WorldWideScience

Sample records for european forsteo observational

  1. Characterization of patients in the European Forsteo Observational Study (EFOS): postmenopausal women entering teriparatide treatment in a community setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajzbaum, Gerald; Jakob, Franz; Karras, Dimitrios

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The European Forsteo Observational Study (EFOS) study was primarily designed to assess fracture incidence, degree of pain, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and compliance in women prescribed teriparatide in a community setting. This report describes the design of the study...... deformities and 91.7% were pre-treated with bisphosphonates. HRQoL, evaluated by the health state value (HSV) (median: 0.59, Q1; Q3: 0.08; 0.71) and visual analogue scale (VAS) (median 50.0, Q1; Q3: 35.0; 69.0) status of the European quality of life questionnaire (EQ-5D) was poor. Extreme problems were...

  2. Teriparatide use during an economic crisis: baseline data from the Greek cohort of the Extended Forsteo Observational Study (ExFOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloumanis, Kyriakos; Kapetanos, George; Bartzis, Nikolaos; Drossinos, Vangelis

    2015-06-05

    The Extended Forsteo Observational Study (ExFOS) is a multinational, non-interventional, prospective, observational study that aims to provide real-life data on patients with osteoporosis treated with teriparatide for up to 24 months. It includes the new indications of osteoporosis in men and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP). We describe the Greek subpopulation enrolled in this study and compare it with a similar cohort from the previous European Forsteo Observational Study (EFOS). Baseline data were collected from the Greek cohort of ExFOS. Data included demographic characteristics, medical and osteoporosis history, disease status, prior use of medications, back pain and quality of life. Baseline data for 439 patients, enrolled at 31 sites, indicated the majority of patients were females (92.3%), elderly [mean (standard deviation; SD) age 70.1 (9.8) years] and slightly overweight [mean (SD) body mass index 26.7 (4.3) kg/m(2)], with very low bone mineral density (mean T-score history of fracture was recorded in 53.8% of female patients in ExFOS versus 74.5% in EFOS. Greek patients prescribed teriparatide in ExFOS had severe osteoporosis with a high risk of fractures and back pain. Female patients shared similarities with EFOS counterparts, reflecting a constant prescribing profile for use of teriparatide, although a noticeable difference in fracture history between the two study cohorts may indicate a change towards prescribing in less severely affected patients. The economic crisis in Greece did not appear to affect patient enrolment. Data are interpreted in the context of an observational setting.

  3. European Biodiversity Observation Network – EBONE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halada, L.; Jongman, R.H.G.; Gerard, F.; Whittaker, L.; Bunce, R.G.H.; Bauch, B.; Schmeller, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    EBONE (European Biodiversity Observation Network) is a project developing a system of biodiversity observation at regional, national and European levels as a contribution to European reporting on biodiversity. The project focuses on GEO (Group of Earth Observations) task BI 07-01 to unify many of

  4. European Marine Observation Data Network - EMODnet Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzella, Giuseppe M. R.; Novellino, Antonio; D'Angelo, Paolo; Gorringe, Patrick; Schaap, Dick; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Loubrieu, Thomas; Rickards, Lesley

    2015-04-01

    The EMODnet-Physics portal (www.emodnet-physics.eu) makes layers of physical data and their metadata available for use and contributes towards the definition of an operational European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet). It is based on a strong collaboration between EuroGOOS associates and its regional operational systems (ROOSs), and it is bringing together two very different marine communities: the "real time" ocean observing institute/centers and the National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODCs) that are in charge of ocean data validation, quality check and update for marine environmental monitoring. The EMODnet-Physics is a Marine Observation and Data Information System that provides a single point of access to near real time and historical achieved data (www.emodnet-physics.eu/map) it is built on existing infrastructure by adding value and avoiding any unless complexity, it provides data access to users, it is aimed at attracting new data holders, better and more data. With a long-term vision for a pan European Ocean Observation System sustainability, the EMODnet-Physics is supporting the coordination of the EuroGOOS Regional components and the empowerment and improvement of their data management infrastructure. In turn, EMODnet-Physics already implemented high-level interoperability features (WMS, Web catalogue, web services, etc…) to facilitate connection and data exchange with the ROOS and the Institutes within the ROOSs (www.emodnet-physics.eu/services). The on-going EMODnet-Physics structure delivers environmental marine physical data from the whole Europe (wave height and period, temperature of the water column, wind speed and direction, salinity of the water column, horizontal velocity of the water column, light attenuation, and sea level) as monitored by fixed stations, ARGO floats, drifting buoys, gliders, and ferry-boxes. It does provide discovering of data sets (both NRT - near real time - and Historical data sets), visualization and free

  5. European Marine Observation and Data Network EMODnet Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Novellino

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently the European Commission undertook steps towards a European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet in order to standardize method for observing and assessing the grade of the Member States seas and improve access to high quality data. Since 2008-2009, European Commission, represented by the Directorate-General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries (DG MARE, is running several service contracts for creating pilot thematic components of the ur-EMODNET: Biology, Bathymetry, Chemistry, Geology, Habitats, and Physics.The existing EMODnet-Physics portal (www.emodnet-physics.eu is based on a strong collaboration between EuroGOOS member institutes and its regional operational oceanographic systems (ROOSs, and the National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODCs, and it is a marine observation information system. It includes systems for physical data from the whole Europe (wave height andperiod, temperature of the water column, wind speed and direction, salinity of the water column, horizontal velocity of the water column, light attenuation, and sea level provided mainly by fixed stations and ferry-box platforms, discovering related data sets (both near real time and historical data sets, viewing and downloading of the data from about 2100 platforms (www.emodnetphysics.eu/map and thus contributing towards the definition of an operational European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet.

  6. Gap analysis of the European Earth Observation Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closa, Guillem; Serral, Ivette; Maso, Joan

    2016-04-01

    Earth Observations (EO) are fundamental to enhance the scientific understanding of the current status of the Earth. Nowadays, there are a lot of EO services that provide large volume of data, and the number of datasets available for different geosciences areas is increasing by the day. Despite this coverage, a glance of the European EO networks reveals that there are still some issues that are not being met; some gaps in specific themes or some thematic overlaps between different networks. This situation requires a clarification process of the actual status of the EO European networks in order to set priorities and propose future actions that will improve the European EO networks. The aim of this work is to detect the existing gaps and overlapping problems among the European EO networks. The analytical process has been done by studying the availability and the completeness of the Essential Variables (EV) data captured by the European EO networks. The concept of EVs considers that there are a number of parameters that are essential to characterize the state and trends of a system without losing significant information. This work generated a database of the existing gaps in the European EO network based on the initial GAIA-CLIM project data structure. For each theme the missing or incomplete data about each EV was indentified. Then, if incomplete, the gap was described by adding its type (geographical extent, vertical extent, temporal extent, spatial resolution, etc), the cost, the remedy, the feasibility, the impact and the priority, among others. Gaps in EO are identified following the ConnectinGEO methodology structured in 5 threads; identification of observation requirements, incorporation of international research programs material, consultation process within the current EO actors, GEOSS Discovery and Access Broker analysis, and industry-driven challenges implementation. Concretely, the presented work focuses on the second thread, which is based on

  7. European Marine Observation and Data Network EMODnet Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Novellino

    2014-10-01

    period, temperature of the water column, wind speed and direction, salinity of the water column, horizontal velocity of the water column, light attenuation, and sea level provided mainly by fixed stations and ferry-box platforms, discovering related data sets (both near real time and historical data sets, viewing and downloading of the data from about 2100 platforms (www.emodnetphysics.eu/map and thus contributing towards the definition of an operational European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet.

  8. Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections Observational European study (CIAO Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sartelli Massimo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complicated intra-abdominal infections are frequently associated with poor prognoses and high morbidity and mortality rates. Despite advances in diagnosis, surgery, and antimicrobial therapy, mortality rates associated with complicated intra-abdominal infections remain exceedingly high. In order to describe the clinical, microbiological, and management-related profiles of both community-acquired and healthcare-acquired complicated intra-abdominal infections (IAIs, the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES, in collaboration with the Surgical Infections Society of Europe (SIS-E and other prominent European surgical societies, has designed the CIAO study. The CIAO study is a multicenter, observational study and will be carried out in various surgical departments throughout Europe. The study will include patients undergoing surgery or interventional drainage for complicated IAI.

  9. Towards European organisation for integrated greenhouse gas observation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukolehto, Marjut; Vesala, Timo; Sorvari, Sanna; Juurola, Eija; Paris, Jean-Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Climate change is one the most challenging problems that humanity will have to cope with in the coming decades. The perturbed global biogeochemical cycles of the greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) are a major driving force of current and future climate change. Deeper understanding of the driving forces of climate change requires full quantification of the greenhouse gas emissions and sinks and their evolution. Regional greenhouse gas budgets, tipping-points, vulnerabilities and the controlling mechanisms can be assessed by long term, high precision observations in the atmosphere and at the ocean and land surface. ICOS RI is a distributed infrastructure for on-line, in-situ monitoring of greenhouse gases (GHG) necessary to understand their present-state and future sinks and sources. ICOS RI provides the long-term observations required to understand the present state and predict future behaviour of the global carbon cycle and greenhouse gas emissions. Linking research, education and innovation promotes technological development and demonstrations related to greenhouse gases. The first objective of ICOS RI is to provide effective access to coherent and precise data and to provide assessments of GHG inventories with high temporal and spatial resolution. The second objective is to provide profound information for research and understanding of regional budgets of greenhouse gas sources and sinks, their human and natural drivers, and the controlling mechanisms. ICOS is one of several ESFRI initiatives in the environmental science domain. There is significant potential for structural and synergetic interaction with several other ESFRI initiatives. ICOS RI is relevant for Joint Programming by providing the data access for the researchers and acting as a contact point for developing joint strategic research agendas among European member states. The preparatory phase ends in March 2013 and there will be an interim period before the legal entity will

  10. The Demonstrator for the European Plate Observing System (EPOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, T. L.; Euteneuer, F.; Ulbricht, D.; Lauterjung, J.; Bailo, D.; Jeffery, K. G.

    2014-12-01

    An important outcome of the 4-year Preparatory Phase of the ESFRI project European Plate Observing System (EPOS) was the development and first implementation of the EPOS Demonstrator by the project's ICT Working Group 7. The Demonstrator implements the vertical integration of the three-layer architectural scheme for EPOS, connecting the Integrated Core Services (ICS), Thematic Core Services (TCS) and the National Research Infrastructures (NRI). The demonstrator provides a single GUI with central key discovery and query functionalities, based on already existing services by the seismic, geologic and geodetic communities. More specifically the seismic services of the Demonstrator utilize webservices and APIs for data and discovery of raw seismic data (FDSN webservices by the EIDA Network), events (Geoportal by EMSC) and analytical data products (e.g., hazard maps by EFEHR via OGC WMS). For geologic services, the EPOS Demonstrator accesses OneGeology Europe which serves the community with geologic maps and point information via OGC webservices. The Demonstrator also provides access to raw geodetic data via a newly developed universal tool called GSAC. The Demonstrator itself resembles the future Integrated Core Service (ICS) and provides direct access to the end user. Its core functionality lies in a metadata catalogue, which serves as the central information hub and stores information about all RIs, related persons, projects, financial background and technical access information. The database schema of the catalogue is based on CERIF, which has been slightly adapted. Currently, the portal provides basic query functions as well as cross domain search. [www.epos.cineca.it

  11. Gender equality observations and actions by the European Research Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydin, Claudia Alves de Jesus; Farina Busto, Luis; Penny, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Women have historically been underrepresented in science. Much positive progress in attracting women to research careers has been achieved in recent years; however, the most influential and high profile positions in most countries are still predominantly occupied by men. The European Research Council (ERC), Europe's premiere funding agency for frontier research, views gender equality as an important challenge. The ERC monitors closely gender figures on every call and has taken actions to tackle gender imbalances and potential unconscious biases. The ERC talk is focused on efforts made to understand and ensure equal treatment of all candidates, with particular focus on gender balance and with specific attention to geosciences. Data and statistics collected from ERC's internationally recognised funding schemes are presented.

  12. Observing environmental European legislation - strategic priority of SC Termoelectrica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop, Ovidiu; Motiu, Cornel

    2004-01-01

    Defined as the main Romanian power producer, SC Termoelectrica is also a Company that faced over 50 years of experience and confrontations with different technical, economical and legislative problems. The measures of restructuring that were taken during the last years, also included a program of retiring of use of some inefficient and in excess units. That brought our company at its actual structure that consists in producing, repairs and services units, organized as commercial societies and subsidiaries of SC Termoelectrica. The activity of producing thermal and electric power using old power equipment (33.84% of them are over 30 years old, 46.54% are between 10-20 years old and only 0.64 % are under 10 years old) and without control pollution installations or having inefficient installations, led to the increasing of some environmental problems along the years. The paper has the following structure: - Introduction; - Actual situation; - The accession to the European Union - the control of industrial pollution (The abatement of atmospheric, water and soil pollution); - The mitigation of greenhouse gases. In conclusion one stresses that no matter which will be the way of organization the environmental approach at European or national level, these will become a strategic priority for SC Termoelectrica. The way these environmental problems will be solved will have a great influence on: - The company's thermal power plants work, while their impact upon the local, regional and global environment will be almost nonexistent; - The offer of electric power produced by thermal power plants in national and international transactions; - The fulfillment of the three objectives of a power producer: accessibility, availability and acceptability

  13. Topology of the European Network of Earth Observation Networks and the need for an European Network of Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masó, Joan; Serral, Ivette; McCallum, Ian; Blonda, Palma; Plag, Hans-Peter

    2016-04-01

    ConnectinGEO (Coordinating an Observation Network of Networks EnCompassing saTellite and IN-situ to fill the Gaps in European Observations" is an H2020 Coordination and Support Action with the primary goal of linking existing Earth Observation networks with science and technology (S&T) communities, the industry sector, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), and Copernicus. The project will end in February 2017. ConnectinGEO will initiate a European Network of Earth Observation Networks (ENEON) that will encompass space-based, airborne and in-situ observations networks. ENEON will be composed of project partners representing thematic observation networks along with the GEOSS Science and Technology Stakeholder Network, GEO Communities of Practices, Copernicus services, Sentinel missions and in-situ support data representatives, representatives of the European space-based, airborne and in-situ observations networks. This communication presents the complex panorama of Earth Observations Networks in Europe. The list of networks is classified by discipline, variables, geospatial scope, etc. We also capture the membership and relations with other networks and umbrella organizations like GEO. The result is a complex interrelation between networks that can not be clearly expressed in a flat list. Technically the networks can be represented as nodes with relations between them as lines connecting the nodes in a graph. We have chosen RDF as a language and an AllegroGraph 3.3 triple store that is visualized in several ways using for example Gruff 5.7. Our final aim is to identify gaps in the EO Networks and justify the need for a more structured coordination between them.

  14. Functional description of the monitoring and observability detailed concepts for the Pan-European Control Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinelli, Mattia; Pertl, Michael; Rezkalla, Michel M.N.

    2017-01-01

    Deliverable D5.4 outlines the methodology and the topics analysed in T5.4 for deriving PanEuropean observables within the Web-of-Cells (WoC) concept. Observables are derived by analysing traditional instability events typical of large power systems.......Deliverable D5.4 outlines the methodology and the topics analysed in T5.4 for deriving PanEuropean observables within the Web-of-Cells (WoC) concept. Observables are derived by analysing traditional instability events typical of large power systems....

  15. Using Combined Marine Spatial Planning Tools and Observing System Experiments to define Gaps in the Emerging European Ocean Observing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, G.; Pinardi, N.; Vukicevic, T.; Le Traon, P. Y.; Fernandez, V.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean observations are critical to providing accurate ocean forecasts that support operational decision making in European open and coastal seas. Observations are available in many forms from Fixed platforms e.g. Moored Buoys and tide gauges, underway measurements from Ferrybox systems, High Frequency radars and more recently from underwater Gliders and profiling floats. Observing System Simulation Experiments have been conducted to examine the relative contribution of each type of platform to an improvement in our ability to accurately forecast the future state of the ocean with HF radar and Gliders showing particular promise in improving model skill. There is considerable demand for ecosystem products and services from today's ocean observing system and biogeochemical observations are still relatively sparse particularly in coastal and shelf seas. There is a need to widen the techniques used to assess the fitness for purpose and gaps in the ocean observing system. As well as Observing System Simulation Experiments that quantify the effect of observations on the overall model skill we present a gap analysis based on (1) Examining where high model skill is required based on a marine spatial planning analysis of European seas i.e where does activity take place that requires more accurate forecasts? and (2) assessing gaps based on the capacity of the observing system to answer key societal challenges e.g. site suitability for aquaculture and ocean energy, oil spill response and contextual oceanographic products for fisheries and ecosystems. The broad based analysis will inform the development of the proposed European Ocean Observing System as a contribution to the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS).

  16. Biodiversity monitoring in Europe: the EU FP7 EBONE project. European biodiversity observation NEtwork

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lück-Vogel, Melanie

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available submission Presentation Poster presentation A) Title Biodiversity Monitoring in Europe: The EU FP7 EBONE project European Biodiversity Observation NEtwork B) Short title EBONE - European Biodiversity Observation NEtwork C) Author(s) Vogel, M. (1... stream_source_info Vogel_2008.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 3055 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Vogel_2008.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 BIOTA AFRICA Congress 2008 Abstract...

  17. The "Volcano Observations" Thematic Core Service of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS): status of the implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    The European volcanological community contributes to implementation of European Plate Observing System (EPOS) by making operational an integrated platform to guarantee a seamless access to the data provided by the European Solid Earth communities. To achieve this objective, the Volcano Observations Work Package (WP11) will implement a Thematic Core Services (TCS) which is planned to give access to the data and services provided by the European Volcano Observatories (VO) and some Volcanological Research Institutions (VRI; as university departments, laboratories, etc.); both types are considered as national research infrastructures (RI) over which to build the TCS. Currently, the networks on European volcanoes consist of thousands of stations or sites where volcanological parameters are continuously or periodically measured. These sites are equipped with instruments for geophysical (seismic, geodetic, gravimetric, electromagnetic), geochemical (volcanic plumes, fumaroles, groundwater, rivers, soils), environmental observations (e.g. meteorological and air quality parameters), as well as various prototypal monitoring systems (e.g. Doppler radars, ground based SAR). In Europe also operate laboratories for sample analysis (rocks, gases, isotopes, etc.), and almost continuous analysis of space-borne data (SAR, thermal imagery, SO2 and ash), as well as high-performance computing centres. All these RIs provide high-quality information (observations) on the current status of European volcanoes and the geodynamic background of the surrounding areas. The implementation of the Volcano Observations TCS is addressing technical and management issues, both considering the current heterogeneous state of the art of the volcanological research infrastructures in Europe. Indeed, the frame of the VO and VRI is now too fragmented to be considered as a unique distributed infrastructure, thus the main effort planned in the frame of the EPOS-IP is focused to create services aimed at

  18. Some recent results from European sounding rocket and satellite observations of the hot magnetospheric plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultqvist, B.

    1979-03-01

    A brief summary of some recent results from European studies of the hot magnetospheric plasma is presented. The material is organized in four main sections: 1) Observations of keV auroral electrons. 2) Observation of the hot ion component of the magnetospheric plasma. 3) Sudden changes of the distribution of the hot plasma in the dayside magnetosphere. 4) Banded electron cyclotron harmonic instability in the magnetosphere - a first comparison of theory and experiment. (E.R.)

  19. The contribution of the Volcano Observations Work Package to the implementation of the European Plate Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    The overall aim of the implementation phase of European Plate Observing System (EPOS) is to make the integrated platform operational in order to guarantee seamless access to the data provided by the European Solid Earth communities. The Volcano Observations Work Package (WP11) contributes to this objective by implementing a Thematic Core Service (TCS) which is planned to give access to the data and services provided by the European Volcano Observatories (VO) and some Volcanological Research Institutions (VRI; such as university departments, laboratories, etc.). Both types are considered as national research infrastructures (RI) which the TCS will integrate. Currently, monitoring networks on European volcanoes consist of thousands of stations or sites where volcanological parameters are continuously or periodically measured. These sites are equipped with instruments for geophysical (seismic, geodetic, gravimetric, electromagnetic), geochemical (volcanic plumes, fumaroles, groundwater, rivers, soils), environmental observations (e.g. meteorological and air quality parameters), as well as various prototypal monitoring systems (e.g. Doppler radars, ground based SAR). Across Europe several laboratories provide sample characterization (rocks, gases, isotopes, etc.), quasi-continuous analysis of space-borne data (SAR, thermal imagery, SO2 and ash), as well as high-performance computing facilities. All these RIs provide high-quality information (observations) on the current status of European volcanoes and the geodynamic background of the surrounding areas. The implementation of the Volcano Observations TCS will address technical as well as managerial issues, both considering the current heterogeneous state-of-the-art of the volcanological research infrastructures in Europe. Indeed, the current arrangement of individual VO and VRI is considered too fragmented to be considered as a unique distributed infrastructure. Therefore, the main effort in the framework of the EPOS

  20. ERA-PLANET THE EUROPEAN NETWORK FOR OBSERVING OUR CHANGING PLANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pirrone

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade a significant number of projects and programmes in different domains of Earth Observation and environmental monitoring have generated a substantial amount of data and knowledge on different aspects related to environmental quality and sustainability. Big data generated by in-situ or satellite platforms are being collected and archived with a plethora of systems and instruments making difficult the sharing of data and transfer of knowledge to stakeholders and policy makers to support key economic and societal sectors. The overarching goal of ERAPLANET is to strengthen the European Research Area in the domain of Earth Observation in coherence with the European participation in the Group on Earth Observation (GEO and Copernicus. The expected impact is to strengthen European leadership within the forthcoming GEO 2015-2025 Work Plan. ERA-PLANET is designed to reinforce the interface with user communities, whose needs the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS intends to address. It will provide more accurate, comprehensive and authoritative information to policy and decision-makers in key societal benefit areas, such as Smart Cities and Resilient Societies; Resource efficiency and Environmental management; Global changes and Environmental treaties; Polar areas and Natural resources. ERA-PLANET will provide advanced decision-support tools and technologies aimed to better monitor our global environment and share the information and knowledge available in the different domains of Earth Observation.

  1. Era-Planet the European Network for Observing Our Changing Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirrone, N.; Cinnirella, S.; Nativi, S.; Sprovieri, F.; Hedgecock, I. M.

    2016-06-01

    In the last decade a significant number of projects and programmes in different domains of Earth Observation and environmental monitoring have generated a substantial amount of data and knowledge on different aspects related to environmental quality and sustainability. Big data generated by in-situ or satellite platforms are being collected and archived with a plethora of systems and instruments making difficult the sharing of data and transfer of knowledge to stakeholders and policy makers to support key economic and societal sectors. The overarching goal of ERAPLANET is to strengthen the European Research Area in the domain of Earth Observation in coherence with the European participation in the Group on Earth Observation (GEO) and Copernicus. The expected impact is to strengthen European leadership within the forthcoming GEO 2015-2025 Work Plan. ERA-PLANET is designed to reinforce the interface with user communities, whose needs the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) intends to address. It will provide more accurate, comprehensive and authoritative information to policy and decision-makers in key societal benefit areas, such as Smart Cities and Resilient Societies; Resource efficiency and Environmental management; Global changes and Environmental treaties; Polar areas and Natural resources. ERA-PLANET will provide advanced decision-support tools and technologies aimed to better monitor our global environment and share the information and knowledge available in the different domains of Earth Observation.

  2. Strategies for the implementation of a European Volcano Observations Research Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Active volcanic areas in Europe constitute a direct threat to millions of people on both the continent and adjacent islands. Furthermore, eruptions of "European" volcanoes in overseas territories, such as in the West Indies, an in the Indian and Pacific oceans, can have a much broader impacts, outside Europe. Volcano Observatories (VO), which undertake volcano monitoring under governmental mandate and Volcanological Research Institutions (VRI; such as university departments, laboratories, etc.) manage networks on European volcanoes consisting of thousands of stations or sites where volcanological parameters are either continuously or periodically measured. These sites are equipped with instruments for geophysical (seismic, geodetic, gravimetric, electromagnetic), geochemical (volcanic plumes, fumaroles, groundwater, rivers, soils), environmental observations (e.g. meteorological and air quality parameters), including prototype deployment. VOs and VRIs also operate laboratories for sample analysis (rocks, gases, isotopes, etc.), near-real time analysis of space-borne data (SAR, thermal imagery, SO2 and ash), as well as high-performance computing centres; all providing high-quality information on the current status of European volcanoes and the geodynamic background of the surrounding areas. This large and high-quality deployment of monitoring systems, focused on a specific geophysical target (volcanoes), together with the wide volcanological phenomena of European volcanoes (which cover all the known volcano types) represent a unique opportunity to fundamentally improve the knowledge base of volcano behaviour. The existing arrangement of national infrastructures (i.e. VO and VRI) appears to be too fragmented to be considered as a unique distributed infrastructure. Therefore, the main effort planned in the framework of the EPOS-PP proposal is focused on the creation of services aimed at providing an improved and more efficient access to the volcanological facilities

  3. The EMBARC European Bronchiectasis Registry: protocol for an international observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Chalmers

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchiectasis is one of the most neglected diseases in respiratory medicine. There are no approved therapies and few large-scale, representative epidemiological studies. The EMBARC (European Multicentre Bronchiectasis Audit and Research Collaboration registry is a prospective, pan-European observational study of patients with bronchiectasis. The inclusion criterion is a primary clinical diagnosis of bronchiectasis consisting of: 1 a clinical history consistent with bronchiectasis; and 2 computed tomography demonstrating bronchiectasis. Core exclusion criteria are: 1 bronchiectasis due to known cystic fibrosis; 2 age <18 years; and 3 patients who are unable or unwilling to provide informed consent. The study aims to enrol 1000 patients by April 2016 across at least 20 European countries, and 10 000 patients by March 2020. Patients will undergo a comprehensive baseline assessment and will be followed up annually for up to 5 years with the goal of providing high-quality longitudinal data on outcomes, treatment patterns and quality of life. Data from the registry will be available in the form of annual reports. and will be disseminated in conference presentations and peer-reviewed publications. The European Bronchiectasis Registry aims to make a major contribution to understanding the natural history of the disease, as well as guiding evidence-based decision making and facilitating large randomised controlled trials.

  4. Large Deployable Reflector Technologies for Future European Telecom and Earth Observation Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, A.; Breunig, E.; Dadashvili, L.; Migliorelli, M.; Scialino, L.; van't Klosters, K.; Santiago-Prowald, J.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents requirements, analysis and design results for European large deployable reflectors (LDR) for space applications. For telecommunications, the foreseeable use of large reflectors is associated to the continuous demand for improved performance of mobile services. On the other hand, several earth observation (EO) missions can be identified carrying either active or passive remote sensing instruments (or both), in which a large effective aperture is needed e.g. BIOMASS. From the European point of view there is a total dependence of USA industry as such LDRs are not available from European suppliers. The RESTEO study is part of a number of ESA led activities to facilitate European LDR development. This paper is focused on the structural-mechanical aspects of this study. We identify the general requirements for LDRs with special emphasis on launcher accommodation for EO mission. In the next step, optimal concepts for the LDR structure and the RF-Surface are reviewed. Regarding the RF surface, both, a knitted metal mesh and a shell membrane based on carbon fibre reinforced silicon (CFRS) are considered. In terms of the backing structure, the peripheral ring concept is identified as most promising and a large number of options for the deployment kinematics are discussed. Of those, pantographic kinematics and a conical peripheral ring are selected. A preliminary design for these two most promising LDR concepts is performed which includes static, modal and kinematic simulation and also techniques to generate the reflector nets.

  5. The Validity of Observational Measures in Detecting Optimal Maternal Communication Styles: Evidence from European Americans and Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Erum; Romo, Laura F.; Sigman, Marian; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Au, Terry K.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the sensitivity of an observational coding system for assessing positive and negative maternal behaviors of Latino and European American mothers toward their adolescent children. Ninety Latino (54 Spanish speaking and 35 English speaking) and 20 European American mother-adolescent dyads participated in an observational study of…

  6. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE IMPORTANCE OF OBSERVING HUMAN RIGHTS WITHIN EUROPEAN STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela, STANCEA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The detailed analysis of the institution of human rights and fundamental freedoms is necessary to know its role. The promotion of the human condition in the world leads to the innovative interpretation of this institution. The existence of so many international legal instruments aims towards a better protection of the human rights in contemporary society. The issue of human rights has occupied an important role within the states, human rights violations being a common concern, especially in the former communist states. The issue of human rights in Romania has emerged and developed very early. The changes made in Romania by the revolution of 22 December 1989 caused an intense process of amending the legislation in order to be correlated with the international standards. Within European states human rights observance has acquired great importance, a matter which will be emphasised in the future as well. The European Court of Human Rights ensures the guarantee of respecting human rights in Europe, having as legal instrument the European Convention on Human Rights.

  7. Current Efforts in European Projects to Facilitate the Sharing of Scientific Observation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredel, Henning; Rieke, Matthes; Maso, Joan; Jirka, Simon; Stasch, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    This presentation is intended to provide an overview of currently ongoing efforts in European projects to facilitate and promote the interoperable sharing of scientific observation data. This will be illustrated through two examples: a prototypical portal developed in the ConnectinGEO project for matching available (in-situ) data sources to the needs of users and a joint activity of several research projects to harmonise the usage of the OGC Sensor Web Enablement standards for providing access to marine observation data. ENEON is an activity initiated by the European ConnectinGEO project to coordinate in-situ Earth observation networks with the aim to harmonise the access to observations, improve discoverability, and identify/close gaps in European earth observation data resources. In this context, ENEON commons has been developed as a supporting Web portal for facilitating discovery, access, re-use and creation of knowledge about observations, networks, and related activities (e.g. projects). The portal is based on developments resulting from the European WaterInnEU project and has been extended to cover the requirements for handling knowledge about in-situ earth observation networks. A first prototype of the portal was completed in January 2017 which offers functionality for interactive discussion, information exchange and querying information about data delivered by different observation networks. Within this presentation, we will introduce the presented prototype and initiate a discussion about potential future work directions. The second example concerns the harmonisation of data exchange in the marine domain. There are many organisation who operate ocean observatories or data archives. In recent years, the application of the OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) technology has become more and more popular to increase the interoperability between marine observation networks. However, as the SWE standards were intentionally designed in a domain independent manner

  8. Euro-Argo: The European contribution to the global Argo ocean observations network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourcuff, Claire

    2017-04-01

    The international Argo programme is a major element of the global in-situ ocean observing system. More than 3900 floats are now globally measuring temperature and salinity throughout the global oceans, down to 2,000 meters depth and delivering data both in real time for operational users and after careful scientific quality control for climate change research and monitoring. Argo is the single most important in-situ observing system for the Copernicus Marine Service. The Euro-Argo research infrastructure organizes and federates European contribution to Argo. A legal and governance framework (Euro-Argo ERIC) was set up in May 2014; it allows European countries to consolidate and improve their contribution to Argo international. We will provide an overview of the development of Euro-Argo over the past years and present the now agreed Euro-Argo long term organization. The capability of the Euro-Argo infrastructure to organize Argo floats procurement, deployment and processing at European level and to conduct R&D driven by Copernicus needs will be highlighted. During the recent years, within the H2020 E-AIMS project, Euro-Argo carried R&D activities on new Argo floats, equipped with biogeochemical sensors or able to dive up to 4000m, from the floats design up to the analysis of their measurements. European Argo data centers were adapted so that they can handle the new data. Observing System Evaluations and Simulation Experiments were also conducted to provide robust recommendations for the next phase of Argo. One of the main challenges for Euro-Argo is now to implement the next phase of Argo with an extension towards biogeochemistry (e.g. oxygen, biology), the polar oceans, the marginal seas and the deep ocean. Meeting such challenges is essential for the long term sustainability and evolution of the Copernicus Marine Service. We will present Euro-Argo strategy and provide some highlights on the implementation-plan for the years to come and the Argo extensions for the

  9. Observations on European Education and Educational Research: The "European Educational Research Journal" at Work, 2002-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Sverker

    2014-01-01

    This is a review of the "European Educational Research Journal" ("EERJ") since the start in 2002 and up to 2014. Three questions were put forward: what are the ambitions with the journal, how has the journal developed over time, and what are its possible futures? The review is based on minutes and emails from the late 1990s up…

  10. A review on existing OSSEs and their implications on European marine observation requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Jun

    2017-04-01

    Marine observations are essential for understanding marine processes and improving the forecast quality, they are also expensive. It has always been an important issue to optimize sampling schemes of marine observational networks so that the value of marine observations can be maximized and the cost can be lowered. Ocean System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) is an efficient tool in assessing impacts of proposed future sampling schemes on reconstructing and forecasting the ocean and ecosystem conditions. In this study existing OSSE research results from EU projects (such as JERICO, OPEC, SANGOMA, E-AIMS and AtlantOS), institutional studies and review papers are collected and analyzed, according to regions (Arctic, Baltic, N. Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea) and instruments/variables. The preliminary results show that significant gaps for OSSEs in regions and instruments. Among the existing OSSEs, Argo (Bio-Argo and Deep See Argo), gliders and ferrybox are the most often investigated instruments. Although many of the OSSEs are dedicated for very specific monitoring strategies and not sufficiently comprehensive for making solid recommendations for optimizing the existing networks, the detailed findings for future marine observation requirements from the OSSEs will be summarized in the presentation. Recommendations for systematic OSSEs for optimizing European marine observation networks are also given.

  11. The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) Services for Solid Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Massimo; Atakan, Kuvvet; Pedersen, Helle; Consortium, Epos

    2016-04-01

    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) aims to create a pan-European infrastructure for solid Earth science to support a safe and sustainable society. The main vision of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS) is to address the three basic challenges in Earth Sciences: (i) unravelling the Earth's deformational processes which are part of the Earth system evolution in time, (ii) understanding the geo-hazards and their implications to society, and (iii) contributing to the safe and sustainable use of geo-resources. The mission of EPOS is to monitor and understand the dynamic and complex Earth system by relying on new e-science opportunities and integrating diverse and advanced Research Infrastructures in Europe for solid Earth Science. EPOS will enable innovative multidisciplinary research for a better understanding of the Earth's physical and chemical processes that control earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, ground instability and tsunami as well as the processes driving tectonics and Earth's surface dynamics. EPOS will improve our ability to better manage the use of the subsurface of the Earth. Through integration of data, models and facilities EPOS will allow the Earth Science community to make a step change in developing new concepts and tools for key answers to scientific and socio-economic questions concerning geo-hazards and geo-resources as well as Earth sciences applications to the environment and to human welfare. EPOS has now started its Implementation Phase (EPOS-IP). One of the main challenges during the implementation phase is the integration of multidisciplinary data into a single e-infrastructure. Multidisciplinary data are organized and governed by the Thematic Core Services (TCS) and are driven by various scientific communities encompassing a wide spectrum of Earth science disciplines. These include Data, Data-products, Services and Software (DDSS), from seismology, near fault observatories, geodetic observations, volcano observations

  12. 20 Years of Total and Tropical Ozone Time Series Based on European Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyola, D. G.; Heue, K. P.; Coldewey-Egbers, M.

    2016-12-01

    Ozone is an important trace gas in the atmosphere, while the stratospheric ozone layer protects the earth surface from the incident UV radiation, the tropospheric ozone acts as green house gas and causes health damages as well as crop loss. The total ozone column is dominated by the stratospheric column, the tropospheric columns only contributes about 10% to the total column.The ozone column data from the European satellite instruments GOME, SCIAMACHY, OMI, GOME-2A and GOME-2B are available within the ESA Climate Change Initiative project with a high degree of inter-sensor consistency. The tropospheric ozone columns are based on the convective cloud differential algorithm. The datasets encompass a period of more than 20 years between 1995 and 2015, for the trend analysis the data sets were harmonized relative to one of the instruments. For the tropics we found an increase in the tropospheric ozone column of 0.75 ± 0.12 DU decade^{-1} with local variations between 1.8 and -0.8. The largest trends were observed over southern Africa and the Atlantic Ocean. A seasonal trend analysis led to the assumption that the increase is caused by additional forest fires.The trend for the total column was not that certain, based on model predicted trend data and the measurement uncertainty we estimated that another 10 to 15 years of observations will be required to observe a statistical significant trend. In the mid latitudes the trends are currently hidden in the large variability and for the tropics the modelled trends are low. Also the possibility of diverging trends at different altitudes must be considered; an increase in the tropospheric ozone might be accompanied by decreasing stratospheric ozone.The European satellite data record will be extended over the next two decades with the atmospheric satellite missions Sentinel 5 Precursor (launch end of 2016), Sentinel 4 and Sentinel 5.

  13. SUPPORTING MANAGEMENT OF EUROPEAN REFUGEE STREAMS BY EARTH OBSERVATION AND GEOINFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-U. Komp

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The sharp increase in refugee numbers arriving in the European Union has recently caused major and manifold challenges for the member states and their administrative services. Location based situation reports and maps may support the refugee management from local to European level. The first support is mapping of the geographical distribution of migrating people which needs more or less real time data. The actual data sources are location related observations along the routes of refugees, actual satellite observations and data mining results. These tools and data are used to monitor spatial distributions as well as extrapolate the arrival of refugees for the subsequent weeks. The second support is the short term update of the location of initial registration facilities and first reception facilities, their capacities, and their occupancy. The third management level is the systematic inquiry for unoccupied housing facilities and for empty places within build-up areas. Geo-coded data sets of house numbers have to be cross-referenced with city maps and communal inhabitants address data. The legal aspects of data mining and secured access to personal data are strictly controlled by the administration allowing only limited access and distribution of data and results. However, the paper will not disclose scientific progress in Earth Observation and GIS, but will actually demonstrate an urgently needed new combination of existing methods to support actual needs. The societal benefits of EO/GIS are no longer just potential possibilities, but actual results in real political, administrative and humanitarian day to day reality.

  14. COPERNICUS - The European Union Earth Observation Programme - State of play and way ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Astrid-Christina

    2015-04-01

    Copernicus is the new name of the European Earth Observation Programme, GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security). Copernicus or rather its predecessor was established as an EU programme. It covers all the activities for ensuring an uninterrupted provision of accurate and reliable data and information on environmental issues and security matters to users in charge of policy making, implementation and monitoring, in the EU and its Member States. Copernicus aims at providing Europe with a continuous, independent and reliable access to observation data and information. The EU investment aims at filling the observation gaps, providing access to existing assets and developing operational services. The data policy of the Copernicus programme supports an open, full and free of charge data access that is in line with the data sharing principles of the Group for Earth Observation (GEO). Copernicus is structured in six Services: Marine, Atmosphere, Land and Climate change monitoring as well as support to Emergency and Security. Copernicus uses data from satellites and in-situ sensors such as buoys, balloons or air sensors to provide timely and reliable added-value information and forecasting to support for example, agriculture and fisheries, land use and urban planning, the fight against forest fires, disaster response, maritime transport or air pollution monitoring. The need for continuing such observations is becoming critical, considering the increasing political pressure on public authorities to take informed decisions in the field of environment, security and climate change and the need to respect international agreements. Copernicus also contributes to economic stability and growth by boosting commercial applications (the so-called downstream services) in many different sectors through a full and open access to Copernicus observation data and information products. KEY WORDS: Sentinels, big data, data access, Emergency, Marine, Atmosphere.

  15. Influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on European tropospheric composition: an observational and modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, R.; Chipperfield, M.

    2017-12-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) has a strong influence on winter-time North Atlantic and European circulation patterns. Under the positive phase of the NAO (NAO+), intensification of the climatological Icelandic low and Azores high pressure systems results in strong westerly flow across the Atlantic into Europe. Under the NAO negative phase (NAO-), there is a weakening of this meridional pressure gradient resulting in a southerly shift in the westerlies flow towards the sub-tropical Atlantic. Therefore, NAO+ and NAO- introduce unstable stormy and drier stable conditions into Europe, respectively. Under NAO+ conditions, the strong westerlies tend to enhance transport of European pollution (e.g. nitrogen oxides) away from anthropogenic source regions. While during NAO-, the more stable conditions lead to a build up of pollutants. However, secondary pollutants (i.e. tropospheric ozone) show the opposite signal where NAO+, while transporting primary pollutants away, introduces Atlantic ozone enriched air into Europe. Here ozone can form downwind of pollution from continental North America and be transported into Europe via the westerly flow. Under NAO-, this westerly ozone transport is reduced yielding lower European ozone concentrations also depleted further by ozone loss through the reaction with NOx, which has accumulated over the continent. Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), observed in the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere (UTLS) by satellite, peaks over Iceland/Southern Greenland in NAO-, between 200-100 hPa, consistent with trapping by an anticyclone at this altitude. During NAO+, PAN is enhanced over the sub-tropical Atlantic and Arctic. Model simulations show that enhanced PAN over Iceland/Southern Greenland in NAO- is associated with vertical transport from the troposphere into the UTLS, while peak Arctic PAN in NAO+ is its accumulation given the strong northerly meridional transport in the UTLS. UTLS ozone spatial anomalies, relative to the winter

  16. Observational uncertainty and regional climate model evaluation: A pan-European perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlarski, Sven; Szabó, Péter; Herrera, Sixto; Räty, Olle; Keuler, Klaus; Soares, Pedro M.; Cardoso, Rita M.; Bosshard, Thomas; Pagé, Christian; Boberg, Fredrik; Gutiérrez, José M.; Jaczewski, Adam; Kreienkamp, Frank; Liniger, Mark. A.; Lussana, Cristian; Szepszo, Gabriella

    2017-04-01

    Local and regional climate change assessments based on downscaling methods crucially depend on the existence of accurate and reliable observational reference data. In dynamical downscaling via regional climate models (RCMs) observational data can influence model development itself and, later on, model evaluation, parameter calibration and added value assessment. In empirical-statistical downscaling, observations serve as predictand data and directly influence model calibration with corresponding effects on downscaled climate change projections. Focusing on the evaluation of RCMs, we here analyze the influence of uncertainties in observational reference data on evaluation results in a well-defined performance assessment framework and on a European scale. For this purpose we employ three different gridded observational reference grids, namely (1) the well-established EOBS dataset (2) the recently developed EURO4M-MESAN regional re-analysis, and (3) several national high-resolution and quality-controlled gridded datasets that recently became available. In terms of climate models five reanalysis-driven experiments carried out by five different RCMs within the EURO-CORDEX framework are used. Two variables (temperature and precipitation) and a range of evaluation metrics that reflect different aspects of RCM performance are considered. We furthermore include an illustrative model ranking exercise and relate observational spread to RCM spread. The results obtained indicate a varying influence of observational uncertainty on model evaluation depending on the variable, the season, the region and the specific performance metric considered. Over most parts of the continent, the influence of the choice of the reference dataset for temperature is rather small for seasonal mean values and inter-annual variability. Here, model uncertainty (as measured by the spread between the five RCM simulations considered) is typically much larger than reference data uncertainty. For

  17. First OH Airglow Observation of Mesospheric Gravity Waves Over European Russia Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinzeng; Yusupov, Kamil; Akchurin, Adel; Yuan, Wei; Liu, Xiao; Xu, Jiyao

    2018-03-01

    For the first time, we perform a study of mesospheric gravity waves (GWs) for four different seasons of 1 year in the latitudinal band from 45°N to 75°N using an OH all-sky airglow imager over Kazan (55.8°N, 49.2°E), Russia, during the period of August 2015 to July 2016. Our observational study fills a huge airglow imaging observation gap in Europe and Russia region. In total, 125 GW events and 28 ripple events were determined by OH airglow images in 98 clear nights. The observed GWs showed a strong preference of propagation toward northeast in all seasons, which was significantly different from airglow imager observations at other latitudes that the propagation directions were seasonal dependent. The middle atmosphere wind field is used to explain the lack of low phase speed GWs since these GWs were falling into the blocking region due to the filtering effects. Deep tropospheric convections derived from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts reanalysis data are determined near Caucasus Mountains region, which suggests that the convections are the dominant source of the GWs in spring, summer, and autumn seasons. This finding extends our knowledge that convection might also be an important source of GWs in the higher latitudes. In winter the generation mechanism of the GWs are considered to be jet stream systems. In addition, the occurrence frequency of ripple is much lower than other stations. This study provides some constraints on the range of GW parameters in GW parameterization in general circulation models in Europe and Russia region.

