-recognized horticultural potential, we used genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS data to deconvolute this historic collection. Evaluation of a total of 138 accessions (103 A. arguta, 28 A. kolomikta, and 7 A. polygama with an interspecific set of 1,040 high-quality SNPs resulted in clear resolution of the three species. Intraspecific analysis (2,964 SNPs within A. arguta revealed a significant level of redundancy (41.7%; only 60 unique genotypes out of 103 analyzed and a sub-population structure reflecting likely geographic provenance, phenotypic classes, and hybrid pedigree. For A. kolomikta (3,425 SNPs, the level of accession redundancy was even higher (53.6%; 13 unique genotypes out of 28 analyzed; but no sub-structure was detected. Numerous instances were discovered of distinct genotypes sharing a common name, different names assigned to the same genotype, mistaken species assignments, and incorrect gender records, all critical information for both breeders and curators. In terms of method, this study demonstrates the practical and cost-effective use of GBS data to characterize plant genetic resources, despite ploidy differences and the lack of reference genomes. With the recent prohibition on further imports of Actinidia plant material into the country and with the active eradication of historic vines looming, this analysis of the US cold-hardy kiwifruit germplasm collection provides a timely assessment of the genetic resource base of an emerging, high-value specialty crop.

  2. Collective legal protection: The European approach

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    Petrušić Nevena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic goals of the EU justice policy is to ensure an efficient and effective legal protection, particularly in cross-border disputes and cases concerning the violation of rights guaranteed under the EU legislation. In order to accomplish this goal, the EU embarked on a horizontal harmonization of civil procedure in some sectors and reinforced the institutional cooperation of Member States in the field of civil justice. Concurrently, there were some legal interventions in the field of civil procedure, which contributed to establishing a number of European procedural mechanisms, such as: the European Small Claims Procedure (2007, the European Payment Order Procedure (2006, etc. Many studies and analyses show that procedural mechanisms of collective legal protection are essential for ensuring an efficient and effective legal protection of rights guaranteed by the EU law. The idea of introducing the collective legal protection instruments into the EU law has been present for more than two decades. It has been endorsed by the European Economic and Social Committee, which has played the key role in its promotion. In June 2013, after extensive consultations, the European Commission adopted the Recommendation on common principles for injunctive and compensatory collective redress mechanisms in the Members States concerning violations of rights guaranteed under the EU law. This document has provided a coherent horizontal framework for the collective legal protection at the EU level by establishing the common European principles for collective redress mechanisms which the Member States should incorporate into their national systems. Analysis of the common principles governing the collective legal protection shows that the European approach to shaping the collective redress claims is significantly different from the American class action model, which is considered to be incompatible with the European legal tradition and deemed to provide a wide

  3. A survey of the castor oil content, seed weight and seed-coat colour on the United States Department of Agriculture germplasm collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor bean is an important non-edible oilseed crop that can potentially be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. Cultivars with a high percentage of oil content in seeds are preferred for biodiesel production. There are 1033 accessions in the USDA castor bean germplasm collection. The range o...

  4. SNP-Discovery by RAD-Sequencing in a Germplasm Collection of Wild and Cultivated Grapevines (V. vinifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birolo, Giovanni; Prazzoli, Maria Lucia; Lorenzi, Silvia; Valle, Giorgio; Grando, Maria Stella

    2017-01-01

    Whole-genome comparisons of Vitis vinifera subsp. sativa and V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris are expected to provide a better estimate of the valuable genetic diversity still present in grapevine, and help to reconstruct the evolutionary history of a major crop worldwide. To this aim, the increase of molecular marker density across the grapevine genome is fundamental. Here we describe the SNP discovery in a grapevine germplasm collection of 51 cultivars and 44 wild accessions through a novel protocol of restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing. By resequencing 1.1% of the grapevine genome at a high coverage, we recovered 34K BamHI unique restriction sites, of which 6.8% were absent in the ‘PN40024’ reference genome. Moreover, we identified 37,748 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 93% of which belonged to the 19 assembled chromosomes with an average of 1.8K SNPs per chromosome. Nearly half of the SNPs fell in genic regions mostly assigned to the functional categories of metabolism and regulation, whereas some nonsynonymous variants were identified in genes related with the detection and response to environmental stimuli. SNP validation was carried-out, showing the ability of RAD-seq to accurately determine genotypes in a highly heterozygous species. To test the usefulness of our SNP panel, the main diversity statistics were evaluated, highlighting how the wild grapevine retained less genetic variability than the cultivated form. Furthermore, the analysis of Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) in the two subspecies separately revealed how the LD decays faster within the domesticated grapevine compared to its wild relative. Being the first application of RAD-seq in a diverse grapevine germplasm collection, our approach holds great promise for exploiting the genetic resources available in one of the most economically important fruit crops. PMID:28125640

  5. QTL mapping for Mediterranean corn borer resistance in European flint germplasm using recombinant inbred lines

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    Santiago Rogelio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ostrinia nubilalis (ECB and Sesamia nonagrioides (MCB are two maize stem borers which cause important losses in temperate maize production, but QTL analyses for corn borer resistance were mostly restricted to ECB resistance and maize materials genetically related (mapping populations derived from B73. Therefore, the objective of this work was to identify and characterize QTLs for MCB resistance and agronomic traits in a RILs population derived from European flint inbreds. Results Three QTLs were detected for stalk tunnel length at bins 1.02, 3.05 and 8.05 which explained 7.5% of the RILs genotypic variance. The QTL at bin 3.05 was co-located to a QTL related to plant height and grain humidity and the QTL at bin 8.05 was located near a QTL related to yield. Conclusions Our results, when compared with results from other authors, suggest the presence of genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis or fortification with effects on resistance to different corn borer species and digestibility for dairy cattle. Particularly, we proposed five candidate genes related to cell wall characteristics which could explain the QTL for stalk tunnelling in the region 3.05. However, the small proportion of genotypic variance explained by the QTLs suggest that there are also many other genes of small effect regulating MCB resistance and we conclude that MAS seems not promising for this trait. Two QTLs detected for stalk tunnelling overlap with QTLs for agronomic traits, indicating the presence of pleitropism or linkage between genes affecting resistance and agronomic traits.

  6. National Date Palm Germplasm Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Clonal Germplasm Repository for Citrus & Dates (NCGRCD), located in Riverside, California USA, is a project of the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). The NCGRCD maintains a collection of germplasm of date palm (Phoneix dactylifera ...

  7. Collection of european experiences in local investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This booklet is realized within the framework of the european project called PREDAC. This objective of this project are to promote citizen participation in the financing of renewable energies projects in Europe, to make organizations, investor clubs and local government to be aware of this way of implication into renewable energies development. The first part presents a collection of european experiences, as discussions and perspectives are proposed in the second part. The last part gives a comparative table between Germany and Denmark in term of renewable energies development. (A.L.B.)

  8. Characterization of Insect Resistance Loci in the USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection Using Genome-Wide Association Studies

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    Hao-Xun Chang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Management of insects that cause economic damage to yields of soybean mainly rely on insecticide applications. Sources of resistance in soybean plant introductions (PIs to different insect pests have been reported, and some of these sources, like for the soybean aphid (SBA, have been used to develop resistant soybean cultivars. With the availability of SoySNP50K and the statistical power of genome-wide association studies, we integrated phenotypic data for beet armyworm, Mexican bean beetle (MBB, potato leafhopper (PLH, SBA, soybean looper (SBL, velvetbean caterpillar (VBC, and chewing damage caused by unspecified insects for a comprehensive understanding of insect resistance in the United States Department of Agriculture Soybean Germplasm Collection. We identified significant single nucleotide (SNP polymorphic markers for MBB, PLH, SBL, and VBC, and we highlighted several leucine-rich repeat-containing genes and myeloblastosis transcription factors within the high linkage disequilibrium region surrounding significant SNP markers. Specifically for soybean resistance to PLH, we found the PLH locus is close but distinct to a locus for soybean pubescence density on chromosome 12. The results provide genetic support that pubescence density may not directly link to PLH resistance. This study offers a novel insight of soybean resistance to four insect pests and reviews resistance mapping studies for major soybean insects.

  9. Diversity in global gene expression and morphology across a watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) germplasm collection: first steps to breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Adrienne C; Clarkson, Graham J J; Rothwell, Steve; Taylor, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) is a nutrient intense, leafy crop that is consumed raw or in soups across the globe, but for which, currently no genomic resources or breeding programme exists. Promising morphological, biochemical and functional genomic variation was identified for the first time in a newly established watercress germplasm collection, consisting of 48 watercress accessions sourced from contrasting global locations. Stem length, stem diameter and anti-oxidant (AO) potential varied across the accessions. This variation was used to identify three extreme contrasting accessions for further analysis. Variation in global gene expression was investigated using an Affymetrix Arabidopsis ATH1 microarray gene chip, using the commercial control (C), an accession selected for dwarf phenotype with a high AO potential (dwarfAO, called 'Boldrewood') and one with high AO potential alone. A set of transcripts significantly differentially expressed between these three accessions, were identified, including transcripts involved in the regulation of growth and development and those involved in secondary metabolism. In particular, when differential gene expression was compared between C and dwarfAO, the dwarfAO was characterised by increased expression of genes encoding glucosinolates, which are known precursors of phenethyl isothiocyanate, linked to the anti-carcinogenic effects well-documented in watercress. This study provides the first analysis of natural variation across the watercress genome and has identified important underpinning information for future breeding for enhanced anti-carcinogenic properties and morphology traits in this nutrient-intense crop.

  10. Genetic diversity of a germplasm collection of Cucurbita pepo using SRAP and AFLP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriol, M; Picó, B; Nuez, F

    2003-07-01

    Cucurbita pepo is a highly polymorphic species. The cultivars can be grouped into eight morphotypes in two subspecies, ssp. pepo and ssp. ovifera. A collection of 69 accessions representative of the morphotypes and some unclassified types was used for analysing the morphological and molecular diversity of this species. This collection includes commercial cultivars and Spanish landraces, which represent the great diversification of types that have arisen in Europe after this species arrived from America. For the molecular variability studies, two PCR-based systems were employed, AFLP and SRAP, which preferentially amplify ORFs. Principal coordinates analysis and cluster analysis using the UPGMA method clearly separate the accessions into the two subspecies through the use of both markers. However, the gene diversity and the genetic identity values among morphotypes and subspecies varied between the two marker systems. The information given by SRAP markers was more concordant to the morphological variability and to the evolutionary history of the morphotypes than that of AFLP markers. In ssp. ovifera, the accessions of the different morphotypes were basically grouped according to the fruit colour. This may indicate different times of development and also the extent of breeding in the accessions used. This study has allowed identification of new types that can be employed for the development of new cultivars. The landraces of the spp. ovifera, used as ornamental in Europe, have proved to be of great interest for preserving the diversity of C. pepo.

  11. Molecular Diversity and Population Structure of a Worldwide Collection of Cultivated Tetraploid Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) Germplasm as Revealed by Microsatellite Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Haiping; Chen, Zhihong; Zhang, Zhengli; Wang, Xuemin; Gao, Hongwen; Wang, Zan

    2015-01-01

    Information on genetic diversity and population structure of a tetraploid alfalfa collection might be valuable in effective use of the genetic resources. A set of 336 worldwide genotypes of tetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) was genotyped using 85 genome-wide distributed SSR markers to reveal the genetic diversity and population structure in the alfalfa. Genetic diversity analysis identified a total of 1056 alleles across 85 marker loci. The average expected heterozygosity and polymorphism information content values were 0.677 and 0.638, respectively, showing high levels of genetic diversity in the cultivated tetraploid alfalfa germplasm. Comparison of genetic characteristics across chromosomes indicated regions of chromosomes 2 and 3 had the highest genetic diversity. A higher genetic diversity was detected in alfalfa landraces than that of wild materials and cultivars. Two populations were identified by the model-based population structure, principal coordinate and neighbor-joining analyses, corresponding to China and other parts of the world. However, lack of strictly correlation between clustering and geographic origins suggested extensive germplasm exchanges of alfalfa germplasm across diverse geographic regions. The quantitative analysis of the genetic diversity and population structure in this study could be useful for genetic and genomic analysis and utilization of the genetic variation in alfalfa breeding.

  12. Molecular Diversity and Population Structure of a Worldwide Collection of Cultivated Tetraploid Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L. Germplasm as Revealed by Microsatellite Markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiping Qiang

    Full Text Available Information on genetic diversity and population structure of a tetraploid alfalfa collection might be valuable in effective use of the genetic resources. A set of 336 worldwide genotypes of tetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L. was genotyped using 85 genome-wide distributed SSR markers to reveal the genetic diversity and population structure in the alfalfa. Genetic diversity analysis identified a total of 1056 alleles across 85 marker loci. The average expected heterozygosity and polymorphism information content values were 0.677 and 0.638, respectively, showing high levels of genetic diversity in the cultivated tetraploid alfalfa germplasm. Comparison of genetic characteristics across chromosomes indicated regions of chromosomes 2 and 3 had the highest genetic diversity. A higher genetic diversity was detected in alfalfa landraces than that of wild materials and cultivars. Two populations were identified by the model-based population structure, principal coordinate and neighbor-joining analyses, corresponding to China and other parts of the world. However, lack of strictly correlation between clustering and geographic origins suggested extensive germplasm exchanges of alfalfa germplasm across diverse geographic regions. The quantitative analysis of the genetic diversity and population structure in this study could be useful for genetic and genomic analysis and utilization of the genetic variation in alfalfa breeding.

  13. Evaluation of Chinese and Kyrgyzstan grass germplasm collections for maintenance of green cover under limited irrigation in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important strategy to save irrigation water on turf is to develop cultivars with improved drought tolerance, especially in the arid and semi-arid North American West. In this region, maintenance of green cover during summer with reduced levels of irrigation is of paramount importance. Germplasm...

  14. Genetic Diversity Revealed by Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers in a Worldwide Germplasm Collection of Durum Wheat

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    Ming-Cheng Luo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of genetic diversity and genetic structure in crops has important implications for plant breeding programs and the conservation of genetic resources. Newly developed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers are effective in detecting genetic diversity. In the present study, a worldwide durum wheat collection consisting of 150 accessions was used. Genetic diversity and genetic structure were investigated using 946 polymorphic SNP markers covering the whole genome of tetraploid wheat. Genetic structure was greatly impacted by multiple factors, such as environmental conditions, breeding methods reflected by release periods of varieties, and gene flows via human activities. A loss of genetic diversity was observed from landraces and old cultivars to the modern cultivars released during periods of the Early Green Revolution, but an increase in cultivars released during the Post Green Revolution. Furthermore, a comparative analysis of genetic diversity among the 10 mega ecogeographical regions indicated that South America, North America, and Europe possessed the richest genetic variability, while the Middle East showed moderate levels of genetic diversity.

  15. Assessment of genetic diversity using RAPD analysis in a germplasm collection of sea buckthorn

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    G.I. BARTISH

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers were used to characterize a part of a sea buckthorn gene bank collected for plant breeding purposes. Molecular markers were generated in 55 cultivars and accessions, representing five subspecies of Hippophae rhamnoides L. and intraspecific hybrids between different subspecies. Sixty-three markers were used to generate a Dice's similarity coefficient matrix of pairwise comparisons between individual RAPD profiles. Cluster (UPGMA and principal co-ordinate analyses, based on this matrix, revealed clustering of plants into groups which generally correspond to their taxonomic classification or geographic origin. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA was found useful for estimating components of genetic variation between and within taxonomic and geographic groups of accessions and cultivars. Whereas both alternatives for grouping the material (taxonomic or geographic origin resulted in significant between-group variation, the major part of molecular variance (approximately 75% was still attributed to variation within groups. We conclude that the RAPD analysis is useful for clarification of taxonomic and geographic origin of accessions and cultivars of sea buckthorn.

  16. Genetic Diversity Revealed by Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers in a Worldwide Germplasm Collection of Durum Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jing; Sun, Daokun; Chen, Liang; You, Frank M.; Wang, Jirui; Peng, Yunliang; Nevo, Eviatar; Sun, Dongfa; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Peng, Junhua

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of genetic diversity and genetic structure in crops has important implications for plant breeding programs and the conservation of genetic resources. Newly developed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers are effective in detecting genetic diversity. In the present study, a worldwide durum wheat collection consisting of 150 accessions was used. Genetic diversity and genetic structure were investigated using 946 polymorphic SNP markers covering the whole genome of tetraploid wheat. Genetic structure was greatly impacted by multiple factors, such as environmental conditions, breeding methods reflected by release periods of varieties, and gene flows via human activities. A loss of genetic diversity was observed from landraces and old cultivars to the modern cultivars released during periods of the Early Green Revolution, but an increase in cultivars released during the Post Green Revolution. Furthermore, a comparative analysis of genetic diversity among the 10 mega ecogeographical regions indicated that South America, North America, and Europe possessed the richest genetic variability, while the Middle East showed moderate levels of genetic diversity. PMID:23538839

  17. Grain quality of drought tolerant accessions within the MRI Zemun Polje maize germplasm collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Vančetović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje (MRI gene bank created an elite drought tolerant core collection of 40 accessions, based on field trials and general combining ability with inbred lines from the main heterotic groups (Lancaster, Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic - BSSS and Iodent. A total of seven genetic groups were identified. Seven accessions showed good combining abilities with three testers from chosen heterotic groups, thus forming a dinstinctive genetic group (Unknown. In the present research, accessions with drought tolerance were also analyzed for grain quality, as these two traits are becoming highly important due to global warming and population growth. Kernel macronutrients contents (oil, protein and starch were determined using Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR. Oil, protein and starch contents were significantly higher in introduced populations than in landraces for 0.43%, 0.12% and 0.85%, respectively (p<0.01. The greatest progress from the selection based on the expected genetic gain (ΔG for 5% selection intensity would be obtained for oil (14.74% followed by protein (10.14%. Landraces showed the least potential for the grain quality improvement due to the lowest expected ΔG for the three macronutrients. The differences between macronutrient content among genetic groups defined them as potentially favourable sources for a specific trait. According to ΔG values, the greatest progress in breeding would be accomplished for increased oil content with accessions from the Unknown group. Identification of the accessions with several favorable traits is valuable for simultaneous breeding for drought tolerance and grain quality.

  18. Grain quality of drought tolerant accessions within the MRI Zemun Polje maize germplasm collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vancetovic, J.; Ignjatovic-Micic, D.; Bozinovic, S.; Babbic, M.; Filipovic, M.; Grcic, N.; Andjelkovic, V.

    2014-06-01

    Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje (MRI) gene bank created an elite drought tolerant core collection of 40 accessions, based on field trials and general combining ability with inbred lines from the main heterotic groups (Lancaster, Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic . BSSS and Iodent). A total of seven genetic groups were identified. Seven accessions showed good combining abilities with three testers from chosen heterotic groups, thus forming a distinctive genetic group (Unknown). In the present research, accessions with drought tolerance were also analyzed for grain quality, as these two traits are becoming highly important due to global warming and population growth. Kernel macronutrients contents (oil, protein and starch) were determined using Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR). Oil, protein and starch contents were significantly higher in introduced populations than in landraces for 0.43%, 0.12% and 0.85%, respectively (p < 0.01). The greatest progress from the selection based on the expected genetic gain ({Delta}G) for 5% selection intensity would be obtained for oil (14.74%) followed by protein (10.14%). Landraces showed the least potential for the grain quality improvement due to the lowest expected {Delta}G for the three macronutrients. The differences between macronutrient content among genetic groups defined them as potentially favourable sources for a specific trait. According to {Delta}G values, the greatest progress in breeding would be accomplished for increased oil content with accessions from the Unknown group. Identification of the accessions with several favorable traits is valuable for simultaneous breeding for drought tolerance and grain quality. (Author)

  19. Collective members in West European political parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez, José Manuel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the collective members of political parties. Collective members can be defined as organizations having both full self-government rights and entitlements to decision-making processes in the political parties in which they are embedded. This article proposes a basic descriptive typology of collective members that takes into consideration their sociopolitical nature (party political or functional and their pattern of articulation within the party in which they are embedded (whether they help to articulate the whole party structure or not. It also illustrates these subtypes by examining European organizations that meet (or are close to meeting the main defining characteristics of collective members. This examination is based on the analysis of all parties that attained at least 4% of the votes in the last national parliamentary elections in 10 European countries. The article concludes with an analysis of the determinants and prospects of this type of party structure.Este artículo estudia los miembros colectivos de los partidos políticos. Los miembros colectivos pueden ser definidos como organizaciones que poseen a la vez derechos de autogobierno plenos y derecho a participar en los procesos de toma decisiones en el partido político en el que están integrados. El artículo propone una tipología descriptiva de los miembros colectivos que tiene en cuenta su naturaleza sociopolítica (partidista o funcional y su patrón de articulación dentro del partido en el que están integrados (si ayudan o no a articular el conjunto de la estructura partidaria. Asimismo, el artículo ilustra estos subtipos a partir del examen de varias organizaciones políticas europeas que cumplen (o se acercan a cumplir las características definitorias de los miembros colectivos. Este análisis se basa en el examen de todas las organizaciones políticas que alcanzaron más de un 4% de los votos en las últimas elecciones parlamentarias de 10 pa

  20. Discovering the desirable alleles contributing to the lignocellulosic biomass traits in saccharum germplasm collections for energy cane improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, James [USDA ARS Sugarcane Field Station, Canal Point, FL (United States); Comstock, Jack C. [USDA ARS Sugarcane Field Station, Canal Point, FL (United States)

    2015-11-25

    of the cores and the World Collection are similar to each other genotypically and phenotypically, but the core that was selected using only genotypic data was significantly different phenotypically. This indicates that there is not enough association between the genotypic and phenotypic diversity as to select using only genotypic diversity and get the full phenotypic diversity. Core Collection: Creation and Phenotyping Methods: To evaluate this germplasm for breeding purposes, a representative diversity panel selected from the WCSRG of approximately 300 accessions was planted at Canal Point, FL in three replications. These accessions were measured for stalk height and stalk number multiple times throughout the growing season and Brix and fresh biomass during harvest in 2013 and, stalk height, stalk number, stalk diameter, internode length, Brix and fresh and dry biomass was determined in the ratoon crop harvest in 2014. Results: In correlations of multiple measurements, there were higher correlations for early measurements of stalk number and stalk height with harvest traits like Brix and fresh weight. Hybrids had higher fresh mass and Brix while Saccharum spontaneum had higher stalk number and dry mass. The heritability of hybrid mass traits was lower in the ratoon crop. According to the principal component analysis, the diversity panel was divided into two groups. One group had accessions with high stalk number and high dry biomass like S. spontaneum and the other groups contained accessions with higher Brix and fresh biomass like S. officinarum. Mass traits correlated with each other as expected but hybrids had lower correlations between fresh and dry mass. Stalk number and the mass traits correlated with each other except in S. spontaneum and hybrids in the first ratoon. There were 110 accessions not significantly different in Brix from the commercial sugarcane checks including 10 S. spontaneum accessions. There were 27 dry and 6 fresh mass accessions

  1. Nineteenth century French rose (Rosa sp.) germplasm shows a shift over time from a European to an Asian genetic background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liorzou, Mathilde; Pernet, Alix; Li, Shubin; Chastellier, Annie; Thouroude, Tatiana; Michel, Gilles; Malécot, Valéry; Gaillard, Sylvain; Briée, Céline; Foucher, Fabrice; Oghina-Pavie, Cristiana; Clotault, Jérémy; Grapin, Agnès

    2016-08-01

    Hybridization with introduced genetic resources is commonly practiced in ornamental plant breeding to introgress desired traits. The 19th century was a golden age for rose breeding in France. The objective here was to study the evolution of rose genetic diversity over this period, which included the introduction of Asian genotypes into Europe. A large sample of 1228 garden roses encompassing the conserved diversity cultivated during the 18th and 19th centuries was genotyped with 32 microsatellite primer pairs. Its genetic diversity and structure were clarified. Wide diversity structured in 16 genetic groups was observed. Genetic differentiation was detected between ancient European and Asian accessions, and a temporal shift from a European to an Asian genetic background was observed in cultivated European hybrids during the 19th century. Frequent crosses with Asian roses throughout the 19th century and/or selection for Asiatic traits may have induced this shift. In addition, the consistency of the results with respect to a horticultural classification is discussed. Some horticultural groups, defined according to phenotype and/or knowledge of their pedigree, seem to be genetically more consistent than others, highlighting the difficulty of classifying cultivated plants. Therefore, the horticultural classification is probably more appropriate for commercial purposes rather than genetic relatedness, especially to define preservation and breeding strategies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  2. A microsatellite diversity analysis and the development of core-set germplasm in a large hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qijun; Zeng, Xingquan; Lin, Bin; Li, Zeqing; Yuan, Hongjun; Wang, Yulin; Zhasang; Tashi, Nyima

    2017-12-06

    Clarifying genetic diversity in a large germplasm resource plays important roles in experimental designs that provides flexible utility in fundamental research and breeding in crops. However, the work is limited due to small collections of barley that are insufficient representatives. In the present study, we collected 562 hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) accessions with worldwide geographic origins and evaluated their genetic variability and relatedness based on 93 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. In an integrated analysis of the population structure, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and pairwise F ST, the 562 barley accessions exhibited a strong stratification that allowed for them to be divided into two major subpopulations (p1 and p2) and an admixture subpopulation, with 93, 408 and 61 accessions, respectively. In a neutral test, considerable proportions of SSR alleles expressed the strong non-neutrality in specific subpopulations (44 and 37), which are probably responsible for population differentiation. To reduce the diversity redundancy in large barley collections, we delicately selected a core set of 200 barley accessions as a tradeoff between diversity and representativeness in an easily handled population. In comparing the 562 barley accessions, the core barley set accounted for 96.2% of allelic diversity and 93% to 95% of phenotypic variability, whereas it exhibited a significant enhancement in minor allelic frequencies, which probably benefit association mapping in the barley core set. The results provided additional insight into the genetic structure in a large barley germplasm resource, from which an easily manageable barley core set was identified, demonstrating the great potential for discovering key QTLs and ultimately facilitating barley breeding progress.

  3. Genetic structure and core collection of the World Olive Germplasm Bank of Marrakech: towards the optimised management and use of Mediterranean olive genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haouane, Hicham; El Bakkali, Ahmed; Moukhli, Abdelmajid; Tollon, Christine; Santoni, Sylvain; Oukabli, Ahmed; El Modafar, Cherkaoui; Khadari, Bouchaib

    2011-09-01

    The conservation of cultivated plants in ex-situ collections is essential for the optimal management and use of their genetic resources. For the olive tree, two world germplasm banks (OWGB) are presently established, in Córdoba (Spain) and Marrakech (Morocco). This latter was recently founded and includes 561 accessions from 14 Mediterranean countries. Using 12 nuclear microsatellites (SSRs) and three chloroplast DNA markers, this collection was characterised to examine the structure of the genetic diversity and propose a set of olive accessions encompassing the whole Mediterranean allelic diversity range. We identified 505 SSR profiles based on a total of 210 alleles. Based on these markers, the genetic diversity was similar to that of cultivars and wild olives which were previously characterised in another study indicating that OWGB Marrakech is representative of Mediterranean olive germplasm. Using a model-based Bayesian clustering method and principal components analysis, this OWGB was structured into three main gene pools corresponding to eastern, central and western parts of the Mediterranean Basin. We proposed 10 cores of 67 accessions capturing all detected alleles and 10 cores of 58 accessions capturing the 186 alleles observed more than once. In each of the 10 cores, a set of 40 accessions was identical, whereas the remaining accessions were different, indicating the need to include complementary criteria such as phenotypic adaptive and agronomic traits. Our study generated a molecular database for the entire OWGB Marrakech that may be used to optimise a strategy for the management of olive genetic resources and their use for subsequent genetic and genomic olive breeding. © The Author(s) 2011. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com

  4. Structural and temporal variation in the genetic diversity of a European collection of spring two-row barley cultivars and utility for association mapping of quantitative traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tondelli, Alessandro; Xu, Xin; Moragues, Marc

    2013-01-01

    nucleotide polymorphism markers and corresponding field trial trait data relating to growth and straw strength were obtained at multiple European sites. Analysis of the marker data by statistical population genetics approaches revealed two important trends in the genetic diversity of European two-row spring...... the traits investigated, some of which co-map with selected regions. Collectively, these data show that the genetic makeup of European two-row spring barley is evolving under breeder selection, with signs of extinction of diversity in some genomic regions, suggesting that “breeding the best with the best......” is leading towards fixation of some breeder targets. Nevertheless, modern germplasm also retains many regions of high diversity, suggesting that site-specific genetic approaches for allele identification and crop improvement such as association genetics are likely to be successful....

  5. Genetic diversity and population structure assessed by SSR and SNP markers in a large germplasm collection of grape

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emanuelli, Francesco; Lorenzi, Silvia; Grzeskowiak, Lukasz; Catalano, Valentina; Stefanini, Marco; Troggio, Michela; Myles, Sean; Martinez-Zapater, José M; Zyprian, Eva; Moreira, Flavia M; Grando, M Stella

    2013-01-01

    ... on genetic diversity, population structure and proper phenotypic assessment. The identification of representative and manageable subset of accessions would facilitate access to the diversity available in large collections...

  6. Cryopreservation of in vitro shoot tips of strawberry by the vitrification method - establishment of a duplicate collection of Fragaria germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfer, Monika

    2016-01-01

    The National German Strawberry Genebank, which includes 183 cultivars and 270 accessions of wild Fragaria species, is maintained in a field collection of the Fruit Genebank at Dresden-Pillnitz. A duplicate collection stored in liquid nitrogen would provide a higher level of security for these irreplaceable genetic resources. Four distinct cryopreservation protocols were tested earlier and the best method, a PVS2 vitrification method with a 14-day alternating-temperature cold acclimation, was modified for further genotype screening. A comprehensive genotype spectrum was tested by screening 107 Fragaria ×ananassa cultivars and 20 Fragaria wild species (51 accessions). The average recovery for the cultivars using the optimized medium was 89.55 % and for the wild species 85.50 %. These results indicate that the method could be used to establish a backup collection in liquid nitrogen. Meristem cultures will be established and the collection will be cryopreserved using this vitrification technique to provide cost effective long-term storage.

  7. Identification of a Simple Sequence Repeat molecular-marker set for large-scale analyses of pear germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Dequigiovanni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR are molecular markers suitable to assess the genetic variation of germplasm resources; however, large-scale SSR use requires protocol optimization. The present work aimed to identify SSR markers, developed for pear and other fruit species that are effective in characterizing pear germplasm collections and in demonstrating their use in providing support for genetic breeding programs. From a total of 62 SSR markers investigated, 23 yielding reproducible and polymorphic patterns were used to genotype a sample of 42 pear accessions of the Brazilian Pear Germplasm Bank (PGB. When compared to these 23 SSR markers, a subset of eleven markers, selected based on He, PIC and PId, was used to distinguish individual accessions and perform cluster analysis with similar efficacy. Genetic diversity analysis clustered the European, Japanese and Chinese accessions in distinct groups. This markers subset constitutes a valuable tool for several applications related to pear genetic resources management and breeding.

  8. Genetic and Phytochemical Analysis to Evaluate the Diversity and Relationships of Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) Elite Genetic Resources in a Germplasm Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Juliana Cristhina; Gonela, Adriana; Gonçalves Vidigal, Maria Celeste; Vidigal Filho, Pedro Soares; Sturion, José Alfredo; Cardozo Junior, Euclides Lara

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytochemical and genetic diversity, relationships and identification of mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) elite genetic resources belonging to the Brazilian germplasm collection and mate breeding program. Mate has been studied due to the presence of phytochemical compounds, especially methylxanthines and phenolic compounds. The samples were collected from the leaves of 76 mate elite genetic resources (16 progenies × 5 localities). Total DNA was extracted from mate leaves and 20 random primers were used for DNA amplification. Methylxanthines (caffeine and theobromine) and phenolic compounds (chlorogenic, neochlorogenic, and criptochlorogenic acids) were quantified by HPLC. The genetic divergence estimated was higher within (92%) than among (8%) the different populations. Analysis of genetic distance between origins provided the formation of two groups by UPGMA cluster analysis, with higher polymorphism (94.9%). The average content of caffeine ranged from 0.01 to 1.38% and theobromine of 0.10 - 0.85% (w/w). The caffeoylquinic acids concentrations (1.43 - 5.38%) showed a gradient 3-CQA > 5-CQA > 4-CQA. The coefficient of genetic variation (CVg) was of low magnitude for all mono-caffeoylquinics acids. Significant correlations (positive and negative) were observed between the phytochemical compounds. Genetic diversity analysis performed by RAPD markers showed a greater intra-populational diversity; genetic resources with low caffeine and higher theobromine content were identified and can be used in breeding programs; the correlation between methylxanthines and phenolic compounds can be used as a good predictor in future studies. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  9. Molecular and cytological characterization of the global Musa germplasm collection provides insights into the treasure of banana diversity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Christelová, Pavla; De Langhe, E.; Hřibová, Eva; Čížková, Jana; Sardos, J.; Hušáková, Markéta; Van den Houwe, I.; Sutanto, A.; Kepler, A.K.; Swennen, R.; Roux, N.; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2017), s. 801-824 ISSN 0960-3115 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA MŠk(CZ) LG12021; GA MŠk LG15017 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : genetic-linkage map * aab group * balbisiana colla * acuminata colla * black sigatoka * population-structure * marker analysis * flow-cytometry * plantain musa * aflp markers * Classification * Gene bank * Genetic diversity * ITC collection * Microsatellites * Musa Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.265, year: 2016

  10. A comparative analysis of genetic diversity in Portuguese grape germplasm from ampelographic collections fit for quality wine production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, I.; Pinto-Carnide, I.; Ortiz, J.M.; Ferreira, V.; Martín, J.P.

    2016-07-01

    Grapevine cultivars diversity is vast and full of synonyms and homonyms. Up to few decades ago characterization of grapevine was based on morphological characters. In the last decades, molecular markers were developed and have been used as tools to study genetic diversity in a range of different plant species. Fifty-six Portuguese accessions representative of ‘Vinhos Verdes’ and ‘Douro’ Controlled Designations of Origin (DOC) were analysed through DNA fingerprints generated by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR). The study aimed to compare the effectiveness of RAPD and ISSR molecular techniques in the detection of synonyms, homonyms and misnames. RAPD and ISSR analysis enabled the detection of 36 different band patterns, reducing in about 36% the initial material. Several accessions grown under different names, between and within collections, were confirmed as the same genotype, namely Gouveio/Verdelho, Sousão Douro/Vinhão and Arinto Oeste/Pedernã. Similarly, some homonyms/misnames were also identified, namely within Azal Tinto and Rabigato accessions. RAPD and ISSR markers revealed to be adequate molecular techniques for grapevine varieties fingerprinting with advantages over other molecular procedures, contributing for a good management of grapevine collections.

  11. An Information System for European culture collections: the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaregola, Serge; Vasilenko, Alexander; Romano, Paolo; Robert, Vincent; Ozerskaya, Svetlana; Kopf, Anna; Glöckner, Frank O; Smith, David

    2016-01-01

    Culture collections contain indispensable information about the microorganisms preserved in their repositories, such as taxonomical descriptions, origins, physiological and biochemical characteristics, bibliographic references, etc. However, information currently accessible in databases rarely adheres to common standard protocols. The resultant heterogeneity between culture collections, in terms of both content and format, notably hampers microorganism-based research and development (R&D). The optimized exploitation of these resources thus requires standardized, and simplified, access to the associated information. To this end, and in the interest of supporting R&D in the fields of agriculture, health and biotechnology, a pan-European distributed research infrastructure, MIRRI, including over 40 public culture collections and research institutes from 19 European countries, was established. A prime objective of MIRRI is to unite and provide universal access to the fragmented, and untapped, resources, information and expertise available in European public collections of microorganisms; a key component of which is to develop a dynamic Information System. For the first time, both culture collection curators as well as their users have been consulted and their feedback, concerning the needs and requirements for collection databases and data accessibility, utilised. Users primarily noted that databases were not interoperable, thus rendering a global search of multiple databases impossible. Unreliable or out-of-date and, in particular, non-homogenous, taxonomic information was also considered to be a major obstacle to searching microbial data efficiently. Moreover, complex searches are rarely possible in online databases thus limiting the extent of search queries. Curators also consider that overall harmonization-including Standard Operating Procedures, data structure, and software tools-is necessary to facilitate their work and to make high-quality data easily accessible

  12. Self-(in)compatibility genotypes of Moroccan apricots indicate differences and similarities in the crop history of European and North African apricot germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodad, Ossama; Hegedűs, Attila; Socias i Company, Rafel; Halász, Júlia

    2013-12-01

    Allelic diversity of the S-locus is attributed to the genetic relationships among genotypes and sexual reproduction strategy. In otherwise self-incompatible Prunus species, the emergence of loss-of-function in S-haplotypes has resulted in self-compatibility. This information may allow following major stages of crop history. The genetic diversity in the S-locus of local apricots (Prunus armeniaca L.) from different oasis ecosystems in Morocco and the comparison of the occurrence and frequency of S-alleles with other regions may allow testing the validity of previous theories on the origin and dissemination of North African apricots. The S-genotypes of 55 Moroccan apricot accessions were determined, resulting in 37 self-compatible genotypes, from which 33 were homozygotes for self-compatibility. SC was the most frequent S-allele in this germplasm, followed by S13, S7, S11, S2, S20, S8, and S6. New approaches (CAPS or allele-specific PCR) were designed for a reliable verification of the rare or unexpected alleles. The frequency and distribution of the S-alleles differed among the oases. Some of these alleles, S8, S11, S13 and S20, were formerly detected only in the Irano Caucasian germplasm and are not present in Europe. Our data supports the Irano-Caucasian origin of the Moroccan apricots and their original introduction by Phoenicians and Arabs through the North African shore. North Africa seems to have preserved much higher variability of apricot as compared with Europe. The loss of genetic diversity in apricot might be explained by the occurrence of self-compatibility and the length of time that apricot has spent with this breeding system in an environment without its wild relatives, such as the Moroccan oases or Central Europe.

  13. Selection of a Representative Core Collection from the Chilean Common Bean Germplasm Selección de una Colección Núcleo Representativa del Germoplasma Chileno de Porotos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Paredes C

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Race Chile is an important component of the genetic structure of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The germplasm bank of the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA contains 1200 accessions distributed mainly into two Active Working Germplasm Banks at INIA La Platina (Santiago and at INIA Quilamapu (Chillán and also the Germplasm Base Bank at INIA Intihuasi (La Serena. The Chilean collection possesses accessions collected throughout the country. One way to study and use the germplasm stored at the Seed Banks is the formation of a core collection. The objectives of this work were: a To establish a common bean core collection with the germplasm collected throughout the country, and b to evaluate its representatives based on phenotypic data and to compare with data from the whole collection. The results indicated that the Chilean base collection contained accessions belonging to the Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools and to genotypes belong to race Chile, Perú, Nueva Granada, Mesoamérica and Durango. The Chilean bean core collection consisted of 246 accessions. Comparison for several phenotypic traits data from 246 accessions from the whole and core collection indicated the genetic variation expressed for each trait in the whole collection was quite well represented in the core collection. This core collection will be very useful for further phenotypic and genetic characterization and to select accessions for the bean breeding program.La raza Chile es un componente importante de la estructura genética del germoplasma del poroto común (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. El Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias , INIA, posee alrededor de 1200 accesiones almacenadas en los Bancos activos de Germoplasma en INIA La Platina (Santiago e INIA Quilamapu (Chillán y Banco Base en INIA Intihuasi (La Serena. Esta colección está formada por accesiones colectadas a través de todo el país. La formación de una colección núcleo se ha planteado

  14. MALE FERTILITY IN UGANDA BANANA GERMPLASM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification of fertility levels in banana germplasm collection al Kabanyolo, Uganda, was conducted by dehiscing the anthers using a glass rod. ... Must East African highland banana cultivars were found to have more pollen titan lite receutly introduced banane ..... pseudostem and leaves. Close similarity of. inflorescence ...

  15. Evidence for Introduction Bottleneck and Extensive Inter-Gene Pool (Mesoamerica x Andes) Hybridization in the European Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, Tania; Logozzo, Giuseppina; Attene, Giovanna; Bellucci, Elisa; Benedettelli, Stefano; Negri, Valeria; Papa, Roberto; Spagnoletti Zeuli, Pierluigi

    2013-01-01

    Common bean diversity within and between Mesoamerican and Andean gene pools was compared in 89 landraces from America and 256 landraces from Europe, to elucidate the effects of bottleneck of introduction and selection for adaptation during the expansion of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Europe. Thirteen highly polymorphic nuclear microsatellite markers (nuSSRs) were used to complement chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSRs) and nuclear markers (phaseolin and Pv-shatterproof1) data from previous studies. To verify the extent of the introduction bottleneck, inter-gene pool hybrids were distinguished from “pure” accessions. Hybrids were identified on the basis of recombination of gene pool specific cpSSR, phaseolin and Pv-shatterproof1 markers with a Bayesian assignments based on nuSSRs, and with STRUCTURE admixture analysis. More hybrids were detected than previously, and their frequency was almost four times larger in Europe (40.2%) than in America (12.3%). The genetic bottleneck following the introduction into Europe was not evidenced in the analysis including all the accessions, but it was significant when estimated only with “pure” accessions, and five times larger for Mesoamerican than for Andean germplasm. The extensive inter-gene pool hybridization generated a large amount of genotypic diversity that mitigated the effects of the bottleneck that occurred when common bean was introduced in Europe. The implication for evolution and the advantages for common bean breeding are discussed. PMID:24098412

  16. Evidence for introduction bottleneck and extensive inter-gene pool (Mesoamerica x Andes hybridization in the European common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. germplasm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Gioia

    Full Text Available Common bean diversity within and between Mesoamerican and Andean gene pools was compared in 89 landraces from America and 256 landraces from Europe, to elucidate the effects of bottleneck of introduction and selection for adaptation during the expansion of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in Europe. Thirteen highly polymorphic nuclear microsatellite markers (nuSSRs were used to complement chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSRs and nuclear markers (phaseolin and Pv-shatterproof1 data from previous studies. To verify the extent of the introduction bottleneck, inter-gene pool hybrids were distinguished from "pure" accessions. Hybrids were identified on the basis of recombination of gene pool specific cpSSR, phaseolin and Pv-shatterproof1 markers with a Bayesian assignments based on nuSSRs, and with STRUCTURE admixture analysis. More hybrids were detected than previously, and their frequency was almost four times larger in Europe (40.2% than in America (12.3%. The genetic bottleneck following the introduction into Europe was not evidenced in the analysis including all the accessions, but it was significant when estimated only with "pure" accessions, and five times larger for Mesoamerican than for Andean germplasm. The extensive inter-gene pool hybridization generated a large amount of genotypic diversity that mitigated the effects of the bottleneck that occurred when common bean was introduced in Europe. The implication for evolution and the advantages for common bean breeding are discussed.

  17. Evidence for introduction bottleneck and extensive inter-gene pool (Mesoamerica x Andes) hybridization in the European common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, Tania; Logozzo, Giuseppina; Attene, Giovanna; Bellucci, Elisa; Benedettelli, Stefano; Negri, Valeria; Papa, Roberto; Spagnoletti Zeuli, Pierluigi

    2013-01-01

    Common bean diversity within and between Mesoamerican and Andean gene pools was compared in 89 landraces from America and 256 landraces from Europe, to elucidate the effects of bottleneck of introduction and selection for adaptation during the expansion of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Europe. Thirteen highly polymorphic nuclear microsatellite markers (nuSSRs) were used to complement chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSRs) and nuclear markers (phaseolin and Pv-shatterproof1) data from previous studies. To verify the extent of the introduction bottleneck, inter-gene pool hybrids were distinguished from "pure" accessions. Hybrids were identified on the basis of recombination of gene pool specific cpSSR, phaseolin and Pv-shatterproof1 markers with a Bayesian assignments based on nuSSRs, and with STRUCTURE admixture analysis. More hybrids were detected than previously, and their frequency was almost four times larger in Europe (40.2%) than in America (12.3%). The genetic bottleneck following the introduction into Europe was not evidenced in the analysis including all the accessions, but it was significant when estimated only with "pure" accessions, and five times larger for Mesoamerican than for Andean germplasm. The extensive inter-gene pool hybridization generated a large amount of genotypic diversity that mitigated the effects of the bottleneck that occurred when common bean was introduced in Europe. The implication for evolution and the advantages for common bean breeding are discussed.

  18. (Gossypium barbadense) germplasm resources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    QI MA

    Abstract. Identification of molecular markers associated with fibre traits can accelerate cotton marker-assisted selection (MAS) programmes. In this study, Gossypium barbadense germplasm accessions with diverse origins (n = 123) were used to perform association analysis of fibre traits with 120 polymorphic simple ...

  19. [Identification of disease resistance to Ustilago coicis in southern Coix germplasm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ge; Peng, Janming; Gao, Weiwei; Li, Rongying; Zhao, Junling; Wang, Zhian

    2010-11-01

    To identified the resistance of Coix to Ustilago coicis and screen the high disease-resistance Coix germplasm. Field and laboratory biochemical methods were used for the resistance identification. Ninteen germplasms collected from 7 provinces in southern of China such as Yunnan, Zhejiang, Fujian etc. were inoculated with chlamydospore of U. coicis, respectively. The incidence of a disease in field was investigated and the level of resistance was evaluated. The PAL activity dynamic changes in different level resistant germplasms were further determined. The result of field test showed 1 germplasm was immune, 1 germplasm was high resistance which incidence rate was under 20%, 6 germplasms were moderate resistance with the average incidence rates ranged within 20% - 40%, 11 of 19 germplasms that average incidence rates above 40% were identified as sensitive resistance. The value of PLA activity peak of resistant germplasm in seedling was significant higher and appeared earlier than that of the sensitive ones after inoculating. Most collected C. lacryma-jobi germplasms are sensitive to smut in our investigation; the PAL activity may play important role in Coix germplasm for resistance to smut and the biochemical method may be as an aiding method to resistance identification of Coix germplasm.

  20. The tropical germplasm repository program at the USDA-ARS, Tropical Agriculture Research Station, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station is the only research entity within the National Plant Germplasm system in the insular Caribbean region. It houses germplasm collections of cultivated tropical/subtropical germplasm of bananas/plantains, cacao, mamey sapote, sapodilla, Spanish lime,...

  1. Collective European Security Forces: An Idea Whose Time Has Come

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    hand. Having examined these factors, this study will then turn to alternative security concepts for ’ estructuring military forces. Basically three...much of the European contribution is in the form of hidden costs for which they do not receive much credit. The problem facing the Western European...perception by all nations that the burdens of common defense as well as its benefits are shared equitably.’ Though views on the value and cost of certain

  2. Physiological and molecular characterization of lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) germplasm with improved seedling freezing tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted greenhouse experiments to compare 14 alfalfa germplasms for their survival following freezing. Among these germplasms are collections adapted to the Grand River National Grasslands in South Dakota. Our hypothesis was that these collections developed tolerance to survive the frigid gro...

  3. Ploidy level of the banana (Musa spp.) accessions at the germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deborah Karamura

    2016-08-03

    Aug 3, 2016 ... Banana Germplasm Collection serves as a source of useful genes for banana breeding. However, insufficient ... banana accessions in the ex situ germplasm collection centre for the East and Central Africa, located in. Mbarara, Uganda. ... tissue culture as they are affected by ploidy (Suman et al., 2012).

  4. Sterol composition of virgin olive oil of forty-three olive cultivars from the World Collection Olive Germplasm Bank of Cordoba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyçyk, Onejda; Aguilera, Maria Paz; Gaforio, José Juan; Jiménez, Antonio; Beltrán, Gabriel

    2016-09-01

    In olive oil, sterols constitute the majority of the unsaponifiable fraction. In recent years there has been increased interest in the sterols of olive oil for their health benefits and their importance to virgin olive oil (VOO) quality regulation. Forty-three olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars from the World Olive Germplasm Bank, IFAPA Centro 'Alameda de Obispo', Cordoba, Spain were studied for their oil sterol composition and total content. The main sterols found in olive oil were β-sitosterol, Δ(5) -avenasterol, campesterol and stigmasterol, most of them showing high variability. Most cultivars showed total sterol contents within the limits established by EU regulations, although 28% of VOOs analysed were outside the limits established for total content and/or for individual sterols. Over the group of cultivars, total sterol contents ranged from 855 to 2185 mg kg(-1) . The high variability observed was due to the genetic component, since other agronomic and technological factors were similar. Because of the high variability, the sterol fraction can be considered as a useful tool to characterize and discriminate monovarietal VOOs. The results can be useful for nutritionists for VOO inclusion in nutrition studies. Furthermore, the variability observed can be applied in olive breeding projects to select the parents of new olive cultivars with an improved sterol fraction. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Visualising Cultures: The "European Picture Book Collection" Moves "Down Under"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Penni; Daly, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The potential for picture books in national collections to act as mirrors reflecting the reader's cultural identity, is widely accepted. This paper shows that the books in a New Zealand Picture Book Collection can also become windows into unfamiliar worlds for non-New Zealand readers, giving them the opportunity to learn more about a context in…

  6. Recent European Challenges and the Danish Collective Agreement Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Trine Pernille; Navrbjerg, Steen Erik

    are related to the new forms of cross-border collaboration and negotiations taking place within multi-national corporations (MNC's). This research paper examines a series of challenges facing the collective bargaining systems in Denmark, Estonia, Northern Ireland and Sweden. These countries represent four...

  7. Phenotypic diversity among peach and nectarine (Prunus persica L.) fruit in the national prunus collection at the USDA-ARS, National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The diversity and relationships of fruit quality traits peach and nectarine (Prunus persica L.) in the National Prunus collection were studied using comprehensive phenotyping methods. The collection was re-propagated in 2013 and planted in 2014 providing a unique opportunity to evaluate an even-aged...

  8. Phenotypic diversity in the Ethiopian noug germplasm | Genet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the characters studied and small collections evaluated, the centres of diversity for noug appears to be in Gojjam, Welega and Shewa, and further exploration efforts should be undertaken in these regions. Key Words: Diversity index, genetic diversity, germplasm, Guizotia abyssinica Cass., oilseed (African Crop ...

  9. Yield potential of non-irrigated sugarcane germplasm accessions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... strict upland condition. Data obtained from a replicated field trial involving 30 exotic and 18 local sugarcane germplasm collections at the University of Ilorin Sugar Research Institute (USRI), were used to assess their yielding potential under non- irrigated condition. The objective was to determine their suitability as parents ...

  10. Fingerprinting soybean germplasm and its utility in genomic research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The annual accessions in the United States Department of Agriculture, Soybean Germplasm Collection including 18,480 domesticated and 1,168 wild soybeans introduced from 84 countries or developed in the U.S. were genotyped with the SoySNP50K BeadChip containing >50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SN...