  18. Do French macroseismic intensity observations agree with expectations from the European Seismic Hazard Model 2013?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Julien; Beauval, Céline; Douglas, John

    2018-02-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard assessments are the basis of modern seismic design codes. To test fully a seismic hazard curve at the return periods of interest for engineering would require many thousands of years' worth of ground-motion recordings. Because strong-motion networks are often only a few decades old (e.g. in mainland France the first accelerometric network dates from the mid-1990s), data from such sensors can be used to test hazard estimates only at very short return periods. In this article, several hundreds of years of macroseismic intensity observations for mainland France are interpolated using a robust kriging-with-a-trend technique to establish the earthquake history of every French mainland municipality. At 24 selected cities representative of the French seismic context, the number of exceedances of intensities IV, V and VI is determined over time windows considered complete. After converting these intensities to peak ground accelerations using the global conversion equation of Caprio et al. (Ground motion to intensity conversion equations (GMICEs): a global relationship and evaluation of regional dependency, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 105:1476-1490, 2015), these exceedances are compared with those predicted by the European Seismic Hazard Model 2013 (ESHM13). In half of the cities, the number of observed exceedances for low intensities (IV and V) is within the range of predictions of ESHM13. In the other half of the cities, the number of observed exceedances is higher than the predictions of ESHM13. For intensity VI, the match is closer, but the comparison is less meaningful due to a scarcity of data. According to this study, the ESHM13 underestimates hazard in roughly half of France, even when taking into account the uncertainty in the conversion from intensity to acceleration. However, these results are valid only for the acceleration range tested in this study (0.01 to 0.09 g).

  19. Modelling of X-ray emission supernova remnants observed by the European satellite XMM-Newton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassam-Chenai, G.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis deals with the X-ray emission of supernova remnants (SNRs) observed by the European satellite XMM-Newton. In SNRs, the matter heated to millions of degrees shines brightly in X-rays. This emission depends on the hydrodynamical evolution of the SNR, on the chemical composition of the ejected matter and on the ambient medium. Moreover, the blast-wave is considered to be the prime site of the production and the acceleration of cosmic-rays in our Galaxy. XMM-Newton is one of the first to allow the investigation of these different aspects thanks to its spatially-resolved spectroscopy and its very good sensitivity. l first studied Kepler's SNR (SN 1604) whose X-ray emission is dominated by the ejecta. Its observation has allowed to obtain information on the nucleosynthesis products, on their spatial distribution and on the temperature structure in the shocked ejecta. This gives strong constraints on the physics of the explosion and on the progenitor's type. l have shown also that the X-ray emission at the shock is likely to be non-thermal. Then, l studied the SNR G347.3-0.5 whose X-ray emission is entirely due to the synchrotron radiation of relativistic (TeV) electrons accelerated at the shock. From five pointing, l made a full mapping of the X-ray emission characteristics (brightness, absorption and spectral index) at small scale. Combined to radio observations, these results have indicated a clear interaction between the SNR and molecular clouds located at 1 kpc and not at 6 kpc as previously estimated. Lastly, in the framework of a self-similar hydrodynamical model coupled with non-linear particle acceleration, l have obtained the synchrotron emission profile in SNRs, including the adiabatic and radiative losses of the accelerated electrons. (author) [fr

  20. Do French macroseismic intensity observations agree with expectations from the European Seismic Hazard Model 2013?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Julien; Beauval, Céline; Douglas, John

    2018-05-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard assessments are the basis of modern seismic design codes. To test fully a seismic hazard curve at the return periods of interest for engineering would require many thousands of years' worth of ground-motion recordings. Because strong-motion networks are often only a few decades old (e.g. in mainland France the first accelerometric network dates from the mid-1990s), data from such sensors can be used to test hazard estimates only at very short return periods. In this article, several hundreds of years of macroseismic intensity observations for mainland France are interpolated using a robust kriging-with-a-trend technique to establish the earthquake history of every French mainland municipality. At 24 selected cities representative of the French seismic context, the number of exceedances of intensities IV, V and VI is determined over time windows considered complete. After converting these intensities to peak ground accelerations using the global conversion equation of Caprio et al. (Ground motion to intensity conversion equations (GMICEs): a global relationship and evaluation of regional dependency, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 105:1476-1490, 2015), these exceedances are compared with those predicted by the European Seismic Hazard Model 2013 (ESHM13). In half of the cities, the number of observed exceedances for low intensities (IV and V) is within the range of predictions of ESHM13. In the other half of the cities, the number of observed exceedances is higher than the predictions of ESHM13. For intensity VI, the match is closer, but the comparison is less meaningful due to a scarcity of data. According to this study, the ESHM13 underestimates hazard in roughly half of France, even when taking into account the uncertainty in the conversion from intensity to acceleration. However, these results are valid only for the acceleration range tested in this study (0.01 to 0.09 g).

  1. Nurses' intention to leave their profession: a cross sectional observational study in 10 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, M.M.; Achterberg, T. van; Schwendimann, R.; Zander, B.; Matthews, A.; Kozka, M.; Ensio, A.; Sjetne, I.S.; Moreno Casbas, T.; Ball, J.; Schoonhoven, L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As the European population ages, the demand for nursing care increases. Yet, a shortage of nurses at the labour market exists or is predicted for most European countries. There are no adequate solutions for this shortage yet, and recruitment of future nurses is difficult. Therefore,

  2. Nurse staffing and education and hospital mortality in nine European countries: a retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Linda H; Sloane, Douglas M; Bruyneel, Luk; Van den Heede, Koen; Griffiths, Peter; Busse, Reinhard; Diomidous, Marianna; Kinnunen, Juha; Kózka, Maria; Lesaffre, Emmanuel; McHugh, Matthew D; Moreno-Casbas, M T; Rafferty, Anne Marie; Schwendimann, Rene; Scott, P Anne; Tishelman, Carol; van Achterberg, Theo; Sermeus, Walter

    2014-05-24

    Austerity measures and health-system redesign to minimise hospital expenditures risk adversely affecting patient outcomes. The RN4CAST study was designed to inform decision making about nursing, one of the largest components of hospital operating expenses. We aimed to assess whether differences in patient to nurse ratios and nurses' educational qualifications in nine of the 12 RN4CAST countries with similar patient discharge data were associated with variation in hospital mortality after common surgical procedures. For this observational study, we obtained discharge data for 422,730 patients aged 50 years or older who underwent common surgeries in 300 hospitals in nine European countries. Administrative data were coded with a standard protocol (variants of the ninth or tenth versions of the International Classification of Diseases) to estimate 30 day in-hospital mortality by use of risk adjustment measures including age, sex, admission type, 43 dummy variables suggesting surgery type, and 17 dummy variables suggesting comorbidities present at admission. Surveys of 26,516 nurses practising in study hospitals were used to measure nurse staffing and nurse education. We used generalised estimating equations to assess the effects of nursing factors on the likelihood of surgical patients dying within 30 days of admission, before and after adjusting for other hospital and patient characteristics. An increase in a nurses' workload by one patient increased the likelihood of an inpatient dying within 30 days of admission by 7% (odds ratio 1·068, 95% CI 1·031-1·106), and every 10% increase in bachelor's degree nurses was associated with a decrease in this likelihood by 7% (0·929, 0·886-0·973). These associations imply that patients in hospitals in which 60% of nurses had bachelor's degrees and nurses cared for an average of six patients would have almost 30% lower mortality than patients in hospitals in which only 30% of nurses had bachelor's degrees and nurses cared

  3. Geo-energy Test Beds: part of the European Plate Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Michael; Schofield, David; Luton, Christopher; Haslinger, Florian; Henninges, Jan; Giardini, Domenico

    2016-04-01

    For 2020, the EU has committed to cutting its greenhouse gas emissions to 20% below 1990 levels and further cuts are being decided for 2050. This commitment is one of the headline targets of the Europe 2020 growth strategy and is being implemented through binding legislation. This decarbonisation of the EU economy is one dimension of an overall EU energy and climate framework that is mutually interlinked with the need to ensure energy security, promote a fully integrated energy market, promote energy efficiency and promote research innovation and competitiveness. Power generation will have to take a particularly large part in emissions reductions (-54 to -68% by 2030 and -93 to -99% by 2050), mainly by focussing on increasing surface renewables (wind, tidal and solar) but also on carbon capture and storage on fossil fuel and biofuel power plants, shale gas, nuclear and geothermal power. All the above generation technologies share common geological challenges around containment, safety and environmental sustainability. In a densely populated continent, this means that high levels of subsurface management are needed to fully realise the energy potential. In response to this need, across Europe, public and private sector funded, experimental test and monitoring facilities and infrastructures (Geo-energy Test Beds, GETB) are being developed. These GETB investigate the processes, technology and practices that facilitate the sustainable exploitation of Geo-energy resources and are of intense interest to the public and regulators alike. The vision of EPOS IP Work Package 17 (wp17) is to promote research and innovation in Geo-energy that reflects core European energy priorities through provision of virtual access to data and protocols and trans-national access to GETB experiments. This will be achieved through provision of access to continuous strategic observations, promotion of the integrated use of data and models from European GETB, development of underpinning research

  4. Vision of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems: a European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollier, G.; Craglia, M.; Nativi, S.

    2013-12-01

    The possibility of involving citizens in measuring and providing data is becoming a reality through the concept of "Citizen Observatories". This takes advantage of everybody's capacity to use mobile phone/tablet/laptop to monitor the environment and by trying to find cheap solutions to strengthen the in-situ network of observatories needed for a Global Earth Observation System. Further to the Citizen Observatories approach, the development of cheap sensors based on disposable technologies, nanotech and the piggy-back approach could also be applied to several Societal Challenges and contribute to the GEOSS. The involvement of citizens in the domain of Earth Observation implies dealing with many diverse communities that need to be fully connected into the overall GEOSS architecture. With the introduction of a brokering capability this becomesnow possible. The value of the brokering approach has been demonstrated within the European Union funded EuroGEOSS research project. The EuroGEOSS brokering capability has now been incorporated into the GEOSS information system, (known as the GEOSS Common Infrastructure, or GCI) and renamed the GEOSS Discovery and Access Broker. In a matter of a few months the GEOSS DAB has enabled the GEOSS to extend the data resources available from a few hundred to over 28 million The vison which is discussed here is that with a more active participation of the Citizens one could imagine a world with instant information flow about the state and future evolution of the environment available, similar to what has been achieved in weather forecasting but covering fields such as climate, agriculture, water etc. and covering larger forecast time spans from months to years. Failure on crops for instance could be forecasted and measures to mitigate potential upcoming problems could be put in place well in advance. Obviously, the societal and economic benefits would be manifold and large

  5. The EMBARC European bronchiectasis registry: Protocol for an international observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chalmers, J.D. (James D.); S. Aliberti (Stefano); Polverino, E. (Eva); Vendrell, M. (Montserrat); Crichton, M. (Megan); Loebinger, M. (Michael); Dimakou, K. (Katerina); Clifton, I. (Ian); M. van der Eerden (Menno); G. Rohde (Gernot); Murris-Espin, M. (Marlene); Masefield, S. (Sarah); Gerada, E. (Eleanor); Shteinberg, M. (Michal); F.C. Ringshausen (Felix C.); Haworth, C. (Charles); W.G. Boersma (Wim); Rademacher, J. (Jessica); Hill, A.T. (Adam T.); Aksamit, T. (Timothy); O’Donnell, A. (Anne); Morgan, L. (Lucy); B. Milenkovic (Branislava); Tramma, L. (Leandro); Neves, J. (Joao); Menendez, R. (Rosario); Paggiaro, P. (Perluigi); Botnaru, V. (Victor); Skrgat, S. (Sabina); R. Wilson (Richard); Goeminne, P. (Pieter); De Soyza, A. (Anthony); T. Welte; Torres, A. (Antoni); S. Elborn (Stuart); Blasi, F. (Francesco)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBronchiectasis is one of the most neglected diseases in respiratory medicine. There are no approved therapies and few large-scale, representative epidemiological studies. The EMBARC (European Multicentre Bronchiectasis Audit and Research Collaboration) registry is a prospective,

  6. Sequential Treatment of Severe Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Following Teriparatide: Final Results of the Randomized, Controlled European Study of Forsteo (EUROFORS): Trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00191425 (Trial registration date: 12 September 2005)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eastell, Richard; Nickelsen, Thomas; Marin, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Abstract It is unclear which treatment should be given after stopping teriparatide therapy for severe osteoporosis. In a prospective, randomized, controlled, 2-yr study, we compared bone mineral density (BMD) effects and clinical safety of 3 follow-up treatments (anabolic with teriparatide, antir...

  7. Disability, fatigue, pain and their associates in early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis: the European Scleroderma Observational Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peytrignet, Sébastien; Denton, Christopher P; Lunt, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Our aim was to describe the burden of early dcSSc in terms of disability, fatigue and pain in the European Scleroderma Observational Study cohort, and to explore associated clinical features. Methods: Patients completed questionnaires at study entry, 12 and 24 months, including the HA...

  8. Biological and Environmental Research: Climate and Environmental Sciences Division: U.S./European Workshop on Climate Change Challenges and Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, James [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; McCord, Raymond [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Sisterson, Doug [Argonne National Laboratory; Voyles, Jimmy [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2012-11-08

    The workshop aimed to identify outstanding climate change science questions and the observational strategies for addressing them. The scientific focus was clouds, aerosols, and precipitation, and the required ground- and aerial-based observations. The workshop findings will be useful input for setting priorities within the Department of Energy (DOE) and the participating European centers. This joint workshop was envisioned as the first step in enhancing the collaboration among these climate research activities needed to better serve the science community.

  9. Semantically supporting data discovery, markup and aggregation in the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Roy; Leadbetter, Adam

    2014-05-01

    The semantic content of the NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS) has been developed over thirty years. It has been used to mark up metadata and data in a wide range of international projects, including the European Commission (EC) Framework Programme 7 projects SeaDataNet and The Open Service Network for Marine Environmental Data (NETMAR). Within the United States, the National Science Foundation projects Rolling Deck to Repository and Biological & Chemical Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) use concepts from NVS for markup. Further, typed relationships between NVS concepts and terms served by the Marine Metadata Interoperability Ontology Registry and Repository. The vast majority of the concepts publicly served from NVS (35% of ~82,000) form the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) Parameter Usage Vocabulary (PUV). The PUV is instantiated on the NVS as a SKOS concept collection. These terms are used to describe the individual channels in data and metadata served by, for example, BODC, SeaDataNet and BCO-DMO. The PUV terms are designed to be very precise and may contain a high level of detail. Some users have reported that the PUV is difficult to navigate due to its size and complexity (a problem CSIRO have begun to address by deploying a SISSVoc interface to the NVS), and it has been difficult to aggregate data as multiple PUV terms can - with full validity - be used to describe the same data channels. Better approaches to data aggregation are required as a use case for the PUV from the EC European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) Chemistry project. One solution, proposed and demonstrated during the course of the NETMAR project, is to build new SKOS concept collections which formalise the desired aggregations for given applications, and uses typed relationships to state which PUV concepts contribute to a specific aggregation. Development of these new collections requires input from a group of experts in the application domain who can decide which PUV

  10. The European Plate Observing System (EPOS): Integrating Thematic Services for Solid Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atakan, Kuvvet; Bailo, Daniele; Consortium, Epos

    2016-04-01

    The mission of EPOS is to monitor and understand the dynamic and complex Earth system by relying on new e-science opportunities and integrating diverse and advanced Research Infrastructures in Europe for solid Earth Science. EPOS will enable innovative multidisciplinary research for a better understanding of the Earth's physical and chemical processes that control earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, ground instability and tsunami as well as the processes driving tectonics and Earth's surface dynamics. Through integration of data, models and facilities EPOS will allow the Earth Science community to make a step change in developing new concepts and tools for key answers to scientific and socio-economic questions concerning geo-hazards and geo-resources as well as Earth sciences applications to the environment and to human welfare. EPOS, during its Implementation Phase (EPOS-IP), will integrate multidisciplinary data into a single e-infrastructure. Multidisciplinary data are organized and governed by the Thematic Core Services (TCS) and are driven by various scientific communities encompassing a wide spectrum of Earth science disciplines. These include Data, Data-products, Services and Software (DDSS), from seismology, near fault observatories, geodetic observations, volcano observations, satellite observations, geomagnetic observations, as well as data from various anthropogenic hazard episodes, geological information and modelling. In addition, transnational access to multi-scale laboratories and geo-energy test-beds for low-carbon energy will be provided. TCS DDSS will be integrated into Integrated Core Services (ICS), a platform that will ensure their interoperability and access to these services by the scientific community as well as other users within the society. This requires dedicated tasks for interactions with the various TCS-WPs, as well as the various distributed ICS (ICS-Ds), such as High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities, large scale data storage

  11. Diversity of dietary patterns observed in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slimani, N.; Fahey, M.; Welch, A.A.; Wirfalt, E.; Stripp, C.; Bergstrom, E.; Linseisen, J.; Schulze, M.B.; Bamia, C.; Chloptsios, Y.; Veglia, F.; Panico, S.; Bueno de Mesquita, B.; Ocké, M.C.; Brustadt, M.; Lund, E.; Gonzalez, C.A.; Barcos, A.; Berglund, G.; Winkvist, A.; Mulligan, A.; Appleby, P.; Overvad, K.; Tjonneland, A.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Kesse, E.; Ferrari, P.; Staveren, van W.A.; Riboli, E.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe the diversity in dietary patterns existing across centres/regions participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Design and setting: Single 24-hour dietary recall measurements were obtained by means of standardised face-to-face

  12. Future European Temperature change uncertainties reduced by using land heat flux observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegehuis, A.I.; Teuling, A.J.; Ciais, P.; Vautard, R.; Jung, M.

    2013-01-01

    The variability of European summer climate is expected to increase in the next century due to increasing levels of atmospheric greenhouse gases, likely resulting in more frequent and more extreme droughts and heatwaves. However, climate models diverge on the magnitude of these processes, due to

  13. Near Fault Observatories (NFO) services and integration plan for European Plate Observing System (EPOS) Implementation Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaraluce, Lauro

    2016-04-01

    Coherently with the EPOS vision aimed at creating a pan-European infrastructure for Earth Sciences supporting research for a more sustainable society, we are working on the integration of NFOs and services implementation facilitating their data and products discovery and usage. NFOs are National Research Infrastructures (NRI) consisting of advanced networks of multi-parametric sensors continuously monitoring the chemical and physical processes related to the common underlying Earth instabilities governing active faults evolution and the genesis of earthquakes. These infrastructures will enable advancements in understanding of earthquakes generation processes and associated ground shaking due to their high-quality near-source multidisciplinary data. In EPOS-IP seven NFOs are going to be linked: 1) the Altotiberina and 2) Irpinia Observatories in Italy, 3) Corinth in Greece, 4) South-Iceland Seismic Zone, 5) Valais in Switzerland, 6) Marmara Sea (GEO Supersite) in Turkey and 7) Vrancea in Romania. EPOS-IP aims to implement integrated services from a technical, legal, governance and financial point of view. Accordingly, our first effort within this first core group of NFOs will be establishing legal governance for such a young community to ensure a long-term sustainability of the envisaged services including the full adoption of the EPOS data policy. The establishment of a Board including representatives of each NFO formally appointed by the Institutions supporting the NRI is a basic requirement to provide and validate a stable governance mechanism supporting the initiatives finalised to the services provision. Extremely dense networks and less common instruments deserve an extraordinary work on data quality control and description. We will work on linking all the NFOs in a single distributed network of observatories with instrumental and monitoring standards based on common protocols for observation, analysis, and data access and distributed channels. We will rely on

  14. Towards the creation of a European Network of Earth Observation Networks within GEO. The ConnectinGEO project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masó, Joan; Serral, Ivette; Menard, Lionel; Wald, Lucien; Nativi, Stefano; Plag, Hans-Peter; Jules-Plag, Shelley; Nüst, Daniel; Jirka, Simon; Pearlman, Jay; De Maziere, Martine

    2015-04-01

    ConnectinGEO (Coordinating an Observation Network of Networks EnCompassing saTellite and IN-situ to fill the Gaps in European Observations" is a new H2020 Coordination and Support Action with the primary goal of linking existing Earth Observation networks with science and technology (S&T) communities, the industry sector, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), and Copernicus. ConnectinGEO aims to facilitate a broader and more accessible knowledge base to support the needs of GEO, its Societal Benefit Areas (SBAs) and the users of the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS). A broad range of subjects from climate, natural resources and raw materials, to the emerging UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) will be addressed. The project will generate a prioritized list of critical gaps within available observation data and models to translate observations into practice-relevant knowledge, based on stakeholder consultation and systematic analysis. Ultimately, it will increase coherency of European observation networks, increase the use of Earth observations for assessments and forecasts and inform the planning for future observation systems. ConnectinGEO will initiate a European Network of Earth Observation Networks (ENEON) that will encompass space-based, airborne and in-situ observations networks. ENEON will be composed by project partners representing thematic observation networks along with the GEOSS Science and Technology Stakeholder Network, GEO Communities of Practices, Copernicus services, Sentinel missions and in-situ support data representatives, representatives of the space-based, airborne and in-situ observations European networks (e.g. EPOS, EMSO and GROOM, etc), representatives of the industry sector and European and national funding agencies, in particular those participating in the future ERA-PlaNET. At the beginning, the ENEON will be created and managed by the project. Then the management will be transferred to the network itself to ensure

  15. The ethical aspect of observation and criticism of the term European science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Brankica V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper relies primarily on criticism of Husserl of the European nations to which he looks inside the main context and the history of Western metaphysics and philosophy through the lens of European culture in general. The main deposited tradition of science, according to Husserl, has its core in theory inaugurated by Galileo, which becomes explicit with Descartes philosophy and affirmed the works of Newton, Leibniz, and Kant. This tradition of science Husserl calls 'Galilean science' while his critique of Cartesian spirit is derived from perceptions of philosophical centrality of the concept of 'world - life' as a valid basis and source of all knowledge of reality. Implicit in this criticism turning to Husserl experience with intuitive-reflective method seeks its evidence within the contours of the human experience, i.e. activities of the entity as a living body, which is a cognitive dualism overcome.

  16. Linking field observations, Landsat and MODIS data to estimate agricultural change in European Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beurs, K. M.; Ioffe, G.

    2011-12-01

    Agricultural reform has been one of the most important anthropogenic change processes in European Russia that has been unfolding since the formal collapse of the Soviet Union at the end of 1991. Widespread land abandonment is perhaps the most vivid side effect of the reform, even visible in synoptic imagery. Currently, Russia is transitioning into a country with an internal "archipelago" of islands of productive agriculture around cities embedded in a matrix of unproductive, abandoned lands. This heterogeneous spatial pattern is mainly driven by depopulation of the least favorable parts of the countryside, where "least favorable" is a function of fertility, remoteness, and their interaction. In this work we provide a satellite, GIS and field based overview of the current agricultural developments in Russia and look beyond the unstable period immediately following the collapse of the Soviet Union. We apply Landsat images in one of Russia's oblasts to create a detailed land cover map. We then use a logistic model to link the Landsat land cover map with the inter-annual variability in key phenological parameters calculated from MODIS to derive the percent of cropland per 500m MODIS pixel. By evaluating the phenological characteristics of the MODIS curves for each year we determine whether a pixel was actually cropped or left fallow. A comparison of satellite-estimated cropped areas with regional statistics (by rayon) revealed that the satellite estimates are highly correlated with the regional statistics for both arable lands and successfully cropped areas. We use the crop maps to determine the number of times a particular area was cropped between 2002 and 2009 by summing all the years with crops per pixel. This variable provides a good indication about the intensification and de-intensification of the Russian croplands over the last decade. We have visited several rural areas in Russia and we link the satellite data with information acquired through field interviews

  17. PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS ON THE DELEGATION OF POWERS TO NATIONAL AND EUROPEAN UNION LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Alexandru Lăzărescu Simion

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the context of Romania's accession to the European Union, have created the conditions to issue a new category of delegation of powers at the national level, used in the management of EU funds. Thus, delegation under delegation agreements concluded between ministries function with role management authorities and legal entities subordinated, coordination or subordination or coordination outside a hierarchy is a concrete way to exercise the powers conferred by the provisions Romania Community and pursue assimilated by delegating temporary administrative office.

  18. Observations on Three Endpoint Properties and Their Relationship to Regulatory Outcomes of European Oncology Marketing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberti, Lawrence; Stolk, Pieter; McAuslane, James Neil; Schellens, Jan; Breckenridge, Alasdair M; Leufkens, Hubert

    2015-06-01

    Guidance and exploratory evidence indicate that the type of endpoints and the magnitude of their outcome can define a therapy's clinical activity; however, little empirical evidence relates specific endpoint properties with regulatory outcomes. We explored the relationship of 3 endpoint properties to regulatory outcomes by assessing 50 oncology marketing authorization applications (MAAs; reviewed from 2009 to 2013). Overall, 16 (32%) had a negative outcome. The most commonly used hard endpoints were overall survival (OS) and the duration of response or stable disease. OS was a component of 91% approved and 63% failed MAAs. The most commonly used surrogate endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), response rate, and health-related quality of life assessments. There was no difference (p = .3801) between the approved and failed MAA cohorts in the proportion of hard endpoints used. A mean of slightly more than four surrogate endpoints were used per approved MAA compared with slightly more than two for failed MAAs. Longer OS and PFS duration outcomes were generally associated with approvals, often when not statistically significant. The approved cohort was associated with a preponderance of statistically significant (p < .05) improvements in primary endpoints (p < .0001 difference between the approved and failed groups). Three key endpoint properties (type of endpoint [hard/surrogate], magnitude of an endpoint outcome, and its statistical significance) are consistent with the European Medicines Agency guidance and, notwithstanding the contribution of unique disease-specific circumstances, are associated with a predictable positive outcome for oncology MAAs. Regulatory decisions made by the European Medicines Agency determine which new medicines will be available to European prescribers and for which therapeutic indications. Regulatory success or failure can be influenced by many factors. This study assessed three key properties of endpoints used in

  19. Observations and actions to ensure equal treatment of all candidates by the European Research Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydin, Claudia Alves de Jesus; Farina Busto, Luis; El Mjiyad, Nadia; Kota, Jhansi; Thelen, Lionel

    2017-04-01

    The European Research Council (ERC), Europe's premiere funding agency for frontier research, views equality of opportunities as an important challenge. The ERC monitors closely gender figures on every call and has taken actions to tackle imbalances and potential unconscious biases. The ERC talk is focused on efforts made to understand and ensure equal treatment of all candidates, with particular focus on gender balance and with specific attention to geosciences. Data and statistics collected in running highly competitive and internationally recognised funding schemes are presented. Recent initiatives to tackle geographical imbalances will also be presented.

  20. "Real-World" use of cinacalcet for managing SHPT in different European countries: analysis of data from the ECHO observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vervloet, M; Bencova, V; Malberti, F

    2010-01-01

    The pan-European ECHO observational study evaluated cinacalcet in adult dialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in "real-world" clinical practice. A sub-analysis compared data for 7 European countries/country clusters: Austria, CEE (Czech Republic and Slovakia), France, Italy,...

  1. A mechanism of midlatitude noontime foE long-term variations inferred from European observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, A. V.; Perrone, L.; Nusinov, A. A.

    2017-04-01

    Manually scaled June noontime monthly median foE values at three European stations Rome, Juliusruh, and Slough/Chilton were used to understand the mechanism of foE long-term variations. The 11 year running mean smoothed foE manifests long-term (for some solar cycles) variations with the rising phase at the end of 1960-1985 and the falling phase after 1985. A close relationship (even in details) between (foEave)11y and (R12)11y variations with the correlation coefficient of 0.996 (absolutely significant according to Fisher F criterion) suggests that the Sun is the source of these (foEave)11y long-term variations. After removing solar activity long-term variations the residual (foEave)11y trend is very small ( 0.029% per decade) being absolutely insignificant. This means that all (foEave)11y variations are removed with one solar activity index, (R12)11y, i.e., this means that long-term variations are fully controlled by solar activity. Theory of midlatitude daytime E region tells us that long-term variations of solar EUV in two lines λ = 977 Å (CIII) and λ = 1025.7 Å (HLyβ) and X-ray radiation with λ foE long-term variations have a natural (not anthropogenic) origin related to long-term variations of solar activity. No peculiarities in relation with the last deep solar minimum in 2008-2009 have been revealed.

  2. Hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.42/6:1 for perioperative plasma volume replacement in 1130 children: results of an European prospective multicenter observational postauthorization safety study (PASS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sümpelmann, Robert; Kretz, Franz-Josef; Luntzer, Robert; de Leeuw, Thomas G.; Mixa, Vladimir; Gäbler, Ralf; Eich, Christoph; Hollmann, Markus W.; Osthaus, Wilhelm A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Third-generation hydroxyethyl starch (HES) is now approved also for the use in children, but safety studies including large numbers of pediatric patients are still missing. Therefore, we performed an European multicentric prospective observational postauthorization safety study (PASS)

  3. Seven years of recent European net terrestrial carbon dioxide exchange constrained by atmospheric observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, W.; Krol, M. C.; van der Werf, G. R.; Houweling, S.; Jones, C. D.; Hughes, J.; Schaefer, K.; Masarie, K. A.; Jacobson, A. R.; Miller, J. B.; Cho, C. H.; Ramonet, M.; Schmidt, M.; Ciattaglia, L.; Apadula, F.; Heltai, D.; Meinhardt, F.; di Sarra, A. G.; Piacentino, S.; Sferlazzo, D.; Aalto, T.; Hatakka, J.; StröM, J.; Haszpra, L.; Meijer, H. A J; van Der Laan, S.; Neubert, R. E M; Jordan, A.; Rodó, X.; Morguí, J. A.; Vermeulen, A. T.; Popa, Maria Elena; Rozanski, K.; Zimnoch, M.; Manning, A. C.; Leuenberger, M.; Uglietti, C.; Dolman, A. J.; Ciais, P.; Heimann, M.; Tans, P.

    2010-01-01

    We present an estimate of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 in Europe for the years 2001-2007. It is derived with a data assimilation that uses a large set of atmospheric CO2 mole fraction observations (∼70 000) to guide relatively simple descriptions of terrestrial and oceanic net exchange, while

  4. Seven years of recent European net terrestrial carbon dioxide exchange constrained by atmospheric observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, W.; Krol, M.C.; Werf, van der G.R.; Houweling, S.; Jones, C.D.; Hughes, J.; Schaefer, K.; Masarie, K.A.

    2010-01-01

    We present an estimate of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 in Europe for the years 2001–2007. It is derived with a data assimilation that uses a large set of atmospheric CO2 mole fraction observations (~70 000) to guide relatively simple descriptions of terrestrial and oceanic net exchange, while

  5. Seven years of recent European net terrestrial carbon dioxide exchange constrained by atmospheric observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, W.; Krol, M; van der Werf, G. R.; Houweling, S.; Jones, C. D.; Hughes, J.; Schaefer, K.; Masarie, K. A.; Jacobson, A. R.; Miller, J. B.; Cho, C. H.; Ramonet, M.; Schmidt, M.; Ciattaglia, L.; Apadula, F.; Helta, D.; Meinhardt, F.; di Sarra, A. G.; Piacentino, S.; Sferlazzo, D.; Aalto, T.; Hatakka, J.; Strom, J.; Haszpra, L.; Meijer, H. A. J.; van der Laan, S.; Neubert, R. E. M.; Jordan, A.; Rodo, X.; Morgui, J. -A.; Vermeulen, A. T.; Popa, E.; Rozanski, K.; Zimnoch, M.; Manning, A. C.; Leuenberger, M.; Uglietti, C.; Dolman, A. J.; Ciais, P.; Heimann, M.; Tans, P. P.; Heltai, D.; Ström, J.

    We present an estimate of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO(2) in Europe for the years 2001-2007. It is derived with a data assimilation that uses a large set of atmospheric CO(2) mole fraction observations (similar to 70 000) to guide relatively simple descriptions of terrestrial and oceanic net

  6. Winds observed in the Northern European seas with wind lidars, meteorological masts and satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Stein, D.; Peña, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Ocean winds have been observed in the Baltic, Irish and North Seas from a combination of groundbased lidars, tall offshore meteorological masts and satellites remote sensing in recent years. In the FP7 project NORSEWInD (2008-2012) the project partners joined forces to ensure collection of these ...

  7. The Probation Service in the Context of European Integration. The Supervision of Convicts in the Community. Critical Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion RUSU

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the appliance of non-custodial penalties, completed by the necessity of respecting the measures of surveillance and/or certain obligations imposed by the court, is to ensure the re-socialization and reintegration into the community to which they belong. In this context, at the European Union’s level it was adopted 2008/947/JHA Framework Decision of the Council on 27 November 2008 regarding the appliance of mutual recognition principle in the case of judgments and probation decisions for supervising the probation measures and alternative sanctions. The most important criterion under which judicial decision can be transmitted to another Member State is referring to the convicted person residency, considering that adopting such a measure the chances of social reintegration of the sentenced person will increase, allowing them to preserve the family, linguistic, cultural links. The probation service has a critical role for community supervision of the measures and obligations imposed by the Romanian court to the sentenced person. This institution has a number of specific tasks even when the Romanian court sends the legal judgment accompanied by the certificate in another Member State, seeking its recognition and enforcement. These responsibilities relate in particular to the cooperation activity that needs to be carried out with similarauthority of the executing Member State, since it can always intervene the possibility of restoring the competence of executing the decision of the Romanian court. The critical observations relate to the legislative act both European and our internal law.

  8. Diversity of dietary patterns observed in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, N.; Fahey, M.; Welch, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    differences were observed across centres, the countries participating in EPIC are characterised by specific dietary patterns. Overall, Italy and Greece have a dietary pattern characterised by plant foods (except potatoes) and a lower consumption of animal and processed foods, compared with the other EPIC...... countries. France and particularly Spain have more heterogeneous dietary patterns, with a relatively high consumption of both plant foods and animal products. Apart from characteristics specific to vegetarian groups, the UK 'health-conscious' group shares with the UK general population a relatively high...... consumption of tea, sauces, cakes, soft drinks (women), margarine and butter. In contrast, the diet in the Nordic countries, The Netherlands, Germany and the UK general population is relatively high in potatoes and animal, processed and sweetened/refined foods, with proportions varying across countries...

  9. European Plate Observing System - Norway (EPOS-N): A National Consortium for the Norwegian Implementation of EPOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atakan, Kuvvet; Tellefsen, Karen

    2017-04-01

    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) aims to create a pan-European infrastructure for solid Earth science to support a safe and sustainable society. The main vision of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS) is to address the three basic challenges in Earth Science: (i) unravelling the Earth's deformational processes which are part of the Earth system evolution in time, (ii) understanding geo-hazards and their implications to society, and (iii) contributing to the safe and sustainable use of geo-resources. The mission of EPOS-Norway is therefore in line with the European vision of EPOS, i.e. monitor and understand the dynamic and complex Earth system by relying on new e-science opportunities and integrating diverse and advanced Research Infrastructures for solid Earth science. The EPOS-Norway project started in January 2016 with a national consortium consisting of six institutions. These are: University of Bergen (Coordinator), NORSAR, National Mapping Authority, Geological Survey of Norway, Christian Michelsen Research and University of Oslo. EPOS-N will during the next five years focus on the implementation of three main components. These are: (i) Developing a Norwegian e-Infrastructure to integrate the Norwegian Solid Earth data from the seismological and geodetic networks, as well as the data from the geological and geophysical data repositories, (ii) Improving the monitoring capacity in the Arctic, including Northern Norway and the Arctic islands, and (iii) Establishing a national Solid Earth Science Forum providing a constant feedback mechanism for improved integration of multidisciplinary data, as well as training of young scientists for future utilization of all available solid Earth observational data through a single e-infrastructure. Currently, a list of data, data products, software and services (DDSS) is being prepared. These elements will be integrated in the EPOS-N data/web-portal, which will allow users to browse, select and download

  10. Results of the Simulation and Assimilation of Doppler Wind Lidar Observations in Preparation for European Space Agency's Aeolus Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Will

    2011-01-01

    With the launch of the European Space Agency's Aeolus Mission in 2013, direct spaceborne measurements of vertical wind profiles are imminent via Doppler wind lidar technology. Part of the preparedness for such missions is the development of the proper data assimilation methodology for handling such observations. Since no heritage measurements exist in space, the Joint Observing System Simulation Experiment (Joint OSSE) framework has been utilized to generate a realistic proxy dataset as a precursor to flight. These data are being used for the development of the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) data assimilation system utilized at a number of centers through the United States including the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NOAA/NWS/NCEP) as an activity through the Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation. An update of this ongoing effort will be presented, including the methodology of proxy data generation, the limitations of the proxy data, the handling of line-of-sight wind measurements within the GSI, and the impact on both analyses and forecasts with the addition of the new data type.

  11. Carbon cycling of European croplands: A framework for the assimilation of optical and microwave Earth observation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revill, Andrew; Sus, Oliver; Williams, Mathew

    2013-04-01

    Croplands are traditionally managed to maximise the production of food, feed, fibre and bioenergy. Advancements in agricultural technologies, together with land-use change, have approximately doubled World grain harvests over the past 50 years. Cropland ecosystems also play a significant role in the global carbon (C) cycle and, through changes to C storage in response to management activities, they can provide opportunities for climate change mitigation. However, quantifying and understanding the cropland C cycle is complex, due to variable environmental drivers, varied management practices and often highly heterogeneous landscapes. Efforts to upscale processes using simulation models must resolve these challenges. Here we show how data assimilation (DA) approaches can link C cycle modelling to Earth observation (EO) and reduce uncertainty in upscaling. We evaluate a framework for the assimilation of leaf area index (LAI) time series, empirically derived from EO optical and radar sensors, for state-updating a model of crop development and C fluxes. Sensors are selected with fine spatial resolutions (20-50 m) to resolve variability across field sizes typically used in European agriculture. Sequential DA is used to improve the canopy development simulation, which is validated by comparing time-series LAI and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) predictions to independent ground measurements and eddy covariance observations at multiple European cereal crop sites. Significant empirical relationships were established between the LAI ground measurements and the optical reflectance and radar backscatter, which allowed for single LAI calibrations being valid for all the cropland sites for each sensor. The DA of all EO LAI estimates results indicated clear adjustments in LAI and an enhanced representation of daily CO2 exchanges, particularly around the time of peak C uptake. Compared to the simulation without DA, the assimilation of all EO LAI estimates improved the predicted at

  12. European Practice Assessment of Cardiovascular risk management (EPA Cardio: protocol of an international observational study in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Lieshout Jan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite important improvements in available prevention and treatment, cardiovascular diseases (CVD remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Not all high-risk patients and patients with CVD have healthy lifestyles and receive the best possible healthcare. Internationally comparative data are needed to compare cardiovascular risk management in different countries, and to examine the impact of improvement programs and others factors. Objectives This study aims to provide internationally comparative data on cardiovascular risk management provided in primary care and on health-related lifestyles of patients in Europe. The study will also explore the views of doctors and patients on innovative preventive services for CVDs. Design and methods An observational cross-sectional study is planned. In 10 European countries, stratified samples of 36 practices per country will be recruited. In each practice, three samples of 15 patients each will be sampled: patients with coronary heart disease, patients at high risk for CVD, and healthy adult patients. The quality of cardiovascular risk management has been specified in terms of 44 performance indicators that resulted from an international Delphi-procedure with general practitioners. Most indicators are based on medical records, and some on a structured interview with a contact person of the practice. Lifestyle (smoking, physical exercise, diet will be measured with previously validated questionnaires that are completed by patients. Additional measures include practice characteristics and exposure to programs to improve cardiovascular care.

  13. Small larvae in large rivers: observations on downstream movement of European grayling Thymallus thymallus during early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, C H A; Dokk, T; Haugen, T O; Kiffney, P M; Museth, J

    2017-06-01

    Behaviour of early life stages of the salmonid European grayling Thymallus thymallus was investigated by assessing the timing of larval downstream movement from spawning areas, the depth at which larvae moved and the distribution of juvenile fish during summer in two large connected river systems in Norway. Trapping of larvae moving downstream and electrofishing surveys revealed that T. thymallus larvae emerging from the spawning gravel moved downstream predominantly during the night, despite light levels sufficient for orientation in the high-latitude study area. Larvae moved in the water mostly at the bottom layer close to the substratum, while drifting debris was caught in all layers of the water column. Few young-of-the-year still resided close to the spawning areas in autumn, suggesting large-scale movement (several km). Together, these observations show that there may be a deliberate, active component to downstream movement of T. thymallus during early life stages. This research signifies the importance of longitudinal connectivity for T. thymallus in Nordic large river systems. Human alterations of flow regimes and the construction of reservoirs for hydropower may not only affect the movement of adult fish, but may already interfere with active movement behaviour of fish during early life stages. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. Impact of gastroesophageal reflux disease on work absenteeism, presenteeism and productivity in daily life: a European observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisbert, Javier P; Cooper, Alun; Karagiannis, Dimitrios; Hatlebakk, Jan; Agréus, Lars; Jablonowski, Helmut; Nuevo, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Background The RANGE (Retrospective ANalysis of GastroEsophageal reflux disease [GERD]) study assessed differences among patients consulting a primary care physician due to GERD-related reasons in terms of: symptoms, diagnosis and management, response to treatment, and effects on productivity, costs and health-related quality of life. This subanalysis of RANGE determined the impact of GERD on productivity in work and daily life. Methods RANGE was conducted at 134 primary care sites across six European countries (Germany, Greece, Norway, Spain, Sweden and the UK). All subjects (aged ≥18 years) who consulted with their primary care physician over a 4-month identification period were screened retrospectively, and those consulting at least once for GERD-related reasons were identified (index visit). From this population, a random sample was selected to enter the study and attended a follow-up appointment, during which the impact of GERD on productivity while working (absenteeism and presenteeism) and in daily life was evaluated using the self-reported Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire for patients with GERD (WPAI-GERD). Results Overall, 373,610 subjects consulted with their primary care physician over the 4-month identification period, 12,815 for GERD-related reasons (3.4%); 2678 randomly selected patients attended the follow-up appointment. Average absenteeism due to GERD was highest in Germany (3.2 hours/week) and lowest in the UK (0.4 hours/week), with an average of up to 6.7 additional hours/week lost due to presenteeism in Norway. The average monetary impact of GERD-related work absenteeism and presenteeism were substantial in all countries (from €55/week per employed patient in the UK to €273/patient in Sweden). Reductions in productivity in daily life of up to 26% were observed across the European countries. Conclusion GERD places a significant burden on primary care patients, in terms of work absenteeism and presenteeism and in daily

  15. Impact of gastroesophageal reflux disease on work absenteeism, presenteeism and productivity in daily life: a European observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatlebakk Jan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The RANGE (Retrospective ANalysis of GastroEsophageal reflux disease [GERD] study assessed differences among patients consulting a primary care physician due to GERD-related reasons in terms of: symptoms, diagnosis and management, response to treatment, and effects on productivity, costs and health-related quality of life. This subanalysis of RANGE determined the impact of GERD on productivity in work and daily life. Methods RANGE was conducted at 134 primary care sites across six European countries (Germany, Greece, Norway, Spain, Sweden and the UK. All subjects (aged ≥18 years who consulted with their primary care physician over a 4-month identification period were screened retrospectively, and those consulting at least once for GERD-related reasons were identified (index visit. From this population, a random sample was selected to enter the study and attended a follow-up appointment, during which the impact of GERD on productivity while working (absenteeism and presenteeism and in daily life was evaluated using the self-reported Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire for patients with GERD (WPAI-GERD. Results Overall, 373,610 subjects consulted with their primary care physician over the 4-month identification period, 12,815 for GERD-related reasons (3.4%; 2678 randomly selected patients attended the follow-up appointment. Average absenteeism due to GERD was highest in Germany (3.2 hours/week and lowest in the UK (0.4 hours/week, with an average of up to 6.7 additional hours/week lost due to presenteeism in Norway. The average monetary impact of GERD-related work absenteeism and presenteeism were substantial in all countries (from €55/week per employed patient in the UK to €273/patient in Sweden. Reductions in productivity in daily life of up to 26% were observed across the European countries. Conclusion GERD places a significant burden on primary care patients, in terms of work absenteeism and

  16. Understanding the links among neuromedin U gene, beta2-adrenoceptor gene and bone health: an observational study in European children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Gianfagna

    Full Text Available Neuromedin U, encoded by the NMU gene, is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that regulates both energy metabolism and bone mass. The beta-2 adrenergic receptor, encoded by the ADRB2 gene, mediates several effects of catecholamine hormones and neurotransmitters in bone. We investigated whether NMU single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and haplotypes, as well as functional ADRB2 SNPs, are associated with bone stiffness in children from the IDEFICS cohort, also evaluating whether NMU and ADRB2 interact to affect this trait. A sample of 2,274 subjects (52.5% boys, age 6.2 ± 1.8 years from eight European countries, having data on calcaneus bone stiffness index (SI, mean of both feet and genotyping (NMU gene: rs6827359, rs12500837, rs9999653; ADRB2 gene: rs1042713, rs1042714, was studied. After false discovery rate adjustment, SI was significantly associated with all NMU SNPs. rs6827359 CC homozygotes showed the strongest association (recessive model, Δ= -1.8, p=0.006. Among the five retrieved haplotypes with frequencies higher than 1% (range 2.0-43.9%, the CCT haplotype (frequency=39.7% was associated with lower SI values (dominant model, Δ= -1.0, p=0.04 as compared to the most prevalent haplotype. A non-significant decrease in SI was observed in in ADRB2 rs1042713 GG homozygotes, while subjects carrying SI-lowering genotypes at both SNPs (frequency = 8.4% showed much lower SI than non-carriers (Δ= -3.9, p<0.0001; p for interaction=0.025. The association was more evident in preschool girls, in whom SI showed a curvilinear trend across ages. In subgroup analyses, rs9999653 CC NMU or both GG ADRB2 genotypes were associated with either lower serum calcium or β-CrossLaps levels (p=0.01. This study in European children shows, for the first time in humans, a role for NMU gene through interaction with ADRB2 gene in bone strength regulation, more evident in preschool girls.

  17. Impact of gastroesophageal reflux disease on work absenteeism, presenteeism and productivity in daily life: a European observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisbert, Javier P; Cooper, Alun; Karagiannis, Dimitrios; Hatlebakk, Jan; Agréus, Lars; Jablonowski, Helmut; Nuevo, Javier

    2009-10-16

    The RANGE (Retrospective ANalysis of GastroEsophageal reflux disease [GERD]) study assessed differences among patients consulting a primary care physician due to GERD-related reasons in terms of: symptoms, diagnosis and management, response to treatment, and effects on productivity, costs and health-related quality of life. This subanalysis of RANGE determined the impact of GERD on productivity in work and daily life. RANGE was conducted at 134 primary care sites across six European countries (Germany, Greece, Norway, Spain, Sweden and the UK). All subjects (aged >or=18 years) who consulted with their primary care physician over a 4-month identification period were screened retrospectively, and those consulting at least once for GERD-related reasons were identified (index visit). From this population, a random sample was selected to enter the study and attended a follow-up appointment, during which the impact of GERD on productivity while working (absenteeism and presenteeism) and in daily life was evaluated using the self-reported Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire for patients with GERD (WPAI-GERD). Overall, 373,610 subjects consulted with their primary care physician over the 4-month identification period, 12,815 for GERD-related reasons (3.4%); 2678 randomly selected patients attended the follow-up appointment. Average absenteeism due to GERD was highest in Germany (3.2 hours/week) and lowest in the UK (0.4 hours/week), with an average of up to 6.7 additional hours/week lost due to presenteeism in Norway. The average monetary impact of GERD-related work absenteeism and presenteeism were substantial in all countries (from euro55/week per employed patient in the UK to euro273/patient in Sweden). Reductions in productivity in daily life of up to 26% were observed across the European countries. GERD places a significant burden on primary care patients, in terms of work absenteeism and presenteeism and in daily life. The resulting costs to the

  18. Ethics issues in scientific data and service provision: evidence and challenges for the European Plate Observing System (EPOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Massimo; Freda, Carmela; Haslinger, Florian; Consortium, Epos

    2016-04-01

    Addressing Ethics issues is nowadays a relevant challenge for any initiative, program or project dealing with scientific data and products provision, access to services for scientific purposes and communication with different stakeholders, including society. This is corroborated by the evidence that Ethics has very high priority in EU funded research. Indeed, all the activities carried out under Horizon 2020 must comply with ethical principles and national, Union and international legislation. This implies that "For all activities funded by the European Union, Ethics is an integral part of research from beginning to end, and ethical compliance is seen as pivotal to achieve real research excellence." Here, we present the experience of EPOS, a public pan-European research infrastructure. EPOS aims at integrating data, data products, services and software (DDSS) for solid Earth science generated and provided by monitoring networks, observing systems and facilities belonging to European countries. EPOS fosters the integrated use of multidisciplinary solid Earth data to improve the understanding of physical and chemical processes controlling earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis as well as those driving tectonics and surface dynamics. The EPOS integration plan will make significant contributions to understanding and mitigating geo-hazards, yielding data for hazard assessment, data products for engaging different stakeholders, and services for training, education and communication to society. Numerous national research infrastructures engaged in EPOS are deployed for the monitoring of areas prone to geo-hazards and for the surveillance of the national territory including areas used for exploiting geo-resources. The EPOS community is therefore already trained to provide services to public (civil defence agencies, local and national authorities) and private (petroleum industry, mining industry, geothermal companies, aviation security) stakeholders. Our ability to

  19. Cytomorphology review of 100 newly diagnosed lower-risk MDS patients in the European LeukemiaNet MDS (EUMDS) registry reveals a high inter-observer concordance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, L. de; Smith, A.; MacKenzie, M.; Symeonidis, A.; Neukirchen, J.; Mikulenkova, D.; Vallespi, T.; Zini, G.; Paszkowska-Kowalewska, M.; Kruger, A.; Saft, L.; Fenaux, P.; Bowen, D.; Hellstrom-Lindberg, E.; Cermak, J.; Stauder, R.; Tatic, A.; Holm, M.S.; Malcovati, L.; Madry, K.; Droste, J.A.; Blijlevens, N.M.; Witte, T.J. de; Germing, U.

    2017-01-01

    The European LeukemiaNet MDS (EUMDS) registry is collecting data of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients belonging to the IPSS low or intermediate-1 category, newly diagnosed by local cytologists. The diagnosis of MDS can be challenging, and some data report inter-observer variability with regard

  20. Introduction to the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP and observed atmospheric composition change during 1972–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Yttri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available European scale harmonized monitoring of atmospheric composition was initiated in the early 1970s, and the activity has generated a comprehensive dataset (available at http://www.emep.int which allows the evaluation of regional and spatial trends of air pollution during a period of nearly 40 yr. Results from the monitoring made within EMEP, the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme, show large reductions in ambient concentrations and deposition of sulphur species during the last decades. Reductions are in the order of 70–90% since the year 1980, and correspond well with reported emission changes. Also reduction in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx are reflected in the measurements, with an average decrease of nitrogen dioxide and nitrate in precipitation by about 23% and 25% respectively since 1990. Only minor reductions are however seen since the late 1990s. The concentrations of total nitrate in air have decreased on average only by 8% since 1990, and fewer sites show a significant trend. A majority of the EMEP sites show a decreasing trend in reduced nitrogen both in air and precipitation on the order of 25% since 1990. Deposition of base cations has decreased during the past 30 yr, and the pH in precipitation has increased across Europe. Large inter annual variations in the particulate matter mass concentrations reflect meteorological variability, but still there is a relatively clear overall decrease at several sites during the last decade. With few observations going back to the 1990s, the observed chemical composition is applied to document a change in particulate matter (PM mass even since 1980. These data indicate an overall reduction of about 5 μg m−3 from sulphate alone. Despite the significant reductions in sulphur emissions, sulphate still remains one of the single most important compounds contributing to regional scale aerosol mass concentration. Long-term ozone trends at EMEP sites show a mixed pattern. The year

  1. Multiyear high-resolution carbon exchange over European croplands from the integration of observed crop yields into CarbonTracker Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combe, Marie; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Jordi; de Wit, Allard; Peters, Wouter

    2016-04-01

    Carbon exchange over croplands plays an important role in the European carbon cycle over daily-to-seasonal time scales. Not only do crops occupy one fourth of the European land area, but their photosynthesis and respiration are large and affect CO2 mole fractions at nearly every atmospheric CO2 monitoring site. A better description of this crop carbon exchange in our CarbonTracker Europe data assimilation system - which currently treats crops as unmanaged grasslands - could strongly improve its ability to constrain terrestrial carbon fluxes. Available long-term observations of crop yield, harvest, and cultivated area allow such improvements, when combined with the new crop-modeling framework we present. This framework can model the carbon fluxes of 10 major European crops at high spatial and temporal resolution, on a 12x12 km grid and 3-hourly time-step. The development of this framework is threefold: firstly, we optimize crop growth using the process-based WOrld FOod STudies (WOFOST) agricultural crop growth model. Simulated yields are downscaled to match regional crop yield observations from the Statistical Office of the European Union (EUROSTAT) by estimating a yearly regional parameter for each crop species: the yield gap factor. This step allows us to better represent crop phenology, to reproduce the observed multiannual European crop yields, and to construct realistic time series of the crop carbon fluxes (gross primary production, GPP, and autotrophic respiration, Raut) on a fine spatial and temporal resolution. Secondly, we combine these GPP and Raut fluxes with a simple soil respiration model to obtain the total ecosystem respiration (TER) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE). And thirdly, we represent the horizontal transport of carbon that follows crop harvest and its back-respiration into the atmosphere during harvest consumption. We distribute this carbon using observations of the density of human and ruminant populations from EUROSTAT. We assess the model

  2. Potential of European 14CO2 observation network to estimate the fossil fuel CO2 emissions via atmospheric inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yilong; Broquet, Grégoire; Ciais, Philippe; Chevallier, Frédéric; Vogel, Felix; Wu, Lin; Yin, Yi; Wang, Rong; Tao, Shu

    2018-03-01

    -emitting regions, even assuming a dense observation network covering the whole of Europe. This study also shows that both the theoretical uncertainty reduction (and resulting posterior uncertainty) from the inversion and the posterior estimate of emissions itself, for a given prior and true estimate of the emissions, are highly sensitive to the choice between two configurations of the prior uncertainty derived from the general estimate by inventory compilers or computations on existing inventories. In particular, when the configuration of the prior uncertainty statistics in the inversion system does not match the difference between these prior and true estimates, the posterior estimate of emissions deviates significantly from the truth. This highlights the difficulty of filtering the targeted signal in the model-data misfit for this specific inversion framework, the need to strongly rely on the prior uncertainty characterization for this and, consequently, the need for improved estimates of the uncertainties in current emission inventories for real applications with actual data. We apply the posterior uncertainty in annual emissions to the problem of detecting a trend of FFCO2, showing that increasing the monitoring period (e.g., more than 20 years) is more efficient than reducing uncertainty in annual emissions by adding stations. The coarse spatial resolution of the atmospheric transport model used in this OSSE (typical of models used for global inversions of natural CO2 fluxes) leads to large representation errors (related to the inability of the transport model to capture the spatial variability of the actual fluxes and mixing ratios at subgrid scales), which is a key limitation of our OSSE setup to improve the accuracy of the monitoring of FFCO2 emissions in European regions. Using a high-resolution transport model should improve the potential to retrieve FFCO2 emissions, and this needs to be investigated.

  3. Potential of European 14CO2 observation network to estimate the fossil fuel CO2 emissions via atmospheric inversions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2018-03-01

    remains limited over low-emitting regions, even assuming a dense observation network covering the whole of Europe. This study also shows that both the theoretical uncertainty reduction (and resulting posterior uncertainty from the inversion and the posterior estimate of emissions itself, for a given prior and true estimate of the emissions, are highly sensitive to the choice between two configurations of the prior uncertainty derived from the general estimate by inventory compilers or computations on existing inventories. In particular, when the configuration of the prior uncertainty statistics in the inversion system does not match the difference between these prior and true estimates, the posterior estimate of emissions deviates significantly from the truth. This highlights the difficulty of filtering the targeted signal in the model–data misfit for this specific inversion framework, the need to strongly rely on the prior uncertainty characterization for this and, consequently, the need for improved estimates of the uncertainties in current emission inventories for real applications with actual data. We apply the posterior uncertainty in annual emissions to the problem of detecting a trend of FFCO2, showing that increasing the monitoring period (e.g., more than 20 years is more efficient than reducing uncertainty in annual emissions by adding stations. The coarse spatial resolution of the atmospheric transport model used in this OSSE (typical of models used for global inversions of natural CO2 fluxes leads to large representation errors (related to the inability of the transport model to capture the spatial variability of the actual fluxes and mixing ratios at subgrid scales, which is a key limitation of our OSSE setup to improve the accuracy of the monitoring of FFCO2 emissions in European regions. Using a high-resolution transport model should improve the potential to retrieve FFCO2 emissions, and this needs to be investigated.

  4. OMI and Ground-Based In-Situ Tropospheric Nitrogen Dioxide Observations over Several Important European Cities during 2005–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiru Paraschiv

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present the evolution of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2 content over several important European cities during 2005–2014 using space observations and ground-based in-situ measurements. The NO2 content was derived using the daily observations provided by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI, while the NO2 volume mixing ratio measurements were obtained from the European Environment Agency (EEA air quality monitoring stations database. The European cities selected are: Athens (37.98° N, 23.72° E, Berlin (52.51° N, 13.41° E, Bucharest (44.43° N, 26.10° E, Madrid (40.38° N, 3.71° W, Lisbon (38.71° N, 9.13° W, Paris (48.85° N, 2.35° E, Rome (41.9° N, 12.50° E, and Rotterdam (51.91° N, 4.46° E. We show that OMI NO2 tropospheric column data can be used to assess the evolution of NO2 over important European cities. According to the statistical analysis, using the seasonal variation, we found good correlations (R > 0.50 between OMI and ground-based in-situ observations for all of the cities presented in this work. Highest correlation coefficients (R > 0.80 between ground-based monitoring stations and OMI observations were calculated for the cities of Berlin, Madrid, and Rome. Both types of observations, in-situ and remote sensing, show an NO2 negative trend for all of locations presented in this study.

  5. Inverse modelling of European CH4 emissions during 2006-2012 using different inverse models and reassessed atmospheric observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, Peter; Karstens, Ute; Manning, Alistair J.; Saunois, Marielle; Tsuruta, Aki; Berchet, Antoine; Vermeulen, Alexander T.; Arnold, Tim; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Hammer, Samuel; Levin, Ingeborg; Schmidt, Martina; Ramonet, Michel; Lopez, Morgan; Lavric, Jost; Aalto, Tuula; Chen, Huilin; Feist, Dietrich G.; Gerbig, Christoph; Haszpra, László; Hermansen, Ove; Manca, Giovanni; Moncrieff, John; Meinhardt, Frank; Necki, Jaroslaw; Galkowski, Michal; O'Doherty, Simon; Paramonova, Nina; Scheeren, Hubertus A.; Steinbacher, Martin; Dlugokencky, Ed

    2018-01-01

    We present inverse modelling (top down) estimates of European methane (CH4) emissions for 2006-2012 based on a new quality-controlled and harmonised in situ data set from 18 European atmospheric monitoring stations. We applied an ensemble of seven inverse models and performed four inversion experiments, investigating the impact of different sets of stations and the use of a priori information on emissions. The inverse models infer total CH4 emissions of 26.8 (20.2-29.7) Tg CH4 yr-1 (mean, 10th and 90th percentiles from all inversions) for the EU-28 for 2006-2012 from the four inversion experiments. For comparison, total anthropogenic CH4 emissions reported to UNFCCC (bottom up, based on statistical data and emissions factors) amount to only 21.3 Tg CH4 yr-1 (2006) to 18.8 Tg CH4 yr-1 (2012). A potential explanation for the higher range of top-down estimates compared to bottom-up inventories could be the contribution from natural sources, such as peatlands, wetlands, and wet soils. Based on seven different wetland inventories from the Wetland and Wetland CH4 Inter-comparison of Models Project (WETCHIMP), total wetland emissions of 4.3 (2.3-8.2) Tg CH4 yr-1 from the EU-28 are estimated. The hypothesis of significant natural emissions is supported by the finding that several inverse models yield significant seasonal cycles of derived CH4 emissions with maxima in summer, while anthropogenic CH4 emissions are assumed to have much lower seasonal variability. Taking into account the wetland emissions from the WETCHIMP ensemble, the top-down estimates are broadly consistent with the sum of anthropogenic and natural bottom-up inventories. However, the contribution of natural sources and their regional distribution remain rather uncertain. Furthermore, we investigate potential biases in the inverse models by comparison with regular aircraft profiles at four European sites and with vertical profiles obtained during the Infrastructure for Measurement of the European Carbon

  6. Online information about risks and benefits of screening mammography in 10 European countries: An observational Web sites analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnoli, Laura; Navaro, Monica; Ferrara, Pietro; Del Prete, Viola; Attena, Francesco

    2018-06-01

    Most publications about breast cancer do not provide accurate and comprehensive information, giving few or no data about risk/benefit ratios. We conducted a comparative study among 10 European countries about health information on breast cancer screening, assessing the first 10 Web sites addressing the general public that appeared following an Internet search.With the help of medical residents involved in the EuroNet MRPH Association, we analyzed the first 30 results of an Internet search in 10 European countries to determine the first 10 sites that offered screening mammography. We searched for the following information: source of information, general information on mammography and breast cancer screening, potential harms and risks (false positives, false positives after biopsy, false negatives, interval cancer, overdiagnosis, lead-time bias, and radiation exposure), and potential benefits (reduced mortality and increased survival).The United Kingdom provided the most information: 39 of all 70 possible identified risks (56%) were reported on its sites. Five nations presented over 35% of the possible information (United Kingdom, Spain, France, Ireland, and Italy); the others were under 30% (Portugal, Poland, Slovenia, Netherlands, and Croatia). Regarding the benefits, sites offering the most complete information were those in France (95%) and Poland (90%).Our results suggest that, despite consensus in the scientific community about providing better information to citizens, further efforts are needed to improve information about breast cancer screening. That conclusion also applies to countries showing better results. We believe that there should be greater coordination in this regard throughout Europe.

  7. Observations on the seasonal incidence of myxomatosis and its interactions with helminth parasites in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boag, B

    1988-07-01

    European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were collected monthly over a 10-yr period and the incidence of myxomatosis and the size of helminth populations were recorded. Myxomatosis occurred annually, always as an epidemic in the latter half of the year and was associated with both an increase in the percentage of animals infected and the size of the infections of the nematodes Trichostrongylus retortaeformis and Passalurus ambiguus and the cestode Mosgovoyia pectinata. It is suggested that myxomatosis had the effect of reducing the rabbits' overall immune response to infection and that due to the regular annual occurrence of myxomatosis, the resulting increase in the size of helminth infections must be considered an integral part of the population dynamics of these parasites.

  8. Knowledge base for growth and innovation in ocean economy: assembly and dissemination of marine data for seabed mapping - European Marine Observation Data Network - EMODnet Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novellino, Antonio; Gorringe, Patrick; Schaap, Dick; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Rickards, Lesley; Manzella, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    The Physics preparatory action (MARE/2010/02 - Lot [SI2.579120]) had the overall objectives to provide access to archived and near real-time data on physical conditions as monitored by fixed stations and Ferrybox lines in all the European sea basins and oceans and to determine how well the data meet the needs of users. The existing EMODnet-Physics portal, www.emodnet-physics.eu, includes systems for physical data from the whole Europe (wave height and period, temperature of the water column, wind speed and direction, salinity of the water column, horizontal velocity of the water column, light attenuation, and sea level) provided mainly by fixed stations and ferry-box platforms, discovering related data sets (both near real time and historical data sets), viewing and downloading of the data from about 470 platforms across the European Sea basins. It makes layers of physical data and their metadata available for use and contributes towards the definition of an operational European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet). It is based on a strong collaboration between EuroGOOS member institutes and its regional operational oceanographic systems (ROOSs), and it brings together two marine, but different, communities : the "real time" ocean observing institutes and centers and the National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODCs) that are in charge for archived ocean data validation, quality check and continuous update of data archives for marine environmental monitoring. EMODnet Physics is a Marine Observation and Data Information System that provides a single point of access to near real time and historical achieved data, it is built on existing infrastructure by adding value and avoiding any unnecessary complexity, it provides data access to any relevant user, and is aimed at attracting new data holders and providing better and more data. With a long term-vision for a sustained pan European Ocean Observation System EMODnet Physics is supporting the coordination of the

  9. 25-Hydroxyvitamin-D3 serum modulation after use of sunbeds compliant with European Union standards: A randomized open observational controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Benedikt; Bachmann, Chantal C; Braun, Ralph; Abraham, Alison G; Serra, Andreas L; Hofbauer, Günther F L

    2017-07-01

    Regular use of sunbed exposure has been reported to increase 25-hydroxyvitamin-D3 [25(OH)D] serum levels. However, the influence of sunbeds compliant with the recent European Union standard EN-60335-2-27 on 25(OH)D serum levels is unknown. We investigated the impact of standard sunbed use compliant with the European Union standard on 25(OH)D serum modulation and well-being. In a randomized controlled study, 25(OH)D serum levels were measured at enrollment, after 1 week, and after completion of the 12-week period of sunbed use with twice weekly exposure and compared with the control group without any sunbed exposure. In the sunbed intervention group (N = 31), a 27% increase of mean 25(OH)D levels was noted 1 week after starting sunbed use (P European Union standard induced a transient increase of 25(OH)D levels, whereas no change in well-being was observed. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Contributions of the German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ) to the EPOS (European Plate Observing System) Implementation Phase 2015-18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, T. L.; Lauterjung, J.

    2017-12-01

    The European Plate Observing System project is currently approaching the end of year two of its four-year Implementation Phase 2015-18 (EPOS-IP). Under the Horizon 2020 Programme INFRADEV-3, the EPOS cyberinfrastructure is being established as an ERIC (European Research Infrastructure Consortium) and encompasses the implementation of both the EPOS Integrated Core Services (ICS) for solid Earth Science and a multitude of EPOS Thematic Core Services (TCS). During year two, a basic set of ICS and TCS services was developed and implemented, so that in October 2017 the validation phase (year 3) of EPOS is ready to be launched. Up to now, various TCS-Elements have integrated different Service Providers (SD) that are delivering Data, Data Products, Services and Software (DDSS) to their specific scientific community. As one of the 29 awardees of the EC grant, the German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ) plays an important role in the implementation of EPOS and its Thematic and Integrated Core Services. The presented poster will give an overview of GFZ's participation in the work of nine technical EPOS Work Packages (WP7 ICS Development, WP8 Seismology, WP11 Volcano Observations, WP12 Satellite Data, WP13 Geomagnetic Observations, WP14 Anthropogenic Hazards, WP15 Geological Information and Modelling, WP16 Multi-Scale Laboratories and WP17 Geo Energy Test Beds) as well as in four administrative EPOS Work Packages (WP2 Communication, WP3 Harmonization, WP4 Legal & Governance, and WP5 Financial).

  11. Compliance of blood sampling procedures with the CLSI H3-A6 guidelines: An observational study by the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) working group for the preanalytical phase (WG-PRE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simundic, Ana-Maria; Church, Stephen; Cornes, Michael P.; Grankvist, Kjell; Lippi, Giuseppe; Nybo, Mads; Nikolac, Nora; van Dongen-Lases, Edmee; Eker, Pinar; Kovalevskaya, Svjetlana; Kristensen, Gunn B. B.; Sprongl, Ludek; Sumarac, Zorica

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: An observational study was conducted in 12 European countries by the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine Working Group for the Preanalytical Phase (EFLM WG-PRE) to assess the level of compliance with the CLSI H3-A6 guidelines. Methods: A structured

  12. FIN-EPOS - Finnish national initiative of the European Plate Observing System: Bringing Finnish solid Earth infrastructures into EPOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorinen, Tommi; Korja, Annakaisa

    2017-04-01

    FIN-EPOS consortium is a joint community of Finnish national research institutes tasked with operating and maintaining solid-earth geophysical and geological observatories and laboratories in Finland. These national research infrastructures (NRIs) seek to join EPOS research infrastructure (EPOS RI) and further pursue Finland's participation as a founding member in EPOS ERIC (European Research Infrastructure Consortium). Current partners of FIN-EPOS are the University of Helsinki (UH), the University of and Oulu (UO), Finnish Geospatial Research Institute (FGI) of the National Land Survey (NLS), Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Geological Survey of Finland (GTK), CSC - IT Center for Science and MIKES Metrology at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd. The consortium is hosted by the Institute of Seismology, UH (ISUH). The primary purpose of the consortium is to act as a coordinating body between various NRIs and the EPOS RI. FIN-EPOS engages in planning and development of the national EPOS RI and will provide support in EPOS implementation phase (IP) for the partner NRIs. FIN-EPOS also promotes the awareness of EPOS in Finland and is open to new partner NRIs that would benefit from participating in EPOS. The consortium additionally seeks to advance solid Earth science education, technologies and innovations in Finland and is actively engaging in Nordic co-operation and collaboration of solid Earth RIs. The main short term objective of FIN-EPOS is to make Finnish geoscientific data provided by NRIs interoperable with the Thematic Core Services (TCS) in the EPOS IP. Consortium partners commit into applying and following metadata and data format standards provided by EPOS. FIN-EPOS will also provide a national Finnish language web portal where users are identified and their user rights for EPOS resources are defined.

  13. A preliminary observation on the pond culture of European eel, Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus, 1758) in Egypt: recommendations for future studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shebly, Abdalla A; El-kady, Mohamed A H; Hossain, M Yeamin

    2007-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the potential of the European eel, Anguilla anguilla for earthen pond aquaculture without supplementary feeding at Lake Manzala, Egypt. Juvenile A. anguilla of mean length 11.7 cm and 2.4 g weight were stocked in earthen ponds measuring 3 feddans (about 12,600 m2) and 1 m deep. Stocking was done in May 2003 at a rate of 5000 fish feddan(-1) in a polyculture system including tilapia and mullets and fed mainly on natural occurring prey (natural spawned tilapia) and small shrimp. The eels were culture for a period of 2 years, May 2003 to April 2005. Sampling for growth and survival were evaluated yearly. At the end of the culture period, the gross weight of the harvested eels was measured and the net pond production calculated by the difference between weight stocked and weight harvested. Temperature varied from 11.5 to 28.2 degrees C and 12.2 to 29.3 degrees C; P(H), 7.3 to 8.9 and 7.5 to 8.8; Dissolved Oxygen (DO), 5.2 to 9.8 mg L(-1) and 4.1 to 8.3 mg L(-1); and Salinity, 2.5 to 5.5 psu and 3.0 to 6.8 psu for first year and second year, respectively. At the end of the culture period, A. anguilla attained average weight of 121.4 g fish(-1) at the end of the first year and a weight range of 152.5 to 430 g fish(-1) with an average of 280.36 g fish(-1) at the end of the second year. Survival rate ranged from 91% during the first year to 100% during the second year. Net eel production was 540.18 kg feddan(-1) at the end of the first year and 723.36 kg feddan(-1) at the end of the second year. Daily increments in weight per fish were 0.33 and 0.44 for first and second year, respectively. This experiment demonstrated the possibility of cultivation of eels as well as the higher growth rate in earthen ponds. The aquaculture strategy of eel with high stocking densities through low cost artificial feeds are recommended in future studies.

  14. Olanzapine monotherapy and olanzapine combination therapy in the treatment of mania: 12-week results from the European Mania in Bipolar Longitudinal Evaluation of Medication (EMBLEM) observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieta, Eduard; Panicali, Francesco; Goetz, Iris; Reed, Catherine; Comes, Merce; Tohen, Mauricio

    2008-02-01

    To evaluate the 12-week outcomes (effectiveness, tolerability, and patterns of medication use) of olanzapine (either in antimanic monotherapy or in combination with other antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, and/or lithium) in patients with bipolar mania or mixed mania. EMBLEM (European Mania in Bipolar Longitudinal Evaluation of Medication) is a 24-month prospective observational study of in- and outpatients with acute mania/mixed mania conducted in 14 European countries. Primary outcome measures included Clinical Global Impressions-Bipolar Disorder scale (overall, mania, and depression); 5-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; and Young Mania Rating Scale. Tolerability measures included a questionnaire to assess patients' symptomatic complaints. Overall, 2004 patients received olanzapine (olanzapine monotherapy, n=673; olanzapine combination, n=1331). Concomitant therapy with antidepressants and/or anxiolytics was possible in both groups. The countries significantly differed in the use of olanzapine monotherapy versus olanzapine combination (pEMBLEM results suggest that in naturalistic settings, olanzapine (both as monotherapy and combination) may be effective in treating patients with bipolar mania. The use of olanzapine monotherapy or combination varies significantly across countries, but combination is generally the rule, rather than the exception.

  15. Size Matters: Observed and Modeled Camouflage Response of European Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) to Different Substrate Patch Sizes during Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josef, Noam; Berenshtein, Igal; Rousseau, Meghan; Scata, Gabriella; Fiorito, Graziano; Shashar, Nadav

    2016-01-01

    Camouflage is common throughout the phylogenetic tree and is largely used to minimize detection by predator or prey. Cephalopods, and in particular Sepia officinalis cuttlefish, are common models for camouflage studies. Predator avoidance behavior is particularly important in this group of soft-bodied animals that lack significant physical defenses. While previous studies have suggested that immobile cephalopods selectively camouflage to objects in their immediate surroundings, the camouflage characteristics of cuttlefish during movement are largely unknown. In a heterogenic environment, the visual background and substrate feature changes quickly as the animal swim across it, wherein substrate patch is a distinctive and high contrast patch of substrate in the animal's trajectory. In the current study, we examine the effect of substrate patch size on cuttlefish camouflage, and specifically the minimal size of an object for eliciting intensity matching response while moving. Our results indicated that substrate patch size has a positive effect on animal's reflectance change, and that the threshold patch size resulting in camouflage response falls between 10 and 19 cm (width). These observations suggest that the animal's length (7.2-12.3 cm mantle length in our case) serves as a possible threshold filter below which objects are considered irrelevant for camouflage, reducing the frequency of reflectance changes-which may lead to detection. Accordingly, we have constructed a computational model capturing the main features of the observed camouflaging behavior, provided for cephalopod camouflage during movement.

  16. European larch phenology in the Alps: can we grasp the role of ecological factors by combining field observations and inverse modelling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliavacca, M.; Cremonese, E.; Colombo, R.; Busetto, L.; Galvagno, M.; Ganis, L.; Meroni, M.; Pari, E.; Rossini, M.; Siniscalco, C.; Morra di Cella, U.

    2008-09-01

    Vegetation phenology is strongly influenced by climatic factors. Climate changes may cause phenological variations, especially in the Alps which are considered to be extremely vulnerable to global warming. The main goal of our study is to analyze European larch ( Larix decidua Mill.) phenology in alpine environments and the role of the ecological factors involved, using an integrated approach based on accurate field observations and modelling techniques. We present 2 years of field-collected larch phenological data, obtained following a specifically designed observation protocol. We observed that both spring and autumn larch phenology is strongly influenced by altitude. We propose an approach for the optimization of a spring warming model (SW) and the growing season index model (GSI) consisting of a model inversion technique, based on simulated look-up tables (LUTs), that provides robust parameter estimates. The optimized models showed excellent agreement between modelled and observed data: the SW model predicts the beginning of the growing season (BGS) with a mean RMSE of 4 days, while GSI gives a prediction of the growing season length (LGS) with a RMSE of 5 days. Moreover, we showed that the original GSI parameters led to consistent errors, while the optimized ones significantly increased model accuracy. Finally, we used GSI to investigate interactions of ecological factors during springtime development and autumn senescence. We found that temperature is the most effective factor during spring recovery while photoperiod plays an important role during autumn senescence: photoperiod shows a contrasting effect with altitude decreasing its influence with increasing altitude.

  17. The Eldicus prospective, observational study of triage decision making in European intensive care units. Part II: Intensive care benefit for the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprung, Charles L; Artigas, Antonio; Kesecioglu, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    on mortality and intensive care unit benefit, specifically for elderly patients. DESIGN:: Prospective, observational study of triage decisions from September 2003 until March 2005. SETTING:: Eleven intensive care units in seven European countries. PATIENTS:: All patients >18 yrs with an explicit request......RATIONALE:: Life and death triage decisions are made daily by intensive care unit physicians. Admission to an intensive care unit is denied when intensive care unit resources are constrained, especially for the elderly. OBJECTIVE:: To determine the effect of intensive care unit triage decisions...... care unit rejections than younger patients and have a higher mortality when admitted, the mortality benefit appears greater for the elderly. Physicians should consider changing their intensive care unit triage practices for the elderly....

  18. CH4 emissions from European Major Population Centers: Results from aircraft-borne CH4 in-situ observations during EMeRGe-Europe campaign 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiger, A.; Klausner, T.; Schlager, H.; Ziereis, H.; Huntrieser, H.; Baumann, R.; Eirenschmalz, L.; Joeckel, P.; Mertens, M.; Fisher, R.; Bauguitte, S.; Young, S.; Andrés Hernández, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    Urban environments represent large and diffuse area sources of CH4 including emissions from pipeline leaks, industrial/sewage treatment plants, and landfills. However, there is little knowledge about the exact magnitude of these emissions and their contribution to total anthropogenic CH4. Especially in the context of an urbanizing world, a better understanding of the methane footprint of urban areas is crucial, both with respect to mitigation and projection of climate impacts. Aircraft-borne in-situ measurements are particularly useful to both quantify emissions from such area sources, as well as to study their impact on the regional distribution. However, airborne CH4 observations downstream of European cities are especially sparse.Here we report from aircraft-borne CH4 in-situ measurements as conducted during the HALO aircraft campaign EMeRGe (Effect of Megacities on the Transport and Transformation of Pollutants on the Regional to Global Scales) in July 2017, which was led by the University of Bremen, Germany. During seven research flights, emissions from a variety of European (Mega)-cities were probed at different altitudes from 3km down to 500m, including measurements in the outflows of London, Rome, Po Valley, Ruhr and Benelux. We will present and compare the CH4 distribution measured downstream of the various studied urban hot-spots. With the help of other trace gas measurements (including e.g. CO2, CO, O3, SO2), observed methane enhancements will be attributed to the different potential source types. Finally, by the combination of in-situ measurements and regional model simulations using the EMAC-MECO(n) model, the contribution of emissions from urban centers to the regional methane budget over Europe will be discussed.

  19. Social Support and Health in Diabetes Patients: An Observational Study in Six European Countries in an Era of Austerity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Koetsenruijter

    Full Text Available Support from individual social networks, community organizations and neighborhoods is associated with better self-management and health outcomes. This international study examined the relative impact of different types of support on health and health-related behaviors in patients with type 2 diabetes.Observational study (using interviews and questionnaires in a sample of 1,692 type 2 diabetes patients with 5,433 connections from Bulgaria, Greece, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, and the United Kingdom. Outcomes were patient-reported health status (SF-12, physical exercise (RAPA, diet and smoking (SDCSCA. Random coefficient regression models were used to examine linkages with individual networks, community organizations, and neighborhood type (deprived rural, deprived urban, or affluent urban.Patients had a median of 3 support connections and 34.6% participated in community organizations. Controlled for patients' age, sex, education, income and comorbidities, large emotional support networks were associated with decrease of non-smoking (OR = 0.87. Large practical support networks were associated with worse physical and mental health (B = -0.46 and -0.27 respectively and less physical activity (OR = 0.90. Participation in community organizations was associated with better physical and mental health (B = 1.39 and 1.22, respectively and, in patients with low income, with more physical activity (OR = 1.53.Participation in community organizations was most consistently related to better health status. Many diabetes patients have individual support networks, but this study did not provide evidence to increase their size as a public health strategy. The consistent association between participation in community organizations and health status provides a clear target for interventions and policies.

  20. The phase-in and phase-out of European emissions of HCFC-141b and HCFC-142b under the Montreal Protocol: Evidence from observations at Mace Head, Ireland and Jungfraujoch, Switzerland from 1994 to 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derwent, R. G.; Simmonds, P. G.; Greally, B. R.; O'doherty, S.; McCulloch, A.; Manning, A.; Reimann, S.; Folini, D.; Vollmer, M. K.

    The mixing ratios of HCFC-141b (1,1-dichlorofluoroethane) and HCFC-142b (1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane) have been rising steadily in baseline air at Mace Head, Ireland over the 10-year period from 1994 to 2004. These HCFCs are widely used replacements for the chlorofluorocarbons phased out under the Montreal Protocol and its subsequent amendments. Analysis of the HCFC content of regionally-polluted air arriving at Mace Head from the European continent shows that European emissions reached a peak during 2000-2001 and have declined subsequently, following the phase-out in their usage. European emissions of HCFC-141b have been further constrained by observations at the High-Alpine Jungfraujoch site. The reductions are consistent with the phase-out of HCFC production and use from the year 2001 onwards mandated by European regulations designed to exceed the requirements of the Montreal Protocol.

  1. The Rome II Regulation on the Law Applicable to Non-Contractual Obligations: The European Private International Law Tradition Continued. : Introductory Observations, Scope, System, and General Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X.E. Kramer (Xandra)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe establishment of Regulation No 864/2007 on the Law Applicable to Non-Contractual Obligations (Rome II) is a landmark for European Private International Law. The regulation of torts in the European Union has a history of forty years, starting with the preparation of the Rome

  2. The impact of childhood acute rotavirus gastroenteritis on the parents’ quality of life: prospective observational study in European primary care medical practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Javier

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotavirus (RV is the commonest cause of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. A Quality of Life study was conducted in primary care in three European countries as part of a larger epidemiological study (SPRIK to investigate the impact of paediatric rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE on affected children and their parents. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was linguistically validated in Spanish, Italian and Polish. The questionnaire was included in an observational multicentre prospective study of 302 children aged Results Questionnaire responses showed that acute RVGE in a child adversely affects the parents’ daily life as well as the child. Parents of children with RVGE experience worry, distress and impact on their daily activities. RVGE of greater clinical severity (assessed by the Vesikari scale was associated with higher parental worries due to symptoms and greater changes in the child’s behaviour, and a trend to higher impact on parents’ daily activities and higher parental distress, together with a higher score on the symptom severity scale of the questionnaire. Conclusions Parents of a child with acute RVGE presenting to primary care experience worry, distress and disruptions to daily life as a result of the child’s illness. Prevention of this disease through prophylactic vaccination will improve the daily lives of parents and children.

  3. Health Resource Utilization Associated with Skeletal-Related Events in Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer: A European Subgroup Analysis from an Observational, Multinational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Bahl

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to increase the understanding of health resource utilization (HRU associated with skeletal-related events (SREs occurring in patients with bone metastases secondary to advanced prostate cancer. A total of 120 patients from Germany, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom were enrolled in this observational study. They had bone metastases secondary to prostate cancer and had experienced at least one SRE in the 97 days before giving informed consent. HRU data were collected retrospectively for 97 days before enrolment and prospectively for up to 18–21 months. HRU, including the number and duration of inpatient hospitalizations, number of outpatient and emergency department visits and procedures, was independently attributed by investigators to an SRE. Of the 222 SREs included in this analysis, 26% were associated with inpatient stays and the mean duration per SRE was 21.4 days (standard deviation (SD 17.8 days. Overall, 174 SREs (78% required an outpatient visit and the mean number of visits per SRE was 4.6 (SD 4.6. All SREs are associated with substantial HRU. Preventing SREs in patients with advanced prostate cancer and bone metastases may help to reduce the burden to both patients and European healthcare systems.