  11. Can the exceptional chilling tolerance of C4 photosynthesis found in Miscanthus × giganteus be exceeded? Screening of a novel Miscanthus Japanese germplasm collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głowacka, Katarzyna; Jørgensen, Uffe; Kjeldsen, Jens B; Kørup, Kirsten; Spitz, Idan; Sacks, Erik J; Long, Stephen P

    2015-05-01

    A clone of the hybrid perennial C4 grass Miscanthus × giganteus (Mxg) is known for achieving exceptionally high rates of leaf CO2 uptake during chilling. This is a requisite of success in the early spring, as is the ability of the leaves to survive occasional frosts. The aim of this study was to search for genotypes with greater potential than Mxg for photosynthesis and frost survival under these conditions. A total of 864 accessions representing 164 local populations of M. sacchariflorus (Msa), M. sinensis (Msi) and M. tinctorius (Mti) collected across Japan were studied. Accessions whose leaves survived a natural late frost in the field were screened for high maximum photosystem II efficiency (Fv/Fm) following chilling weather, as an indicator of their capacity for light-limited photosynthesis. Those showing the highest Fv/Fm were transferred to a high-light-controlled environment and maintained at chilling temperatures, where they were further screened for their capacities for high-light-limited and light-saturated leaf uptake of CO2 (ΦCO2,max and Asat, respectively). For the first time, relatives of Mxg with significantly superior capacities for photosynthesis at chilling temperatures were identified. Msa accession '73/2' developed leaves in the spring that survived night-time frost, and during growth under chilling maintained a statistically significant 79 % higher ΦCO2,max, as a measure of light-limited photosynthesis, and a 70 % higher Asat, as a measure of light-saturated photosynthesis. A second Msa accession, '73/3' also showed significantly higher rates of leaf uptake of CO2. As remarkable as Mxg has proved in its chilling tolerance of C4 photosynthesis, this study shows that there is still value and potential in searching for yet more superior tolerance. Msa accession '73/2' shows rates of light-limited and light-saturated photosynthesis at chilling temperatures that are comparable with those of the most cold-tolerant C3 species. This adds

  12. Genetic diversity of Cuban pineapple germplasm assessed by AFLP Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermis Yanes Paz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cuban pineapple germplasm collection represents the genetic diversity of pineapple cultivated in that country and includes other important genotypes obtained from the germplasm collections in Brazil and Martinique. The collection has previously been characterized with morphological descriptors but a molecular characterization has been lacking. With this aim, 56 six genotypes of A. comosus and one of Bromelia pinguin were analyzed with a total of 191 AFLP markers. A dendrogram that represents the genetic relationships between these samples based on the AFLP results showed a low level of diversity in the Cuban pineapple collection. All Ananas comosus accessions, being the majority obtained from farmers in different regions in Cuba, are grouped at distances lower than 0.20. Molecular characterization was in line with morphological characterization. These results are useful for breeding and conservation purposes.

  13. Estimating the soil organic carbon content for European NUTS2 regions based on LUCAS data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagos, Panos; Ballabio, Cristiano; Yigini, Yusuf; Dunbar, Martha B

    2013-01-01

    Under the European Union Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection, the European Commission Directorate-General for the Environment and the European Environmental Agency (EEA) identified a decline in soil organic carbon and soil losses by erosion as priorities for the collection of policy relevant soil data at European scale. Moreover, the estimation of soil organic carbon content is of crucial importance for soil protection and for climate change mitigation strategies. Soil organic carbon is one of the attributes of the recently developed LUCAS soil database. The request for data on soil organic carbon and other soil attributes arose from an on-going debate about efforts to establish harmonized datasets for all EU countries with data on soil threats in order to support modeling activities and display variations in these soil conditions across Europe. In 2009, the European Commission's Joint Research Centre conducted the LUCAS soil survey, sampling ca. 20,000 points across 23 EU member states. This article describes the results obtained from analyzing the soil organic carbon data in the LUCAS soil database. The collected data were compared with the modeled European topsoil organic carbon content data developed at the JRC. The best fitted comparison was performed at NUTS2 level and showed underestimation of modeled data in southern Europe and overestimation in the new central eastern member states. There is a good correlation in certain regions for countries such as the United Kingdom, Slovenia, Italy, Ireland, and France. Here we assess the feasibility of producing comparable estimates of the soil organic carbon content at NUTS2 regional level for the European Union (EU27) and draw a comparison with existing modeled data. In addition to the data analysis, we suggest how the modeled data can be improved in future updates with better calibration of the model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Barley germplasm conservation and resources. Chapter 7 in barley: improvement, production, and uses. Blackwell Publishing, ED.S.E. Ullrich

    Science.gov (United States)

    The history and current status of barley germplasm preservation activities is presented on a global scale and specifically for the United States. Total of barley germplasm holdings at 47 major barley collections (those with more than 500 accessions) worldwide is approximately 402,000 accessions. I...

  15. Genome-wide association study and genetic diversity analysis on nitrogen use efficiency in a Central European winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. collection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Monostori

    Full Text Available To satisfy future demands, the increase of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. yield is inevitable. Simultaneously, maintaining high crop productivity and efficient use of nutrients, especially nitrogen use efficiency (NUE, are essential for sustainable agriculture. NUE and its components are inherently complex and highly influenced by environmental factors, nitrogen management practices and genotypic variation. Therefore, a better understanding of their genetic basis and regulation is fundamental. To investigate NUE-related traits and their genetic and environmental regulation, field trials were evaluated in a Central European wheat collection of 93 cultivars at two nitrogen input levels across three seasons. This elite germplasm collection was genotyped on DArTseq® genotypic platform to identify loci affecting N-related complex agronomic traits. To conduct robust genome-wide association mapping, the genetic diversity, population structure and linkage disequilibrium were examined. Population structure was investigated by various methods and two subpopulations were identified. Their separation is based on the breeding history of the cultivars, while analysis of linkage disequilibrium suggested that selective pressures had acted on genomic regions bearing loci with remarkable agronomic importance. Besides NUE, genetic basis for variation in agronomic traits indirectly affecting NUE and its components, moreover genetic loci underlying response to nitrogen fertilisation were also determined. Altogether, 183 marker-trait associations (MTA were identified spreading over almost the entire genome. We found that most of the MTAs were environmental-dependent. The present study identified several associated markers in those genomic regions where previous reports had found genes or quantitative trait loci influencing the same traits, while most of the MTAs revealed new genomic regions. Our data provides an overview of the allele composition of bread wheat

  16. Collective dose to the European Community from nuclear industry effluents discharge in 1978

    CERN Document Server

    Camplin, W C

    1983-01-01

    The results are presented of a study to evaluate the collective dose commitment to the population of the European Community from effluents released by the nuclear industry within the EC in 1978. Airborne and liquid effluent discharge data have been taken from published sources, and computer modelling techniques have been used to predict the transfer of radioactivity through the environment to man. The collective dose commitments due to discharges from each nuclear installation have been evaluated and the comparative significance of individual radionuclides and their pathways to man have been considered. Airborne releases resulted in an estimated collective effective dose equivalent commitment of 95 man Sv, the major part of which is due to carbon-14 from both power stations and reprocessing plants. The collective effective dose equivalent commitment from liquid effluents is estimated to be 408 man Sv, mostly due to caesium-137 and other radionuclides from the Sellafield (formerly Windscale) reprocessing plant...

  17. Comparative Study of the Local Collectivity in the European Administrative Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Georgeta ALEXANDRU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine the need of an unitary research on the local collectivity issue with the objective of highlightening the necesity for standardization and adjustment to social and economic realities inside the european administrative space. The paper will be structured into three parts so that the study will begin to clarify the notion of competece, then determining the place and role of local communities-we will identify common features and criteria for their differentiation.Given this objective we propose to realise a comparative study of local collectivities skills in Europe, to identify their relationship with the State. The conducted research continues others concerning the timeliness of this research in the theoretical plan, therefore the following are necesary: establishing the place and role, definition and identification of its legal nature, emphasizing key features of the functions and criteria in relation with the State. The work may be useful to the Romanian authorities involved in the enforcement of local collectivities in the context of decentralization. The results and the essential contribution of the work, its originality, consist of the general examination of the categories of local collectivities elected for representation and the diversity of european experiences, regarding the local administrative device -organizatoric forms, in federal states, decentralized unitary states and unitary states partial or non-centralized.

  18. Occurrence of perfluorinated alkylated substances in cereals, salt, sweets and fruit items collected in four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Hollander, W.; Herzke, D.; Huber, S.; Hajslova, J.; Pulkrabova, J.; Brambilla, G.; De Filippis, S.P.; Bervoets, L.; de Voogt, P.

    2015-01-01

    In the context of a European project, 12 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were determined in 14 food items collected in four European countries representing northern, southern, eastern and western Europe. This study presents the results of PFAAs measured in fruit, cereals, sweets and salt. Out of the 12

  19. Ex situ conservation of plant germplasm using biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, V M; Engelmann, F

    1995-07-01

    Conservation of plant genetic resources attracts more and more public interest as the only way to guarantee adequate food supplies for future human generations. However, the conservation and subsequent use of such resources are complicated by cultural, economical, technical and political issues. Over the last 30 years, there have been significant increases in the number of plant collections and in accessions in ex situ storage centres throughout the World. The present review is of these ex situ collections and the contribution biotechnology has made and can make to conservation of plant germplasm. The applications and limitations of the new, molecular approaches to germplasm characterization are discussed. In vitro slow growth is used routinely for conserving germplasm of plants such as banana, plantain, cassava and potato. More recently, cryopreservation procedures have become more accessible for long-term storage. New cryopreservation techniques, such as encapsulation-dehydration, vitrification and desiccation, lengthen the list of plant species that can not only tolerate low temperatures but also give normal growth on recovery. Extensive research is still needed if these techniques are to be fully exploited.

  20. Empowerment through participation? Collective mobilization and transnational women's movements as actors in the European sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    The notions of wellbeing and empowerment are, in their political participation dimension, interlinked with civil society activism and collective mobilisation. Usually these ideas are discussed in relation to either the national or the global level, but they are relevant as well to the emerging...... and how the organisations are structured as well as the European institutional set-up surrounding their actions, thereby restraining or enhancing their opportunities of participation. The paper, thus, addresses both the possibilities of access and generation of wellbeing and argues that political...... participation as wellbeing and empowerment is both a matter of representation and recognition....

  1. Optimising waste from electric and electronic equipment collection systems: a comparison of approaches in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning; Oberdörfer, Michael; Günther, Marko

    2015-03-01

    The first European waste from electric and electronic equipment directive obliged the Member States to collect 4 kg of used devices per inhabitant and year. The target of the amended directive focuses on the ratio between the amount of waste from electric and electronic equipment collected and the mass of electric and electronic devices put on the market in the three foregoing years. The minimum collection target is 45% starting in 2016, being increased to 65% in 2019 or alternatively 85% of waste from electric and electronic equipment generated. Being aware of the new target, the question arises how Member States with 'best practice' organise their collection systems and how they enforce the parties in this playing field. Therefore the waste from electric and electronic equipment schemes of Sweden, Denmark, Switzerland, Germany and the Flemish region of Belgium were investigated focusing on the categories IT and telecommunications equipment, consumer equipment like audio systems and discharge lamps containing hazardous substances, e.g. mercury. The systems for waste from electric and electronic equipment collection in these countries vary considerably. Recycling yards turned out to be the backbone of waste from electric and electronic equipment collection in most countries studied. For discharge lamps, take-back by retailers seems to be more important. Sampling points like special containers in shopping centres, lidded waste bins and complementary return of used devices in all retail shops for electric equipment may serve as supplements. High transparency of collection and recycling efforts can encourage ambition among the concerned parties. Though the results from the study cannot be transferred in a simplistic manner, they serve as an indication for best practice methods for waste from electric and electronic equipment collection. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Phylogenetic relationship among Kenyan sorghum germplasms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . The objective of this study was to assess the level of phylogenetic relationships among the Kenyan sorghum germplasms at a known Al tolerance locus. Hierarchical cluster analysis joined at 70% simple matching coefficient using average ...

  3. Indian plant germplasm on the global platter: an analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry R Jacob

    Full Text Available Food security is a global concern amongst scientists, researchers and policy makers. No country is self-sufficient to address food security issues independently as almost all countries are inter-dependent for availability of plant genetic resources (PGR in their national crop improvement programmes. Consultative Group of International Agricultural Research (CGIAR; in short CG centres play an important role in conserving and distributing PGR through their genebanks. CG genebanks assembled the germplasm through collecting missions and acquisition the same from national genebanks of other countries. Using the Genesys Global Portal on Plant Genetic Resources, the World Information and Early Warning System (WIEWS on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and other relevant databases, we analysed the conservation status of Indian-origin PGR accessions (both cultivated and wild forms possessed by India in CG genebanks and other national genebanks, including the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA genebanks, which can be considered as an indicator of Indian contribution to the global germplasm collection. A total of 28,027,770 accessions are being conserved world-wide by 446 organizations represented in Genesys; of these, 3.78% (100,607 are Indian-origin accessions. Similarly, 62,920 Indian-origin accessions (8.73% have been conserved in CG genebanks which are accessible to the global research community for utilization in their respective crop improvement programmes. A total of 60 genebanks including 11 CG genebanks have deposited 824,625 accessions of PGR in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault (SGSV as safety duplicates; the average number of accessions deposited by each genebank is 13,744, and amongst them there are 66,339 Indian-origin accessions. In principle, India has contributed 4.85 times the number of germplasm accessions to SGSV, in comparison to the mean value (13,744 of any individual genebank including CG genebanks. More

  4. Notice of release of Amethyst Germplasm hoaty tansyaster: Selected class of natural germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derek J. Tilley

    2015-01-01

    The US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Aberdeen Plant Materials Center, Aberdeen, Idaho, announces the release of Amethyst Germplasm hoary tansyaster (Machaeronthero canescens (Pursh) A. Gray [Asteraceae]}, a selected class natural track germplasm identified by NRCS accession number 9076670 for conservation plantings in...

  5. Haplotype Analysis of the Pre-harvest Sprouting Resistance Locus Phs-A1 Reveals a Causal Role of TaMKK3-A in Global Germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwaseyi Shorinola

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS is an important cause of quality loss in many cereal crops and is particularly prevalent and damaging in wheat. Resistance to PHS is therefore a valuable target trait in many breeding programs. The Phs-A1 locus on wheat chromosome arm 4AL has been consistently shown to account for a significant proportion of natural variation to PHS in diverse mapping populations. However, the deployment of sprouting resistance is confounded by the fact that different candidate genes, including the tandem duplicated Plasma Membrane 19 (PM19 genes and the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 (TaMKK3-A gene, have been proposed to underlie Phs-A1. To further define the Phs-A1 locus, we constructed a physical map across this interval in hexaploid and tetraploid wheat. We established close proximity of the proposed candidate genes which are located within a 1.2 Mb interval. Genetic characterization of diverse germplasm used in previous genetic mapping studies suggests that TaMKK3-A, and not PM19, is the major gene underlying the Phs-A1 effect in European, North American, Australian and Asian germplasm. We identified the non-dormant TaMKK3-A allele at low frequencies within the A-genome diploid progenitor Triticum urartu genepool, and show an increase in the allele frequency in modern varieties. In United Kingdom varieties, the frequency of the dormant TaMKK3-A allele was significantly higher in bread-making quality varieties compared to feed and biscuit-making cultivars. Analysis of exome capture data from 58 diverse hexaploid wheat accessions identified fourteen haplotypes across the extended Phs-A1 locus and four haplotypes for TaMKK3-A. Analysis of these haplotypes in a collection of United Kingdom and Australian cultivars revealed distinct major dormant and non-dormant Phs-A1 haplotypes in each country, which were either rare or absent in the opposing germplasm set. The diagnostic markers and haplotype information reported in the

  6. Contaminated Sites in Europe: Review of the Current Situation Based on Data Collected through a European Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panos Panagos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the European Union (EU Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection, the European Commission has identified soil contamination as a priority for the collection of policy-relevant soil data at European scale. In order to support EU soil management policies, soil-related indicators need to be developed which requires appropriate data collection and establishment of harmonized datasets for the EU Member States. In 2011-12, the European Soil Data Centre of the European Commission conducted a project to collect data on contaminated sites from national institutions in Europe using the European Environment Information and Observation Network for soil (EIONET-SOIL. This paper presents the results obtained from analysing the soil contaminated sites data submitted by participating countries. According to the received data, the number of estimated potential contaminated sites is more than 2.5 million and the identified contaminated sites around 342 thousand. Municipal and industrial wastes contribute most to soil contamination (38%, followed by the industrial/commercial sector (34%. Mineral oil and heavy metals are the main contaminants contributing around 60% to soil contamination. In terms of budget, the management of contaminated sites is estimated to cost around 6 billion Euros (€ annually.

  7. Investigation and Analysis of Genetic Diversity of Diospyros Germplasms Using SCoT Molecular Markers in Guangxi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libao Deng

    Full Text Available Knowledge about genetic diversity and relationships among germplasms could be an invaluable aid in diospyros improvement strategies.This study was designed to analyze the genetic diversity and relationship of local and natural varieties in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China using start codon targeted polymorphism (SCoT markers. The accessions of 95 diospyros germplasms belonging to four species Diospyros kaki Thunb, D. oleifera Cheng, D. kaki var. silverstris Mak, and D. lotus Linn were collected from different eco-climatic zones in Guangxi and were analyzed using SCoT markers.Results indicated that the accessions of 95 diospyros germplasms could be distinguished using SCoT markers, and were divided into three groups at similarity coefficient of 0.608; these germplasms that belong to the same species were clustered together; of these, the degree of genetic diversity of the natural D. kaki var. silverstris Mak population was richest among the four species; the geographical distance showed that the 12 natural populations of D. kaki var. silverstris Mak were divided into two groups at similarity coefficient of 0.19. Meanwhile, in order to further verify the stable and useful of SCoT markers in diospyros germplasms, SSR markers were also used in current research to analyze the genetic diversity and relationship in the same diospyros germplasms. Once again, majority of germplasms that belong to the same species were clustered together. Thus SCoT markers were stable and especially useful for analysis of the genetic diversity and relationship in diospyros germplasms.The molecular characterization and diversity assessment of diospyros were very important for conservation of diospyros germplasm resources, meanwhile for diospyros improvement.

  8. Investigation and Analysis of Genetic Diversity of Diospyros Germplasms Using SCoT Molecular Markers in Guangxi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Libao; Liang, Qingzhi; He, Xinhua; Luo, Cong; Chen, Hu; Qin, Zhenshi

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about genetic diversity and relationships among germplasms could be an invaluable aid in diospyros improvement strategies. This study was designed to analyze the genetic diversity and relationship of local and natural varieties in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China using start codon targeted polymorphism (SCoT) markers. The accessions of 95 diospyros germplasms belonging to four species Diospyros kaki Thunb, D. oleifera Cheng, D. kaki var. silverstris Mak, and D. lotus Linn were collected from different eco-climatic zones in Guangxi and were analyzed using SCoT markers. Results indicated that the accessions of 95 diospyros germplasms could be distinguished using SCoT markers, and were divided into three groups at similarity coefficient of 0.608; these germplasms that belong to the same species were clustered together; of these, the degree of genetic diversity of the natural D. kaki var. silverstris Mak population was richest among the four species; the geographical distance showed that the 12 natural populations of D. kaki var. silverstris Mak were divided into two groups at similarity coefficient of 0.19. Meanwhile, in order to further verify the stable and useful of SCoT markers in diospyros germplasms, SSR markers were also used in current research to analyze the genetic diversity and relationship in the same diospyros germplasms. Once again, majority of germplasms that belong to the same species were clustered together. Thus SCoT markers were stable and especially useful for analysis of the genetic diversity and relationship in diospyros germplasms. The molecular characterization and diversity assessment of diospyros were very important for conservation of diospyros germplasm resources, meanwhile for diospyros improvement.

  9. Whole-Genome Analysis of Diversity and SNP-Major Gene Association in Peach Germplasm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Micheletti

    Full Text Available Peach was domesticated in China more than four millennia ago and from there it spread world-wide. Since the middle of the last century, peach breeding programs have been very dynamic generating hundreds of new commercial varieties, however, in most cases such varieties derive from a limited collection of parental lines (founders. This is one reason for the observed low levels of variability of the commercial gene pool, implying that knowledge of the extent and distribution of genetic variability in peach is critical to allow the choice of adequate parents to confer enhanced productivity, adaptation and quality to improved varieties. With this aim we genotyped 1,580 peach accessions (including a few closely related Prunus species maintained and phenotyped in five germplasm collections (four European and one Chinese with the International Peach SNP Consortium 9K SNP peach array. The study of population structure revealed the subdivision of the panel in three main populations, one mainly made up of Occidental varieties from breeding programs (POP1OCB, one of Occidental landraces (POP2OCT and the third of Oriental accessions (POP3OR. Analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD identified differential patterns of genome-wide LD blocks in each of the populations. Phenotypic data for seven monogenic traits were integrated in a genome-wide association study (GWAS. The significantly associated SNPs were always in the regions predicted by linkage analysis, forming haplotypes of markers. These diagnostic haplotypes could be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS in modern breeding programs.

  10. Evaluation of Watermelon Germplasm for Resistance to Phytophthora Blight Caused by Phytophthora capsici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Jeong Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the Phytophthora rot resistance of 514 accessions of watermelon germplasm, Citrullus lanatus var lanatus. About 46% of the 514 accessions tested were collections from Uzbekistan, Turkey, China, U.S.A., and Ukraine. Phytophthora capsici was inoculated to 45-day-old watermelon seedlings by drenching with 5 ml of sporangial suspension (10⁶ sporangia/ml. At 7 days after inoculation, 21 accessions showed no disease symptoms while 291 accessions of susceptible watermelon germplasm showed more than 60.1% disease severity. A total of 510 accessions of watermelon germplasm showed significant disease symptoms and were rated as susceptible to highly susceptible 35 days after inoculation. The highly susceptible watermelon germplasm exhibited white fungal hyphae on the lesion or damping off with water-soaked and browning symptoms. One accession (IT032840 showed moderate resistance and two accessions (IT185446 and IT187904 were resistant to P. capsici. Results suggest that these two resistant germplasm can be used as a rootstock and as a source of resistance in breeding resistant watermelon varieties against Phytophthora.

  11. Screening of Gladiolus germplasm for agronomic performance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-10-04

    Oct 4, 2010 ... germplasm against corm rot disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. f. sp. gladioli (L. ..... varieties with long floral stalk, greater number of flowers ..... Brassica juncea germplasm from Australia, China and India. Field.

  12. Assessment of collection schemes for packaging and other recyclable waste in European Union-28 Member States and capital cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyring, Nicole; Dollhofer, Marie; Weißenbacher, Jakob; Bakas, Ioannis; McKinnon, David

    2016-09-01

    The Waste Framework Directive obliged European Union Member States to set up separate collection systems to promote high quality recycling for at least paper, metal, plastic and glass by 2015. As implementation of the requirement varies across European Union Member States, the European Commission contracted BiPRO GmbH/Copenhagen Resource Institute to assess the separate collection schemes in the 28 European Union Member States, focusing on capital cities and on metal, plastic, glass (with packaging as the main source), paper/cardboard and bio-waste. The study includes an assessment of the legal framework for, and the practical implementation of, collection systems in the European Union-28 Member States and an in depth-analysis of systems applied in all capital cities. It covers collection systems that collect one or more of the five waste streams separately from residual waste/mixed municipal waste at source (including strict separation, co-mingled systems, door-to-door, bring-point collection and civic amenity sites). A scoreboard including 13 indicators is elaborated in order to measure the performance of the systems with the capture rates as key indicators to identify best performers. Best performance are by the cities of Ljubljana, Helsinki and Tallinn, leading to the key conclusion that door-to-door collection, at least for paper and bio-waste, and the implementation of pay-as-you-throw schemes results in high capture and thus high recycling rates of packaging and other municipal waste. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Broadening the U.S. alfalfa germplasm base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over 4000 alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plant introductions (PIs) exist in the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS). NAAIC has discussed/proposed pre-breeding efforts to utilize this germplasm for creating pre-commercial alfalfa germplasm. Funding constraints have been one impediment to th...

  14. Current European data collection on emergency department presentations with acute recreational drug toxicity: gaps and national variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyerdahl, Fridtjof; Hovda, Knut Erik; Giraudon, Isabelle; Yates, Christopher; Dines, Alison M; Sedefov, Roumen; Wood, David M; Dargan, Paul I

    2014-12-01

    The number of new (novel) psychoactive substances (NPS) available in the illegal market is increasing; however, current monitoring of the drug situation in Europe focuses mainly on classical drugs of abuse, with limited emphasis on clinical presentation in the emergency department (ED). The European Drug Emergencies Network (Euro-DEN) is a European Commission-funded project that aims to improve the knowledge of acute drug toxicity of both classical recreational drugs and NPS. As a baseline for this project, we performed a study to establish which data are currently being collected and reported in Europe on ED presentations with acute toxicity related to NPS and classical drugs of abuse. We used a three-pronged approach to identify any systematic collection of data on NPS toxicity in Europe by i) performing a literature search, ii) utilising an online survey of the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction Re seau Europe en d'Information sur les Drogues et les Toxicomanies national focal points and iii) exploiting the knowledge and resources of the Euro-DEN network members. The literature search revealed 21 papers appropriate for assessment, but only one described a systematic collection of clinical data on NPS. Twenty-seven of thirty countries responded to the online survey. More than half of all the countries (52%) did not perform any registration at all of such data, 37% collected systematic clinical data on NPS at a national level, while 44% collected data on classical drugs. A few examples for good practice of systematic collection of clinical data on ED presentations due to acute toxicity were identified. The systematic collection of data on ED presentation of toxicity related to NPS and classical drugs in Europe is scarce; the existing collection is limited to single centres, single countries, groups of patients or not focused on novel drugs; the collection of data is highly variable between the different countries. Euro-DEN, a European

  15. Microsatellite fingerprinting in the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad: Accession and plot homogeneity information for germplasm management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad (ICG,T) is the largest public domain field gene bank collection of cacao and the correct identity of each tree is crucial for germplasm movement, evaluation and phenotypic characterization. Nine microsatellite loci were used to assess the identity of 1480 t...

  16. Progress report on enhancing faba bean germplasm for improved winter-hardiness at Pullman, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) has been cultivated from early Neolithic times. Numerous varieties have been selected for adaptation to a wide range of environments worldwide and for different end-uses such as dry grain, vegetable, feed, forage and green manure. The USDA faba bean germplasm collection con...

  17. Performance and phenology of wild black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) germplasm in a common garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    A lack of genetic diversity in cultivated black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) germplasm has been widely recognized as a major factor limiting progress towards breeding improved cultivars. Despite this, little effort has been made since the early twentieth century to systematically collect and ev...

  18. Patterns of molecular variation in a species-wide germplasm set of Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bus, Anja; Körber, Niklas; Snowdon, Rod J; Stich, Benjamin

    2011-12-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is the leading European oilseed crop serving as source for edible oil and renewable energy. The objectives of our study were to (i) examine the population structure of a large and diverse set of B. napus inbred lines, (ii) investigate patterns of genetic diversity within and among different germplasm types, (iii) compare the two genomes of B. napus with regard to genetic diversity, and (iv) assess the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Our study was based on 509 B. napus inbred lines genotyped with 89 genome-specific SSR primer combinations. Both a principal coordinate analysis and software STRUCTURE revealed that winter types, spring types, and swedes were assigned to three major clusters. The genetic diversity of winter oilseed rape was lower than the diversity found in other germplasm types. Within winter oilseed rape types, a decay of genetic diversity with more recent release dates and reduced levels of erucic acid and glucosinolates was observed. The percentage of linked SSR loci pairs in significant (r (2) > Q (95 unlinked loci pairs)) LD was 6.29% for the entire germplasm set. Furthermore, LD decayed rapidly with distance, which will allow a relatively high mapping resolution in genome-wide association studies using our germplasm set, but, on the other hand, will require a high number of markers.

  19. PHENOTYPIC DIVERSITY OF ALFALFA (MEDICAGO SATIVA L. GERMPLASM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Tucak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate phenotypic diversity in the alfalfa germplasm collections using multivariate analysis to examine the extent of genetic diversity and contribution of selected characters to the total diversity and finally to select the most promising clusters/populations for further breeding work. Forty alfalfa populations/cultivars of different geographical origin were evaluated for 12 agro-morphological characters during two consecutive years. The populations/ cultivars were grouped into six clusters. In most cases populations/cultivars within clusters were not associated with their geographical origin. Intercluster distances were larger than the intracluster ones. This research revealed a broad phenotypic diversity within and between the alfalfa germplasm collections. The following characters contributed most to the total phenotypic diversity: dry matter yield in the first production year, plant height and length of central leaflet. Based on the mean value of the evaluated characters and determined distances between clusters, the most promising populations/cultivars belong to the clusters IV and V. Selected populations/cultivars could be considered as a valuable genetic material for the yield and quality improvement of alfalfa in our breeding programme.

  20. European Union. General Court: Partial Annulment of the Commission Decision Finding Anti-Competitive Conduct on the Part of Copyright Collecting Societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quintais, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    On 12 April 2013 the General Court of the European Union delivered its judgment in Case T-442/08 CISAC v. European Commission, as well as in twenty other related cases involving a like number of European collecting societies. In it, the Court partially annulled the Commission’s decision of 16 July

  1. Evaluating diversity among Kenyan papaya germplasm using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Papaya is an important fruit crop, produced in Kenya for local consumption and export. Despite a history of varietal introductions, no attempts concerned on developing varieties suited to Kenyan conditions have been documented. The objective of this study was to provide information on the diversity of germplasm available ...

  2. SeedStor: A Germplasm Information Management System and Public Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horler, R S P; Turner, A; Fretter, P; Ambrose, M

    2017-12-08

    SeedStor (https://www.seedstor.ac.uk) acts as the publicly available database for the seed collections held by the Germplasm Resources Unit (GRU) based at the John Inness Centre, Norwich, UK. The GRU is a national capability supported by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC). The GRU curates' germplasm collections of a range of temperate cereal, legume and Brassica crops and their associated wild relatives as well as precise genetic stocks, near-isogenic lines and mapping populations. With over 35000 accessions the GRU forms part of the UK's plant conservation contribution to the Multilateral System (MLS) of the International Treaty for Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA) for Wheat, Barley, Oat and Pea.SeedStor is a fully searchable system that allows our various collections to be browsed species by species through to complicated multipart phenotype criteria driven queries. The results from these searches can be downloaded for later analysis or used to order germplasm via our shopping cart. The user community for SeedStor is the plant science research community, plant breeders, specialist growers, hobby farmers and amateur gardeners and educationalists.Furthermore, SeedStor is much more than a database, it has been developed to act internally as a Germplasm Information Management System that allows team members to track and process germplasm requests, determine regeneration priorities, handle cost recovery and Material Transfer Agreement paperwork, manage the Seed Store holdings and easily report on a wide range of the aforementioned tasks. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  3. Fueling the Bio-economy: European Culture Collections and Microbiology Education and Training

    KAUST Repository

    Antunes, Andre

    2015-12-23

    A survey of European Microbial Biological Resource Centers and their users provided an overview on microbiology education and training. The results identified future increases in demand despite several shortcomings and gaps in the current offer. Urgent adjustments are needed to match users\\' needs, integrate innovative programs, and adopt new technologies. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Fueling the Bio-economy: European Culture Collections and Microbiology Education and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, André; Stackebrandt, Erko; Lima, Nelson

    2016-02-01

    A survey of European Microbial Biological Resource Centers and their users provided an overview on microbiology education and training. The results identified future increases in demand despite several shortcomings and gaps in the current offer. Urgent adjustments are needed to match users' needs, integrate innovative programs, and adopt new technologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A European tool for usual intake distribution estimation in relation to data collection by EFSA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaveren, van J.D.; Goedhart, P.W.; Wapperom, D.; Voet, van der H.

    2012-01-01

    The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as author(s). In accordance with Article 36 of Regulation (EC) No 178/2002, this task has been carried out exclusively by the author(s) in the context of a grant agreement between the European Food Safety Authority and

  6. Perfluorinated alkylated substances in vegetables collected in four European countries; raw and processed products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herzke, D.; Huber, S.; Bervoets, L.; D'Hollander, W.; Hajslova, J.; Pulkrabova, J.; Brambilla, G.; De Filippis, S.P.; Klenow, S.; Heinemeyer, G.; de Voogt, P.

    2013-01-01

    The human diet is recognised as one possible major exposure route to the overall perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS) burden of the human population, resulting directly from contamination of dietary food items, as well as migration of PFAS from food packaging or cookware. Most European

  7. In vitro conservation of Dendrobium germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Zeng, Songjun; Galdiano, Renato Fernandes; Dobránszki, Judit; Cardoso, Jean Carlos; Vendrame, Wagner A

    2014-09-01

    Dendrobium is a large genus in the family Orchidaceae that exhibits vast diversity in floral characteristics, which is of considerable importance to orchid breeders, biotechnologists and collectors. Native species have high value as a result of their medicinal properties, while their hybrids are important as ornamental commodities, either as cut flowers or potted plants and are thus veritable industrial crops. Thus, preservation of Dendrobium germplasm is valuable for species conservation, breeding programs and the floriculture industry. Cryopreservation represents the only safe, efficient and cost-effective long-term storage option to facilitate the conservation of genetic resources of plant species. This review highlights 16 years of literature related to the preservation of Dendrobium germplasm and comprises the most comprehensive assessment of thorough studies performed to date, which shows reliable and reproducible results. Air-drying, encapsulation-dehydration, encapsulation-vitrification, vitrification and droplet-vitrification are the current cryopreservation methodologies that have been used to cryopreserve Dendrobium germplasm. Mature seeds, pollen, protoplasts, shoot primordia, protocorms and somatic embryos or protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) have been cryopreserved with different levels of success. Encapsulation-vitrification and encapsulation-dehydration are the most used protocol, while PLBs represent the main explant explored.

  8. Genetic diversity analysis of salinity related germplasm in cotton

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Zhang; Wuwei Ye; Junjuan Wang; Baoxiang Fan; Delong Wang

    2010-01-01

    In order to study the genetic variation of salinity related cotton germplasm, 47 upland cotton accessions including 23 salinity tolerant materials and 24 salinity sensitive materials were explored using 88 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We detected a total of 338 alleles at 88 SSR loci with an average of 3.841 alleles per locus, 333 of these alleles were detected in salinity tolerant germplasm and 312 alleles in salinity sensitive germplasm. Mean polymorphism information content (PIC),...

  9. Genetic Biodiversity of Italian Olives (Olea europaea Germplasm Analyzed by SSR Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocenzo Muzzalupo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The olive is an important fruit species cultivated for oil and table olives in Italy and the Mediterranean basin. The conservation of cultivated plants in ex situ collections is essential for the optimal management and use of their genetic resources. The largest ex situ olive germplasm collection consists of approximately 500 Italian olive varieties and corresponding to 85% of the total Italian olive germplasm is maintained at the Consiglio per la Ricerca e sperimentazione per l’Agricoltura, Centro di Ricerca per l’Olivicoltura e l’Industria Olearia (CRA-OLI, in Italy. In this work, eleven preselected nuclear microsatellite markers were used to assess genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flows with the aim of assembling a core collection. The dendrogram obtained utilizing the unweighted pair group method highlights the presence of homonymy and synonymy in olive tree datasets analyzed in this study. 439 different unique genotype profiles were obtained with this combination of 11 loci nSSR, representing 89.8% of the varieties analyzed. The remaining 10.2% comprises different variety pairs in which both accessions are genetically indistinguishable. Clustering analysis performed using BAPS software detected seven groups in Italian olive germplasm and gene flows were determined among identified clusters. We proposed an Italian core collection of 23 olive varieties capturing all detected alleles at microsatellites. The information collected in this study regarding the CRA-OLI ex situ collection can be used for breeding programs, for germplasm conservation, and for optimizing a strategy for the management of olive gene pools.

  10. A RETROSPECTIVE REVIEW OF WESTERN LOWLAND GORILLA (GORILLA GORILLA GORILLA) MORTALITY IN EUROPEAN ZOOLOGIC COLLECTIONS BETWEEN 2004 AND 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Victoria; Baiker, Kerstin; Brennan, Marnie L; Redrobe, Sharon; Rietkerk, Frank; Cobb, Malcolm; White, Kate

    2017-06-01

    An understanding of the main causes of mortality among captive gorillas is imperative to promoting their optimal care, health, and welfare. A retrospective observational review of mortality among the European zoo-housed western lowland gorilla ( Gorilla gorilla gorilla) population from 2004 to 2014 was carried out. This is the first published study of mortality in this population. Relevant postmortem data were requested from each collection reporting a death during the study period. Age at death enabled grouping into discrete age categories. Deaths were classified according to cause. The main causes of death overall and for each age category and sex were identified. In total, 151 gorillas from 50 European collections died during the study period. Postmortem data were available for 119 (79%) of the deaths, of which 102 (86%) were classified by cause. Diseases of the digestive system were responsible for most (23%) deaths overall. Also of significance (each accounting for 15% overall mortality) were deaths due to external causes (especially trauma) among young gorillas and cardiovascular disease among adult and aged animals. Being a male gorilla was associated with an 8.77- and 5.40-fold increase in risk of death due to cardiovascular and respiratory disease, respectively. Death due to external causes was 4.45 times more likely among females than males. There was no statistically significant difference in life expectancy between male and female gorillas. The authors conclude that further work is needed to understand risk factors involved in the main causes of death and suggest a need for standardization with regard the approach to postmortem examination and data collection, sample collection, and storage across European zoos.

  11. Sampling strategy to develop a primary core collection of apple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 435 accessions of apple germplasm collected from the Xincheng National Apple Germplasm Repository and 10 morphological traits of them were used for studying the optimal sampling strategy for primary core collection of apple (Malus domestica Brokh). In order to acquire the appropriate primary core collection,..

  12. Genetic diversity of wild germplasm of "yerba mate" (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.) from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascales, Jimena; Bracco, Mariana; Poggio, Lidia; Gottlieb, Alexandra Marina

    2014-12-01

    The "yerba mate" tree, Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil., is a crop native to subtropical South America, marketed for the elaboration of the highly popular "mate" beverage. The Uruguayan germplasm occupies the southernmost area of the species distribution range and carries adaptations to environments that considerably differ from the current production area. We characterized the genetic variability of the germplasm from this unexplored area by jointly analyzing individuals from the diversification center (ABP, Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay) with 19 nuclear and 11 plastidic microsatellite markers. For the Uruguayan germplasm, we registered 55 alleles (18 % private), and 80 genotypes (44 % exclusive), whereas 63 alleles (28.6 % private) and 81 genotypes (42 % exclusive) were recorded for individuals from ABP. Only two plastidic haplotypes were detected. Distance-based and multilocus genotype analyses showed that individuals from ABP intermingle and that the Uruguayan germplasm is differentiated in three gene-pools. Significant positive correlations between genetic and geographic distances were detected. Our results concur in that ABP individuals harbor greater genetic variation than those from the tail of the distribution, as to the number of alleles (1.15-fold), He (1.19-fold), Rs (1.39-fold), and the between-group genetic distances (1.16-fold). Also the shape of the genetic landscape interpolation analysis suggests that the genetic variation decays southward towards the Uruguayan territory. We showed that Uruguayan germplasm hosts a combination of nuclear alleles not present in the central region, constituting a valuable breeding resource. Future conservation efforts should concentrate in collecting numerous individuals of "yerba mate" per site to gather the existent variation.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of LFF571 and three treatment agents against Clostridium difficile isolates collected for a pan-European survey in 2008: clinical and therapeutic implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debast, S.B.; Bauer, M.P.; Sanders, I.M.; Wilcox, M.H.; Kuijper, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In November 2008, a study was performed with support from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) to obtain an overview of Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) in European hospitals. A collection of 398 C. difficile isolates obtained from this hospital-based

  14. An empirical assessment of the effects of the 1994 In Trust Agreements on IRRI Germplasm Acquisition and Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Gotor

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to assess the possible influence of the 1994 In Trust Agreements (ITAs on acquisition and distribution of germplasm held by the International Research Rice Institute (IRRI genebank. The agreements, legally affirmed the ‘public good’ status of the collections that were placed ‘In Trust’ for the benefit of the world community under agreements with FAO. They initiated a formal system of multilateral access to CGIAR-held ex situ genetic resources. The hypothesis that the consequences of the ITAs lead to an enhancement of CGIAR germplasm utilization is tested here using a basic conceptual framework to infer on factors determining the distribution of germplasm. Subsequently a Bayesian empirical model is applied to IRRI accessions distribution’s time-series to provide formal evidence to the hypothesis. Results show that there is a discernible ‘change’ point that would support a significant drop in germplasm distribution followed by a new growing trend around the establishment of the ITAs. This had followed a period beginning around 1989 and leading up to the establishment of the ITAs of a large number of requests for restoration of germplasm back to countries of origin and a reduction in acquisitions. As a result the number of accessions held by IRRI reached a low point around 1994. The number of accessions might not have been built back up without the establishment of a stable policy environment that was provided by the ITAs.

  15. Notice of release of Mountain Home germplasm Sandberg bluegrass (selected germplasm, natural track)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott M. Lambert; Stephen B. Monsen; Nancy Shaw

    2011-01-01

    Mountain Home germplasm Sandberg bluegrass is a small, densely tufted short-lived perennial bunchgrass adapted to low elevation, semi-arid sites with long, hot growing seasons. Mountain Home's drought tolerance, competitive nature, and ease of establishment make it an excellent choice for post-fire restoration of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) dominated...

  16. Notice of release for Eagle Germplasm western yarrow (selected germplasm, natural track)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott M. Lambert; Stephen B. Monsen; Nancy Shaw

    2011-01-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station; United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Idaho State Office; Utah State University, Agricultural Experiment Station; and University of Idaho, Agricultural Experiment Station, announce the release of a selected germplasm (natural track) of western...

  17. Role of plant growth regulators in preservation of Pyrus germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-10-19

    Oct 19, 2011 ... vitro plant germplasm. Proc. Intl. Plant Propag. Soc., pp. 199-205. Kovalchuk I, Lyudvikova Y, Volgina M, Reed BM (2009). Medium, container and genotype all influence in vitro apple germplasm. Plant. Cell Tiss. Org. Cult. 96: 127-136. Moriguchi T (1995). Cryopreservations and minimum growth storage of.

  18. Susceptibility of fruit from diverse apple and crabapple germplasm to attack by plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Clayton T; Leskey, Tracy C; Forsline, Philip L

    2007-10-01

    Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is an important apple, Malus domestica Borkh., pest that significantly hinders sustainable apple production in eastern North America. The potential for host plant resistance to plum curculio among apple germplasm has never been rigorously evaluated. Thus, studies were conducted to assess the susceptibility of a number of exotic and domestic Malus accessions housed at the USDA Plant Genetic Resources Unit (PGRU) "core" collection in Geneva, NY. Contrary to earlier published reports and promising data from a field assessment in 2005, these results suggest that there is probably little potential for genetic resistance to plum curculio among the Malus germplasm collection evaluated. More specifically, four Malus hybrid selections that have previously been released with claims of plum curculio resistance were shown to be susceptible to plum curculio attack. Because there are additional accessions housed at PGRU outside of the core collection that are currently classified as resistant, further studies are necessary to evaluate the true resistance qualities of these releases. It is also important to clarify such discrepancies in both the USDA online Germplasm Resources Information Network and in the horticultural literature. Although other Malus species exhibited some variability in fruit susceptibility, none could be classified as being truly resistant to plum curculio attack by any definition that would have relevance to commercial production and sale of apples.

  19. Molecular diversity in Coffea canephora germplasm conserved and cultivated in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio de França Souza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to characterize accessions that represent the C. canephora germplasm conserved and cultivated in Brazil. A total of 130 accessions from germplasm banks of IAC (São Paulo, UFV (Minas Gerais and also collected in plantations of the State of Espírito Santo and Rondônia were evaluated with a set of 20 new microsatellite primers. Multivariate methods were used to estimate the relationship among the accessions. High level of polymorphism and two major diversity clusters were identified. First cluster was composed by the accessions conserved in the IAC and UFV collections and the second was formed by accessions collected in areas under cultivation. Accessions from Espírito Santo and Rondônia were clear separated, composing two subclusters. Despite the great polymorphism found in Brazilian plantations, the diversity may be increased, because a new threshold in the genetic gains is expected on breeding programs with the intensification of the use of conserved germplasm.

  20. Secession within the Union: intersection points of international and European law: collected think pieces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brölmann, C.; Vandamme, T.

    2014-01-01

    An expert meeting organised by ACIL and ACELG on possible Scottish or Catalan secession has resulted in a collection of short think pieces that identify and outline a number of outstanding issues of both public international law and EU law.

  1. Establishment and molecular characterization of a sweet potato germplasm bank of the highlands of Paraná State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, L K P; Mógor, A F; Resende, J T V; Da-Silva, P R

    2013-11-18

    The sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a crop of great importance in developing countries, as a food staple, for animal feed, and potentially for biofuel. Development of cultivars adapted to specific regions within these countries would be useful. To start a breeding program, the first step is the establishment of a germplasm bank. We initiated a sweet potato germplasm bank with accessions collected from the highlands of Paraná State, Brazil. To establish this germplasm bank, we carried out numerous sweet potato-collecting expeditions in regions with an altitude above 700 meters in this region; 116 genotypes currently comprise this collection. The genetic diversity of this germplasm bank was estimated using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Polymorphic information content (PIC), marker index (MI), and resolving power (RP) were calculated to determine the viability of ISSR markers for use in sweet potato genetic studies. The correlation between PIC and MI (r(2) = 0.81) and between MI and RP (r(2) = 0.97) were positive and significant, indicating that ISSR markers are robust for sweet potato identification. Two ISSR primers, 807 and 808, gave the best results for all attributes, and thus could be used as representative ISSR primers for the genetic analysis of sweet potato. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis indicated high genetic variability (0.51 of similarity among all genotypes); genotypes collected from different counties grouped together.

  2. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): study populations and data collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riboli, E.; Hunt, K.J.; Slimani, N.

    2002-01-01

    The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) is an ongoing multi-centre prospective cohort study designed to investigate the relationship between nutrition and cancer, with the potential for studying other diseases as well. The study currently includes 519 978......-wide for prospective investigations on the aetiology of cancers (and other diseases) that can integrate questionnaire data on lifestyle and diet, biomarkers of diet and of endogenous metabolism (e.g. hormones and growth factors) and genetic polymorphisms. First results of case-control studies nested within the cohort...... are expected early in 2003. The present paper provides a description of the EPIC study, with the aim of simplifying reference to it in future papers reporting substantive or methodological studies carried out in the EPIC cohort....

  3. Collection, processing and testing of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood and haematopoietic stem cells by European Blood Alliance members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Närhi, M; Natri, O; Desbois, I; Kinggaard Holm, D; Galea, G; Aranko, K; Korhonen, M; Nordstrom, K

    2013-11-01

    A questionnaire study was carried out in collaboration with the European Blood Alliance (EBA) Tissues and Cells (T&C) working group. The aim was to assess the level of involvement and commonality of processes on the procurement, testing and storage of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood (UCB) and haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in order to identify different practices and to explore whether recommendations can be made for harmonization. An online questionnaire was used for data collection in 2011, and 43 replies were received covering 71 product answers from 13 countries. Estimated percentages of tissue and cell banking covered by EBA member blood banks as a proportion of all collections of each individual country varied markedly. There were also major differences in the amounts of products collected and discarded and in proportions tissues provided for grafting. However, discarding of certain collections also reflects the practice of increasing the likelihood of the very best units being used for transplantation. Harmonization of possible practices should focus on matching supply with demand and on identifying the most efficient operators. This could allow for the development of practices for minimizing unnecessary collections. © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  4. Establishing the Bases for Introducing the Unexplored Portuguese Common Bean Germplasm into the Breeding World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana T. Leitão

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is among the most important grain legumes for human consumption worldwide. Portugal has a potentially promising common bean germplasm, resulting from more than five centuries of natural adaptation and farmers' selection. Nevertheless, limited characterization of this resource hampers its exploitation by breeding programs. To support a more efficient conservation of the national bean germplasm and promote its use in crop improvement, we performed, for the first time, a simultaneous molecular marker (21 microsatellites and a DNA marker for phaseolin-type diversity analysis and seed and plant morphological characterization (14 traits of 175 accessions from Portuguese mainland and islands traditional bean-growing regions. A total of 188 different alleles were identified and an average pairwise Cavalli-Sforza and Edwards' chord genetic distance of 0.193 was estimated among accessions. To relate the Portuguese germplasm with the global common bean diversity, 17 wild relatives and representative accessions from the Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools were evaluated at the molecular level. No correlation was detected between the variability found and the geographic origin of accessions. Structure analysis divided the collection into three main clusters. Most of the Portuguese accessions grouped with the race representatives and wild relatives from the Andean region. One third of the national germplasm had admixed genetic origin and might represent putative hybrids among gene pools from the two original centers of domestication in the Andes and Mesoamerica. The molecular marker-based classification was largely congruent with the three most frequent phaseolin haplotype patterns observed in the accessions analyzed. Seed and plant morphological characterization of 150 Portuguese common bean accessions revealed a clear separation among genetic structure and phaseolin haplotype groups of accessions, with seed size and shape

  5. Establishing the Bases for Introducing the Unexplored Portuguese Common Bean Germplasm into the Breeding World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Susana T; Dinis, Marco; Veloso, Maria M; Šatović, Zlatko; Vaz Patto, Maria C

    2017-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is among the most important grain legumes for human consumption worldwide. Portugal has a potentially promising common bean germplasm, resulting from more than five centuries of natural adaptation and farmers' selection. Nevertheless, limited characterization of this resource hampers its exploitation by breeding programs. To support a more efficient conservation of the national bean germplasm and promote its use in crop improvement, we performed, for the first time, a simultaneous molecular marker (21 microsatellites and a DNA marker for phaseolin-type diversity analysis) and seed and plant morphological characterization (14 traits) of 175 accessions from Portuguese mainland and islands traditional bean-growing regions. A total of 188 different alleles were identified and an average pairwise Cavalli-Sforza and Edwards' chord genetic distance of 0.193 was estimated among accessions. To relate the Portuguese germplasm with the global common bean diversity, 17 wild relatives and representative accessions from the Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools were evaluated at the molecular level. No correlation was detected between the variability found and the geographic origin of accessions. Structure analysis divided the collection into three main clusters. Most of the Portuguese accessions grouped with the race representatives and wild relatives from the Andean region. One third of the national germplasm had admixed genetic origin and might represent putative hybrids among gene pools from the two original centers of domestication in the Andes and Mesoamerica. The molecular marker-based classification was largely congruent with the three most frequent phaseolin haplotype patterns observed in the accessions analyzed. Seed and plant morphological characterization of 150 Portuguese common bean accessions revealed a clear separation among genetic structure and phaseolin haplotype groups of accessions, with seed size and shape and the number of

  6. Secret Sisters: Women Religious under European Communism Collection at the Catholic Theological Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent P. Tinerella

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available After the fall of Communism in Eastern Europe, Pope John Paul II asked Catholics around the world to assist members of the Church who had suffered under the yoke of communist oppression as a result of their commitment to Catholicism. Sr. Margaret Savoie, and Sr. Margaret Nacke, Sisters of St. Joseph, Concordia, Kansas, decided that the experiences of Catholic women in religious communities – “surviving sisters” – was an important story that needed to be documented, preserved, and made available for future generations and researchers. In 2003, Sisters Mary and Margaret began their research, recording the plight of Catholic sisters in eight countries, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, and the Ukraine, from the rise of Stalin until the collapse of European communism. Over 200 testimonials now reside at the Paul Bechtold Library at the Catholic Theological Union in Chicago under the auspices of the library’s archivist, Dr. Kenneth O’Malley, C.P. , and their work has been made into a national and award-winning documentary film. .