  4. Cytomorphology review of 100 newly diagnosed lower-risk MDS patients in the European LeukemiaNet MDS (EUMDS) registry reveals a high inter-observer concordance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Swart, Louise; Smith, Alex; MacKenzie, Marius; Symeonidis, Argiris; Neukirchen, Judith; Mikulenková, Dana; Vallespí, Teresa; Zini, Gina; Paszkowska-Kowalewska, Malgorzata; Kruger, Anton; Saft, Leonie; Fenaux, Pierre; Bowen, David; Hellström-Lindberg, Eva; Čermák, Jaroslav; Stauder, Reinhard; Tatic, Aurelia; Holm, Mette Skov; Malcovati, Luca; Mądry, Krzysztof; Droste, Jackie; Blijlevens, Nicole; de Witte, Theo; Germing, Ulrich

    2017-07-01

    The European LeukemiaNet MDS (EUMDS) registry is collecting data of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients belonging to the IPSS low or intermediate-1 category, newly diagnosed by local cytologists. The diagnosis of MDS can be challenging, and some data report inter-observer variability with regard to the assessment of the MDS subtype. In order to ensure that correct diagnoses were made by the participating centres, blood and bone marrow slides of 10% of the first 1000 patients were reviewed by an 11-person panel of cytomorphologists. All slides were rated by at least 3 panel members (median 8 panel members; range 3-9). Marrow slides from 98 out of 105 patients were of good quality and therefore could be rated properly according to the WHO 2001 classification, including assessment of dysplastic lineages. The agreement between the reviewers whether the diagnosis was MDS or non-MDS was strong with an intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.85. Six cases were detected not to fit the entry criteria of the registry, because they were diagnosed uniformly as CMML or AML by the panel members. The agreement by WHO 2001 classification was strong as well (ICC = 0.83). The concordance of the assessment of dysplastic lineages was substantial for megakaryopoiesis and myelopoiesis and moderate for erythropoiesis. Our data show that in general, the inter-observer agreement was high and a very low percentage of misdiagnosed cases had been entered into the EUMDS registry. Further studies including histomorphology are warranted.

  5. An observational European study on clinical outcomes associated with current management strategies for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (ENERGIB-Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Zeynel

    2012-01-01

    This observational, retrospective cohort study assessed outcomes of the current management strategies for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding in several European countries (Belgium, Greece, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Spain, and Turkey) (NCT00797641; ENERGIB). Turkey contributed 23 sites to this study. Adult patients (≥18 years old) consecutively admitted to hospital and who underwent endoscopy for overt non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (hematemesis, melena or hematochezia, with other clinical/laboratory evidence of acute upper GI blood loss) were included in the study. Data were collected from patient medical records regarding bleeding continuation, re-bleeding, pharmacological treatment, surgery, and mortality during a 30-day follow-up period. A total of 423 patients (67.4% men; mean age: 57.8 ± 18.9 years) were enrolled in the Turkish study centers, of whom 96.2% were admitted to hospital with acute non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. At admission, the most common symptom was melena (76.1%); 28.6% of patients were taking aspirin, 19.9% were on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and 7.3% were on proton pump inhibitors. The most common diagnoses were duodenal (45.2%) and gastric (27.7%) ulcers and gastritis/gastric erosions (26.2%). Patients were most often managed in general medical wards (45.4%). A gastrointestinal team was in charge of treatment in 64.8% of cases. Therapeutic procedures were performed in 32.4% of patients during endoscopy. After the endoscopy, most patients (94.6%) received proton pump inhibitors. Mean (SD) hospital stay was 5.36 ± 4.91 days. The cumulative proportions of continued bleeding/re-bleeding, complications and mortality within 30 days of the non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding episode were 9.0%, 5.7% and 2.8%, respectively. In the Turkish sub-group of patients, the significant risk factors for bleeding continuation or re-bleeding were age >65 years, presentation with hematemesis or shock

  6. IMAA (Integrated Measurements of Aerosol in Agri valley) campaign: Multi-instrumental observations at the largest European oil/gas pre-treatment plant area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvello, Mariarosaria; Caggiano, Rosa; Esposito, Francesco; Lettino, Antonio; Sabia, Serena; Summa, Vito; Pavese, Giulia

    2017-11-01

    A short-term intensive multi-instrumental measurement campaign (Integrated Measurements of Aerosol in Agri valley - IMAA) was carried out near the largest European oil and gas pre-treatment plant (Centro Olio Val d'Agri - COVA) in a populated area, where, so far, ample characterization of aerosol loading is missing. As such, between the 2 and 17 July in 2013, using a number of instruments analyses were carried out on physical, chemical, morphological and optical properties of aerosol at this distinctive site, at both ground and over the atmospheric column, including the investigation of the mixing and transformation of particles. The observation of slag silicates with a rough surface texture is consistent with the presence of oil-related activities which represent the only industrial activity in the area. Desulfurization/sulfur liquefaction processes occurring at COVA can explain the peculiar morphology of calcium-sodium-aluminum particles. The common COVA source was associated with high concentrations of sulfur, nickel and zinc, and with significant correlations between zinc-sulfur and zinc-nickel. The Optical Particle Sizer (OPS) data, hygroscopicity and optical properties of atmospheric aerosol are consistent with the typical oil-derived gaseous emissions (e.g. sulfur dioxide and methane) that strongly influence the mixing state of particles and their size distributions. Continuous combustion processes at COVA were found to be responsible for Equivalent Black Carbon (EBC) concentrations from their relevant contribution to the total number of fine particles. The expected significant contribution of WS (water soluble) and BC (Black Carbon) components to the total Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) are consistent with the results from the radiometric model especially for July 3 and 16.

  7. European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.

    1995-01-01

    Different instruments used by European Commission of the European Union for financial support radioactive waste management activities in the Russian Federation are outlined. Three particular programmes in the area are described

  8. Influence of ocean acidification on the organic complexation of iron and copper in Northwest European shelf seas; a combined observational and model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth eAvendaño

    2016-04-01

    -Donnan model in order to approximate the trends observed in measured [MeAL]. We calculated iron and copper speciation in Northwest European shelf water samples at ambient alkalinity and projected increased pCO2 concentrations as a demonstration of the potential of the approach.

  9. Seismic anisotropy in localized shear zones versus distributed tectonic fabrics: examples from geologic and seismic observations in western North America and the European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Kevin H.; Schulte-Pelkum, Vera; Condit, Cailey; Leydier, Thomas; Goncalves, Philippe; Raju, Anissha; Brownlee, Sarah; Orlandini, Omero F.

    2017-04-01

    amphibolite-facies (0.9-1.0 GPa, 700 °C) mafic metagabbro from Precambrian exposures in Montana (USA) and in greenschist-facies (0.7-0.8 GPa, 450-500 °C) metagranites from the External Crystalline Massifs of the European Central Alps. The shear zones are characterized by strain gradients from undeformed coarse-grained protoliths to very fine grained ultramylonite, and by microstructures dominated by CPO-producing deformation mechanisms in the protomylonite and CPO-weakening mechanisms such as dissolution-precipitation creep and grain boundary sliding in the ultramylonite. In the mafic mylonites, the result is a lower seismic anisotropy ( 2%) in the core of the shear zones despite a well-developed hornblende shape-preferred orientation. Preliminary observations of these examples suggest that marginal gradients may contribute as much or more to the bulk anisotropy signal compared to the higher strained cores of these structures. If true, a similar effect could explain some otherwise puzzling anisotropy studies of larger scale shear zones such as from the Himalaya where anisotropy tilt proximal to the Main Himalayan Thrust is notably steeper than expected. In conclusion, while some anisotropy studies of crustal scale deformation patterns are relatively straightforward, others will require careful consideration of the limitations and potential future improvements to seismic detection methods, including ground truthing based on samples and exposures as well as a better understanding of physical processes involved in deformation localization.

  10. Pregnancy outcomes in HIV-positive women in Ukraine, 2000-12 (European Collaborative Study in EuroCoord): an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagkeris, Emmanouil; Malyuta, Ruslan; Volokha, Alla; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Bailey, Heather; Townsend, Claire L; Thorne, Claire

    2015-09-01

    Women living with HIV are potentially at increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, due to a range of factors, including immunosuppression, use of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), and injecting drug use. Rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Ukraine have declined to around 2-4%, but little is known about other pregnancy outcomes in this setting. We used data from an observational prospective cohort study to assess pregnancy outcomes among HIV-positive women in Ukraine. The European Collaborative Study (ECS) in EuroCoord is a continuing cohort study, established in Ukraine in 2000. Eligible women are those with a diagnosis of HIV infection before or during pregnancy (including intrapartum) who deliver liveborn babies at seven sites. Maternal sociodemographic, HIV-related, and delivery (mother and infant) data were collected with study-specific questionnaires. We used Poisson regression models to identify factors associated with preterm delivery (before 37 weeks' gestation) and small weight for gestational age (less than the tenth percentile of weight for gestational age), based on complete cases. Between January, 2000, and July, 2012, data were collected on 8884 HIV-positive mother and liveborn infant pairs. Median maternal age was 26·5 years (IQR 23·1-30·3). 832 (11%) women had WHO stage 3 or 4 HIV and 1474 (17%) had a history of injecting drug use. 7348 (83%) had received antenatal ART. Among 7435 for whom ART type was available, 4396 (50%) had received zidovudine monotherapy and 2949 (33%) combination ART. Preterm delivery was seen in 780 (9%, 95% CI 8-9) of 8860 births overall and in 77 (9%, 7-11) of 889 babies with small size for gestational age. Factors associated with preterm delivery were history of injecting drug use (adjusted risk ratio 1·64, 95% CI 1·38-1·95), no ART (2·94, 2·43-3·57 vs zidovudine monotherapy), antenatal combination ART (1·40, 1·14-1·73 vs zidovudine monotherapy), WHO stage 4 HIV (2·42, 1·71-3·41 vs

  11. Information report by the Commission of European Affairs making observations on the bill project nr 2188 related to energy transition for a green growth - Nr 2199

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auroi, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    After a synthesis which addresses and discusses the climate context and challenge, the importance and complexity of the energy issue within this context, the European commitment on these issues (energy efficiency, energy saving, greenhouse gas emissions), and the content and objectives of the French bill project on energy transition, this report outlines the need of an as quick as possible implementation of energy transition to cope with the climate emergency, and that new international constraints are also advocating for a transition towards a new energy model. It shows that the French bill project fully forms part of the European approach, and proposes additional measures

  12. The European Natural Gas Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correlje, A.F.

    The European Union started the introduction of competition in the European market for natural gas. Today, mid-2016, the process of restructuring is still going on. In parallel, important changes in geopolitical, environmental and technological determinants can be observed in the European and global

  13. Safety and tolerability of tigecycline for the treatment of complicated skin and soft-tissue and intra-abdominal infections: an analysis based on five European observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirao, Xavier; Sánchez García, Miguel; Bassetti, Matteo; Bodmann, Klaus Friedrich; Dupont, Hervé; Montravers, Philippe; Heizmann, Wolfgang R; Capparella, Maria Rita; Simoneau, Damien; Eckmann, Christian

    2013-07-01

    Tigecycline is approved for the treatment of complicated skin and soft-tissue infections (cSSTIs) and complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) in adults. In this analysis the safety and tolerability profile of tigecycline (used alone or in combination) for the treatment of patients with approved indications of cSSTI and cIAI were examined under real-life clinical conditions. Individual patient-level data were pooled from five European observational studies (July 2006 to October 2011). A total of 254 cSSTI and 785 cIAI patients were included. The mean age was 63 years; 34.4% and 56.6% were in intensive care units, 90.9% and 88.1% had at least one comorbidity and mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scores at the beginning of treatment were 15.0 ± 7.9 and 16.9 ± 7.6, respectively. Data on adverse events (AEs) were available for 198 cSSTI and 590 cIAI patients in three studies. Nausea and vomiting were reported in ≤ 2% of patients. The most common serious AEs were multi-organ failure (4.0% and 10.0% in cSSTI and cIAI patients, respectively) and sepsis (4.0% and 6.1%, respectively). Death was recorded for 24/254 (9.4%) cSSTI and 147/785 (18.7%) cIAI patients. Mortality rates were higher in the group with a baseline APACHE II score of >15 compared with those with a score of ≤ 15 (18.7% versus 3.5% for cSSTI patients and 23.8% versus 16.0% for cIAI patients). A similar trend was seen when cIAI patients were stratified by Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score. The safety and tolerability of tigecycline, alone and in combination, are consistent with the level of critical illness among patients in these real-life studies.

  14. European communion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on ‘sharing’ or ‘communion......’, provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as ‘integration’ or ‘co-operation’. The concept of ‘European communion’ is defined as the ‘subjective sharing of relationships’, understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing...... relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European...

  15. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a low incidence European area. A prospective observational analysis from the Head and Neck Study Group of the Italian Society of Radiation Oncology (AIRO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonoli, S.; Bruschieri, L. [Brescia University, Istituto del Radio, Brescia (Italy); Alterio, D. [European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Caspiani, O. [Isola Tiberina Hospital, Rome (Italy); Bacigalupo, A. [IRCCS A.O.U. San Martino IST Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Bunkheila, F. [S. Orsola Hospital, Bologna (Italy); Cianciulli, M. [S. Camillo Hospital, Rome (Italy); Merlotti, A. [Busto Arsizio Hospital, Busto Arsizio (Italy); Podhradska, A. [Milan University - Monza S. Gerardo Hospital, Milan (Italy); Rampino, M. [Turin University, Turin (Italy); Cante, D. [Treviglio Hospital, Treviglio (Italy); Gatta, R. [Brescia University, Istituto del Radio, Brescia (Italy); Prato Hospital, Prato (Italy); Magrini, S.M.

    2016-12-15

    To evaluate the outcomes with respect to long-term survival and toxicity in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated in a European country with low incidence. A prospective observational study carried out by the AIRO Head and Neck group in 12 Italian institutions included 136 consecutive patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) ± chemotherapy (CHT) for NPC (without distant metastasis) between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2010. The disease-specific survival (DSS), overall survival (OS), and disease-free survival (DFS) at 5 years were 92 (±2), 91 (±3), and 69 % (±5 %), respectively. Distant failure was the most frequent modality of relapse. The local, regional, and locoregional control at 5 years were 89 (±3), 93 (±3), and 84 % (±4 %), respectively. The incidence of acute and late toxicity and the correlations with different clinical/technical variables were analyzed. Neoadjuvant CHT prolongs radiotherapy overall treatment time (OTT) and decreases treatment adherence during concomitant chemoradiotherapy. An adequate minimum dose coverage to PTV(T) is a predictive variable well related to outcome. Our data do not substantially differ in terms of survival and toxicity outcomes from those reported in larger series of patients treated in countries with higher incidences of NPC. The T stage (TNM 2002 UICC classification) is predictive of DSS and OS. The GTV volume (T ± N) and an adequate minimum PTV(T) coverage dose (D95 %) were also identified as potential predictive variables. Sophisticated technologies of dose delivery (IMRT) with image-guided radiotherapy could help to obtain better minimum PTV(T) coverage dose with increased DFS; distant metastasis after treatment still remains an unresolved issue. (orig.) [German] Bewertung von langfristigem Ueberleben und Toxizitaet bei Patienten mit Nasopharynxkarzinom (NPC), die in einem europaeischen Land mit geringer Inzidenz behandelt wurden. Die prospektive Beobachtungsanalyse, durchgefuehrt von der

  16. Symbolism in European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Ernst Haas observed over fifty years ago that ‘United Europe' is a resilient, adaptable, unifying, and yet unspecified symbol'. It is precisely this adaptability and ambiguity that has ensures the continuing importance of European studies as a means of understanding ‘the remarkable social...... of social transformation involved' (Calhoun 2003: 18). This article will consider the role of symbolism in European integration as part of answering Craig Calhoun's call for a means of transcending specific regimes of analysis in order to advance European studies....

  17. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  18. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...

  19. Russian Observations of European Experience in Agricultural Development in 1840s (based on the printed output of the Imperial Agricultural Societies of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia I. Kuznetsova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first half of the nineteenth century, agriculture in Russia had reached the new level of development. The Imperial Agricultural Societies paid much attention to establishing relations with the foreign agricultural societies and kept up with their periodicals, issuing translations and abridgements of texts, which could be interesting to the Russian readers. This paper examines the articles on farming industry in Great Britain, France, German countries, Italy, and the USA, released in journals and transactions of Imperial Agricultural Societies of Russia in 1840s. The research draws on both reviews of European congresses or exhibitions, written by members of agricultural societies, and the articles written by foreign authors and published in translation. Such approach made it possible to specify the certain topics appealing to Russian farmers. Moreover, the study of the articles contributed by the Imperial Agricultural Societies helped to build a complete picture representing knowledge on history, theory and practice of foreign and Russian husbandry, shared by the Russian farmers in 1840s. It is also worth to mention that the effective work of agricultural journals in fact integrated Russian farming communities into the broad network of contacts, experience and knowledge exchange, which had been functioning in Europe in the first half of the XIXth century. Nevertheless, the research revealed that the articles in question almost lacked comparisons between Russian and European agriculture. The papers dealing with comparative analysis of the different European farming systems are characterized by noticeably restrained reaction of the editors and authors to the published information. They tended to show the advantages and disadvantages of the foreign farming without furnishing the Russian reader or the Russian authorities with any specific recommendations.

  20. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    and rules. The article examines the reasons for both resistance and selectiveness to Europeanization of the Danish minority policy through a “path dependency” perspective accentuating decision makers’ reluctance to deviate from existing institutional commitments, even in subsequently significantly altered...... political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  1. European 'Stabilisation through Association'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    In 2012 the Nobel Committee awarded the European Union (EU) its Peace Prize. It commemorated the building and sustaining of peace between Europeans, a process in which the Nobel Committee proposed that the EU and its predecessors had played an important part. It explicitly commen-ded the Union......’s success in repeatedly reconciling a divided continent and complemented its efforts to build peace beyond its borders. But does the EU (continue to) deserve such praise? This contribution examines European peacebuilding from the early inte-gration of post-World War Two economies, through the uniting...... of Europe after the Cold War to contemporary conflict management efforts in the Western Balkans and the Eastern neighbourhood. The purpose of this endeavour is to examine whether lessons from the European experience can be observed that may facilitate future regional stabilisation processes – within...

  2. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  3. European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well.

  4. Economic Interactions between the European Union and Turkey: Observations and Predictions on Dynamics and Strategies for the 2005-2015-2025 Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Güvenen

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to emphasise the importance of strategic analysis and provide elements that facilitate the understanding of the future of the integration process. For this, it analyses the interactions between Turkey and the European Unionthrough strategic decision-making and system-modelling concepts. It carries out “What if...” analyses, and it considers the world system from a dynamic perspective in time and space. The economic, political, scientific, technological and cultural infrastructures of the future are the object of a rigorous simulation, with the aim of creating solid strategies. The welfare of the societies of the future depends on the understanding and strategic skills of today’s decision-makers.

  5. Does real-time objective feedback and competition improve performance and quality in manikin CPR training--a prospective observational study from several European EMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, J R; Kranz, K; Carmona, F; Lindner, T W; Newton, A

    2015-10-15

    Previous studies have reported that the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is important for patient survival. Real time objective feedback during manikin training has been shown to improve CPR performance. Objective measurement could facilitate competition and help motivate participants to improve their CPR performance. The aims of this study were to investigate whether real time objective feedback on manikins helps improve CPR performance and whether competition between separate European Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and between participants at each EMS helps motivation to train. Ten European EMS took part in the study and was carried out in two stages. At Stage 1, each EMS provided 20 pre-hospital professionals. A questionnaire was completed and standardised assessment scenarios were performed for adult and infant out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). CPR performance was objectively measured and recorded but no feedback given. Between Stage 1 and 2, each EMS was given access to manikins for 6 months and instructed on how to use with objective real-time CPR feedback available. Stage 2 was undertaken and was a repeat of Stage 1 with a questionnaire with additional questions relating to usefulness of feedback and the competition nature of the study (using a 10 point Likert score). The EMS that improved the most from Stage 1 to Stage 2 was declared the winner. An independent samples Student t-test was used to analyse the objective CPR metrics with the significance level taken as p Competition between EMS organisations recorded a mean score of 5.8 and competition between participants recorded a mean score of 6.0. The results suggest that the use of real time objective feedback can significantly help improve CPR performance. Competition, especially between participants, appeared to encourage staff to practice and this study suggests that competition might have a useful role to help motivate staff to perform CPR training.

  6. European visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, (on the right) visited the CMS assembly hall accompanied by Jim Virdee, Deputy Spokesman of CMS (on the left), and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN. The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, visited CERN on Tuesday 31 January. He was welcomed by the Director-General, Robert Aymar, who described the missions and current activities of CERN to him, in particular the realisation of the LHC with its three components: accelerator, detectors, storage and processing of data. The European Commissioner then visited the CMS assembly hall, then the hall for testing the LHC magnets and the ATLAS cavern. During this first visit since his appointment at the end of 2004, Janez Potočnik appeared very interested by the operation of CERN, an example of successful scientific co-operation on a European scale. The many projects (30 on average) that CERN and the European Commission carry out jointly for the benefit of res...

  7. Pediatric homeopathy: a prospective observational survey based on parent proxy-reports of their children's health-related Quality of Life in six European countries and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wassenhoven, Michel; Goossens, Maria; Anelli, Marco; Sermeus, Guy; Kupers, Peter; Morgado, Carlos; Martin, Eduardo; Bezerra, Melissa

    2014-10-01

    Many European citizens regularly consult homeopathic doctors. Especially for children there is very little data available about the reasons they visit a homeopathic doctor. What are the expectations of the parents consulting a Homeopath MD with their child, who are they and last but not least are they satisfied with their initiative? This study including 773 children from six European countries and Brazil is aimed to look at parent-proxy satisfaction with homeopathic treatment prescribed for their children by a homeopathic doctor after a follow-up of two months. The questionnaire was developed from the methodology used in a survey of adults published in 2002. An initial questionnaire included demographic information and questions for assessing health-related Quality of Life (QoL). A follow-up questionnaire collected data on changes in QoL. The demographic characteristics of respondents showed more male children (53.1%) but more female parent-proxies (93.4%). 73.7% of respondents had previously tried conventional treatments; 26.3% non-conventional approaches. Satisfaction with the medical homeopathic consultation was high. Reported differences between baseline and final QoL ondexes are positive for all four studied conditions. It range from 3.206 to 10.188. Considering 7% as a reference value for "minimal clinical difference", this is reached for 2 on 4 conditions (8.473 and 10.188). Changes in complaint limitations visual scales are positive, even if uncertain for skin complaints and influenced parents satisfaction. Conclusions on clinical impact must be cautious. 4.2% of patients experienced side-effects which they attribute to homeopathic treatment. 10.1% of patients reported significant aggravation at the beginning of homeopathic treatment, 19% slight aggravation of symptoms. The satisfaction of parents using a medical homeopathic approach for their children is linked to the perceived competence of the doctor homeopath, the perceived improvement of the main

  8. European hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The European Hadron Facility (EHF) is a project for particle and nuclear physics in the 1990s which would consist of a fast cycling high intensity proton synchrotron of about 30 GeV primary energy and providing a varied spectrum of intense high quality secondary beams (polarized protons, pions, muons, kaons, antiprotons, neutrinos). The physics case of this project has been studied over the last two years by a European group of particle and nuclear physicists (EHF Study Group), whilst the conceptual design for the accelerator complex was worked out (and is still being worked on) by an international group of machine experts (EHF Design Study Group). Both aspects have been discussed in recent years in a series of working parties, topical seminars, and workshops held in Freiburg, Trieste, Heidelberg, Karlsruhe, Les Rasses and Villigen. This long series of meetings culminated in the International Conference on a European Hadron Facility held in Mainz from 10-14 March

  9. European Integration and Postcolonial Sovereignty Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    observation, textual, legal and institutional analysis for a new theoretical approach to understanding the strategic possibilities and subjectivity of non-sovereign entities in international politics. Bringing together research on European integration and postcolonial theory, European Integration...

  10. In vitro fertilisation with recombinant follicle stimulating hormone requires less IU usage compared with highly purified human menopausal gonadotrophin: results from a European retrospective observational chart review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blackmore Stuart

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have reported conflicting results for the comparative doses of recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH and highly purified human menopausal gonadotrophin (hMG-HP required per cycle of in vitro fertilisation (IVF; the aim of this study was to determine the average total usage of rFSH versus hMG-HP in a 'real-world' setting using routine clinical practice. Methods This retrospective chart review of databases from four European countries investigated gonadotrophin usage, oocyte and embryo yield, and pregnancy outcomes in IVF cycles (± intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection using rFSH or hMG-HP alone. Included patients met the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE guideline criteria for IVF and received either rFSH or hMG-HP. Statistical tests were conducted at 5% significance using Chi-square or t-tests. Results Of 30,630 IVF cycles included in this review, 74% used rFSH and 26% used hMG-HP. A significantly lower drug usage per cycle for rFSH than hMG-HP (2072.53 +/- 76.73 IU vs. 2540.14 +/- 883.08 IU, 22.6% higher for hMG-HP; p Conclusions Based on these results, IVF treatment cycles with rFSH yield statistically more oocytes (and more mature oocytes, using significantly less IU per cycle, versus hMG-HP. The incidence of all OHSS and hospitalisations due to OHSS was significantly higher in the rFSH cycles compared to the hMG-HP cycles. However, the absolute incidence of hospitalisations due to OHSS was similar to that reported previously. These results suggest that the perceived required dosage with rFSH is currently over-estimated, and the higher unit cost of rFSH may be offset by a lower required dosage compared with hMG-HP.

  11. UK and European Union public and charitable funding from 2008 to 2013 for bacteriology and antibiotic research in the UK: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragginton, Eilis C; Piddock, Laura J V

    2014-09-01

    Since the 1990s, the number of new antibacterial drugs has plummeted and the number of antibiotic-resistant infections has risen, which has decreased the effective treatment of many disorders, including sepsis. We aimed to assess whether funding for bacteriology and antibiotic research to UK researchers had increased in response to this global crisis. We systematically searched websites and databases of agencies that fund research in the UK to identify publicly and charitably funded projects from financial years 2008 to 2013 within the specialties of bacteriology and antibiotic research. We created a database to identify the projects funded. Grants awarded in euros were converted to pounds sterling (€1=£0·86). We identified 609 projects within the specialty of bacteriology, 196 (32·2%) of which were on antibiotics. Of £13 846·1 million of available research funding, £269·2 million (1·9%) was awarded to bacteriology projects and £95·0 million (0·7%) was awarded for research on antibiotics. Additionally, £181·4 million in European Union (EU) funding was awarded to antibiotic research consortia including researchers based within the UK, including two EU Innovative Medicines Initiative awards, totalling £85·2 million. To increase awareness of who funds antibiotic research and to facilitate priority setting and funding decisions, funding organisations need to be aware of the breadth and depth of present funding as a baseline by which funding from 2014 onwards can be measured and so that informed decisions about the future level of funding can be made. To resolve the crisis of antibiotic resistance, present levels of funding are inadequate and should be increased substantially. British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. European Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different

  13. Sentinel European Node Trial (SENT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilling, Clare; Stoeckli, Sandro J; Haerle, Stephan K

    2015-01-01

    in patients with early-stage oral squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS: An European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer-approved prospective, observational study commenced in 2005. Fourteen European centres recruited 415 patients with radiologically staged T1-T2N0 squamous cell carcinoma. SNB...

  14. The Pan-European Reference Grid Developed in the ELECTRA Project for Deriving Innovative Observability Concepts in the Web-of-Cells Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinelli, Mattia; Pertl, Michael; Rezkalla, Michel M.N.

    2016-01-01

    In the ELECTRA EU project, an innovative approach for frequency and voltage control is investigated, with reference to future power system scenarios characterized by massive amounts of distributed energy resources. A control architecture based on dividing the power system into a web of subsystems...... at system-wide scale. The methodology proposed in the task analyzes the system performance by investigating typical phenomena peculiar to each stability type and by developing observables necessary for the novel Web-of-Cells based control methods to operate properly at cell- and inter-cell level. Crucial...

  15. Clinical effectiveness of hymenoptera venom immunotherapy: a prospective observational multicenter study of the European academy of allergology and clinical immunology interest group on insect venom hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruëff, Franziska; Przybilla, Bernhard; Biló, Maria Beatrice; Müller, Ulrich; Scheipl, Fabian; Seitz, Michael J; Aberer, Werner; Bodzenta-Lukaszyk, Anna; Bonifazi, Floriano; Campi, Paolo; Darsow, Ulf; Haeberli, Gabrielle; Hawranek, Thomas; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Lang, Roland; Quercia, Oliviero; Reider, Norbert; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Severino, Maurizio; Sturm, Gunter Johannes; Treudler, Regina; Wüthrich, Brunello

    2013-01-01

    Treatment failure during venom immunotherapy (VIT) may be associated with a variety of risk factors. Our aim was to evaluate the association of baseline serum tryptase concentration (BTC) and of other parameters with the frequency of VIT failure during the maintenance phase. In this observational prospective multicenter study, we followed 357 patients with established honey bee or vespid venom allergy after the maintenance dose of VIT had been reached. In all patients, VIT effectiveness was either verified by sting challenge (n = 154) or patient self-reporting of the outcome of a field sting (n = 203). Data were collected on BTC, age, gender, preventive use of anti-allergic drugs (oral antihistamines and/or corticosteroids) right after a field sting, venom dose, antihypertensive medication, type of venom, side effects during VIT, severity of index sting reaction preceding VIT, and duration of VIT. Relative rates were calculated with generalized additive models. 22 patients (6.2%) developed generalized symptoms during sting challenge or after a field sting. A strong association between the frequency of VIT failure and BTC could be excluded. Due to wide confidence bands, however, weaker effects (odds ratios <3) of BTC were still possible, and were also suggested by a selective analysis of patients who had a sting challenge. The most important factor associated with VIT failure was a honey bee venom allergy. Preventive use of anti-allergic drugs may be associated with a higher protection rate. It is unlikely that an elevated BTC has a strong negative effect on the rate of treatment failures. The magnitude of the latter, however, may depend on the method of effectiveness assessment. Failure rate is higher in patients suffering from bee venom allergy.

  16. Clinical effectiveness of hymenoptera venom immunotherapy: a prospective observational multicenter study of the European academy of allergology and clinical immunology interest group on insect venom hypersensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Ruëff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Treatment failure during venom immunotherapy (VIT may be associated with a variety of risk factors. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate the association of baseline serum tryptase concentration (BTC and of other parameters with the frequency of VIT failure during the maintenance phase. METHODS: In this observational prospective multicenter study, we followed 357 patients with established honey bee or vespid venom allergy after the maintenance dose of VIT had been reached. In all patients, VIT effectiveness was either verified by sting challenge (n = 154 or patient self-reporting of the outcome of a field sting (n = 203. Data were collected on BTC, age, gender, preventive use of anti-allergic drugs (oral antihistamines and/or corticosteroids right after a field sting, venom dose, antihypertensive medication, type of venom, side effects during VIT, severity of index sting reaction preceding VIT, and duration of VIT. Relative rates were calculated with generalized additive models. RESULTS: 22 patients (6.2% developed generalized symptoms during sting challenge or after a field sting. A strong association between the frequency of VIT failure and BTC could be excluded. Due to wide confidence bands, however, weaker effects (odds ratios <3 of BTC were still possible, and were also suggested by a selective analysis of patients who had a sting challenge. The most important factor associated with VIT failure was a honey bee venom allergy. Preventive use of anti-allergic drugs may be associated with a higher protection rate. INTERPRETATION: It is unlikely that an elevated BTC has a strong negative effect on the rate of treatment failures. The magnitude of the latter, however, may depend on the method of effectiveness assessment. Failure rate is higher in patients suffering from bee venom allergy.

  17. European Utility Requirements: European nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komsi, M.; Patrakka, E.

    1997-01-01

    The work procedure and the content of the European Utility Requirements (EUR) concerning the future LWRs is described in the article. European Utility Requirements, produced by utilities in a number of European countries, is a document specifying the details relating to engineered safety, operating performance, reliability and economics of the reactors to be built by manufacturers for the European market

  18. Comparison of vancomycin and linezolid in patients with peripheral vascular disease and/or diabetes in an observational European study of complicated skin and soft-tissue infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmann, C; Nathwani, D; Lawson, W; Corman, S; Solem, C; Stephens, J; Macahilig, C; Li, J; Charbonneau, C; Baillon-Plot, N; Haider, S

    2015-09-01

    Suboptimal antibiotic penetration into soft tissues can occur in patients with poor circulation due to peripheral vascular disease (PVD) or diabetes. We conducted a real-world analysis of antibiotic treatment, hospital resource use and clinical outcomes in patients with PVD and/or diabetes receiving linezolid or vancomycin for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus complicated skin and soft-tissue infections (MRSA cSSTIs) across Europe. This subgroup analysis evaluated data obtained from a retrospective, observational medical chart review study that captured patient data from 12 European countries. Data were obtained from the medical records of patients ≥ 18 years of age, hospitalized with an MRSA cSSTI between 1 July 2010 and 30 June 2011 and discharged alive by 31 July 2011. Hospital length of stay and length of treatment were compared between the treatment groups using inverse probability of treatment weights to adjust for clinical and demographic differences. A total of 485 patients had PVD or diabetes and received treatment with either vancomycin (n = 258) or linezolid (n = 227). After adjustment, patients treated with linezolid compared with vancomycin respectively had significantly shorter hospital stays (17.9 ± 13.6 vs. 22.6 ± 13.6 days; p linezolid and vancomycin groups, respectively (p linezolid compared with vancomycin. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Impact assessment of the European Clinical Trials Directive: a longitudinal, prospective, observational study analyzing patterns and trends in clinical drug trial applications submitted since 2001 to regulatory agencies in six EU countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmann Markus

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shifts in clinical trial application rates over time indicate if the attractiveness of a country or region for the conduct of clinical trials is growing or decreasing. The purpose of this observational study was to track changes in drug trial application patterns across several EU countries in order to analyze the medium-term impact of the EU Clinical Trials Directive 2001/20/EC on the conduct of drug trials. Methods Rates of Clinical Trial Applications (CTA for studies with medicinal products in those six countries in the EU, which authorize on average more than 500 trials per year, were analyzed. Publicly available figures on the number of annually submitted CTA, the distribution of trials per phase and the type of sponsorship were tracked; missing data were provided by national drug agencies. Results Since 2001, the number of CTA in Italy and Spain increased significantly (5.0 and 2.5% average annual growth. For Italy, the gain was driven by a strong increase of applications from academic trial sponsors; Spain's growth was due to a rise in trials run by commercial sponsors. The Netherlands, Germany, France and the UK saw a decline (1.9, 2.3, 3.0 and 5.3% average annual diminution; significant (P Conclusions The EU Clinical Trials Directive 2001/20/EC did not achieve the harmonization of clinical trial requirements across Europe. Rather, it resulted in the leveling of clinical trial activities caused by a continuing decrease in CTA rates in the Netherlands, Germany, France and the UK. Southern European countries, Italy and Spain, benefited to some extent from policy changes introduced by the Directive. In Italy's case, national funding measures helped to considerably promote the conduct of non-commercial trials. On the other hand, the EU Directive-driven transition from liberal policy environments, based on non-explicit trial approval through notifications, towards red-taped processes of trial authorization, contributed to

  20. Building an international network for a primary care research program: reflections on challenges and solutions in the set-up and delivery of a prospective observational study of acute cough in 13 European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veen Robert ER

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementing a primary care clinical research study in several countries can make it possible to recruit sufficient patients in a short period of time that allows important clinical questions to be answered. Large multi-country studies in primary care are unusual and are typically associated with challenges requiring innovative solutions. We conducted a multi-country study and through this paper, we share reflections on the challenges we faced and some of the solutions we developed with a special focus on the study set up, structure and development of Primary Care Networks (PCNs. Method GRACE-01 was a multi-European country, investigator-driven prospective observational study implemented by 14 Primary Care Networks (PCNs within 13 European Countries. General Practitioners (GPs recruited consecutive patients with an acute cough. GPs completed a case report form (CRF and the patient completed a daily symptom diary. After study completion, the coordinating team discussed the phases of the study and identified challenges and solutions that they considered might be interesting and helpful to researchers setting up a comparable study. Results The main challenges fell within three domains as follows: i selecting, setting up and maintaining PCNs; ii designing local context-appropriate data collection tools and efficient data management systems; and iii gaining commitment and trust from all involved and maintaining enthusiasm. The main solutions for each domain were: i appointing key individuals (National Network Facilitator and Coordinator with clearly defined tasks, involving PCNs early in the development of study materials and procedures. ii rigorous back translations of all study materials and the use of information systems to closely monitor each PCNs progress; iii providing strong central leadership with high level commitment to the value of the study, frequent multi-method communication, establishing a coherent ethos

  1. The Political History of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz-Forberg, Hagen; Stråth, Bo

    This book adopts a historical perspective to explore the tensions between the idea of a European democracy through a European market, and the observations that there are signs of increasing social disintegration, political extremism and populism in the wake of economic integration. It was shortli......This book adopts a historical perspective to explore the tensions between the idea of a European democracy through a European market, and the observations that there are signs of increasing social disintegration, political extremism and populism in the wake of economic integration...

  2. European Corporate Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorresteijn, Adriaan; Teichmann, Christoph; Werlauff, Erik

    , and the United Kingdom are taken into account; Italy is now included in this new edition. As in earlier editions, the authors demonstrate that analysis and comparison of national corporate laws yield highly valuable general principles and observations, not least because business organizations, wherever located...... initiatives in such aspects of the corporate environment as regulation of financial institutions and non-financial reporting obligations with a view to sustainability and other social responsibility concerns. The authors, all leading experts in European corporate law, describe current and emerging trends...

  3. Following the terrorist attacks recently committed in the United States of America, and according to the recommendations of the Council of the European Union, the CERN staff observed 3 minutes of silence on Friday 14 September 2001 at 12h00, as a sign of deepest sympathy for all the victims and their families, and of solidarity with the American people

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2001-01-01

    Following the terrorist attacks recently committed in the United States of America, and according to the recommendations of the Council of the European Union, the CERN staff observed 3 minutes of silence on Friday 14 September 2001 at 12h00, as a sign of deepest sympathy for all the victims and their families, and of solidarity with the American people

  4. Juvenile European anchovy otolith microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Cermeño

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus has a complex incremental growth pattern that was studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM and optical microscope observations. Daily increments were identified and related to rhythmic growth patterns while double-band structures were identified as one increment. The causes of these growth patterns are discussed.

  5. An important day for European science

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Today is an important day for the future of European science. It is the day on which CERN’s relationship with the European Union reaches maturity. Ever since the early 1950s, CERN and the European project have grown together. CERN was a child of the European movement: the first discussions at Denis de Rougemont’s European Cultural Conference in Lausanne in 1949 led directly to the foundation of CERN in 1954. More recently, the European Union has become an Observer at the CERN Council, links between CERN and the EU have strengthened as Europe has pursued the goal of creating a European Research Area, and CERN has benefited from European support for projects as varied as Grid computing and future accelerator R&D, not forgetting, of course, the numerous Marie Curie fellows whose careers have received a boost thanks to European funds. Today, that collaboration goes one step further with the signature of a Memorandum of Understanding between CERN and the European C...

  6. Levels of physical activity and sedentary time among 10-to 12-year-old boys and girls across 5 European countries using accelerometers: an observational study within the ENERGY-project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloigne, M.; Van Lippevelde, W.; Maes, L.; Yildirim, M.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Manios, Y.; Androutsos, O.; Kovacs, E.; Bringolf-Isler, B.; Brug, J.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The study aim was to objectively assess levels of sedentary time, light, moderate and vigorous physical activity (PA) among 10-12 year olds across five European countries and to examine differences in sedentary time and PA according to gender and country.Methods: 686 children (mean age =

  7. European Vegetation Archive (EVA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chytrý, Milan; Hennekens, S.M.; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Schaminée, J.H.J.; Haveman, Rense; Janssen, J.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The European Vegetation Archive (EVA) is a centralized database of European vegetation plots developed by the IAVS Working Group European Vegetation Survey. It has been in development since 2012 and first made available for use in research projects in 2014. It stores copies of national and

  8. Quasat - European status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilizzi, R.T.

    1987-01-01

    The scientific goals, design, and current development status of Quasat are reviewed. Quasat is a proposed 15-m orbiting radio telescope intended to serve as the space leg of an astronomical VLBI network comprising the existing large arrays in Europe, the U.S., the USSR, and Australia. The planned 63-deg-inclination 5700 x 12,500-km elliptical orbit is optimized for high-resolution imaging of quasar and radio-galaxy nuclei at cm wavelengths with the U.S. and European ground arrays. A drawing of the ESA inflatable-antenna concept, a diagram of the space/ground system, and tables listing additional observing targets and the predicted angular and spatial resolutions of a Quasat-based array at different wavelengths are included

  9. A European Research Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, R.

    2001-01-01

    This article is a summary of the presentation of the European Commissioner, Philippe Busquen, to the European Parliament (beginning of year 2000) with the proposal and method for a revival of the Research and Development in this wider sense in the European Union. The starting point of his thesis is that Europe performs less, and more disorderly, activities in this field that her main competitors. USA and Japan. His basic proposal is a larger coordination among the european research projects, with a previous phase of informatics intoxicator among the european research centres and the cross-linked participation, real of virtual in the experiments and projects. (Author)

  10. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2011-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...

  11. Observing participating observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2010-01-01

    Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming...

  12. On Law and Policy in a European and European Union Patent Court (EEUPC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Petersen, Clement Salung

    On 4 December 2009, the European Council unanimously adopted conclusions on an enhanced patent system in Europe, which inter alia intends to establish a new EU patent as well as a new common patent judiciary - the European and European Union Patent Court (EEUPC). The EEUPC will constitute a new sui...... generis, transnational court system with exclusive jurisdiction in respect of civil litigation related to the infringement and validity of European patents and EU patent. This paper considers this proposal for the establishment of the EEUPC under two basic observations, namely that substantive law...

  13. On Law and Policy in a European and European Union Patent Court (EEUPC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Clement Salung; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2010-01-01

    On 4 December 2009, the European Council unanimously adopted conclusions on an enhanced patent system in Europe, which inter alia intends to establish a new EU patent as well as a new common patent judiciary – the European and European Union Patent Court (EEUPC). The EEUPC will constitute a new sui...... generis, transnational court system with exclusive jurisdiction in respect of civil litigation related to the infringement and validity of European patents and EU patent. This paper considers this proposal for the establishment of the EEUPC under two basic observations, namely that substantive law...

  14. The european union as subjects of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fila R.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At the international level it is recognized that development and progress of the new and unique international organization – European Union – is one of the appropriate form of the international organization’s integration. Although European Union was establish as international economic organization, it has gradually integrated the various “best practices” ideas from different governmental systems. Encouragement and motives for cooperation of Member states indicate that member states give more competences of government to the international organization’s institutes. Wherewith, it is observed that the economic and political internationalization has led to disappearance of integrity of territory of member states. The above mentioned opinion is not based on research of the European Union as international organization from standpoint of international law, but from standpoint of theory law – could give juridical estimate regarding executive power in European Union and who could define particular source and entity of administrative law of European Union.