  7. Genetic diversity and population structure of Miscanthus sinensis germplasm in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhao

    Full Text Available Miscanthus is a perennial rhizomatous C4 grass native to East Asia. Endowed with great biomass yield, high ligno-cellulose composition, efficient use of radiation, nutrient and water, as well as tolerance to stress, Miscanthus has great potential as an excellent bioenergy crop. Despite of the high potential for biomass production of the allotriploid hybrid M. ×giganteus, derived from M. sacchariflorus and M. sinensis, other options need to be explored to improve the narrow genetic base of M. ×giganteus, and also to exploit other Miscanthus species, including M. sinensis (2n = 2x = 38, as bioenergy crops. In the present study, a large number of 459 M. sinensis accessions, collected from the wide geographical distribution regions in China, were genotyped using 23 SSR markers transferable from Brachypodium distachyon. Genetic diversity and population structure were assessed. High genetic diversity and differentiation of the germplasm were observed, with 115 alleles in total, a polymorphic rate of 0.77, Nei's genetic diversity index (He of 0.32 and polymorphism information content (PIC of 0.26. Clustering of germplasm accessions was primarily in agreement with the natural geographic distribution. AMOVA and genetic distance analyses confirmed the genetic differentiation in the M. sinensis germplasm and it was grouped into five clusters or subpopulations. Significant genetic variation among subpopulations indicated obvious genetic differentiation in the collections, but within-subpopulation variation (83% was substantially greater than the between-subpopulation variation (17%. Considerable phenotypic variation was observed for multiple traits among 300 M. sinensis accessions. Nine SSR markers were found to be associated with heading date and biomass yield. The diverse Chinese M. sinensis germplasm and newly identified SSR markers were proved to be valuable for breeding Miscanthus varieties with desired bioenergy traits.

  8. Co-occurrence of musk fragrances and UV-filters in seafood and macroalgae collected in European hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, S C; Fernandes, J O; Vallecillos, L; Cano-Sancho, G; Domingo, J L; Pocurull, E; Borrull, F; Maulvault, A L; Ferrari, F; Fernandez-Tejedor, M; Van den Heuvel, F; Kotterman, M

    2015-11-01

    In the last decades, awareness regarding personal care products (PCP), i.e. synthetic organic chemicals frequently used in cosmetic and hygienic products, has become a forward-looking issue, due to their persistency in the environment and their potential multi-organ toxicity in both human and wildlife. Seafood is one of the most significant food commodities in the world and, certainly, one of the most prone to bioaccumulation of PCP, what can consequently lead to human exposure, especially for coastal population, where its consumption is more marked. The aim of this work was to evaluate the co-occurrence of musk fragrances and UV-filters in both seafood and macroalgae collected in different European hotspots (areas with high levels of pollution, highly populated and near wastewater treatment plants). Despite the fact that UV-filters were detected in three different kind of samples (mussel, mullet, and clam), in all cases they were below the limit of quantification. Galaxolide (HHCB) and tonalide (AHTN) were the musk fragrances most frequently detected and quantified in samples from the European hotspots. Cashmeran (DPMI) was also detected in most samples but only quantified in two of them (flounder/herring and mullet). The highest levels of HHCB and AHTN were found in mussels from Po estuary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Morphology, carbohydrate composition and vernalization response in a genetically diverse collection of Asian and European turnips (Brassica rapa subsp. rapa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ningwen; Zhao, Jianjun; Lens, Frederic; de Visser, Joan; Menamo, Temesgen; Fang, Wen; Xiao, Dong; Bucher, Johan; Basnet, Ram Kumar; Lin, Ke; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Xiaowu; Bonnema, Guusje

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa displays enormous morphological diversity, with leafy vegetables, turnips and oil crops. Turnips (Brassica rapa subsp. rapa) represent one of the morphotypes, which form tubers and can be used to study the genetics underlying storage organ formation. In the present study we investigated several characteristics of an extensive turnip collection comprising 56 accessions from both Asia (mainly Japanese origin) and Europe. Population structure was calculated using data from 280 evenly distributed SNP markers over 56 turnip accessions. We studied the anatomy of turnip tubers and measured carbohydrate composition of the mature turnip tubers of a subset of the collection. The variation in 16 leaf traits, 12 tuber traits and flowering time was evaluated in five independent experiments for the entire collection. The effect of vernalization on flowering and tuber formation was also investigated. SNP marker profiling basically divided the turnip accessions into two subpopulations, with admixture, generally corresponding with geographical origin (Europe or Asia). The enlarged turnip tuber consists of both hypocotyl and root tissue, but the proportion of the two tissues differs between accessions. The ratio of sucrose to fructose and glucose differed among accessions, while generally starch content was low. The evaluated traits segregated in both subpopulations, with leaf shape, tuber colour and number of shoots per tuber explaining most variation between the two subpopulations. Vernalization resulted in reduced flowering time and smaller tubers for the Asian turnips whereas the European turnips were less affected by vernalization.

  10. The Role of Collective Identities in Democratization Processes. The Case of the European Union and Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Giannakarou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, I examine the role of collective identities in democratization processes in Europe and East and Southeast Asia. This study contributes to the latest academic “neorealist-liberal debate” and constructivist theories, by emphasizing a crucial acknowledgement. With the exception of the case of the European Union, which boasts the only peaceful democratization process in the post-war era, in East and Southeast Asia there is strong evidence that the orthodoxy of democratization processes is going to take place. This means that in this vast area, democratization processes will be long-lasting social constructions mixed with strong ethnic consciousness, and therefore, not so peaceful but rather violent processes.  

  11. A collection of European sweet cherry phenology data for assessing climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenden, Bénédicte; Campoy, José Antonio; Lecourt, Julien; López Ortega, Gregorio; Blanke, Michael; Radičević, Sanja; Schüller, Elisabeth; Spornberger, Andreas; Christen, Danilo; Magein, Hugo; Giovannini, Daniela; Campillo, Carlos; Malchev, Svetoslav; Peris, José Miguel; Meland, Mekjell; Stehr, Rolf; Charlot, Gérard; Quero-García, José

    2016-12-01

    Professional and scientific networks built around the production of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) led to the collection of phenology data for a wide range of cultivars grown in experimental sites characterized by highly contrasted climatic conditions. We present a dataset of flowering and maturity dates, recorded each year for one tree when available, or the average of several trees for each cultivar, over a period of 37 years (1978-2015). Such a dataset is extremely valuable for characterizing the phenological response to climate change, and the plasticity of the different cultivars' behaviour under different environmental conditions. In addition, this dataset will support the development of predictive models for sweet cherry phenology exploitable at the continental scale, and will help anticipate breeding strategies in order to maintain and improve sweet cherry production in Europe.

  12. A Review of Living Collections with Special Emphasis on Sustainability and Its Impact on Research Across Multiple Disciplines

    OpenAIRE

    McCluskey, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Formal living collections have unique characteristics that distinguish them from other types of biorepositories. Comprising diverse resources, microbe culture collections, crop and biodiversity plant germplasm collections, and animal germplasm repositories are commonly allied with specific research communities or stakeholder groups. Among living collections, microbial culture collections have very long and unique life histories, with some being older than 100 years. Regulatory, financial, and...

  13. Popcorn germplasm resistance to fungal diseases caused by Exserohilum turcicum and Bipolaris maydis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Railan do Nascimento Ferreira Kurosawa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Compared with the common corn, popcorn shows greater susceptibility to pests and diseases occurrence, being the use of resistant cultivars the most efficient strategy. In this regard, Germplasm Banks deserve special attention because they contain accessions that can be used as sources of resistance in breeding programs. The State University of Northern Rio de Janeiro (UENF maintains a popcorn Germplasm Bank with accessions from tropical and temperate countries, including Diversity Centers for the species. In this study, we investigated the performance of 37 popcorn accessions landraces, hybrids, and inbreed lines ― from the Germplasm Collection of UENF’s Popcorn Breeding Program with respect to the fungal leaf diseases northern leaf blight (NLB and southern leaf blight (SLB, caused by Exserohilum turcicum and Bipolaris maydis, aiming to select promising accessions for genetic resistance to be used in future crosses to generate new resistant cultivars for farmers. The dendrogram scattering by the UPGMA multivariate technique was efficient in discriminating resistant accessions. Satisfactory results were obtained for resistance to NLB in accessions L71, L75, L76, P7, and PARA-172, which can thus be considered remarkable sources of resistance. For resistance to SLB, the superior accessions that can be indicated as sources of resistance are ARZM-05083, ARZM-07049, and PARA-172.

  14. Establishment of core collection from apricot germplasm in China ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The index of genetic diversity, and frequency ratios of retention and loss of the alleles were studied between cluster and random sampling methods at five sampling ratios. The results demonstrate that the cluster sampling method preceded random sampling, and cluster sampling of SSR combined with MOR at the rate of ...

  15. The genetic makeup of a global barnyard millet germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnyard millet (Echinochloa spp.) is an important crop for many smallholder farmers in southern and eastern Asia. It is valued for its drought tolerance, rapid maturation, and superior nutritional qualities. Despite these characteristics there are almost no genetic or genomic resources for this cro...

  16. Germplasm Collection of Highland Palms of Afikpo in Eastern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ufensi Edda tenera had the highest mesocarp to fruit ratio (73.42%) while heavy bunch weight was recorded for the duras in the Oso Edda and Ndiba Edda groves. Height differences were generally very small in the tenera accessions than in the duras. The prospected fruits have been used to raise seedlings for future ...

  17. Mycobiota of Lupinus albus seed from a public germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedborne mycobiota of Lupinus albus was assessed using blotter paper and agar media with Rose Bengal or semi-selective for Pythium or Fusarium. Samples of 200 seeds were taken from each of 16 inventories, comprising 14 accessions originating from Germany, France, Ukraine, Syria, Hungary or Spain, a...

  18. Unlocking the variation hidden in rice germplasm collections with genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivated Asian rice (Oryza sativa) was domesticated from O. rufipogon (O. nivara). The O. sativa subspecies indica and japonica diverged in ancient times, and based on DNA markers, further subdivided into the five major subpopulations, aus, indica, aromatic, tropical japonica and temperate japoni...

  19. Genetic relationship of a cucumber germplasm collection revealed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    c Indian Academy of Sciences. ONLINE RESOURCES. Genetic relationship of a ... cultivated vegetables, ranked fourth after tomato, onion and cabbage (Pitrat et al. 1999). It originates from India, and. China is .... Biosoft International, California, USA), primers were de- signed flanking the SSRs and allowed to generate PCR ...

  20. A Blueprint for Full Collective Flood Risk Estimation: Demonstration for European River Flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serinaldi, Francesco; Kilsby, Chris G

    2017-10-01

    Floods are a natural hazard evolving in space and time according to meteorological and river basin dynamics, so that a single flood event can affect different regions over the event duration. This physical mechanism introduces spatio-temporal relationships between flood records and losses at different locations over a given time window that should be taken into account for an effective assessment of the collective flood risk. However, since extreme floods are rare events, the limited number of historical records usually prevents a reliable frequency analysis. To overcome this limit, we move from the analysis of extreme events to the modeling of continuous stream flow records preserving spatio-temporal correlation structures of the entire process, and making a more efficient use of the information provided by continuous flow records. The approach is based on the dynamic copula framework, which allows for splitting the modeling of spatio-temporal properties by coupling suitable time series models accounting for temporal dynamics, and multivariate distributions describing spatial dependence. The model is applied to 490 stream flow sequences recorded across 10 of the largest river basins in central and eastern Europe (Danube, Rhine, Elbe, Oder, Waser, Meuse, Rhone, Seine, Loire, and Garonne). Using available proxy data to quantify local flood exposure and vulnerability, we show that the temporal dependence exerts a key role in reproducing interannual persistence, and thus magnitude and frequency of annual proxy flood losses aggregated at a basin-wide scale, while copulas allow the preservation of the spatial dependence of losses at weekly and annual time scales. © 2016 The Authors Risk Analysis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Risk Analysis.

  1. Molecular screening of Pakistani rice germplasm for xa5 gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-11

    BB) because of an increased frequency of ... Identification of xa5 gene in Pakistani rice germplasm will help in accelerating the breeding program including ..... against the prevalent strain of Xoo in Pakistan. REFERENCES.

  2. Notice of release of NBR-1 Germplasm basalt milkvetch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas A. Johnson; Thomas A. Jones; Kevin J. Connors; Kishor Bhattarai; B. Shaun Bushman; Kevin B. Jensen

    2008-01-01

    A selected-class pre-variety germplasm of basalt milkvetch (Astragalus filipes Torr. ex A. Gray [Fabaceae]) has been released for reclamation, rehabilitation, and restoration of semiarid rangelands in the northern Great Basin Region of the western US.

  3. [Characteristics of germplasm resources in Coix from xishuangbanna].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Janming; Gao, Weiwei; Peng, Chaozhong; He, Chunnian; Zhang, Qi; Bi, Wu

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the genetic diversity among wild germplasm resources of Coix that distributed at altitude of 550-1550 m in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan province by comparing the morphological variation, biological and economical factors. The field plot experiments were conducted to observation the germination rate, growth period. While the milled rice rate, content of protein, crude fat and ethanol extract of 9 wild Coix germplasm resources were measured. The germination rate of 9 germplasm was from 22% to 81%, and the growth period was among 139-156 d, which belongs to the medium-late mature type. The germination rate, growth stage, plant height, leaf length and width, tiller number, ramification number, seed number per stem of 9 Coix germplasm were significantly different (P Coix distributed throughout the regions of Xishuangbanna is relatively abundant.

  4. Genetic diversity of grape germplasm as revealed by microsatellite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) clustering analysis. These results will be useful for the exploitation of grape germplasm in basic and applied research. Key words: Vitis vinifera L., simple sequence repeat (SSR), genetic diversity, ...

  5. Assessment of Genetic Diversity and Structure of Large Garlic (Allium sativum) Germplasm Bank, by Diversity Arrays Technology "Genotyping-by-Sequencing" Platform (DArTseq).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Leticia A; Mérida-García, Rosa; Kilian, Andrzej; Hernandez, Pilar; Dorado, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Garlic ( Allium sativum ) is used worldwide in cooking and industry, including pharmacology/medicine and cosmetics, for its interesting properties. Identifying redundancies in germplasm blanks to generate core collections is a major concern, mostly in large stocks, in order to reduce space and maintenance costs. Yet, similar appearance and phenotypic plasticity of garlic varieties hinder their morphological classification. Molecular studies are challenging, due to the large and expected complex genome of this species, with asexual reproduction. Classical molecular markers, like isozymes, RAPD, SSR, or AFLP, are not convenient to generate germplasm core-collections for this species. The recent emergence of high-throughput genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approaches, like DArTseq, allow to overcome such limitations to characterize and protect genetic diversity. Therefore, such technology was used in this work to: (i) assess genetic diversity and structure of a large garlic-germplasm bank (417 accessions); (ii) create a core collection; (iii) relate genotype to agronomical features; and (iv) describe a cost-effective method to manage genetic diversity in garlic-germplasm banks. Hierarchical-cluster analysis, principal-coordinates analysis and STRUCTURE showed general consistency, generating three main garlic-groups, mostly determined by variety and geographical origin. In addition, high-resolution genotyping identified 286 unique and 131 redundant accessions, used to select a reduced size germplasm-bank core collection. This demonstrates that DArTseq is a cost-effective method to analyze species with large and expected complex genomes, like garlic. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of high-throughput genotyping of a large garlic germplasm. This is particularly interesting for garlic adaptation and improvement, to fight biotic and abiotic stresses, in the current context of climate change and global warming.

  6. Assessment of Genetic Diversity and Structure of Large Garlic (Allium sativum) Germplasm Bank, by Diversity Arrays Technology “Genotyping-by-Sequencing” Platform (DArTseq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Leticia A.; Mérida-García, Rosa; Kilian, Andrzej; Hernandez, Pilar; Dorado, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is used worldwide in cooking and industry, including pharmacology/medicine and cosmetics, for its interesting properties. Identifying redundancies in germplasm blanks to generate core collections is a major concern, mostly in large stocks, in order to reduce space and maintenance costs. Yet, similar appearance and phenotypic plasticity of garlic varieties hinder their morphological classification. Molecular studies are challenging, due to the large and expected complex genome of this species, with asexual reproduction. Classical molecular markers, like isozymes, RAPD, SSR, or AFLP, are not convenient to generate germplasm core-collections for this species. The recent emergence of high-throughput genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approaches, like DArTseq, allow to overcome such limitations to characterize and protect genetic diversity. Therefore, such technology was used in this work to: (i) assess genetic diversity and structure of a large garlic-germplasm bank (417 accessions); (ii) create a core collection; (iii) relate genotype to agronomical features; and (iv) describe a cost-effective method to manage genetic diversity in garlic-germplasm banks. Hierarchical-cluster analysis, principal-coordinates analysis and STRUCTURE showed general consistency, generating three main garlic-groups, mostly determined by variety and geographical origin. In addition, high-resolution genotyping identified 286 unique and 131 redundant accessions, used to select a reduced size germplasm-bank core collection. This demonstrates that DArTseq is a cost-effective method to analyze species with large and expected complex genomes, like garlic. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of high-throughput genotyping of a large garlic germplasm. This is particularly interesting for garlic adaptation and improvement, to fight biotic and abiotic stresses, in the current context of climate change and global warming. PMID:28775737

  7. Assessment of Genetic Diversity and Structure of Large Garlic (Allium sativum Germplasm Bank, by Diversity Arrays Technology “Genotyping-by-Sequencing” Platform (DArTseq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia A. Egea

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum is used worldwide in cooking and industry, including pharmacology/medicine and cosmetics, for its interesting properties. Identifying redundancies in germplasm blanks to generate core collections is a major concern, mostly in large stocks, in order to reduce space and maintenance costs. Yet, similar appearance and phenotypic plasticity of garlic varieties hinder their morphological classification. Molecular studies are challenging, due to the large and expected complex genome of this species, with asexual reproduction. Classical molecular markers, like isozymes, RAPD, SSR, or AFLP, are not convenient to generate germplasm core-collections for this species. The recent emergence of high-throughput genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS approaches, like DArTseq, allow to overcome such limitations to characterize and protect genetic diversity. Therefore, such technology was used in this work to: (i assess genetic diversity and structure of a large garlic-germplasm bank (417 accessions; (ii create a core collection; (iii relate genotype to agronomical features; and (iv describe a cost-effective method to manage genetic diversity in garlic-germplasm banks. Hierarchical-cluster analysis, principal-coordinates analysis and STRUCTURE showed general consistency, generating three main garlic-groups, mostly determined by variety and geographical origin. In addition, high-resolution genotyping identified 286 unique and 131 redundant accessions, used to select a reduced size germplasm-bank core collection. This demonstrates that DArTseq is a cost-effective method to analyze species with large and expected complex genomes, like garlic. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of high-throughput genotyping of a large garlic germplasm. This is particularly interesting for garlic adaptation and improvement, to fight biotic and abiotic stresses, in the current context of climate change and global warming.

  8. The European wool-carder bee (Anthidium manicatum) eavesdrops on plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during trichome collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Kelsey K; Brown, Steve; Clarke, Stephanie; Röse, Ursula S R; Starks, Philip T

    2017-11-01

    The plant-pollinator relationship is generally considered mutualistic. This relationship is less clear, however, when pollinators also cause tissue damage. Some Megachilidae bees collect plant material for nests from the plants they pollinate. In this study, we examined the relationship between Anthidium manicatum, the European wool-carder bee, and the source of its preferred nesting material - Stachys byzantina, lamb's ear. Female A. manicatum use their mandibles to trim trichomes from plants for nesting material (a behaviour dubbed "carding"). Using volatile organic compound (VOC) headspace analysis and behavioural observations, we explored (a) how carding effects S. byzantina and (b) how A. manicatum may choose specific S. byzantina plants. We found that removal of trichomes leads to a dissimilar VOC bouquet compared to intact leaves, with a significant increase in VOC detection following damage. A. manicatum also visit S. byzantina plants with trichomes removed at a greater frequency compared to plants with trichomes intact. Our data suggest that A. manicatum eavesdrop on VOCs produced by damaged plants, leading to more carding damage for individual plants due to increased detectability by A. manicatum. Accordingly, visitation by A. manicatum to S. byzantina may incur both a benefit (pollination) and cost (tissue damage) to the plant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Limiting and Enabling Factors of Collective Farmers' Marketing Initiatives: Results of a Comparative Analysis of the Situation and Trends in 10 European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knickel, K.; Zerger, C.; Jahn, G.; Renting, H.

    2008-01-01

    Linked with the growing power of retailers, European farmers have gradually lost control over supply chains. The resulting pressure on producer prices and the decline in policy support underpin the need for collective action among farmers. Co-operative initiatives in production, processing, and

  10. Energy performance control of local collectivities. Good practices of european towns; Mesure des performances energetiques des collectivites locales. Bonnes pratiques de villes europeennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacassagne, S.; Schilken, P.

    2003-01-01

    Some european towns developed a specific energy and environmental policy, function of many factors. Policies are implemented to favorite the energy consumption and the pollutant emission control. The actions of local collectivities in the domain have been analyzed following three axis: the measure of the energy performance of local collectivities, the territorial energy management tools, the energy integration in sectoral policies. This report takes stock on the first axis analysis. (A.L.B.)

  11. Structural and Temporal Variation in Genetic Diversity of European Spring Two-Row Barley Cultivars and Association Mapping of Quantitative Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Tondelli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred sixteen barley ( L. cultivars were selected to represent the diversity and history of European spring two-row barley breeding and to search for alleles controlling agronomic traits by association genetics. The germplasm was genotyped with 7864 gene-based single nucleotide polymorphism markers and corresponding field trial trait data relating to growth and straw strength were obtained at multiple European sites. Analysis of the marker data by statistical population genetics approaches revealed two important trends in the genetic diversity of European two-row spring barley, namely, i directional selection for approximately 14% of total genetic variation of the population in the last approximately 50 yr and ii highly uneven genomic distribution of genetic diversity. Association analysis of the phenotypic and genotypic data identified multiple loci affecting the traits investigated, some of which co-map with selected regions. Collectively, these data show that the genetic makeup of European two-row spring barley is evolving under breeder selection, with signs of extinction of diversity in some genomic regions, suggesting that “breeding the best with the best” is leading towards fixation of some breeder targets. Nevertheless, modern germplasm also retains many regions of high diversity, suggesting that site-specific genetic approaches for allele identification and crop improvement such as association genetics are likely to be successful.

  12. Possibilities of using the European bison (Bison bonasus epididymal spermatozoa collected post-mortem for cryopreservation and artificial insemination: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubiel Andrzej

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background European bison is the largest mammal in Europe with the population of approximately 4000 individuals. However, there is no report of post-mortem spermatozoa collection and cryopreservation from this species and the aim of this study was to test if the epididymal spermatozoa collected post-mortem from European bison are suitable for cryopreservation and artificial insemination (AI. Methods Epididymides were collected post-mortem from two European bison bulls at age of 8 (bull 1 and 11 year (bull 2. Epididymal sperm was harvested by making multiple incisions in caudae epididymidis, which were then rinsed with extender. The left epididymis of bull 1 was rinsed with BioXcell (IMV, France, whereas the right epididymis of bull 1 and the right and left epididymides of bull 2 were rinsed with the extender based on Tris, citric acid, glucose, egg yolk, glycerol, antibiotics and distilled water (extender II. The diluted semen was cooled to 5 degrees C, and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapour. Then, properties of the frozen/thawed semen were examined with the use of computer-assisted semen analysis system, and thirty cows and nine heifers of domestic cattle were artificially inseminated. Results Motility of fresh spermatozoa collected from the right epididymis of bull 1 was 70% (spermatozoa diluted with extender II, and from the left one was 60% (spermatozoa diluted with BioXcell, whereas motility of fresh spermatozoa collected from bull 2 was 90% (spermatozoa diluted with extender II. Spermatozoa motility just after thawing were 11 and 13% in bull 1, respectively for spermatozoa collected from the left and right epididymis and 48% in bull 2. As a result of AI of domestic cows and heifers with the frozen/thawed European bison spermatozoa, two pregnancies were obtained in heifers. One pregnancy finished with a premature labour after 253 days of pregnancy, and the second one after 264 days of pregnancy. Conclusions This is the first report

  13. RAPD analysis of the genetic diversity of mango (Mangifera indica) germplasm in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, I G B; Valente, S E S; Britto, F B; de Souza, V A B; Lima, P S C

    2011-12-14

    We evaluated genetic variability of mango (Mangifera indica) accessions maintained in the Active Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Meio-Norte in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, using RAPDs. Among these accessions, 35 originated from plantings in Brazil, six from the USA and one from India. Genomic DNA, extracted from leaf material using a commercial purification kit, was subjected to PCR with the primers A01, A09, G03, G10, N05, and M16. Fifty-five polymorphic loci were identified, with mean of 9.16 ± 3.31 bands per primer and 100% polymorphism. Application of unweighted pair group method using arithmetic average cluster analysis demonstrated five genotypic groups among the accessions examined. The genotypes Rosa 41, Rosa 48 and Rosa 49 were highly similar (94% similarity), whereas genotypes Sensation and Rosa 18 were the most divergent (only 7% similarity). The mango accessions were found to have considerable genetic variability, demonstrating the importance of analyzing each genotype in a collection in order to efficiently maintain the germplasm collection.

  14. evaluating diversity among kenyan papaya germplasm using simple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FKO

    2013-01-01

    Jan 1, 2013 ... regrouped in clusters A (iv) and B. The genetic differences among the accessions revealed by the formation of distinct clusters suggest significant genetic variability emanation from varying sources of the papaya germplasm in Kenya. Although the level of genetic diversity revealed by SSR markers in this ...

  15. Genetic diversity of taraxacum germplasm revealed by sequence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diversity of taraxacum germplasm revealed by sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) analysis. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... The genetic relationships analyzed with un-weighed pairgroup method with arithmetic mean (UPMGA) showed that 11 population of taraxacum were grouped into three ...

  16. Germplasm-regression-combined marker-trait association ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    secondly, we described how to do the GRC analysis and its differences from mapping QTL based on a linkage map reconstructed from the planned populations; thirdly, we considered the factors that affect the GRC association identification, including selections of optimal germplasm and molecular markers and testing of ...

  17. Registration of USDA-UTWH-102 winter hardy orchardgrass germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-ARS announces the release of USDA-UTWG-102 orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) (Reg. No., PI) germplasm. USDA-UTWH-102 possesses increased winter hardiness and provides utility to applied orchardgrass breeding and genetic programs. USDA-UTWH-102 is a 24 clone synthetic derived from orchard...

  18. Resistance of potato germplasm to the potato tuberworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The evaluation of potato accessions for resistance to potato tuberworm Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) is a valuable component of integrated pest management; however, few attempts have been made to identify natural genetic tuber resistance to tuberworm on potato germplasm. The objective of this stu...

  19. National Plant Germplasm System: Critical Role of Customer Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) conserves plant genetic resources, not only for use by future generations, but for immediate use by scientists and educators around the world. With a great deal of interaction between genebank curators and users of plant genetic resources, customer service...

  20. Assessing genetic diversity in Valencia peanut germplasm using SSR markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.ssp. fastigiata var. fastigiata) are well known for their in-shell market value. Assessment of genetic diversity of the available Valencia germplasm is key to the success of developing improved cultivars with desirable agronomic and quality traits. In the pres...

  1. Lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) oviposition on Prunus germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was used as an oviposition surrogate for the congeneric S. exitiosa (Say) to examine possible preference for Prunus germplasm. We assayed limbs of a peach cultivar (Prunus persica), peach rootstocks, plum-peach hybrid rootstocks, the...

  2. Assessment of genetic diversity in Indian rice germplasm (Oryza ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-12-11

    Dec 11, 2013 ... Abstract. Assessment of genetic diversity in a crop germplasm is a vital part of plant breeding. ... carried out to decipher the pattern of genetic diversity in terms of both phenotypic and genotypic variability, and to assess the efficiency of ..... allelic data was analysed using the computer package Dar- win (ver.

  3. Germplasm preservation in vitro of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He-Ping; Wang, Jian; Huang, Lu-Qi; Gao, Shan-Lin; Huang, Peng; Wang, Dian-Lei

    2014-04-01

    The root of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. is a common traditional Chinese medicine. In recent years, the wild resources of P. multiflorum have been seriously broken, and the cultivated varieties have been degrading. The germplasm resources of P. multiflorum need protection and preservation. So far, no in vitro germplasm preservation of P. multiflorum has been reported. To explore a method for the in vitro germplasm preservation of P. multiflorum. A large number of buds from seed explants were induced by tissue culture. The single buds were used as experimental materials to study the effects of plant growth regulator, temperature, and osmotic pressure on the preservation time, growth recovery, and genetic stability. When the buds were inoculated onto Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal media containing 4% w/v sucrose, 2% w/v mannitol, and 1% w/v sorbitol, supplemented with paclobutrazol (PP333) 1.0 mg/l, abscisic acid (ABA) 5.0 mg/l, and daminozide (B9) 30.0 mg/l in an illuminated chamber under a 16 h photoperiod of 1500 lx light intensity at 15°C for 10 months, the survival rate was over 70% with good growth recovery and genetic stability. The results of this study can be used for medium-term in vitro germplasm preservation of P. multiflorum, and meeting actual needs of research and production.

  4. genetic diversity within ghanaian cowpea germplasm based on sds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    60 Ghanaian cowpea germplasm on the basis of stored seed protein banding patterns by the sodium dodecyl sulphate—polyacrylamide gel ..... Bean arcelin 2. Genetic variation, inheritance and linkage relationships of a novel seed protein of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Theor. Appl. Genet. 71:847—855. Pusztai, A., Grant, G., ...

  5. Assessment of genetic diversity in Indian rice germplasm (Oryza ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Assessment of genetic diversity in a crop germplasm is a vital part of plant breeding. DNA markers such as microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers have been widely used to estimate the genetic diversity in rice. The present study was carried out to decipher the pattern of genetic diversity in terms of both ...

  6. Field screening of cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field screening of cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) germplasm for ... fresh root yield (FYLD), harvest index (HI), dry matter (DM), cyanide potential (CNP), ... one trait were 92/0681, 92/02325; 92/0455, 88/02555; Alice Local and 88/02555.

  7. Registration of CA0469C025C chickpea germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chickpea (Cicer arientinum L.) germplasm CA0469C025C (Reg. No. XXX; PI XXX), was released by the USDA-ARS in 2010. CA0469C025C was released based on its improved yield and reaction to Ascochyta blight relative to the popular commercial cultivars ‘Dwelley’, ‘Sierra’, and ‘Sawyer’. CA0490C025C is deri...

  8. Evaluation of potato germplasm (Population A & B) for resistance to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatments consisted of germplasm materials introduced from International Potato Centre (CIP) headquarters in Lima, Peru from two populations arranged in a completely randomised block design with three replications. At Loreto, late blight was more severe during the long rains than in the short rains while at Kabete late ...

  9. European guidelines for quality assurance in cervical cancer screening: recommendations for collecting samples for conventional and liquid-based cytology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arbyn, M.; Herbert, A.; Schenck, U.; Nieminen, P.; Jordan, J.; Mcgoogan, E.; Patnick, J.; Bergeron, C.; Baldauf, J.J.; Klinkhamer, P.; Bulten, J.; Martin-Hirsch, P.

    2007-01-01

    The current paper presents an annex in the second edition of the European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Cervical Cancer Screening. It provides guidance on how to make a satisfactory conventional Pap smear or a liquid-based cytology (LBC) sample. Practitioners taking samples for cytology should

  10. Collection, processing and testing of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood and haematopoietic stem cells by European Blood Alliance members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Närhi, M; Natri, O; Desbois, I

    2013-01-01

    A questionnaire study was carried out in collaboration with the European Blood Alliance (EBA) Tissues and Cells (T&C) working group. The aim was to assess the level of involvement and commonality of processes on the procurement, testing and storage of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood (UCB...

  11. Marker-assisted rationalisation of genetic resources collections: a case study in flax using AFLPs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treuren, van R.; Soest, van L.J.M.; Hintum, van T.J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Removing redundant germplasm from collections is one of the options for genebanks to increase the efficiency of their genetic resource management. Molecular characterisation of germplasm is thereby becoming more and more important to verify suspected duplication. AFLPs were used to characterise 29

  12. Elucidating genetic identities of cacao germplam in an international cacao collection using molecular markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The conservation of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) germplasm requires maintaining living trees in field genebanks in tropical regions. The International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad is one of the largest cacao germplasm collections in the world. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the extent...

  13. Automation in accession classification of Brazilian Capsicum germplasm through artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Gonçalves Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Germplasm classification by species requires specific knowledge on/of the culture of interest. Therefore, efforts aimed at automation of this process are necessary for the efficient management of collections. Automation of germplasm classification through artificial neural networks may be a viable and less laborious strategy. The aims of this study were to verify the classification potential of Capsicum accessions regarding/ the species based on morphological descriptors and artificial neural networks, and to establish the most important descriptors and the best network architecture for this purpose. Five hundred and sixty-four plants from 47 Brazilian Capsicum accessions were evaluated. Neural networks of multilayer perceptron type were used in order to automate the species identification through 17 morphological descriptors. Six network architectures were evaluated, and the number of neurons in the hidden layer ranged from 1 to 6. The relative importance of morphological descriptors in the classification process was established by Garson's method. Corolla color, corolla spot color, calyx annular constriction, fruit shape at pedicel attachment, and fruit color at mature stage were the most important descriptors. The network architecture with 6 neurons in the hidden layer is the most appropriate in this study. The possibility of classifying Capsicum plants regarding/ the species through artificial neural networks with 100 % accuracy was verified.

  14. Genetic diversity of cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) germplasm assessed by retrotransposon-based markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smýkal, P; Bačová-Kerteszová, N; Kalendar, R; Corander, J; Schulman, A H; Pavelek, M

    2011-05-01

    Retrotransposon segments were characterized and inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP) markers developed for cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and the Linum genus. Over 75 distinct long terminal repeat retrotransposon segments were cloned, the first set for Linum, and specific primers designed for them. IRAP was then used to evaluate genetic diversity among 708 accessions of cultivated flax comprising 143 landraces, 387 varieties, and 178 breeding lines. These included both traditional and modern, oil (86), fiber (351), and combined-use (271) accessions, originating from 36 countries, and 10 wild Linum species. The set of 10 most polymorphic primers yielded 141 reproducible informative data points per accession, with 52% polymorphism and a 0.34 Shannon diversity index. The maximal genetic diversity was detected among wild Linum species (100% IRAP polymorphism and 0.57 Jaccard similarity), while diversity within cultivated germplasm decreased from landraces (58%, 0.63) to breeding lines (48%, 0.85) and cultivars (50%, 0.81). Application of Bayesian methods for clustering resulted in the robust identification of 20 clusters of accessions, which were unstratified according to origin or user type. This indicates an overlap in genetic diversity despite disruptive selection for fiber versus oil types. Nevertheless, eight clusters contained high proportions (70-100%) of commercial cultivars, whereas two clusters were rich (60%) in landraces. These findings provide a basis for better flax germplasm management, core collection establishment, and exploration of diversity in breeding, as well as for exploration of the role of retrotransposons in flax genome dynamics.

  15. Assessment of genetic diversity in indigenous turmeric (Curcuma longa) germplasm from India using molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sushma; Singh, Shweta; Sharma, Suresh; Tewari, S K; Roy, R K; Goel, A K; Rana, T S

    2015-04-01

    Curcuma longa L., commonly known as turmeric, is one of the economically and medicinally important plant species. It is predominantly cultivated in the tropical and sub tropical countries. India is the largest producer, and exporter of turmeric in the world, followed by China, Indonesia, Bangladesh and Thailand. In the present study, Directed Amplification of Minisatellite DNA (DAMD) and Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR), methods were used to estimate the genetic variability in indigenous turmeric germplasm. Cumulative data analysis for DAMD (15) and ISSR (13) markers resulted into 478 fragments, out of which 392 fragments were polymorphic, revealing 82 % polymorphism across the turmeric genotypes. Wide range of pairwise genetic distances (0.03-0.59) across the genotypes revealed that these genotypes are genetically quite diverse. The UPGMA dendrogram generated using cumulative data showed significant relationships amongst the genotypes. All 29 genotypes studied grouped into two clusters irrespective of their geographical affiliations with 100 % bootstrap value except few genotypes, suggesting considerable diversity amongst the genotypes. These results suggested that the current collection of turmeric genotypes preserve the vast majority of natural variations. The results further demonstrate the efficiency and reliability of DAMD and ISSR markers in determining the genetic diversity and relationships among the indigenous turmeric germplasm. DAMD and ISSR profiling have identified diverse turmeric genotypes, which could be further utilized in various genetic improvement programmes including conventional as well as marker assisted breeding towards development of new and desirable turmeric genotypes.

  16. Scaling up health knowledge at European level requires sharing integrated data: an approach for collection of database specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menditto E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Enrica Menditto,1 Angela Bolufer De Gea,2 Caitriona Cahir,3,4 Alessandra Marengoni,5 Salvatore Riegler,1 Giuseppe Fico,6 Elisio Costa,7 Alessandro Monaco,8 Sergio Pecorelli,5 Luca Pani,8 Alexandra Prados-Torres9 1School of Pharmacy, CIRFF/Center of Pharmacoeconomics, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy; 2Directorate-General for Health and Food Safety, European Commission, Brussels, Belgium; 3Division of Population Health Sciences, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, 4Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, St James’s Hospital, Dublin, Ireland; 5Department of Clinical and Experimental Science, University of Brescia, Brescia; 6Life Supporting Technologies, Photonics Technology and Bioengineering Department, School of Telecomunications Engineering, Polytechnic University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain; 7Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal; 8Italian Medicines Agency – AIFA, Rome, Italy; 9EpiChron Research Group on Chronic Diseases, Aragón Health Sciences Institute (IACS, IIS Aragón REDISSEC ISCIII, Miguel Servet University Hospital, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain Abstract: Computerized health care databases have been widely described as an excellent opportunity for research. The availability of “big data” has brought about a wave of innovation in projects when conducting health services research. Most of the available secondary data sources are restricted to the geographical scope of a given country and present heterogeneous structure and content. Under the umbrella of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing, collaborative work conducted by the partners of the group on “adherence to prescription and medical plans” identified the use of observational and large-population databases to monitor medication-taking behavior in the elderly. This article describes the methodology used to gather the information from available databases among the Adherence Action Group partners

  17. Population structure and linkage disequilibrium in Lupinus albus L. germplasm and its implication for association mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Javed; Mamidi, Sujan; Ahsan, Rubina; Kianian, Shahryar F; Coyne, Clarice J; Hamama, Anwar A; Narina, Satya S; Bhardwaj, Harbans L

    2012-08-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) has been around since 300 B.C. and is recognized for its ability to grow on poor soils and application as green manure in addition to seed harvest. The seed has very high levels of protein (33-47 %) and oil (6-13 %). It also has many secondary metabolites that are potentially of nutraceutical value to animals and humans. Despite such a great potential, lupins role in modern agriculture began only in the twentieth century. Although a large collection of Lupinus germplasm accessions is available worldwide, rarely have they been genetically characterized. Additionally, scarce genomic resources in terms of recombinant populations and genome information have been generated for L. albus. With the advancement in association mapping methods, the natural populations have the potential to replace the recombinant populations in gene mapping and marker-trait associations. Therefore, we studied the genetic similarity, population structure and marker-trait association in a USDA germplasm collection for their current and future application in this crop improvement. A total of 122 PI (Plant Inventory) lines were screened with 18 AFLP primer pairs that generated 2,277 fragments. A subset of 892 polymorphic markers with MAF >0.05 (minor allele frequency) were used for association mapping. The cluster analysis failed to group accessions on the basis of their passport information, and a weak structure and low linkage disequilibrium (LD) were observed indicating the usefulness of the collection for association mapping. Moreover, we were also able to identify two markers (a p value of 1.53 × 10(-4) and 2.3 × 10(-4)) that explained 22.69 and 20.5 % of seed weight variation determined using R (LR) (2) . The implications of lack of geographic clustering, population structure, low LD and the ability of AFLP to map seed weight trait using association mapping and the usefulness of the PI collections in breeding programs are discussed.

  18. Development of the Northern European Ribes core collection based on a microsatellite (SSR) marker diversity analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonius, Kristiina; Karhu, S.; Kaldmäe, H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to support the selection process of the most valuable currant and gooseberry accessions cultivated in Northern Europe, in order to establish a decentralized core collection and, following the selection, to ensure sufficient genetic diversity in the selected collection....... Molecular analyses of the material from nine project partners were run at seven different laboratories. The results were first analysed for each partner separately, and then combined to ensure sufficient genetic diversity in the core collection....

  19. Flowering of taro germplasm (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Yadelys Figueroa Águila; Marilys D Milián Jiménez; Yuniel Rodríguez García; Manuel Lima Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Research was done at the Center for Tropical Crop Research (INIVIT), to evaluate inflorescence of taro germplasm (104 accessions) in Cuba´s climatic conditions. Sampling was made every 7 days in the 2013-2014 period to evaluate inflorescence; accessions were characterized according to flowering parameters. The results showed that natural flowering by the 26-accession sample (25%), was observed to early blossom from July to October in 18 accessions (69.2%). Increased temperature and relative h...

  20. Agronomic characteristic of a dwarf germplasm sunflower line

    OpenAIRE

    Vassilevska-Ivanova Roumiana; Tcekova Zoja

    2005-01-01

    A new sunflower (Helianthus annuus L) dwarf line, HA-ARG-1, has been developed after interspecific hybridization between cultivated sunflower H. annuus and wild annual silver-leaf sunflower H. argophyllus. Plants were selected for reduced height and multiple branching characteristics. The agronomic, morphologic and oil content characteristics of the line were analyzed. Isolation of similar dwarfed lines illustrates the importance of using the wild sunflower germplasms in the development of sp...

  1. Evaluation of popcorn germplasm for resistance to Sesamia nonagrioides attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butrón, A; Sandoya, G; Revilla, P; Ordás, A; Malvar, R A

    2005-10-01

    Popcorn adapted to Spanish conditions could be an interesting and profitable alternative to field corn. However, little is known about breeding popcorn germplasm for adaptation to Spain. Sesamia nonagrioides Lefèvbre is the main insect pest affecting popcorn quality and yield under Spanish growing conditions. The objectives of the study were the search for sources of resistance to S. nonagrioides among popcorn germplasm and to study the genetics of the resistance to S. nonagrioides attack. Eight breeding populations along with a five-inbred line diallel and two popcorn commercial checks were evaluated under S. nonagrioides infestation in 2 yr. Significant differences were found among general combining ability (GCA) effects for days to silking, S. nonagrioides tunnel length, general appearance of the ear, kernel moisture, and yield. Specific combining ability (SCA) effects were found to be significant for yield and ear damage. Therefore, heterotic patterns among popcorn materials should be taken into account to generate new popcorn hybrids that are not only more productive but also have higher kernel quality. Breeding popcorn populations BSP4APC0 and PSPW1C1 could be base germplasms in a breeding program for obtaining parental inbreds of healthy kernel popcorn hybrids. New inbred lines could be generated from the cross BP1 x BP2 that would have improved GCA and SCA effects for S. nonagrioides resistance when crossed to South American inbreds.

  2. Reproduction biotechnologies in germplasm banking of livestock species: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, J M; Mayer, I

    2017-10-01

    Many biotechnologies are currently used in livestock breeding with the aim of improving reproductive efficiency and increasing the rate of genetic progress in production animals. Semen cryopreservation is the most widely used cryobiotechnology, although vitrification techniques now allow embryos and oocytes to be banked in ever-increasing numbers. Cryopreservation of other types of germplasm (reproductive tissue in general) is also possible, although the techniques are still in the early stages of development for use in livestock species. Although still in their infancy, these techniques are increasingly being used in aquaculture. Germplasm conservation enables reproductive tissues from both animals and fish to be preserved to generate offspring in the future without having to maintain large numbers of living populations of these species. However, such measures need careful planning and coordination. This review explains why the preservation of genetic diversity is needed for livestock and fish, and describes some of the issues involved in germplasm banking. Furthermore, some recent developments in semen handling leading to improved semen cryopreservation and biosecurity measures are also discussed.

  3. Effect of two different germplasm of Mucuna pruriens seed extracts against some fish pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marimuthu M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the two different germplasm of Mucuna seeds were collected from agro geographical regions was evaluated for its antibacterial activities. Antibacterial activity of the seed extracts was studied against the fish pathogens of Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Vibrio cholera and Klebsiella pneumonia using agar well diffusion method. Results showed that methanol and ethanol extracts showed more potent antibacterial activity than other solvent extracts. The results were expressed as mean ± SD. The results obtained in the study shows that velvet bean black seed extract has more antibacterial activity against fish pathogens. The antibacterial activity of all the Mucuna seed extracts are comparable ad their potential as alternative in the treatment of infectious by these microorganisms was present in the fish. Susceptibility testing is conducted on isolates using drug selected on the basis of their importance to human medicine and use I fish production.

  4. A novel method for conserving cowpea germplasm and breeding stocks using solar disinfestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ntoukam, G.; Kitch, L.W.; Shade, R.E.; Murdock, L.L. [Purdue Univ., Entomology Dept., Lafayette, IN (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Experiments conducted in Maroua, Cameroon, demonstrated that a large 50-kg-capacity solar heater can be used to successfully eradicate infestations of Callosobruchus maculatus from cowpea seeds kept in small, transparent Minigrip zip lock plastic bags. Temperatures produced inside the heater were sufficient to kill all developing insects living within infested cowpea seeds. Small, transparent ziplock plastic bags are useful seed storage containers for short-term cowpea germplasm collections and are easily inspected during storage following solar disinfestation. Published reports indicate that temperatures of up to 85{sup o}C do not adversely affect seed germination, germination rates, or seeding viability. These temperature and biological experiments provide evidence that the solar heater technique can serve as an effective and practical means to improve the short-term storage of cowpea seeds in developing country national agricultural research programs. (author)

  5. Understanding and improving flavor in snap beans: Screening the USDA Phaseolus core collection for pod sugar and flavor compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of our research is to gain knowledge regarding variation in sugar and flavor content among a sample of dry bean and green pod-type accessions from the USDA Phaseolus Germplasm Core Collection, Pullman, WA. Knowledge of the variation will allow better utilization of germplasm resources ...

  6. Natural variation of folate content and composition in spinach (Spinacia oleracea) germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohag, M J I; Wei, Yan-yan; Yu, Ning; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Kai; Patring, Johan; He, Zhen-li; Yang, Xiao-e

    2011-12-14

    Breeding to increase folate levels in edible parts of plants, termed folate biofortification, is an economical approach to fight against folate deficiency in humans, especially in the developing world. Germplasm with elevated folates are a useful genetic source for both breeding and direct use. Spinach is one of the well-know vegetables that contains a relatively high amount of folate. Currently, little is known about how much folate, and their composition varies in different spinach accessions. The aim of this study was to investigate natural variation in the folate content and composition of spinach genotypes grown under controlled environmental conditions. The folate content and composition in 67 spinach accessions were collected from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (AVRDC) germplasm collections according to their origin, grown under control conditions to screen for natural diversity. Folates were extracted by a monoenzyme treatment and analyzed by a validated liquid chromatography (LC) method. The total folate content ranged from 54.1 to 173.2 μg/100 g of fresh weight, with 3.2-fold variation, and was accession-dependent. Four spinach accessions (PI 499372, NSL 6095, PI 261787, and TOT7337-B) have been identified as enriched folate content over 150 μg/100 g of fresh weight. The folate forms found were H(4)-folate, 5-CH(3)-H(4)-folate, and 5-HCO-H(4)-folate, and 10-CHO-folic acid also varied among different accessions and was responsible for variation in the total folate content. The major folate vitamer was represented by 5-CH(3)-H(4)-folate, which on average accounted for up to 52% of the total folate pool. The large variation in the total folate content and composition in diverse spinach accessions demonstrates the great genetic potential of diverse genotypes to be exploited by plant breeders.

  7. Sorghum germplasm from West and Central Africa maintained in the ICRISAT genebank: Status, gaps, and diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Deo Upadhyaya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The genebank at ICRISAT maintains 8020 accessions of sorghum from 16 West and Central African countries. Geographical gaps and diversity were assessed in the collection. Using the passport data of 3991 accessions for which georeferenced data were available, a total of 386 districts (gaps located in 11 West and Central African countries were identified as geographical gaps. Burkina Faso with 140 and Nigeria with 118 districts were identified as countries with major geographical gaps. The collection of 43 accessions of wild species represented only three species belonging to Sorghum bicolor ssp. drummondii and ssp. verticilliflorum, S. hevisonii, and S. macrochaeta, highlighting the need for collection missions aimed exclusively at enriching the collection of wild relatives. Accessions having characterization data (7630 were used to assess diversity. The first three principal components contributed to >60% of variation. Maximum diversity was observed in the collection from Nigeria for both qualitative and quantitative traits. Mean values indicated significant differences between basic and intermediate races for the traits studied. Among the races, accessions of guinea-caudatum for qualitative traits and those of caudatum for quantitative traits were highly diverse. The low intensity of the sorghum collection and the many geographical gaps in the collection underline the importance of launching collection missions to fill the gaps, particularly in regions of predominantly guinea sorghums. Genotyping of possible duplicate accessions is needed to identify duplicates in the collection. It is suggested that all passport information including georeferenced data of collection sites should be collected when samples are collected in gaps. Keywords: Collection, Diversity, Gaps, Germplasm, Landraces, Sorghum

  8. A strategy for developing representative germplasm sets for systematic QTL validation, demonstrated for apple, peach, and sweet cherry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peace, C.P.; Luby, J.; Weg, van de W.E.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Iezzoni, A.F.

    2014-01-01

    Horticultural crop improvement would benefit from a standardized, systematic, and statistically robust procedure for validating quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in germplasm relevant to breeding programs. Here, we describe and demonstrate a strategy for developing reference germplasm sets of

  9. Assessment of Genetic Diversity and Structure of Large Garlic (Allium sativum) Germplasm Bank, by Diversity Arrays Technology “Genotyping-by-Sequencing” Platform (DArTseq)

    OpenAIRE

    Leticia A. Egea; Leticia A. Egea; Rosa Mérida-García; Andrzej Kilian; Pilar Hernandez; Gabriel Dorado

    2017-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is used worldwide in cooking and industry, including pharmacology/medicine and cosmetics, for its interesting properties. Identifying redundancies in germplasm blanks to generate core collections is a major concern, mostly in large stocks, in order to reduce space and maintenance costs. Yet, similar appearance and phenotypic plasticity of garlic varieties hinder their morphological classification. Molecular studies are challenging, due to the large and expected complex...

  10. Assessment of Genetic Diversity and Structure of Large Garlic (Allium sativum) Germplasm Bank, by Diversity Arrays Technology ?Genotyping-by-Sequencing? Platform (DArTseq)

    OpenAIRE

    Egea, Leticia A.; M?rida-Garc?a, Rosa; Kilian, Andrzej; Hernandez, Pilar; Dorado, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is used worldwide in cooking and industry, including pharmacology/medicine and cosmetics, for its interesting properties. Identifying redundancies in germplasm blanks to generate core collections is a major concern, mostly in large stocks, in order to reduce space and maintenance costs. Yet, similar appearance and phenotypic plasticity of garlic varieties hinder their morphological classification. Molecular studies are challenging, due to the large and expected complex...

  11. Registrations of Five Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Mutant Germplasm with Superior Fiber Length, Strength and Uniformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutant germplasm MD 15-mut 13 (Reg. No.----, PI------), MD 15-mut 31 (Reg. No.----, PI------), MD 15-mut 61 (Reg No.----- PI------), MD 15-mut 89 (Reg. No.----, PI------) and MD 15-mut 138 (Reg. No.----, PI------) are unique germplasm of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). These germplasm lines...

  12. Genetic diversity analysis of fruit characteristics of hawthorn germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, K; Guo, Y S; Wang, G; Zhao, Y H; Dong, W X

    2015-12-07

    One hundred and six accessions of hawthorn intraspecific resources, from the National Germplasm Repository at Shenyang, were subjected to genetic diversity and principal component analysis based on evaluation data of 15 fruit traits. Results showed that the genetic diversity of hawthorn fruit traits varied. Among the 15 traits, the fruit shape variable coefficient had the most obvious evaluation, followed by fruit surface state, dot color, taste, weight of single fruit, sepal posture, peduncle form, and metula traits. These are the primary traits by which hawthorn could be classified in the future. The principal component demonstrated that these traits are the most influential factors of hawthorn fruit characteristics.

  13. Single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in elite north american potato germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Jong Walter S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current breeding approaches in potato rely almost entirely on phenotypic evaluations; molecular markers, with the exception of a few linked to disease resistance traits, are not widely used. Large-scale sequence datasets generated primarily through Sanger Expressed Sequence Tag projects are available from a limited number of potato cultivars and access to next generation sequencing technologies permits rapid generation of sequence data for additional cultivars. When coupled with the advent of high throughput genotyping methods, an opportunity now exists for potato breeders to incorporate considerably more genotypic data into their decision-making. Results To identify a large number of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs in elite potato germplasm, we sequenced normalized cDNA prepared from three commercial potato cultivars: 'Atlantic', 'Premier Russet' and 'Snowden'. For each cultivar, we generated 2 Gb of sequence which was assembled into a representative transcriptome of ~28-29 Mb for each cultivar. Using the Maq SNP filter that filters read depth, density, and quality, 575,340 SNPs were identified within these three cultivars. In parallel, 2,358 SNPs were identified within existing Sanger sequences for three additional cultivars, 'Bintje', 'Kennebec', and 'Shepody'. Using a stringent set of filters in conjunction with the potato reference genome, we identified 69,011 high confidence SNPs from these six cultivars for use in genotyping with the Infinium platform. Ninety-six of these SNPs were used with a BeadXpress assay to assess allelic diversity in a germplasm panel of 248 lines; 82 of the SNPs proved sufficiently informative for subsequent analyses. Within diverse North American germplasm, the chip processing market class was most distinct, clearly separated from all other market classes. The round white and russet market classes both include fresh market and processing cultivars. Nevertheless, the russet and round

  14. Flowering of taro germplasm (Colocasia esculenta (L. Schott in Cuba

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    Yadelys Figueroa Águila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research was done at the Center for Tropical Crop Research (INIVIT, to evaluate inflorescence of taro germplasm (104 accessions in Cuba´s climatic conditions. Sampling was made every 7 days in the 2013-2014 period to evaluate inflorescence; accessions were characterized according to flowering parameters. The results showed that natural flowering by the 26-accession sample (25%, was observed to early blossom from July to October in 18 accessions (69.2%. Increased temperature and relative humidity lasted until November, when inflorescence ends.

  15. The National Animal Germplasm Program: challenges and opportunities for poultry genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, H D

    2006-02-01

    In the United States, poultry genetic resources have consolidated because of economic pressures. Such consolidations can potentially jeopardize the poultry industry and the ability of research communities to respond to future challenges. To address the loss of genetic resources for all livestock and aquatic species, USDA established the National Animal Germplasm Program (NAGP) in 1999. Since the initiation of NAGP, population surveys have been conducted on nonindustrial chicken and turkey breeds. These surveys not only provide insight into breed status, but also serve as a benchmark for future comparisons. The survey results revealed that 20 chicken breeds and 9 turkey breeds were in various stages of being lost. The NAGP has initiated an ex situ repository for cryopreserved germplasm and tissue that already contains 59 chicken lines and 2,915 tissue samples. As the NAGP, along with its industry and university partners, continues developing the ex situ collection, there are research opportunities in cryopreserved tissue utilization and studies of genetic diversity. For cryopreserved tissues, several key research areas include improving the cryopreservation protocols for rooster and tom semen by using cryoprotectants other than glycerol and utilizing embryonic cells. Although surveys have been conducted on public research lines and rare breeds, there is a void in understanding the level of genetic diversity present in U.S. poultry populations. Therefore, an opportunity exists to perform a series of genetic diversity studies using molecular- based approaches. Such an evaluation can help clarify population differences between research lines and rare breeds and, thereby, facilitate conservation strategies. There appears to be growing consumer interest in poultry products derived from heritage breeds and/or poultry raised in nonindustrial production systems. Although the depth of such market trends is unknown, such an interest may provide an important niche for rare

  16. A common basis for facilitated legitimate exchange of biological materials proposed by the European Culture Collections' Organisation

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    Dagmar Fritze

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Being charged with the task of accessioning and supplying of living microbiological material, microbial culture collections are institutions that play a central role between the interests of a variety of user communities. On the one side are the providers of living microbiological material, such as individual scientists, institutions and countries of origin and on the other side are the various kinds of recipients/users of cultures of microorganisms from academia and industry. Thus, providing access to high quality biological material and scientific services while at the same time observing donor countries' rights, intellectual property rights, biosafety and biosecurity aspects poses demanding challenges. E.g. donor countries rights relate to Article 15 of the Convention on Biological Diversity: "Contracting parties …. recognize the sovereign rights of states over their natural resources …. shall facilitate access to resources … and not impose restrictions that run counter to the aims of the Convention. Access to natural resources shall be by mutually agreed terms and subject to prior informed consent ..." The use of a proposed standard contract by culture collections is discussed as a way of contractually safeguarding the existing research commons, while observing the new rights established in the Convention on Biological Diversity as well as other existing and new legislation impacting on the accessibility of living microbial material.

  17. [Numerical analysis of morphological variation of germplasm resources of Chrysanthemum morifolium for medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qingsong; Guo, Qiaosheng; Li, Yuchuan; Mao, Pengfei

    2011-05-01

    Botanical characters of germplasm resources of Chrysanthemum morifolium for medicine were observed and compared, which could offer reference for its genetic improvement and germplasm resources protection. Based on the random blocks field experiments design, twenty-six morphological traits were observed. The morphological differences among germplasm resources were compared by principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The coefficient of variation values for 17 of 26 traits indicated a high level of variation (above 20%). Six principal components which accounted for 77.14% of total variance were extracted from the principal component analysis. The 29 germplasm resources could be divided into two clusters. There were large morphological variation among germplasm resources on Ch. morifolium for medicine.

  18. Opening the treasure chest: A DNA-barcoding primer set for most higher taxa of Central European birds and mammals from museum collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäffer, Sylvia; Zachos, Frank E; Koblmüller, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    DNA-barcoding is a rapidly developing method for efficiently identifying samples to species level by means of short standard DNA sequences. However, reliable species assignment requires the availability of a comprehensive DNA barcode reference library, and hence numerous initiatives aim at generating such barcode databases for particular taxa or geographic regions. Historical museum collections represent a potentially invaluable source for the DNA-barcoding of many taxa. This is particularly true for birds and mammals, for which collecting fresh (voucher) material is often very difficult to (nearly) impossible due to the special animal welfare and conservation regulations that apply to vertebrates in general, and birds and mammals in particular. Moreover, even great efforts might not guarantee sufficiently complete sampling of fresh material in a short period of time. DNA extracted from historical samples is usually degraded, such that only short fragments can be amplified, rendering the recovery of the barcoding region as a single fragment impossible. Here, we present a new set of primers that allows the efficient amplification and sequencing of the entire barcoding region in most higher taxa of Central European birds and mammals in six overlapping fragments, thus greatly increasing the value of historical museum collections for generating DNA barcode reference libraries. Applying our new primer set in recently established NGS protocols promises to further increase the efficiency of barcoding old bird and mammal specimens.

  19. AFLP markers for the assessment of genetic diversity in european and North American potato varieties cultivated in Iran

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    Saeed Tarkesh Esfahani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Information about the genetic diversity of potato germplasm in Iran is important for variety identification andto enhance the classification of germplasm collections and exploit them in breeding programs and for the development andintroduction of new varieties. AFLP fingerprinting was applied to a group of cultivated potato varieties to find if there is anygeographical differentiation in potato diversity from Europe and North America. The high level of polymorphism within potatovarieties and the high number of variety-specific bands suggest that AFLPs are powerful markers for diversity analysis inpotato varieties. No region-specific AFLP markers were found (present in varieties from the same origin and absent inothers. The UPGMA dendrogram revealed four distinct clusters corresponding almost to the geographical origin of thevarieties. However, the bootstrap support for branches was rather weak. No clusters clearly distinguished varieties fromEurope and North America. Varieties from the same geographical origins however tended to group together within eachcluster. The mean similarity and the UPGMA dendrogram both suggest that North American varieties have nearly identicalgenetic diversity to European varieties. The results of AMOVA revealed large within-region variations which accounted for94.5% of the total molecular variance. The between-region variation, although accounting for only 5.5% of the total variation,was statistically significant. AFLP technology was successfully used to evaluate diversity between different geographicalgroups of potatoes and is recommended for potato genetic studies.

  20. Improving survival and storage stability of bacteria recalcitrant to freeze-drying: a coordinated study by European culture collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiren, Jindrich; Buyse, Joke; De Vos, Paul; Lang, Elke; Clermont, Dominique; Hamon, Sylviane; Bégaud, Evelyne; Bizet, Chantal; Pascual, Javier; Ruvira, María A; Macián, M Carmen; Arahal, David R

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is to improve the viability after freeze-drying and during storage of delicate or recalcitrant strains safeguarded at biological resource centers. To achieve this objective, a joint experimental strategy was established among the different involved partner collections of the EMbaRC project ( www.embarc.eu ). Five bacterial strains considered as recalcitrant to freeze-drying were subjected to a standardized freeze-drying protocol and to seven agreed protocol variants. Viability of these strains was determined before and after freeze-drying (within 1 week, after 6 and 12 months, and after accelerated storage) for each of the protocols. Furthermore, strains were exchanged between partners to perform experiments with different freeze-dryer-dependent parameters. Of all tested variables, choice of the lyoprotectant had the biggest impact on viability after freeze-drying and during storage. For nearly all tested strains, skim milk as lyoprotectant resulted in lowest viability after freeze-drying and storage. On the other hand, best freeze-drying and storage conditions were strain and device dependent. For Aeromonas salmonicida CECT 894(T), best survival was obtained when horse serum supplemented with trehalose was used as lyoprotectant, while Aliivibrio fischeri LMG 4414(T) should be freeze-dried in skim milk supplemented with marine broth in a 1:1 ratio. Freeze-drying Campylobacter fetus CIP 53.96(T) using skim milk supplemented with trehalose as lyoprotectant resulted in best recovery. Xanthomonas fragariae DSM 3587(T) expressed high viability after freeze-drying and storage for all tested lyoprotectants and could not be considered as recalcitrant. In contrary, Flavobacterium columnare LMG 10406(T) did not survive the freeze-drying process under all tested conditions.

  1. Genetic diversity of turmeric germplasm (Curcuma longa; Zingiberaceae) identified by microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigrist, M S; Pinheiro, J B; Filho, J A Azevedo; Zucchi, M I

    2011-03-09

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a triploid, vegetatively propagated crop introduced early during the colonization of Brazil. Turmeric rhizomes are ground into a powder used as a natural dye in the food industry, although recent research suggests a greater potential for the development of drugs and cosmetics. In Brazil, little is known about the genetic variability available for crop improvement. We examined the genetic diversity among turmeric accessions from a Brazilian germplasm collection comprising 39 accessions collected from the States of Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, São Paulo, and Pará. For comparison, 18 additional genotypes were analyzed, including samples from India and Puerto Rico. Total DNA was extracted from lyophilized leaf tissue and genetic analysis was performed using 17 microsatellite markers (single-sequence repeats). Shannon-Weiner indexes ranged from 0.017 (Minas Gerais) to 0.316 (São Paulo). Analyses of molecular variance (AMOVA) demonstrated major differences between countries (63.4%) and that most of the genetic diversity in Brazil is found within states (75.3%). Genotypes from São Paulo State were the most divergent and potentially useful for crop improvement. Structure analysis indicated two main groups of accessions. These results can help target future collecting efforts for introduction of new materials needed to develop more productive and better adapted cultivars.

  2. Study of Genetic Diversity of grain yield-associated traits in Iranian and Exotic Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius Germplasm

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    M. M. Majidi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. is cultivated in a wide range of geographical conditions in the world from Africa to Europe, India and China. Previous studies have shown that diversity in indigenous Iranian germplasm is limited for some traits therefore germplasm collections from other origins need to be considered. An experiment was conducted to evaluate agronomic and morphological traits of 100 Iranian and exotic safflower genotypes during 2011- 2012 at the Research Farm of Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran, using a simple lattice design of 10 × 10. The results of analysis of variance showed that the differences among genotypes were highly significant (p < 0.01 for days to flowering, seed yield, plant height, number of heads per plant, number of seeds per head, 1000-seed weight, oil content and harvest index, indicating high variability in the studied germplasm. The highest and lowest heritabilities were observed for 1000-seed weight and seed yield, respectively, indicating that indirect improving for seed yield would be more beneficial. Genetic and phenotypic correlation coefficients showed that number of heads per plant, number of seeds per head and harvest index had significantly positive correlations with seed yield. The results of stepwise regression and path analysis showed that number of heads per plant, number of seeds per head and 1000-seed weight are the most important components of seed yield, among which, number of heads per plant had the greatest direct positive effect on seed yield. These traits could be used as criteria for indirect selection in safflower breeding programs. Factor analysis recognized three factors which explained 72.56 percent of total variations. These factors were defined as phenological, physiological source and efficiency factors. Cluster analysis based on the agronomic and morphological traits grouped the genotypes into three clusters. Iranian accessions were clearly discriminated from

  3. Colombia a Source of Cacao Genetic Diversity As Revealed by the Population Structure Analysis of Germplasm Bank of Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio-Guarín, Jaime A; Berdugo-Cely, Jhon; Coronado, Roberto Antonio; Zapata, Yeny Patricia; Quintero, Constanza; Gallego-Sánchez, Gerardo; Yockteng, Roxana

    2017-01-01

    Beans of the species Theobroma cacao L., also known as cacao, are the raw material to produce chocolate. Colombian cacao has been classified as a fine flavor cacao that represents the 5% of cacao world's production. Colombian genetic resources from this species are conserved in ex situ and in-field germplasm banks, since T. cacao has recalcitrant seeds to desication and long-term storage. Currently, the collection of T. cacao of the Colombian Corporation of Agricultural Research (CORPOICA) has approximately 700 germplasm accessions. We conducted a molecular analysis of Corpoica's cacao collection and a morphological characterization of some accessions with the goal to study its genetic diversity and population structure and, to select interesting accessions for the cacao's breeding program. Phenotypic evaluation was performed based on 18 morphological traits and 4 biochemical traits. PCA analysis of morphological traits explained 60.6% of the total variation in seven components and 100% of the total variation of biochemical traits in four components, grouping the collection in 4 clusters for both variables. We explored 565 accessions from Corpoica's germplasm and 252 accessions from reference populations using 96 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) molecular markers. Molecular patterns of cacao Corpoica's collection were obtained amplifying specific alleles in a Fluidigm platform that used integrated circuits of fluids. Corpoica's collection showed highest genetic diversity [Expected Heterozygosity (HE = 0.314), Observed Heterozygosity (HO = 0.353)] that is reduced when reference populations were included in the dataset (HE = 0.294, HO = 0.261). The collection was divided into four clusters based on population structure analysis. Cacao accessions from distinct groups showed some taxonomic concordance and reflected their geographic origins. For instance, accessions classified as Criollo were clearly differentiated in one group and we identified two new Colombian

  4. Chemical Diversity in Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown Germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Camêlo, Lídia Cristina Alves; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; Pinheiro, José Baldin; Andrade, Thiago Matos; Niculau, Edenilson dos Santos; Alves, Péricles Barreto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform chemical characterization of Lippia alba accessions from the Active Germplasm Bank of the Federal University of Sergipe. A randomized block experimental design with two replications was applied. The analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oils was conducted using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The chemical composition of the essential oils allowed the accessions to be allocated to the following six groups: group 1: linalool, 1,8-cineole, and caryophyllene oxide; group 2: linalool, geranial, neral, 1,8-cineol, and caryophyllene oxide; group 3: limonene, carvone, and sabinene; group 4: carvone, limonene, g-muurolene, and myrcene; group 5: neral, geranial, and caryophyllene oxide; and group 6: geranial, neral, o-cymene, limonene, and caryophyllene oxide.

  5. Chemical Diversity in Lippia alba (Mill. N. E. Brown Germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Fitzgerald Blank

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to perform chemical characterization of Lippia alba accessions from the Active Germplasm Bank of the Federal University of Sergipe. A randomized block experimental design with two replications was applied. The analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oils was conducted using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The chemical composition of the essential oils allowed the accessions to be allocated to the following six groups: group 1: linalool, 1,8-cineole, and caryophyllene oxide; group 2: linalool, geranial, neral, 1,8-cineol, and caryophyllene oxide; group 3: limonene, carvone, and sabinene; group 4: carvone, limonene, g-muurolene, and myrcene; group 5: neral, geranial, and caryophyllene oxide; and group 6: geranial, neral, o-cymene, limonene, and caryophyllene oxide.

  6. New Germplasms of the Culinary-Medicinal Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Agaricomycetes): Two Wild Strains from the Tibetan Plateau (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin-Bin; Jiang, Si-Ping; Xu, Ai-Guo; Dorji, Phurbu; Wang, Wen-Jing; Wang, Xiao-Liang; Wei, Tie-Zheng; Zhang, Zu-Tang; Yao, Yi-Jian

    2017-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus is one of the most important commercially cultivated culinary-medicinal mushrooms worldwide. In China, most of the cultivated strains of the fungus were introduced from other countries and cultivated in the eastern provinces. In this study, 2 wild strains of A. bisporus, 2091 and 2094, isolated from fresh specimens collected from the Tibetan Plateau, were domesticated and cultivated alongside a commercial hybrid strain, As2796, in Lhasa, China, for comparison in order to provide new germplasms for cultivation. Basic characteristics, mushroom yield, dry weight, polysaccharide contents, and antioxidant activities of the tested strains were analyzed. Compared with strain As2796, the 2 wild strains displayed good values for mycelial growth, time to fruiting, mushroom yield, dry weight, and polysaccharide contents, and their basidiomata had distinct morphological characteristics (e.g., brown or pale brown caps with some white scales). In addition, the antioxidant activities (reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging effect) of strain 2094 were significantly higher than those of the other 2 strains. Domestication of the 2 wild strains would add more genetic variation into the germplasm of A. bisporus for cultivation, especially in China, and might help to address the problem inherent to the nearly monoculture crop lacking genetic diversity in China.

  7. Susceptibility of fruit from diverse apple and crabapple germplasm to attack from apple maggot (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Clayton T; Reissig, W Harvey; Forsline, Phillip L

    2008-02-01

    Apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of major concern to apple, Malus x domestica (Borkh.) production in eastern North America. Host plant resistance to apple maggot among apple germplasm has been previously evaluated among a small number of exotic Malus accessions and domestic hybrid selections. However, a large number of exotic accessions housed in USDA collections have never been evaluated for their susceptibility to apple pests. Additionally, previous reports of resistance need to be confirmed under both field conditions and with more rigorous laboratory evaluations. Thus, studies were conducted to evaluate the susceptibility of a number of Malus accessions housed at the USDA Plant Genetic Resources Unit "core" collection. Contrary to earlier published reports, these results suggest that some selections previously described as "resistant" are in fact susceptible to both oviposition damage and larval feeding damage by apple maggot. One domestic, disease-resistant apple accession, 'E36-7' is resistant to survival of apple maggot larvae except when the fruit is nearly ripe in late fall. This is the first report of an apple cultivar that is confirmed to be resistant to larval feeding of apple maggot. Although adults can successfully oviposit on all accessions examined, larval survival was zero in a number of small-fruited crabapple accessions classified as resistant in previous studies and also in two accessions, Malus tschonoskii (Maxim) C. K. Schneid. and M. spectabilis (Aiton) Borkh., that have not been previously evaluated.

  8. Genetic diversity of Crotalaria germplasm assessed through phylogenetic analysis of EST-SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M L; Mosjidis, J A; Morris, J B; Dean, R E; Jenkins, T M; Pederson, G A

    2006-06-01

    The genetic diversity of the genus Crotalaria is unknown even though many species in this genus are economically valuable. We report the first study in which polymorphic expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers derived from Medicago and soybean were used to assess the genetic diversity of the Crotalaria germplasm collection. This collection consisted of 26 accessions representing 4 morphologically characterized species. Phylogenetic analysis partitioned accessions into 4 main groups generally along species lines and revealed that 2 accessions were incorrectly identified as Crotalaria juncea and Crotalaria spectabilis instead of Crotalaria retusa. Morphological re-examination confirmed that these 2 accessions were misclassified during curation or conservation and were indeed C. retusa. Some amplicons from Crotalaria were sequenced and their sequences showed a high similarity (89% sequence identity) to Medicago truncatula from which the EST-SSR primers were designed; however, the SSRs were completely deleted in Crotalaria. Highly distinguishing markers or more sequences are required to further classify accessions within C. juncea.

  9. Genetic diversity of worldwide Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) germplasm as revealed by RAPD markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangsomnuk, P P; Khampa, S; Wangsomnuk, P; Jogloy, S; Mornkham, T; Ruttawat, B; Patanothai, A; Fu, Y B

    2011-12-12

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) is a wild relative of the cultivated sunflower (H. annuus); it is an old tuber crop that has recently received renewed interest. We used RAPD markers to characterize 147 Jerusalem artichoke accessions from nine countries. Thirty RAPD primers were screened; 13 of them detected 357 reproducible RAPD bands, of which 337 were polymorphic. Various diversity analyses revealed several different patterns of RAPD variation. More than 93% of the RAPD variation was found within accessions of a country. Weak genetic differentiation was observed between wild and cultivated accessions. Six groups were detected in this germplasm set. Four ancestral groups were found for the Canadian germplasm. The most genetically distinct accessions were identified. These findings provide useful diversity information for understanding the Jerusalem artichoke gene pool, for conserving Jerusalem artichoke germplasm, and for choosing germplasm for genetic improvement.

  10. Police Enforcement Policy and Programmes on European Roads (PEPPER). Workpackage WP4 `Good Practices in Traffic Enforcement', Working paper 24: Good practice in data and data collection for monitoring and evaluating traffic law enforcement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. van Bernhoft, I.M. Erke, A. Ewert, U. Kallberg, V.-P. & Skladana, P.

    2007-01-01

    This working paper describes the good practice requirements regarding data and data collection for monitoring and evaluating Traffic Law Enforcement (TLE). The aim is at, eventually, individual police forces/countries put the identified ’good practice’ data into a European TLE monitoring database

  11. Genetic diversity of Xanthoceras sorbifolium bunge germplasm using morphological traits and microsatellite molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhan; Duan, Jie; Ma, Luyi

    2017-01-01

    Xanthoceras sorbifolium Bunge has great potential for producing biodiesel. In order to select and evaluate appropriate germplasm to produce biodiesel, we analyzed the genetic diversity of Xanthoceras sorbifolium Bunge germplasm based on morphological traits and simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in this study. Fifty-six germplasm samples were evaluated using nine morphological traits and 23 SSR loci. Significant differences among germplasms were observed in eight morphological characters. The SSR markers analysis showed high genetic diversity among the germplasms. All SSRs had polymorphisms, and we detected 77 alleles in total. The number of alleles at each locus ranged from two to six, averaging 3.35 per marker. The polymorphic information content values ranged from 0.36 to 0.61, averaging 0.49. Expected heterozygosity, observed heterozygosity, and Shannon's information index calculations detected large genetic variations among germplasms. The high average number of alleles per locus and the allelic diversity observed in the set of genotypes analyzed indicated that the genetic base of this species is relatively wide. Thus, microsatellite markers can be used to efficiently distinguish Xanthoceras sorbifolium Bunge germplasms and assess their genetic diversity. Hundred-grain weight and lateral diameter were positively correlated with monounsaturated fatty acids and depended on genotype. These results suggest that seeds with higher hundred-grain weight and lateral diameter could be more suitable to produce biodiesel. Our data will lay a foundation for selecting appropriate germplasm to produce biodiesel based on seed phenotype and will contribute to the conservation and management of this important plant genetic resource.

  12. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Workpackage 4, Decision Support: Deliverable 4.4: Forecasting road traffic fatalities in European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antoniou, C. Papadimitriou, E. Yannis, G. Bijleveld, F.D. Commandeur, J.J.F. Broughton, J Knowles, J. Dupont, E. Martensen, H. Giustianni, G. Shingo, D. Hermans, E. Lassarre, S. Perez, C. & Santamariña, E.

    2015-01-01

    Traffic crashes have a major impact to European society, in 2008 over 38,000 road users died and over 1.2 million were injured. The economic cost is immense and has been estimated at over 160 billion for the EU 15 alone. The European Commission and National Governments place a high priority on

  13. Association of Fruit and Seed Traits of Sapindus mukorossi Germplasm with Environmental Factors in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caowen Sun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sapindus mukorossi is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical areas of southern China; the seed kernel oil is potential biodiesel material, and the saponins extracted from fruit pericarp are very valuable efficient natural surfactants. Therefore, S. mukorossi is an ideal tree species for developing forestry bioenergy and multiple other products. In this study, 42 S. mukorossi fruits from mother trees were collected from 39 distinct locations in 12 Chinese provinces to infer fruit and seed trait responses to environmental factors. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA was conducted using 21 horticultural fruit traits and 10 environmental factors that represented different climatic and geographic conditions throughout southern China. CCA revealed well-developed patterns of natural phenotypic variation, and insight into the ecological factors that are potentially important in shaping this variation. The results presented here further elucidate the natural distribution and ecological adaptations of wild S. mukorossi resources, which will be valuable for S. mukorossi cultivation by helping identify ideal planting areas. The germplasm resources with extensive morphological variation can also contribute to S. mukorossi breeding in the future by helping develop new cultivars with high saponin yield.

  14. Genetic diversity of loquat germplasm (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb) Lindl) assessed by SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, José Miguel; Romero, Carlos; Vilanova, Santiago; Llácer, Gerardo; Badenes, María Luisa

    2005-02-01

    Genetic relationships among 40 loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb) Lindl) accessions that originated from different countries and that are part of the germplasm collection of the Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias (IVIA) (Valencia, Spain) were evaluated using microsatellites. Thirty primer pairs flanking microsatellites previously identified in Malus x domestica (Borkh.) were assayed. Thirteen of them amplified polymorphic products and unambiguously distinguished 34 genotypes from the 40 accessions analyzed. Six accessions showing identical marker patterns were Spanish local varieties thought to have been derived from 'Algerie' by a mutational process very common in loquat species. A total of 39 alleles were detected in the population studied, with a mean value of 2.4 alleles per locus. The expected and observed heterozygosities were 0.46 and 51% on average, respectively, leading to a negative value of the Wright's fixation index (-0.20). The values of these parameters indicate a smaller degree of genetic diversity in the set of loquat accessions analyzed than in other members of the Rosaceae family. Unweighted pair-group method (UPGMA) cluster analysis, based on Nei's genetic distance, generally grouped genotypes according to their geographic origins and pedigrees. The high number of alleles and the high expected heterozygosity detected with SSR markers developed in Malus x domestica (Borkh.) make them a suitable tool for loquat cultivar identification, confirming microsatellite marker transportability among genera in the Rosaceae family.

  15. Embryo transfer: a comparative biosecurity advantage in international movements of germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibier, M

    2011-04-01

    This paper uses cattle as a model to provide an overview of the hazards involved in the transfer of in vivo-derived and in vitro-produced embryos. While scientific studies in recent decades have led to the identification of pathogens that may be associated with both in vivo- and in vitro-derived embryos, those studies have also been the basis of appropriate disease control measures to reduce the risks to a negligible level. These disease control measures have been identified and assessed by the International Embryo Transfer Society's (lETS) Health and Safety Advisory Committee, the expert body that advises the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) on matters related to the safety of embryo transfer. Through the OIE's processes for developing and adopting international standards, the disease control measures identified by the IETS have been incorporated into the Terrestrial Animal Health Code. The basic principles rely on the crucial ethical roles of the embryo collection team and embryo transfer team, under the leadership of approved veterinarians. Decades of experience, with nearly 10 million embryos transferred, have demonstrated the very significant biosecurity advantage that embryo transfer technology has when moving germplasm internationally, provided that the international standards developed by the IETS and adopted by the OIE are strictly followed.

  16. Potential of popcorn germplasm as a source of resistance to ear rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Railan do Nascimento Ferreira Kurosawa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Because of its multi-purpose nature, popcorn has sparked the interest of the World Trade Organization as regards fungal contamination by mycotoxins. However, no investigations have been conducted on popcorn for resistance of genotypes to ear rot. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of popcorn genotypes as to resistance to ear rot and rotten kernels, as an initial step for the implementation of a breeding program with the popcorn crop in Northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Thirty-seven accessions from different ecogeographic regions of Latin America were evaluated in 2 cultivation periods, in a randomized block design with 4 replications. We evaluated the incidence of rotten ears, incidence of rotten ears caused by Fusarium spp., severity of ears with Fusarium spp. rot, and incidence of rotten kernels. The results were subjected to analysis of variance, and means were compared by the Scott-Knott clustering test (p < 0.05. A significant effect was observed for all evaluated variables, characterizing them as efficient in the discrimination of genotypic variability for reaction to fungal injuries in popcorn. The gene pool of the tropical and temperate Germplasm Collection evaluated here has the potential to generate superior segregants and provide hybrid combinations with alleles of resistance to diseases affecting ears and stored kernels. Based on the different variables and times, the experiment was conducted, and genotypes L65, L80, and IAC 125 showed the highest levels of resistance.

  17. Molecular Scree ning of Blast Resistance Genes in Rice Germplasms Resistant to Magnaporthe oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular screening of major rice blast resistance genes was determined with molecular markers, which showed close-set linkage to 11 major rice blast resistance genes (Pi-d2, Pi-z, Piz-t, Pi-9, Pi-36, Pi-37, Pi5, Pi-b, Pik-p, Pik-h and Pi-ta2, in a collection of 32 accessions resistant to Magnaporthe oryzae. Out of the 32 accessions, the Pi-d2 and Pi-z appeared to be omnipresent and gave positive express. As the second dominant, Pi-b and Piz-t gene frequencies were 96.9% and 87.5%. And Pik-h and Pik-p gene frequencies were 43.8% and 28.1%, respectively. The molecular marker linkage to Pi-ta2 produced positive bands in eleven accessions, while the molecular marker linkage to Pi-36 and Pi-37 in only three and four accessions, respectively. The natural field evaluation analysis showed that 30 of the 32 accessions were resistant, one was moderately resistant and one was susceptible. Infection types were negatively correlated with the genotype scores of Pi-9, Pi5, Pi-b, Pi-ta2 and Pik-p, although the correlation coefficients were very little. These results are useful in identification and incorporation of functional resistance genes from these germplasms into elite cultivars through marker-assisted selection for improved blast resistance in China and worldwide.

  18. Drought Stress Responses of Sunflower Germplasm Developed after Wide Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roumiana Dimova Vassilevska-Ivanova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Response of sunflower germplasms viz. cultivated sunflower H. annuus and two breeding lines H. annuus x T. rotundifolia and H. annuus x V. encelioides developed after wide hybridization were used for identification of drought tolerant sunflower genotypes at the seedling growth stage. Three water stress levels of zero (control, -0.4, and -0.8 MPa were developed using polyethyleneglycol-6000 (PEG-6000. Physiological and biochemical stress determining parameters such as root and shoots length, fresh weight, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, guaiacol peroxidase (GPO, ascorbate peroxidase (APX and antioxidant metabolite content (total antioxidant capacity, total phenols and total flavonoids content were compared between seedlings of all three genotypes. Results revealed that sunflower genotypes have similar responses at two osmotic potentials for shoot and root length and fresh weight. The data also showed that drought stresss could induce oxidative stress, as indicated by the increase level of ascorbate peroxidase and guaiacol peroxidase at -04 MPa in H. annuus cv 1114. Although the activity of ascorbate peroxidase and guaiacol peroxidase was differentially influenced by drought, the changes of antioxidant enzyme activities such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase subjected to drought stress follow a similar pattern in both breeding lines, indicating that similar defense systems might be involved in the oxidative stress injury in sunflowers. Increase in content of phenols and flavonoids were detected for all three genotypes under stress, which showed that these were major antioxidant metabolites in scavenging cellular H2O2.

  19. Genetic diversity in a germplasm bank of Oenocarpus mapora (Arecaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, E F; de Oliveira, M S P

    2012-11-26

    Oenocarpus mapora is an Amazonian palm species commonly used by native populations for food and in folk medicine. We measured genetic variability, using RAPD markers, of material kept in a germplasm bank composed of accessions sampled from the Brazilian Amazon. These included 74 individuals from 23 accessions sampled from 9 localities in three States of the Brazilian Amazon. Jaccard genetic similarities were calculated based on 137 polymorphic bands, amplified by 15 primers. Dendrograms constructed based on the genetic similarities among individuals and sample localities demonstrated genetic separation of Acre State from the States of Amazonas and Pará. Two models in three hierarchical levels were considered for AMOVA: one considering the grouping of sampling sites in each state, and the other considering sampling sites in each subgroup formed by the dendrograms. The first model showed no significant genetic variation among states. On the other hand, genetic variation among subgroups was significant. In this model, the within-sample-site genetic diversity was 47.15%, which is considered to be low, since O. mapora is allogamous. By means of Bayesian analysis, the sample sites were clustered into five groups, and their distribution was similar to what we found in the dendrograms based on genetic similarity.

  20. Manipulating corn germplasm to increase recombinant protein accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Elizabeth E; Devaiah, Shivakumar P; Fake, Gina; Egelkrout, Erin; Teoh, Keat Thomas; Requesens, Deborah Vicuna; Hayden, Celine; Hood, Kendall R; Pappu, Kameshwari M; Carroll, Jennifer; Howard, John A

    2012-01-01

    Using plants as biofactories for industrial enzymes is a developing technology. The application of this technology to plant biomass conversion for biofuels and biobased products has potential for significantly lowering the cost of these products because of lower enzyme production costs. However, the concentration of the enzymes in plant tissue must be high to realize this goal. We describe the enhancement of the accumulation of cellulases in transgenic maize seed as a part of the process to lower the cost of these dominant enzymes for the bioconversion process. We have used breeding to move these genes into elite and high oil germplasm to enhance protein accumulation in grain. We have also explored processing of the grain to isolate the germ, which preferentially contains the enzymes, to further enhance recovery of enzyme on a dry weight basis of raw materials. The enzymes are active on microcrystalline cellulose to release glucose and cellobiose. © 2011 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2011 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. SSR Markers Associated with Proline in Drought Tolerant Wheat Germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Javid; Maqsood, Yasir; Abdin, Zain Ul; Manzoor, Atif; Hassan, Muhammad; Jamil, Amer

    2016-03-01

    Water stress causes major agricultural loss throughout the world as survival of the crops remained under stress and loss in yield. Plants respond to drought stress by means of different adaptive mechanisms such as accumulation of osmoprotectants to counteract the water stress. Amino acid proline is known to occur widely in higher plants and normally accumulates in large quantities as an osmolyte in response to environmental stresses. Biochemical estimation of proline was done in the drought-affected wheat genotypes by spectrophotometric method. Proline promoted a positive effect as root/shoot ratio was enhanced in wheat germplasm under drought stress. SSR primer pairs (45) were tested for polymorphism among selected wheat genotypes. The dendrogram results have shown the wheat genotype association with the levels of proline during induced drought stress. The relationship between pattern of drought responsive biochemical attributes and DNA markers in the selected wheat genotypes was recognized to select drought tolerant genotypes for sowing in drought affected areas of the country.

  2. Characterization and evaluation of olive germplasm in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vaio, Claudio; Nocerino, Sabrina; Paduano, Antonello; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2013-08-15

    The southern Italian region of Campania has suitable pedo-climatic conditions and a large varietal heritage able to produce oils with high typicality. The aim of this study was to characterize 20 cultivars belonging to Campania's olive germplasm, evaluating their vegetative and production aspects and their oil quality characteristics. The study was conducted from 2003 to 2009, observing the following aspects in six plants per variety: entry into production, vigour, ripening and drupe oil content. The following analyses were carried out on monovarietal oils, obtained by microextractor: acid composition, polyphenol content and aromatic profile. The agronomic results showed early entry into production for the cultivars Racioppella, Ortolana, Biancolilla and Carpellese. However, entry into production was delayed for Ritonnella, Ortice, Cornia and Rotondella. As regards vegetative behaviour, Asprinia, from the province of Caserta and Pisciottana and Carpellese, from the province of Salerno, proved the most vigorous cultivars. Groups of similar cultivars emerged from chemical and sensory analysis of their oils, while other accessions were well characterized and separated from each other, showing a high level of diversity and specificity. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Genetic diversity in the germplasm of black pepper determined by EST-SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, B D; Fan, R; Hu, L S; Wu, H S; Hao, C Y

    2016-03-18

    This study aimed to assess genetic diversity in the germplasm of black pepper from around the world using SSR markers from EST. In total, 13 markers were selected and successfully amplified the target loci across the black pepper germplasm. All the EST-SSR markers showed high levels of polymorphisms with an average polymorphism information content of 0.93. The genetic similarity coefficients among all accessions ranged from 0.724 to 1.000, with an average of 0.867. These results indicated that black pepper germplasms possess a complex genetic background and high genetic diversity. Based on a cluster analysis, 148 black pepper germplasms were grouped in two major clades: the Neotropics and the Asian tropics. Peperomia pellucida was grouped separately and distantly from all other accessions. These results generally agreed with the genetic and geographic distances. However, the Asian tropics clade did not cluster according to their geographic origins. In addition, compared with the American accessions, the Asian wild accessions and cultivated accessions grouped together, indicating a close genetic relationship. This verified the origin of black pepper. The newly developed EST-SSRs are highly valuable resources for the conservation of black pepper germplasm diversity and for black pepper breeding.

  4. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) germplasm diversity based on single nucleotide polymorphisms derived from the transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Amir; Rubinstein, Mor; Eshed, Ravit; Benita, Miri; Ish-Shalom, Mazal; Sharabi-Schwager, Michal; Rozen, Ada; Saada, David; Cohen, Yuval; Ophir, Ron

    2015-11-14

    Germplasm collections are an important source for plant breeding, especially in fruit trees which have a long duration of juvenile period. Thus, efforts have been made to study the diversity of fruit tree collections. Even though mango is an economically important crop, most of the studies on diversity in mango collections have been conducted with a small number of genetic markers. We describe a de novo transcriptome assembly from mango cultivar 'Keitt'. Variation discovery was performed using Illumina resequencing of 'Keitt' and 'Tommy Atkins' cultivars identified 332,016 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 1903 simple-sequence repeats (SSRs). Most of the SSRs (70.1%) were of trinucleotide with the preponderance of motif (GGA/AAG)n and only 23.5% were di-nucleotide SSRs with the mostly of (AT/AT)n motif. Further investigation of the diversity in the Israeli mango collection was performed based on a subset of 293 SNPs. Those markers have divided the Israeli mango collection into two major groups: one group included mostly mango accessions from Southeast Asia (Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia) and India and the other with mainly of Floridian and Israeli mango cultivars. The latter group was more polymorphic (FS=-0.1 on the average) and was more of an admixture than the former group. A slight population differentiation was detected (FST=0.03), suggesting that if the mango accessions of the western world apparently was originated from Southeast Asia, as has been previously suggested, the duration of cultivation was not long enough to develop a distinct genetic background. Whole-transcriptome reconstruction was used to significantly broaden the mango's genetic variation resources, i.e., SNPs and SSRs. The set of SNP markers described in this study is novel. A subset of SNPs was sampled to explore the Israeli mango collection and most of them were polymorphic in many mango accessions. Therefore, we believe that these SNPs will be valuable as they recapitulate and

  5. Genetic architecture of kernel composition in global sorghum germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Davina H; Hoffmann, Leo; Rooney, William L; Herald, Thomas J; Bean, Scott; Boyles, Richard; Brenton, Zachary W; Kresovich, Stephen

    2017-01-05

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is an important cereal crop for dryland areas in the United States and for small-holder farmers in Africa. Natural variation of sorghum grain composition (protein, fat, and starch) between accessions can be used for crop improvement, but the genetic controls are still unresolved. The goals of this study were to quantify natural variation of sorghum grain composition and to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with variation in grain composition concentrations. In this study, we quantified protein, fat, and starch in a global sorghum diversity panel using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Protein content ranged from 8.1 to 18.8%, fat content ranged from 1.0 to 4.3%, and starch content ranged from 61.7 to 71.1%. Durra and bicolor-durra sorghum from Ethiopia and India had the highest protein and fat and the lowest starch content, while kafir sorghum from USA, India, and South Africa had the lowest protein and the highest starch content. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for sorghum protein, fat, and starch. Previously published RNAseq data was used to identify candidate genes within a GWAS QTL region. A putative alpha-amylase 3 gene, which has previously been shown to be associated with grain composition traits, was identified as a strong candidate for protein and fat variation. We identified promising sources of genetic material for manipulation of grain composition traits, and several loci and candidate genes that may control sorghum grain composition. This survey of grain composition in sorghum germplasm and identification of protein, fat, and starch QTL contributes to our understanding of the genetic basis of natural variation in sorghum grain nutritional traits.

  6. Development of Pineapple Microsatellite Markers and Germplasm Genetic Diversity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suping Feng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two methods were used to develop pineapple microsatellite markers. Genomic library-based SSR development: using selectively amplified microsatellite assay, 86 sequences were generated from pineapple genomic library. 91 (96.8% of the 94 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR loci were dinucleotide repeats (39 AC/GT repeats and 52 GA/TC repeats, accounting for 42.9% and 57.1%, resp., and the other three were mononucleotide repeats. Thirty-six pairs of SSR primers were designed; 24 of them generated clear bands of expected sizes, and 13 of them showed polymorphism. EST-based SSR development: 5659 pineapple EST sequences obtained from NCBI were analyzed; among 1397 nonredundant EST sequences, 843 were found containing 1110 SSR loci (217 of them contained more than one SSR locus. Frequency of SSRs in pineapple EST sequences is 1SSR/3.73 kb, and 44 types were found. Mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide repeats dominate, accounting for 95.6% in total. AG/CT and AGC/GCT were the dominant type of dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeats, accounting for 83.5% and 24.1%, respectively. Thirty pairs of primers were designed for each of randomly selected 30 sequences; 26 of them generated clear and reproducible bands, and 22 of them showed polymorphism. Eighteen pairs of primers obtained by the one or the other of the two methods above that showed polymorphism were selected to carry out germplasm genetic diversity analysis for 48 breeds of pineapple; similarity coefficients of these breeds were between 0.59 and 1.00, and they can be divided into four groups accordingly. Amplification products of five SSR markers were extracted and sequenced, corresponding repeat loci were found and locus mutations are mainly in copy number of repeats and base mutations in the flanking region.

  7. Multivariate analysis of quantitative traits can effectively classify rapeseed germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankulovska Mirjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the use of different multivariate approaches to classify rapeseed genotypes based on quantitative traits has been presented. Tree regression analysis, PCA analysis and two-way cluster analysis were applied in order todescribe and understand the extent of genetic variability in spring rapeseed genotype by trait data. The traits which highly influenced seed and oil yield in rapeseed were successfully identified by the tree regression analysis. Principal predictor for both response variables was number of pods per plant (NP. NP and 1000 seed weight could help in the selection of high yielding genotypes. High values for both traits and oil content could lead to high oil yielding genotypes. These traits may serve as indirect selection criteria and can lead to improvement of seed and oil yield in rapeseed. Quantitative traits that explained most of the variability in the studied germplasm were classified using principal component analysis. In this data set, five PCs were identified, out of which the first three PCs explained 63% of the total variance. It helped in facilitating the choice of variables based on which the genotypes’ clustering could be performed. The two-way cluster analysissimultaneously clustered genotypes and quantitative traits. The final number of clusters was determined using bootstrapping technique. This approach provided clear overview on the variability of the analyzed genotypes. The genotypes that have similar performance regarding the traits included in this study can be easily detected on the heatmap. Genotypes grouped in the clusters 1 and 8 had high values for seed and oil yield, and relatively short vegetative growth duration period and those in cluster 9, combined moderate to low values for vegetative growth duration and moderate to high seed and oil yield. These genotypes should be further exploited and implemented in the rapeseed breeding program. The combined application of these multivariate methods

  8. Registration of STARS 1501B and STARS 1502B barley germplasm with Rsg2 resistance to greenbug

    Science.gov (United States)

    STARS 1501B (Reg. No. GP- , PI 675335) greenbug-resistant, six-rowed, spring, feed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) germplasm and STARS 1502B (Reg. No. GP-, PI 675336) greenbug-resistant, six-rowed, winter, feed barley germplasm, tested as GR 001 and GR 010 respectively, were developed and released by US...

  9. Comparing rice germplasm groups for growth, grain yield and weed-suppressive ability under aerobic soil conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, D.L.; Atlin, G.N.; Bastiaans, L.; Spiertz, J.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Germplasm and cultivars need to be selected as parents for breeding weed-competitive aerobic rice in the tropics. Forty rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars belonging to the aus, indica and tropical japonica germplasm groups, or derived from crosses among them, were evaluated in adjacent weed-free and

  10. [Habitat survey and biological characteristics study of Polygonum multiflorum germplasms in Guizhou region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Chang; Luo, Chun-Li; Li, Jin-Ling; Wang, Hua-Lei; Zhao, Zhi

    2013-06-01

    To provide reference in selecting premium provenance and improve the cultivation techniques of Polygonum multiflorum. Field survey, routine field-observation and sampling fixed plant for analysis in lab were adopted. The growing adaptability of Polygonum multiflorum was very strong, which growed flourishly in the condition with adequate light, ample rainfall, rich heat and fertile soil; Along with the lower of latitude, the vegetative period was prolonged and reproductive stage was delayed, which prolonged the time of roots' nutrition acquisition. Time for root shoot ratio increasing continuously of low latitude germplasms was higher than that of higher latitude germplasms. Polygonum multiflorum germplasms have different biological characteristics because of different regions and habitats, which can provide useful reference for selecting premium provenance and adjusting measures to local conditions in different areas.

  11. Sample collections from healthy volunteers for biological variation estimates' update: a new project undertaken by the Working Group on Biological Variation established by the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carobene, Anna; Strollo, Marta; Jonker, Niels; Barla, Gerhard; Bartlett, William A; Sandberg, Sverre; Sylte, Marit Sverresdotter; Røraas, Thomas; Sølvik, Una Ørvim; Fernandez-Calle, Pilar; Díaz-Garzón, Jorge; Tosato, Francesca; Plebani, Mario; Coşkun, Abdurrahman; Serteser, Mustafa; Unsal, Ibrahim; Ceriotti, Ferruccio

    2016-10-01

    Biological variation (BV) data have many fundamental applications in laboratory medicine. At the 1st Strategic Conference of the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) the reliability and limitations of current BV data were discussed. The EFLM Working Group on Biological Variation is working to increase the quality of BV data by developing a European project to establish a biobank of samples from healthy subjects to be used to produce high quality BV data. The project involved six European laboratories (Milan, Italy; Bergen, Norway; Madrid, Spain; Padua, Italy; Istanbul, Turkey; Assen, The Netherlands). Blood samples were collected from 97 volunteers (44 men, aged 20-60 years; 43 women, aged 20-50 years; 10 women, aged 55-69 years). Initial subject inclusion required that participants completed an enrolment questionnaire to verify their health status. The volunteers provided blood specimens once per week for 10 weeks. A short questionnaire was completed and some laboratory tests were performed at each sampling consisting of blood collected under controlled conditions to provide serum, K2EDTA-plasma and citrated-plasma samples. Samples from six out of the 97 enroled subjects were discarded as a consequence of abnormal laboratory measurements. A biobank of 18,000 aliquots was established consisting of 120 aliquots of serum, 40 of EDTA-plasma, and 40 of citrated-plasma from each subject. The samples were stored at -80 °C. A biobank of well-characterised samples collected under controlled conditions has been established delivering a European resource to enable production of contemporary BV data.

  12. Molecular Insights into the Genetic Diversity of Garcinia cambogia Germplasm Accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Tharachand

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIn this work, the genetic relationship among twelveGarcinia cambogia (Gaertn. Desr. accessions were evaluated using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA markers. The samples were part of the germplasm collected and maintained at NBPGR Regional station, Thrissur, India. Out of thirty RAPD primers used for screening, seven primers produced a total of 128 polymorphic markers in twelve accessions. The Polymorphic Information Content (PIC ranged from 0.28 (OPA18 to 0.37 (OPA9 and Marker Index (MI ranged between 3.61 (OPA12 and 5.93 (OPA3 among the primers used. Jaccard's coefficient of genetic similarity ranged between 0.07 and 0.64. The dendrogram constructed based on the similarity matrix generated from the molecular and morphological data showed the genetic relationship among the sampled accessions. Mantel matrix test showed a positive correlation (r = 0.49 between the cluster analysis of RAPD data and morphological data. The clustering pattern in the molecular dendrogram and Principle Coordinate Analysis (PCoA showed that the genotypes were diverse, which was in congruence with the similarity index values and morphological dendrogram. High frequency of similarity values in the range of 0.11 to 0.17 suggested the existence of high genetic diversity among the accessions. The high level of genetic diversity among the studied accessions ofG.cambogia was also supported by the large variation in the morphological characters observed in the flowers, leaves, fruits and seeds of these sampled accessions. This is the first report for the molecular based genetic diversity studies for these accessions.