  15. Levels of physical activity and sedentary time among 10- to 12-year-old boys and girls across 5 European countries using accelerometers: an observational study within the ENERGY-project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verloigne, Maïté; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Maes, Lea; Yıldırım, Mine; Chinapaw, Mai; Manios, Yannis; Androutsos, Odysseas; Kovács, Eva; Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Brug, Johannes; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2012-03-31

    The study aim was to objectively assess levels of sedentary time, light, moderate and vigorous physical activity (PA) among 10-12 year olds across five European countries and to examine differences in sedentary time and PA according to gender and country. 686 children (mean age = 11.6 ± 0.8 years, 53% girls, mean BMI = 19.0 ± 3.4 kg/m(2)) from Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands and Switzerland wore Actigraph accelerometers and had at least 2 weekdays with minimum 10 h-wearing time and 1 weekend day with minimum 8 h-wearing time. Data were analyzed using multivariate analyses of covariance. Girls spent significantly more time sedentary (500 minutes/day) than boys (474 minutes/day) and significantly less time in light (267 minutes/day) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (32 minutes/day) than boys (284 minutes/day; 43 minutes/day respectively; p girls and 16.8% of the boys met moderate-to-vigorous PA recommendations of at least 60 minutes/day. Greek boys were more sedentary (510 minutes/day; all at p boys. Dutch girls were less sedentary (457 minutes/day; all at p girls. Swiss girls displayed more moderate-to-vigorous PA (43 minutes/day; at p girls. Large proportions of children across different European countries did not meet PA recommendations and spent a lot of time sedentary. Mean time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA was significantly lower than the recommended 60 minutes. Obesity prevention programmes focusing on both decreasing sedentary time and increasing light, moderate and vigorous PA are needed for European children, particularly girls.

  16. European nuclear education network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.; Moons, F.; Safieh, J.

    2005-01-01

    In most countries within the European Union that rely to a significant extent on nuclear power, neither undergraduate nor PhD education is producing a sufficient number of engineers and doctors to fill the needs of the industry. As a result of an EU-supported project, a new education organisation, European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN), has recently been established, with the aim to establish a European master's degree of nuclear engineering. Recently, a new EU project, Nuclear European Platform of Training and University Organisations (NEPTUNO), has been launched, aiming at the practical implementation of ENEN and harmonisation of training activities. (author)

  17. European mobility cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick

    2016-01-01

    More targeted European policies promoting green travel patterns require better knowledge on differing mobility cultures across European regions. As a basis for this, we clustered the EU population into eight mobility styles based on Eurobarometer data. The mobility styles - including, for example...... positions on the path towards sustainable mobility and therefore different requirements towards European platforms and support measures, e.g. for 'Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans'. The country clusters can provide a starting point for future communication and targeting of European efforts in sustainable...

  18. Do European consumers use nutrition labels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling on food packages becomes more and more widespread in the European Union. Such information is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made. However, how do consumers use nutrition information? Two European studies are currently assessing whether nutrition...... information on food labels is exerting an effect on healthy food choices among consumers. Based for the first time on in-store observations and interviews, these studies give a real-life insight into consumers' shopping behaviours. The major outcomes to date are that most European consumers have reasonable...... knowledge about nutrition and are able to use nutrition labels to identify healthier products within a category....

  19. ATLAS OF EUROPEAN VALUES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M Ed Uwe Krause

    2008-01-01

    Uwe Krause: Atlas of Eurpean Values De Atlas of European Values is een samenwerkingsproject met bijbehorende website van de Universiteit van Tilburg en Fontys Lerarenopleiding in Tilburg, waarbij de wetenschappelijke data van de European Values Study (EVS) voor het onderwijs toegankelijk worden

  20. European media law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castendyk, O.; Dommering, E.; Scheuer, A.

    2008-01-01

    European Union legislation concerning electronic communications media is firmly established as an essential part of the law in the field in Europe. From relevant provisions of the European Convention of Human Rights and the EC Treaty to numerous directives, the most recent being the Audiovisual

  1. European Industry, 1700 - 1870

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broadberry, Stephen; Fremdling, Rainer; Solar, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of the development of European industry between 1700 and 1870, drawing in particular on the recent literature that has emerged following the formation of the European Historical Economics Society in 1991. The approach thus makes use of economic analysis and quantitative

  2. European Stars and Stripes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hendricks, Nancy

    1994-01-01

    The European Stars and Stripes (ES&S) organization publishes a daily newspaper, The Stars and Stripes, for DoD personnel stationed in Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, and other DoD activities in the U.S. European Command...

  3. Introduction: European climate leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurzel, R.K.W.; Liefferink, J.D.; Connelly, J.; Wurzel, R.K.W.; Connelly, J.; Liefferink, D.

    2017-01-01

    There is no shortage of would-be leaders in EU climate change politics. The EU institutions (e.g. European Council, Council of the EU, Commission and the European Parliament (EP)), member states and societal actors have all, though to varying degrees and at different time periods, tried to offer

  4. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2004-01-01

    The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  5. European Home Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.

    2009-01-01

    An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes......An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes...

  6. The European Programme Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Anne; Bergman, E.; Ehlers, S.

    The publication is a result of a cooperation between organisations in six European countries with the aim to develop a common European education for programme managers. It contains of a description of the different elements of the education together with a number of case-studies from the counties...

  7. European Analytical Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, B.; Grasserbauer, M.; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    for European analytical chemistry. During the period 2002–07, Professor Grasserbauer was Director of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (EC), Ispra, Italy. There is no doubt that many challenges exist at the present time for all of us representing...

  8. European Union and oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillard, Christophe Alexandre

    2004-01-01

    In a context of oil price increase, problems about a Russian oil company (Loukos), and uncertainties in the Middle-East, the possibility of a new oil shock is a threat for Europe, and raises the issue of a true European energy policy which would encompass, not only grid development, environmental issues or market regulation issues, but also strategic issues related to energy supply security. This article proposes an overview of the European policy: first steps for a future European energy and oil policy in the green paper of the European Commission published in November 2000, issues of pollution and safety for hydrocarbon maritime transport. The article then examines the possibility of a third oil shock due to a crisis in the Middle East, and discusses whether European must have strategic stocks to face an outage of oil supplies

  9. Are we Europeans?: Correlates and the relation between national and European identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihić Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches of the correlates of the national identity are plentiful both in Serbian and foreign literature. However, in the past decade or so, a new social identity starts to make its way into the researches of the social psychologists-European identity or the sense of belonging to the Europe and the Europeans. This paper deals with the relation between national and European identity, as well as with the correlates of both of these, or one of them. The sample consisted of 451 subjects, all residents of major cities in the Vojvodina region (northern Serbia, divided into several categories-ethnicity (Serbs and Hungarians, educational level (primary and secondary school or University degree, gender and age. Several scales have been used: Cinnirela's national and European identity scale, Collective self-esteem scale, scale measuring attitudes towards the European integration-STEIN and Social dominance orientation scale-SDO. The questionnaire with the demographic characteristics has also been the part of the instrument. The research has been conducted in 2005 and 2006 in the all of the major Vojvodinian cities. Results show the relation between national and European identity is foggy, but general conclusion is that we can observe them as independent identities. The correlates of the national identity were ethnicity, high social dominance orientation, high collective self-esteem and negative attitude towards the European integrations. Correlates of the European identity were fewer: ethnicity, positive attitude towards the European integration and low social dominance orientation.

  10. EUROPEAN UNION AND THE PROCESS OF GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail CARADAICĂ

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available What is the relation between globalization and the process of European integration? Does the European integration have its own way, or is it deeply dependent on globalization? Those are the main questions I will try to answer in this paper by using an alternative critical approach: neo-gramscianism. Neo-gramscianism is a historical materialist view on the European integration process and international political economy which offers a better understanding of the social changes in terms of social forces agency and super structural influence (the neoliberal ideology of globalization and European integration. My aim is to analyze the globalization process through a neo-gramscian theoretical framework and to observe how its main components affect European Integration. I will do this by assuming the definition of globalization provided by Andreas Bieler, who understands this process through three main pillars: transnationalization of finance, transnationalization of production and ideological shift from Keynesianism to neoliberalism. Finally I will try to formulate some conclusions regarding the emergence of European Round Table of Industrialists – the first lobby group of big capital at the European Union level – and Economic and Monetary Union – the internal market program that symbolizes the shift to neo-liberalism.

  11. Update of European bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an update of the research on European bioethics undertaken by the author together with Professor Peter Kemp since the 1990s, on Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. In this European approach to basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw......, the principles of autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability are proposed as the most important ethical principles for respect for the human person in biomedical and biotechnological development. This approach to bioethics and biolaw is presented here in a short updated version that integrates the earlier...... research in a presentation of the present understanding of the basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw....

  12. Transnational European Television Drama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib; Redvall, Eva Novrup; Helles, Rasmus

    This book deals with the role of television drama in Europe as enabler of transnational, cultural encounters for audiences and the creative community. It demonstrates that the diversity of national cultures is a challenge for European TV drama but also a potential richness and source of creative...... variation. Based on data on the production, distribution and reception of recent TV drama from several European countries, the book presents a new picture of the transnational European television culture. The authors analyse main tendencies in television policy and challenges for national broadcasters...

  13. European [Security] Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    The past 20 years, since the 1992 Treaty on European Union, have seen the gradual creation of both an “Area of Freedom, Security and Justice” and a “Common Foreign and Security Policy”. More recent is the development of a “European Neighbourhood Policy” over the past 10 years. All three...... of these policies involved the navigation and negotiation of security, borders and governance in and by the European Union (EU). This article analyses these practices of bordering and governance through a five-fold security framework. The article argues that a richer understanding of EU security discourses can...

  14. Democratic Citizenship: European referents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María PUIG GUTIÉRREZ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Let’s sense beforehand in this article a tour concerning the educational European policies that favors the development of a democratic citizenship. The aim that we chase is to understand the way in which nowadays it is being interpreted and stimulated the Citizenship education from European Union. for it we offer a conceptual delimiting of «Citizenship education» and later, we show an analysis of the principal documents and materials elaborated principally by the Council of Europe that mark the way followed by European Union as for education for Democratic Citizenship (EDC.

  15. European Southern Observatory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1970-01-01

    Professor A. Blaauw, Director general of the European Southern Observatory, with George Hampton on his right, signs the Agreement covering collaboration with CERN in the construction of the large telescope to be installed at the ESO Observatory in Chile.

  16. Causality in Europeanization Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet

    2012-01-01

    to develop discursive institutional analytical frameworks and something that comes close to the formulation of hypothesis on the effects of European Union (EU) policies and institutions on domestic change. Even if these efforts so far do not necessarily amount to substantive theories or claims of causality......Discourse analysis as a methodology is perhaps not readily associated with substantive causality claims. At the same time the study of discourses is very much the study of conceptions of causal relations among a set, or sets, of agents. Within Europeanization research we have seen endeavours......, it suggests that discourse analysis and the study of causality are by no means opposites. The study of Europeanization discourses may even be seen as an essential step in the move towards claims of causality in Europeanization research. This chapter deals with the question of how we may move from the study...

  17. European Molecular Biology Laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    On 10 May an Agreement was signed at CERN setting up a new European Laboratory. It will be concerned with research in molecularbiology and will be located at Heidelberg in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  18. CERN welcomes European science

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    On 3 and 4 October CERN will host a special workshop for Marie Curie fellows. This programme is a key plank in the EU's strategy for creating a European research area.     With thousands of scientists from all over the continent working together, CERN is already an exemplary European science showcase. On 3 and 4 October, the Laboratory will contribute further to unifying all European science by hosting a special workshop for EU-funded Marie Curie fellows. This scheme gives young researchers from around the continent the mobility to go to wherever Europe's best facilities in their chosen field happen to be. The event that will take place at CERN, entitled 'Special workshop of Marie Curie Fellows on research and training in physics and technology', organised together with the European Commission, is a continuation of a series of workshops with the aim, among others, of promoting young researchers, supporting their training and mobility, and facilitating the interdisciplinary dissemination of knowledge. Dur...

  19. European Economic Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, James A.

    1971-01-01

    Recounts the history and problems of European Economic Integration from the first post World War II organization, the OEEC, to the EEC (Common Market) and the EFTA. Suggestions for further reading are included. (JB)

  20. Ethics and European security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paskins, B.

    1986-01-01

    The alliance between the United States and her NATO partners has been strained severely in the last few years. American perceptions of European disloyalty and European impressions of American assertiveness and lack of judgment have played a large part in generating tensions between the allies and emphasising the new peace movements. This book is an attempt to develop a broader understanding of the problem of European security based on Christian ethics. There are disagreements and differences of emphasis among the contributors but they have in common the view that an exclusive preoccupation with the military dimension is damagingly one-sided. Instead the contributors argue that moral and theological concerns are a vital part of the politics and mechanics of European security and must be incorporated in any effort to devise new policies for security in Europe and the West.

  1. The European XFEL project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floettmann, K.

    2005-01-01

    The European XFEL project is a 4th generation synchrotron radiation facility based on the SASE FEL concept and the superconducting TESLA technology for a linear accelerator. In February 2003 the German government decided that the XFEL should be realized as a European project and be located at DESY in Hamburg. The paper will give an overview of the overall layout and parameters of the facility, with emphasis on the accelerator design, technology and physics. (author)

  2. European Union Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdalbero, D.R.; Schmitz, B.; Raldow, W.; Poireau, M.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an extensive state of the art of the energy research conducted at European Union level between 1984 and 2006, i.e. from the first to the sixth European Community Framework Programmes (FP1-FP6) for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration (RTD and D). The FP is the main legal tool and financial instrument of EU RTD and D policy. It sets the objectives, priorities and budgets for a period of several years. It has been complemented over time with a number of policy oriented initiatives and notably with the launch of the European Research Area. FP7 will cover the period 2007-2013 and will have a total budget of more than euros 50 billion. Energy has been a main research area in Europe since the founding Treaties (European Coal and Steel Community, European Atomic Energy Community-Euratom and European Economic Community), and energy RTD and D has always been a substantial part of common EU research. Nevertheless, when inflation and successive European enlargements are taken into account, over time the RTD and D effort in the field of energy has decreased significantly in relative terms. In nominal terms it has remained relatively stable at about euros 500 million per year. For the next years (FP7), it is expected that energy will still represent about 10 % of total EU research effort but with an annual budget of more than euros 800 million per year. This article presents a detailed review of the thematic areas and budget in both European nuclear energy research (fusion and fission) and non-nuclear energy research (energy efficiency/rational use of energy, fossil fuels, CO 2 capture and storage, fuel cells and hydrogen, renewable energy sources, strategic energy research/socio-economy). (authors)

  3. ELSY. European LFR activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alemberti, Alessandro; Carlsson, Johan; Malambu, Edouard; Orden, Alfredo; Cinotti, Luciano; Struwe, Dankward; Agostini, Pietro; Monti, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    The European Lead Fast Reactor has been developed in the frame of the European lead system (ELSY) project funded by the Sixth Framework Programme of EURATOM. The project, coordinated by Ansaldo Nucleare, involved a wide consortium of European organizations. The ELSY reference design is a 600 MWe pool-type reactor cooled by pure lead. The project demonstrates the possibility of designing a competitive and safe fast critical reactor using simple engineered technical features, whilst fully complying with the Generation IV goals. The paper focuses on the main aspects of the proposed design for the European lead fast reactor highlighting the innovation of this reactor concept and overall objectives. Special attention has been dedicated to safety starting from the first step of the design development taking into account other important aspects, such as the investment protection, the compactness of the primary system as well as sustainability. The main safety features of the proposed innovative decay heat removal (DHR) systems are presented. From the beginning of 2010, and for a duration of three years, the European Commission (EC) is financing the new project Lead European Advanced Demonstration Reactor (LEADER) as part of the 7th Framework Program. This paper highlights the main objectives of the LEADER project. (author)

  4. Joint Efforts Towards European HF Radar Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, A.; Mader, J.; Griffa, A.; Mantovani, C.; Corgnati, L.; Novellino, A.; Schulz-Stellenfleth, J.; Quentin, C.; Wyatt, L.; Ruiz, M. I.; Lorente, P.; Hartnett, M.; Gorringe, P.

    2016-12-01

    During the past two years, significant steps have been made in Europe for achieving the needed accessibility to High Frequency Radar (HFR) data for a pan-European use. Since 2015, EuroGOOS Ocean Observing Task Teams (TT), such as HFR TT, are operational networks of observing platforms. The main goal is on the harmonization of systems requirements, systems design, data quality, improvement and proof of the readiness and standardization of HFR data access and tools. Particular attention is being paid by HFR TT to converge from different projects and programs toward those common objectives. First, JERICO-NEXT (Joint European Research Infrastructure network for Coastal Observatory - Novel European eXpertise for coastal observaTories, H2020 2015 Programme) will contribute on describing the status of the European network, on seeking harmonization through exchange of best practices and standardization, on developing and giving access to quality control procedures and new products, and finally on demonstrating the use of such technology in the general scientific strategy focused by the Coastal Observatory. Then, EMODnet (European Marine Observation and Data Network) Physics started to assemble HF radar metadata and data products within Europe in a uniform way. This long term program is providing a combined array of services and functionalities to users for obtaining free of charge data, meta-data and data products on the physical conditions of European sea basins and oceans. Additionally, the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) delivers from 2015 a core information service to any user related to 4 areas of benefits: Maritime Safety, Coastal and Marine Environment, Marine Resources, and Weather, Seasonal Forecasting and Climate activities. INCREASE (Innovation and Networking for the integration of Coastal Radars into EuropeAn marine SErvices - CMEMS Service Evolution 2016) will set the necessary developments towards the integration of existing European

  5. Habermas on European Constitution and European Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Biró-Kaszás

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For the last two decades or so philosophers have been reflecting on a set of practical and political concerns in connection with the new political structural arrangements beyond the nation-state. In this article two essays by Jürgen Habermas shall be examined. An attempt shall be made to tackle Habermas’ philosophical concepts of personal and collective identity as well as the role that a constitution may play in building the post-national constellation. It has been shown that Habermas has normative answers. Firstly, according to him, the fragile balance between the legal order and the particular cultures and traditions of a community has to be protected by the constitutional state. For that reason the political culture has to be “decoupled” from the majority culture. Secondly, the democratically structured attempt to achieve shared meaning has to find the delicate balance between the context-transcending universal normative claims and the claims of particular individual and collective life. Thirdly, it is possible to expand legally mediated civil solidarity trans-nationally, across Europe – we may recognize this development as the emergence of European identity –, since the process of democratic will-formation of citizens may get loose from the structures provided by the state if both shared democratic political cultures as well as a European-wide public sphere exist. The European Constitution may have a catalytic function in materialization of these conditions. It has been shown that in his deliberations Habermas tried to find a reflective equilibrium between the normative and the empirical.

  6. European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buras, B.

    1985-01-01

    How a European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has developed into a detailed proposal recently accepted as the basis for construction of the facility at Grenoble is discussed. In November 1977, the General Assembly of the European Science Foundation (ESF) approved the report of the ESF working party on synchrotron radiation entitled Synchrotron Radiation - a Perspective View for Europe. This report contained as one of its principal recommendations that work should commence on a feasibility study for a European synchrotron radiation laboratory having a dedicated hard X-ray storage ring and appropriate advanced instrumentation. In order to prepare a feasibility study the European Science Foundation set up the Ad-hoc Committee on Synchrotron Radiation, which in turn formed two working groups: one for the machine and another for instrumentation. This feasibility study was completed in 1979 with the publication of the Blue Book describing in detail the so called 1979 European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The heart of the facility was a 5 GeV electron storage ring and it was assumed that mainly the radiation from bending magnets will be used. The facility is described

  7. A European experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willson, D.

    1981-01-01

    The Joint European Torus (JET) is an experiment in nuclear fusion research which was planned as a joint effort between national research laboratories and Euratom. Before approval was given for it to be built it became a political football in the European Communities. This book describes the background against which JET was conceived, designed and planned. It gives a chronological account of the political imbroglio which followed between 1975 and 1978 and indicates how close the project came to collapse at one point. In addition to the two years' delay caused by Ministerial conflicts over its siting, the project suffered many compromises in its financing, its staffing and its organisation. An account is given of the unique structure of the European Communities and its procedures, which shows how idealism constantly faces reality. The role of Euratom is discussed, taking into account the difference between its approach to applications of nuclear fission as opposed to those of nuclear fusion. (author)

  8. The new European Hubble archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, Guido; Arevalo, Maria; Merin, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The European Hubble Archive (hereafter eHST), hosted at ESA's European Space Astronomy Centre, has been released for public use in October 2015. The eHST is now fully integrated with the other ESA science archives to ensure long-term preservation of the Hubble data, consisting of more than 1 million observations from 10 different scientific instruments. The public HST data, the Hubble Legacy Archive, and the high-level science data products are now all available to scientists through a single, carefully designed and user friendly web interface. In this talk, I will show how the the eHST can help boost archival research, including how to search on sources in the field of view thanks to precise footprints projected onto the sky, how to obtain enhanced previews of imaging data and interactive spectral plots, and how to directly link observations with already published papers. To maximise the scientific exploitation of Hubble's data, the eHST offers connectivity to virtual observatory tools, easily integrates with the recently released Hubble Source Catalog, and is fully accessible through ESA's archives multi-mission interface.

  9. European Union, 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Malone Margaret Mary

    2018-01-01

    The year 2017 was eventful for the EU and its member states. Given the widespread Euroscepticism and populism which appeared to be on the rise last year, election results in the Netherlands, France and Germany were greeted with relief and hope for the future. The EU was in an optimistic mood. European Commission President Jean- Claude Juncker used his State of the European Union speech in September to note that the EU had the ‘wind in its sails’ (Juncker, 2017). At the same time, he cautioned...

  10. European immigration a sourcebook

    CERN Document Server

    Triandafyllidou, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Fully updated and containing chapters on the new EU member states and the attempt to form a common EU migration policy, this new edition of European Immigration: A Sourcebook provides a comprehensive overview of the trends and developments in migration in all EU countries. With chapters following a common structure to facilitate direct international comparisons, it not only examines the internal affairs of each member state, but also explores both migratory trends within the EU itself and the implications for European immigration of wider global events, including the Arab Spring and the world financial crisis.

  11. The European Fusion Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palumbo, D.

    1983-01-01

    The European Fusion Programme is coordinated by Euratom and represents a long term cooperative project of Member States of the European Communities in the field of fusion, designed to lead to the joint construction of prototypes. The main lines of the programme proposed for 1982 to 1986 are: (1) the continuation of a strong effort on tokamaks with emphasis on JET construction, operation and upgrading, (2) conceptual design of NET and development of the related technology, and (3) further work on two alternative magnetic confinement systems. The current status and future plans for this programme are discussed in the paper. (author)

  12. European Values and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Theisen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Good Governance, Social Market Economy, Culture and Education are the decisive elements for Human Development. We need a third way between the extremes of the Utopian Global Free Market and a new nationalism. A Social Market Economy and the European Model of a Union could be such third way. For a new Social Market Economy we need a renaissance of the European dialectics between culture and society, idealism and materialism, religion and enlightenment, solidarity and profitability. The balancing of those poles is deeply rooted in our best traditions. 

  13. European countries in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, Celia; Pescia, Dimitri; Ferreira, Francisco; Antunes, Rita; Claustre, Raphael; Priesner, Goerg C.; Pidous, Blandine; Dufour, Manon; Zuloaga, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    From the Atlantic Ocean to the Baltic Sea, from Portugal to Poland through UK, Germany or Austria, energy transition is in progress everywhere in Europe, but at different rhythms and in various conditions from one country to the other. How does the European framework promote the energy transition at the local and regional scales? What advantages the most advanced countries are relying on? How do citizens and local projects take over slow or retrograde governmental policies? This dossier gives some elements of answer through an overview of some energy policy scenarios under implementation in some European countries (Germany, Portugal, Denmark, Austria, UK, Spain)

  14. European Decommissioning Academy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, V. S.; Hornacek, M.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Experiences from the first run of the European Decommissioning Academy (EDA) are reported in details. EDA was created at the Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava Slovakia, based on discussion and expressed needs declared at many international meetings including ECED2013. The first run successfully passed 15 participants during 7–26 June 2015. Academy was focused on decommissioning issues via lessons, practical exercises in laboratories, on-site training prepared at NPP V-1 in Jaslovské Bohunice, Slovakia as well as four day technical tour to other European decommissioning facilities in Switzerland and Italy. Detailed information can be found at http://kome.snus.sk/inpe/. (author

  15. EFSA and ECDC (European Food Safety Authority and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), 2015. The European Union Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Food-borne Outbreaks in 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Helwigh, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    This report of the European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control presents the results of the zoonoses monitoring activities carried out in 2013 in 32 European countries (28 Member States and four non-Member States). Campylobacter iosis was the most commonly reported zoonosis. After several years of an increasing European Union (EU) trend, the human Campylobacter iosis notification rate has stabilised. In food and animals no EU trends were observed a...

  16. European Network Against Racism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helene Pristed

    This article reviews ENAR’s (European Network Against Racism) history from its inception in 1998 to the present – a development which reflects an increasing need for a professionalised lobby organisation with the ability to respond to Brussels-induced demands. Furthermore, against the backdrop...

  17. European Music Year 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexanderson, Thomas; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Articles concerning music are included in this newsletter dedicated to cultural venture to be jointly carried out by the Council of Europe and the European communities. Many events will mark Music Year 1985, including concerts, dance performances, operas, publications, recordings, festivals, exhibitions, competitions, and conferences on musical…

  18. Gifted European American Woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Margie K.; Perkins, Carol O.

    2000-01-01

    This article describes factors affecting the achievement of 15 highly accomplished European American women in the fields of business, higher education, and law and government. Findings indicate participants tended to attribute their success to external factors while simultaneously employing proactive strategies to overcome potential barriers.…

  19. European Metals Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Vereecken, Jean

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the papers that will be presented at 'EMC '91 '-the European Metals Conference-to be held in Brussels, Belgium, from 15 to 20 September 1991, and organized by Benelux Metallurgie, GDMB (Gesellschaft Deutscher Metallhutten­ und Bergleute) and IMM (the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy). 'EMC '91' is the first of an intended major series organized at the European level with the aim of bringing together all those who are involved with the extraction and processing of non-ferrous metals-European metallurgists and their international colleagues-to provide them with the opportunity to exchange views on the state and evolution of their industry. The programme covers all the different aspects of the metallurgy of non-ferrous metals from mining to fabricated products. Particular attention is being paid to the European non -ferrous industry with respect to changes in demand, the technology used, pressures on the environment and the competitive position of manufacturers. The contributions of the...

  20. Play the European card

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majewski, O.

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Otto Majewski, Chief Executive Officer of the Bayernwerk AG utility, in his capacity as Chairman of the European Nuclear Council pointed out at ENC 98 in Nice that national energy policies constituted a major danger to the use of nuclear power. At the same time, he indicated ways and means by which to evade that danger. The decisions taken in Sweden and in the Federal Republic of Germany to opt out of the use of nuclear power show that national energy policies can seriously jeopardize the use of nuclear power. Bayernwerk CEO Dr. Majewski urged nuclear power plant operators to counteract these tendencies by playing the European card. Nuclear power anyway was a classical topic of European cooperation which, in the past, had resulted in higher safety standards and in the development of the EPR. It should also be attempted, by working on European institutions, to strengthen the use of nuclear power, even on a national level. He invoked economic arguments against nuclear opponents, especially the preservation of competitiveness by means of lower electricity prices, and arguments of climate protection. (orig.) [de

  1. European Respiratory Society statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miravitlles, Marc; Dirksen, Asger; Ferrarotti, Ilaria

    2017-01-01

    lung disease. A large proportion of individuals affected remain undiagnosed and therefore without access to appropriate care and treatment.The most recent international statement on AATD was published by the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society in 2003. Since then there has...

  2. European Integration and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bobica

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available According to many, the term globalization is able to explain any phenomenon whatsoever, be it positive or negative, that takes place within the global social system. It seems like a sort of magical formula, which is to be found in the speeches of all sorts of people, be they economists, politicians, businessmen or sociologists. However this magical formula of globalization has its limitations, since it encompasses a certain amount of quibbling, beyond which not many can pass. In the context of globalization there appears the question on its role in the process of European integration. Is European integration a part of this global process or, quite on the contrary, does it present certain distinctive features, as it moulds itself differently from the globalization phenomenon? A clear-cut answer seems difficult because of the various aspects involved. Not only the general phenomenon of globalization, but also the economic integration on European level is based on the liberalization of markets and on the opening of national economies towards the exterior,having as direct consequence the intensification of trade exchanges. If from a global point of view one may talk of a market fundamentalism in that the market principles know no boundary, European integration on the other hand implies not only market economy, but also a guided and monitored action of Member Statesaccording to the needs of the whole entity, also taking into consideration - as far as possible – all aspects and consequences on social level.

  3. AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regulations governing the production and use of genetically modified organisms have been developed in the United Kingdom since 1976. Regulations covering the release of transgenic organisms into the environment were initially voluntary. Since 1990, the European Economic Commission (EEC) Directive. 90/219 and ...

  4. The european ALARA network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croueail, P.; Lefaure, C.; Croft, J.

    2000-01-01

    Throughout the 1980s and early 1990s the European Commission sponsored projects on the understanding and practical implementation of the ALARA principle. These projects helped ensure that ALARA was integrated into many organisations radiation protection programmes, particularly in the nuclear industry. However there was still much to be done in the non-nuclear sector, as well as for the management of internal exposure. Therefore, the European Commission decided to set up, as of the first January 1996, a European ALARA Network (EAN) whose main goals are to: Further promote ALARA within non nuclear industry, research and the nuclear cycle; Provide a means for feedback experience and the exchange and dissemination of good radiological protection practices in these areas; Initiate proposals for research projects and workshops on topics dealing with optimisation of radiological protection for all types of occupational exposure. The Network has a Steering Committee of experts from 11 countries, with CEPN being the co-ordinator. Twice yearly, the EAN products for the international community a European ALARA Newsletter that reaches several thousand individuals or institutions, mainly in Europe. Each year since 1997, the EAN has organised an ALARA workshop attended by 60 to 80 experts from about ten countries. The first three Workshops were devoted to: ALARA and Decommissioning (1997, Saclay, France), Good Radiation Practices in Industry and Research (1998, Chilton, United Kingdam), and ALARA and Internal Exposure (1999, Munich, Germany). Each of these Workshops gave rise to sets of recommendations to the European Commission which included proposals for further research, modification of regulations, and actions to support feedback experience within the member states. (author)

  5. European Identity and European Citizenship: the Case of Missing Polis?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šejvl, Michal

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2008), s. 49-56 ISSN 1789-1035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70680506 Keywords : the European integration * law of citizenship * European identity Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  6. PEP725 Pan European Phenological Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, E.; Adler, S.; Lipa, W.; Ungersböck, M.; Zach-Hermann, S.

    2010-09-01

    Europe is in the fortunate situation that it has a long tradition in phenological networking: the history of collecting phenological data and using them in climatology has its starting point in 1751 when Carl von Linné outlined in his work Philosophia Botanica methods for compiling annual plant calendars of leaf opening, flowering, fruiting and leaf fall together with climatological observations "so as to show how areas differ". Recently in most European countries, phenological observations have been carried out routinely for more than 50 years by different governmental and non governmental organisations and following different observation guidelines, the data stored at different places in different formats. This has been really hampering pan European studies as one has to address many network operators to get access to the data before one can start to bring them in a uniform style. From 2004 to 2009 the COST-action 725 established a European wide data set of phenological observations. But the deliverables of this COST action was not only the common phenological database and common observation guidelines - COST725 helped to trigger a revival of some old networks and to establish new ones as for instance in Sweden. At the end of 2009 the COST action the database comprised about 8 million data in total from 15 European countries plus the data from the International Phenological Gardens IPG. In January 2010 PEP725 began its work as follow up project with funding from EUMETNET the network of European meteorological services and of ZAMG the Austrian national meteorological service. PEP725 not only will take over the part of maintaining, updating the COST725 database, but also to bring in phenological data from the time before 1951, developing better quality checking procedures and ensuring an open access to the database. An attractive webpage will make phenology and climate impacts on vegetation more visible in the public enabling a monitoring of vegetation development.

  7. The post-European city in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Venturi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Established tools for forecasting urban development are evidently insufficient. Even most hypotheses seen as axiomatic in urbanisation processes are confronted by new phenomena on a daily basis. In the European tradition there is however a method, which allows definition of common methods and answers: the analysis of ties in urbanisation processes. By analysis of quantitative observation, re-evaluation of the essence of public investments, identification of signs of urbanity and transformation of hierarchies the author offers a possibility for urban futures of European cities, which stems from relationships of contradicting pairs.

  8. The EIROforum Collaboration Agreement with the European Union

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Collaboration between CERN and the European Union has extended over many years, and the European Commission were granted Observer Status in the CERN Council in 1985 already. In 1994, an Administrative Arrangement was signed between CERN's Director-General, Professor C.H. Llewellyn Smith, and the Commissioner of the European Communities, Professor Antonio Ruberti, "to promote co-operation between the Commission of the European Communities and CERN in research and technological development". (See Annex I). In 2000, the EIROforum was set up composed of the Directors-General of the seven organisations - CERN, EFDA, EMBL, ESA, ESO, ESRF and ILL - whom now meet regularly twice per year. More information is available at the Web site www.eiroforum.org. On 27 October 2003, the EIROforum members signed a joint "Statement of Intent" with the European Commission, represented by Commissioner Philippe Busquin, confirming their common commitment to developing the European Research Area. The goal is to work together to estab...

  9. Observational Study of Platelet Reactivity in Patients Presenting With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Due to Coronary Stent Thrombosis Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Results From the European PREvention of Stent Thrombosis by an Interdisciplinary Global European Effort Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godschalk, Thea C; Byrne, Robert A; Adriaenssens, Tom; Malik, Nikesh; Feldman, Laurent J; Guagliumi, Giulio; Alfonso, Fernando; Neumann, Franz-Josef; Trenk, Dietmar; Joner, Michael; Schulz, Christian; Steg, Philippe G; Goodall, Alison H; Wojdyla, Roman; Dudek, Dariusz; Wykrzykowska, Joanna J; Hlinomaz, Ota; Zaman, Azfar G; Curzen, Nick; Dens, Jo; Sinnaeve, Peter; Desmet, Walter; Gershlick, Anthony H; Kastrati, Adnan; Massberg, Steffen; Ten Berg, Jurriën M

    2017-12-26

    High platelet reactivity (HPR) was studied in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) due to stent thrombosis (ST) undergoing immediate percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). HPR on P2Y 12 inhibitors (HPR-ADP) is frequently observed in stable patients who have experienced ST. The HPR rates in patients presenting with ST for immediate PCI are unknown. Consecutive patients presenting with definite ST were included in a multicenter ST registry. Platelet reactivity was measured before immediate PCI with the VerifyNow P2Y 12 or Aspirin assay. Platelet reactivity was measured in 129 ST patients presenting with STEMI undergoing immediate PCI. HPR-ADP was observed in 76% of the patients, and HPR on aspirin (HPR-AA) was observed in 13% of the patients. HPR rates were similar in patients who were on maintenance P2Y 12 inhibitor or aspirin since stent placement versus those without these medications. In addition, HPR-ADP was similar in patients loaded with a P2Y 12 inhibitor shortly before immediate PCI versus those who were not. In contrast, HPR-AA trended to be lower in patients loaded with aspirin as compared with those not loaded. Approximately 3 out of 4 ST patients with STEMI undergoing immediate PCI had HPR-ADP, and 13% had HPR-AA. Whether patients were on maintenance antiplatelet therapy while developing ST or loaded with P2Y 12 inhibitors shortly before undergoing immediate PCI had no influence on the HPR rates. This raises concerns that the majority of patients with ST have suboptimal platelet inhibition undergoing immediate PCI. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. European Research Reloaded : Cooperation and Integration Among Europeanized States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhacker, Ron; Haverland, Markus

    2006-01-01

    European integration has had an ever deepening impact on the member states. The first wave of research concerned the process of institution building and policy developments at the European Union (EU) level. The second wave, on Europeanization used the resulting integration as an explanatory factor

  11. Principles of European Contract Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole; Beale, Hugh

    This text provides a comprehensive guide to the principles of European contract law. They have been drawn up by an independent body of experts from each Member State of the EU, under a project supported by the European Commission and many other organizations. The principles are stated in the form...... of articles, with a detailed commentary explaining the purpose and operation of each article and its relation to the remainder. Each article also has extensive comparative notes surveying the national laws and other international provisions on the topic. "The Principles of European Contract Law Parts I &...... in developing a common European legal culture. The European Parliament has twice called for the creation of a European Civil Code. The principles of European contract law are essential steps in these projects. This text provides a comprehensive guide to the Principles of European contract law. They have been...

  12. Political dimension of European constitutionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplánová Patricia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Author in the article tries to analyse different elements of document called European Constitution. Analysis is supported with theoretical framework of federalism, presented by Brezovšek. Authors is playing with idea of (confederal and international organization elements of European Constitution and their mix. They are also trying to set some connections between so called common European identity as necessary condition to give legitimacy to the European Constitution. This became important question after „votes of non-confidence“ to the European Constitution in France, despite it should be addressed already before. However, European Constitution is important document on the path of European integration and lack of support to it will slow down this process of widening and deepening European ties.

  13. The European electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The creation of a single European market also will have its effects on the power and electricity sector. Expectations tied to this abandonment of borders on the electricity market are different: some hope for a reduction of energy costs, others fear safeguarded supplies to be at risk. It cannot be fully judged at present what the situation will be on a strongly integrated, European power and electricity market, and the brochure in hand is intended to present a first survey of the situation from the perspective of the power industry and energy policy, concentrating on main aspects. The survey is compiled in the form of reprints of journal articles written on this topic by a number of well-known German experts in the field. (orig./HP) [de

  14. European Nuclear Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, B.; Gonzalez, E.; Diaz Diaz, J.L.; Jimenez, J.L.; Velarde, G.; Navarro, J.M.; Hittner, D.; Dominguez, M.T.; Bollini, G.; Martin, A.; Suarez, J.; Traini, E.; Lang-Lenton, J.

    2004-01-01

    ''European Nuclear Features - ENF'' is a joint publication of the three specialized technical journals, Nuclear Espana (Spain), Revue General Nucleaire (France), and atw - International Journal of Nuclear Power (Germany). The ENF support the international Europeen exchange of information and news about energy and nuclear power. News items, comments, and scientific and technical contributions will cover important aspects of the field. The second issue of ENF contains contributions about theses topics, among others: Institutional and Political Changes in the EU. - CIEMAT Department of Nuclear Fission: A General Overview. - Inertial Fusion Energy at DENIM. - High Temperature Reactors. European Research Programme. - On Site Assistance to Khmelnitsky NPP 1 and 2 (Ukraine). - Dismantling and Decommissioning of Vandellos I. (orig.)

  15. European Union, 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malone Margaret Mary

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The year 2017 was eventful for the EU and its member states. Given the widespread Euroscepticism and populism which appeared to be on the rise last year, election results in the Netherlands, France and Germany were greeted with relief and hope for the future. The EU was in an optimistic mood. European Commission President Jean- Claude Juncker used his State of the European Union speech in September to note that the EU had the ‘wind in its sails’ (Juncker, 2017. At the same time, he cautioned that the fair weather conditions would not last long - there was no room for complacency. The EU had to act to protect, empower and defend its citizens. The EU moved forward on a number of policy fronts in the wake of the Brexit vote and also concluded high-profile international trade deals in an effort to fill the vacuum left by the protectionist policies of the Trump administration.

  16. Do Europeans Like Nudges?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Sunstein, Cass R.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, many governments have shown a keen interest in “nudges” — approaches to law and policy that maintain freedom of choice, but that steer people in certain directions. Yet to date, there has been little evidence on whether citizens of various societies support nudges and nudging. We...... report the results of nationally representative surveys in six European nations: Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, and the United Kingdom. We find strong majority support for nudges of the sort that have been adopted, or under serious consideration, in democratic nations. Despite the general...... European consensus, we find markedly lower levels of support for nudges in two nations: Hungary and Denmark. We are not, in general, able to connect support for nudges with distinct party affiliations....

  17. European nuclear education initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glatz, Jean-Paul

    2011-01-01

    Whatever option regarding their future nuclear energy development is chosen by European Union Member States, the availability of a sufficient number of well trained and experienced staff is key for the responsible use of nuclear energy. This is true in all areas including design, construction, operation, decommissioning, fuel cycle and waste management as well as radiation protection. Given the high average age of existing experts leading to a significant retirement induce a real risk of the loss of nuclear competencies in the coming years. Therefore the demand of hiring skilled employees is rising. The challenge of ensuring a sufficient number of qualified staff in the nuclear sector has been acknowledged widely among the different stakeholders, in particular the nuclear industry, national regulatory authorities and Technical Support Organisations (TSOs). Already the EURATOM Treaty refers explicitly to the obligation for the Commission to carry out training actions. Recently initiatives have been launched at EU level to facilitate and strengthen the efforts of national stakeholders. The European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN) Association aims at preservation and further development of expertise in the nuclear field by higher education and training. The goal of the European Nuclear Energy Leadership Academy (ENELA) is to educate future leaders in the nuclear field to ensure the further development of sustainable European nuclear energy solutions The European Nuclear Energy Forum (ENEF) is a platform operated by the European Commission for a broad discussion on the opportunities and risks of nuclear energy. The nuclear programs under investigation in the Joint Research Center (JRC) are increasingly contributing to Education and Training (E and T) initiatives, promoting a better cooperation between key players and universities as well as operators and regulatory bodies in order to mutually optimise their training programmes. Another objective is to increase

  18. European standards for composite construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, J.W.B.

    2000-01-01

    The European Standards Organisation (CEN) has planned to develop a complete set of harmonized European building standards. This set includes standards for composite steel and concrete buildings and bridges. The Eurocodes, being the design standards, form part of this total system of European

  19. European Automotive Congress

    CERN Document Server

    Clenci, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The volume includes selected and reviewed papers from the European Automotive Congress held in Bucharest, Romania, in November 2015. Authors are experts from research, industry and universities coming from 14 countries worldwide. The papers are covering the latest developments in fuel economy and environment, automotive safety and comfort, automotive reliability and maintenance, new materials and technologies, traffic and road transport systems, advanced engineering methods and tools, as well as advanced powertrains and hybrid and electric drives.

  20. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...... to form winning coalitions in the Council, the ideological positioning of the co-legislators and the inclusion of the cohesion countries have played a significant role in driving budget change....

  1. Telemedicine and European law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Stefaan

    2003-01-01

    A Directive of the European Union was first published in 2000, which dealt with telemedicine as part of its provisions. This E-Commerce Directive, as it became known, was subjected to further study which revealed some problems relative to the practice of telemedicine. Among the subjects discussed in this paper are those of privacy, data protection, free movement of services, the impact of electronic communication and ethical issues.