  13. Extending Miscanthus Cultivation with Novel Germplasm at Six Contrasting Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinina, Olena; Nunn, Christopher; Sanderson, Ruth; Hastings, Astley F. S.; van der Weijde, Tim; Özgüven, Mensure; Tarakanov, Ivan; Schüle, Heinrich; Trindade, Luisa M.; Dolstra, Oene; Schwarz, Kai-Uwe; Iqbal, Yasir; Kiesel, Andreas; Mos, Michal; Lewandowski, Iris; Clifton-Brown, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Miscanthus is a genus of perennial rhizomatous grasses with C4 photosynthesis which is indigenous in a wide geographic range of Asian climates. The sterile clone, Miscanthus × giganteus (M. × giganteus), is a naturally occurring interspecific hybrid that has been used commercially in Europe for biomass production for over a decade. Although, M. × giganteus has many outstanding performance characteristics including high yields and low nutrient offtakes, commercial expansion is limited by cloning rates, slow establishment to a mature yield, frost, and drought resistance. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of 13 novel germplasm types alongside M. × giganteus and horticultural “Goliath” in trials in six sites (in Germany, Russia, The Netherlands, Turkey, UK, and Ukraine). Mean annual yields across all the sites and genotypes increased from 2.3 ± 0.2 t dry matter ha−1 following the first year of growth, to 7.3 ± 0.3, 9.5 ± 0.3, and 10.5 ± 0.2 t dry matter ha−1 following the second, third, and fourth years, respectively. The highest average annual yields across locations and four growth seasons were observed for M. × giganteus (9.9 ± 0.7 t dry matter ha−1) and interspecies hybrid OPM-6 (9.4 ± 0.6 t dry matter ha−1). The best of the new hybrid genotypes yielded similarly to M. × giganteus at most of the locations. Significant effects of the year of growth, location, species, genotype, and interplay between these factors have been observed demonstrating strong genotype × environment interactions. The highest yields were recorded in Ukraine. Time needed for the crop establishment varied depending on climate: in colder climates such as Russia the crop has not achieved its peak yield by the fourth year, whereas in the hot climate of Turkey and under irrigation the yields were already high in the first growing season. We have identified several alternatives to M. × giganteus which have provided stable yields across wide climatic ranges, mostly

  14. Genome-wide association mapping of resistance to Phytophthora sojae in a soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] germplasm panel from maturity groups IV and V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jun; Song, Qijian; Shi, Ainong; Li, Song; Zhang, Mengchen; Zhang, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Phytophthora sojae, an oomycete pathogen of soybean, causes stem and root rot, resulting in annual economic loss up to $2 billion worldwide. Varieties with P. sojae resistance are environmental friendly to effectively reduce disease damages. In order to improve the resistance of P. sojae and broaden the genetic diversity in Southern soybean cultivars and germplasm in the U.S., we established a P. sojae resistance gene pool that has high genetic diversity, and explored genomic regions underlying the host resistance to P. sojae races 1, 3, 7, 17 and 25. A soybean germplasm panel from maturity groups (MGs) IV and V including 189 accessions originated from 10 countries were used in this study. The panel had a high genetic diversity compared to the 6,749 accessions from MGs IV and V in USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection. Based on disease evaluation dataset of these accessions inoculated with P. sojae races 1, 3, 7, 17 and 25, which are publically available, five accessions in this panel were resistant to all races. Genome-wide association analysis identified a total of 32 significant SNPs, which were clustered in resistance-associated genomic regions, among those, ss715619920 was only 3kb away from the gene Glyma.14g087500, a subtilisin protease. Gene expression analysis showed that the gene was down-regulated more than 4 fold (log2 fold > 2.2) in response to P. sojae infection. The identified molecular markers and genomic regions that are associated with the disease resistance in this gene pool will greatly assist the U.S. Southern soybean breeders in developing elite varieties with broad genetic background and P. sojae resistance.

  15. Genome-wide association mapping of resistance to Phytophthora sojae in a soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] germplasm panel from maturity groups IV and V.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Qin

    Full Text Available Phytophthora sojae, an oomycete pathogen of soybean, causes stem and root rot, resulting in annual economic loss up to $2 billion worldwide. Varieties with P. sojae resistance are environmental friendly to effectively reduce disease damages. In order to improve the resistance of P. sojae and broaden the genetic diversity in Southern soybean cultivars and germplasm in the U.S., we established a P. sojae resistance gene pool that has high genetic diversity, and explored genomic regions underlying the host resistance to P. sojae races 1, 3, 7, 17 and 25. A soybean germplasm panel from maturity groups (MGs IV and V including 189 accessions originated from 10 countries were used in this study. The panel had a high genetic diversity compared to the 6,749 accessions from MGs IV and V in USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection. Based on disease evaluation dataset of these accessions inoculated with P. sojae races 1, 3, 7, 17 and 25, which are publically available, five accessions in this panel were resistant to all races. Genome-wide association analysis identified a total of 32 significant SNPs, which were clustered in resistance-associated genomic regions, among those, ss715619920 was only 3kb away from the gene Glyma.14g087500, a subtilisin protease. Gene expression analysis showed that the gene was down-regulated more than 4 fold (log2 fold > 2.2 in response to P. sojae infection. The identified molecular markers and genomic regions that are associated with the disease resistance in this gene pool will greatly assist the U.S. Southern soybean breeders in developing elite varieties with broad genetic background and P. sojae resistance.

  16. Sample size for collecting germplasms–a polyploid model with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Numerous expressions/results developed for germplasm collection/regeneration for diploid populations by earlier workers can be directly deduced from our general expression by assigning appropriate values of the corresponding parameters. A seed factor which influences the plant sample size has also been isolated to ...

  17. Colombia a Source of Cacao Genetic Diversity As Revealed by the Population Structure Analysis of Germplasm Bank of Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio-Guarín, Jaime A.; Berdugo-Cely, Jhon; Coronado, Roberto Antonio; Zapata, Yeny Patricia; Quintero, Constanza; Gallego-Sánchez, Gerardo; Yockteng, Roxana

    2017-01-01

    Beans of the species Theobroma cacao L., also known as cacao, are the raw material to produce chocolate. Colombian cacao has been classified as a fine flavor cacao that represents the 5% of cacao world’s production. Colombian genetic resources from this species are conserved in ex situ and in-field germplasm banks, since T. cacao has recalcitrant seeds to desication and long-term storage. Currently, the collection of T. cacao of the Colombian Corporation of Agricultural Research (CORPOICA) has approximately 700 germplasm accessions. We conducted a molecular analysis of Corpoica’s cacao collection and a morphological characterization of some accessions with the goal to study its genetic diversity and population structure and, to select interesting accessions for the cacao’s breeding program. Phenotypic evaluation was performed based on 18 morphological traits and 4 biochemical traits. PCA analysis of morphological traits explained 60.6% of the total variation in seven components and 100% of the total variation of biochemical traits in four components, grouping the collection in 4 clusters for both variables. We explored 565 accessions from Corpoica’s germplasm and 252 accessions from reference populations using 96 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) molecular markers. Molecular patterns of cacao Corpoica’s collection were obtained amplifying specific alleles in a Fluidigm platform that used integrated circuits of fluids. Corpoica’s collection showed highest genetic diversity [Expected Heterozygosity (HE = 0.314), Observed Heterozygosity (HO = 0.353)] that is reduced when reference populations were included in the dataset (HE = 0.294, HO = 0.261). The collection was divided into four clusters based on population structure analysis. Cacao accessions from distinct groups showed some taxonomic concordance and reflected their geographic origins. For instance, accessions classified as Criollo were clearly differentiated in one group and we identified two new

  18. Genetic resources in the USDA, ARS, PGRCU legume crop germplasm collections with phyto-pharmaceutical uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventeen health functional legumes including butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea L.), Indigofera cassioides Rottler ex DC., I. linnaei Ali, I. suffruticosa Mill., hyacinth bean [Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet], velvetbean [Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC], jicama [Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urb.], winged bean [Psop...

  19. Evaluation of Oxalate Concentration in the U.S. Spinach Germplasm Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    In addition to its high nutrient content, spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is also known to have greater amount of oxalic acid than most crops. Oxalic acid may form crystals with minerals to reduce the bioavailability and absorption of calcium and iron in diets, and calcium oxalate may deposit in the...

  20. Reflections on a lifetime of collecting germplasm – a childhood dream realized

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of taxonomic monographs in all areas of plant biology, ranging from ecology, to biodiversity conservation, to breeding has long been known. The keys, illustrations, descriptions, localities, habitat data, distribution maps, synonymies, cytological and molecular data, and hypotheses of...

  1. The need for silvicultural practices and collection of butternut germplasm for species conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. E. Ostry; B. Ellingson; D. Seekins; W. Ruckheim

    2003-01-01

    Butternut is a short-lived tree and is declining in numbers for a variety of reasons ranging from changing land use to aging forest stands, seed predation and lack of suitable conditions for reproduction. However, the major reason for the dramatic decrease in butternut populations throughout its range in North America is the lethal canker disease caused by the fungus...

  2. Resistance to Penicillium allii in accessions from a National Plant Germplasm System Allium collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accessions of Allium sativum (garlic), A. ampeloprasum (elephant garlic) and A. acuminatum, A. aflatunense, A. atroviolaceum, A. canadense, A. longicuspis, A. moly, A. ponticum, A. roseum, A. scorodoprasum, A. senescens, A. stipitatum, and Allium sp. (wild or ornamental species) were screened for re...

  3. Molecular Identification and Characterization of the Edible and Medicinal Morchellaceae Germplasm Collection of "Mulch Morels"

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ondřej, V.; Havránek, P.; Kitner, M.; Němcová, Pavla

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2011), s. 369-375 ISSN 1521-9437 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : morels * edible and medicinal fungi * ITS and AFLP analyses Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.895, year: 2011

  4. Genetic variation and association mapping of protein concentration in rice using a germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice protein is an important source of nutrition and energy for a majority of the world’s population. However, the protein concentration in rice can have an impact on its flavor, texture, cooking and processing quality, thus, affecting its acceptability. It is therefore important to know if genet...

  5. Minimum number and best combinations of harvests to evaluate accessions of tomato plants from germplasm banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Barbosa Abreu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the minimum number and the best combination of tomato harvests needed to compare tomato accessions from germplasm banks. Number and weight of fruit in tomato plants are important as auxiliary traits in the evaluation of germplasm banks and should be studied simultaneously with other desirable characteristics such as pest and disease resistance, improved flavor and early production. Brazilian tomato breeding programs should consider not only the number of fruit but also fruit size because Brazilian consumers value fruit that are homogeneous, large and heavy. Our experiment was a randomized block design with three replicates of 32 tomato accessions from the Vegetable Germplasm Bank (Banco de Germoplasma de Hortaliças at the Federal University of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil plus two control cultivars (Debora Plus and Santa Clara. Nine harvests were evaluated for four production-related traits. The results indicate that six successive harvests are sufficient to compare tomato genotypes and germplasm bank accessions. Evaluation of genotypes according to the number of fruit requires analysis from the second to the seventh harvest. Evaluation of fruit weight by genotype requires analysis from the fourth to the ninth harvest. Evaluation of both number and weight of fruit require analysis from the second to the ninth harvest.

  6. Excised leaf method for high volume evaluation of sorghum germplasm for resistance against Colletotrichum sublineolum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foliar phase of anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum sublineolum is the most important leaf disease of sorghum. Due to the hyper-variable nature of the fungus, continuous evaluation of sorghum germplasm to identify new sources of resistance is imperative. Field and greenhouse evaluations for anth...

  7. Genetic diversity of water use efficiency in Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic diversity in crop germplasm is an important resource for crop improvement, but information on genetic diversity is rare for Jerusalem artichoke, especially for traits related to water use efficiency. The objectives of this study were to investigate genetic variations for water use and water...

  8. Development of turf-type Poa pratensis l. germplasm for seed production without field burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Open-field burning of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) post- harvest residue, which maintains grass seed yield and stand longevity, has been eliminated in Washington and is restricted in Idaho and Oregon, USA. Our objective was to develop Kentucky bluegrass germplasm that has sustainable seed y...

  9. Release of pea germplasm with Fusarium resistance combined with desirable yield and anti-lodging traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium root rot caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi (Fsp) and Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi (Fop) races 1, 2 and 5, negatively impact the pea industry worldwide. Limited pea germplasm with agronomically acceptable characteristics combined with resistance to these disease...

  10. Genetic characterization of guava (psidium guajava l.) Germplasm in the United States using microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic diversity of thirty five Psidium guajava accessions maintained at the USDA, National Plants Germplasm System, Hilo, HI, was characterized using 20 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Diversity analysis detected a total of 178 alleles ranging from four to 16. The observed mean heterozygosit...

  11. Molecular characterization of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] germplasm in the United States using microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] is an important medicinal fruit with immense health benefits and antioxidant activity. In this study, microsatellite markers were used as DNA fingerprinting tools for the identification and characterization of peach germplasm in the United States. Eleven microsatel...

  12. Registration of an oilseed sunflower germplasm HA-DM1 resistant to sunflower downy mildew

    Science.gov (United States)

    HA-DM1 (Reg. No.xxx, PI 674793) sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasm was developed and released cooperatively by the USDA-ARS, Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit and the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station in 2015. HA-DM1 is a BC2F4 derived oilseed maintainer line from the cros...

  13. Discussion of submitted posters for Section 2.3 (Rangeland Germplasm Resources)

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the IX International Rangeland Congress held in Rosario, Argentina, a total of 70 posters from 17 countries were submitted to Section 2.3 (Rangeland Germplasm Resources). These posters documented research conducted in five major regions of the world: South America, North America, Africa...

  14. New carrot and garlic germplasm to advance breeding and understand crop origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic variation provided by diverse plant germplasm is the basic building material used for crop improvement that shapes the crops we grow today. Wild carrot from the U.S. provided the cytoplasm used to develop a reliable system to produce hybrid carrots that account for most of the commercial...

  15. Verification of genetic identity of introduced cacao germplasm in Ghana using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate identification of individual genotypes is important for cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) breeding, germplasm conservation and seed propagation. The development of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in cacao offers an effective way to use a high-throughput genotyping system for cacao gen...

  16. August Weismann's theory of the germ-plasm and the problem of unconceived alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, P Kyle

    2005-01-01

    I have argued elsewhere that scientific realism is most significantly challenged neither by traditional arguments from underdetermination of theories by the evidence, nor by the traditional pessimistic induction, but by a rather different historical pattern: our repeated failure to conceive of alternatives to extant scientific theories, even when those alternatives were both (1) well-confirmed by the evidence available at the time and (2) sufficiently scientifically serious as to be later embraced by actual scientific communities. Here I use August Weismann's defense of his influential germ-plasm theory of inheritance to support my claim that this pattern characterizes the history of theoretical scientific investigation generally. Weismann believed that the germ-plasm must become disintegrated into its constituent elements over the course of development, I argue, only because he failed to conceive of any possible alternative mechanism of ontogenetic differentiation. This and other features of the germ-plasm theory, I suggest, reflect a still more fundamental failure to imagine that the germ-plasm might be a productive rather than expendable resource for the cell. Weismann's case provides impressive support for the problem of unconceived alternatives while rendering its challenge to scientific realism deeper and sharper in a number of important ways.

  17. Genetic diversity and spatial structure in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) germplasm from Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important economic crop widely cultivated in the Bolivian Amazon. The germplasm group used by the Bolivian farmers was called “Cacao Nacional Boliviano” (CNB). Wild cacao populations are also found in the Beni River and in the valleys of Andes foot hills. Using DNA...

  18. Genome-wide SNPs and re-sequencing of growth habit and inflorescence genes in barley: implications for association mapping in germplasm arrays varying in size and structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muehlbauer Gary J

    2010-12-01

    then conducted association analyses - with SNP data only - in the larger germplasm arrays. For both vernalization sensitivity and inflorescence type, the most significant associations in the larger data sets were found with SNPs coincident with the synthetic markers used in the CAP Core and with SNPs detected via interaction analysis in the CAP Core. Conclusions Small and highly structured collections of germplasm, such as the CAP Core, are cost-effectively phenotyped and genotyped with high-throughput markers. They are also useful for characterizing allelic diversity at loci in germplasm of interest. Our results suggest that discovery-oriented exercises in AM in such small arrays may generate a large number of false-positives. However, if haplotypes in candidate genes are available, they may be used as anchors in an analysis of interactions to identify other candidate regions harboring genes determining target traits. Using larger germplasm arrays, genome regions where the principal genes determining vernalization sensitivity and row type are located were identified.

  19. Genetic characterization of global rice germplasm for sustainable agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA rice core collection, about 10% of the whole collection including more than 18,000 accessions originated from 116 countries, could be effectively used to assess the whole collection with 88% certainty. Genotyping the 1,794 accessions in the core with one indel and 71 SSR genome-wide markers...

  20. European communion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on ‘sharing’ or ‘communion......’, provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as ‘integration’ or ‘co-operation’. The concept of ‘European communion’ is defined as the ‘subjective sharing of relationships’, understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing...... relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European...

  1. Single-nucleotide polymorphism markers from de-novo assembly of the pomegranate transcriptome reveal germplasm genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophir, Ron; Sherman, Amir; Rubinstein, Mor; Eshed, Ravit; Sharabi Schwager, Michal; Harel-Beja, Rotem; Bar-Ya'akov, Irit; Holland, Doron

    2014-01-01

    Pomegranate is a valuable crop that is grown commercially in many parts of the world. Wild species have been reported from India, Turkmenistan and Socotra. Pomegranate fruit has a variety of health-beneficial qualities. However, despite this crop's importance, only moderate effort has been invested in studying its biochemical or physiological properties or in establishing genomic and genetic infrastructures. In this study, we reconstructed a transcriptome from two phenotypically different accessions using 454-GS-FLX Titanium technology. These data were used to explore the functional annotation of 45,187 fully annotated contigs. We further compiled a genetic-variation resource of 7,155 simple-sequence repeats (SSRs) and 6,500 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A subset of 480 SNPs was sampled to investigate the genetic structure of the broad pomegranate germplasm collection at the Agricultural Research Organization (ARO), which includes accessions from different geographical areas worldwide. This subset of SNPs was found to be polymorphic, with 10.7% loci with minor allele frequencies of (MAFpomegranate collection into two major groups of accessions: one from India, China and Iran, composed of mainly unknown country origin and which was more of an admixture than the other major group, composed of accessions mainly from the Mediterranean basin, Central Asia and California. This study establishes a high-throughput transcriptome and genetic-marker infrastructure. Moreover, it sheds new light on the genetic interrelations between pomegranate species worldwide and more accurately defines their genetic nature.

  2. Public Accountability in the European Union: Is the European Parliament able to hold the European Council accountable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne van de Steeg

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The European Council occupies a central role in European politics. Yet it is not officially accountable to any public or parliamentary body for the decisions it makes on behalf of European citizens. National parliaments are only entitled to exert control over their own Heads of Government or State. The European Parliament, as a supranational institution, is the only parliamentary body that regularly discusses European politics with the European Council as a collective, namely via the European Council Presidency. As such, it alone has the possibility to hold the Council accountable for the agreements made at European Summits. However, the European Parliament has limited rights to impose pressure on the European Council Presidency. Nonetheless, despite the lack of a formal accountability arrangement, the European Council Presidency is more forthcoming than could have been expected.

  3. Screening a core collection of citrus genetic resources for resistance to Fusarium solani (Mart) Sacc

    Science.gov (United States)

    A causal agent for Dry root rot (DRR) of citrus has not been definitively identified, but the organism most consistently associated with DRR is Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc. To efficiently screen a citrus germplasm collection for resistance to F. solani, a core subset of the collection was evaluated...

  4. A Gene-Oriented Haplotype Comparison Reveals Recently Selected Genomic Regions in Temperate and Tropical Maize Germplasm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheng He; Junjie Fu; Jie Zhang; Yongxiang Li; Jun Zheng; Hongwei Zhang; Xiaohong Yang; Jianhua Wang; Guoying Wang

    2017-01-01

      The extensive genetic variation present in maize (Zea mays) germplasm makes it possible to detect signatures of positive artificial selection that occurred during temperate and tropical maize improvement...

  5. Quantitative methods for sampling of germplasm collections : getting the best out of molecular markers when creating core collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odong, T.L.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis addresses the issue of how special players (crisis entrepreneurs)
    try to generate attention to a latent crisis and how government communication
    can contribute to identifying and interpreting such a crisis.
    In chapter 1, I show how crisis communication is an activity

  6. The important of living botanical collections for plant biology and the “next generation” of evo-devo research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Dosmann; Andrew Groover

    2012-01-01

    Living botanical collections include germplasm repositories, long-term experimental plantings, and botanical gardens. We present here a series of vignettes to illustrate the central role that living collections have played in plant biology research, including evo-devo research. Looking towards the future, living collections will become increasingly important in support...

  7. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  8. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  9. Sustained by First Nations: European newcomers' use of Indigenous plant foods in temperate North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy J. Turner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Peoples of North America have collectively used approximately 1800 different native species of plants, algae, lichens and fungi as food. When European explorers, traders and settlers arrived on the continent, these native foods, often identified and offered by Indigenous hosts, gave them sustenance and in some cases saved them from starvation. Over the years, some of these species – particularly various types of berries, such as blueberries and cranberries (Vaccinium spp., wild raspberries and blackberries (Rubus spp., and wild strawberries (Fragaria spp., and various types of nuts (Corylus spp., Carya spp., Juglans spp., Pinus spp., along with wild-rice (Zizania spp. and maple syrup (from Acer saccharum – became more widely adopted and remain in use to the present day. Some of these and some other species were used in plant breeding programs, as germplasm for hybridization programs, or to strengthen a crop's resistance to disease. At the same time, many nutritious Indigenous foods fell out of use among Indigenous Peoples themselves, and along with their lessened use came a loss of associated knowledge and cultural identity. Today, for a variety of reasons, from improving people's health and regaining their cultural heritage, to enhancing dietary diversity and enjoyment of diverse foods, some of the species that have dwindled in their use have been “rediscovered” by Indigenous and non-Indigenous Peoples, and indications are that their benefits to humanity will continue into the future.

  10. Police Enforcement Policy and Programmes on European Roads (PEPPER). Deliverable 4a: Good practice in data, data collection and data use for monitoring and evaluating Traffic Law Enforcement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. Bernhoft, I.M. Erke, A. Ewert, U. Kallberg, V.-P. & Skladana, P.

    2008-01-01

    This report is the Deliverable of task 4.3a of the PEPPER project. It describes the good practice requirements regarding data, data collection and data use for monitoring and evaluating Traffic Law Enforcement (TLE). The aim is that, eventually, individual police forces/countries put the identified

  11. Screening and identification of cucumber germplasm and rootstock resistance against the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X Z; Chen, S X

    2017-04-13

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp) are destructive agricultural pests that reduce the productivity of cultivated vegetables worldwide, especially when vegetables are cropped continuously in greenhouses. Cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.), in particular, suffer extensive damage due to root-knot nematodes, and only a few wild species are known to be resistant. Grafting of cultivated plants to rootstocks of known resistant germplasms could be an effective method to resolve this problem. In this study, 21 cucumber germplasms and seven rootstocks were evaluated for resistance based on the growth of cucumber seedlings and resistance indexes to Meloidogyne incognita, which were surveyed 25 days after inoculation with M. incognita. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to investigate the resistance of 21 cucumber germplasms and seven rootstocks based on their growth and resistance indexes after inoculation with M. incognita. These analyses showed that the 21 germplasms and seven rootstocks could be divided into three groups based upon their resistance levels: moderately resistant, susceptible, and highly susceptible to M. incognita. All 21 cucumber germplasms exhibited susceptibility or high susceptibility to M. incognita and most rootstocks exhibited moderate resistance. The PCA results were consistent with those of the clustering analysis. The Jinyou No.1 cultivar had the highest resistance to M. incognita among the 21 cucumber germplasms, and Huangzhen No.1 cultivar had the highest resistance among the seven rootstock cultivars.

  12. Ranking the European armed forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beeres, R.J.M.; Bogers, M.

    2012-01-01

    The degree of collectiveness aimed for in European defence policy raises issues such as burden sharing and relative performance measurement of the European Armed Forces (EAF). This paper compares EAF performance rates on three dimensions: input, throughput and output. In order to express

  13. GENETIC DIVERSITY AND STRUCTURE OF Oenocarpus mapora GERMPLASM CONSERVED AT EASTERN AMAZON

    OpenAIRE

    ELISA FERREIRA MOURA; MARIA DO SOCORRO PADILHA DE OLIVEIRA; DIEHGO TULOZA DA SILVA; LÍGIA CRISTINE GONÇALVES PONTES

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity and structure in the germoplasm of Oenocarpus mapora conserved at Eastern Amazon. Thus, 88 individuals were genotyped with five microsatellite loci. These individuals belong to 24 accessions that were sampled in eight sample places of three Brazilian Amazon states conserved at the Active Germplasm Bank (AGB) of Embrapa Eastern Amazon. All loci were polymorphic and they generated 85 alleles with an average of 17 alleles per ...

  14. Genome-wide association analysis of seedling traits in diverse Sorghum germplasm under thermal stress

    OpenAIRE

    Chopra, Ratan; Burow, Gloria; Burke, John J.; Gladman, Nicholas; Xin, Zhanguo

    2017-01-01

    Background Climate variability due to fluctuation in temperature is a worldwide concern that imperils crop production. The need to understand how the germplasm variation in major crops can be utilized to aid in discovering and developing breeding lines that can withstand and adapt to temperature fluctuations is more necessary than ever. Here, we analyzed the genetic variation associated with responses to thermal stresses in a sorghum association panel (SAP) representing major races and workin...

  15. Micropropagation, seed propagation and germplasm bank of Mandevilla velutina (Mart.) Woodson

    OpenAIRE

    Biondo,Ronaldo; Souza,Ana Valéria; Bertoni,Bianca Waléria; Soares,Andreimar Martins; França,Suzelei Castro; Pereira,Ana Maria Soares

    2007-01-01

    Mandevilla velutina (Mart.) Woodson (Apocynaceae) is a medicinal plant species with antivenom properties, native from Brazilian Savanna regions (Cerrado), which due to overexploitation and habitat deforestation is in danger of extinction. As an initiative for conserving this endangered but economically important plant species, a micropropagation protocol was developed and genotypes were stored in the Germplasm Bank "Cerrado In vitro". For the in vitro propagation of M. velutina, nodal segment...

  16. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...... critical whiteness studies to emerge, its relation to the U.S. theoretical framework, as well as the particularities of the European context need to be taken into account.. The article makes a call for a multi-layered approach to take over from the identity politics so often employed in the fields of U...

  17. GENETIC DIVERSITY AND STRUCTURE OF Oenocarpus mapora GERMPLASM CONSERVED AT EASTERN AMAZON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELISA FERREIRA MOURA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity and structure in the germoplasm of Oenocarpus mapora conserved at Eastern Amazon. Thus, 88 individuals were genotyped with five microsatellite loci. These individuals belong to 24 accessions that were sampled in eight sample places of three Brazilian Amazon states conserved at the Active Germplasm Bank (AGB of Embrapa Eastern Amazon. All loci were polymorphic and they generated 85 alleles with an average of 17 alleles per loci. Total genetic diversity (HE was 0.48. Sample places were considered genetically distinct, with ?p = 0.354. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA identified that the genetic portion among areas was of 36.14% and within 63.86%. The Nei distances varied from 0.091 between Abaetetuba and Santo Antônio do Tauá, both in the state of Pará (PA, to 4.18, between Parintins, AM and Rio Branco, AC. By means of Bayesian analysis, it was identified nine clusters that compose the accessions of the germplasm bank, with different distributions among individuals. The study showed high fixation rates per sample area, which indicates that there may have been significant inbreeding or crossing among parental individuals. It suggests that future samples should be made of different plants in natural populations. Even though, it was verified that there is considerable genetic variation in the germplasm of O. mapora.

  18. Identification of key ancestors of modern germplasm in a breeding program of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technow, F; Schrag, T A; Schipprack, W; Melchinger, A E

    2014-12-01

    Probabilities of gene origin computed from the genomic kinships matrix can accurately identify key ancestors of modern germplasms Identifying the key ancestors of modern plant breeding populations can provide valuable insights into the history of a breeding program and provide reference genomes for next generation whole genome sequencing. In an animal breeding context, a method was developed that employs probabilities of gene origin, computed from the pedigree-based additive kinship matrix, for identifying key ancestors. Because reliable and complete pedigree information is often not available in plant breeding, we replaced the additive kinship matrix with the genomic kinship matrix. As a proof-of-concept, we applied this approach to simulated data sets with known ancestries. The relative contribution of the ancestral lines to later generations could be determined with high accuracy, with and without selection. Our method was subsequently used for identifying the key ancestors of the modern Dent germplasm of the public maize breeding program of the University of Hohenheim. We found that the modern germplasm can be traced back to six or seven key ancestors, with one or two of them having a disproportionately large contribution. These results largely corroborated conjectures based on early records of the breeding program. We conclude that probabilities of gene origin computed from the genomic kinships matrix can be used for identifying key ancestors in breeding programs and estimating the proportion of genes contributed by them.

  19. Morphological, chemical and molecular characterization of Centella asiatica germplasms for commercial cultivation in the Indo-Gangetic plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Archana; Dhawan, Sunita S; Mathur, Ajay K; Prakash, Om; Gupta, Madan M; Verma, Ram K; Lal, Raj K; Mathur, Archana

    2014-06-01

    Centella asiatica germplasm collected from north, north-eastern and southern parts of India was compared for biomass and centellosides productivity under uniform agro-climatic conditions of the Indo-Gangetic plains at Lucknow. The highest biomass accumulation (411.9 g FW/m2 area) was recorded in accession A from north India, followed by 284.0, 135.7 and 29.2 g FW/m2 in accessions M, B and E from southern, eastern and north-eastern regions, respectively. Accession M possessed the highest asiaticoside content (52.1 mg/gDW) that was 1.58, 2.34 and 21.7 folds more than accessions A, B and E, respectively. The madecassoside level in leaves of accessions B and M was comparable (28.9 and 25.7 mg/gDW) and two folds more than accession A (13.9 mg/gDW). The madecassic and asiatic acid content in leaf tissue of all four accessions remained low in Lucknow. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis with 23 primers yielded 696 fragments, 563 of which were polymorphic. Accession M out-grouped with genetic dissimilarity indices of 83, 85 and 95% from accessions A, E and B, respectively. Commercial cultivation of accessions M and A through a four months growth cycle (June to September) in agro-climatic conditions of the Indo-Gangetic plains is suggested.

  20. Elaeis oleifera Genomic-SSR Markers: Exploitation in Oil Palm Germplasm Diversity and Cross-Amplification in Arecaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Noorhariza Mohd; Singh, Rajinder; Rosli, Rozana; Ismail, Ismanizan

    2012-01-01

    Species-specific simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are favored for genetic studies and marker-assisted selection (MAS) breeding for oil palm genetic improvement. This report characterizes 20 SSR markers from an Elaeis oleifera genomic library (gSSR). Characterization of the repeat type in 2000 sequences revealed a high percentage of di-nucleotides (63.6%), followed by tri-nucleotides (24.2%). Primer pairs were successfully designed for 394 of the E. oleifera gSSRs. Subsequent analysis showed the ability of the 20 selected E. oleifera gSSR markers to reveal genetic diversity in the genus Elaeis. The average Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) value for the SSRs was 0.402, with the tri-repeats showing the highest average PIC (0.626). Low values of observed heterozygosity (Ho) (0.164) and highly positive fixation indices (Fis) in the E. oleifera germplasm collection, compared to the E. guineensis, indicated an excess of homozygosity in E. oleifera. The transferability of the markers to closely related palms, Elaeis guineensis, Cocos nucifera and ornamental palms is also reported. Sequencing the amplicons of three selected E. oleifera gSSRs across both species and palm taxa revealed variations in the repeat-units. The study showed the potential of E. oleifera gSSR markers to reveal genetic diversity in the genus Elaeis. The markers are also a valuable genetic resource for studying E. oleifera and other genus in the Arecaceae family. PMID:22605966

  1. Elaeis oleifera Genomic-SSR Markers: Exploitation in Oil Palm Germplasm Diversity and Cross-Amplification in Arecaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismanizan Ismail

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Species-specific simple sequence repeat (SSR markers are favored for genetic studies and marker-assisted selection (MAS breeding for oil palm genetic improvement. This report characterizes 20 SSR markers from an Elaeis oleifera genomic library (gSSR. Characterization of the repeat type in 2000 sequences revealed a high percentage of di-nucleotides (63.6%, followed by tri-nucleotides (24.2%. Primer pairs were successfully designed for 394 of the E. oleifera gSSRs. Subsequent analysis showed the ability of the 20 selected E. oleifera gSSR markers to reveal genetic diversity in the genus Elaeis. The average Polymorphism Information Content (PIC value for the SSRs was 0.402, with the tri-repeats showing the highest average PIC (0.626. Low values of observed heterozygosity (Ho (0.164 and highly positive fixation indices (Fis in the E. oleifera germplasm collection, compared to the E. guineensis, indicated an excess of homozygosity in E. oleifera. The transferability of the markers to closely related palms, Elaeis guineensis, Cocos nucifera and ornamental palms is also reported. Sequencing the amplicons of three selected E. oleifera gSSRs across both species and palm taxa revealed variations in the repeat-units. The study showed the potential of E. oleifera gSSR markers to reveal genetic diversity in the genus Elaeis. The markers are also a valuable genetic resource for studying E. oleifera and other genus in the Arecaceae family.

  2. Revealing the Diversity of Introduced Coffea canephora Germplasm in Ecuador: Towards a National Strategy to Improve Robusta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rey Gastón Loor Solórzano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic resources of Coffea canephora have been introduced in several tropical countries with potential for crop development. In Ecuador, the species has been cultivated since the mid-20th century. However, little is known about the diversity and genetic structure of introduced germplasm. This paper provides an overview of the genetic and phenotypic diversity of C. canephora in Ecuador and some proposals for implementing a breeding program. Twelve SSR markers were used to analyze 1491 plants of C. canephora grown in different living collections in Ecuador, compared to 29 genotypes representing the main genetic and geographic diversity groups identified within the species. Results indicated that most of the genotypes introduced are of Congolese origin, with accessions from both main subgroups, SG1 and SG2. Some genotypes were classed as hybrids between both subgroups. Substantial phenotypic diversity was also found, and correlations were observed with genetic diversity. Ecuadorian Robusta coffee displays wide genetic diversity and we propose some ways of improving Robusta in Ecuador. A breeding program could be based on three operations: the choice of elite clones, the introduction of new material from other countries (Ivory Coast, Uganda, and the creation of new hybrid material using genotypes from the different diversity groups.

  3. Genetic structure, linkage disequilibrium and association mapping of Verticillium wilt resistance in elite cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) germplasm population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunlei; Wang, Hongmei; Chen, Wei; Li, Yunhai

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the population structure and linkage disequilibrium in an association panel can effectively avoid spurious associations and improve the accuracy in association mapping. In this study, one hundred and fifty eight elite cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) germplasm from all over the world, which were genotyped with 212 whole genome-wide marker loci and phenotyped with an disease nursery and greenhouse screening method, were assayed for population structure, linkage disequilibrium, and association mapping of Verticillium wilt resistance. A total of 480 alleles ranging from 2 to 4 per locus were identified from all collections. Model-based analysis identified two groups (G1 and G2) and seven subgroups (G1a-c, G2a-d), and differentiation analysis showed that subgroup having a single origin or pedigree was apt to differentiate with those having a mixed origin. Only 8.12% linked marker pairs showed significant LD (Presistance were identified through association mapping, which widely were distributed among 15 chromosomes. Among which 10 marker loci were found to be consistent with previously identified QTLs and 32 were new unreported marker loci, and QTL clusters for Verticillium wilt resistanc on Chr.16 were also proved in our study, which was consistent with the strong linkage in this chromosome. Our results would contribute to association mapping and supply the marker candidates for marker-assisted selection of Verticillium wilt resistance in cotton.

  4. Phenotypic variation in the agronomic and morphological traits of Pisum sativum L. germplasm obtained from different parts of the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, M; Ghafoor, A; Khan, M R

    2011-01-01

    A total of 286 genotypes were collected from 39 countries of the world and were evaluated to determine the phenotypic diversity for 17 quantitative traits. Higher degree of coefficient of variation were recorded for grain yield(-5) (52.46%), biomass(-5) (45.73%), fresh pod width(-10) (47.24%), dry pod weight(-1) (40.33%), plant height(-1) (35.25%), harvest index (32.70%) and number of branches(-5). Cluster-II clearly reflected that late genotypes were having lightest pods weight, shortest pod width, and pod length; low grain yield, biomass and harvest index. While genotypes in Cluster-III were in contrast to Cluster-II having heaviest pods weight, longest pods width and length, highest grain yield, biomass and harvest index. Higher PC(-1) values have been determined for days to flower initiation which consequently were contributing weighed positive to days to pods picking, days to flower completion, days to dry pod appearance, days to plant harvesting while negatively contributed to yield producing traits, indicating that late flowering pea germplasm emphasizes more on the vegetative growth and was low yielding. However, higher PC(-2) values have been obtained for number of branches(-5), grain yield and biomass while lower values for days to flowering, days to pods picking, days to flower completion, days to dry pod appearance and days to plant harvesting confirming the fact that early genotypes were high yielding.

  5. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  6. A Review of Living Collections with Special Emphasis on Sustainability and Its Impact on Research Across Multiple Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Formal living collections have unique characteristics that distinguish them from other types of biorepositories. Comprising diverse resources, microbe culture collections, crop and biodiversity plant germplasm collections, and animal germplasm repositories are commonly allied with specific research communities or stakeholder groups. Among living collections, microbial culture collections have very long and unique life histories, with some being older than 100 years. Regulatory, financial, and technical developments have impacted living collections in many ways. International treaty obligations and restrictions on release of genetically modified organisms complicate the activities of living collections. Funding for living collections is a continuing challenge and threatens to create a two-tier system where medically relevant collections are well funded and all other collections are underfunded and hence understaffed. Molecular, genetic, and whole genome sequence analysis of contents of microbes and other living resource collections bring additional value to living collections. PMID:27869477

  7. Development and Evaluation of Glycine max Germplasm Lines with Quantitative Resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaghey, Megan; Willbur, Jaime; Ranjan, Ashish; Grau, Craig R; Chapman, Scott; Diers, Brian; Groves, Carol; Kabbage, Mehdi; Smith, Damon L

    2017-01-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, the causal agent of Sclerotinia stem rot, is a devastating fungal pathogen of soybean that can cause significant yield losses to growers when environmental conditions are favorable for the disease. The development of resistant varieties has proven difficult. However, poor resistance in commercial cultivars can be improved through additional breeding efforts and understanding the genetic basis of resistance. The objective of this project was to develop soybean germplasm lines that have a high level of Sclerotinia stem rot resistance to be used directly as cultivars or in breeding programs as a source of improved Sclerotinia stem rot resistance. Sclerotinia stem rot-resistant soybean germplasm was developed by crossing two sources of resistance, W04-1002 and AxN-1-55, with lines exhibiting resistance to Heterodera glycines and Cadophora gregata in addition to favorable agronomic traits. Following greenhouse evaluations of 1,076 inbred lines derived from these crosses, 31 lines were evaluated for resistance in field tests during the 2014 field season. Subsequently, 11 Sclerotinia stem rot resistant breeding lines were moved forward for field evaluation in 2015, and seven elite breeding lines were selected and evaluated in the 2016 field season. To better understand resistance mechanisms, a marker analysis was conducted to identify quantitative trait loci linked to resistance. Thirteen markers associated with Sclerotinia stem rot resistance were identified on chromosomes 15, 16, 17, 18, and 19. Our markers confirm previously reported chromosomal regions associated with Sclerotinia stem rot resistance as well as a novel region of chromosome 16. The seven elite germplasm lines were also re-evaluated within a greenhouse setting using a cut petiole technique with multiple S. sclerotiorum isolates to test the durability of physiological resistance of the lines in a controlled environment. This work presents a novel and comprehensive classical

  8. Genetic Diversity of Rose germplasm based on RAPD analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AHSAN IQBAL

    2012-06-12

    Jun 12, 2012 ... The rose is the largest and most important ornamental crop in many countries. The genus ... management of plant genetic resources for any crop. Indo-Pak subcontinent has always been a sight of ... Floriculture, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. Morphological data collection. The plant descriptor for the ...

  9. Evaluation on the resistance to aphids of wheat germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A collection of more than 200 wheat lines from the main wheat-producing areas of China was evaluated for resistance to wheat aphids, using fuzzy recognition technique in five field experiments over 2 years. The results show that susceptibility to wheat aphids was exhibited in most of the lines tested, and no immune and ...

  10. Genetic diversity of rose germplasm in Pakistan characterized by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers have been found to be very useful in studying the genetic variability of different species, including Rosa. Present studies were undertaken for the identification and analysis of genetic variation within a collection of 4 species and 30 accessions of rose using RAPD ...

  11. Biochemical evaluation of tomato germplasm part I: workflow and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Of the seed crop species conserved at PGRU, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is the largest in terms of numbers of accessions. Furthermore, tomato ranks very high among vegetable crops in economic importance to the US. We are characterizing a tomato core collection for traits that are of interest to...

  12. Genetic diversity in cocoa germplasm of southern Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The range of polymorphism of about 194 cocoa accessions collected in farms in Southern Cameroon during field surveys and 71 Trinitario and Upper Amazon clones available in genebanks on-station was assessed using 13 SSR markers. The gene diversity, genetic differentiation and genetic similarities were analysed for ...

  13. Microsatellite-based evaluation of Ribes spp. germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanna, M; Marinoni, D Torello; Beccaro, G L; Bounous, G

    2009-10-01

    There is a lack of published microsatellite data which characterizes Ribes spp. To address this, an initial study of simple sequence repeat (SSR) variation was undertaken in 41 cultivars belonging to four species of the genus Ribes to evaluate its genetic variability. The cultivars were collected in Piedmont, northwest Italy, together with one cultivar from Switzerland. Twenty SSRs were screened for amplification and polymorphism. Seven failed to amplify, and therefore the remaining 13 were selected and used to fingerprint all the cultivars. Microsatellite analysis resulted in the identification of 38 genotypes, suggesting the existence of possible clonal genotypes and synonyms. Among the cultivars analyzed, two tetraploid accessions were found. The evaluation of genetic variability in Ribes is of fundamental importance for future nutritional breeding programs and to preserve genetic resources, as cultivar characterization permits better management of plant collections.

  14. European visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, (on the right) visited the CMS assembly hall accompanied by Jim Virdee, Deputy Spokesman of CMS (on the left), and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN. The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, visited CERN on Tuesday 31 January. He was welcomed by the Director-General, Robert Aymar, who described the missions and current activities of CERN to him, in particular the realisation of the LHC with its three components: accelerator, detectors, storage and processing of data. The European Commissioner then visited the CMS assembly hall, then the hall for testing the LHC magnets and the ATLAS cavern. During this first visit since his appointment at the end of 2004, Janez Potočnik appeared very interested by the operation of CERN, an example of successful scientific co-operation on a European scale. The many projects (30 on average) that CERN and the European Commission carry out jointly for the benefit of res...

  15. Standardization of collection requirements for fasting samples: for the Working Group on Preanalytical Phase (WG-PA) of the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simundic, A M; Cornes, M; Grankvist, K; Lippi, G; Nybo, M

    2014-05-15

    Standardized protocols for patient preparation for laboratory testing are currently lacking. Moreover, a great heterogeneity exists in the definitions of "fasting" currently being used among healthcare workers and in the literature. Marked metabolic and hormonal changes occur after food ingestion, mainly due to the absorption of fluids, lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and other food constituents. This postprandial response varies markedly in response to numerous factors, such as eating behavior, food composition, fasting duration, time of the day, chronic and acute smoking, coffee and alcohol consumption. It is therefore crucial to minimize the total variability by controlling as many of these modifying factors as possible. Control of the abovementioned effects on postprandial response can only be achieved by standardizing the way patients are prepared for laboratory testing, i.e. by defining the fasting duration, as well as what is and what is not allowed (e.g., coffee, tea, smoking, water) during the period of fasting prior to sample collection. The aim of this article is to describe the range of effects of different approaches to fasting on laboratory tests, and to provide a framework for the harmonization of definitions for fasting requirements for laboratory tests. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The European Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Martinelli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available European identity is not only a scientifically interesting question, but also a politically important issue: in fact, sixty years after the signing of the Treaty of Rome, the European Union finds itself for the first time facing risks that threaten its own existence. The European Union is a limited and incomplete project because Europe’s economic integration has not been accompanied by a genuine supranational political union and greater cultural integration. The deficit of democratic representation and cultural integration is due to the fact that the community process is based only on economic rationality and not on a feeling of common belonging. In the current situation in which the Union faces difficult challenges which threaten to undermine the future, it necessary to affirm the policy of interests with a policy of identity. In this essay, we will first concentrate on the concept of identity – that is on the nucleus of values and common institutions –; then we will discuss how the European identity has changed over time (also in relation to national identities and what are the mechanisms that may favour its taking root in the current situation. The European project of political unification needs to be re-emphasized, finding the way to a European collective identity, not contrasted with but alongside the different national identities, referring to loyalty and shared commitment to a whole collection of cultural values: fundamental human rights, civil liberties, democratic political institutions, rule of law, freedom of movement of people, goods and capital, social justice and non-violent resolution of conflicts.

  17. The ex situ conservation strategy for endangered plant species: small samples, storage and lessons from seed collected from US national parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ex situ collections of seeds sampled from wild populations provide germplasm for restoration and for scientific study about biological diversity. Seed collections of endangered species are urgent because they might forestall ever-dwindling population size and genetic diversity. However, collecting ...

  18. Insights into the Genetic Relationships and Breeding Patterns of the African Tea Germplasm Based on nSSR Markers and cpDNA Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambulwa, Moses C; Meegahakumbura, Muditha K; Kamunya, Samson; Muchugi, Alice; Möller, Michael; Liu, Jie; Xu, Jian-Chu; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Li, De-Zhu; Gao, Lian-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Africa is one of the key centers of global tea production. Understanding the genetic diversity and relationships of cultivars of African tea is important for future targeted breeding efforts for new crop cultivars, specialty tea processing, and to guide germplasm conservation efforts. Despite the economic importance of tea in Africa, no research work has been done so far on its genetic diversity at a continental scale. Twenty-three nSSRs and three plastid DNA regions were used to investigate the genetic diversity, relationships, and breeding patterns of tea accessions collected from eight countries of Africa. A total of 280 African tea accessions generated 297 alleles with a mean of 12.91 alleles per locus and a genetic diversity (H S) estimate of 0.652. A STRUCTURE analysis suggested two main genetic groups of African tea accessions which corresponded well with the two tea types Camellia sinensis var. sinensis and C. sinensis var. assamica, respectively, as well as an admixed "mosaic" group whose individuals were defined as hybrids of F2 and BC generation with a high proportion of C. sinensis var. assamica being maternal parents. Accessions known to be C. sinensis var. assamica further separated into two groups representing the two major tea breeding centers corresponding to southern Africa (Tea Research Foundation of Central Africa, TRFCA), and East Africa (Tea Research Foundation of Kenya, TRFK). Tea accessions were shared among countries. African tea has relatively lower genetic diversity. C. sinensis var. assamica is the main tea type under cultivation and contributes more in tea breeding improvements in Africa. International germplasm exchange and movement among countries within Africa was confirmed. The clustering into two main breeding centers, TRFCA, and TRFK, suggested that some traits of C. sinensis var. assamica and their associated genes possibly underwent selection during geographic differentiation or local breeding preferences. This study represents

  19. Citrus genebank collections: International collaboration opportunities between the U.S. and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus germplasm is conserved in genebanks at sites around the world to provide genetic resources for breeding and research programs. The value of genebank collections is particularly evident as diseases and climate change threaten citrus production areas. We provide historical, inventory, and maint...

  20. Phenotypic variation in a core collection of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeven, A.C.; Waninge, J.; Hintum, van Th.J.L.; Singh, S.P.

    1999-01-01

    Forty accessions, forming a core collection of mainly bush type of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm in the Netherlands, were evaluated for 14 qualitative and quantitative traits at the Agricultural University, Wageningen (WAU), the Netherlands in 1992. These and an additional 117

  1. Evaluation of USDA Lupinus sp. collection for seed-borne potyviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant viruses pose a threat to the acquisition, maintenance, and distribution of lupin germplasm (genus Lupinus, family Fabaceae). The availability of sufficient quantities of healthy and virus-free seed from maintained lupin collections is mandatory for conducting lupin research. The objective of t...

  2. Collection of wild Helianthus anomalus and deserticola sunflower from the desert southwest USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic resources are the biological basis of global food security. Collection and preservation of wild relatives of important crop species such as sunflower provide the basic foundation to improve and sustain the crop. Acquisition through exploration is the initial step in the germplasm conservatio...

  3. European Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different

  4. Collective Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galster, Kjeld

    Collective Security: National Egotism (Abstract) In Danish pre-World War I defence debate the notion of collective security is missing. During the early years of the 19th century, the political work is influenced by a pervasive feeling of rising tension and danger on the continent of Europe......, but while creation of defensive alliances appears unrealistic, new defence laws appearing 1909 show strong resolve to defend Denmark’s status as a neutral power. The Great War proves that these laws provided an adequate tool to be wielded by the politicians actually in office during that conflict. Following...... World War I it is not surprising that a salient feature of the defence debate is aversion against armed conflict. The Wilsonian agenda of a new system of collective security featuring prominently in the peace talks as well as in European debate generally does indeed have ramifications in Danish...

  5. Diversification of indigenous gene- pool by using exotic germplasm in lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus subsp. culinaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jitendra; Srivastva, Ekta; Singh, Mritunjay; Kumar, Shiv; Nadarajan, N; Sarker, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    Genetic diversity was studied among 21 accessions of lentil using SSR markers and morphological traits in order to assess the diversification of Indian gene-pool of lentil through introgression of exotic genes and introduction of germplasm. Among these , 16 genotypes either had 'Precoz' gene, an Argentine line in their pedigree or genes from introduced lines from ICARDA. Sixty five SSR markers and eight phenotypic traits were used to analyse the level of genetic diversity in these genotypes. Forty three SSR markers (66 %) were polymorphic and generated a total of 177 alleles with an average of 4.1 alleles per SSR marker. Alleles per marker ranged from 2 to 6. The polymorphic information content ranged 0.33 to 0.80 with an average of 0.57, suggesting that SSR markers are highly polymorphic among the studied genotypes. Genetic dissimilarity based a dendrogram grouped these accessions into two main clusters (cluster I and cluster II) and it ranged 33 % to 71 %, suggesting high level of genetic diversity among the genotypes. First three components of PCA based morphological traits explained higher variance (95.6 %) compared to PCA components based on SSR markers (42.7 %) of total genetic variance. Thus, more diversity was observed for morphological traits and genotypes in each cluster and sub-cluster showed a range of variability for seed size, earliness, pods/plant and plant height. Molecular and phenotypic diversity analysis thus suggested that use of germplasm of exotic lines have diversified the genetic base of lentil germplasm in India. This diversified gene-pool will be very useful in the development of improved varieties of lentil in order to address the effect of climate change, to adapt in new cropping systems niches such as mixed cropping, relay cropping, etc. and to meet consumers' preference.

  6. Landscape design and allocation for demonstrating the distinctive germplasm resources of SHNU offers in 2015 Shanghai International Flower Show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Jiaying

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Combing with its theme——″The Delicate Horticulture & The Beautiful Homeland″,the 2015 Shanghai International Flower Show offers SHNU a special outdoor stand for distinctive germplasm resources to shine in different aspects of subject creativity.Many properties of the landscaping,such as landscape arrangement,season reflection,color configuration,personal training,identification,landscaping,season reflection,afforested maintenance,were discused and analyzed in this study.A proposal on how to improve the achievements in scientific research and application of the splendid germplasm resources to a further step was provided as well.The practice of the doemonstration for SHNU′s of germplasm resources in the show gave us a lot of inspirations such as doing more study and develop more plant varieties in order to meeting the social demands,furthermore,promoting the development of the horticulture industry.

  7. Development of DArT marker platforms and genetic diversity assessment of the U.S. collection of the new oilseed crop lesquerella and related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Von Mark V; Kilian, Andrzej; Dierig, David A

    2013-01-01

    The advantages of using molecular markers in modern genebanks are well documented. They are commonly used to understand the distribution of genetic diversity in populations and among species which is crucial for efficient management and effective utilization of germplasm collections. We describe the development of two types of DArT molecular marker platforms for the new oilseed crop lesquerella (Physaria spp.), a member of the Brassicaceae family, to characterize a collection in the National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) with relatively little known in regards to the genetic diversity and traits. The two types of platforms were developed using a subset of the germplasm conserved ex situ consisting of 87 Physaria and 2 Paysonia accessions. The microarray DArT revealed a total of 2,833 polymorphic markers with an average genotype call rate of 98.4% and a scoring reproducibility of 99.7%. On the other hand, the DArTseq platform developed for SNP and DArT markers from short sequence reads showed a total of 27,748 high quality markers. Cluster analysis and principal coordinate analysis indicated that the different accessions were successfully classified by both systems based on species, by geographical source, and breeding status. In the germplasm set analyzed, which represented more than 80% of the P. fendleri collection, we observed that a substantial amount of variation exists in the species collection. These markers will be valuable in germplasm management studies and lesquerella breeding, and augment the microsatellite markers previously developed on the taxa.