  2. European wind turbine catalogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The THERMIE European Community programme is designed to promote the greater use of European technology and this catalogue contributes to the fulfillment of this aim by dissemination of information on 50 wind turbines from 30 manufacturers. These turbines are produced in Europe and are commercially available. The manufacturers presented produce and sell grid-connected turbines which have been officially approved in countries where this approval is acquired, however some of the wind turbines included in the catalogue have not been regarded as fully commercially available at the time of going to print. The entries, which are illustrated by colour photographs, give company profiles, concept descriptions, measured power curves, prices, and information on design and dimension, safety systems, stage of development, special characteristics, annual energy production, and noise pollution. Lists are given of wind turbine manufacturers and agents and of consultants and developers in the wind energy sector. Exchange rates used in the conversion of the prices of wind turbines are also given. Information can be found on the OPET network (organizations recognised by the European Commission as an Organization for the Promotion of Energy Technologies (OPET)). An article describes the development of the wind power industry during the last 10-15 years and another article on certification aims to give an overview of the most well-known and acknowledged type approvals currently issued in Europe. (AB)

  3. European Academy of decommisioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, V.; Hinca, R.

    2014-01-01

    According to analyses presented at EC meeting focused on decommissioning organized at 11.9.2012 in Brussels, it was stated that at least 500 new international experts for decommissioning will be needed in Europe up to 2025, which means about 35 per year.Having in mind the actual EHRO-N report from 2013 focused on operation of nuclear facilities and an assumption that the ratio between nuclear experts, nuclearized and nuclear aware people is comparable also for decommissioning (16:74:10), as well as the fact that the special study branch for decommissioning in the European countries almost does not exist, this European Decommissioning Academy (EDA) could be helpful in the overbridging this gap.For the first run of the EDA scheduled on 2014 we would like to focus on VVER decommissioning issues because this reactor type is the most distributed design in the world and many of these units are actually in decommissioning process or will be decommissioned in the near future in Europe.A graduate of the European Decommissioning Academy (EDA) should have at least bachelor level from technical or natural science Universities or Colleges and at least one year working experiences in the area of NPP decommissioning or nuclear power engineering. This study creates prerequisites for acquiring and completion of professional and specialized knowledge in the subjects which are described. (authors)

  4. European industry outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, G.

    1991-01-01

    Europe's offshore oil and gas industry is estimated to spend around Pound 14bn per year out of a world total of some Pound 43bn, showing that despite its maturity the North West European Continental Shelf remains a dominant segment of the world's offshore business. Especially in the U.K. sector, expenditure is booming and 1991 is expected to be a record year. This activity level is likely to continue into 1992, but there are factors which could limit activity later in the 1990s. This volume lists some 225 undeveloped discoveries and fields under development in the U.K. sector, 80 each in Norway and the Netherlands, and 17 in Denmark. New technologies, particularly subsea separation and multiphase flow will be prominent factors in ensuring that the numerous small oilfields within this inventory of discoveries will eventually achieve commercial development. The effects of likely European Community legislation continue to concern many in the industry, with a more open and regulated purchasing regime for major contracts becoming more certain. A major step has been taken towards open access rights, and if this policy is pursued it could open the European gas industry to a new era of free competition, especially if a U.K.-Continental transmission link were to be realised. The long term implications of the increased share of natural gas in the total energy mix to virtually all companies engaged in offshore activities (and many not so engaged) are likely to be fundamental and far-reaching. (author)

  5. The European Social Survey and European research policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kropp, Kristoffer

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the history of the European Social Survey (ESS) and its relationship to changes in European research policy, using Bourdieu’s field-analytical approach. It argues that the success of the ESS relied on three interwoven processes that we can understand theoretically in terms...... of the establishment of homological structures and the formation of conjunctural alliances between the field of European social-scientific research and the field of European policy. The three interwoven processes that I depict are: first, the production of a European field of social research, connected to both...... European and national scientific institutions; second, the establishment of European Union (EU) institutions and organisations that were able to identify and link up with social researchers; and third, the formation of conjunctural alliances between the two fields (social science and EU research policy...

  6. Colonic microbiota signatures across five northern European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lay, C.; Rigottier-Gois, L.; Holmstrom, K.; Rajilic-Stojanovic, M.; Vaughan, E.E.; Vos, de W.M.; Collins, M.D.; Thiel, R.; Namsolleck, P.; Blaut, M.; Dore, J.

    2005-01-01

    The composition of the colonic microbiota of 91 northern Europeans was characterized by fluorescent in situ hybridization using 18 phylogenetic probes. On average 75% of the bacteria were identified, and large interindividual variations were observed. Clostridium coccoides and Clostridium leptum

  7. Eastern Dimension of the European Neighbourhood Policy: Europeanization Mutual Trap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Latkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the Europeanization policy of the European Union towards the Eastern Partnership participant countries. Suffering from the lack of clear strategy and ultimate goal in the European Neighbourhood Policy the European Union enhances external democratization and its governance in post soviet states without immediate Union's membership perspective. Underestimation of common neighbourhood geopolitical duality in the context of growing rivalry between European (EU and Eurasian (Custom Union/Eurasian Economic Union integration gravitation centers presents the Eastern partners of the EU with a fierce dilemma of externally forced immediate geopolitical and civilizational choice while not all of them are well prepared to such a choice. The mutual Europeanization trap here to be studied both for the EU and its Eastern partners (involving Russia is a deficiency of regulating cooperation mechanism in the situation of European and Eurasian free trades zones overlapping. Vilnius Summit 2013 results test the "European aspirations" of the New Independent States and upset the ongoing process of the European Neighbourhood Policy in the context of growing economic interdependence in Wider Europe. Besides, the Ukrainian crisis escalation during 2014 as a new seat of tension provokes unbalance of the whole European security system and creates new dividing lines in Europe from Vancouver to Vladivostok.

  8. The 2011 Draconids: The First European Airborne Meteor Observation Campaign

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaubaillon, J.; Koten, Pavel; Margonis, A.; Toth, J.; Rudawska, R.; Gritsevich, M.; Zender, J.; McAuliffe, J.; Pautet, D.; Jenniskens, P.; Koschny, D.; Colas, F.; Bouley, S.; Maquet, L.; Leroy, A.; Lecacheux, J.; Borovička, Jiří; Watanabe, J.; Oberst, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 114, 3-4 (2015), s. 137-157 ISSN 0167-9295 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-25251S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : meteors * Draconids * 21P/Giacobini-Zinner Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.659, year: 2015

  9. Brazil to Join the European Southern Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    conducted where every aspect of this large project was scrutinised by an international panel of independent experts. The panel found that the E-ELT project is technically ready to enter the construction phase. The go-ahead for E-ELT construction is planned for 2011 and when operations start early in the next decade, European, Brazilian and Chilean astronomers will have access to this giant telescope. The president of ESO's governing body, the Council, Laurent Vigroux, concludes: "Astronomers in Brazil will benefit from collaborating with European colleagues, and naturally from having observing time at ESO's world-class observatories at La Silla and Paranal, as well as on ALMA, which ESO is constructing with its international partners." Notes [1] After ratification of Brazil's membership, the ESO Member States will be Austria, Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the

  10. The European populist challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Stavrakakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s Europe, the word ‘populism’ usually refers to right-wing populism or the populist extreme right. Is, however, the concept of ‘populism’ the proper theoreticopolitical instrument through which such identifications should be perceived, categorized and debated? What are the implications (direct and indirect of such a naming? And what are the risks for critical analysis and for democratic politics in the European context? The hypothesis explored in this essay is that sticking to a restrictive association between ‘populism’ and the extreme right poses certain dangers that have to be seriously taken into account, especially in times of crisis. For a start, it is often premised on a rather simplistic euro-centrism that reduces the broad conceptual spectrum covered by the category ‘populism’ in its global use to a very particular European experience and then essentializes the resulting association, over-extending its scope. In addition, the category ‘populism’ is aften used to describe political forces, identities and discourses in which the role of ‘the people’ is only secondary or peripheral, to the extent that it has to coincide with strongly hierarchical and elitist visions of society. What complicates things even further is that, within the context of the European (economic and political crisis, whoever questions/ resists the austerity agenda – especially on the left – is increasingly discredited and denounced as an irresponsible populist. Indeed, it is not by coincidence that doubts are increasingly voiced both in the theoretical and in the political literature regarding the rationale behind such a strong association between populism and the extreme right. A series of points will thus be raised that may help us develop a plausible theoretico-political strategy in the new emerging conditions from a discursive perspective.*

  11. The European Logarithmic Microprocessor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Coleman, J. N.; Softley, C. I.; Kadlec, Jiří; Matoušek, R.; Tichý, Milan; Pohl, Zdeněk; Heřmánek, Antonín; Benschop, N. F.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2008), s. 532-546 ISSN 0018-9340 Grant - others:Evropská komise(BE) ESPRIT 33544 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : Processor architecture * arithmetic unit * logarithmic arithmetic Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software Impact factor: 2.611, year: 2008 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/ZS/kadlec-the%20european%20logarithmic%20microprocessor.pdf

  12. Discussion: European Commission policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coldwell, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper documents the debate which arose following two papers presented to a seminar run by the Centre for the Study of Regulated Industries, on 11th November 1992, on European Commission (EC) energy policies. The issues raised cover how an internal market for electricity and natural gas will be implemented under a proposed EC directive, bearing in mind the level of opposition from a number of Member States. How this Directive will apply to vertically integrated structures, such as Scottish Electricity Industry, is also considered. (UK)

  13. Cooperative strategies European perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Killing, J Peter

    1997-01-01

    Cooperative Strategies: European Perspectives is one of three geographically targeted volumes in which the contributors present the most current research on topics such as advances in theories of cooperative strategies, the formation of cooperative alliances, the dynamics of partner relationships, and the role of information and knowledge in cooperative alliances. Blending conceptual insights with empirical analyses, the contributors highlight commonalities and differences across national, cultural, and trade zones. The chapters in this volume are anchored in a wide set of theoretical approaches, conceptual frameworks, and models, illustrating how rich the area of cooperative strategies is for scholarly inquiry.

  14. European Union of Memories?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Anne

    After a very brief introduction to history and memory in Europe after 1989, as seen by Aleida Assmann, I will give a short introduction to the EP and to their adoption of resolutions and declarations. Then I will define some concepts central to my study before I proceed to the analysis. Finally I...... these changes have come about. Moreover, I show that there seems to be a political memory split between Left and Right and I suggest that the time might not be ripe for a shared European memory....

  15. The European Community context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charrault, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    The chapter discusses the following: energy resources and energy policy within the European Community; political aspects in the Member States; Community involvement in the transport of radioactive materials; responsibility for safety in relation to transport lies with the governments of the Member States, but the Community through its various organizations also has certain responsibilities, e.g. to ensure that transport regulations are harmonised, to carry out safeguards checks, to provide standards for health and safety of workers and the public, and to cooperate with Member States in developing guidelines for transport safety. (U.K.)

  16. How campaigns enhance European issues voting during European Parliament elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek; Møller Hansen, Kasper; Larsen, Martin Vinæs

    2017-01-01

    Based on findings from the literature on campaign effects on the one hand, and the literature on European Parliament elections on the other, we propose a model of European Parliamentary elections in which the campaign shift the calculus of electoral support, making differences in national political...... allegiances less important and attitudes about the European project more important by informing voters of and getting them interested in European politics. In effect, we argue that the political campaign leading up to the election makes European Parliament elections less second-order. While previous studies...... have demonstrated that EU attitudes can matter for voting behavior in European Parliament elections, existing research has drawn on post-election surveys that do not enable us to capture campaign effects. Our contribution is to assess the impact of a campaign by utilizing a rolling cross sectional...

  17. The European Hematology Association Roadmap for European Hematology Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engert, Andreas; Balduini, Carlo; Brand, Anneke

    2016-01-01

    The European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European hematology...... research. Initiated by the EHA, around 300 experts contributed to the consensus document, which will help European policy makers, research funders, research organizations, researchers, and patient groups make better informed decisions on hematology research. It also aims to raise public awareness...... of the burden of blood disorders on European society, which purely in economic terms is estimated at €23 billion per year, a level of cost that is not matched in current European hematology research funding. In recent decades, hematology research has improved our fundamental understanding of the biology...

  18. Twenty Years of the European Information Systems Academy at ECIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Mari-Klara; Galliers, Robert D.; Whitley, Edgar A.

    2016-01-01

    by further developing the profile of European IS research that was reported on in EJIS following the first 10 years of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS). On the basis of an analysis of all papers published in ECIS proceedings during the 10-year period 2003–2012, the paper highlights three...... key characteristics of the developing European IS research profile: (1) continuation of the traditional European IS research profile as developed in the first decade; (2) convergence with aspects of the North American tradition and (3) development of a distinct approach to design science. We place...... these observed characteristics within broader historical and contextual features such as the changing European academic landscape, with increasing pressures to ‘publish or perish’ in order to be internationally competitive. Our contribution lies in providing a contemporaneous account of the dominant contextual...

  19. European innovation and technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    The promotion of technological innovation by European national governments and the EC in pursuit of both increased recovery and the anchoring of technology in supply, manufacturing and service sector companies has been a feature of the strategic involvement by European states in exploration and production research and development. This paper summaries past trends in this activity and reviews the targets for future industry innovation which will enable European (primarily the North Sea) production to be sustained for a further generation

  20. Political Psychology of European Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The...

  1. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. The European Union aims to achieve a 20% share (with legally binding national targets) of its final energy consumption from RES by 2020, and at least a 27% share (not broken down into nationally binding targets) by 2030. Key instruments at EU level to promote RES include directives, such as the 2009 Renewable Energy Directive. The EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) is also intended to support RES. The European Commission has also adopted state aid guidelines to ensure that support schemes to promote RES at national level are compatible with EU competition law and internal market rules. Further instruments are research, development and innovation funding programmes, such as Horizon2020, the Innovation Fund, and the NER300 programme. RES are also supported through regional development funds as well as through grants and loans for RES projects and related infrastructure from the European Investment Bank (EIB) and the European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI). A recast directive on the promotion of RES in the period 2020- 2030 is to be adopted along with governance rules to ensure that the EU-wide RES target for 2030 is met

  2. Nuclear power: European report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, nuclear power plants were operated and/or built in eighteen European countries. Thirteen of these countries are members of EU-25. Five of the ten countries joining the European Union on May 1, 2004 operate nuclear power stations. A total of 206 power reactors with a gross power of 181,941 MWe and a net power of 172,699 MWe were in operation at the end of the year. In 2004, one nuclear power plant was commissioned in Russia (Kalinin 3), two (Kmelnitzki 2 and Rowno 4) in Ukraine. Five nuclear power plants were decommissioned in Europe in the course of 2004. As announced in 2000, the Chapelcross 1 to Chapelcross 4 plants in Britain were shut down for economic reasons. In Lithuania, the Ignalina 1 unit was disconnected from the power grid, as had been demanded by the EU Commission within the framework of the negotiations about the country's accession to the EU. As a result of ongoing technical optimization in some plants, involving increases in reactor power or generator power as well as commissioning of plants of higher capacity, nuclear generating capacity increased by approx. 1.5 GW. In late 2004, four nuclear generating units were under construction in Finland (1), Romania (1), and Russia (2). 150 nuclear power plants were operated in thirteen states of the European Union (EU-25), which is sixteen more than the year before as a consequence of the accession of new countries. They had an aggregate gross power of 137,943 MWe and a net power of 131,267 MWe, generating approx. 983 billion gross kWh of electricity in 2003, thus again contributing some 32% to the public electricity supply in the EU-25. In largest share of nuclear power in electricity generation is found in Lithuania (80%), followed by 78% in France, 57% in the Slovak Republic, 56% in Belgium, and 46% in Ukraine. In several countries not operating nuclear power plants of their own, such as Italy, Portugal, and Austria, nuclear power makes considerable contributions to public electricity supply as

  3. The Europeanization of National Judiciaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaremba, Urszula; Mayoral, Juan A.

    2018-01-01

    judiciaries is still somewhat scattered and fragmented. The central ambition of this article is to provide a theoretical framework that would contribute to the understanding of Europeanization of judiciaries by: 1) offering a definition and theoretical developments useful for the study Europeanization and its......The article is underpinned by the idea that the national courts/judges are expected to act as decentralized European Union judges. However, the general knowledge concerning the impact of EU law on the functioning of national courts as EU judges and the process of Europeanization of national...

  4. Nuclear energy: the European way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The dossier published in this issue deals with the present and future situation of nuclear energy in Europe. What could be the trends of the nuclear development in the Europe of tomorrows. That global question is answered by pointing out the different data related to the present state of european nuclear programmes. Such an overview is followed by a serie of articles dealing with definite items: the actions implemented by the European Communities Commission: the electricity market and EDF policy in the field of european electric grids; the trends of nuclear cycle industry and the perfecting of the future european nuclear reactor

  5. The European Photovoltaic Technology Platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, S.; Aulich, H.; Bal, J.L.; Dimmler, B.; Garnier, A.; Jongerden, G.; Luther, J.; Luque, A.; Milner, A.; Nelson, D.; Pataki, I.; Pearsall, N.; Perezagua, E.; Pietruszko, S.; Rehak, J.; Schellekens, E.; Shanker, A.; Silvestrini, G.; Sinke, W.; Willemsen, H.

    2006-05-01

    The European Photovoltaic Technology Platform is one of the European Technology Platforms, a new instrument proposed by the European Commission. European Technology Platforms (ETPs) are a mechanism to bring together all interested stakeholders to develop a long-term vision to address a specific challenge, create a coherent, dynamic strategy to achieve that vision and steer the implementation of an action plan to deliver agreed programmes of activities and optimise the benefits for all parties. The European Photovoltaic Technology Platform has recently been established to define, support and accompany the implementation of a coherent and comprehensive strategic plan for photovoltaics. The platform will mobilise all stakeholders sharing a long-term European vision for PV, helping to ensure that Europe maintains and improves its industrial position. The platform will realise a European Strategic Research Agenda for PV for the next decade(s). Guided by a Steering Committee of 20 high level decision-makers representing all relevant European PV Stakeholders, the European PV Technology Platform comprises 4 Working Groups dealing with the subjects policy and instruments; market deployment; science, technology and applications as well as developing countries and is supported by a secretariat

  6. EPR (European Pressurized Reactor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This document presents the EPR (European Pressurized Reactor), a modernised version of PWRs which uses nuclear fission. It indicates to which category it belongs (third generation). It briefly describes its operation: recalls on nuclear fission, electricity production in a nuclear reactor. It presents and comments its characteristics: power, thermal efficiency, redundant systems for safety control, double protective enclosure, expected lifetime, use of MOX fuel, modular design. It discusses economic stakes (expected higher nuclear electricity competitiveness, but high construction costs), and safety challenges (design characteristics, critics by nuclear safety authorities about the safety data processing system). It presents the main involved actors (Areva, EDF) and competitors in the field of advanced reactors (Rosatom with its VVER 1200, General Electric with its ABWR and its ESBWR, Mitsubishi with its APWR, Westinghouse with its AP100) while outlining the importance of certifications and delays to obtain them. After having evoked key data on EPR fuel consumption, it indicates reactors under construction, evokes potential markets and perspectives

  7. The European nanometrology landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Richard K; Boyd, Robert; Burke, Theresa; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Dirscherl, Kai; Dziomba, Thorsten; Gee, Mark; Koenders, Ludger; Morazzani, Valérie; Pidduck, Allan; Roy, Debdulal; Unger, Wolfgang E S; Yacoot, Andrew

    2011-02-11

    This review paper summarizes the European nanometrology landscape from a technical perspective. Dimensional and chemical nanometrology are discussed first as they underpin many of the developments in other areas of nanometrology. Applications for the measurement of thin film parameters are followed by two of the most widely relevant families of functional properties: measurement of mechanical and electrical properties at the nanoscale. Nanostructured materials and surfaces, which are seen as key materials areas having specific metrology challenges, are covered next. The final section describes biological nanometrology, which is perhaps the most interdisciplinary applications area, and presents unique challenges. Within each area, a review is provided of current status, the capabilities and limitations of current techniques and instruments, and future directions being driven by emerging industrial measurement requirements. Issues of traceability, standardization, national and international programmes, regulation and skills development will be discussed in a future paper.

  8. European Commission policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coldwell, R.

    1993-01-01

    This debate discusses the debate surrounding the proposed European Community (EC) Directive on the completion of the internal energy market for natural gas and electric power. The context in which the liberalisation program is proposed is described for electricity, considering political issues, international ownership patterns and trade between Eastern and Western Europe. The author then argues for Member States to be consistent and fair, bearing in mind existing variations in liberalisation of national energy markets. Finally the components of the directive are examined. The United Kingdom, with its already liberalised electricity industry has much to gain from the Directive, while other countries which oppose it, are seen as protecting the vested interests of their own utilities. (UK)

  9. The European nanometrology landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Richard K.; Boyd, Robert; Burke, Theresa; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Dirscherl, Kai; Dziomba, Thorsten; Gee, Mark; Koenders, Ludger; Morazzani, Valérie; Pidduck, Allan; Roy, Debdulal; Unger, Wolfgang E. S.; Yacoot, Andrew

    2011-02-01

    This review paper summarizes the European nanometrology landscape from a technical perspective. Dimensional and chemical nanometrology are discussed first as they underpin many of the developments in other areas of nanometrology. Applications for the measurement of thin film parameters are followed by two of the most widely relevant families of functional properties: measurement of mechanical and electrical properties at the nanoscale. Nanostructured materials and surfaces, which are seen as key materials areas having specific metrology challenges, are covered next. The final section describes biological nanometrology, which is perhaps the most interdisciplinary applications area, and presents unique challenges. Within each area, a review is provided of current status, the capabilities and limitations of current techniques and instruments, and future directions being driven by emerging industrial measurement requirements. Issues of traceability, standardization, national and international programmes, regulation and skills development will be discussed in a future paper.

  10. The European nanometrology landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, Richard K; Boyd, Robert; Gee, Mark; Roy, Debdulal; Yacoot, Andrew; Burke, Theresa; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Dziomba, Thorsten; Koenders, Ludger; Dirscherl, Kai; Morazzani, Valerie; Pidduck, Allan; Unger, Wolfgang E S

    2011-01-01

    This review paper summarizes the European nanometrology landscape from a technical perspective. Dimensional and chemical nanometrology are discussed first as they underpin many of the developments in other areas of nanometrology. Applications for the measurement of thin film parameters are followed by two of the most widely relevant families of functional properties: measurement of mechanical and electrical properties at the nanoscale. Nanostructured materials and surfaces, which are seen as key materials areas having specific metrology challenges, are covered next. The final section describes biological nanometrology, which is perhaps the most interdisciplinary applications area, and presents unique challenges. Within each area, a review is provided of current status, the capabilities and limitations of current techniques and instruments, and future directions being driven by emerging industrial measurement requirements. Issues of traceability, standardization, national and international programmes, regulation and skills development will be discussed in a future paper. (topical review)

  11. The European nanometrology landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, Richard K; Boyd, Robert; Gee, Mark; Roy, Debdulal; Yacoot, Andrew [National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom); Burke, Theresa [European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology (United Kingdom); Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Dziomba, Thorsten; Koenders, Ludger [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany); Dirscherl, Kai [Danish Fundamental Metrology (Denmark); Morazzani, Valerie [Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais (France); Pidduck, Allan [QinetiQ (United Kingdom); Unger, Wolfgang E S, E-mail: richard.leach@npl.co.uk [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (Germany)

    2011-02-11

    This review paper summarizes the European nanometrology landscape from a technical perspective. Dimensional and chemical nanometrology are discussed first as they underpin many of the developments in other areas of nanometrology. Applications for the measurement of thin film parameters are followed by two of the most widely relevant families of functional properties: measurement of mechanical and electrical properties at the nanoscale. Nanostructured materials and surfaces, which are seen as key materials areas having specific metrology challenges, are covered next. The final section describes biological nanometrology, which is perhaps the most interdisciplinary applications area, and presents unique challenges. Within each area, a review is provided of current status, the capabilities and limitations of current techniques and instruments, and future directions being driven by emerging industrial measurement requirements. Issues of traceability, standardization, national and international programmes, regulation and skills development will be discussed in a future paper. (topical review)

  12. Rectors of European universities

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Several rectors of European universities visited CERN recently while in Geneva for a conference on coordination between their institutions. The visit began with a welcome by Roger Cashmore, CERN Director of Collider Programmes,and continued with tours of CMS, ALICE and the LHC magnet assembly hall. Photos 01, 02: The visitors in the ALICE assembly hall: (left to right) Dr. Raymond Werlen, Deputy Secretary-General of the Conference of Rectors of Swiss Universities; visit guide Prof. Alain Blondel, Department of Nuclear and Corpuscular Physics, University of Geneva; Prof. Adriano Pimpão, Rector of the University of Algarve, President of the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities; Prof. Jean-Pierre Finance, Conference of University Presidents, France; Prof. Jean-Paul Lehners, Vice-President of the Centre Universitaire, Luxemburg.

  13. Characterizing European cultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tieskens, Koen F.; Schulp, Catharina J E; Levers, Christian

    2017-01-01

    intensification and land abandonment. To prevent the loss of cultural landscapes, knowledge on the location of different types of cultural landscapes is needed. In this paper, we present a characterization of European cultural landscapes based on the prevalence of three key dimensions of cultural landscapes......Almost all rural areas in Europe have been shaped or altered by humans and can be considered cultural landscapes, many of which now are considered to entail valuable cultural heritage. Current dynamics in land management have put cultural landscapes under a huge pressure of agricultural...... the three dimensions into a continuous “cultural landscape index” that allows for a characterization of Europe's rural landscapes. The characterization identifies hotspots of cultural landscapes, where all three dimensions are present, such as in the Mediterranean. On the other hand, Eastern and Northern...

  14. Future European biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, A. K.P.; Ehimen, E. A.; Holm-Nielsen, J. B.

    2018-01-01

    Biogas is expected to play an important role in reaching the future energy policy targets of the European Union (EU). The sustainability of biogas substrates has however been recently critically discussed due to the increasing shares of agricultural land used for energy crop production.The aim...... of this study was to project and map the biomass and biogas energy potential from a selection of potentially sustainable agricultural residues, which have been documented to improve in biogas yields when co-digested in biogas production, for the EU28 in year 2030. The investigated types of residual biomasses...... were animal manure, straw by-products from cereal production, and excess grass from rotational and permanent grasslands and meadows. The biogas energy potential from the investigated biomass was projected to range from 1.2·103 to 2.3·103 PJ y-1 in year 2030 in the EU28, depending on the biomass...

  15. The European experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisgaard, N

    2001-06-01

    This article presents an overview of past and current experiences with time division multiple assess-based (Global System for Mobil Communication) mobile telephones in Europe as seen by the European Hearing Instrument Manufacturers Association. Initial fear of widespread interference problems for hearing aid users in general owing to use of a new generation of mobile telephones seems unjustified. The background for the International Electrotechnical Commission 118-13 standard for measuring interference is described. No solution to complete elimination of interference problems resulting from direct contact between hearing aids and mobile telephones has yet been found. Several reports on the subjects are cited, and new work on measurement standards for near-field situations is mentioned.

  16. Measuring European selves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antalikova, Radka

    Taking the perspective of cross-cultural psychology, the current thesis sets out to investigate self in a European context. For this purpose, the thesis first thoroughly reviews the most prominent conceptualizations of self in cross-cultural psychology, specifically focusing on disentangling...... the term interdependence. Thereafter, the thesis critically examines the most common measures of self and appropriates some of these measures for use in the current empirical study. More concretely, the current study compares self-descriptions and autobiographical memories of individuals from post......-Communist Europe and Scandinavia. The study’s results exemplify participants’ interdependence, whether in the form of their relational and group self-descriptions or their autobiographical memories recalled to different interpersonal cue words. On the whole, the current thesis contributes with novel data...

  17. Ariane: NASA's European rival

    Science.gov (United States)

    The successful test launch of two three-quarter ton satellites in the European Space Agency's (ESA) Ariane rocket last June firmly placed ESA in competition with NASA for the lucrative and growing satellite launching market. Under the auspices of the private (but largely French-government financed) Arianespace company, ESA is already attracting customers to its three-stage rocket by offering low costs.According to recent reports [Nature, 292, pp. 785 and 788, 1981], Arianespace has been able to win several U.S. customers away from NASA, including Southern Pacific Communications, Western Union, RCA, Satellite Television Corporation, and GTE. Nature [292, 1981] magazine in an article entitled ‘More Trouble for the Hapless Shuttle’ suggests that it will be possible for Ariane to charge lower prices for a launch than NASA, even with the space shuttle.

  18. Can the European Central Bank Create a European identity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn Sørensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    In what ways do central banks construct community, and how may the European Central Bank (ECB) contribute to a supranational European identity? In this paper I seek to answer these two questions by developing a conceptual framework for the ways that central banks construct national identities and...

  19. European citizenship and the constitutionalisation of the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijken, Hanneke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314133992

    2014-01-01

    The concept of citizenship in relatively new legal order of the European Union has its own meaning and dynamics compared to national citizenship. One of the important questions regarding this transnational form of citizenship is how to place this European citizenship in a constitutional context in

  20. Westinghouse European trainee program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, G.

    2010-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Company is proud of giving its employees the possibility to work and act globally. The company's European Trainee Program provides an opportunity to work within different fields of business within Westinghouse, participating in a wide range of projects and experiencing and learning from the different cultures of the company. In 2006 the first Trainee Program started with seven Swedish Trainees. During these eighteen months they worked 12 months in Sweden and then went off to six-month-assignments in France and in the US. In April 2008, the first European Trainee Program was launched with ten Trainees from four different countries: five from Sweden, two from Germany, two from Spain and one from Belgium. As with the previous program, its length was eighteen months. During the first year, the European Trainees had the opportunity to work in various areas within their country of hire, as well as to visit different Westinghouse headquarters in Europe and the US to learn more about the global business. Their kick-off session took place in Vaesteraas, Sweden in April 2008. During four days, the Trainees participated in group dynamic exercises as well as presentations of the business of Westinghouse abroad and in Sweden. Two of the most interesting parts of this session were the visits to the Fuel Factory and to the Field Services mock-ups. The second session took place in June 2008 in Monroeville, Pennsylvania (USA), where Westinghouse had its main headquarters, nowadays located in Cranberry, PA. During two weeks, the trainees got to know even more about Westinghouse through visits, lectures and forums for open discussions. The visits comprised for example the tubing factory at Blairsville, the Field Services main headquarters in Madison and the George Westinghouse Research and Technology Park near Pittsburgh. The meetings included presentations of each Westinghouse business unit, detailed information about future projects and round table discussions

  1. European vehicle passive safety network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Janssen, E.G.

    1999-01-01

    The general objective of the European Vehicle Passive Safety Network is to contribute to the reduction of the number of road traffic victims in Europe by passive safety measures. The aim of the road safety policy of the European Commission is to reduce the annual total of fatalities to 18000 in

  2. A toolbox for European judges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    The forthcoming instrument on European contract law, be it in the shape of an optional code for cross-border contracts or as an official toolbox for the European legislator, is likely to have a spill-over effect on private law adjudication in Europe. Judges will have no great difficulty in finding

  3. Brazilian Portuguese Ethnonymy and Europeanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    Delineates the incorporation and analyzes the impact of European borrowings in Brazilian racio-ethnic terminology. This overview covers French, Italian, Spanish, and English influences. Borrowings from European languages have had a small impact on the calculus of Brazilian racio-ethnic terms. (43 references) (Author/CK)

  4. Carbon accumulation in European forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciais, P.; Schelhaas, M.J.; Zaehle, S.; Piao, S.L.; Cescatti, A.; Liski, J.; Luyssaert, S.; Le-Maire, G.; Schulze, E.D.; Bouriaud, O.; Freibauer, A.; Valentini, R.; Nabuurs, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    European forests are intensively exploited for wood products, yet they also form a sink for carbon. European forest inventories, available for the past 50 years, can be combined with timber harvest statistics to assess changes in this carbon sink. Analysis of these data sets between 1950 and 2000

  5. European Industry, 1700-1870

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broadberry, Stephen; Fremdling, Rainer; Solar, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of the development of European industry between 1700 and 1870, drawing in particular on the recent literature that has emerged following the formation of the European Historical Economics Society in 1991. The approach thus makes use of economic analysis and quantitative

  6. Market forces in european soccer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, M.; Koning, Ruud H.; Witteloostuijn, A. van

    2002-01-01

    Recent decades have witnessed major changes in the market for European soccer. The most profound were the Bosman ruling, which lifted restrictions in the European labor market for soccer talent, and the introduction of the Champions' League, a high-profile international competition that generates

  7. PRODUCT INTERVENTION: A EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Schaeken Willemaers, Gaëtane

    2013-01-01

    This article wishes to contribute to the debate on how to best regulate the European retail financial market. This article is a reflection on the recent emphasis put by the European regulator on product intervention to address the various risks facing the retail investor.

  8. Action Research in European perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2004-01-01

    The article gives an overview of how different Italian and Danish contributions to action research can be viewed in an European perspective.......The article gives an overview of how different Italian and Danish contributions to action research can be viewed in an European perspective....

  9. Antifungal therapy in European hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarb, P; Amadeo, B; Muller, A

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to identify targets for quality improvement in antifungal use in European hospitals and determine the variability of such prescribing. Hospitals that participated in the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption Point Prevalence Surveys (ESAC-PPS) were included. The WHO...

  10. Participation in European water policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. van Ast (Jacko); S.P. Boot (Sander Paul)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper considers the possibilities for interactive policy-making in European water management. In the new European Water Framework Directive, public information and consultation are major elements in the procedure (process) that leads to River Basin Management Plans. In general,

  11. Denmark and the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades Morten Kelstrup’s work has been at the centre of three important intellectual innovations in political science – the study of the EU as a regional political system; European security studies; and small states in European integration. Kelstrup’s best known books (Buzan, K...... of this book, two of Kelstrup’s most important intellectual contributions come from his work on Denmark’s relations with the European Union, and his use of systems theory to understand the EU.......Over the past two decades Morten Kelstrup’s work has been at the centre of three important intellectual innovations in political science – the study of the EU as a regional political system; European security studies; and small states in European integration. Kelstrup’s best known books (Buzan...

  12. HARMONIZED EUROPE OR EUROPEAN HARMONY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Marinescu

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent evolutions in Europe raise questions on the viability of the present economic and social model that defines the European construction project. In this paper, the author will try to explain the viability of institutional European model that sticks between free market mechanisms and protectionism. The main challenge for the EU is about the possibility to bring together the institutional convergence and the welfare for all Europeans. This is the result of the view, still dominant, of European politics elite, according to which institutional harmonization is the solution of a more dynamic and prosper Europe. But, economic realities convince us that, more and more, a harmonized, standardized Europe is not necessarily identical with a Europe of harmony and social cooperation. If „development through integration” seems to be harmonization through „institutional transplant”, how could then be the European model one sufficiently wide open to market, which creates the prosperity so long waited for by new member countries?

  13. Political Psychology of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social...... construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The chapter argues that the study of the EU has much to benefit from political psychology in terms of theories...... and methods of European identity and integration, but it also argues that political psychology can benefit from the insights of European integration by rethinking the processes that drive the marking of inside and outside, interior and exterior, belonging and otherness....

  14. How to Enforce European Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the well known saga of the European Court of Justice’s introduction of direct effect of Council directives on basis of new comprehensive archival research. The expansion of the doctrine of direct effect to include directives was part of a drive of the Legal Service of the Eu......This article explores the well known saga of the European Court of Justice’s introduction of direct effect of Council directives on basis of new comprehensive archival research. The expansion of the doctrine of direct effect to include directives was part of a drive of the Legal Service...... of the European Commission and the ECJ to strengthen the enforcement of European law. This threatened the deeper balance of competences between the European Community and its member states and consequently led to a sharp response from the national parliaments and courts. The force of these responses and the deep...

  15. European environmental stratifications and typologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazeu, G.W,; Metzger, M.J.; Mücher, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    their limitations and challenges. As such, they provide a sound basis for describing the factors affecting the robustness of such datasets. The latter is especially relevant, since there is likely to be further interest in European environmental assessment. In addition, advances in data availability and analysis......A range of new spatial datasets classifying the European environment has been constructed over the last few years. These datasets share the common objective of dividing European environmental gradients into convenient units, within which objects and variables of interest have relatively homogeneous...... scale. This paper provides an overview of five recent European stratifications and typologies, constructed for contrasting objectives, and differing in spatial and thematic detail. These datasets are: the Environmental Stratification (EnS), the European Landscape Classification (LANMAP), the Spatial...

  16. European oil product supply modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Antonin, V.

    1998-01-01

    Over the last few years, trends in European oil product consumption (in terms of level as structure and quality) has important implications of the refining industry. In this context, the purpose of this thesis consists in building a mathematical programming model applied to the European refineries in order to determine oil product supply prices, European refining industry investments and oil product exchanges of the European Union. The first part presents the reason for our choice for a long-term aggregate multi-refineries linear programming model, based on European refineries characteristics and the objectives of our model. Its dual properties are studied in detail and we focus particularly on the European exchange modelling. In the second part, an analysis of the European refining trends leads us to identify parameters and variables of the model that are essential to the aggregate representation of the European oil product supply. The third part is devoted to the use of this model, regarding two scenarios of increasingly stringent specifications for gasoline and diesel oil. Our interest for these products is due to their important share of the European oil product consumption and the not insignificant responsibility of the transport sector for atmospheric pollution. Finally, in order to have the use of an overall picture of the European refining industry, we build a regression model summarizing, though a few equations, the main relations between the major endogenous and exogenous variables o the LP model. Based on pseudo-data, this kind of model provides a simple and robust representation of the oil product supply. But a more specialized analysis of the refining industry operations, turning on a technical assessment of processing units, is reliant on the use of an optimization model such as the model we have built. (author)

  17. Road tunnels safety according to European legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor KÁLLAY

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with safety of European road tunnels in accordance with actual European legislation. Standards and recommendations of European Commission, PIARC and other professional bodies of the European Union define minimal technological requirements for equipment and operation of the tunnels in scope of Trans-European Road Network.

  18. Strategy for sustainability of the Joint European Research Infrastructure Network for Coastal Observatories - JERICO

    OpenAIRE

    Puillat, Ingrid; Farcy, Patrick; Durand, Dominique; Petihakis, George; Morin, Pascal; Kriegger, Magali; Petersen, Wilhelm; Tintoré, Joaquin; Sorensen, Kai; Sparnocchia, Stefania; Wehde, Henning

    2015-01-01

    The JERICO European research infrastructure (RI) is integrating several platform types i.e. fixed buoys, piles, moorings, drifters, Ferryboxes, gliders, HF radars, coastal cable observatories and the associated technologies dedicated to the observation and monitoring of the European coastal seas. The infrastructure is to serve both the implementation of European marine policies and the elucidation of key scientific questions through dedicated observation and monitoring plans. It includes obse...

  19. Mental health expectancy--the European perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagger, C; Ritchie, K; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy observed over the last decade has particular relevance for mental health conditions of old age, such as dementia. Although mental disorders have been estimated to be responsible for 60% of all disabilities, until recently population health indicators such as health...... expectancies have concentrated on calculating disability-free life expectancy based on physical functioning. In 1994, a European Network for the Calculation of Health Expectancies (Euro-REVES) was established, one of its aims being the development and promotion of mental health expectancies. Such indicators...... may have an important role in monitoring future changes in the mental health of populations and predicting service needs. This article summarizes the proceedings and recommendations of the first European Conference on Mental Health Expectancy....

  20. Personal Dignity in the European Legal Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila V. Butko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the genesis of the origins of forming the legal mechanisms to protect the personal dignity in the European legal culture. It is noted that the legal content of dignity is predetermined by the moral aspect of consideration. In addition, the definition of "dignity" was transformed under the influence of the development of legal norms, doctrine and practice of protecting a person's rights and freedoms, the foundations of civil society and legal awareness. The chronological period of research was limited to the XIII-XIX centuries, within which the authors, using a comparative legal method, defined the directions of conceptualization and formalization of the personal dignity by scientists and legislation in the European countries. As a conclusion, it is shown that the observance of the right to personal dignity by the state will not only promote the exaltation of human dignity, but also simultaneously initiate the expansion of public law compensated by increasing the subjective rights.

  1. Current approaches to the European Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda CURTA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify the key elements that define the new European health policy. We observed that the health policy actually appeared to be an enclave within the integration process. The development of health policy in the new Member States followed a common pattern. Therefore, the European health policy reflected a general desire on behalf of the members to have more clarity of the rules in this area, given the different interpretation of the rules by different Member States.The Lisbon Treaty does not bring substantive changes regarding the public health policy, therefore the Member States shall keep their competence in defining the organization and financing this domain. However, the EU2020 Strategy states that “Europe faces a moment of transformation”. Therefore, the “Europeanization” of health policy could lead to the positive developments that all EU citizens are expecting.

  2. Sensitivity of European wheat to extreme weather

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäkinen, H; Kaseva, J; Trnka, M

    2018-01-01

    The frequency and intensity of extreme weather is increasing concomitant with changes in the global climate change. Although wheat is the most important food crop in Europe, there is currently no comprehensive empirical information available regarding the sensitivity of European wheat to extreme...... weather. In this study, we assessed the sensitivity of European wheat yields to extreme weather related to phenology (sowing, heading) in cultivar trials across Europe (latitudes 37.21° to 61.34° and longitudes −6.02° to 26.24°) during the period 1991–2014. All the observed agro-climatic extremes (≥31 °C...... wheat cultivars that responded positively (+10%) to drought after sowing, or frost during winter (−15 °C and −20 °C). Positive responses to extremes were often shown by cultivars associated with specific regions, such as good performance under high temperatures by southern-origin cultivars. Consequently...

  3. The European XFEL Project

    CERN Document Server

    Trunk, U

    2008-01-01

    The European XFEL project is a 4th generation photon source to be built in Hamburg. Electron bunches, accelerated to 17.5GeV by the XFEL linac, are distributed to three long SASE undulators. There photon pulses with full lateral coherence and wavelengths between 0.1nm and 4.9nm (12.4 keV and 0.8 keV) are generated for three beamlines. It will deliver around 1012photons within each 100 fs pulse, reaching a peak brilliance of 1033photonss−1mm−2mrad−2(0.1%BW)−1. Thus it will offer unprecedented possibilities in photon science research including nano-object imaging and studies (e.g. by coherent X-ray scattering) and ultra fast dynamic analysis of plasma and chemical reactions (e.g. by X-ray photo correlation spectroscopy). The detector requirements for such studies are extremely challenging: position sensitive area detectors have to provide a dynamic range of ≥ 104, with single-photon sensitivity, while withstanding radiation doses up to 1GGy (TID). Furthermore the detectors have to record data from tra...

  4. European XFEL (in Polish)

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, R S

    2013-01-01

    European X-Ray FEL – free electron laser is under construction in DESY Hamburg. It is scheduled to be operational at 2015/16 at a cost more than 1 billion Euro. The laser uses SASE method to generate x-ray light. It is propelled by an electron linac of 17,5GeV energy and more than 2km in length. The linac uses superconducting SRF TESLA technology working at 1,3 GHz in frequency. The prototype of EXFEL is FLASH Laser (200 m in length), where the “proof of principle” was checked, and from the technologies were transferred to the bigger machine. The project was stared in the nineties by building a TTF Laboratory -Tesla Test Facility. The EXFEL laser is a child of a much bigger teraelectronovolt collider project TESLA (now abandoned in Germany but undertaken by international community in a form the ILC). A number of experts and young researchers from Poland participate in the design, construction and research of the FLASH and EXFEL lasers.

  5. An overview of European efforts in generating climate data records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Z.; Timmermans, W.J.; Zeng, Y.; Schulz, J.; John, V.O.; Roebeling, R.A.; Poli, P.; Tan, D.; Kaspar, F.; Kaiser-Weiss, A.; Swinnen, E.; Tote, C.; Gregow, H.; Manninen, T.; Riihela, A.; Calvet, J.C.; Ma, Yaoming; Wen, Jun

    2018-01-01

    The Coordinating Earth Observation Data Validation for Reanalysis for Climate Services project (CORE-CLIMAX) aimed to substantiate how Copernicus observations and products can contribute to climate change analyses. CORE-CLIMAX assessed the European capability to provide climate data records (CDRs)

  6. Tuberculosis among migrant populations in the European Union and the European Economic Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odone, Anna; Tillmann, Taavi; Sandgren, Andreas; Williams, Gemma; Rechel, Bernd; Ingleby, David; Noori, Teymur; Mladovsky, Philipa; McKee, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Although tuberculosis (TB) incidence has been decreasing in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) in the last decades, specific subgroups of the population, such as migrants, remain at high risk of TB. This study is based on the report 'Key Infectious Diseases in Migrant Populations in the EU/EEA' commissioned by The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. We collected, critically appraised and summarized the available evidence on the TB burden in migrants in the EU/EEA. Data were collected through: (i) a comprehensive literature review; (ii) analysis of data from The European Surveillance System (TESSy) and (iii) evidence provided by TB experts during an infectious disease workshop in 2012. In 2010, of the 73,996 TB cases notified in the EU/EEA, 25% were of foreign origin. The overall decrease of TB cases observed in recent years has not been reflected in migrant populations. Foreign-born people with TB exhibit different socioeconomic and clinical characteristics than native sufferers. This is one of the first studies to use multiple data sources, including the largest available European database on infectious disease notifications, to assess the burden and provide a comprehensive description and analysis of specific TB features in migrants in the EU/EEA. Strengthened information about health determinants and factors for migrants' vulnerability is needed to plan, implement and evaluate targeted TB care and control interventions for migrants in the EU/EEA. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  7. Experiencing European integration: transnational lives and European identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhn, T.

    2015-01-01

    European integration has generated a wide array of economic, political, and social opportunities beyond the nation state. Scandinavians spending their retirement at the Mediterranean coast; Germans employing a Polish caretaker; international exchange students staying in Prague; Italian baristas

  8. The European Model Company Act

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix

    2011-01-01

    European Company Law regulation is currently undergoing a reform. These reforms raise a number of regulatory questions, such as what should be the aims of companies' legislation, and how these aims should best be met by regulation. Many of the reforms and discussions (both on EU and national level...... an increasing influence on the framing of company legislation, such as the choice between mandatory or default rules. This article introduces the project 'European Company Law and the choice of Regulatory Method' which is carried out in collaboration with the 'European Model Company Act Group'. The project aims...

  9. The European Parliament and the European future of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skerdilajd Bajramaj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available On 06.24.2014 Albania was granted the status of candidate country. The foreign ministers of the 28 European Union member states decided unanimously to grant the candidate status for Albania. After receiving the status of “candidate country” for EU membership, the institutional relations with European international bodies are becoming stronger. One of these institutions, which during this time has increased its authority with Albania, is the European Parliament. In this paper will be analyzed the composition, competences and functioning of this particular institution, which is not only important for the future of the European Union and its Member States, but also for those who aim to join in. The study will be based on decisions made by this legislative body, as the only direct representative of the citizens of the European Union, and the impact they have on the performance and functioning of the Member States and the EU itself. In order to verify the validity of these claims, the analysis aims to assess the scope of the legislative function of the European Parliament post-Lisbon, examining its participation in the EU lawmaking both from the point of view of quantity and quality in over the past legislatures. Particular attention has been given to the examination of the changes that have taken place with the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty, and the areas most affected. We will finally look at the work and contribution of the European Parliament, through the instruments at his disposal, on behalf of Albania’s progress towards full accession in the European Union.

  10. North European Transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korja, Annakaisa; Heikkinen, Pekka J.; Roslov, Yuri; Ivanova, Nina; Verba, Marc; Sakoulina, Tamara

    2010-05-01

    A nearly continuous, 3600 km long, NE-running North European Transect (NET) is combined from the existing deep seismic reflection data sets in the Baltic Sea (BABEL, 1600 km), Northern Finland (FIRE 4-4A, 580 km) and Barents Sea (1-AR, 1440 km;). The reflective image of the deep crust is highly dependent on the thickness of the sedimentary cover. The cover is few hundred meters in the Baltic sea, few tens of meters in the land areas and few kilometers in the Barents Sea area. In the Barents Sea area, the seismic image is dominated by the layered structure of the sedimentary basins and the middle and lower crust are poorly imaged. Therefore the Moho boundary in the Barents Sea has been determined from wide-angle reflections. Geologically the transect covers the transition from Phanerozoic Europe to Precambrian Europe and back to the Phanerozoic Barents Sea Shelf. It displays how Northern Europe grew around Baltica in several tectonic episodes involving the formation and destruction of Columbia/Hudsonland, Rodinia and Pangea supercontinents. The paleo plateboundaries are traversed by subvertical transparent zones suggesting transpressional and trantensional environments. The BABEL lines image how the core of Baltica was formed by sequential accretion of microcontinents and arc terranes at the old continental margin during the Svecofennian Orogeny ~1.9-1.8 Ga .When Baltica joined the Columbia supercontinent, new terranes were added to its southern edge in the Sveocbaltic Orogeny (~1.8 Ga). During the dispersal of the Columbia, the Baltic Sea failed rift was formed, rapakivi granitoids were intruded and sedimentary basins were developed. An extended plate margin structure has been imposed on the Rodinian (Sveconorwegian) and Pangean additions (Variscan-Caledonian). Major crustal thinning takes place along a series of subvertical faults across the Trans-European Suture Zone marking the transition from Phanerozoic to Proterozoic Europe. The FIRE lines in Northen Finland

  11. Post Crisis European Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop, Napoleon

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis is still evolving, at least from the point of view of some features making the entire process of its reversing very difficult - uncertainties, confusions and lack of investors` trust. More then that, every rim of the Atlantic Ocean has its own opinion as to the timing of the exit stimulus measures. There are prevailing risks taken into consideration when we talk about the next stage of the economic growth e.g. its sustainability on a log run or inflaming the inflation. It is for sure, that according to the core economic policies practiced either in USA or Europe, in Europe what count most is the danger of the inflation, if the right time of stopping the flood of the governmental funds to the real economy is not well chosen. The economic situation in Europe, as all over the world, in spite of some signs that the economy is on the right track ( South East Asia, USA or Germany, there are a lot of doubts as to the assurance that recession is over and there is no way for an immediate return. Notabilities in economics see that governmental intervention should be continued, just because the economic growth consigned by statistics is not convincing. Convictions, if they exist, are blended with a lot of obsessions which in my opinion are making up a serious agenda of the debates in Europe: budgetary deficit in excess, danger of the inflation, new regulation of the financial sector, credibility of the euro zone. Romania has to be involved in all these debates as it is passing through all the mentioned difficulties which need solutions within the frame of European standards, as a member of the EU.

  12. European MEMS foundries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Patric R.

    2003-01-01

    According to the latest release of the NEXUS market study, the market for MEMS or Microsystems Technology (MST) is predicted to grow to $68B by the year 2005, with systems containing these components generating even higher revenues and growth. The latest advances in MST/MEMS technology have enabled the design of a new generation of microsystems that are smaller, cheaper, more reliable, and consume less power. These integrated systems bring together numerous analog/mixed signal microelectronics blocks and MEMS functions on a single chip or on two or more chips assembled within an integrated package. In spite of all these advances in technology and manufacturing, a system manufacturer either faces a substantial up-front R&D investment to create his own infrastructure and expertise, or he can use design and foundry services to get the initial product into the marketplace fast and with an affordable investment. Once he has a viable product, he can still think about his own manufacturing efforts and investments to obtain an optimized high volume manufacturing for the specific product. One of the barriers to successful exploitation of MEMS/MST technology has been the lack of access to industrial foundries capable of producing certified microsystems devices in commercial quantities, including packaging and test. This paper discusses Multi-project wafer (MPW) runs, requirements for foundries and gives some examples of foundry business models. Furthermore, this paper will give an overview on MST/MEMS services that are available in Europe, including pure commercial activities, European project activities (e.g. Europractice), and some academic services.

  13. European mountain biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy, Jennifer

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper, originally prepared as a discussion document for the ESF Exploratory Workshop «Trends in European Mountain Biodiversity - Research Planning Workshop», provides an overview of current mountain biodiversity research in Europe. It discusses (a biogeographical trends, (b the general properties of biodiversity, (c environmental factors and the regulation of biodiversity with respect to ecosystem function, (d the results of research on mountain freshwater ecosystems, and (e climate change and air pollution dominated environmental interactions.- The section on biogeographical trends highlights the importance of altitude and latitude on biodiversity. The implications of the existence of different scales over the different levels of biodiversity and across organism groups are emphasised as an inherent complex property of biodiversity. The discussion on ecosystem function and the regulation of biodiversity covers the role of environmental factors, productivity, perturbation, species migration and dispersal, and species interactions in the maintenance of biodiversity. Regional and long-term temporal patterns are also discussed. A section on the relatively overlooked topic of mountain freshwater ecosystems is presented before the final topic on the implications of recent climate change and air pollution for mountain biodiversity.

    [fr] Ce document a été préparé à l'origine comme une base de discussion pour «ESF Exploratory Workshop» intitulé «Trends in European Mountain Biodiversity - Research Planning Workshop»; il apporte une vue d'ensemble sur les recherches actuelles portant sur la biodiversité des montagnes en Europe. On y discute les (a traits biogéographiques, (b les caractéristiques générales- de la biodiversité, (c les facteurs environnementaux et la régulation de la biodiversité par rapport à la fonction des écosystèmes, (d les résultats des études sur les écosystèmes aquatiques des montagnes et (e les

  14. European Union: US Hegemonic Competitor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kellar, Ronald

    2001-01-01

    .... Intergovernmentalism in the European Community has evolved into an economic form of supranationalism with the persona change form Community to Union after ratification of the Treaty of Maastricht in 1993...

  15. European pain management discussion forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Harald

    2012-12-01

    Queries from European physicians about analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from the author are presented. Topics addressed in this issue pertain to epidural injection for painful central lumbar stenosis and epicondolysis.

  16. Renowned European Laboratory turns 50

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    A European Laboratory that was the birthplace of the World Wide Web and home of Nobel prize-winning developments in the quest to understand the makeup of matter wished itself a happy 50th birtheday on Tuesday

  17. Obesogenic Diets in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Intemann, Timm; Hebestreit, Antje; Reisch, Lucia A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Poor nutrition is a major contributor to the overall burden of disease. Worldwide, nutrition-related diseases have become a major health concern, reportedly causing a loss of over 56 million years of healthy life for European citizens in the year 2000. Childhood obesity is one...... will stress dietary factors in European children as one major aspect of the complex aetiology of childhood obesity, and offer a broader comment on the role of contemporary food systems. Results: Parental socioeconomic status, children’s media consumption and current arketing strategies employed by the food...... industry were associated with a low-quality diet and unhealthy food intake in European children. Conclusion: Present evidence calls for policy interventions to facilitate healthy diets of European children and adolescents. Prevention strategies for childhood obesity should address upstream factors...

  18. Container Traffic In European Ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen Twrdy

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last fifteen years the European transport markethas witnessed a growth of container traffic which today reachesapproximately 50 million TEU per year. From 1997 to 2002,container traffic in the northern European ports increased from14 to 20.6 million TEU per year, in the ports of the westernMedite"anean from 6 to 10 million TEU per year, and in thenorthern Adriatic ports from 0. 69 to 0. 74 million TEU per year.The ports of the northern Adriatic are located in three states(Slovenia, Croatia and Italy with different statuses in relationto the common European market. In addition, different developmentlevels of these states are reflected in different levels ofinternational commercial exchange, the development of the existinginfrastructure and plans for the construction of new infrastructures.However, all three countries share a common goaltoincrease their competitiveness in comparison with the westemEuropean ports.

  19. European Hospitality Without a Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille Rosello

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available How do European governments conceptualize what they call "hospitality" when they draft immigration laws and when they allow the concepts of asylum, of illegal immigrants, to change according to a constantly evolving political context? What consequences…

  20. The European Union's Africa Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2013-01-01

    For a number of years, there has been an international debate on whether and to what extent small member states can influence the common external policies of the European Union. Recent research on the role of small EU states concludes that these states are neither per se political dwarfs nor power...... including North–South and specifically Africa policies. Five separate analyses are carried out addressing the question of Nordicization and Europeanization. Based on the empirical analyses, it is not possible to confirm the hypothesis that a Nordicization of the European Union's Africa policy has taken...... place. Rather, it appears adequate to talk about convergence of policies between the Nordics and the EU and therefore, the Africa policies of both actors are basically the result of Europeanization....

  1. The European Utility Requirement Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, I.I.

    1999-01-01

    The major European electricity producers work on a common requirement document for future LWR plants since 1992. They aim at requirements acceptable together by the owners, the public and the authorities. Thus the designers can develop standard LWR designs acceptable everywhere in Europe and the utilities can open their consultations to vendors on common bases. Such a standardisation promotes an improvement of generation costs and of safety : public and authorities acceptance should be improved as well ; significant savings are expected in development and construction costs. Since the early stages of the project, the EUR group has grown significantly. It now includes utilities from nine European countries. Utilities from two other European countries are joining the group. Specific cooperation agreements are also in progress with a few extra-European partners

  2. Development of european consciousness in Erasmus students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevda Mutlu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is the content analysis of 502 Erasmus students’ experiences published in the website www.20erasmus.eu. One of the main purposes of the Erasmus Student Exchange Program is to maintain a cross-cultural dialogue through student activity, to remove prejudices and thus to strengthen interaction and join EU citizens under such concepts as “European Consciousness” and “Being European”. The purpose of this study is to determine how successful the Erasmus Student Exchange Program is through the shared Erasmus experiences of the participating students. In conclusion, in this research, it is observed that the students talked highly positively about the Erasmus experience. The students described this process as enjoyable and productive. It could be argued that the Erasmus experience contributed to students’ “individual development” rather than “academic development”. It could also be maintained that one of the key purposes of the Erasmus exchange program is to remove prejudices by maintaining student mobility and cross-cultural dialogue and to unite societies under the European Consciousness and European People understanding via strengthening interactions between EU member citizens. Data collected in this research present evidence that the Erasmus programme has reached this aim

  3. The European automotive LPG market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    The European automotive LPG market could reach at least 4 % of the European fuel market in 2005 versus 1 % in 1990. This would represent a rise of about 35 % in automotive LPG sales (from 2,4 million tonnes in 1997 to 7 million tonnes estimated for 2005). This was underlined by Alain Deleuse, Primagaz group's Marketing Director, in the paper he delivered at the AEGPL Budapest Convention. We publish large excepts of this paper. (author)

  4. Innovation Policy in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta-Christina Suciu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The innovation policies aim to analyze priority factors shaping innovative performance and to reflect the increasing appreciation of the economic and social importance of innovation. This paper is commissioned to examine topics of current interest or concern to innovation policy-makers in Europe. Based on literature and the framework of the European Action Plan for Innovation, this paper investigates different levels and fields of European innovational systems and practices.

  5. [European Union and blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouger, P

    2003-06-01

    Blood transfusion is progressing, Europe is growing, European blood transfusion organisations are developing rapidly. The first step was the publication of a new directive (2002/98/CE). The directive is the result of a compromise between technocracy, lobbying and blood transfusion professionals. European blood transfusion must be based on medical, scientific and social criteria. Two imperatives must be considered: the respect of ethics and; independence from the commercial system. The primary objective is to give satisfaction to patients while respecting blood donors.

  6. The European fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedkoop, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    With the 1982-86 pluriannual programme, reactor technology became a separate chapter in the fusion research programme of the European Commission. It comprises work on materials, the breeder blanket, tritium management, magnet coils, maintenance and the safety and environmental aspects. After an overview of the programme each of these areas is discussed briefly and some remarks are made on the role played by the European fission energy and magnet laboratories. (author)

  7. Consumer protection in European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlová, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    The consumer protection is a very actual topic in the european policy. It is necessary for the right function of the internal market. The document mentions the development of the consumer protection policy - the past and the future strategy. The valid legislation is listed and also mentioned is the Proposal for a Directive on Consumer Rights. It gives an overview of european consumer organisations and their function . There are also mentioned some alternatives of the consumer's redress. Docum...

  8. Coordination in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Feldstein

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the sources of current conflict within the EU and the EMU. The topics discussed include the recent ECB policy of bond buying (the OMT policy), the attempts to advance the "European Project" of stronger political union (the fiscal compact, the banking union, and the proposals for budget supervision). Contrary to the claims of the European leadership, the progress that has been made has been by individual countries and not by coordinated action. The special problems of Franc...

  9. A European Res publica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Zetterquist

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the fundamental constitutional enigma of the European Union (EU, namely whether the EU can be considered as a (from its Member States separate and independent constitutional legal order. The EU is often referred to as a legal order sui generis, i.e. of a unique character that defies traditional definitions. More specifically, the notion of an independent and separate EU is at odds with the idea of the sovereign state. The notion of the EU as a legal order sui generis is too much influenced by the models of the sovereign state and sovereignty (in the vein of Thomas Hobbes. The key component in the Hobbesian idea of sovereignty is freedom as non-interference. A sovereign state is consequently a state that is free from, i.e. not interfered with by, external actors like, for example, the EU. Put differently, either the EU is sovereign or the Member States are sovereign. By shifting the perspective to a neo-Roman republican understanding of freedom as non-domination the constitutional picture of the EU will become more nuanced. Res publica is best understood as what citizens hold in common and above their narrow self-interest. According to a republican notion of the constitution the purpose of the law is to eliminate the possibility of arbitrary domination. For that reason, not all interference is to be considered as a restriction of freedom but only those restrictions that cannot be justified according to the res publica. Viewed through the republican prism it can be argued that the EU represents an important advancement in securing freedom as non-domination without implying that the EU must become a state. The fundamental enigma can thus be rephrased as a clash between two diverging concepts of freedom. Whereas the EU will always be at odds with the idea of sovereignty (however framed it will be much easier to reconcile with the republican ideal. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1837332

  10. European Languages: Instruments and Symbols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Ožbot

    2008-07-01

    Further, the role of Latin as the single most important European language over the centuries and as a unifying feature of European culture is discussed. Parallels are drawn between Latin as the historical European lingua franca on the one hand and English as the modern language of international communication on the other: the importance of both languages started growing after substantial territorial expansion of their speakers and it was especially the political and economic power associated to these languages that played a significant role in their diffusion and long-term influence. Taking into consideration the instrumental as well as the symbolic function of languages, the question about the relationship between English and other European languages in today’s Europe is dealt with; it is suggested that the European languages are in principle not endangered as a result of the spread of English, with the exception of those instances in which English has been taking over the functions they have traditionally performed as national or community languages. It is emphasized that the future of Europe lies in the promotion of biand multilingualism, which have, in actual fact, been present on this continent throughout its history, and which in the cases of some European languages (e.g. Catalan, Basque, Irish, etc. have been successfully enhanced over the past decades.

  11. The Offshore New European Wind Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagali, I.; Hahmann, A. N.; Badger, M.; Hasager, C.; Mann, J.

    2017-12-01

    The New European Wind Atlas (NEWA) is a joint effort of research agencies from eight European countries, co-funded under the ERANET Plus Program. The project is structured around two areas of work: development of dynamical downscaling methodologies and measurement campaigns to validate these methodologies, leading to the creation and publication of a European wind atlas in electronic form. This atlas will contain an offshore component extending 100 km from the European coasts. To achieve this, mesoscale models along with various observational datasets are utilised. Scanning lidars located at the coastline were used to compare the coastal wind gradient reproduced by the meso-scale model. Currently, an experimental campaign is occurring in the Baltic Sea, with a lidar located in a commercial ship sailing from Germany to Lithuania, thus covering the entire span of the south Baltic basin. In addition, satellite wind retrievals from scatterometers and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) instruments were used to generate mean wind field maps and validate offshore modelled wind fields and identify the optimal model set-up parameters.The aim of this study is to compare the initial outputs from the offshore wind atlas produced by the Weather & Research Forecasting (WRF) model, still in pre-operational phase, and the METOP-A/B Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) wind fields, reprocessed to stress equivalent winds at 10m. Different experiments were set-up to evaluate the model sensitivity for the various domains covered by the NEWA offshore atlas. ASCAT winds were utilised to assess the performance of the WRF offshore atlases. In addition, ASCAT winds were used to create an offshore atlas covering the years 2007 to 2016, capturing the signature of various spatial wind features, such as channelling and lee effects from complex coastal topographical elements.

  12. Observing nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book enables anyone with suitable instruments to undertake an examination of nebulae and see or photograph them in detail. Nebulae, ethereal clouds of gas and dust, are among the most beautiful objects to view in the night sky. These star-forming regions are a common target for observers and photographers. Griffiths describes many of the brightest and best nebulae and includes some challenges for the more experienced observer. Readers learn the many interesting astrophysical properties of these clouds, which are an important subject of study in astronomy and astrobiology. Non-mathematical in approach, the text is easily accessible to anyone with an interest in the subject. A special feature is the inclusion of an observational guide to 70 objects personally observed or imaged by the author. The guide also includes photographs of each object for ease of identification along with their celestial coordinates, magnitudes and other pertinent information. Observing Nebulae provides a ready resource to allow an...

  13. Environment in the European Union 1995

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The update to the 1992 report on the state of the environment in the European Union requested by the European Commission......The update to the 1992 report on the state of the environment in the European Union requested by the European Commission...

  14. Introductory Guide to European Corporate Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    Introductory Guide to European Corporate Law presents in an easily comprehensible and accessible way the main features and principles that govern European corporate law.......Introductory Guide to European Corporate Law presents in an easily comprehensible and accessible way the main features and principles that govern European corporate law....

  15. The globalization and Europeanization of mortgage markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Do globalization and Europeanization lead to the deterritorialization of European mortgage markets? Neither economic globalization nor EU policies have resulted in one European mortgage market. The various European mortgage markets are still quite different from one another in many respects. In most

  16. Report from the 2012 European Gender Summit

    CERN Document Server

    European Gender Summit, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Report from the 2012 European Gender Summit to the European Parliament and the Council, the European Commission, the Council of Europe, EU Member and Associate States, Science Institutions. Developing Systematic Implementation Strategy to Advance EU Policy on Gender Equality in Science, as part of HORIZON 2020, European Research Area and Innovation Union.

  17. What energy policy for the European Union?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    ) and externally (the Common foreign and security policy should be developed by fully incorporating the strategic dimension of energy). This is no mean challenge, since for it to be met Member States have to agree to break the 'taboo' of exclusive national competence as regards the energy mix. It is on the basis of this observation that the members of the working group have attempted to define the principles that should underpin a European energy policy and, on the basis of concrete propositions, have set out its strong points and its limitations. Three main guidelines for action have been identified by the working group: - The first is geographic and inter-generational solidarity. - The second is subsidiarity, in the sense of the need 'to act together at the most appropriate level'. Since a purely national response would not permit sufficiently effective capacity of action, a policy at European level has to be envisaged, to be articulated with maintained national competence. This is a major challenge for Europe, since it will be necessary to get Member States to accept no longer being the sole masters of their energy choices and to get European citizens to agree to transfer to the European level large swathes of their national energy policies. - The last is effectiveness, which means that Europe must provide itself with the instruments that are indispensable for the implementation of policies it deems appropriate. While the statutory basis for this exists, Europe still has to provide itself with the necessary means for action. (authors)

  18. European Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moons, Frans; Safieh, Joseph; Giot, Michel; Mavko, Borut; Sehgal, Bal Raj; Schaefer, Anselm; Goethem, Georges van; D'Haeseleer, William

    2005-01-01

    The need to preserve, enhance or strengthen nuclear knowledge is worldwide recognised since a couple of years. Among others, 'networking to maintain nuclear competence through education and training', was recommended in 2001 by an expert panel to the European Commission [EUR, 19150 EN, Strategic issues related to a 6th Euratom Framework Programme (2002-2006). Scientific and Technical Committee Euratom, pp. 14]. It appears that within the European University education and training framework, nuclear engineering is presently still sufficiently covered, although somewhat fragmented. However, it has been observed that several areas are at risk in the very near future including safety relevant fields such as reactor physics and nuclear thermal-hydraulics. Furthermore, in some countries deficiencies have been identified in areas such as the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, waste management and decommissioning. To overcome these risks and deficiencies, it is of very high importance that European countries work more closely together. Harmonisation and improvement of the nuclear education and training have to take place at an international level in order to maintain the knowledge properly and to transfer it throughout Europe for the safe and economic design, operation and dismantling of present and future nuclear systems. To take up the challenges of offering top quality, new, attractive and relevant curricula, higher education institutions should cooperate with industry, regulatory bodies and research centres, and more appropriate funding from public and private sources. In addition, European nuclear education and training should benefit from links with international organisations like IAEA, OECD-NEA and others, and should include worldwide cooperation with academic institutions and research centres. The first and central issue is to establish a European Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering. The concept envisaged is compatible with the projected harmonised European

  19. European security framework for healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruotsalainen, Pekka; Pohjonen, Hanna

    2003-01-01

    eHealth and telemedicine services are promising business areas in Europe. It is clear that eHealth products and services will be sold and ordered from a distance and over national borderlines in the future. However, there are many barriers to overcome. For both national and pan-European eHealth and telemedicine applications a common security framework is needed. These frameworks set security requirements needed for cross-border eHealth services. The next step is to build a security infrastructure which is independent of technical platforms. Most of the European eHealth platforms are regional or territorial. Some countries are looking for a Public Key Infrastructure, but no large scale solutions do exist in healthcare. There is no clear candidate solution for European-wide interoperable eHealth platform. Gross-platform integration seems to be the most practical integration method at a European level in the short run. The use of Internet as a European integration platform is a promising solution in the long run.

  20. Affordability of medicines in the European Union.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Zaprutko

    Full Text Available Medications and their prices are key issues for healthcare. Although access to medicines at affordable prices had been specified as a key objective of the European Health Policy, it seems that these goals have not been achieved. Therefore, we attempted an evaluation of affordability of selected medicines at full prices.The analysis concerned 2012 and was conducted between 2013 and 2015 in all the European Union (EU countries divided into 3 groups depending on the date of their accession to the EU. Finally, we considered 9 originators used in the treatment of schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis. Information on drug prices were collected from pharmacies. Participation in the study was voluntary and anonymous in order to avoid accusations of advertising. To evaluate affordability, several factors were used (e.g. minimum earnings and Gini coefficient. Due to unavailability in some countries, the exact number of analyzed medicines varies.Drug prices vary significantly between EU Member States. Almost eleven fold difference was observed between Germany (EUR 1451.17 and Croatia (EUR 132.77 in relation to Interferone beta-1a 22 μg. Generally, prices were the highest in Germany. The cheapest drugs were found in various countries but never in the poorest ones like Bulgaria or Romania. Discrepancies in wages were observed too (the smallest minimum wage was EUR 138.00 in Bulgaria and the highest EUR 1801.00 in Luxembourg. Full price of olanzapine 5mg, however, was higher in Bulgaria (EUR 64.53 than, for instance, in Belgium (EUR 37.26.Analyzed medications are still unaffordable for many citizens of the EU. Besides, access to medicines is also impaired e.g. due to parallel trade. Unaffordability of medications may lead to the patients' non-compliance and therefore to increased direct and indirect costs of treatment. Common European solutions are needed to achieve a real affordability and accessibility of medications.

  1. Who makes European Cohesion Policy: a practitioners’ learning perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Sbaraglia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the European Social Fund (ESF, the European Union subsidizes social inclusion and occupational trainee projects. This policy instrument is formulated by European Union institutions and implemented by regions through a call for projects which requires innovative actions and a result-oriented strategy. It is a key vantage point to observe sub-national implementation of an European Union policy instrument in a sub-national practitioner’s perspective, a topic under-investigated in the literature. For a project to receive funding, sub-national practitioners must take the European Union requirements (accounting standards, evidence of innovation etc. and their social needs into account. Against this backdrop, this research tackles an original question: how can local practitioners adapt their policy actions to fit with European Union requirements? Taking the region of Wallonia in Belgium as a case study, the ESF implementation is considered as a specific policy process in sub-national policy sectors. Adopting an in-depth qualitative perspective, this research contends that it depends on practitioners’ learning, practices and experience of past applications, their specific socio-economic context and income maximization.

  2. The European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing synergies: protocol for a prospective observational study to measure the Impact of a community-based program on prevention and mitigation of frailty (ICP – PMF) in community-dwelling older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liotta, G.; Orfila, F.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé; Roller-Winsberger, R.; Illaria, M.; Musian, D.; Alvino, S.; O'Caoimh, R.; Cano, A.; Molloy, W.; Iaccarino, G.; Marazzi, M.C.; Inzerilli, M.C.; Madaro, O.; Paul, C.; Csonka, P.; Vince, A.C.; Menditto, E.; Maggio, M.; Scarcella, P.; Gilardi, F.; Lucaroni, F.; Abete, P.; Girardi, V.; Barra, R.; Palombi, L.

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this paper is to describe the protocol of the study “Impact of a Community-based Program on Prevention and Mitigation of Frailty in community-dwelling older adults‿ developed in the framework of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing. This proposal has been developed

  3. Observational astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Léna, Pierre; Lebrun, François; Mignard, François; Pelat, Didier

    2012-01-01

    This is the updated, widely revised, restructured and expanded third edition of Léna et al.'s successful work Observational Astrophysics. It presents a synthesis on tools and methods of observational astrophysics of the early 21st century. Written specifically for astrophysicists and graduate students, this textbook focuses on fundamental and sometimes practical limitations on the ultimate performance that an astronomical system may reach, rather than presenting particular systems in detail. In little more than a decade there has been extraordinary progress in imaging and detection technologies, in the fields of adaptive optics, optical interferometry, in the sub-millimetre waveband, observation of neutrinos, discovery of exoplanets, to name but a few examples. The work deals with ground-based and space-based astronomy and their respective fields. And it also presents the ambitious concepts behind space missions aimed for the next decades. Avoiding particulars, it covers the whole of the electromagnetic spec...

  4. Observable supertranslations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousso, Raphael; Porrati, Massimo

    2017-10-01

    We show that large gauge transformations in asymptotically flat spacetime can be implemented by sandwiching a shell containing the ingoing hard particles between two finite-width shells of soft gauge excitations. Integration of the graviton Dirac bracket implies that our observable soft degrees of freedom obey the algebra imposed by Strominger et al. on unobservable boundary degrees of freedom. Thus, we provide both a derivation and an observable realization of this algebra. We recently showed that soft charges fail to constrain the hard scattering problem, and so cannot be relevant to the black hole information paradox. By expressing the Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) algebra in terms of observable quantities, the present work shows that this conclusion was not an artifact of working with strictly zero frequency soft modes. The conservation laws associated with asymptotic symmetries are seen to arise physically from free propagation of infrared modes.

  5. Observational astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Robert C

    1995-01-01

    Combining a critical account of observational methods (telescopes and instrumentation) with a lucid description of the Universe, including stars, galaxies and cosmology, Smith provides a comprehensive introduction to the whole of modern astrophysics beyond the solar system. The first half describes the techniques used by astronomers to observe the Universe: optical telescopes and instruments are discussed in detail, but observations at all wavelengths are covered, from radio to gamma-rays. After a short interlude describing the appearance of the sky at all wavelengths, the role of positional astronomy is highlighted. In the second half, a clear description is given of the contents of the Universe, including accounts of stellar evolution and cosmological models. Fully illustrated throughout, with exercises given in each chapter, this textbook provides a thorough introduction to astrophysics for all physics undergraduates, and a valuable background for physics graduates turning to research in astronomy.

  6. European refining: evolution or revolution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuthbert, N.

    1999-01-01

    A recent detailed analysis of the refining business in Europe (by Purvin and Gurtz) was used to highlight some key issues facing the industry. The article was written under five sub-sections: (i) economic environment (assessment of the economic prospects for Europe), (ii) energy efficiency and global warming (lists the four points of the EU car makers' voluntary agreement), (iii) fuel quality and refinery investment (iv) refinery capacity and utilisation and (v) industry structure and development. Diagrams show GDP per capita for East and West, European road fuel demand to 2015 and European net trade and European refinery ownership by crude capacity. It was concluded that the future of refining in Europe is 'exciting and challenging' and there are likely to be more large joint venture refineries. (UK)

  7. Nuclear Energy and European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picamal, B.

    2010-01-01

    The interest shown by the European Institutions in the energy debates, in which the nuclear energy is included as a key component within the energy mix, is obvious. Climate change and energy supply have pushed some countries to publicly express their interest for developing the nuclear energy. These positions are however in contradiction with some others within the European Union which are a lot more critical towards this type of energy and where face-out policies still prevail. Despite the fact that the use of the nuclear energy will remain within the competence of each Member State, the European Union will continue to play a prominent role in the development of an energy strategy based on a low carbon economy. (Author)

  8. IDENTITY AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrudan Cristina

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to throw some light on the question of identity in the European Union. The challenge is to understand how identity formation takes place in the contemporary world. The European integration has to be understood both as a process of socio-economic convergence among European states but also as a process of co-operation on different other levels, too. It seems that cultures, traditions and interests are more and more interconnected as societies become increasingly multicultural. This is the reason why people are concerned with the concept of identity and the recognition of their uniqueness in terms of traditions, values and ways of lives.

  9. Interest Organisations and European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ove K.

    This paper examines the influence of European integration on the relationship between state administration and private interests in the four Nordic countries - Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland. By private interests I mean interest organizations, private corporations and independent experts....... The paper focuses exclusively on the national policy processes that are involved with managing European Union (EU) issues. More specifically, this paper discusses two aspects of multi-level governance. First is the important role of private interests in the coordination of decision making at the national...... level preceding their government's representation of national interests in the European Council of Ministers and other EU organizations. Second is the effect of all this on national democratic systems....

  10. Constructing a European Governance Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam; Alijarde, Isabel Brusca; Chow, Danny

    Financial crisis has emphasized the need for harmonized public sector accounts in Europe. After a public consultation on the suitability of the IPSAS for EU Member States, the European Commission considers that the proper way is the development of European Union Standards adapted to IPSAS (renaming....... On the basis of that discussion, Eurostat launched another public consultation named; ‘Towards implementing European Public Sector Accounting Standards for EU member states-Public consultation on future EPSAS governance principles and structures’. This paper seeks to provide an in-depth understanding...... of the negotiations and interactions that took place prior to, during and after the issuance of the public consultation on the ‘Suitability of IPSAS’. The focus of this paper is therefore on a systematic analysis of the construction of regional-transnational governance of public sector accounting, using the EPSAS...

  11. Capacity Utilization in European Railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khadem Sameni, Melody; Landex, Alex

    2013-01-01

    and unprecedented approach for this aim. Relative operational efficiency of 24 European railways in capacity utilization is studied for the first time by data envelopment analysis (DEA). It deviates from previous applications of DEA in the railway industry that are conducted to analyze cost efficiency of railways....... Six DEA models quantify various aspects of micro, macro and quality of railway capacity utilization in these countries. New inputs like gross domestic product, population and area of the country help to provide a better picture of the status of railways. Passenger satisfaction data about different...... aspects of railway services in European countries has recently been quantified by European commission and are used for the first time in the literature. Invaluable insights can be inferred from the results which can provide a ground basis for railway practitioners and policy makers....

  12. 4th European Turbulence Conference

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    The European Turbulence Conferences have been organized under the auspices of the European Mechanics Committee (Euromech) to provide a forum for discussion and exchange of recent and new results in the field of turbulence. The first conference was organized in Lyon in 1986 with 152 participants. The second and third conferences were held in Berlin (1988) and Stockholm (1990) with 165 and 172 participants respectively. The fourth was organized in Delft from 30 June to 3 July 1992 by the J.M. Burgers Centre. There were 214 participants from 22 countries. This steadily growing number of participants demonstrates both the success and need for this type of conference. The main topics of the Fourth European Turbulence Conference were: Dynamical Systems and Transition; Statistical Physics and Turbulence; Experiments and Novel Experimental Techniques; Particles and Bubbles in Turbulence; Simulation Methods; Coherent Structures; Turbulence Modelling and Compressibility Effects. In addition a special session was held o...

  13. European consumers and beef safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens Oliver

    2010-01-01

    European beef consumption has been gradually declining during the past decades, while consumers' concerns about beef safety have increased. This paper explores consumer perceptions of and interest in beef safety and beef safety information, and their role in beef safety assessment and the beef...... consumption decision making process. Eight focus group discussions were performed with a total of 65 beef consumers in four European countries. Content analysis revealed that European consumers experienced difficulties in the assessment of the safety of beef and beef products and adopted diverging uncertainty...... reduction strategies. These include the use of colour, labels, brands and indications of origin as cues signalling beef safety. In general, consumer trust in beef safety was relatively high, despite distrust in particular actors....

  14. European Union: fears and hopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles ROUET

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution analyses some data from Eurobarometer 83, spring 2015, especially to draw a map of Fears. The European Union is a divided space and one of the main consequences of the budget (financial crisis of Greece, followed by the crisis caused by the arrival of thousands of immigrants is an enhanced communication difficulty between the Western and Eastern parts of the EU But all citizens have some new rights with the European Citizenship, which are additional. One of the main issues for the future could be to change the fundamental basis of the Union, thus trying to organize a new articulation between local and supranational, with another role for States, for example to change the organisation of European elections, and to pursue the connection of public spaces with mobility.

  15. The European standard series in 9 European countries, 2002/2003 -- first results of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, W; Hegewald, J; Aberer, W

    2005-01-01

    Since January 2001, the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA), supported by European Union funding (contract QLK4-CT-2001-00343), has started to collect patch-test data. This comprises a standardized clinical history and the patch-test results using the European standard series...... observed. The prevalence of contact allergy to Myroxylon pereirae resin (balsam of Peru) (5.8%) is coming close to the frequency found with the fragrance mix (6.4%). Regarding contact allergy to chromium compounds, different frequencies were noted in the 2 centres focused on occupational dermatitis (2......-marketing surveillance in the field of contact allergy, ESSCA will meet its objective of increased consumer safety across Europe....

  16. European Population Genetic Substructure: Further Definition of Ancestry Informative Markers for Distinguishing Among Diverse European Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chao; Kosoy, Roman; Nassir, Rami; Lee, Annette; Villoslada, Pablo; Klareskog, Lars; Hammarström, Lennart; Garchon, Henri-Jean; Pulver, Ann E.; Ransom, Michael; Gregersen, Peter K.; Seldin, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    The definition of European population genetic substructure and its application to understanding complex phenotypes is becoming increasingly important. In the current study using over 4000 subjects genotyped for 300 thousand SNPs we provide further insight into relationships among European population groups and identify sets of SNP ancestry informative markers (AIMs) for application in genetic studies. In general, the graphical description of these principal components analyses (PCA) of diverse European subjects showed a strong correspondence to the geographical relationships of specific countries or regions of origin. Clearer separation of different ethnic and regional populations was observed when northern and southern European groups were considered separately and the PCA results were influenced by the inclusion or exclusion of different self-identified population groups including Ashkenazi Jewish, Sardinian and Orcadian ethnic groups. SNP AIM sets were identified that could distinguish the regional and ethnic population groups. Moreover, the studies demonstrated that most allele frequency differences between different European groups could be effectively controlled in analyses using these AIM sets. The European substructure AIMs should be widely applicable to ongoing studies to confirm and delineate specific disease susceptibility candidate regions without the necessity to perform additional genome-wide SNP studies in additional subject sets. PMID:19707526

  17. Natural gas industry in European Community and european single market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadoret, I.

    1992-01-01

    Common Market of natural gas is dominated by some companies. In several Member Countries, one company only manages the whole industry. European Economic Community thinks this type of structure induce hindrances to free circulation of natural gas in Europe. 10 refs

  18. European Law in the Making:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    Traditionally, the Court of Justice of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) has mainly been considered the somewhat dull predecessor to the more famous Court of Justice of the European Communities, which in 1963-64 ‘constitutionalised’ the Treaties of Rome with the seminal judgments of Van...... Gend en Loos and Costa V. ENEL. The jurisprudence of the Court of Justice of the ECSC was allegedly conservative dominated by technical and economic considerations less than adventurous activism. Recent historical research has demonstrated the complexity of the legal landscape of the 1950s, in which...

  19. Humanities in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Lasse Gøhler; Vikman, Jutta Maria; Liljenstrøm, Andreas Jan

    2017-01-01

    In the present paper, we analyze the publication strategies of researchers in the humanities, including their choices of language, publication type and co-authorship. Based on data from Denmark, we compare the publication profile of the humanities with the other major fields of science in 2012 an...... conjuncture of the European Union’s internationalization policies in the 1990s and 2000s and a change in the international scientific hierarchy during the 20th century has contributed to the universalization of English in the Danish (and European) scientific field....

  20. Passionate patriotism or European enslavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manić Mihajlo P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study A passionate patriotism or European enslavement, from the eminent professor Petar Anđelković, represents another attempt by this author to analyze the Serbian society in the context of its development. This book is a logical continuation of his essay published in 2013, Serbian Society-without past, what is our present?, and represents a symbiosis of texts that the author has already published and in which he addresses the very relevant questions of Serbia's relations with the new world order and with the inevitable role of the European Union, as an existential challenge to the very existence of the Serbian society.

  1. The new European wind atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Troen, Ib; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    , from insufficient input data to deficient physics and resolution in any of the models, model linking issues, insufficient resolution or errors in surface topographical data such as terrain heights, land cover data etc. Therefore it has been decided on a European Union level to launch a project “The New...... European Wind Atlas” aiming at reducing overall uncertainties in determining wind conditions; standing on three legs: A data bank from a series of intensive measuring campaigns; a thorough examination and redesign of the model chain from global, mesoscale to microscale models and creation of the wind atlas...