  8. Phenotypic Variability of White Lupine (Lupinus albus L. Germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Anastasova GEORGIEVA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Collecting, exploring and using a suitable, genetically diverse source material with different ecological-geographical origin is a determining prerequisite for the breeding success. The present study was conducted during the 2014-2016 period at theInstituteofForage Crops(Pleven,Bulgaria with 23 cultivars of white lupine originatingPoland,RussiaandUkraine. It was found a significant genetic diversity among the studied cultivars, which was a good prerequisite for starting a breeding program within the crop. The most favorable combination of a high seed productivity and crude protein content had cultivars ‘Tel Keram’, ‘Pflugs Ultra’, ‘WAT’, ‘Solnechnii’ and ‘Pink Mutant’, whose plants were also characterized by a mass of 1,000 seeds between 15 and 21 g. Genetically, the most distant from each other were ‘Bezimenii 1’ and ‘Pflugs Ultra’ compared to ‘Termis Mestnii’ and ‘Solnechnii’ as well as to ‘Tel Keram’. These cultivars are suitable as genitors for the development of high-yielding white lupine cultivars. Studied traits of pod length, number of seeds in a pod and seeds per plant showed a high positive phenotypic and genotypic correlation with the seed productivity in white lupine. Regarding productivity, it can be rely upon the mass of 1,000 seeds, plant height and number of seeds per plant due to their high total effect on the seed weight per plant.

  9. Habermas on European Constitution and European Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Biró-Kaszás

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For the last two decades or so philosophers have been reflecting on a set of practical and political concerns in connection with the new political structural arrangements beyond the nation-state. In this article two essays by Jürgen Habermas shall be examined. An attempt shall be made to tackle Habermas’ philosophical concepts of personal and collective identity as well as the role that a constitution may play in building the post-national constellation. It has been shown that Habermas has normative answers. Firstly, according to him, the fragile balance between the legal order and the particular cultures and traditions of a community has to be protected by the constitutional state. For that reason the political culture has to be “decoupled” from the majority culture. Secondly, the democratically structured attempt to achieve shared meaning has to find the delicate balance between the context-transcending universal normative claims and the claims of particular individual and collective life. Thirdly, it is possible to expand legally mediated civil solidarity trans-nationally, across Europe – we may recognize this development as the emergence of European identity –, since the process of democratic will-formation of citizens may get loose from the structures provided by the state if both shared democratic political cultures as well as a European-wide public sphere exist. The European Constitution may have a catalytic function in materialization of these conditions. It has been shown that in his deliberations Habermas tried to find a reflective equilibrium between the normative and the empirical.

  10. Pre-harvest aflatoxins and Aspergillus flavus contamination in variable germplasms of red chillies from Kunri, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhund, Shaista; Akram, Abida; Hanif, Nafeesa Qudsia; Qureshi, Rahmatullah; Naz, Farah; Nayyar, Brian Gagosh

    2017-05-01

    Various cultivars of red chilli were collected from a small town named Kunri, located in the province Sindh, Pakistan. This town is a hub of red chilli production in Asia. A total of 69 samples belonging to 6 cultivars were obtained and analysed for the occurrence of aflatoxins and Aspergillus flavus, to explore the potential of resistant and susceptible germplasm. Aflatoxins were detected by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), while A. flavus was isolated and identified using agar plate, blotter paper, deep freezing and dilution techniques. Molecular characterization using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1/4 and A. flavus specific FL1-F/R primers confirmed the identity of A. flavus. The data revealed that 67 and 75% samples contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and with A. flavus, respectively. A highly susceptible chilli cultivar was 'Nagina', showing 78.8% frequency of total aflatoxins (1.2-600 μg/kg) and a mean of 87.7 μg/kg for AFB1 and 121.9 μg/kg for total aflatoxins. A. flavus was detected with 93% frequency and 2.14 × 10(4) colony forming units. In contrast, cultivars 'Kunri' and 'Drooping Type' were found to be resistant, with low levels of aflatoxins and fungal counts. The study was conducted for the first time to explore two potential cultivars that were less susceptible towards A. flavus and aflatoxin contamination. These cultivars could be preferably cultivated and thereby boost Pakistan's chilli production.

  11. Genetic variability in common wheat germplasm based on coefficients of parentage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Bered

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of genetic variability and an estimate of the genetic relationship among varieties are essential to any breeding program, because artificial crosses among less similar parents allow a larger segregation and the combination of different favorable alleles. Genetic variability can be evaluated in different ways, including the Coefficient of Parentage (COP, which estimates the probability of two alleles in two different individuals being identical by descent. In this study, we evaluated the degree of genetic relationship among 53 wheat genotypes, and identified the ancestor genotypes which contributed the most to the current wheat germplasm, as a prediction of the width of the genetic base of this cereal. The results revealed a mean COP of 0.07 and the formation of 22 similarity groups. The ancestor genotypes Ciano 67 and Mentana were those which contributed the most to the current wheat germplasm. According to the COP analyses, the genetic base of wheat rests on a small number of ancestral genotypes.

  12. Assessment of the Lebanese grapevine germplasm reveals a substantial diversity and a high potential for selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalak Lamis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lebanon is illustrious for the cultivation of grapevine since the old antiquity. Grapevine is well adapted to the agroclimatic conditions of the country which makes it one of the major element of the Lebanese agriculture. Nevertheless germplasm assessment has attributed limited interest to grapevine while genetic resources have not been exploited before despite their potential in adaptation to environmental changes. In this study we assess the diversity of traditional grapevine accessions growing in different production areas in Lebanon. A total of 35 accessions belonging to 22 vernacular names were evaluated using 33 leaf and fruit traits previously developed by OIV. An important variability was revealed among the accessions studied based on grape and grain characteristics. The most discriminant traits were grape and grain weight, dimensions, form, and skin color; leaf size, form, color, lobes number, depth of petiole sinus. Hierarchical clustering analysis showed five main clusters, each regrouping accessions of different named varieties and different agro-climatic areas. An intra-varietal variability is also suspected. Although preliminary, our results indicate a potential of genetic diversity within the Lebanese grape germplasm that should be further investigated in order to understand their performance and to evaluate them in selection programs.

  13. Morphological characterization and genetic diversity in lentil (Lens culinaris medikus ssp. Culinaris germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.U. Ahamed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic divergence of 110 lentil germplasm with checks was assessed based on morphological traits using multivariate analysis. Mahalanobis generalized distance (D2 analysis was used to group the lentil genotypes. Significant variations among lentil genotypes were observed in respect of days to 1st flowering, days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, plant height, and number of pods per peduncle, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant, 100 seed weight and yield per plant. Considering the mean values, the germplasm were grouped into ten clusters. The highest number of genotypes (17 was in cluster X and lowest (5 both in cluster II and IV. Cluster IV had the highest cluster mean for number of pods per plant (297.08, number of seeds per plant (594.16, 100 seed weight (1.44 g and yield per plant (8.53 g. Among them, the highest inter-cluster distance was obtained between the cluster IV and I (24.61 followed by IV and III (22.33, while the lowest was between IX and II (1.63. The maximum value of inter-cluster distance indicated that genotypes belonging to cluster IV were far diverged from those of cluster I. The first female flower initiation was earlier in BD-3812 (49 days in cluster I and cluster IV had highest grain yield per plant (8.53. BD-3807 produced significant maximum number of pods per plant (298.40 in cluster IV.

  14. Assessment of genetic diversity in lettuce (Lactuca sativaL.) germplasm using RAPD markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shubhangi; Kumar, Pankaj; Gambhir, Geetika; Kumar, Ramesh; Srivastava, D K

    2018-01-01

    The importance of germplasm characterization is an important link between the conservation and utilization of plant genetic resources in various breeding programmes. In the present study, genetic variability and relationships among 25 Lactuca sativa L. genotypes were tested using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) molecular markers. A total of 45 random decamer oligonucleotide primers were examined to generate RAPD profiles, out of these reproducible patterns were obtained with 22 primers. A total of 87 amplicon were obtained, out of which all were polymorphic and 7 were unique bands. The level of polymorphism across genotypes was 100% as revealed by RAPD. Genetic similarity matrix, based on Jaccard's coefficients ranged from 13.7 to 84.10% indicating a wide genetic base. Dendrogram was constructed by unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages method. RAPD technology could be useful for identification of different accessions as well as assessing the genetic similarity among different genotypes of lettuce. The study reveals the limited genetic base and the needs to diversify using new sources from the germplasm.

  15. Quantitative Characterization of Nut Yield and Fruit Components in Indigenous Coconut Germplasm in Sri Lanka

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    S. A. C. N. Perera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coconut (Cocos nucifera L. is a tropical palm offering multiple uses. Conservation of coconut germplasm has been undertaken globally in view of its economic importance. This research was designed to evaluate nine Sri Lankan indigenous coconut germplasm representing the three varieties Typica, Nana, and Aurantiaca. Total annual nut yield and the weights of fresh nut, husked nut, split nut, and fresh and dry kernel were scored and analyzed with analysis of variance. The annual average number of bunches varied from 14.9 to 16.8 which is significantly higher than the generally accepted 12–14 bunches in tall coconuts. The high potential of phenotypes Ran thembili and Gon thembili for kernel production was revealed. The high potential of Gon thembili, Sri Lanka Tall, and Ran thembili to produce fibre was also identified. Phenotypes Ran thembili and Gon thembili displayed their potential as pure cultivars and as parents in hybridization. King coconut, Red dwarf, and Bodiri were shown to be suitable as beverage coconuts due to the high production of nuts, bunches, and the quantity of nut water. This study reiterated the importance of conservation and characterization of indigenous coconut varieties globally for their effective use in the genetic improvement of the coconut palm.

  16. Genetic diversity of tropical-adapted onion germplasm assessed by RAPD markers Diversidade genética em germoplasma tropical de cebola estimada via marcadores RAPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Desterro M dos Santos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Onion is a crop of significant socioeconomic importance to Brazil. Onion germplasm with adaptation to tropical and sub-tropical conditions has played an important role in the development of this crop in the country. In this context, we studied the genetic diversity in a germplasm collection potentially useful for the development of cultivars for tropical and subtropical regions. The genetic variability of 21 accessions/cultivars that have been used as germplasm and/or were developed by onion breeding programs in Brazil was evaluated via RAPD markers. The following accessions were included in the study :'Red Creole', 'Roxa IPA-3', 'Valenciana 14', 'Beta Cristal', 'Diamante', 'Composto IPA-6', 'Aurora', 'Bojuda Rio Grande', 'Alfa Tropical', 'Pêra IPA-4', 'Primavera', 'Belém IPA-9', 'Crioula Alto Vale', 'Conquista', 'Pira-Ouro', 'Vale-Ouro IPA-11', 'Franciscana IPA-10', 'Serrana', 'CNPH 6400', 'Petroline', and 'Baia Periforme'. From the 520 primers used in the initial screening only 38 displayed stable polymorphisms. They produced 624 amplicons, of which 522 (83.7% were monomorphic and 102 (16.3% were polymorphic. An average similarity coefficient of 0.72 was calculated among accessions based upon this subgroup of polymorphic amplicons. This allowed the discrimination of this germplasm collection into six groups with only one of them comprising more than one accession. The main group was formed by 16 accessions ('Diamante', 'Composto IPA-6', 'Aurora', 'Bojuda Rio Grande', 'Conquista', 'Pira-Ouro', 'Serrana', 'Vale-Ouro IPA-11', 'Baia Periforme', 'Primavera', 'Franciscana IPA-10', 'Belém IPA-9', 'Crioula Alto Vale', 'Petroline', 'Pêra IPA-4' and 'Alfa Tropical', for which the genetic origin (with few exceptions can be traced back to the variety 'Baia Periforme'. The populations 'Red Creole', 'Roxa IPA-3', 'Beta Cristal', 'CNPH 6400', and 'Valenciana 14' comprised a set of five isolated groups, showing genetic divergence among them and in

  17. Registration of two confection sunflower germplasm Lines, HA-R10 and HA-R11, Resistant to sunflower rust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasm lines, HA-R10 (Reg. No.xxx, PI670043) and HA-R11 (Reg. No.xxx, PI670044) were developed by the USDA-ARS Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit in collaboration with the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station and released December, 20...

  18. Registration of two double rust resistant germplasms, HA-R12 and HA-R13 for confection sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    The confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasms HA-R12 (Reg. No. ______, PI 673104) and HA-R13 (Reg. No. ______, PI 673105) were developed by the USDA-ARS, Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit in collaboration with the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station, and released in Jul...

  19. Determining sex and screening for the adventitious presence of transgenic material in Carica papaya L. seed germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV) is a devastating disease that has a detrimental impact on both commercial papaya production and Caricaceae germplasm conservation. The PRSV coat protein transgenic line 55-1 and derived progeny are resistant to PRSV and have saved the papaya industry in Hawaii. However,...

  20. Registration of six germplasm lines of cotton, Gosspyium hirsutum L. with resistance to root-knot and reniform nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six Upland cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., germplasm lines, M Rk-Rn 1, M Rk-Rn 2, M Rk-Rn 3, M Rk-Rn 4, M Rk-Rn 5, and M Rk-Rn 6, with resistance to root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood, and reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford and Oliveria, were jointl...

  1. Polycross populations of the native grass Festuca roemeri as pre-varietal germplasm: their derivation, release, increase, and use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale C. Darris; Barbara L. Wilson; Rob Fiegener; Randy Johnson; Matthew E. Horning

    2008-01-01

    Results of a recent common-garden study provide evidence needed to delineate appropriate seed transfer zones for the native grass Festuca roemeri (Pavlick) E. B. Alexeev (Poaceae). That information has been used to develop pre-variety germplasm releases to provide ecologically and genetically appropriate seeds for habitat restoration, erosion...

  2. USDA-ARS germplasm evaluated for resistance to Rhizoctonia crown and root rot in Fort Collins, CO, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty-six sugar beet (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris) germplasm from the USDA-Agricultural Research Service pre-breeding program at Fort Collins, Colorado were screened for resistance to Rhizoctonia crown and root rot (RCRR) at the Colorado State University ARDEC facility in Fort Collins, CO. There...

  3. Comparison of single nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeats in genotype identification and diversity assessment of cacao germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate identification of individual genotypes in an efficient manner is especially important for cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) germplasm conservation and breeding. The development of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in cacao offers the opportunity to use a high throughput genotyping syste...

  4. Genetic Vulnerability and the Relationship of Commercial Germplasms of Maize in Brazil with the Nested Association Mapping Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luciano Rogério Braatz de; Fritsche Neto, Roberto; Granato, Ítalo Stefanine Correia; Sant'Ana, Gustavo César; Morais, Pedro Patric Pinho; Borém, Aluízio

    2016-01-01

    A few breeding companies dominate the maize (Zea mays L.) hybrid market in Brazil: Monsanto® (35%), DuPont Pioneer® (30%), Dow Agrosciences® (15%), Syngenta® (10%) and Helix Sementes (4%). Therefore, it is important to monitor the genetic diversity in commercial germplasms as breeding practices, registration and marketing of new cultivars can lead to a significant reduction of the genetic diversity. Reduced genetic variation may lead to crop vulnerabilities, food insecurity and limited genetic gains following selection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic vulnerability risk by examining the relationship between the commercial Brazilian maize germplasms and the Nested Association Mapping (NAM) Parents. For this purpose, we used the commercial hybrids with the largest market share in Brazil and the NAM parents. The hybrids were genotyped for 768 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), using the Illumina Goldengate® platform. The NAM parent genomic data, comprising 1,536 SNPs for each line, were obtained from the Panzea data bank. The population structure, genetic diversity and the correlation between allele frequencies were analyzed. Based on the estimated effective population size and genetic variability, it was found that there is a low risk of genetic vulnerability in the commercial Brazilian maize germplasms. However, the genetic diversity is lower than those found in the NAM parents. Furthermore, the Brazilian germplasms presented no close relations with most NAM parents, except B73. This indicates that B73, or its heterotic group (Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic), contributed to the development of the commercial Brazilian germplasms.

  5. Genetic Vulnerability and the Relationship of Commercial Germplasms of Maize in Brazil with the Nested Association Mapping Parents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Rogério Braatz de Andrade

    Full Text Available A few breeding companies dominate the maize (Zea mays L. hybrid market in Brazil: Monsanto® (35%, DuPont Pioneer® (30%, Dow Agrosciences® (15%, Syngenta® (10% and Helix Sementes (4%. Therefore, it is important to monitor the genetic diversity in commercial germplasms as breeding practices, registration and marketing of new cultivars can lead to a significant reduction of the genetic diversity. Reduced genetic variation may lead to crop vulnerabilities, food insecurity and limited genetic gains following selection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic vulnerability risk by examining the relationship between the commercial Brazilian maize germplasms and the Nested Association Mapping (NAM Parents. For this purpose, we used the commercial hybrids with the largest market share in Brazil and the NAM parents. The hybrids were genotyped for 768 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, using the Illumina Goldengate® platform. The NAM parent genomic data, comprising 1,536 SNPs for each line, were obtained from the Panzea data bank. The population structure, genetic diversity and the correlation between allele frequencies were analyzed. Based on the estimated effective population size and genetic variability, it was found that there is a low risk of genetic vulnerability in the commercial Brazilian maize germplasms. However, the genetic diversity is lower than those found in the NAM parents. Furthermore, the Brazilian germplasms presented no close relations with most NAM parents, except B73. This indicates that B73, or its heterotic group (Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic, contributed to the development of the commercial Brazilian germplasms.

  6. Molecular characterization of an earliest cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) collection from Peruvian Amazon using microsatllite DNA markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is indigenous to the Amazon region of South America. The Peruvian Amazon harbors a large number of diverse cacao populations. Since the 1930s, several numbers of populations have been collected from the Peruvian Amazon and maintained as ex situ germplasm repositories in ...

  7. Prioritization of Malus accessions for collection cryopreservation at the USDA-ARS National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System maintains a grafted collection of apple accessions representing 49 taxa in Geneva, NY. Dormant buds of many of these accessions have been routinely cryopreserved at the USDA-ARS National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation (NCGRP) in Fort Collins, C...

  8. Genetic variation in the US Peanut Mini-core collection for agronomy, seed chemistry and nutrient quality traits in peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ongoing genome sequencing effort in peanut will result in numerous molecular markers that can be applied to the diverse collection of recently purified mini-core germplasm. This will provide an opportunity to mine valuable genes for peanut cultivar improvement. Association mapping based on linka...

  9. Household appliance data collection and market survey in central and eastern european countries; Raccolta dati e analisi del mercato sugli apparecchi elettrodomestici nei paesi dell'Europa centrale e orientale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presutto, M. [ENEA, Funzione Centrali Studi, Centro Ricerche Ispra, Vercelli (Italy); Ricci, A. [Istituto di Studi per l' Integrazione dei Sistemi, Rome (Italy); Meli, L. [ANIE, Federazione delle Imprese Elettrotecniche ed Elettroniche, International Affaires Direction, Milan (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Since 1995 the European Commission, through the SAVE programme, and the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations, through the Energy Efficiency 2000 Project, jointly sponsored the so called SACHA projects in Central and Eastern European Countries regarding major household appliances. Consistently, the main objective of the projects was to analyse and interpret the situation of refrigerators, freezers and washing machines in seven CEEC, so as to increase the knowledge and understanding of the issues at stake in the area of energy efficiency and environmental friendliness, and therefore to identify possible scenarios of improvement. This paper describes the work accomplished and the results achieved in this context, focusing more on the data collection and market survey moments and illustrates, with an abundant series of exhibits, the quantitative picture resulting form the analyses carried out. Possibility exists for replication in Latin America, where ENEA and Italian experience could be fruitfully applied. Reliable and complete information is in fact one of the prerequisites to overcome potential barriers and facilitate a successful enforcement of any energy efficiency policy. Effective implementation and regional harmonisation are necessary, even if projects can facilitate the fulfilment of these goals as it provides a consolidated methodology and an integrated scheme for basic data collection and analysis. [Italian] A partire dal 1995 la Commissione Europea e la Commissione Economica per l'Europa delle Nazioni Unite hanno congiuntamente promosso lo studio dei piu' importanti apparecchi domestici nei paesi dell'Europa centrale ed orientale. Principale obiettivo di questi progetti, piu' noti come progetti con SACHA, dall'acronimo del titolo, era analizzare e soprattutto interpretare la situazione dei frigoriferi, congelatori e lavatrici in sette PECO, per migliorare da un lato la conoscenza e la comprensione delle problematiche

  10. [French European military haemovigilance guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailliol, A; Clavier, B; Cap, A; Ausset, S

    2010-12-01

    European military transfusion services follow operational guidelines established by their respective national health systems and conform with European Union directives and NATO standards as applicable to member countries. Certain features are common to all of these standards, especially the pre-selection of volunteer, almost exclusively unpaid donors. NATO requirements are very close to European guidelines, with the exception that NATO permits the use of blood products collected in emergency conditions in theater when circumstances allow no better option. Blood product traceability exists for every country but is not always centralized or computerized. Serious adverse event reporting relies on national haemovigilance networks. Military considerations become important mainly in overseas operations, where the overall policy is to implement the relevant national, European or NATO guidelines with adjustments made for unique wartime circumstances and the risk/benefit ratio for the individual patient needing a transfusion. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Inter-retrotransposon-amplified polymorphism markers for germplasm characterization in Manihot esculenta (Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Silva, A M; Silva, G F; Dias, M C; Clement, C R; Sousa, N R

    2014-05-16

    Manioc, Manihot esculenta, is economically important in many tropical and subtropical countries. The genetic variability of the species has not been fully explored, and new information may help expand its use. Molecular markers based on retrotransposons have good potential for analysis of genetic diversity given their abundance in the genome. Eight long terminal repeat retrotransposons were selected for the development of inter-retrotransposon-amplified polymorphism markers. To test these primers, we analyzed 32 varieties from Anori, 30 from Manicoré and 10 Mandiocabas from the Manioc Germplasm Bank at Embrapa Western Amazonia. The six informative primer pairs yielded 20- 60 polymorphic bands, averaging 92% polymorphism (51.7-98.4) and 0.37 heterozygosity (0.17 to 0.40), with a Shannon information index of 0.54 (0.26-0.59). These markers can be used to explore the genetic diversity of manioc.

  12. Evaluation of Resistance in Pepper Germplasm to Cucumber mosaic virus by High Resolution Melting Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Young Ro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, total number of 1941 Capsicum accessions conserved at RDA Genebank was evaluated for theirresponse to Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV. These accessions were composed with 9 species originated from89 countries, included 839 Capsicum annuum, 277 C. baccatum, 395 C. chinense, 343 C. frutescens, 49 C.pubescens, and other 38 wild pepper species (C. chacoense, C. galapagoense, etc.. Resistant to CMV wasscreened with the 240H02SP6 SNP marker related to the Cmr1 (Cucumber mosaic resistance 1. Eighty nineaccessions of pepper germplasm were resistant to CMV based on the marker. One hundred sixty twoaccessions showed heterozygosity. One thousand two hundred seventy accessions were susceptible to CMV.Four hundred twenty accessions did not show distinction by 240H02SP6 marker. These 89 resistant peppergermplasm can be used in a pepper breeding program against CMV.

  13. Pre-meiotic transformation of germplasm-related structures during male gamete differentiation in Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reunov, Arkadiy A; Reunova, Yulia A

    2016-02-01

    To highlight the ultrastructural features of transformation occurring with germplasm-related structures (GPRS), the spermatogenic cells of Xenopus laevis were studied by transmission electron microscopy and quantitative analysis. It was determined that in spermatogonia and spermatocytes, the compact germinal granules underwent fragmentation into particles comparable with inter-mitochondrial cement (IMC). Fragments of IMC agglutinated some cell mitochondria and resulted in the creation of mitochondrial clusters. Clustered mitochondria responded with loss of their membranes that occurred by the twisting of membranous protrusions around themselves until multi-layered membranes were formed. The mitochondrial affinity of multi-layered membranes was proven by an immunopositive test for mitochondrial dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase. As a consequence of mitochondrial membrane twisting, the naked mitochondrial cores appeared and presumably underwent dispersion, which is the terminal stage of GPRS transformation. As no GPRS were observed in spermatids and sperm, it was assumed that these structures are functionally assigned to early stages of meiotic differentiation.

  14. [Study on wild germplasm resoures of Begonia fimbristipula in Dinghu District, Zhaoqing City, Guangdong Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Ling; Chen, Xiong-Wei; Liang, Guang-Jian; Chen, Gang; Xu, Jin-Hai

    2014-02-01

    A systematical investigation on the distribution of wild germplasm of Regonia fimbristipula in Dinghu District, Zhaoqing City, Guangdong Province was conducted at 8 sites. Field quadrat survey method was carried out. Begonia fimbristipula had obvious phenotypical plasticity showing three phenotypes with red, green and bicolor leaf, respectively. Its populations lived in the ecological environment of rock. The growth and building of Begonia fimbristipula population were mutually influenced by many ecological factors such as natural habitat, slope-exposure, soil thickness, sunlight, air humidity as well as soil physical and chemical properties. Living environment vulnerability and human activities are the main reason causing sharp decrease of wild resources of Begonia fimbristipula. Evaluation on regional distribution of wild Begonia fimbristipula and its protection and use of the rationalization have important value.

  15. European Regional Modernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Brian Canizaro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, beginning with the publication in 2003 of Liane Lefaivre and Alexander Tzonis’ 'Critical Regionalism', followed by my 'Architectural Regionalism: Collected Writings on Place, Identity, Modernity and Tradition 'in 2007, there has been a quiet resurgence in the discourse of architectural regionalism.' 'Leuven University Press’s 'Regionalism and Modernity: Architecture in Western Europe 1914–1940 'continues in this direction, with eleven chapters devoted to variations of the regionalist tendency in European architecture focused primarily on Belgium and France, but also Great Britain, Italy, and Germany.

  16. Exploring Potential of Pearl Millet Germplasm Association Panel for Association Mapping of Drought Tolerance Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Deepmala; Skot, Leif; Singh, Richa; Srivastava, Rakesh Kumar; Das, Sankar Prasad; Taunk, Jyoti; Sharma, Parbodh C.; Pal, Ram; Raj, Bhasker; Hash, Charles T.; Yadav, Rattan S.

    2015-01-01

    A pearl millet inbred germplasm association panel (PMiGAP) comprising 250 inbred lines, representative of cultivated germplasm from Africa and Asia, elite improved open-pollinated cultivars, hybrid parental inbreds and inbred mapping population parents, was recently established. This study presents the first report of genetic diversity in PMiGAP and its exploitation for association mapping of drought tolerance traits. For diversity and genetic structure analysis, PMiGAP was genotyped with 37 SSR and CISP markers representing all seven linkage groups. For association analysis, it was phenotyped for yield and yield components and morpho-physiological traits under both well-watered and drought conditions, and genotyped with SNPs and InDels from seventeen genes underlying a major validated drought tolerance (DT) QTL. The average gene diversity in PMiGAP was 0.54. The STRUCTURE analysis revealed six subpopulations within PMiGAP. Significant associations were obtained for 22 SNPs and 3 InDels from 13 genes under different treatments. Seven SNPs associations from 5 genes were common under irrigated and one of the drought stress treatments. Most significantly, an important SNP in putative acetyl CoA carboxylase gene showed constitutive association with grain yield, grain harvest index and panicle yield under all treatments. An InDel in putative chlorophyll a/b binding protein gene was significantly associated with both stay-green and grain yield traits under drought stress. This can be used as a functional marker for selecting high yielding genotypes with ‘stay green’ phenotype under drought stress. The present study identified useful marker-trait associations of important agronomics traits under irrigated and drought stress conditions with genes underlying a major validated DT-QTL in pearl millet. Results suggest that PMiGAP is a useful panel for association mapping. Expression patterns of genes also shed light on some physiological mechanisms underlying pearl millet

  17. Exploring potential of pearl millet germplasm association panel for association mapping of drought tolerance traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepmala Sehgal

    Full Text Available A pearl millet inbred germplasm association panel (PMiGAP comprising 250 inbred lines, representative of cultivated germplasm from Africa and Asia, elite improved open-pollinated cultivars, hybrid parental inbreds and inbred mapping population parents, was recently established. This study presents the first report of genetic diversity in PMiGAP and its exploitation for association mapping of drought tolerance traits. For diversity and genetic structure analysis, PMiGAP was genotyped with 37 SSR and CISP markers representing all seven linkage groups. For association analysis, it was phenotyped for yield and yield components and morpho-physiological traits under both well-watered and drought conditions, and genotyped with SNPs and InDels from seventeen genes underlying a major validated drought tolerance (DT QTL. The average gene diversity in PMiGAP was 0.54. The STRUCTURE analysis revealed six subpopulations within PMiGAP. Significant associations were obtained for 22 SNPs and 3 InDels from 13 genes under different treatments. Seven SNPs associations from 5 genes were common under irrigated and one of the drought stress treatments. Most significantly, an important SNP in putative acetyl CoA carboxylase gene showed constitutive association with grain yield, grain harvest index and panicle yield under all treatments. An InDel in putative chlorophyll a/b binding protein gene was significantly associated with both stay-green and grain yield traits under drought stress. This can be used as a functional marker for selecting high yielding genotypes with 'stay green' phenotype under drought stress. The present study identified useful marker-trait associations of important agronomics traits under irrigated and drought stress conditions with genes underlying a major validated DT-QTL in pearl millet. Results suggest that PMiGAP is a useful panel for association mapping. Expression patterns of genes also shed light on some physiological mechanisms underlying

  18. European practice in haemodialysis: results of the EPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, J Y; Elseviers, M; Harrington, M; Zampieron, A; Vlaminck, H; Ormandy, P; Kafkia, T

    2006-01-01

    The European Practice Database (EPD) project, developed by the EDTNA/ERCA Research Board, collects data on renal practice at centre level in different European countries. Results presented in this paper focus on the European Practice in Haemodialysis centres from 8 European countries or regions following data collection from 2002 to 2004. These results will enable international comparison in practice and will stimulate further research and the development of new practice recommendations.

  19. Genetic Diversity within a Global Panel of Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Landraces and Modern Germplasm Reveals the History of Alleles Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafssa Kabbaj

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Durum wheat is the 10th most important crop in the world, and its use traces back to the origin of agriculture. Unfortunately, in the last century only part of the genetic diversity available for this species has been captured in modern varieties through breeding. Here, the population structure and genetic diversity shared among elites and landraces collected from 32 countries was investigated. A total of 370 entries were genotyped with Axiom 35K array to identify 8,173 segregating single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Of these, 500 were selected as highly informative with a PIC value above 0.32 and used to test population structure via DAPC, STRUCTURE, and neighbor joining tree. A total of 10 sub-populations could be identified, six constituted by modern germplasm and four by landraces of different geographical origin. Interestingly, genomic comparison among groups indicated that Middle East and Ethiopia had the lowest level of allelic diversity, while breeding programs and landraces collected outside these regions were the richest in rare alleles. Further, phylogenetic analysis among landraces indicated that Ethiopia might represent a second center of origin of durum wheat, rather than a second domestication site as previously believed. Together, the analyses carried here provide a global picture of the available genetic diversity for this crop and shall guide its targeted use by breeders.

  20. Genetic Diversity within a Global Panel of Durum Wheat (Triticum durum) Landraces and Modern Germplasm Reveals the History of Alleles Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabbaj, Hafssa; Sall, Amadou T; Al-Abdallat, Ayed; Geleta, Mulatu; Amri, Ahmed; Filali-Maltouf, Abdelkarim; Belkadi, Bouchra; Ortiz, Rodomiro; Bassi, Filippo M

    2017-01-01

    Durum wheat is the 10th most important crop in the world, and its use traces back to the origin of agriculture. Unfortunately, in the last century only part of the genetic diversity available for this species has been captured in modern varieties through breeding. Here, the population structure and genetic diversity shared among elites and landraces collected from 32 countries was investigated. A total of 370 entries were genotyped with Axiom 35K array to identify 8,173 segregating single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Of these, 500 were selected as highly informative with a PIC value above 0.32 and used to test population structure via DAPC, STRUCTURE, and neighbor joining tree. A total of 10 sub-populations could be identified, six constituted by modern germplasm and four by landraces of different geographical origin. Interestingly, genomic comparison among groups indicated that Middle East and Ethiopia had the lowest level of allelic diversity, while breeding programs and landraces collected outside these regions were the richest in rare alleles. Further, phylogenetic analysis among landraces indicated that Ethiopia might represent a second center of origin of durum wheat, rather than a second domestication site as previously believed. Together, the analyses carried here provide a global picture of the available genetic diversity for this crop and shall guide its targeted use by breeders.

  1. European Bat Lyssaviruses, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der W.H.M.; Heide, van der R.; Verstraten, E.R.A.M.; Kramps, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    To study European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) in bat reservoirs in the Netherlands, native bats have been tested for rabies since 1984. For all collected bats, data including species, age, sex, and date and location found were recorded. A total of 1,219 serotine bats, Eptesicus serotinus, were tested, and

  2. European Cyber Security Perspectives 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baloo, J.; Geveke, H.G.; Paulissen, W.; Vries, H. de

    2015-01-01

    Following the success of last year’s publication, we are proud to present the second edition of our European Cyber Security Perspectives report. Through this collection of articles, we aim to share our different perspectives and insights, the latest developments and achievements in the field of

  3. Evaluating Agronomic Performance and Investigating Molecular Structure of Drought and Heat Tolerant Wild Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Collection from the Southeastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basbag, Mehmet; Aydin, Ali; Sakiroglu, Muhammet

    2017-02-01

    Drought is a major stress factor for agricultural production including alfalfa production. One way to counterbalance the yield losses is the introgression of drought tolerant germplasm into breeding programs. As an effort to exploit such germplasm, 16 individual plants were selected from the Southeastern Turkey from their natural habitat and clonally propagated in field trials with an ultimate goal to use the germplasm as parents for releasing a synthetic cultivar. Forage yield and forage quality traits were evaluated and molecular genetic diversity among genotypes were determined using inter simple sequence repeat markers. Genotypes showed a variation from growth habit to yield and quality traits indicating sufficient phenotypic variation for diverse breeding efforts (for grazing or harvesting) and long term selection schemes. A large amount of genetic variation was observed even with a limited number of marker and genotypes. However, no pattern of spatial genetic structure was observed for the scale of the study when genetic variation is linked to the geographic origin. We conclude that ex situ natural variation provides a wealth of germplasm that could be incorporated into breeding programs aiming to improve drought tolerance. We also suggest an extensive collection of seeds/plant tissue from unique plants with desirable traits rather than putting more efforts to create a spatial germplasm sampling efforts in narrow regions.

  4. The European standard series in 9 European countries, 2002/2003 - First results of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uter, W; Hegewald, J; Aberer, W; Ayala, F; Bircher, AJ; Brasch, J; Coenraads, PJ; Schuttelaar, Marielouise; Elsner, P; Fartasch, M; Mahler, V.; Fortina, AB; Frosch, PJ; Fuchs, T; Johansen, JD; Menne, T; Jolanki, R; Krecisz, B; Kiec-Swierczynska, M; Larese, F; Orton, D; Peserico, A; Rantanen, T; Schnuch, A

    Since January 2001, the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA), supported by European Union funding (contract QLK4-CT-2001-00343), has started to collect patch-test data. This comprises a standardized clinical history and the patch-test results using the European standard series,

  5. INVENTORY OF HERPETOFAUNA IN REGIONAL GERMPLASM PRESERVATION IN PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY OGAN KOMERING ILIR REGENCY SOUTH SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denny Noberio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to determine of herpetofauna in Regional Germplasm Preservation, PT. Bumi Mekar Hijau, Ogan Komering Ilir Regency, South Sumatra. The research was conducted in May until June 2015, conducted on 4 transect observation purposively determined by considering the type of habitat herpetofauna and the results of a preliminary survey. The method used in this research is the Visual Encounter Survey (VES. Observations carried out in the morning and evening. The total number of herpetofauna were found during the observation as many as 15 species of 9 families. The number of amphibians was found as many as 6 species of 3 families and reptiles as many as 9 species of 6 families. There are two species categorized as Vulnerable in IUCN 2015 and Appendix II CITES which are the Siebenrockiella crassicollis and Cuora amboinensis cuoro   Keywords : Inventory, herpetofauna, regional germplasm preservation, industrial plantation forest

  6. Comprehensive screening and selection of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) germplasm for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage and during plant ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Ikram-ul; Khan, Asif Ali; Khan, Iqrar Ahmad; Azmat, Muhammad Abubakkar

    2012-07-01

    The okra germplasm was screened for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage and during plant ontogeny. Substantial variation existed in okra for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage. An 80 mmol/L NaCl concentration was suitable for discriminating tolerant and non-tolerant okra genotypes. The pooled ranking of the genotypes, based on individual rankings for each trait (root and shoot length, germination percentage, and relative Na(+) and K(+)) in individual NaCl concentrations, was effective for selecting tolerant genotypes. Genotypes selected at the seedling stage maintained their tolerance to NaCl during plant ontogeny, suggesting that screening of the germplasm entries and advanced breeding materials for salt tolerance at the seedling stage is effective. Among 39 okra genotypes, five were identified as the most tolerant genotypes and showed potential for use in breeding programs that focus on the development of salt-tolerant, high-yield okra cultivars.

  7. Comprehensive screening and selection of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) germplasm for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage and during plant ontogeny*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Ikram-ul; Khan, Asif Ali; Khan, Iqrar Ahmad; Azmat, Muhammad Abubakkar

    2012-01-01

    The okra germplasm was screened for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage and during plant ontogeny. Substantial variation existed in okra for salinity tolerance at the seedling stage. An 80 mmol/L NaCl concentration was suitable for discriminating tolerant and non-tolerant okra genotypes. The pooled ranking of the genotypes, based on individual rankings for each trait (root and shoot length, germination percentage, and relative Na+ and K+) in individual NaCl concentrations, was effective for selecting tolerant genotypes. Genotypes selected at the seedling stage maintained their tolerance to NaCl during plant ontogeny, suggesting that screening of the germplasm entries and advanced breeding materials for salt tolerance at the seedling stage is effective. Among 39 okra genotypes, five were identified as the most tolerant genotypes and showed potential for use in breeding programs that focus on the development of salt-tolerant, high-yield okra cultivars. PMID:22761245

  8. Evaluating a core germplasm collection of the cover crop hairy vetch for use in sustainable farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding linkage between genotype and agronomically important phenotypes (early flowering, hard seed and winter hardiness) will facilitate cultivar selection and inform breeding programs concerned with the cover crop hairy vetch (Vicia villosa). . We used molecular and biochemical techniques to...

  9. Acquisition and ecological characterization of Lactuca serriola L. germplasm collected in the Czech Republic, , Germany, the Netherlands and United Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebeda, A.; Dolezalova, I.; Kristkova, E.; Dehmer, K.J.; Astley, D.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Treuren, van R.

    2007-01-01

    Expeditions were conducted in the Czech Republic, Germany, the Netherlands and United Kingdom in 2001 (partly 1998) to study Lactuca serriola L. (prickly lettuce, compass plant) geographic distribution, ecology, habitat characteristics and occurrence of diseases and pests on this species. During

  10. Low-temperature leaf photosynthesis of a Miscanthus germplasm collection correlates positively to shoot growth rate and specific leaf area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Xiurong; Kørup, Kirsten; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Petersen, Karen Koefoed; Prade, Thomas; Jeżowski, Stanisław; Ornatowski, Szymon; Górynowicz, Barbara; Spitz, Idan; Lærke, Poul Erik; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2016-06-01

    The C4 perennial grass miscanthus has been found to be less sensitive to cold than most other C4 species, but still emerges later in spring than C3 species. Genotypic differences in miscanthus were investigated to identify genotypes with a high cold tolerance at low temperatures and quick recovery upon rising temperatures to enable them to exploit the early growing season in maritime cold climates. Suitable methods for field screening of cold tolerance in miscanthus were also identified. Fourteen genotypes of M. sacchariflorus, M. sinensis, M. tinctorius and M. × giganteus were selected and grown under warm (24 °C) and cold (14 °C) conditions in a controlled environment. Dark-adapted chlorophyll fluorescence, specific leaf area (SLA) and net photosynthetic rate at a photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) of 1000 μmol m(-2) s(-1) (A1000) were measured. Photosynthetic light and CO2 response curves were obtained from 11 of the genotypes, and shoot growth rate was measured under field conditions. A positive linear relationship was found between SLA and light-saturated photosynthesis (Asat) across genotypes, and also between shoot growth rate under cool field conditions and A1000 at 14 °C in a climate chamber. When lowering the temperature from 24 to 14 °C, one M. sacchariflorus exhibited significantly higher Asat and maximum photosynthetic rate in the CO2 response curve (Vmax) than other genotypes at 14 °C, except M × giganteus 'Hornum'. Several genotypes returned to their pre-chilling A1000 values when the temperature was increased to 24 °C after 24 d growth at 14 °C. One M. sacchariflorus genotype had similar or higher photosynthetic capacity than M × giganteus, and may be used for cultivation together with M × giganteus or for breeding new interspecies hybrids with improved traits for temperate climates. Two easily measured variables, SLA and shoot growth rate, may be useful for genotype screening of productivity and cold tolerance. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  11. Associations of SRAP markers with dried-shrink disease resistance in a germplasm collection of sea buckthorn (Hippophae L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, He; Ruan, Cheng-Jiang; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Liu, Bao-Quan

    2010-06-01

    Sea buckthorn (Hippophae L.) is a woody, outcrossing dioecious pioneer plant, being widely planted as a new berry crop with rich nutritional and medicinal compounds. This long-juvenile and long-lived woody plant can be more difficult to cultivate than other crop plants. Dried-shrink disease (DSD) is a dangerous pathogen that destroys sea buckthorn and halts commercial production. We estimated variability of sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers in 77 accessions of 22 sea buckthorn cultivars to seek markers associated with DSD resistance and help to identify potential breeding cultivars. Seventeen SRAP primer combinations generated 289 bands, with a mean of 17 bands per primer combination. At a Dice coefficient of 0.852, the dendrogram generated with 191 polymorphic bands clustered 73 accessions of Hippophae rhamnoides into 2 groups and 4 accessions of Hippophae salicifolia into 1 group. Eleven SRAP markers (Me1-Em3(600), Me1-Em1(680), Me2-Em1(650), Me2-Em1(950), Me3-Em6(1300), Me2-Em6(320), Me2-Em6(400), Me1-Em2(600), Me1-Em1(1200), Me1-Em1(1700), Me2-Em2(250)) were significantly correlated with DSD resistance (P < 0.001). These markers provide a viable option for breeding programs that select lineages with DSD resistance, especially when no other genetic information, such as linkage maps and quantitative trait loci, are available.

  12. Low temperature leaf photosynthesis of a Miscanthus germplasm collection correlates positively to shoot growth rate and specific leaf area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Xiurong; Sørensen, Kirsten Kørup; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2016-01-01

    were selected and grown under warm (24 °C) and cold (14 °C) conditions in a controlled environment. Dark-adapted chlorophyll fluorescence, specific leaf area (SLA) and net photosynthetic rate at a photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) of 1000 μmol m–2 s–1 (A1000) were measured. Photosynthetic light......Background and Aims The C4 perennial grass miscanthus has been found to be less sensitive to cold than most other C4 species, but still emerges later in spring than C3 species. Genotypic differences in miscanthus were investigated to identify genotypes with a high cold tolerance at low temperatures...

  13. The impact of sesquiterpene lactones and phenolics on sensory attributes: An investigation of a curly endive and escarole germplasm collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippo D'Antuono, L; Ferioli, Federico; Manco, Manuela Agata

    2016-05-15

    In the present study, curly endive (Cichorium endivia L. var. crispum) and escarole (Cichorium endivia L. var. latifolium) accessions were investigated for their sensory characters (bitterness, astringency and herbaceous flavour) and acceptance in relation to sesquiterpene lactone and phenolic content. Different facets of the perception of these sensory traits in relation to lactones and phenolics were brought out. Lactucopicrin and kaempferol malonyl glucoside were consistently related to bitterness, astringency and herbaceous flavour perceptions. Overall acceptance was significantly and inversely related mainly to bitterness. The generic statement that sesquiterpene lactones and phenolic compounds are determinants of bitterness and other related sensory characters does not seem to be fully consistent with our data, that indicated how the balance of different compounds affects these traits individually, in a rather complex manner, with a prevailing negative impact of phenolics. Bitter, astringent, and herbaceous perceptions were significantly affected by variety, with curly endive showing on average higher scores in comparison to escarole, with particular respect to bitterness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic diversity and population structure analysis of accessions in the Chinese cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important legume crop with diverse uses. The species is presently a minor crop, and evaluation of its genetic diversity has been very limited. In this study, a total of 200 genic and 100 genomic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed from cowpea unigene ...

  15. Ploidy determination of buffel grass accessions in the USDA National Plant Germplasm System collection by flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffelgrass [Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link syn. Cenchrus ciliaris L.] is an important forage and range grass in many of the semi-arid tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The species reproduces primarily by apomixis but it is highly diverse because a wide array of different apomictic ecoty...

  16. Correlations between genetic, morphological, and chemical diversities in a germplasm collection of the medicinal plant Origanum vulgare L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Ali; Hadian, Javad; Gholami, Mansour; Friedt, Wolfgang; Honermeier, Bernd

    2012-12-01

    In total, 42 accessions of Origanum vulgare L., mostly originating from Europe, were evaluated, to detect molecular, quantitative morphological, and chemotype polymorphisms and to discover possible correlations between them. Twelve traits related to morphological characteristics were measured. The components in the essential oils were identified by GC/MS analysis, and the oil contents of 18 major compounds were determined. A total of 477 molecular polymorphisms including 214 AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) and 263 SAMPL (selectively amplified microsatellite polymorphic loci) were used for genotyping. Euclidean distances of morphological and chemotypic data and genetic distances (1 - Dice's similarity) of molecular markers were compared by applying Mantel tests to ascertain the congruencies between them. A relatively high correlation between chemotypic patterns and genetic markers was identified, while a lower correlation was found between the morphological and genetic matrices. Pairwise analyses of correlation among all traits showed that the stem diameter was correlated to the essential-oil yield and the carvacrol content. Cluster analysis, population inference, and principal component analysis revealed a broad genetic and chemical variation among the accessions. The knowledge of these diversities, found in this study, will allow a plant improvement of Origanum vulgare related to pharmaceutical and spice uses. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  17. Physicochemical properties and aroma volatile profiles in a diverse collection of California-grown pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are thousands of pomegranate accessions and more than 500 known pomegranate cultivars with around 50 available commercially, exhibiting different growing characteristics and quality attributes; such as fruit size, color, shape, seed hardness, taste and flavor traits which are sometimes not wel...

  18. An innovative procedure of genome-wide association analysis fits studies on germplasm population and plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jianbo; Meng, Shan; Zhao, Tuanjie; Xing, Guangnan; Yang, Shouping; Li, Yan; Guan, Rongzhan; Lu, Jiangjie; Wang, Yufeng; Xia, Qiuju; Yang, Bing; Gai, Junyi

    2017-11-01

    The innovative RTM-GWAS procedure provides a relatively thorough detection of QTL and their multiple alleles for germplasm population characterization, gene network identification, and genomic selection strategy innovation in plant breeding. The previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been concentrated on finding a handful of major quantitative trait loci (QTL), but plant breeders are interested in revealing the whole-genome QTL-allele constitution in breeding materials/germplasm (in which tremendous historical allelic variation has been accumulated) for genome-wide improvement. To match this requirement, two innovations were suggested for GWAS: first grouping tightly linked sequential SNPs into linkage disequilibrium blocks (SNPLDBs) to form markers with multi-allelic haplotypes, and second utilizing two-stage association analysis for QTL identification, where the markers were preselected by single-locus model followed by multi-locus multi-allele model stepwise regression. Our proposed GWAS procedure is characterized as a novel restricted two-stage multi-locus multi-allele GWAS (RTM-GWAS, https://github.com/njau-sri/rtm-gwas ). The Chinese soybean germplasm population (CSGP) composed of 1024 accessions with 36,952 SNPLDBs (generated from 145,558 SNPs, with reduced linkage disequilibrium decay distance) was used to demonstrate the power and efficiency of RTM-GWAS. Using the CSGP marker information, simulation studies demonstrated that RTM-GWAS achieved the highest QTL detection power and efficiency compared with the previous procedures, especially under large sample size and high trait heritability conditions. A relatively thorough detection of QTL with their multiple alleles was achieved by RTM-GWAS compared with the linear mixed model method on 100-seed weight in CSGP. A QTL-allele matrix (402 alleles of 139 QTL × 1024 accessions) was established as a compact form of the population genetic constitution. The 100-seed weight QTL-allele matrix was

  19. Association Mapping of Malting Quality Quantitative Trait Loci in Winter Barley: Positive Signals from Small Germplasm Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Gutiérrez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Malting quality comprises one of the most economically relevant set of traits in barley ( L.. It is a complex phenotype, expensive and difficult to measure, that would benefit from a marker-assisted selection strategy. Malting quality is a target of the U.S. Barley Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP and development of winter habit malting barley varieties is a key objective of the U.S. barley research community. The objective of this work was to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL for malting quality traits in a winter breeding program that is a component of the U.S. Barley CAP. We studied the association between five malting quality traits and 3072 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from the barley oligonucleotide pool assay (BOPA 1 and 2, assayed in advanced inbred lines from the Oregon State University (OSU breeding program from three germplasm arrays (CAP I, CAP II, and CAP III. After comparing 16 models we selected a structured association model with posterior probabilities inferred from software STRUCTURE (QK approach to use on all germplasm arrays. Most of the marker-trait associations are germplasm- and environment-specific and close to previously mapped genes and QTL relevant for malt and beer quality. We found alleles fixed by random genetic drift, novel unmasked alleles, and genetic-background interaction. In a relatively small population size study we provide strong evidence for detecting true QTL.

  20. Comparison of Chemical Compositions in Pseudostellariae Radix from Different Cultivated Fields and Germplasms by NMR-Based Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujiao Hua

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pseudostellariae Radix (PR is an important traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, which is consumed commonly for its positive health effects. However, the chemical differences of PR from different cultivated fields and germplasms are still unknown. In order to comprehensively compare the chemical compositions of PR from different cultivated fields, in this study, 1H-NMR-based metabolomics coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC were used to investigate the different metabolites in PR from five germplasms (jr, zs1, zs2, sb, and xc cultivated in traditional fields (Jurong, Jiangsu, JSJR and cultivated fields (Zherong, Fujian, FJZR. A total of 34 metabolites were identified based on 1H-NMR data, and fourteen of them were found to be different in PR from JSJR and FJZR. The relative contents of alanine, lactate, lysine, taurine, sucrose, tyrosine, linolenic acid, γ-aminobutyrate, and hyperoside in PR from JSJR were higher than that in PR from FJZR, while PR from FJZR contained higher levels of glutamine, raffinose, xylose, unsaturated fatty acid, and formic acid. The contents of Heterophyllin A and Heterophyllin B were higher in PR from FJZR. This study will provide the basic information for exploring the influence law of ecological environment and germplasm genetic variation on metabolite biosynthesis of PR and its quality formation mechanism.

  1. The effect of parental genotype on initiation of embryogenic callus from elite maize (Zea mays L.) germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomes, D T; Smith, O S

    1985-08-01

    Embryogenic callus consisting of both Type 1, firm, compact, translucent, relatively slow growing callus and Type 2, highly friable, rapidly growing callus with well-formed somatic embryos, were observed in elite maize germplasm, notably B73 and hybrids with B73. Parental genotype is very important in the ability to identify and isolate embryogenic callus after 14 and 28 days in culture. A partial diallel analysis revealed that a large proportion of the genotypic variation was of the additive type although heterosis did positively increase culture response in most cases. A significant negative maternal effect for culture response was noted for inbred B73 from Reid-type germplasm while four lines sampled from Lancaster germplasm showed similar response whether used as male or female. Although significant media differences were observed in some genotypes, culture media did not preclude observation of Type 1 or Type 2 embryogenic cultures in this study after 14 and 28 days. Plants could be regenerated from all genotypes in this study after 14-days of culture, but not all genotypes were capable of sustained subculture and plant regeneration. Plant regeneration from Type 2 cultures of B73 and B73 hybrids has been obtained up to a year after initiation.

  2. The puzzle of Italian rice origin and evolution: determining genetic divergence and affinity of rice germplasm from Italy and Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingxing Cai

    Full Text Available The characterization of genetic divergence and relationships of a set of germplasm is essential for its efficient applications in crop breeding and understanding of the origin/evolution of crop varieties from a given geographical region. As the largest rice producing country in Europe, Italy holds rice germplasm with abundant genetic diversity. Although Italian rice varieties and the traditional ones in particular have played important roles in rice production and breeding, knowledge concerning the origin and evolution of Italian traditional varieties is still limited. To solve the puzzle of Italian rice origin, we characterized genetic divergence and relationships of 348 rice varieties from Italy and Asia based on the polymorphisms of microsatellite fingerprints. We also included common wild rice O. rufipogon as a reference in the characterization. Results indicated relatively rich genetic diversity (H(e = 0.63-0.65 in Italian rice varieties. Further analyses revealed a close genetic relationship of the Italian traditional varieties with those from northern China, which provides strong genetic evidence for tracing the possible origin of early established rice varieties in Italy. These findings have significant implications for the rice breeding programs, in which appropriate germplasm can be selected from a given region and utilized for transferring unique genetic traits based on its genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships.

  3. Comparison of Chemical Compositions in Pseudostellariae Radix from Different Cultivated Fields and Germplasms by NMR-Based Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yujiao; Hou, Ya; Wang, Shengnan; Ma, Yang; Liu, Zixiu; Zou, Lisi; Liu, Xunhong; Luo, Yiyuan; Liu, Juanxiu

    2016-11-15

    Pseudostellariae Radix (PR) is an important traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which is consumed commonly for its positive health effects. However, the chemical differences of PR from different cultivated fields and germplasms are still unknown. In order to comprehensively compare the chemical compositions of PR from different cultivated fields, in this study, ¹H-NMR-based metabolomics coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to investigate the different metabolites in PR from five germplasms (jr, zs1, zs2, sb, and xc) cultivated in traditional fields (Jurong, Jiangsu, JSJR) and cultivated fields (Zherong, Fujian, FJZR). A total of 34 metabolites were identified based on ¹H-NMR data, and fourteen of them were found to be different in PR from JSJR and FJZR. The relative contents of alanine, lactate, lysine, taurine, sucrose, tyrosine, linolenic acid, γ-aminobutyrate, and hyperoside in PR from JSJR were higher than that in PR from FJZR, while PR from FJZR contained higher levels of glutamine, raffinose, xylose, unsaturated fatty acid, and formic acid. The contents of Heterophyllin A and Heterophyllin B were higher in PR from FJZR. This study will provide the basic information for exploring the influence law of ecological environment and germplasm genetic variation on metabolite biosynthesis of PR and its quality formation mechanism.

  4. Assessment of genetic diversity and population structure of mung bean (Vigna radiata) germplasm using EST-based and genomic SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Honglin; Qiao, Ling; Wang, Lixia; Wang, Suhua; Blair, Matthew Wohlgemuth; Cheng, Xuzhen

    2015-07-25

    Mung bean is an important legume crop in tropical and subtropical countries of Asia and has high nutritional and economic value. However the genetic diversity of mung bean is poorly characterized. In this study, our goal was to develop and use microsatellite simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for germplasm evaluation. In total, 500 novel expression sequence tag EST-based SSRs (eSSRs) and genomic SSRs (gSSRs) were developed from mung bean transcriptome and genome sequences. Of these, only 58 were useful for diversity evaluation in a panel of 157 cultivated and wild mung bean accessions from different collection sites in East Asia. A total of 2.66 alleles were detected on average per locus which shows that polymorphism is generally low for the species. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) of gSSRs was higher than eSSRs and most of the polymorphic gSSRs were composed of di- and tri-nucleotide repeats (52.4% and 38.1% of all loci, respectively). The genotypes were differentiated into nine subgroups by cluster analysis, and the wild mung bean accessions separated well from the cultivated accessions. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that 22% of variance was observed among populations and 78% was due to differences within populations. Clustering, population structure analyses showed that non-Chinese cultivated and wild mung bean accessions were separated from Chinese accessions, but no geographical distinctions existed between genotypes collected in China. Interestingly, the average PIC value of cultivated mung bean (0.36) was higher than that of wild mung bean (0.25) showing that further collecting and wide crosses are necessary for mung bean improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Incorporating different proportions of exotic maize germplasm into two adapted populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Xavier dos Santos

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Maize breeders frequently wish to use exotic germplasm in their breeding programs without losing specific characteristics of their adapted material. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal proportions of exotic germplasm to incorporate into adapted populations (F2 = 50% exotic, BC1 = 25% exotic, BC2 = 12.5% exotic and BC3 = 6.25% exotic to form the initial foundation population and to determine the heterosis between adapted x exotics. We used six exotic populations of different origins and two adapted populations representing a Brazilian heterotic pattern. In 1993-94 and 1994-95, the parents, F1, F2, BC1, BC2, BC3 and four checks were evaluated in six environments in central Brazil using an 8 x 9 simple rectangular lattice design. Higher mean values for yield were obtained as the proportion of exotic germplasm decreased. Some backcrosses produced more than the adapted populations BR 105 (7.59 ton/ha and BR 106 (8.43 ton/ha. The best results were obtained when incorporating 6.25 or 12.5% of exotic genes. This trend was true for root lodging, stalk lodging and ear diseases but not for plant and ear height. The midparent heterosis for yield varied from -16.1 to 40.3%. Midparent heterosis with positive and negative values were also found for the other traits. The results indicate the potential of exotic germplasm for developing good hybrids. After choosing the best exotic source, some recurrent selection might be appropriate in order to adapt and improve the exotic populations.Os melhoristas de milho que utilizam germoplasmas exóticos nos programas de melhoramento têm a preocupação de não perder as características desejáveis dos materiais adaptados. Buscando atender esta demanda, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo determinar a proporção ideal de germoplasma exótico que deve ser incorporado em populações melhoradas (F2 = 50% exótico; RC1 = 25% exótico; RC2 = 12,5% exótico; RC3 = 6,25% exótico, para formar as popula

  6. Seed biometric parameters in oil palm accessions from a Brazilian germplasm bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julcéia Camillo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the morphological diversity of oil palm seeds and to cluster the accessions according to their morphological characteristics. Forty-one accessions from the oil palm germplasm bank of Embrapa Amazônia Ocidental were evaluated - 18 of Elaeis oleifera and 23 of E. guineensis. The groups were formed based on morphological characteristics, by principal component analysis. In E. oleifera, four groups were formed, tied to their region of origin, but with significant morphological differences between accessions from the same population. For tenera-type E. guineensis seeds, three widely divergent groups were formed, especially as to external parameters, which differentiated them from the other ones. The parameter endocarp thickness stood out in intra- and inter-population differentiation. For dura-type E. guineensis, three groups were formed, with larger seeds and thicker endocarps, which differed from all the other ones. The variability observed for seed characteristics in the analyzed accessions allows the establishment of different groups, to define strategies for genetic improvement.

  7. Nutritional indices and midgut enzymatic activity of Phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) larvae fed different potato germplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, S M; Ganbalani, G Nouri; Fathi, S A A; Naseri, B; Razmjou, J

    2013-04-01

    The effect of 10 potato cultivars and clones on the feeding and digestion of Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) larvae was evaluated using larval nutritional indices and enzymatic activities. Studies were based on nutritional indices from larvae reared at 25 +/- 1 degrees C, 65 +/- 5% relative humidity, and in complete darkness. The results of nutritional indices showed that conversion efficiency of ingested and digested food in the larvae at the fourth instar was the highest in Savalan cultivar at rates of 22.30 +/- 0.39 and 32.87 +/- 0.69%, respectively, and the lowest were recorded on Morene at rates of 15.83 +/- 0.35 and 21.99 +/- 0.58%, respectively. Among the different potato germplasms tested in the study, the highest proteolytic and amylolytic activities of the larvae, at optimal pH were in Morene with records of 8.204 +/- 0.296 U/mg and 0.071 +/- 0.0004 mU/mg, respectively; and the lowest were recorded in larvae fed on Savalan at 2.740 +/- 0.131 U/mg and 0.028 +/- 0.0001 mU/mg, respectively. It is concluded that Morene was the most unsuitable host for P. operculella.

  8. Response of Malpighia emarginata active germplasm bank accessions to Meloidogyne enterolobii parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, A A; Martins, L S S; Musser, R S; Filho, R M Moraes; Maranhão, W A; Rossiter, J G A; Montarroyos, A V V

    2016-11-03

    Malpighia emarginata is cultivated in almost all Brazil and is considered an important agricultural crop. The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne enterolobii has been described as a major threat to this crop, causing great production losses. Due to the scarcity of information about the severity of this parasite in M. emarginata plants in Brazil, this study investigated M. enterolobii resistance of ten M. emarginata genotypes from the active germplasm bank of Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco. The experiment was conducted adopting a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement of 11 x 2 x 5, where M. emarginata cuttings were inoculated with 10,000 eggs in a greenhouse. After 150 days, plants were evaluated for the following parameters: gall index, egg mass index, number of eggs per root system, number of eggs per gram of root, and reproduction factor. The accessions showed different responses depending on host x pathogen interaction, from susceptibility to moderate tolerance. Accessions 027-CMF and 031-CMF were considered tolerant to the nematode and could be of great value in new breeding programs for resistance to M. enterolobii infection.

  9. Methods to assess the viability of cryopreserved Jatropha curcas L. seed germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. SALOMÃO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Jatropha curcas L. is a plant species with many potential applications, especially medicinal uses (hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, haemostatic, healing, anti-tumor. The objective of this study was to test germination in moist paper rolls for whole seeds and in vitro for excised embryonic axes, in an attempt to identify the best method to assess the quality of J. curcas seed germplasm, cryopreserved with different water contents. The experimental sample with a 6.2% moisture content (MC was divided in subsamples which were hydrated and dehydrated for 0 (control, 4, 8, 11 and 24h. The initial germination percentages were 63% for whole seeds and 81% for excised embryonic axes. After exposure to liquid nitrogen (LN, germination percentages were 48% (whole seeds and 57% (excised embryonic axes. There was no significant difference between germination percentages in embryonic excised from seeds subjected or not subjected to freezing, with different MC. In contrast, there was a reduction of the whole seed germination percentage when exposed to LN (contrast = 0.17, standard error = 0.04, t = 4.09, p = 0.001 and not for the hydration and dehydration treatments. The methodology based on in vitro cultures of the embryonic axis isolated from seeds stored in LN with distinct MC values was more efficient than the standard germination test to evaluate the viability of J. curcas seeds before and after LN storage.

  10. Morpho-physiological combining ability among tropical and temperate maize germplasm for drought tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Sekip

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, seven maize inbred lines representing different tropical, drought tolerant populations and two adapted temperate maize inbred lines were crossed in a half-diallel mating design to determine combining abilities. The genotypes were tested in well-watered (WW and managed water stressed (WS conditions in 2013 and 2014. General combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA mean squares were significant for all investigated traits and demonstrated both additive and non-additive genetic effects in both conditions. Higher desired leaf rolling, leaf senescence, stomatal conductance and leaf chlorophyll content GCA effects of tropical inbreds under WS conditions showed the presence of the valuable allels related to drought stress. SCA analysis revealed that the best hybrids for water use efficiency and irrigation water use efficiency were tropical x temperate crosses. Stress tolerance index and drought resistance index identified G5 x G9, a tropical x temperate hybrid, as the most tolerant hybrid to drought. Our study suggests that tropical drought tolerant germplasm has the potential to contribute useful genetic diversity to temperate maize breeding programs.

  11. Molecular and chemical characterization of vetiver, Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty, germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celestino, R S; Zucchi, M I; Pinheiro, J B; Campos, J B; Pereira, A A; Bianchini, F G; Lima, R N; Arrigoni-Blank, M F; Alves, P B; Blank, A F

    2015-08-14

    Due to the economic interests in vetiver, Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty, molecular and chemical studies are essential to generate information for its sustainable exploitation. The aim of this study was to undertake a molecular and chemical characterization of vetiver accessions of the active germplasm bank of the Universidade Federal de Sergipe. The molecular characteristics of the accessions were studied using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, with a total of 14 primer combinations that generated 442 loci, allowing us to observe that these accessions have similar genomes. The vetiver accessions were divided into three distinct groups, where accession UFS-VET005 was the most differentiated and accession UFS-VET004 had the lowest essential oil content (0.70%). The content of the chemical constituents of the essential oils was observed to vary, with a predominance of khusimol, which ranged from 18.97 to 25.02%. It was possible to divide the vetiver accessions into two groups based on chemical composition, and these groups do not correlate with the molecular grouping. Therefore, it is necessary to perform molecular and chemical analyses to characterize vetiver accessions.

  12. The influence of Weismann's germ-plasm theory on the distinction between learned and innate behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, T D

    1995-04-01

    Since the early twentieth century it has been common in both psychology and behavioral biology to draw a sharp distinction between learned and innate behavior, or elements of behavior. The persistence of this dichotomy may be attributed in part to the fundamental importance of the separation of inherited and acquired characters within neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory, one of the essential foundations for the modern study of behavior. A cornerstone of early neo-Darwinian thought was August Weismann's theory of the germ plasm, which proposed a segregation between germinal and somatic cells during development, thus ruling out the possibility that acquired characters could be inherited. This denial of Lamarckian hereditary mechanisms became one of the hallmarks of neo-Darwinism, as opposed to classical Darwinism. Within the neo-Darwinian framework it thus became important, as Weismann himself pointed out, to distinguish sharply between inherited and acquired characters. Although the dichotomy has frequently been criticized it remains tenacious, surfacing in different guises as older versions of it became terminologically unacceptable. The analysis offered here suggests that this tenacity may partly be explained by the implications of Weismann's germ-plasm theory, and its modern incarnation in the central dogma of molecular genetics, and by the central thematic position of those ideas in the neo-Darwinian foundations of modern behavioral biology.

  13. EUROPEAN AUSTERITY WITHOUT GROWTH? EUROPEAN GROWTH WITHOUT EUROPEAN DEMOCRACY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montani Guido

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The European project is facing a crisis. Citizens no longer understand what the EU is about. Young people and the new ruling class have forgotten the clear message of the European project launched just after the Second World War "No wars ever again among Europeans." The founding fathers of the European Union are mentioned in history textbooks, but today Europe is felt as an irritating bureaucracy. In Europe, peace and economic stability are considered as a natural state, a gift from above. Why keep a useless EU alive? The state of the European Union is swiftly degenerating. In almost all the member states, the anti-European forces are gaining ground. Populism is not a new ideology and is not necessarily European: let's recall Peronism. In today's Europe populism is the new manifestation of nationalism. In Italy the Lega Nord is in Berlusconi's eurosceptic government. In France, the National Front is endangering UMP's hegemony. In Belgium the rows between the Flemish and the Walloons threatens the state's unity. In the Netherlands, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Austria and Finland, populist forces are either in the government or strongly influencing the government. National-populism is different from the nationalism of the past. De Gaulle's nationalism was an ideology founded on the "grandeur" of France's history and on a certain idea of Europe, which was "l'Europe de patrie", a kind of European unity accepting French leadership in world politics. Today national-populism is a form of micro-nationalism: it opposes the European project but without having a serious alternative. This is why populism is dangerous. Its real goal is not only the breaking down of the European Union but also the disintegration of the old nation states into micro-ethnic states, as what happened in former Yugoslavia.

  14. Pollen reference collection digitization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ercan, F.E.Z.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41250085X; Donders, T.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290469872; Bijl, P.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314028110; Wagner, F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/173870783

    2016-01-01

    The extensive Utrecht University pollen reference collection holds thousands of pollen samples of many species and genera from all over the world and has been a basis for the widely-used North West European Pollen Flora. These samples are fixed on glass slides for microscopy use, but the aging

  15. Isozymic variability in a Brazilian collection of annatto (Bixa orellana L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Jane Fiuza Rodrigues Portela de; Robinson,Ingrid Peters; Alfenas, Acelino Couto

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to optimize the isozyme electrophoresis technique for Bixa orellana, and use isozyme markers for a preliminary survey on the genetic variability in Brazilian annatto germplasm accessions. Collection consisted of seed samples from sixty open pollinated trees, representing two Northern and four Southern geographic provenances. The extraction, electrophoresis, and interpretation of annatto isozymes are described. Three out of the twenty-one identified isozyme loc...

  16. Insights into the Genetic Relationships and Breeding Patterns of the African Tea Germplasm (Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze Based on nSSR Markers and cpDNA Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianming Gao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Africa is one of the key centres of global tea production. Understanding the genetic diversity and relationships of cultivars of African tea is important for future targeted breeding efforts for new crop cultivars, specialty tea processing and to guide germplasm conservation efforts. Despite the economic importance of tea in Africa, no research work has been done so far on its genetic diversity at a continental scale. Twenty-three nSSRs and three plastid DNA regions were used to investigate the genetic diversity, relationships and breeding patterns of tea accessions collected from eight countries in Africa. A total of 280 African tea accessions generated 297 alleles with a mean of 12.91 alleles per locus and a genetic diversity (HS estimate of 0.652. A STRUCTURE analysis suggested two main genetic groups of African tea accessions which corresponded well with the two tea types Camellia sinensis var. sinensis and C. sinensis var. assamica respectively, as well as an admixed mosaic group whose individuals were defined as hybrids of F2 and BC generation with high proportion of C. sinensis var. assamica being maternal parents. Accessions known to be C. sinensis var. assamica further separated into two groups representing the two major tea breeding centres corresponding to southern Africa (Tea Research Foundation of Central Africa, TRFCA and East Africa (Tea Research Foundation of Kenya, TRFK. Tea accessions were shared among countries. African tea has relatively lower genetic diversity. C. sinensis var. assamica is the main tea type under cultivation and contributes more in tea breeding improvements in Africa. International germplasm exchange and movement among countries within Africa was confirmed. The clustering into two main breeding centres, TRFCA and TRFK, suggested that some traits of C. sinensis var. assamica and their associated genes possibly underwent selection during geographic differentiation or local breeding preferences. This study

  17. Construction of Core Collections Suitable for Association Mapping to Optimize Use of Mediterranean Olive (Olea europaea L.) Genetic Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bakkali, Ahmed; Haouane, Hicham; Moukhli, Abdelmajid; Costes, Evelyne; Van Damme, Patrick; Khadari, Bouchaib

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypic characterisation of germplasm collections is a decisive step towards association mapping analyses, but it is particularly expensive and tedious for woody perennial plant species. Characterisation could be more efficient if focused on a reasonably sized subset of accessions, or so-called core collection (CC), reflecting the geographic origin and variability of the germplasm. The questions that arise concern the sample size to use and genetic parameters that should be optimized in a core collection to make it suitable for association mapping. Here we investigated these questions in olive (Olea europaea L.), a perennial fruit species. By testing different sampling methods and sizes in a worldwide olive germplasm bank (OWGB Marrakech, Morocco) containing 502 unique genotypes characterized by nuclear and plastid loci, a two-step sampling method was proposed. The Shannon-Weaver diversity index was found to be the best criterion to be maximized in the first step using the Core Hunter program. A primary core collection of 50 entries (CC50) was defined that captured more than 80% of the diversity. This latter was subsequently used as a kernel with the Mstrat program to capture the remaining diversity. 200 core collections of 94 entries (CC94) were thus built for flexibility in the choice of varieties to be studied. Most entries of both core collections (CC50 and CC94) were revealed to be unrelated due to the low kinship coefficient, whereas a genetic structure spanning the eastern and western/central Mediterranean regions was noted. Linkage disequilibrium was observed in CC94 which was mainly explained by a genetic structure effect as noted for OWGB Marrakech. Since they reflect the geographic origin and diversity of olive germplasm and are of reasonable size, both core collections will be of major interest to develop long-term association studies and thus enhance genomic selection in olive species. PMID:23667437

  18. La collection mondiale du bananier au Centre de Transit de l'INIBAP à la KULeuven : stratégies de conservation et mode d'opération

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Van den houwe

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The world collection of Musa germplasm in the INIBAP Transit Centre at the Catholic University of Leuven conservation strategies and mode of operation.The conservation and international transfer of Musa germplasm is a core activity of the International Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plantain (INIBAP. To this end, INIBAP established a Transit Centre (ITC at the Laboratory of Tropical Crop Improvement of K.U.Leuven in Belgium, a non banana producing country. Plant material from all over the world is deposited at ITC. This global collection of banana and plantain germplasm, comprising approximately 1 100 accessions, is held under the auspices of FAO. The in vitro active collection is stored under slow growth conditions (low illumination and reduced temperature. In order to safeguard the material for the long terni, cryopreservation protocole for banana meristems have been developed. Samples of virus-tested clones are available freely and at no cost from the ITC gene batik on request. Since 1985, over 5 000 samples of accessions have been distributed worldwide to interested parties for specific research, breeding and evaluation, and production. A major constraint for the efficient use of the Musa collection is the limited information available on the genetic resources maintained. Through INIBAP's Musa Germplasm Information System (MGIS, passport, characterization and evaluation data on existing collections worldwide are being assembled to enhance the knowledge on Musa diversity, rationalize conservation and improve the use by curators, breeders and scientiste

  19. Characterization of novel SSR markers in diverse sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Katharina; Mora-Ortiz, Marina; Smith, Lydia M J; Kölliker, Roland; Skøt, Leif

    2016-08-30

    Sainfoin is a perennial forage legume with beneficial properties for animal husbandry due to the presence of secondary metabolites. However, worldwide cultivation of sainfoin is marginal due to the lack of varieties with good agronomic performance, adapted to a broad range of environmental conditions. Little is known about the genetics of sainfoin and only few genetic markers are available to assist breeding and genetic investigations. The objective of this study was to develop a set of SSR markers useful for genetic studies in sainfoin and their characterization in diverse germplasm. A set of 400 SSR primer combinations were tested for amplification and their ability to detect polymorphisms in a set of 32 sainfoin individuals, representing distinct varieties or landraces. Alleles were scored for presence or absence and polymorphism information content of each SSR locus was calculated with an adapted formula taking into account the tetraploid character of sainfoin. Relationships among individuals were visualized using cluster and principle components analysis. Of the 400 primer combinations tested, 101 reliably detected polymorphisms among the 32 sainfoin individuals. Among the 1154 alleles amplified 250 private alleles were observed. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 24 with an average of 11.4 alleles. The average polymorphism information content reached values of 0.14 to 0.36. The clustering of the 32 individuals suggested a separation into two groups depending on the origin of the accessions. The SSR markers characterized and tested in this study provide a valuable tool to detect polymorphisms in sainfoin for future genetic studies and breeding programs. As a proof of concept, we showed that these markers can be used to separate sainfoin individuals based on their origin.

  20. Artificial Seed Production of Tylophora indica for Interim Storing and Swapping of Germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat Gantait

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Our research work demonstrates the single bead alginate-encapsulation, interim storing and conversion of Tylophora indica (Burm. Fil. Merrill. Most effective encapsulation of in vitro nodal segments [(4 ± 1 mm long], ensuing in sphere-shaped artificial seeds of similar morphology, was achieved through 75 mmol⋅L−1 calcium chloride (CaCl2 ⋅ 2H2O plus 3% (w/v Na-alginate with 93.3% conversion frequency. The earliest conversion (within 7 days of incubation of artificial seeds occurred in half-strength liquid Murashige and Skoog medium. Among the three different temperature regimes [(5 ± 1 °C, (15 ± 1 °C, and (25 ± 1 °C], storage of artificial seeds at (15 ± 1 °C executed the highest frequency of conversion (90% after 15 days of storage. Lengthier storage significantly reduced the conversion frequency of artificial seeds irrespective of storage temperature. Nevertheless, the conversion frequency after 30 days of storage at (15 ± 1 °C was recorded at 70% without further decline even following 45 days of storage, which evidently suggests that lower temperature (15 ± 1 °C is apt for storage and subsequent conversion of T. indica artificial seeds. The present protocol could be expedient for short-term storing and swapping of T. indica germplasms between national and international laboratories.

  1. Evaluation of rice germplasm under salt stress at the seedling stage through SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Al-Amin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty eight rice germplasms were used for identification of salt tolerant rice genotypes at the seedling stage at the experimental farm and Biotechnology laboratory of the Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA, Mymensingh during February 2009 to October 2009. Phenotyping for salinity screening of the rice genotypes was done using salinized (EC level 12 dS m-1 nutrient solution in hydroponic system. Genotypes were evaluated for salinity tolerance on 1-9 scale based on seedling growth parameters following modified Standard Evaluation Scoring (SES of IRRI. Phenotypically, on the basis of SES and % total dry matter (TDM reduction of the genotypes viz. PBSAL-614, PBSAL-613, PBSAL-730, Horkuch, S-478/3 Pokkali and PBSAL (STL-15 were found to be salt tolerant; on the other hand Iratom-24, S-653/32, S-612/32, S-604/32, S-633/32, Charnock (DA6, BINA Dhan-6 and S-608/32 were identified as salt susceptible. For genotyping, ten SSR markers were used for polymorphism, where 3 primers (RM127, RM443 and RM140 were selected for evaluation of salt tolerance. In respect of Primer RM127, 7 lines were found salt tolerant and 11 lines were moderately tolerant and 10 lines were susceptible. Nine tolerant, 9 moderately tolerant and 10 susceptible lines were found when the primer RM140 was used and primer RM443 identified 8 lines as tolerant, 9 lines as moderately tolerant and 11 lines as susceptible. Thus, the salt tolerant lines can be used in further evaluation for salinity tolerance and the SSR markers used in this study are proving valuable for identifying salt tolerant genes in marker assisted breeding.

  2. Association Mapping for Fusarium Wilt Resistance in Chinese Asparagus Bean Germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyi Wu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt (FW is an important vascular disease attacking asparagus bean [ (L. Walp. subsp. Sesquipedalis Group] in China. The level and genetic variability of FW resistance in the Chinese asparagus bean germplasm remains elusive. In the current study, FW resistance was assessed across a natural population consisting of 95 asparagus bean and four African cowpea [ (L. Walp. subsp. Unguiculata Group] accessions. The disease index (DI based on the severity of leaf damage (LFD and vascular discoloration (VD varied highly across the population and the highly resistant varieties used for vegetable are very limited. Genome-wide association study identified 11 and seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are associated with LFD and VD traits, respectively. These SNPs were distributed on nine linkage groups of the asparagus bean genome and each accounted for less than 5% of the phenotypic variation. Overall, the nonstandard vegetable (NSV subgene pool harbors favorable alleles in a higher frequency than the standard vegetable (SV subgene pool. Individual NSV-type accessions tend to possess a greater number of favorable alleles than the SV-type ones. A SNP marker 1_0981 was converted to a cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS marker to facilitate future breeding. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an association mapping (AM study in asparagus bean. The results obtained suggests that resources for FW resistance is relatively limited in the SV subgene pool; hence, introducing resistant alleles from the NSV accessions into currently leading SV cultivars will be important to improve FW resistance of the latter.

  3. Diversifying Sunflower Germplasm by Integration and Mapping of a Novel Male Fertility Restoration Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Wang, Dexing; Feng, Jiuhuan; Seiler, Gerald J.; Cai, Xiwen; Jan, Chao-Chien

    2013-01-01

    The combination of a single cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) PET-1 and the corresponding fertility restoration (Rf) gene Rf1 is used for commercial hybrid sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., 2n = 34) seed production worldwide. A new CMS line 514A was recently developed with H. tuberosus cytoplasm. However, 33 maintainers and restorers for CMS PET-1 and 20 additional tester lines failed to restore the fertility of CMS 514A. Here, we report the discovery, characterization, and molecular mapping of a novel Rf gene for CMS 514A derived from an amphiploid (Amp H. angustifolius/P 21, 2n = 68). Progeny analysis of the male-fertile (MF) plants (2n = 35) suggested that this gene, designated Rf6, was located on a single alien chromosome. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) indicated that Rf6 was on a chromosome with a small segment translocation on the long arm in the MF progenies (2n = 34). Rf6 was mapped to linkage group (LG) 3 of the sunflower SSR map. Eight markers were identified to be linked to this gene, covering a distance of 10.8 cM. Two markers, ORS13 and ORS1114, were only 1.6 cM away from the gene. Severe segregation distortions were observed for both the fertility trait and the linked marker loci, suggesting the possibility of a low frequency of recombination or gamete selection in this region. This study discovered a new CMS/Rf gene system derived from wild species and provided significant insight into the genetic basis of this system. This will diversify the germplasm for sunflower breeding and facilitate understanding of the interaction between the cytoplasm and nuclear genes. PMID:23307903

  4. Educating in European Identity?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Enrique Banús

    2007-01-01

    In the last decades, the claim for a "European identity" has been manifested sometimes as a solution for the citizens' distance to the European project, sometimes also as a precondition for a further...

  5. Are we Europeans?: Correlates and the relation between national and European identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihić Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches of the correlates of the national identity are plentiful both in Serbian and foreign literature. However, in the past decade or so, a new social identity starts to make its way into the researches of the social psychologists-European identity or the sense of belonging to the Europe and the Europeans. This paper deals with the relation between national and European identity, as well as with the correlates of both of these, or one of them. The sample consisted of 451 subjects, all residents of major cities in the Vojvodina region (northern Serbia, divided into several categories-ethnicity (Serbs and Hungarians, educational level (primary and secondary school or University degree, gender and age. Several scales have been used: Cinnirela's national and European identity scale, Collective self-esteem scale, scale measuring attitudes towards the European integration-STEIN and Social dominance orientation scale-SDO. The questionnaire with the demographic characteristics has also been the part of the instrument. The research has been conducted in 2005 and 2006 in the all of the major Vojvodinian cities. Results show the relation between national and European identity is foggy, but general conclusion is that we can observe them as independent identities. The correlates of the national identity were ethnicity, high social dominance orientation, high collective self-esteem and negative attitude towards the European integrations. Correlates of the European identity were fewer: ethnicity, positive attitude towards the European integration and low social dominance orientation.

  6. Environmental Influences on the Growing Season Duration and Ripening of Diverse Miscanthus Germplasm Grown in Six Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Nunn

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of models to predict yield potential and quality of a Miscanthus crop must consider climatic limitations and the duration of growing season. As a biomass crop, yield and quality are impacted by the timing of plant developmental transitions such as flowering and senescence. Growth models are available for the commercially grown clone Miscanthus x giganteus (Mxg, but breeding programs have been working to expand the germplasm available, including development of interspecies hybrids. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of diverse germplasm beyond the range of environments considered suitable for a Miscanthus crop to be grown. To achieve this, six field sites were planted as part of the EU OPTIMISC project in 2012 in a longitudinal gradient from West to East: Wales—Aberystwyth, Netherlands—Wageningen, Stuttgart—Germany, Ukraine—Potash, Turkey—Adana, and Russia—Moscow. Each field trial contained three replicated plots of the same 15 Miscanthus germplasm types. Through the 2014 growing season, phenotypic traits were measured to determine the timing of developmental stages key to ripening; the tradeoff between growth (yield and quality (biomass ash and moisture content. The hottest site (Adana showed an accelerated growing season, with emergence, flowering and senescence occurring before the other sites. However, the highest yields were produced at Potash, where emergence was delayed by frost and the growing season was shortest. Flowering triggers varied with species and only in Mxg was strongly linked to accumulated thermal time. Our results show that a prolonged growing season is not essential to achieve high yields if climatic conditions are favorable and in regions where the growing season is bordered by frost, delaying harvest can improve quality of the harvested biomass.

  7. Development of STS and CAPS markers for variety identification and genetic diversity analysis of tea germplasm in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chih-Yi; Tsai, You-Zen; Lin, Shun-Fu

    2014-12-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is an important economic crop in Taiwan. Particularly, two major commercial types of tea (Paochong tea and Oolong tea) which are produced in Taiwan are famous around the world, and they must be manufactured with specific cultivars. Nevertheless, many elite cultivars have been illegally introduced to foreign countries. Because of the lower cost, large amount of "Taiwan-type tea" are produced and imported to Taiwan, causing a dramatic damage in the tea industry. It is very urgent to develop the stable, fast and reliable DNA markers for fingerprinting tea cultivars in Taiwan and protecting intellectual property rights for breeders. Furthermore, genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship evaluations of tea germplasm in Taiwan are imperative for parental selection in the cross-breeding program and avoidance of genetic vulnerability. Two STS and 37 CAPS markers derived from cytoplasmic genome and ESTs of tea have been developed in this study providing a useful tool for distinguishing all investigated germplasm. For identifying 12 prevailing tea cultivars in Taiwan, five core markers, including each one of mitochondria and chloroplast, and three nuclear markers, were developed. Based on principal coordinate analysis and cluster analysis, 55 tea germplasm in Taiwan were divided into three groups: sinensis type (C. sinensis var. sinensis), assamica type (C. sinensis var. assamica) and Taiwan wild species (C. formosensis). The result of genetic diversity analysis revealed that both sinensis (0.44) and assamica (0.41) types had higher genetic diversity than wild species (0.25). The close genetic distance between the first (Chin-Shin-Oolong) and the third (Shy-Jih-Chuen) prevailing cultivars was found, and many recently released varieties are the descents of Chin-Shin-Oolong. This implies the potential risk of genetic vulnerability for tea cultivation in Taiwan. We have successfully developed a tool for tea germplasm discrimination and genetic

  8. Of germ-plasm and zymoplasm: August Weismann, Carlo Emery and the debate about the transmission of acquired characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dröscher, Ariane

    2015-01-01

    In this essay I discuss the contents and the context of Italian zoologist and entomologist Carlo Emery's discussion of the germ-plasm theory. August Weismann considered him one of his very few creditable supporters, and encouraged him to publish his theoretical reflections. In his Gedanken zur Descendenz- und Vererbungstheorie, which appeared between 1893 and 1903 as a series of five essays in the journal Biologisches Zentralblatt, Emery developed a very personal account, applying the concept of determinants to problems like atavism, sexual dimorphism, speciation, geographical isolation, transmission of characters, and putting forward, as early as 1903, the idea of a genetic program.

  9. Tropical Plant Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    collections for modern drug discovery. Bakker gave an account of the tantalising possibilities for molecular systematics and other research in the use of herbarium collections, which have opened up for a plethora of additional data to be extracted from dried plant collections. The final talk was Blackmore......The symposium Tropical Plant Collections: Legacies from the past? Essential tools for the future? was held on 19th–21st May 2015 with botanists from eighteen countries. Balslev and Friis introduced the themes and voiced their concern about negligence of tropical plant collections in many European......-colonial and early colonial periods. With the presentation by Cribb on the botany of the British Empire we were fully into the colonial period, focussing on the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. The situation in North America was treated by Funk, who illustrated the development of collections of tropical plants...

  10. Industrial Citizenship, Cosmopolitanism and European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chenchen; Lillie, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    There has been an explosion of interest in the idea of European Union citizenship in recent years, as a defining example of postnational cosmopolitan citizenship potentially replacing or layered on top of national citizenships. We argue that this form of EU citizenship undermines industrial citiz...... the development of transnational class based collectivities. Industrial and cosmopolitan citizenship must be reimagined together if European integration is to be democratized....

  11. Europeanization and transnational states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsson, Bengt; Lægreid, Per; Pedersen, Ove K.

    This work investigates what happens to an organized political unit when it becomes part of a larger entity and, in particular, how increased European integration and the tentative moves towards a transnational state will affect the European Union's nation state. Europeanization and the transforma......This work investigates what happens to an organized political unit when it becomes part of a larger entity and, in particular, how increased European integration and the tentative moves towards a transnational state will affect the European Union's nation state. Europeanization...... in central government agencies. It concludes that the consequences of Europeanization can be described as the growth of a transnational administration where identities as well as loyalties are created in processes that transcend the borders of states....

  12. Morphologic characterization of 100 Capsicum accessions from the Germplasm Bank at Nacional University of Colombia Caracterización morfológica de cien introducciones de Capsicum del Banco de Germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Palmira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallejo Cabrera Franco Alirio

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Morphologic characterization of 100 Capsicum accessions from the Germplasm Bank at Nacional University of Colombia. 100 accessions of 4 species of Capsicum from the germplasm bank at National University of Colombia, Palmira Campus, morphologically were characterized. The accessions were collected in different regions of Colombia such as Andean, Caribbean, Pacific, Amazon, and East Savannas and some ones introduced from other countries of Central and South America through the germplasm bank of USDA. 41 IPGRI´s descriptors were used to characterize the Capsicum accessions; fourteen of them were used to describe the vegetative traits, 10 to describe inflorescence traits, and 17 to describe fruit and seed traits. Frequency analysis for qualitative traits, main component analysis for quantitative traits, and multiple correspondence and discriminate analysis for both trait types were carried out. The morphologic characterization showed variability for all descriptors evaluated, specially fruit and architecture variation explained 60% of total variability found. The grouping, using Dice´s distance as evaluation criterion, permited formation of groups based in size, weight, and color of fruit. However, this criterion did not permit discriminate among species. Narrow genetic distances among species, showed that C. annuum, C frutescens, and C. chinense conform one morphologic group.

    Keywords: Capsicum, genetic germplasm, morphologic variation.

    Para la caracterización morfológica de cien introducciones de Capsicum, recolectadas en Colombia (Zonas Andina, Caribe, Pacífica, Amazónica y Llanos Orientales o introducidas de países centro y suramericanos a través del Banco de Germoplasma de USDA, se utilizaron 41 descriptores propuestos por el IPGRI (14 de caracteres vegetativos, 10 de in

  13. Analysis of genetic diversity and population structure within Florida coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) germplasm using microsatellite DNA, with special emphasis on the Fiji Dwarf cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerow, Alan W; Wisser, Randall J; Brown, J Steven; Kuhn, David N; Schnell, Raymond J; Broschat, Timothy K

    2003-02-01

    Using 15 simple sequence repeat (SSR) microsatellite DNA loci, we analyzed genetic variation within Cocos nucifera germplasm collections at two locations in south Florida, representing eight cultivars. The loci were also used in a parentage analysis of progeny of the 'Fiji Dwarf' variety at both locations. A total of 67 alleles were detected, with eight the highest number at any one locus. These loci identified 83 of the 110 individual palms. Gene diversity of the 15 loci ranged from 0.778 to 0.223, with a mean of 0.574. 'Fiji Dwarf', 'Malayan Dwarf', 'Green Niño' and 'Red Spicata' cultivars resolve as distinct clusters in a neighbor joining tree using modified Rogers distance, while the tall varieties form two aggregates. The highest gene diversity was found in the tall cultivars (H = 0.583 cumulatively), and the lowest in the 'Malayan Dwarf' (H = 0.202). After the tall coconuts, the 'Fiji Dwarf' was most genetically diverse (H = 0.436), and had the largest number of unique alleles. Genetic identity is highest among the 'Malayan Dwarf' phenotypes, and between the tall varieties. The 'Red Malayan Dwarf' is genetically distinct from the 'Green' and 'Yellow Malayan Dwarf' phenotypes, which cannot be distinguished with the SSR loci used. Off-type 'Malayan Dwarf' phenotypes (putative hybrids with talls) can be identified genotypically. Parentage analyses of 30 'Fiji Dwarf' progeny propagated from five adults surrounded by other cultivars estimate that only 20% of the progeny were out-crossed to the other varieties, while 40-46% were possible selfs. This suggests that a seed-production orchard of the variety maintained at reasonable distance from other varieties, will likely yield only 'Fiji Dwarf' genotypes. Our data are discussed in the context of hypotheses of coconut dissemination around the world.

  14. A novel, sensitive method to evaluate potato germplasm for bacterial wilt resistance using a luminescent Ralstonia solanacearum reporter strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Andrea Paola Zuluaga; Ferreira, Virginia; Pianzzola, María Julia; Siri, María Inés; Coll, Núria S; Valls, Marc

    2014-03-01

    Several breeding programs are under way to introduce resistance to bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum in solanaceous crops. The lack of screening methods allowing easy measurement of pathogen colonization and the inability to detect latent (i.e., symptomless) infections are major limitations when evaluating resistance to this disease in plant germplasm. We describe a new method to study the interaction between R. solanacearum and potato germplasm that overcomes these restrictions. The R. solanacearum UY031 was genetically modified to constitutively generate light from a synthetic luxCDABE operon stably inserted in its chromosome. Colonization of this reporter strain on different potato accessions was followed using life imaging. Bacterial detection in planta by this nondisruptive system correlated with the development of wilting symptoms. In addition, we demonstrated that quantitative detection of the recombinant strain using a luminometer can identify latent infections on symptomless potato plants. We have developed a novel, unsophisticated, and accurate method for high-throughput evaluation of pathogen colonization in plant populations. We applied this method to compare the behavior of potato accessions with contrasting resistance to R. solanacearum. This new system will be especially useful to detect latency in symptomless parental lines before their inclusion in long-term breeding programs for disease resistance.

  15. Genetic diversity and association mapping in the Colombian Central Collection of Solanum tuberosum L. Andigenum group using SNPs markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Berdugo-Cely

    Full Text Available The potato (Solanum tuberosum L. is the fourth most important crop food in the world and Colombia has one of the most important collections of potato germplasm in the world (the Colombian Central Collection-CCC. Little is known about its potential as a source of genetic diversity for molecular breeding programs. In this study, we analyzed 809 Andigenum group accessions from the CCC using 5968 SNPs to determine: 1 the genetic diversity and population structure of the Andigenum germplasm and 2 the usefulness of this collection to map qualitative traits across the potato genome. The genetic structure analysis based on principal components, cluster analyses, and Bayesian inference revealed that the CCC can be subdivided into two main groups associated with their ploidy level: Phureja (diploid and Andigena (tetraploid. The Andigena population was more genetically diverse but less genetically substructured than the Phureja population (three vs. five subpopulations, respectively. The association mapping analysis of qualitative morphological data using 4666 SNPs showed 23 markers significantly associated with nine morphological traits. The present study showed that the CCC is a highly diverse germplasm collection genetically and phenotypically, useful to implement association mapping in order to identify genes related to traits of interest and to assist future potato genetic breeding programs.

  16. Analysis of agro-morphological diversity and oil content in Indian linseed germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikshit, N.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and eleven accessions of linseed germplasm belonging to 32 districts of six states (Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra in India were characterized for five qualitative and six quantitative traits. Significant variability was observed in the agro- morphological and qualitative traits. The Shannon diversity index varied from 0.23–0.70 and the phenotypic coefficient of variation ranged from 6.0% to 37.1%. IC 345425, an accession from Surgaon, Chandrapur, Maharashtra, was identified as promising for its high oil content (41.5%. The Pearson correlation matrix generated for the quantitative traits indicated that positive and high correlation was observed among days to 50% flowering and days to 80% maturity (0.9; P value Ciento once accesiones de germoplasma de semillas de lino pertenecientes a 32 distritos de seis estados de la India (Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh y Maharashtra se caracterizaron mediante cinco determinaciones cualitativas y seis cuantitativas. Se observó una variabilidad significativa tanto en los rasgos cualitativos como cuantitativos. El índice de diversidad de Shannon varió entre 0,23–0,70 y el coeficiente de variación fenotípica varió entre 6,0 y 37,1 %. IC-345425, una accesión a partir Surgaon, Chandrapur, Maharashtra fue identificado como prometedora, por su alto contenido de aceite (41,5 %. La matriz de correlación de Pearson generado para los rasgos cuantitativos indicaron una correlación alta y positiva entre días a 50 % de floración y días a 80 % de maduración (0,9; valor p<0,0001, altura de planta y peso de la semilla (0,7; valor p< 0,0001, peso de la semilla y porcentage de aceite (0,6; valor p < 0,0001, peso de la semilla y número de cápsulas por planta (0,5; P valor < 0,0001. Cuando los datos de caracterización se sometieron al método de la varianza se formaron principalmente dos grupos Se intentaron

  17. Genome-wide association analysis of seedling traits in diverse Sorghum germplasm under thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Ratan; Burow, Gloria; Burke, John J; Gladman, Nicholas; Xin, Zhanguo

    2017-01-13

    Climate variability due to fluctuation in temperature is a worldwide concern that imperils crop production. The need to understand how the germplasm variation in major crops can be utilized to aid in discovering and developing breeding lines that can withstand and adapt to temperature fluctuations is more necessary than ever. Here, we analyzed the genetic variation associated with responses to thermal stresses in a sorghum association panel (SAP) representing major races and working groups to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with resilience to temperature stress in a major cereal crop. The SAP exhibited extensive variation for seedling traits under cold and heat stress. Genome-wide analyses identified 30 SNPs that were strongly associated with traits measured at seedling stage under cold stress and tagged genes that act as regulators of anthocyanin expression and soluble carbohydrate metabolism. Meanwhile, 12 SNPs were significantly associated with seedling traits under heat stress and these SNPs tagged genes that function in sugar metabolism, and ion transport pathways. Evaluation of co-expression networks for genes near the significantly associated SNPs indicated complex gene interactions for cold and heat stresses in sorghum. We focused and validated the expression of four genes in the network of Sb06g025040, a basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that was proposed to be involved in purple color pigmentation of leaf, and observed that genes in this network were upregulated during cold stress in a moderately tolerant line as compared to the more sensitive line. This study facilitated the tagging of genome regions associated with variation in seedling traits of sorghum under cold and heat stress. These findings show the potential of genotype information for development of temperature resilient sorghum cultivars and further characterization of genes and their networks responsible for adaptation to thermal stresses

  18. Tropical Plant Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The symposium Tropical Plant Collections: Legacies from the past? Essential tools for the future? was held on 19th–21st May 2015 with botanists from eighteen countries. Balslev and Friis introduced the themes and voiced their concern about negligence of tropical plant collections in many European......-colonial and early colonial periods. With the presentation by Cribb on the botany of the British Empire we were fully into the colonial period, focussing on the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. The situation in North America was treated by Funk, who illustrated the development of collections of tropical plants...... in the USA over the past two hundred years. Sebsebe Demissew taked about the situation in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly problems related to building and maintaining plant collections in new and poor nations. Onana outlined the history of botanical collections in Cameroon, covering a colonial period...

  19. European Flood Awareness System - now operational

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alionte Eklund, Cristina.; Hazlinger, Michal; Sprokkereef, Eric; Garcia Padilla, Mercedes; Garcia, Rafael J.; Thielen, Jutta; Salamon, Peter; Pappenberger, Florian

    2013-04-01

    The European Commission's Communication "Towards a Stronger European Union Disaster Response" adopted and endorsed by the Council in 2010, underpins the importance of strengthening concerted actions for natural disasters including floods, which are amongst the costliest natural disasters in the EU. The European Flood Awareness System (EFAS) contributes in the case of major flood events. to better protection of the European Citizen, the environment, property and cultural heritage. The disastrous floods in Elbe and Danube rivers in 2002 confronted the European Commission with non-coherent flood warning information from different sources and of variable quality, complicating planning and organisation of aid. Thus, the Commission initiated the development of a European Flood Awareness System (EFAS) which is now going operational. EFAS has been developed and tested at the Joint Research Centre, the Commission's in house science service, in close collaboration with the National hydrological and meteorological services, European Civil Protection through the Monitoring and Information Centre (MIC) and other research institutes. EFAS provides Pan-European overview maps of flood probabilities up to 10 days in advance as well as detailed forecasts at stations where the National services are providing real time data. More than 30 hydrological services and civil protection services in Europe are part of the EFAS network. Since 2011, EFAS is part of the COPERNICUS Emergency Management Service, (EMS) and is now an operational service since 2012. The Operational EFAS is being executed by several consortia dealing with different operational aspects: • EFAS Hydrological data collection centre —REDIAM and ELIMCO- will be collecting historic and realtime discharge and water levels data in support to EFAS • EFAS Meteorological data collection centre —outsourced but running onsite of JRC Ispra. Will be collecting historic and realtime meteorological data in support to EFAS

  20. Raising European Citizens: Constructing European Identities in French and English Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inari Sakki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Schools play a pivotal role in the formation of identities and in the political socialization of youth. This study explores the social representations of European integration in French and English school textbooks and shows how the social representations are discursively used to construct national and European identities. By analysing the history and civics textbooks of major educational publishers, this study aims to demonstrate how European integration is understood, made familiar and concretized in the school textbooks of the two influential but different European countries. The findings suggest some shared and some diverse patterns in the way the two European countries portray and construct the political project of European integration. These representations, constructed around French Europe in French textbooks and ambivalent Europe in English textbooks, share the images of a strong European economy and a French-led political Europe. However, they position themselves differently with respect to the United States, motivation for the European unification process and the significance of common values and heritage. In both countries textbooks draw upon memories that are important for group identity. While the French textbooks make European integration meaningful in reference to a shared post-war collective memory and to a cultural memory based on a more ancient idea of Europe, shared values and heritage, the English textbooks anchor it more strongly to domestic policy.

  1. Women in European Culture and Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonton, Deborah Leigh

    A new and major collection of documents, Women in European Culture and Society: A Sourcebook includes a range of transnational sources which encompass the history of women in Europe from the beginning of the eighteenth century to the present day. Including documents from across Europe, from France...... language into English for the first time. Ideal for use on its own or as a companion volume to Women in European Culture and Society: Gender, Skill and Identity since 1700, this sourcebook is an invaluable and essential collection showing how women lived throughout Europe....

  2. Root trait diversity, molecular marker diversity, and trait-marker associations in a core collection of Lupinus angustifolius

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yinglong; Shan, Fucheng; Nelson, Matthew N.; Siddique, Kadambot HM; Rengel, Zed

    2016-01-01

    Narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) is the predominant grain legume crop in southern Australia, contributing half of the total grain legume production of Australia. Its yield in Australia is hampered by a range of subsoil constraints. The adaptation of lupin genotypes to subsoil constraints may be improved by selecting for optimal root traits from new and exotic germplasm sources. We assessed root trait diversity and genetic diversity of a core collection of narrow-leafed lupin (11...

  3. Barley Germplasm STARS-9577B lacks a Russian Wheat Aphid Resistance Allele at a Quantitative Trait Locus Present in STARS-9301B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA, Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov) infestations of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in the western U.S.A. have reduced yield and quality of barley since its introduction in 1986. Resistant germplasm lines have been released and used for cultivar development, including ‘STARS-9577B’, a s...

  4. Registration of three germplasm lines of cotton derived from Gossypium hirsutum L. accession T2468 with moderate resistance to the reniform nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford and Oliveria, moderately resistant upland cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., germplasm lines, MT2468 Ren1 (Reg. No. ________, PI ________), MT2468 Ren2 (Reg. No. ________, PI ________), and MT2468 Ren3 (Reg. No. ________, PI ________), were devel...

  5. Agro-Morphological, Physico-Chemical and Molecular Characterization of Rice Germplasm with Similar Names of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Sharf Uddin Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-one duplicate and similar named rice germplasms of Bangladesh were studied to assess the genetic variation for the agro-morphological and physico-chemical traits and simple sequence repeat banding patterns during 2009–2012 at Bangladesh Rice Research Institute. The range of variations within the cultivar groups showed higher degree. The principal component analysis showed that the first five components with vector values > 1 contributed 82.90% of the total variations. The cluster analysis grouped the genotypes into four clusters, where no duplicate germplasm was found. The highest number (11 of genotypes was constellated in cluster I and the lowest (3 in cluster II. The intra- and inter-cluster distances were the maximum in cluster I (0.93 and between clusters I and IV (24.61, respectively, and the minimum in cluster IV (0.62 and between clusters I and III (5.07, respectively. The cluster mean revealed that the crosses between the genotypes of cluster I with those of clusters II and IV would exhibit high heterosis for maximum good characters. A total of 350 alleles varied from 3 (RM277 to 14 (RM21 with an average of 7.8 per locus were detected at 45 microsatellite loci across the 31 rice accessions. The gene diversity ranged from 0.48 to 0.90 with an average of 0.77, and the polymorphism information content values from 0.44 (RM133 to 0.89 (RM206 with an average of 0.74. RM206, RM21, RM55, RM258 and RM433 were considered as the best markers on the basis of their higher polymorphism information content values. The dendrogram from unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average clustering also classified the genotypes into four groups, where group IV comprised of 20 genotypes and group III of one genotype, but no duplicate was found. Finally, similar and duplicate named rice germplasms need to be conserved in gene bank as are distinct from each other.

  6. Geographical Gradient of the eIF4E Alleles Conferring Resistance to Potyviruses in Pea (Pisum) Germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konečná, Eva; Šafářová, Dana; Navrátil, Milan; Hanáček, Pavel; Coyne, Clarice; Flavell, Andrew; Vishnyakova, Margarita; Ambrose, Mike; Redden, Robert; Smýkal, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Background The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E was shown to be involved in resistance against several potyviruses in plants, including pea. We combined our knowledge of pea germplasm diversity with that of the eIF4E gene to identify novel genetic diversity. Methodology/Principal findings Germplasm of 2803 pea accessions was screened for eIF4E intron 3 length polymorphism, resulting in the detection of four eIF4EA-B-C-S variants, whose distribution was geographically structured. The eIF4EA variant conferring resistance to the P1 PSbMV pathotype was found in 53 accessions (1.9%), of which 15 were landraces from India, Afghanistan, Nepal, and 7 were from Ethiopia. A newly discovered variant, eIF4EB, was present in 328 accessions (11.7%) from Ethiopia (29%), Afghanistan (23%), India (20%), Israel (25%) and China (39%). The eIF4EC variant was detected in 91 accessions (3.2% of total) from India (20%), Afghanistan (33%), the Iberian Peninsula (22%) and the Balkans (9.3%). The eIF4ES variant for susceptibility predominated as the wild type. Sequencing of 73 samples, identified 34 alleles at the whole gene, 26 at cDNA and 19 protein variants, respectively. Fifteen alleles were virologically tested and 9 alleles (eIF4EA-1-2-3-4-5-6-7, eIF4EB-1, eIF4EC-2) conferred resistance to the P1 PSbMV pathotype. Conclusions/Significance This work identified novel eIF4E alleles within geographically structured pea germplasm and indicated their independent evolution from the susceptible eIF4ES1 allele. Despite high variation present in wild Pisum accessions, none of them possessed resistance alleles, supporting a hypothesis of distinct mode of evolution of resistance in wild as opposed to crop species. The Highlands of Central Asia, the northern regions of the Indian subcontinent, Eastern Africa and China were identified as important centers of pea diversity that correspond with the diversity of the pathogen. The series of alleles identified in this study provides the basis

  7. Tropical Plant Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    is of importance to global change studies. Queenborough showed how herbarium collections can be used to study plant functional traits, and Antonelli documented the importance of herbarium voucher specimens for molecular phylogenetic studies and in comparative biogeography. Soberón gave a sobering account of ‘big......The symposium Tropical Plant Collections: Legacies from the past? Essential tools for the future? was held on 19th–21st May 2015 with botanists from eighteen countries. Balslev and Friis introduced the themes and voiced their concern about negligence of tropical plant collections in many European......-colonial and early colonial periods. With the presentation by Cribb on the botany of the British Empire we were fully into the colonial period, focussing on the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. The situation in North America was treated by Funk, who illustrated the development of collections of tropical plants...

  8. Tropical Plant Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -colonial and early colonial periods. With the presentation by Cribb on the botany of the British Empire we were fully into the colonial period, focussing on the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. The situation in North America was treated by Funk, who illustrated the development of collections of tropical plants......The symposium Tropical Plant Collections: Legacies from the past? Essential tools for the future? was held on 19th–21st May 2015 with botanists from eighteen countries. Balslev and Friis introduced the themes and voiced their concern about negligence of tropical plant collections in many European...... and American institutions and the dire conditions of funding and staffing in many tropical herbaria and botanical gardens. This happens at the same time as the collections become increasingly important for a series of modern approaches to evolutionary and biodiversity research and the needs of the biodiversity...

  9. THE EUROPEAN BUSINESS CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignat Ion

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The construction of European Monetary Union has raised several questions about the existence of a common business cycle, a European one. The lack of cyclical synchronization would complicate the monetary and fiscal policies in the Union, being a negative

  10. European Home Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.

    2009-01-01

    An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes......An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes...

  11. European Industry, 1700 - 1870

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broadberry, Stephen; Fremdling, Rainer; Solar, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of the development of European industry between 1700 and 1870, drawing in particular on the recent literature that has emerged following the formation of the European Historical Economics Society in 1991. The approach thus makes use of economic analysis and quantitative

  12. The European Programme Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Anne; Bergman, E.; Ehlers, S.

    The publication is a result of a cooperation between organisations in six European countries with the aim to develop a common European education for programme managers. It contains of a description of the different elements of the education together with a number of case-studies from the counties...

  13. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2003-01-01

    The theme adressed by this paper is the opportunities for European Works Councils (EWCs) of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme adressed by this paper is the opportunities for European Works Councils (EWCs) of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  14. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2004-01-01

    The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  15. Introduction: European climate leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurzel, R.K.W.; Liefferink, J.D.; Connelly, J.

    2017-01-01

    There is no shortage of would-be leaders in EU climate change politics. The EU institutions (e.g. European Council, Council of the EU, Commission and the European Parliament (EP)), member states and societal actors have all, though to varying degrees and at different time periods, tried to offer

  16. Europeanization : A Poststructuralist Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuman-Stanivukovic, Senka

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation begins from the hypothesis that the direction and extent of Europeanization depends on domestic perception of the European Union and its norms. Accordingly, it was my empirical ambition to study how competing articulations of the EU and its norms constructed debates in EU member

  17. European media law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castendyk, O.; Dommering, E.; Scheuer, A.

    2008-01-01

    European Union legislation concerning electronic communications media is firmly established as an essential part of the law in the field in Europe. From relevant provisions of the European Convention of Human Rights and the EC Treaty to numerous directives, the most recent being the Audiovisual

  18. Competition and Profitability in European Financial Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Morten; Lierman, F.; Mullineux, A.

    Financial services firms play a key role in the European economy. The efficiency and profitability of these firms and the competition among them have an impact on allocation of savings, financing of investment, economic growth, the stability of the financial system and the transmission of monetary...... policy. This collection of research contributions includes evaluations of trends in the European financial service industry and examinations of the driving forces of efficiency, competition and profitability of financial firms and institutions in Europe. The papers have been written by leading academics...... and researchers in the field, who specialize in strategic, systematic and policy issues related to the European financial services industry. This edited collection will be will be essential reading for students and academics but will also be of interest to financial practitioners and government officials...

  19. Doubled haploid production from Spanish onion (Allium cepa L.) germplasm: embryogenesis induction, plant regeneration and chromosome doubling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayos, Oreto; Vallés, María P.; Garcés-Claver, Ana; Mallor, Cristina; Castillo, Ana M.

    2015-01-01

    The use of doubled haploids in onion breeding is limited due to the low gynogenesis efficiency of this species. Gynogenesis capacity from Spanish germplasm, including the sweet cultivar Fuentes de Ebro, the highly pungent landrace BGHZ1354 and the two Valenciana type commercial varieties Recas and Rita, was evaluated and optimized in this study. The OH-1 population, characterized by a high gynogenesis induction, was used as control. Growing conditions of the donor plants were tested with a one-step protocol and field plants produced a slightly higher percentage of embryogenesis induction than growth chamber plants. A one-step protocol was compared with a two-step protocol for embryogenesis induction. Spanish germplasm produced a 2–3 times higher percentage of embryogenesis with the two-step protocol, Recas showing the highest percentage (2.09%) and Fuentes de Ebro the lowest (0.53%). These percentages were significantly lower than those from the OH-1 population, with an average of 15% independently of the protocol used. The effect of different containers on plant regeneration was tested using both protocols. The highest percentage of acclimated plants was obtained with the two-step protocol in combination with Eco2box (70%), whereas the lowest percentage was observed with glass tubes in the two protocols (20–23%). Different amiprofos-methyl (APM) treatments were applied to embryos for chromosome doubling. A similar number of doubled haploid plants were recovered with 25 or 50 μM APM in liquid medium. However, the application of 25 μM in solid medium for 24 h produced the highest number of doubled haploid plants. Somatic regeneration from flower buds of haploid and mixoploid plants proved to be a successful approach for chromosome doubling, since diploid plants were obtained from the four regenerated lines. In this study, doubled haploid plants were produced from the four Spanish cultivars, however further improvements are needed to increase their gynogenesis

  20. Population Structure of the Late Blight Pathogen Phytophthora infestans in a Potato Germplasm Nursery in Two Consecutive Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuee; Yin, Junliang; Sun, Jieping; Ma, Hongmei; Ma, Yunfang; Quan, Junli; Shan, Weixing

    2015-06-01

    As the causal agent of late blight on potato, Phytophthora infestans is one of the most destructive plant pathogens worldwide and widely known as the Irish potato famine pathogen. Understanding the genetic structure of P. infestans populations is important both for breeding and deployment of resistant varieties and for development of disease control strategies. Here, we investigate the population genetic structure of P. infestans in a potato germplasm nursery in northwestern China. In total, 279 isolates were recovered from 63 potato varieties or lines in 2010 and 2011, and were genotyped by mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and a set of nine simple-sequence repeat markers. Selected isolates were further examined for virulence on a set of differential lines containing each resistance (R) gene (R1 to R11). The overall P. infestans population was characterized as having a low level of genetic diversity and resistance to metalaxyl, and containing a high percentage of individuals that virulent to all 11 R genes. Both A1 and A2 mating types as well as self-fertile P. infestans isolates were present but there was no evidence of sexual reproduction. The low level of genetic differentiation in P. infestans populations is probably due to the action of relatively high levels of migration as supported by analysis of molecular variance (P < 0.01). Migration and asexual reproduction were the predominant mechanisms influencing the P. infestans population structure in the germplasm nursery. Therefore, it is important to ensure the production of pathogen-free potato seed tubers to aid sustainable production of potato in northwestern China.

  1. Genetic diversity of 11 European pig breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavall, G.; Iannuccelli, N.; Legault, C.; Milan, D.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Andersson, L.; Fredholm, M.; Geldermann, H.; Foulley, J.L.; Chevalet, C.; Ollivier, L.

    2000-01-01

    A set of eleven pig breeds originating from six European countries, and including a small sample of wild pigs, was chosen for this study of genetic diversity. Diversity was evaluated on the basis of 18 microsatellite markers typed over a total of 483 DNA samples collected. Average breed

  2. Collection Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Libraries in Canada, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Includes 21 articles that discuss collection development in Canadian school libraries. Topics include digital collections in school library media centers; print and electronic library resources; library collections; collaborative projects; print-disabled students; informing administrators of the importance of collection development; censorship;…

  3. AFLP-Based Analysis of Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Relationships with Agronomic Traits in Rice Germplasm from North Region of Iran and World Core Germplasm Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkheh, Karim; Masaeli, Mohammad; Chaleshtori, Maryam Hosseini; Adugna, Asfaw; Ercisli, Sezai

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of the genetic diversity and population structure of crops is very important for use in breeding programs and for genetic resources conservation. We analyzed the genetic diversity and population structure of 47 rice genotypes from diverse origins using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and morphological characters. The 47 genotypes, which were composed of four populations: Iranian native varieties, Iranian improved varieties, International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) rice varieties, and world rice collections, were analyzed using ten primer combinations. A total of 221 scorable bands were produced with an average of 22.1 alleles per pair of primers, of which 120 (54.30%) were polymorphic. The polymorphism information content (PIC) values varied from 0.32 to 0.41 with an average of 0.35. The high percentage of polymorphic bands (%PB) was found to be 64.71 and the resolving power (R p) collections were 63.36. UPGMA clustering based on numerical data from AFLP patterns clustered all 47 genotypes into three large groups. The genetic similarity between individuals ranged from 0.54 to 0.94 with an average of 0.74. Population genetic tree showed that Iranian native cultivars formed far distant cluster from the other populations, which may indicate that these varieties had minimal genetic change over time. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that the largest proportion of the variation (84%) to be within populations showing the inbreeding nature of rice. Therefore, Iranian native varieties (landraces) may have unique genes, which can be used for future breeding programs and there is a need to conserve this unique diversity. Furthermore, crossing of Iranian genotypes with the genetically distant genotypes in the other three populations may result in useful combinations, which can be used as varieties and/or lines for future rice breeding programs.

  4. Update of European bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2015-01-01

    , the principles of autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability are proposed as the most important ethical principles for respect for the human person in biomedical and biotechnological development. This approach to bioethics and biolaw is presented here in a short updated version that integrates the earlier......This paper presents an update of the research on European bioethics undertaken by the author together with Professor Peter Kemp since the 1990s, on Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. In this European approach to basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw...... research in a presentation of the present understanding of the basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw....

  5. Democratic Citizenship: European referents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María PUIG GUTIÉRREZ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Let’s sense beforehand in this article a tour concerning the educational European policies that favors the development of a democratic citizenship. The aim that we chase is to understand the way in which nowadays it is being interpreted and stimulated the Citizenship education from European Union. for it we offer a conceptual delimiting of «Citizenship education» and later, we show an analysis of the principal documents and materials elaborated principally by the Council of Europe that mark the way followed by European Union as for education for Democratic Citizenship (EDC.

  6. Optimizing the collections process in consumer credit

    OpenAIRE

    De Almeida Filho, Adiel T.; Mues, Christophe; Lyn C Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This paper builds a dynamic programming model to optimize the collections process in consumer credit. It determines which collections actions should be undertaken and how long they should be performed. Theoretical results about the form of the optimal policy under certain conditions are obtained. Finally a case study is described based on data from the collection department of a European bank

  7. European dental students' opinions on their local anaesthesia education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H.S.; Tan, L.L.S.; van der Spek, S.J.; Baart, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate students’ opinion about theoretical and clinical training in local anaesthesia at different European dental schools. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was designed to collect information about local anaesthesia teaching. Students’ opinion was quantified with five-point

  8. Self-(in)compatibility genotypes of Moroccan apricots indicate differences and similarities in the crop history of European and North African apricot germplasm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kodad, Ossama; Hegedűs, Attila; Socias i Company, Rafel; Halász, Júlia

    2013-01-01

    ....) from different oasis ecosystems in Morocco and the comparison of the occurrence and frequency of S-alleles with other regions may allow testing the validity of previous theories on the origin...

  9. Self-(in)compatibility genotypes of Moroccan apricots indicate differences and similarities in the crop history of European and North African apricot germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Kodad, Ossama; Hegedüs, Attila; Socias i Company, Rafel; Halász, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Background Allelic diversity of the S-locus is attributed to the genetic relationships among genotypes and sexual reproduction strategy. In otherwise self-incompatible Prunus species, the emergence of loss-of-function in S-haplotypes has resulted in self-compatibility. This information may allow following major stages of crop history. The genetic diversity in the S-locus of local apricots (Prunus armeniaca L.) from different oasis ecosystems in Morocco and the comparison of the occurrence and...

  10. CERN welcomes European science

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    On 3 and 4 October CERN will host a special workshop for Marie Curie fellows. This programme is a key plank in the EU's strategy for creating a European research area.     With thousands of scientists from all over the continent working together, CERN is already an exemplary European science showcase. On 3 and 4 October, the Laboratory will contribute further to unifying all European science by hosting a special workshop for EU-funded Marie Curie fellows. This scheme gives young researchers from around the continent the mobility to go to wherever Europe's best facilities in their chosen field happen to be. The event that will take place at CERN, entitled 'Special workshop of Marie Curie Fellows on research and training in physics and technology', organised together with the European Commission, is a continuation of a series of workshops with the aim, among others, of promoting young researchers, supporting their training and mobility, and facilitating the interdisciplinary dissemination of knowledge. Dur...

  11. European Economic Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, James A.

    1971-01-01

    Recounts the history and problems of European Economic Integration from the first post World War II organization, the OEEC, to the EEC (Common Market) and the EFTA. Suggestions for further reading are included. (JB)

  12. European Molecular Biology Laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    On 10 May an Agreement was signed at CERN setting up a new European Laboratory. It will be concerned with research in molecularbiology and will be located at Heidelberg in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  13. The European University Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraio, Cinzia; Bonaccorsi, Andrea; Geuna, Aldo

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a new and systematic characterization of 488 universities, from 11 European countries: Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland and UK. Using micro indicators built on the integrated Aquameth database, we characterize the Euro...

  14. European mobility cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick

    2016-01-01

    More targeted European policies promoting green travel patterns require better knowledge on differing mobility cultures across European regions. As a basis for this, we clustered the EU population into eight mobility styles based on Eurobarometer data. The mobility styles - including, for example......-economic resources. In a second step, the 28 EU member countries were clustered into six country clusters based on their representation of mobility styles. The country clusters indicate the existence of considerably different mobility cultures across the EU. Sub-regions can be identified that have highly different...... positions on the path towards sustainable mobility and therefore different requirements towards European platforms and support measures, e.g. for 'Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans'. The country clusters can provide a starting point for future communication and targeting of European efforts in sustainable...

  15. European Cyber Security Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Bendiek, Annegret

    2012-01-01

    The gradually developing European cyber security policy tries to establish minimum standards in all EU member states with regard to prevention, resilience and international cooperation. It aims to foster national security without compromising democratic principles or unduly limiting individual liberties. However, it is hard to find a balance between these goals, and the EU’s measures thus inevitably raise questions about the democratic implications of European cyber security policy. Are the i...

  16. Timetabling on European Corridors

    OpenAIRE

    Lischke, Andreas; Führer, B. (Bernhard); Garavagno, G.

    2005-01-01

    The Path Allocation Re-engineering of Timetable Networks for European Railways (PARTNER) project aims to demonstrate a new way of train path allocation and assembly along international corridors towards a faster and more coordinated railway infrastructure capacity management. PARTNER will assist two neighbour infrastructure managers to develop a common understanding of the effects of international train paths. The results of a survey of European infrastructure managers and railway underta...

  17. European Physical Society awards

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The winners of the 2004 Accelerator Prizes, awarded by the European Physical Society's Interdivisional Group on Accelerators (EPS-IGA), have been announced. Vladmir Shiltsev (Fermilab) and Igor Meshkov (JINR, Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna) will be presented with their awards during the 9th European Particle Accelerator Conference, EPAC'04, on 8 July 2004 in Lucerne. Both physicists will also give a talk about their work. More details on: http://epac.web.cern.ch/

  18. European Banking Union

    OpenAIRE

    Breuss, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing Euro crisis and the worse economic development in Europe than in the USA are grounded, not the least in the delayed implementation of reforms of the banking sector. Whereas the leaks in economic governance of EMU have been fixed the banking sector is still not stabilised, even five years after Lehman Brothers. From the grand solution of a "European Banking Union" (EBU) only the first pillar, the European Bank Supervision with the single supervisory mechanism (SSM) will come into e...

  19. European DHC Research Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltshire, Robin; Williams, Jonathan (Building Research Establishment, BRE, Bucknalls Lane, Watford (United Kingdom)); Werner, Sven (Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering, Halmstad (Sweden))

    2008-09-15

    Euroheat and Power is now working towards a European Technology Platform for District Heating and Cooling. In response to this important European DHC research initiative, a preliminary detailed list of research issues within 18 dimensions was elaborated and communicated to more than 100 people in February 2008. After additions and comments received, an updated list of research issues was again distributed in July 2008. This paper contains the current list of suggested research issues

  20. Select Papyri from Danish Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas

    The thesis, Select Papyri from Danish Collections: Philological and Archaeometric Studies, consists of an introduction, a book, four articles and a rapport on a scientific experiment at EuropeanRadiation Synchrotron Facility(ESRF), Grenoble, France, together with an application for another...

  1. The EMBRACE web service collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettifer, S.; Ison, J.; Kalas, M.

    2010-01-01

    The EMBRACE (European Model for Bioinformatics Research and Community Education) web service collection is the culmination of a 5-year project that set out to investigate issues involved in developing and deploying web services for use in the life sciences. The project concluded that in order for...... and its associated recommendations and standards definitions....

  2. Relation between renal function and outcomes in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome: real-world data from the European Public Health Outcome Research and Indicators Collection Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Ilan; Subirana, Isaac; Boyko, Valentina; Vila, Joan; Elosua, Roberto; Permanyer-Miralda, Gaieta; Ferreira-González, Ignacio; Benderly, Michal; Guetta, Victor; Behar, Shlomo; Marrugat, Jaume

    2010-05-24

    Clinical trials provide limited information about the outcome of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACSs) and kidney disease (KD) owing to underrepresentation of this population in most studies. To evaluate the outcome of patients with non-ST-segment elevation ACS (NSTE-ACS) and KD in a real-world setting, we compared the risk of in-hospital and 30-day mortality by the presence of KD (defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate Public Health Outcome Research and Indicators Collection Project. Patients with KD (n = 4181) composed 31.8% of the study population and had significantly higher rates of in-hospital (5.4%) and 30-day (7.2%) case fatality compared with patients without KD (1.1% and 1.7%, respectively; P < .001 for both). In multivariate analysis, the presence of KD was independently associated with a significantly higher mortality risk (in-hospital: odds ratio [OR], 2.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48-3.00; 30-day: OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.46-2.61). Patients with KD who underwent coronary angiography experienced a 36% (P = .05) and 40% (P < .001) lower risk of in-hospital and 30-day mortality, respectively, but this high-risk population still exhibited significantly higher case-fatality rates during hospitalization (3.3%) and at 30 days (4.6%) compared with patients without KD who underwent coronary angiography (0.7% and 1.3%, respectively; P < .001 for all). In a real-world setting, KD was present in approximately one-third of patients with NSTE-ACS and is a powerful independent predictor of subsequent mortality. Patients with NSTE-ACS and KD referred for coronary angiography have a significantly lower risk of death, but this high-risk population continues to exhibit increased mortality rates despite intervention procedures.

  3. Insights into the Genetic Relationships and Breeding Patterns of the African Tea Germplasm Based on nSSR Markers and cpDNA Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Wambulwa, Moses C.; Meegahakumbura, Muditha K.; Kamunya, Samson; Muchugi, Alice; Möller, Michael; Liu, Jie; Xu, Jian-Chu; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Li, De-Zhu; Gao, Lian-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Africa is one of the key centers of global tea production. Understanding the genetic diversity and relationships of cultivars of African tea is important for future targeted breeding efforts for new crop cultivars, specialty tea processing, and to guide germplasm conservation efforts. Despite the economic importance of tea in Africa, no research work has been done so far on its genetic diversity at a continental scale. Twenty-three nSSRs and three plastid DNA regions were used to investigate ...

  4. Diversidade genética entre acessos de cacau de fazendas e de banco de germoplasma na Bahia Genetic diversity among farm and germplasm bank accessions of cacao in Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeiza Botelho Leal

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a diversidade genética de acessos de cacau, selecionados previamente como produtivos e resistentes à vassoura-de-bruxa na Bahia, e estudar suas inter-relações com genótipos no banco de germoplasma. Amostras de DNA de folhas dos 120 acessos, coletados em 17 fazendas de sete municípios do Sul da Bahia, foram amplificadas pela técnica de RAPD ("random amplified polymorphic DNA". Os coeficientes de dissimilaridade genética, calculados pelo método de Jaccard a partir das bandas RAPD, permitiram evidenciar, pela análise de agrupamento, que a maioria das seleções das fazendas (89,2% agrupou-se com acessos do banco de germoplasma considerados representativos da diversidade de cacau (híbridos, trinitários, Scavinas, amazônicos e cacau-comum. As demais seleções distribuíram-se em outros sete grupos distintos. Há elevada diversidade genética entre as seleções das fazendas, e algumas delas devem ter-se originado de genitores não incluídos nesta análise. Esses materiais apresentam potencial para seleção de clones com maior diversidade para novos cruzamentos ou uso pelos agricultores.The objective of this work was to assess genetic diversity of farm cacao accessions, previously selected as productive and resistant to witch broom in Bahia, Brazil, and to study their interrelationship with reference genotypes on germplasm bank. DNA samples from 120 cacao accessions, collected on 17 farms in seven counties in Southern Bahia, were amplified by RAPD technique (random amplified polymorphic DNA. The coefficients of genetic dissimilarity, calculated from the RAPD bands by Jaccard method, allowed to show by cluster analysis that most farm selections (89.2% grouped with accessions from germplasm bank considered representatives of the cacao genetic diversity (hybrids, Trinitarian, Scavina, Amazon and common cacao. The other selections were distributed in seven distinct groups. There is high genetic

  5. Germplasm-regression-combined (GRC) marker-trait association identification in plant breeding: a challenge for plant biotechnological breeding under soil water deficit conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Cheng-Jiang; Xu, Xue-Xuan; Shao, Hong-Bo; Jaleel, Cheruth Abdul

    2010-09-01

    In the past 20 years, the major effort in plant breeding has changed from quantitative to molecular genetics with emphasis on quantitative trait loci (QTL) identification and marker assisted selection (MAS). However, results have been modest. This has been due to several factors including absence of tight linkage QTL, non-availability of mapping populations, and substantial time needed to develop such populations. To overcome these limitations, and as an alternative to planned populations, molecular marker-trait associations have been identified by the combination between germplasm and the regression technique. In the present preview, the authors (1) survey the successful applications of germplasm-regression-combined (GRC) molecular marker-trait association identification in plants; (2) describe how to do the GRC analysis and its differences from mapping QTL based on a linkage map reconstructed from the planned populations; (3) consider the factors that affect the GRC association identification, including selections of optimal germplasm and molecular markers and testing of identification efficiency of markers associated with traits; and (4) finally discuss the future prospects of GRC marker-trait association analysis used in plant MAS/QTL breeding programs, especially in long-juvenile woody plants when no other genetic information such as linkage maps and QTL are available.

  6. The European COPHES/DEMOCOPHES project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schindler, Birgit Karin; Esteban, Marta; Koch, Holger Martin

    2014-01-01

    COPHES/DEMOCOPHES has its origins in the European Environment and Health Action Plan of 2004 to "develop a coherent approach on human biomonitoring (HBM) in Europe". Within this twin-project it was targeted to collect specimens from 120 mother-child-pairs in each of the 17 participating European...... analytical shortcomings in the determination of Cd when using certain ICP/MS methods. Results were corrected by reanalyzes. The COPHES/DEMOCOPHES project for the first time succeeded in performing a harmonized pan-European HBM project. All data raised have to be regarded as utmost reliable according...... to the highest international state of the art, since highly renowned laboratories functioned as reference laboratories. The procedure described here, that has shown its success, can be used as a blueprint for future transnational, multicentre HBM projects....

  7. FACTORING PERSPECTIVE: CROATIA VS EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Ivanovic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper points out the problems of liquidity, disposal and obtaining funds, inability to collect receivables, delayed payments in times of economic and financial instability and dynamic business upheavals and uncertainty. As a contribution to resolve these issues new alternative methods of financing for business are imposing, one of them is factoring. Although most countries don’t have adequate legal framework, factoring has emerged as the dominant form of financing, whose current status and development points to the prospects of development in the future. In terms of measures and actions which are taken to combat these issues, as well as legislation, many efforts are made at international level in European Union and in Croatia. Overview and description of the factoring development, and indications for further development are presented in relation to the world, the European Union and the Republic of Croatia. This paper also describes factoring comparison among European countries.

  8. European social model and the harmonization of Macedonian labour legislation with the European Union community labour law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalamatiev Todor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The European integration process accompanied by the harmonization of the EU member states' legislation will inevitably lead to the establishment of a European social model which has a 'sui generis' legal nature. European social model forms a part of the common legal heritage of the European countries and it can be defined as a system of values that include democracy and individual rights, free collective bargaining, market economy, equal opportunities for all, and social protection and solidarity. Subject of analysis in this paper are both, the essential components of the European social model such as: the social 'acquis communautaire' and the European industrial relations. The social 'acquis communautaire' is an integral part of the general 'acquis communautaire' and it encompasses the regulations arising from the primary and secondary labour law legislation of the EU, decisions of the European Court of Justice and other legal measures of the European Union with a binding or non-binding legal nature. European industrial relations encompass the key features of the European trade union models as well as the types of social dialogue in different EU member states. This paper pays attention to a profound elaboration of the harmonization of two EU labour law directives with the Macedonian employment legislation. The first Directive (Directive 91/533/EEC of 14 October 1991 on an employers' obligation to inform employees of the conditions applicable to the contract or employment relationship may be classified in the field of individual employment relations, while the second one (Directive 2002/14/EC of 11 March 2002 establishing a general framework for informing and consulting employees in the European Community can be subsumed within the field of collective employment relations. Finally, the authors illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of the Macedonian labour legislation in the process of harmonization with the relevant EU directives

  9. European cowpea landraces for a more sustainable agriculture system and novel foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Márcia; Bebeli, Penelope J; Pereira, Graça; Castro, Isaura; Egea-Gilabert, Catalina; Matos, Manuela; Lazaridi, Efstathia; Duarte, Isabel; Lino-Neto, Teresa; Ntatsi, Georgia; Rodrigues, Miguel; Savvas, Dimitrios; Rosa, Eduardo; Carnide, Valdemar

    2017-10-01

    Genetic diversity is fundamental to breeding programs and consequently has an important role in obtaining new varieties. To properly use the genetic diversity present in germplasm collections, a good knowledge of the agro-morphological traits of each accession is needed. The aim of this study was to explore the production capacity of 24 cowpea landraces from southern Europe, through phenotypic characterization and evaluation in three different locations in Greece and Portugal. Most qualitative parameters tested showed a high stability among the three locations. A wide difference was observed among the three locations with respect to number of days to flowering, ranging from 55 to 99 days. Quantitative traits showed a higher genotype × environment than genetic variance component. In general, an inverse relationship between σ 2 ge /σ 2 g ratio (where σ 2 ge is genotype × genotype interaction and σ 2 g is genotype impact) and heritability value was observed. Principal component analysis was able to group accessions based on their origin. The first two principal components explained 97.52% of variation, being the number of seeds per plant, plant height and seed protein content, the traits which contributed most to variability. The results show that sufficient variation exists in different traits within landraces in the studied cowpea germplasm to pursue a breeding program. However, the quantitative traits showed a higher genotype × environment component. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. European Union rules in the matter of dismissal of employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia-Monica MATIAȘ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available So far, the European Union adopted a Directive on firing any individual content to regulate only matters of collective redundancies due to the social implications that occur usually in case of collective dismissals and, simultaneously, their potential conflicts. Directive no. 98/95/EC of 20 July 1998 on the approximation of the laws of Member States relating to collective redundancies was adopted by the Council of the European Union since it was necessary to grant greater protection to workers in the event of collective redundancies. The provisions of Directive no. 98/59/EC of 20 July 1998 on the approximation of the laws of Member States relating to collective redundancies have been transposed into national law by the Romanian Government Emergency Ordinance no. 55/2006 amending and supplementing the Labour Code so that in this case no question of direct application of Community rules, but can not disregard its interpretation by the European Court of Justice.

  11. Transnational European Television Drama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib; Redvall, Eva Novrup; Helles, Rasmus

    This book deals with the role of television drama in Europe as enabler of transnational, cultural encounters for audiences and the creative community. It demonstrates that the diversity of national cultures is a challenge for European TV drama but also a potential richness and source of creative...... variation. Based on data on the production, distribution and reception of recent TV drama from several European countries, the book presents a new picture of the transnational European television culture. The authors analyse main tendencies in television policy and challenges for national broadcasters...... coming from new global streaming services. Comparing cases of historical, contemporary and crime drama from several countries, this study shows the importance of creative co-production and transnational mediated cultural encounters between national cultures of Europe....

  12. The Europeanization of Eurosceptics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutceac Segesten, Anamaria; Bossetta Jr, Michael Joseph

    with the case of Sweden. Sweden is a good example because it has a high density of internet use, a politically active population as reflected in voter turnout and many politicians and political parties with a web presence. The main research questions of the paper are: Which actors are involved in the Swedish...... of a Europeanized network of anti-European voices for European integration and democracy. We plan to operationalize our research question through the use of webcrawling (i.e. Issue Crawler) and social media analytic softwares (Twitonomy and Bluenod). Using these softwares we will be able to discern whether...... or not non-Swedish Twitter users are participating in and/or affecting the Swedish Eurosceptic dialogue on social media....

  13. European Analytical Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, B.; Grasserbauer, M.; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    The European Analytical Column has once more invited a guest columnist to give his views on various matters related to analytical chemistry in Europe. This year, we have invited Professor Manfred Grasserbauer of the Vienna University of Technology to present some of the current challenges...... for European analytical chemistry. During the period 2002–07, Professor Grasserbauer was Director of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (EC), Ispra, Italy. There is no doubt that many challenges exist at the present time for all of us representing...... a major branch of chemistry, namely analytical chemistry. The global financial crisis is affecting all branches of chemistry, but analytical chemistry, in particular, since our discipline by tradition has many close links to industry. We have already noticed decreased industrial commitment with respect...

  14. European Universe Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, P.; Miley, G.; Westra van Holthe, F.; Schrier, W.; Reed, S.

    2011-10-01

    The European Universe Awareness (EU-UNAWE) programme uses the beauty and grandeur of the cosmos to encourage young children, particularly those from underprivileged backgrounds, to develop an interest in science and technology and to foster a sense of global citizenship. EU-UNAWE is already active in 40 countries and comprises a global network of almost 500 astronomers, teachers and other educators. The programme was recently awarded a grant of 1.9 million euros by the European Union so that it can be further developed in five European countries and South Africa. The grant will be used to organise teacher training workshops and to develop educational materials, such as an astronomy news service for children and games. During this presentation we will outline some of the biggest achievements of EU-UNAWE to date and discuss future plans for the programme.

  15. Developing a common bean core collection suitable for association mapping studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Morini Küpper Cardoso Perseguini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of the continuous introduction of germplasm from abroad, some collections have a high number of accessions, making it difficult to explore the genetic variability present in a germplasm bank for conservation and breeding purposes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify and analyze the structure of genetic variability among 500 common bean accessions to construct a core collection. A total of 58 SSRs were used for this purpose. The polymorphism information content (PIC in the 180 common bean accessions selected to compose the core collection ranged from 0.17 to 0.86, and the discriminatory power (DP ranged from 0.21 to 0.90. The 500 accessions were clustered into 15 distinct groups and the 180 accessions into four distinct groups in the Structure analysis. According to analysis of molecular variance, the most divergent accessions comprised 97.2% of the observed genetic variability present within the base collection, confirming the efficiency of the selection criterion. The 180 selected accessions will be used for association mapping in future studies and could be potentially used by breeders to direct new crosses and generate elite cultivars that meet current and future global market needs.

  16. Relationship between NDVI at early bloom and yield in germplasm evaluation trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of high-throughput phenotyping (HTP) equipment is expanding as it offers the potential to increase the efficiency of making selections in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) improvement programs. Measurements often being collected on HTP field equipment include normalized difference vegetative in...

  17. European Gas Dependency

    OpenAIRE

    Antonsen, Iben; Bieber, Martin; Gandrup, Tobias; Lehmann, Tina; Weinberger, Ashley

    2008-01-01

    The focal point of the project is, as it is implied in the title, European gas dependency, to be more specific; the dependency of Russian gas. We chose Russia, because the EU's import of gas is mainly supplied by Russia. We present background information and knowledge to describe why the case is of relevance and that a situation of dependency exists. We solely look at the dependency from the European Union's point of view, taking point of departure in the Green Paper. The Green Paper is a pap...

  18. European Values and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Theisen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Good Governance, Social Market Economy, Culture and Education are the decisive elements for Human Development. We need a third way between the extremes of the Utopian Global Free Market and a new nationalism. A Social Market Economy and the European Model of a Union could be such third way. For a new Social Market Economy we need a renaissance of the European dialectics between culture and society, idealism and materialism, religion and enlightenment, solidarity and profitability. The balancing of those poles is deeply rooted in our best traditions. 

  19. [AIDS prevention in European prisons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, G; Harding, T W

    1995-01-01

    Informations on HIV/AIDS in prisons which include 32 prison-systems in 17 European countries have been collected. The principle of equivalence of preventive measures and health care between prisons and the outside community, prison authorities should strive to prevent HIV transmission in prisons. There have been major developments in effective prevention programmes in the community, there has been less progress within the prison-systems. Information on AIDS is provided to prisoners in almost all prison-systems. While condom distribution is practiced in a growing number of systems, no prison systems have adopted syringes/needle distribution or exchange during incarceration. A few system have accepted distribution of a disinfectant (diluted bleach) with instruction on cleaning injection materials. Despite clear recommendations made by international bodies in 1987/88, it must be concluded that discrimination and segregation (restriction from access to workshops, specially work in kitchens) remain widespread in 1992.

  20. Collective Enumeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Bahador; Didino, Daniele; Frith, Chris; Butterworth, Brian; Rees, Geraint

    2013-01-01

    Many joint decisions in everyday life (e.g., Which bar is less crowded?) depend on approximate enumeration, but very little is known about the psychological characteristics of counting together. Here we systematically investigated collective approximate enumeration. Pairs of participants made individual and collective enumeration judgments in a…

  1. Data collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callaert, J.; Epping, Elisabeth; Federkeil, G.; Jongbloed, Benjamin W.A.; Kaiser, Franciscus; Tijssen, R.; van Vught, F.A.; Ziegele, F.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes the data collection instruments used in the development of U-Multirank. The first section is an overview of existing databases – mainly on bibliometrics and patents. The second describes the questionnaires and survey tools used for collecting data from the institutions – at

  2. [Gene analysis of Chinese barley dwarf germplasm resources. I. Inheritance and allelism test of the dwarf genes] [In Process Citation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang

    1999-01-01

    The plant height inheritance of 24 Chinese barley dwarf germplasms and the allelic relationships between the dwarf genes in them and the known dwarf genes uz, sdw, br and denso were studied. It was found that most Chinese barley dwarfs were controlled by 1 pair, a few by 2 pairs of recessive genes, only one by 1 pair recessive and 1 pair incomplete dominant genes. Allele frequence at the known dwarf gene uz locus was very high in Chinese barley dwarfs. Most monogenic and 2 digenic barley dwarfs had allelic relationships with uz. A monogenic barley dwarf 11012.2 from India and a digenic dwarf Yan 66 were found allelic to the known dwarf gene sdw. But no dwarfs had allelic relationship with the known dwarf genes br and denso. Monogenic dwarf mutants 91G318, 91D27 and 93-597 carried 1 pair of new recessive dwarf genes respectively. Digenic dwarf mutant 1974E possessed 1 pair of new incomplete dominant dwarf genes. Besides, 4 pairs of new recessive dwarf genes were indentified in 6 Tibetan barley dwarfs.

  3. Multigenic control of pod shattering resistance in Chinese rapeseed germplasm revealed by genome-wide association and linkage analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Majority of rapeseed cultivars shatter seeds upon maturity especially under hot-dry and windy conditions, reducing yield and gross margin return to growers. Here, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTL for resistance to pod shatter in unstructured diverse panel of 143 rapeseed accessions, and two structured populations derived from bi-parental doubled haploid (DH and inter-mated (IF2 crosses derived from R1 (resistant to pod shattering and R2 (prone to pod shattering accessions. Genome-wide association analysis identified six significant QTL for resistance to pod shatter located on chromosomes A01, A06, A07, A09, C02 and C05. Two of the QTL, qSRI.A09 delimited with the SNP marker Bn-A09-p30171993 (A09 and qSRI.A06 delimited with the SNP marker Bn-A06-p115948 (A06 could be repeatedly detected across environments in diversity panel, DH and IF2 populations, suggesting that at least two loci on chromosomes A06 and A09 were the main contributors to pod shatter resistance in Chinese germplasm. Significant SNP markers identified in this study especially those appeared repeatedly across environments provide a cost-effective and an efficient method for introgression and pyramiding of favorable alleles for pod shatter resistance via marker-assisted selection in rapeseed improvement programs.

  4. Tolerance to feeding damage by cotton fleahopper (Hemiptera: Miridae) among genotypes representing adapted germplasm pools of United States upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Allen E; Mekala, Karthik D; Smith, C Wayne; Campos, Carlos

    2013-04-01

    Cotton fleahopper [Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter)] (Hemiptera: Miridae) is one of the most damaging insect pests of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in Texas and Oklahoma because of their feeding on small floral buds which are termed squares. Damage to early season squares can reduce yield, delay crop maturity and increase the risk of crop loss because of late season insect pests and adverse weather. Insecticide applications are the only control tactic. The objectives of this study were to determine the tolerance to cotton fleahopper injury to squares among upland cotton genotypes representing the adapted germplasm pools and breeding lines available to cotton breeders in the United States and to evaluate leaf hairiness as a resistant trait. Results of the choice and no-choice trials indicated that four entries, 'Stoneville 474', 'Suregrow 747', 'Deltapine 50', and 'TAM 96WD-22 h', were more tolerant to cotton fleahopper injury relative to the other 11 entries. In choice trials, cotton fleahopper density was significantly correlated with the density of trichomes on leaves, bracts and stems. However, there was no correlation between cotton fleahopper density and percent square damage in the choice trials, suggesting that in some genotypes the response to feeding injury is mediated by host plant resistance factors expressed as tolerance. Results of the no-choice studies also indicate that some genotypes express tolerance to cotton fleahopper feeding.

  5. Determination of some minerals and β-carotene contents in aromatic indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renuka, N; Mathure, Sarika V; Zanan, Rahul L; Thengane, Ratnakar J; Nadaf, Altafhusain B

    2016-01-15

    39 aromatic indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars were characterized for Iron, Zinc, Calcium, Magnesium, Copper and β-carotene contents. The β-carotene contents were ranging from 1.23 to 9.9μg/g in brown and 0.08 to 1.99μg/g in milled rice. Among the mineral contents, Magnesium was found ranging from 855μg/g (Gham) to maximum of 1636μg/g (Badshahbhog) followed by Iron in 32μg/g (Jirga) to 218μg/g (Kalsal), Copper content from 2μg/g (Girga) to 1004μg/g (Gham), Zinc content from 25 (Gham) to 165μg/g (Ambemohar-157) and Calcium ranged from 14μg/g (Ambemohar pandhara) to 67μg/g (Kate chinoor). The study showed that the germplasm assessed is a good source of micronutrients and can be further exploited in breeding programme. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The European standard series in 9 European countries, 2002/2003 -- first results of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, W; Hegewald, J; Aberer, W

    2005-01-01

    Since January 2001, the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA), supported by European Union funding (contract QLK4-CT-2001-00343), has started to collect patch-test data. This comprises a standardized clinical history and the patch-test results using the European standard series...... observed. The prevalence of contact allergy to Myroxylon pereirae resin (balsam of Peru) (5.8%) is coming close to the frequency found with the fragrance mix (6.4%). Regarding contact allergy to chromium compounds, different frequencies were noted in the 2 centres focused on occupational dermatitis (2...

  7. Chromosome number in Brazilian germplasm accessions of Paspalum hydrophilum, P. modestum and P. palustre (Gramineae; Paniceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozzobon Marisa T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compiles results of chromosome counts of Paspalum hydrophilum, P. modestum and P. palustre. Four Brazilian accessions of P. modestum have shown 2n = 2x = 20 chromosomes, a number already found in one accession from Argentina and in two from Brazil. Three other Brazilian accessions showed tetraploid level (2n = 4x = 40, which was previously unknown in this species. In P. hydrophilum, only one of the accessions analyzed presented tetraploid level, initially established for the species from plants collected in Argentina. Five additional accessions from Brazil showed the diploid number, previously detected in a single Brazilian population. A tetraploid cytotype was found in P. palustre, previously known as a diploid species. In addition to confirming the occurrence of distinct ploidy levels for all three species, the results establish the predominance of the diploid level in P. hydrophilum and P. modestum accessions collected in Brazil.

  8. Adding value to cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) germplasm information with domestication history and admixture mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcano, Maria; Pugh, Tatiana; Cros, Emile; Morales, Sonia; Portillo Páez, Elvis A; Courtois, Brigitte; Glaszmann, Jean Christophe; Engels, Jan M M; Phillips, Wilbert; Astorga, Carlos; Risterucci, Ange Marie; Fouet, Olivier; González, Ventura; Rosenberg, Kai; Vallat, Isabelle; Dagert, Manuel; Lanaud, Claire

    2007-03-01

    A sound understanding of crop history can provide the basis for deriving novel genetic information through admixture mapping. We confirmed this, by using characterization data from an international collection of cocoa, collected 25 years ago, and from a contemporary plantation. We focus on the trees derived from three centuries of admixture between Meso-American Criollo and South American Forastero genomes. In both cacao sets of individuals, linkage disequilibrium extended over long genetic distances along chromosome regions, as expected in populations derived from recent admixture. Based on loose genome scans, genomic regions involved in useful traits were identified. Fifteen genomic regions involved in seed and fruit weight variation were highlighted. They correspond to ten previously identified QTLs and five novel ones. Admixture mapping can help to add value to genetic resources and thus, help to encourage investment in their conservation.

  9. Causality in Europeanization Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet

    2012-01-01

    to develop discursive institutional analytical frameworks and something that comes close to the formulation of hypothesis on the effects of European Union (EU) policies and institutions on domestic change. Even if these efforts so far do not necessarily amount to substantive theories or claims of causality...

  10. Measuring European selves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antalikova, Radka

    Taking the perspective of cross-cultural psychology, the current thesis sets out to investigate self in a European context. For this purpose, the thesis first thoroughly reviews the most prominent conceptualizations of self in cross-cultural psychology, specifically focusing on disentangling...... to the field of cross-cultural psychology, specifically highlighting the utility of autobiographical memories as measures of self....

  11. European Psychology Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANA SCHÖN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Institute for Psychology Information (ZPID compiled an extensive list of European psycho-logical organizations, comprised of university departments, research institutions, professional associa-tions and publishing houses. The list is available on the ZPID website, together with a web mapping applet that indicates the exact geographical location of the organizations.

  12. European Pine Shoot Moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    William E. Miller; Arthur R. Hastings; John F. Wootten

    1961-01-01

    In the United States, the European pine shoot moth has caused much damage in young, plantations of red pine. It has been responsible for reduced planting of red pine in many areas. Although attacked trees rarely if ever die, their growth is inhibited and many are, deformed. Scotch pine and Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) are usually not so badly damaged. Swiss...

  13. Inequalities in European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musterd, S.; Ostendorf, W.; Smith, S.J.; Elsinga, M.; Eng, O.S.; Fox O’Mahony, L.; Wachter, S.

    2012-01-01

    The consequences of inequalities in European cities are a big fear for many governments at the state and urban levels. Journalists, as well as many scholars who are dealing with urban issues, express their fears about the development of social, ethnic, and spatial divisions. Population categories

  14. European 'Stabilisation through Association'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    ’s success in repeatedly reconciling a divided continent and complemented its efforts to build peace beyond its borders. But does the EU (continue to) deserve such praise? This contribution examines European peacebuilding from the early inte-gration of post-World War Two economies, through the uniting...

  15. European Integration and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bobica

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available According to many, the term globalization is able to explain any phenomenon whatsoever, be it positive or negative, that takes place within the global social system. It seems like a sort of magical formula, which is to be found in the speeches of all sorts of people, be they economists, politicians, businessmen or sociologists. However this magical formula of globalization has its limitations, since it encompasses a certain amount of quibbling, beyond which not many can pass. In the context of globalization there appears the question on its role in the process of European integration. Is European integration a part of this global process or, quite on the contrary, does it present certain distinctive features, as it moulds itself differently from the globalization phenomenon? A clear-cut answer seems difficult because of the various aspects involved. Not only the general phenomenon of globalization, but also the economic integration on European level is based on the liberalization of markets and on the opening of national economies towards the exterior,having as direct consequence the intensification of trade exchanges. If from a global point of view one may talk of a market fundamentalism in that the market principles know no boundary, European integration on the other hand implies not only market economy, but also a guided and monitored action of Member Statesaccording to the needs of the whole entity, also taking into consideration - as far as possible – all aspects and consequences on social level.

  16. Becoming Pan-European?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz-Forberg, Hagen; Brüggemann, Michael

    2009-01-01

    be platforms of a transnational European discourse. Four ideal-types of transnational media can be distinguished: (1) national media with a transnational mission, (2) international media, (3) pan-regional media and (4) global media. Within this framework the article analyses transnational media in Europe...

  17. European Metals Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Vereecken, Jean

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the papers that will be presented at 'EMC '91 '-the European Metals Conference-to be held in Brussels, Belgium, from 15 to 20 September 1991, and organized by Benelux Metallurgie, GDMB (Gesellschaft Deutscher Metallhutten­ und Bergleute) and IMM (the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy). 'EMC '91' is the first of an intended major series organized at the European level with the aim of bringing together all those who are involved with the extraction and processing of non-ferrous metals-European metallurgists and their international colleagues-to provide them with the opportunity to exchange views on the state and evolution of their industry. The programme covers all the different aspects of the metallurgy of non-ferrous metals from mining to fabricated products. Particular attention is being paid to the European non -ferrous industry with respect to changes in demand, the technology used, pressures on the environment and the competitive position of manufacturers. The contributions of the...

  18. AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regulations governing the production and use of genetically modified organisms have been developed in the United Kingdom since 1976. Regulations covering the release of transgenic organisms into the environment were initially voluntary. Since 1990, the European Economic Commission (EEC) Directive. 90/219 and ...

  19. European Music Year 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexanderson, Thomas; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Articles concerning music are included in this newsletter dedicated to cultural venture to be jointly carried out by the Council of Europe and the European communities. Many events will mark Music Year 1985, including concerts, dance performances, operas, publications, recordings, festivals, exhibitions, competitions, and conferences on musical…

  20. Turkish Students’ Metaphors about the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürbüz Ocak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this qualitative study was to examine and compare the metaphors of Primary School Secondary Level Students related to the European Union. A total of 399 Primary School Secondary Level students were involved in this study. In the form given to students for data collection, the students were asked to express their opinions about European Union. According to the data gathered, the metaphors of the participants were categorized into 8 groups. According to the analysis and the results of the study, the students tried to explain the EU with positive concepts such as development of future, democracy, freedom, success. However, they also produced negative metaphors like dead end, abyss, colonist, difficulty, utilitarian, blankness. This study used a phenomenological design. The data was collected through a semi-structured Interview Form. The data were analysed with content analysis.