  2. What Is Medieval European Literature?

    OpenAIRE

    Borsa, Paolo; Høgel, Christian; Mortensen, Lars Boje; Tyler, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The editors of Interfaces: A Journal of Medieval European Literatures explain the scope and purpose of the new journal by mapping out the significance and possible meanings of the three key terms of the subtitle: ‘literature,’ ‘medieval,’ ‘Europe.’ The specific theme of Issue 1 is introduced: ‘Histories of Medieval European Literatures: New Patterns of Representation and Explanation.’ With respect to this theme, theoretical problems concerning teleology and the present possibilities for liter...

  3. The common European flexicurity principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailand, Mikkel

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the decision-making process underlying the adoption of common EU flexicurity principles. Supporters of the initiative succeeded in convincing the sceptics one by one; the change of government in France and the last-minute support of the European social partner organizations...... were instrumental in this regard. However, the critics succeeded in weakening the initially strong focus on the transition from job security to employment security and the divisions between insiders and outsiders in the labour market. In contrast to some decision-making on the European Employment...

  4. Osteoporosis in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svedbom, A; Hernlund, E; Ivergård, M

    2013-01-01

    the burden of osteoporosis in each of the EU27 countries in 2010 and beyond. METHODS: The data on fracture incidence and costs of fractures in the EU27 were taken from a concurrent publication in this journal (Osteoporosis in the European Union: Medical Management, Epidemiology and Economic Burden......UNLABELLED: This report describes epidemiology, burden, and treatment of osteoporosis in each of the 27 countries of the European Union (EU27). INTRODUCTION: In 2010, 22 million women and 5.5 million men were estimated to have osteoporosis in the EU; and 3.5 million new fragility fractures were...

  5. Integration of European Bond Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    I investigate the time variation in the integration of EU government bond markets. The integration is measured by the explanatory power of European factor portfolios for the individual bond markets for each year. The integration of the government bond markets is stronger for EMU than non-EMU memb......I investigate the time variation in the integration of EU government bond markets. The integration is measured by the explanatory power of European factor portfolios for the individual bond markets for each year. The integration of the government bond markets is stronger for EMU than non...

  6. Central European gas market perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanous, Jan

    1999-01-01

    This presentation deals with (1) Definition of the Central European market, (2) Factors driving up consumption of natural gas in Central and Eastern Europe, (3) Role of natural gas in regional energy consumption, (4) Position of natural gas in individual country markets, (5) Future sources of imported natural gas into the region. The Central European market are the eleven countries Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovakia, and Slovenia, with a total population of 121 million. This market is comparable to combined France and Italy in terms of population, but only 30% of its size in terms of GDP

  7. Principles of European Company Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The article focuses on how much we have in common in Europe within company law and its development, and on the principles which are the determining factors for the activities of European companies. The article shows that what we have in common greatly outweighs what divides us, and this is presen......The article focuses on how much we have in common in Europe within company law and its development, and on the principles which are the determining factors for the activities of European companies. The article shows that what we have in common greatly outweighs what divides us...

  8. Science communication in European projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vachev, Boyko; Stamenov, Jordan

    2009-01-01

    Science communication in several resent successful projects of Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (INRNE, BAS) from the 5th and 6th Framework Programmes of EC is presented: the joint INRNE, BAS project with JRC of EC (FP5 NUSES) and two subsequent Centre of Excellence projects (FP5 HIMONTONET and FP6 BEOBAL) are considered. Innovations and traditional forms development and application are discussed. An overview of presentation and communication of INRNE, BAS contribution to Bulgarian European Project is made. Good practices have been derived. Keywords: Science communication, European projects, Innovations

  9. Observational cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    Some sixty years after the development of relativistic cosmology by Einstein and his colleagues, observations are finally beginning to have an important impact on our views of the Universe. The available evidence seems to support one of the simplest cosmological models, the hot Big Bang model. The aim of this paper is to assess the observational support for certain assumptions underlying the hot Big Bang model. These are that the Universe is isobaric and homogeneous on a large scale; that it is expanding from an initial state of high density and temperature; and that the proper theory to describe the dynamics of the Universe is unmodified General Relativity. The properties of the cosmic microwave background radiation and recent observations of the abundance of light elements, in particular, support these assumptions. Also examined here are the data bearing on the related questions of the geometry and the future of the Universe (is it ever-expanding, or fated to recollapse). Finally, some difficulties and faults of the standard model are discussed, particularly various aspects of the 'initial condition' problem. It appears that the simplest Big Bang cosmological model calls for a highly specific set of initial conditions to produce the presently observed properties of the Universe. (Auth.)

  10. Parameters of measuring of european political consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Pikula

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author analyzes the parameters of European political consciousness, i.e. European research field of political consciousness in qualitative and quantitative terms, which may be based on different indicators. The issue of emergence and development of European political consciousness becomes topical because firstly, its formation as the subjective dimension of European integration policy is not a spontaneous process and, secondly, European integration is carried out not only from the top but from the bottom, requiring deliberate interference of the public with the process; the public possesses the formed European political consciousness. Since the latter is a specific mental construct, the author offers to apply the triad «criteria ­ parameters – indicators». The characteristic that makes it possible to evaluate certain processes or phenomena in the system of Europeanness / Europeanism and specifies the quality system of views and opinions, which are realized in European behavior, is considered to be the criterion of European political consciousness. The European political consciousness parameters are seen to include the relevant historical memory, trends of public opinion and awareness regarding the European Union and position of its members in the European integration process, including the assessment of the existence and development of the EU; knowledge and views on the main EU institutions, assessing the importance of the main institutions of the EU and trust in them; a positive vision for the future of the European Union etc. The author considers the performance and objective characteristics and dimensions, including positive correlation of national and European levels of identity (European identity and European behavior to be the indicatiors of European political awareness. On the basis of these indicators the control of the condition and trends of European political consciousness development will be carried out.

  11. Flare Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benz Arnold O.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Solar flares are observed at all wavelengths from decameter radio waves to gamma-rays at 100 MeV. This review focuses on recent observations in EUV, soft and hard X-rays, white light, and radio waves. Space missions such as RHESSI, Yohkoh, TRACE, and SOHO have enlarged widely the observational base. They have revealed a number of surprises: Coronal sources appear before the hard X-ray emission in chromospheric footpoints, major flare acceleration sites appear to be independent of coronal mass ejections (CMEs, electrons, and ions may be accelerated at different sites, there are at least 3 different magnetic topologies, and basic characteristics vary from small to large flares. Recent progress also includes improved insights into the flare energy partition, on the location(s of energy release, tests of energy release scenarios and particle acceleration. The interplay of observations with theory is important to deduce the geometry and to disentangle the various processes involved. There is increasing evidence supporting reconnection of magnetic field lines as the basic cause. While this process has become generally accepted as the trigger, it is still controversial how it converts a considerable fraction of the energy into non-thermal particles. Flare-like processes may be responsible for large-scale restructuring of the magnetic field in the corona as well as for its heating. Large flares influence interplanetary space and substantially affect the Earth’s lower ionosphere. While flare scenarios have slowly converged over the past decades, every new observation still reveals major unexpected results, demonstrating that solar flares, after 150 years since their discovery, remain a complex problem of astrophysics including major unsolved questions.

  12. Flare Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Arnold O.

    2017-12-01

    Solar flares are observed at all wavelengths from decameter radio waves to gamma-rays beyond 1 GeV. This review focuses on recent observations in EUV, soft and hard X-rays, white light, and radio waves. Space missions such as RHESSI, Yohkoh, TRACE, SOHO, and more recently Hinode and SDO have enlarged widely the observational base. They have revealed a number of surprises: Coronal sources appear before the hard X-ray emission in chromospheric footpoints, major flare acceleration sites appear to be independent of coronal mass ejections, electrons, and ions may be accelerated at different sites, there are at least 3 different magnetic topologies, and basic characteristics vary from small to large flares. Recent progress also includes improved insights into the flare energy partition, on the location(s) of energy release, tests of energy release scenarios and particle acceleration. The interplay of observations with theory is important to deduce the geometry and to disentangle the various processes involved. There is increasing evidence supporting magnetic reconnection as the basic cause. While this process has become generally accepted as the trigger, it is still controversial how it converts a considerable fraction of the energy into non-thermal particles. Flare-like processes may be responsible for large-scale restructuring of the magnetic field in the corona as well as for its heating. Large flares influence interplanetary space and substantially affect the Earth's ionosphere. Flare scenarios have slowly converged over the past decades, but every new observation still reveals major unexpected results, demonstrating that solar flares, after 150 years since their discovery, remain a complex problem of astrophysics including major unsolved questions.

  13. The Europeanization of Politics: Building a Terminology for European Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Grubiša

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the problem of Europeanisation, one of the key concepts developed within the European Studies in the last ten years or so, since the adoption and entry into force of the Maastricht Treaty. The fi rst part of the article deals with various models of Europeanisation in a context extending beyond the conceptual framework of the European Union, within which the phenomenon of Europeanisation arises. Therefore, the author attempts to develop a typology of broader approaches to the identifi cation of the phenomenon and process of Europeanisation, which includes six conceptions thereof: the fi rst approach is a geographical-political one, where Europeanisation is seen as a change in outer borders of Europe, from the reduction of Europe to the countries of Western Europe and Central Europe, to the extension of the concept of Europe to marginal countries; the second approach links the concept of Europeanisation with the development of political institutions on the European level. The third defi nition identifi es Europeanisation as an export of various forms of political organisation, a process which proceeds from the experience of European colonisation to the diff usion of European values as a role model for other continents; the fourth model of Europeanisation is the identifi cation with the project of European unifi cation, i. e. the process of integration which ends up in a federal, unifi ed Europe; the fi fth subtype is the penetration of national systems of governance by the European model of multilevel governance, which becomes manifest in the adaptation, convergence and harmonisation of the political and legal systems of member nations. The author elaborates on this classic typology by adding the sixth approach, which he calls “retrospective Europeanisation”. It involves Europeanisation as identifi cation with traditional European values that existed before EC and EU, primarily with the preintegration traditional

  14. A Grand Vision for European Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Today, and for the first time, astronomers share their global Science Vision for European Astronomy in the next two decades. This two-year long effort by the ASTRONET network of funding agencies, sponsored by the European Commission and coordinated by INSU-CNRS, underscores Europe's ascension to world leadership in astronomy and its will to maintain that position. It will be followed in just over a year by a prioritised roadmap for the observational facilities needed to implement the Vision. Implementation of these plans will ensure that Europe fully contributes to Mankind's ever deeper understanding of the wonders of our Universe. astronet logo "This is a great opportunity to help create a vibrant long-term future for astronomy and science" says Tim de Zeeuw (Leiden Observatory, The Netherlands) who led this community-wide effort. The ASTRONET Science Vision provides a comprehensive overview of the most important scientific questions that European astronomy should address in the next twenty years. The four key questions are the extremes of the Universe, from the nature of the dark matter and dark energy that comprise over 95% of the Universe to the physics of extreme objects such as black holes, neutron stars, and gamma-ray bursts; the formation of galaxies from the first seeds to our Milky Way; the formation of stars and planets and the origin of life; and the crucial question of how do we (and our Solar System) fit in the global picture. These themes reach well beyond the realm of traditional astronomy into the frontiers of physics and biology. The Vision identifies the major new facilities that will be needed to achieve these goals, but also stresses the need for parallel developments in theory and numerical simulations, high-performance computing resources, efficient astronomical data archiving and the European Virtual Observatory, as well as in laboratory astrophysics. "This report is a key input for the even more challenging task of developing a prioritised

  15. Parametrization of the Richardson weather generator within the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, van der P.; Kramer, K.; Diepen, van C.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Richardson model for mathematically generating daily weather data was parametrized. Thirty years' time-series of the 355 main meteorological stations in the European Union formed the database. Model parameters were derived from both observed weather station data and interpolated weather data on

  16. Europeanization by it is tools: the case of European transnational projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Salgado, R.

    2010-01-01

    In the understanding of Europeanization, specific tools of governance matter. Europeanization through flexible tools of governance enables strategic uses by domestic actors, and does not necessaritly preclude policy transfer or transformation. As long as they favour participation, European

  17. The European Hematology Association Roadmap for European Hematology Research : A consensus document

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engert, Andreas; Balduini, Carlo; Brand, Anneke; Coiffier, Bertrand; Cordonnier, Catherine; Döhner, Hartmut; de Wit, Thom Duyvené; Eichinger, Sabine; Fibbe, Willem; Green, Tony; de Haas, Fleur; Iolascon, Achille; Jaffredo, Thierry; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Salles, Gilles; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    The European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European hematology

  18. Europeanization and social movement mobilization during the European sovereign debt crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela; Chatzopoulou, Sevasti

    2015-01-01

    The article addresses Europeanization of social movements in the context of the European Sovereign Debt Crisis. Europeanization occurs when movements collaborate, or make horizontal communicative linkages with movements in other countries, contest authorities beyond the state, frame issues...

  19. European guidelines on lifestyle changes for management of hypertension : Awareness and implementation of recommendations among German and European physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolbrinker, J; Zaidi Touis, L; Gohlke, H; Weisser, B; Kreutz, R

    2017-05-22

    In the 2013 European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension, six lifestyle changes for treatment are recommended for the first time with class I, level of evidence A. We initiated a survey among physicians to explore their awareness and consideration of lifestyle changes in hypertension management. The survey included questions regarding demographics as well as awareness and implementation of the recommended lifestyle changes. It was conducted at two German and two European scientific meetings in 2015. In all, 1064 (37.4% female) physicians participated (806 at the European and 258 at the German meetings). Of the six recommended lifestyle changes, self-reported awareness was highest for regular exercise (85.8%) followed by reduction of weight (66.2%). The least frequently self-reported lifestyle changes were the advice to quit smoking (47.3%) and moderation of alcohol consumption (36.3%). Similar frequencies were observed for the lifestyle changes implemented by physicians in their care of patients. A close correlation between awareness of guideline recommendations and their implementation into clinical management was observed. European physicians place a stronger emphasis on regular exercise and weight reduction than on the other recommended lifestyle changes. Moderation of alcohol consumption is the least emphasized lifestyle change.

  20. Cosmophysical periods in European history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirskij, B.M.; Kislovskij, L.D.

    1995-01-01

    In social systems there are rhythms synchronised by cosmical periods. These rhythms have partly biological origin. Some natural cycles also might influence upon historical processes (as such as climatic and epidemical). The analysis of the literature shows that there is rhythmic component in European history where solar activity cycles -11 and 340 years are presented. 17 refs., 2 tabs

  1. The European Network of Uropathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egevad, Lars; Algaba, Ferran; Berney, Dan M

    2009-01-01

    In pathology there is a need to rapidly disseminate professional information to the appropriate target groups. This is a surprisingly difficult task on an international level. Therefore, the European Network of Uropathology (ENUP) was recently organized by the Uropathology Working Group of the Eu...

  2. European ecological networks and greenways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongman, R.H.G.; Külvik, M.; Kristiansen, I.

    2004-01-01

    In the context of European integration, networks are becoming increasingly important in both social and ecological sense. Since the beginning of the 1990s, societal and scientific exchanges are being restructured as the conceptual approaches towards new nature conservation strategies have been

  3. Governance and European Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutay, Acar

    This book provides a critical analysis of the European Union’s approach to ‘governance’, focusing on the way in which civil society is incorporated within the EU decision-making process and arguing that it is not conducive to the democratisation of EU governance.\

  4. The European radon mapping project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossew, P.; Tollefsen, T.; Gruber, V.; De Cort, M.

    2013-01-01

    There is almost unanimous agreement that indoor radon (Rn) represents a hazard to human health. Large-scale epidemiological studies gave evidence that Rn is the second-most important cause o flung cancer after smoking and that also relatively low Rn concentrations can be detrimental. This has increasingly led to attempts to limit Rn exposure through regulation, mainly building codes. The proposed Euratom Basic Safety Standards (BSS) require Member States to establish Rn action plans aimed at reducing Rn risk, and to set reference values for Imitating indoor Rn concentration. In 2006 the JRC started a project on mapping Rn at the European level, in addition and complementary lo (but not as a substitute for) national efforts. These maps are part of the European Atlas of Natural Radiation project. which is planned eventually 10 comprise geographical assessments of ali sources of exposure to natural radiation. Started first, a map of indoor Rn is now in an advanced phase, but still incomplete as national Rn surveys are ongoing in a number of European countries. A European map of geogenic Rn, conceptually and technically more complicated, was started in 2008. The main difficulty encountered is heterogeneity of survey designs, measurement and evaluation methods and database semantics and structures. An important part or the work on the Atlas is therefore to harmonize data and methods. We present the current state of the Rn maps and discuss some of the methodological challenges. (author)

  5. Essays on European bond markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, Y.C.

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation focused on a number of issues that are of importance in the current European bond market. In the past years, the fiscal policy of the Eurozone members, advances in the technology of trading platforms and the introduction of a single currency have reshaped the fixed income markets

  6. European Curricula, Xenophobia and Warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulby, David

    1997-01-01

    Examines school and university curricula in Europe and the extent of their influence on xenophobia. Considers the pluralistic nature of the European population. Discusses the role of curriculum selection and language policy in state efforts to promote nationalism. Assesses the role of curricular systems in the actual encouragement of warfare,…

  7. Giotto: the european space probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berner, C.; Vandenbussche, F.C.

    1986-01-01

    The Giotto mission is an in situ exploration of the comet Halley. It will be the European Space Agency's first operational deep-space mission, with a spacecraft-Earth distance at comet encounter of approximately 1 AU (150 000 000 km). This paper gives a summary of the mission profile, of the spacecraft design with its associated payload and ground segment [fr

  8. Mining in the European Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Karin; Scheepstra, Adriana; Gille, Johan; Stepien, Adam; Koivurova, Timo; Stepien, Adam; Koivurova, Timo; Kankaanpää, Paula

    The European Arctic has been recently experiencing an upsurge in mining activities. This is reflected in an on-going interest from the industry, regulators and the public. However, current and future prospects are highly sensitive to mineral price fluctuations. The EU is a major consumer and

  9. European welfare states in motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemerijck, A.C.; Dräbing, V.; Vis, B.; Nelson, M.L.; Soentken, M.F.F.

    2013-01-01

    In this working paper, we assess to what extent European welfare states have moved in the direction of social investment in terms of spending and how well they are performing socio-economically, for instance in terms of unemployment, poverty-reduction and work-family life reconciliation. Moreover,

  10. Towards a European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondius, E.H.

    2000-01-01

    I. Introduction. II. Subject-matter of this paper. III. Constitutionality. IV. Codification. V. Is it Feasible?VI. Howto proceed. VII. New problems: finding the Law. VIII. The Netherlands, Belgium and Germany. IX. Common Law and Civil Law. X. East and west. XI. European Community Law. XII.

  11. Intersectionality in European Union policymaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Emanuela; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2016-01-01

    is particularly apt to deal with equality and diversity in policymaking. By analysing a selection of European Union policy documents on gender-based violence in the period 2000–2014, we attend to the question of what intersectionality can bring to policymaking in terms of strengthening inclusiveness and address...

  12. Architecture of European Plastic Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolai, J. -P. A.; Banic, A.; Molea, G.; Mazzola, R.; Poell, J. G.

    2006-01-01

    The architecture of European Plastic Surgery was published in 1996 [Nicolai JPA, Scuderi N. Plastic surgical Europe in an organogram. Eur J Plast Surg 1996; 19: 253-6.] It is the objective of this paper to update information of that article. Continuing medical education (CME), science, training,

  13. Down these European mean streets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft; Turnbull, Sue; Peacock, Steven

    2018-01-01

    The chapter sets out the key themes and concerns of contemporary European television crime dramas. The authors introduce relevant topics, including transnational narratives and production practices; the concepts (and phenomena) of Euronoir and Europudding; the contemporary and overarching influen...... potentials as well recent developments in the relationship between crime drama and the supernatural....

  14. 5th European Rheology Conference

    CERN Document Server

    1998-01-01

    Global sustainable development of the world economy requires better understanding and utilization of natural recourses. In this endeavor rheology has an indispensable role. The Rheology Conferences are therefore always an important event for science and technology. The Fifth European Rheology Conference, held from September 6 to 11 in the Portoro-z, Slovenia, will be the first AlI-European rheology meeting after the formal constitution of the European Society ofRheology. As such it will be a special historical event. At this meeting the European Society of Rheology will introduce the Weissenberg Medal, to be bestowed every four years to an individual for hislhers contribution to the field of Rheology. The recipient ofthe first award will be professor G. Marrucci ofthe Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Italy. Two mini Symposia will be part of the Conference. The first, on Industrial Rheology, will commemorate the late professor G. Astarita. The second will honor the eightieth birthday of professor N.W. Tschoeg...

  15. Mining in the European Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Kim; Scheepstra, Annette; Gille, Johan; Stępień, Adam; Koivurova, Timo

    The European Arctic is currently experiencing an upsurge in mining activities, but future developments will be highly sensitive to mineral price fluctuations. The EU is a major consumer and importer of Arctic raw materials. As the EU is concerned about the security of supply, it encourages domestic

  16. Welfare reform in European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immervoll, Herwig; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    2007-01-01

    This article compares the effects of increasing traditional welfare to introducing in-work benefits in the 15 (pre-enlargement) countries of the European Union. We use a labour supply model encompassing responses to taxes and transfers along both the intensive and extensive margins, and the EUROMOD...

  17. European Bat Lyssaviruses, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der W.H.M.; Heide, van der R.; Verstraten, E.R.A.M.; Kramps, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    To study European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) in bat reservoirs in the Netherlands, native bats have been tested for rabies since 1984. For all collected bats, data including species, age, sex, and date and location found were recorded. A total of 1,219 serotine bats, Eptesicus serotinus, were tested, and

  18. Europeans' attitudes towards climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    This report presents the results of a survey on Europeans' attitudes towards climate change which was carried out in January and February 2009. The survey focuses on: Citizens' perceptions of climate change in relation to other world problems; Citizens' perceptions of the seriousness of climate change; The extent to which citizens feel informed about climate change - its causes, consequences and ways of fighting it; Citizens' attitudes towards alternative fuels and CO2 emissions; Whether citizens feel that climate change is stoppable or has been exaggerated, and what impact it has on the European economy; Whether citizens have taken personal action to fight climate change. This Eurobarometer survey was carried out by TNS Opinion and Social network between 16 January and 22 February 2009. The interviews were conducted among 26,718 citizens in the 27 Member States of the European Union, the three candidate countries for accession to the European Union (Croatia, Turkey and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia) and in the Turkish Cypriot Community.

  19. European consumers and nutrition labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling of food in Europe is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made for the product. The European Commission is proposing mandatory nutrition labelling, even front of pack labelling with nutrition information. Yet, how widespread is nutrition labelling in the EU...

  20. The European Approach to Privacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoboken, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically assesses the character of European (Union’s) privacy law and policy in the field of online media and electronic communications. Contrary to current understanding, this field of law is more fragmented and ill-developed than is often assumed, in particular by those discussing

  1. EMSO: European multidisciplinary seafloor observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favali, Paolo; Beranzoli, Laura

    2009-04-01

    EMSO has been identified by the ESFRI Report 2006 as one of the Research Infrastructures that European members and associated states are asked to develop in the next decades. It will be based on a European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the aim of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes, providing long time series data for the different phenomenon scales which constitute the new frontier for study of Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry, and ocean processes. The development of an underwater network is based on past EU projects and is supported by several EU initiatives, such as the on-going ESONET-NoE, aimed at strengthening the ocean observatories' scientific and technological community. The EMSO development relies on the synergy between the scientific community and industry to improve European competitiveness with respect to countries such as USA, Canada and Japan. Within the FP7 Programme launched in 2006, a call for Preparatory Phase (PP) was issued in order to support the foundation of the legal and organisational entity in charge of building up and managing the infrastructure, and coordinating the financial effort among the countries. The EMSO-PP project, coordinated by the Italian INGV with participation by 11 institutions from as many European countries, started in April 2008 and will last four years.

  2. European astronaut training in Houston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarenza, O

    1993-11-01

    Three European astronauts are currently training as Space Shuttle Mission Specialists at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston. Two of the astronauts, Maurizio Cheli and Jean-Francois Clervoy, recently became members of NASA's 'astronaut pool' and have entered the Advanced Training phase. The third one, Claude Nicollier, is now preparing for the mission to service the Hubble Space Telescope in December.

  3. Kant's Theory of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

      Abstract:Immanuel Kant developed a rather wide range of concepts to describe the process of an "ever broader union" of European states. Kant's theory posed a dilemma with two aspects. On the one hand republican states were free, and on the other they were obliged to follow rules of a union...

  4. The European radon mapping project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossew, P., E-mail: pbossew@bfs.de [German Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany); Tollefsen, T.; Gruber, V.; De Cort, M., E-mail: tore.tollefsen@jrc.ec.europa.eu, E-mail: valeria.gruber@gmail.com, E-mail: marc.de-cort@jrc.ec.europa.eu [Institute for Transuranium Elements, Ispra, VA (Italy). DG Joint Research Centre. European Commission

    2013-07-01

    There is almost unanimous agreement that indoor radon (Rn) represents a hazard to human health. Large-scale epidemiological studies gave evidence that Rn is the second-most important cause o flung cancer after smoking and that also relatively low Rn concentrations can be detrimental. This has increasingly led to attempts to limit Rn exposure through regulation, mainly building codes. The proposed Euratom Basic Safety Standards (BSS) require Member States to establish Rn action plans aimed at reducing Rn risk, and to set reference values for Imitating indoor Rn concentration. In 2006 the JRC started a project on mapping Rn at the European level, in addition and complementary lo (but not as a substitute for) national efforts. These maps are part of the European Atlas of Natural Radiation project. which is planned eventually 10 comprise geographical assessments of ali sources of exposure to natural radiation. Started first, a map of indoor Rn is now in an advanced phase, but still incomplete as national Rn surveys are ongoing in a number of European countries. A European map of geogenic Rn, conceptually and technically more complicated, was started in 2008. The main difficulty encountered is heterogeneity of survey designs, measurement and evaluation methods and database semantics and structures. An important part or the work on the Atlas is therefore to harmonize data and methods. We present the current state of the Rn maps and discuss some of the methodological challenges. (author)

  5. European environmental policy: The pioneers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    environmental politics at the European Union level. Following Robert Putnam's theory, environmental policymaking in the EU is viewed as a reciprocal two-level game in which activities, actors and politics in domestic and EU arenas affect each other. Governments at times need to build domestic political support...

  6. Rawls and the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Menno R.

    2014-01-01

    Renowned political philosopher John Rawls once expressed skepticism about the moral status of the European Union (EU). Yet generally EU scholars have either ignored Rawls or rather uncritically established positive links between his theory of domestic and international justice and the EU. This

  7. European Cyber Security Perspectives 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baloo, J.; Geveke, H.G.; Paulissen, W.; Vries, H. de

    2015-01-01

    Following the success of last year’s publication, we are proud to present the second edition of our European Cyber Security Perspectives report. Through this collection of articles, we aim to share our different perspectives and insights, the latest developments and achievements in the field of

  8. European rating of drug harms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amsterdam, Jan; Nutt, David; Phillips, Lawrence; van den Brink, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The present paper describes the results of a rating study performed by a group of European Union (EU) drug experts using the multi-criteria decision analysis model for evaluating drug harms. Forty drug experts from throughout the EU scored 20 drugs on 16 harm criteria. The expert group also assessed

  9. Reconciling work and poverty reduction: how successful are European welfare states?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantillon, B.; Vandenbroucke, F.

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the great recession, poverty has, not unexpectedly, increased in many Member States of the European Union. More worrying in view of its structural implications is the observation that in the years before the financial crisis, in most European countries poverty rates for the

  10. The European Location Framework - from National to European

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauknerova, E.; Sidlichovsky, P.; Urbanas, S.; Med, M.

    2016-06-01

    The European Location Framework (ELF) means a technical infrastructure which will deliver authoritative, interoperable geospatial reference data from all over Europe for analysing and understanding information connected to places and features. The ELF has been developed and set up through the ELF Project, which has been realized by a consortium of partners (public, private and academic organisations) since March 2013. Their number increased from thirty to forty in the year 2016, together with a project extension from 36 to 44 months. The project is co-funded by the European Commission's Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme (CIP) and will end in October 2016. In broad terms, the ELF Project will deliver a unique gateway to the authoritative reference geospatial information for Europe (harmonised pan-European maps, geographic and land information) sourced from the National Mapping and Cadastral Authorities (NMCAs) around Europe and including transparent licensing. This will be provided as an online ELF web service that will deliver an up-to-date topographic base map and also as view & download services for access to the ELF datasets. To develop and build up the ELF, NMCAs are accompanied and collaborate with several research & academia institutes, a standardisation body, system integrators, software developers and application providers. The harmonisation is in progress developing and triggering a number of geo-tools like edge-matching, generalisation, transformation and others. ELF will provide also some centralised tools like Geo Locator for searching location based on geographical names, addresses and administrative units, and GeoProduct Finder for discovering the available web-services and licensing them. ELF combines national reference geo-information through the ELF platform. ELF web services will be offered to users and application developers through open source (OSKARI) and proprietary (ArcGIS Online) cloud platforms. Recently, 29 NMCAs plus the

  11. The European SL-9/JUPITER Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    During the past six months, many astronomers - observational as well theoretical - have been busy interpreting the many data taken during the impacts and thereafter. This is a very labour-intensive task and although the first conclusions have begun to emerge, it has also become obvious that extensive consultations between the various groups are necessary before it will be possible to understand the very complex processes during the impacts and thereafter. In order to further the interaction among the involved scientists, it has been decided to hold a three-day "European SL-9/Jupiter Workshop" at the Headquarters of the European Southern Observatory. More than 100 astronomers will meet on February 13-15, 1995, and close to 100 reports will be delivered on this occasion. Although most come from European countries, the major groups on other continents are also well represented. This meeting will give the participants the opportunity to exchange information about their individual programmes and will serve to establish future collaborative efforts. SL-9/JUPITER PRESS CONFERENCE In this connection, ESO is pleased to invite the media to a Press Conference: Wednesday, February 15, 1995, 17:30 CET ESO Headquarters, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany This conference will be held at the end of the Workshop and will provide a thorough overview of the latest results, as presented during the meeting. Media representatives who are interested in participating in this Press Conference are requested to register with the ESO Information Service (Mrs. E. Völk, Tel.: +49-89-32006276; Fax: +49-89-3202362), at the latest on Friday, February 10, 1995. ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.hq.eso.org/) and on CompuServe (space science and astronomy area, GO SPACE).

  12. European constitution and EURATOM treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2003-01-01

    The European Council held in Laeken in December 2001 had decided to call a convention preparing the next conference of the heads of state and government which, among other topics, was to deliberate the question of a fully formulated European constitution. Under the presidency of Giscard d'Estaing, all delegates to the European Convention on July 10, 2003 signed the draft treaty for a European constitution. This final document is the basis of the conference of the heads of state and government to begin in October 2003. On this occasion, the draft of a separate chapter on energy could well come up again for examination. This chapter had been introduced only at the end of the deliberations of the convention and adds to the competences of the EU institutions. Also the Euratom Treaty was a topic of the convention preparing the constitution. As the presidency felt that no specific issues had been raised in the Laeken declaration, it is proposed to adapt the Euratom Treaty to the new provisions of the constitution by adding a protocol. This would mean that the European Atomic Energy Community, for the time being, would retain its independent legal status. The contents would have to be examined at some later date. Consequently, the real discussion of the Euratom Treaty is yet to come. Also, the speedy completion of the single market for electricity would make it desirable for the Community to adopt a uniform, positive stance in the use of nuclear power at the best possible safety standards so as to ensure a level playing field. Current events entailing power failures in the United States and the United Kingdom have alerted the public to the problem of the continuity of power supply. This could well be the beginning of a new, unbiased, balanced energy discussion in a bigger Europe. (orig.)

  13. Making Sense of the ‘Agency Programme’ in post-Lisbon Europe: Mapping European Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Margaretha Ekelund

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The institutional landscape of the EU has been transformed through the establishment of agencies and changes brought by the Lisbon Treaty. This article seeks to contribute to our conceptual and empirical understanding of European agencies post-Lisbon. It maps the current European agencies according to timing of establishment, size, functions, governance structures and financial arrangements, and discusses the findings in relation to studies and classifications of agencies in national settings. It shows that variations between different European agencies correspond to variations observed between agencies in national settings and argues that what is innovative is the political level at which they are created, not the agency type. Focusing on the functions, governance structure and financial arrangements of European agencies, it develops a classification model for European agencies. It concludes that there are four main types of agencies, distinguished by their formal functions and formal autonomy from the European Union’s core executive institutions.

  14. Observational astrophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léna, P.; Lebrun, F.; Mignard, F.

    This book is the 2nd edition of an English translation published in 1988 (45.003.105) of the French original "Astrophysique: Méthodes physiques de l'observation" published in 1986 (42.003.048). Written specifically for physicists and graduate students in astronomy, this textbook focuses on astronomical observation and on the basic physical principles that astronomers use to conceive, build and exploit their instruments at their ultimate limits in sensitivity or resolution. This second edition has been entirely restructured and almost doubled in size, in order to improve its clarity and to account for the great progress achieved in the last 15 years. It deals with ground-based and space-based astronomy and their respective fields. It presents the new generation of giant ground-based telescopes, with the new methods of optical interferometry and adaptive optics, and also the ambitious concepts behind planned space missions for the next decades. Avoiding particulars, it covers the whole of the electromagnetic spectrum and touches upon the "new astronomies" becoming possible with gravitational waves and neutrinos.

  15. European Marine Information System. Eumaris; European Marine Information System. Eumaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caiaffa, E. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    The present paper summarises the activities developed by ETC/MCE, under European Environment Agency (EEA) contract, on the Geographic Information System. The aim of present paper is to introduce some general concepts about the Geographic Information Systems and to investigate the potential of G.I.S. as tool for the assessment of the European seas. Care has also been taken to explain the main technical and educational reasons that led to EUMARIS GIS birth, its evolution in the last year, till to its presentation at the Inter-Regional Forum of the European Conventions held in Venice. GIS is a technological tool phenomenon involving various aspects and different issues; many examples of thematic maps involving that different subjects are shown in the paper. [Italian] Il presente articolo riassume le attivita' svolte, nell'ambito del Geographic Information System, dall'ETC/MCE sotto contratto con l'Agenzia Europea per l'Ambiente (EEA) che ha sede a Copenhagen. Scopo del presente articolo e' quello di introdurre alcuni concetti generali sui Geographic Information System (GIS) e di dimostrare la possibilita' di utilizzare il GIS stesso come strumento per la valutazione dello stato dei mari dell'Europa. Si e' cercato di spiegare le principali ragioni tecniche che hanno portato alla nascita del progeto del GIS EUMARIS, alla sua realizzazione fino alla sua presentazione all'Inter-Regional Forum of European Conventions tenutosi a Venezia. Si e' cercato anche di mostrare come un GIS per sua natura e' uno strumento che coinvolge vari aspetti tecnologici e differenti tipi di dati; nell'articolo vengono mostrati diversi esempi di mappe tematiche che contengono tali differenti argomenti.

  16. Third European Company Survey: Workplace innovation in European companies

    OpenAIRE

    Oeij, P.; Žiauberyté-Jakštiené, R.; Dhondt, S.; Corral, A.; Totterdill, P.; Preenen, P.

    2015-01-01

    Workplace innovation (WPI) is a developed and implemented practice or combination of practices which enables employees to participate in organisational change and renewal and hence improve the quality of working life and organisational performance. This report looks at reasons for enabling WPI, adoption and implementation, and impact on organisation and management, employees and employee representatives. The research is based on 51 companies identified in Eurofound’s third European Company Su...

  17. European trauma guideline compliance assessment: the ETRAUSS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Sophie Rym; Gauss, Tobias; Pann, Jakob; Dünser, Martin; Leone, Marc; Duranteau, Jacques

    2015-12-08

    Haemorrhagic shock is the leading cause of preventable death in trauma patients. The 2013 European trauma guidelines emphasise a comprehensive, multidisciplinary, protocol-based approach to trauma care. The aim of the present Europe-wide survey was to compare 2015 practice with the 2013 guidelines. A group of members of the Trauma and Emergency Medicine section of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine developed a 50-item questionnaire based upon the core recommendations of the 2013 guidelines, employing a multistep approach. The questionnaire covered five fields: care structure and organisation, haemodynamic resuscitation targets, fluid management, transfusion and coagulopathy, and haemorrhage control. The sampling used a two-step approach comprising initial purposive sampling of eminent trauma care providers in each European country, followed by snowball sampling of a maximum number of trauma care providers. A total of 296 responses were collected, 243 (81 %) from European countries. Those from outside the European Union were excluded from the analysis. Approximately three-fourths (74 %) of responders were working in a designated trauma centre. Blunt trauma predominated, accounting for more than 90 % of trauma cases. Considerable heterogeneity was observed in all five core aspects of trauma care, along with frequent deviations from the 2013 guidelines. Only 92 (38 %) of responders claimed to comply with the recommended systolic blood pressure target, and only 81 (33 %) responded that they complied with the target pressure in patients with traumatic brain injury. Crystalloid use was predominant (n = 209; 86 %), and vasopressor use was frequent (n = 171, 76 %) but remained controversial. Only 160 respondents (66 %) declared that they used tranexamic acid always or often. This is the first European trauma survey, to our knowledge. Heterogeneity is significant across centres with regard to the clinical protocols for trauma patients and as to locally

  18. THE EUROPEAN CENTRAL BANK AND THE EUROZONE CRISIS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONICA ŞAGUNA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Euro is the single currency shared by 17 of the European Union's Member States, which together make up the Euro area. Since its introduction, in January 2002, it became the second most traded currency in the world after the United States dollar. With the launch of the Euro, the monetary policy became the responsibility of the independent European Central Bank, which was created for that purpose, and of the national central banks of the Member States, having adopted the Euro. However, the accumulation of massive and unsustainable deficits and public debt levels in a number of peripheral economies threatened the Eurozone's viability by the end of its first decade, triggering a Eurozone sovereign debt crisis. The institutional mechanisms surrounding the Euro have also been an integral part of the crisis. On this line, the European Monetary Union is supported on one side by treaties and multilateral agreements including the Maastricht Treaty, the Stability and Growth Pact and the Lisbon Strategy and, on the other side, by the European Central Bank. The combination of these institutions has produced a mix of monetary, fiscal and labour market policies with powerful social implications. And, what started as a debt crisis in Greece in late 2009 has evolved into a broader economic and political crisis in the Eurozone and European Union. In this framework, the purpose of my paper is to analyze the roots of the Eurozone crisis, as the biggest challenge since the Euro adoption and the European Central Bank’s response to it. Therefore the objectives are: identification of the reasons that stand behind the crisis, then observing how the crisis has affected the functioning of the European Central Bank and the Euro, and how it was forced to respond and, finally, focusing on the future and the challenges that lie ahead.

  19. ALADIN: the first european lidar in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morançais, Didier; Fabre, Frédéric; Schillinger, Marc; Barthès, Jean-Claude; Endemann, Martin; Culoma, Alain; Durand, Yannig

    2017-11-01

    The Atmospheric LAser Doppler INstrument (ALADIN) is the payload of the ESA's ADMAEOLUS mission, which aims at measuring wind profiles as required by the climatology and meteorology users. ALADIN belongs to a new class of Earth Observation payloads and will be the first European Lidar in space. The instrument comprises a diode-pumped high energy Nd:YAG laser and a direct detection receiver operating on aerosol and molecular backscatter signals in parallel. In addition to the Proto- Flight Model (PFM)., two instrument models are developed: a Pre-development Model (PDM) and an Opto-Structure-Thermal Model (OSTM). The flight instrument design and the industrial team has been finalised and the major equipment are now under development. This paper describes the instrument design and performance as well as the development and verification approach. The main results obtained during the PDM programme are also reported. The ALADIN instrument is developed under prime contractorship from EADS Astrium SAS with a consortium of thirty European companies.

  20. Pharmaceutical regulation in 15 European countries review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteli, Dimitra; Arickx, Francis; Cleemput, Irina; Dedet, Guillaume; Eckhardt, Helen; Fogarty, Emer; Gerkens, Sophie; Henschke, Cornelia; Hislop, Jennifer; Jommi, Claudio; Kaitelidou, Daphne; Kawalec, Pawel; Keskimaki, Ilmo; Kroneman, Madelon; Lopez Bastida, Julio; Pita Barros, Pedro; Ramsberg, Joakim; Schneider, Peter; Spillane, Susan; Vogler, Sabine; Vuorenkoski, Lauri; Wallach Kildemoes, Helle; Wouters, Olivier; Busse, Reinhard

    2016-10-01

    In the context of pharmaceutical care, policy-makers repeatedly face the challenge of balancing patient access to effective medicines with affordability and rising costs. With the aim of guiding the health policy discourse towards questions that are important to actual and potential patients, this study investigates a broad range of regulatory measures, spanning marketing authorization to generic substitution and resulting price levels in a sample of 16 European health systems (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, England, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Scotland, Spain and Sweden). All countries employ a mix of regulatory mechanisms to contain pharmaceutical expenditure and ensure quality and efficiency in pharmaceutical care, albeit with varying configurations and rigour. This variation also influences the extent of publicly financed pharmaceutical costs. Overall, observed differences in pharmaceutical expenditure should be interpreted in conjunction with the differing volume and composition of consumption and price levels, as well as dispensation practices and their impact on measurement of pharmaceutical costs. No definitive evidence has yet been produced on the effects of different cost-containment measures on patient outcomes. Depending on the foremost policy concerns in each country, different levers will have to be used to enable the delivery of appropriate care at affordable prices. World Health Organization 2016 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies).

  1. European Measurement Comparisons of Environmental Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waetjen, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    The scheme of European measurement comparisons to verify radioactivity monitoring in the European Union is briefly explained. After a review of comparisons conducted during the years 1990, the approach of IRMM organising these comparisons since 2003 is presented. IRMM is providing comparison samples with a reference value traceable to the SI units and which is fully documented to all participants and national authorities after completion of the comparison. The sample preparation and determination of traceable reference values at IRMM, the sample treatment and measurement in the participating laboratories, as well as the evaluation of comparison results are described in some detail using the example of an air filter comparison. The results of a comparison to determine metabolised 40 K, 90 Sr and 137 Cs in milk powder are presented as well. The necessary improvements in the estimation of measurement uncertainty by the participating laboratories are discussed. The performance of individual laboratories which have participated in at least four comparison exercises over the years is studied in terms of observable trends

  2. Programmable wide field spectrograph for earth observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamkotsian, Frédéric; Lanzoni, Patrick; Liotard, Arnaud; Viard, Thierry; Costes, Vincent; Hébert, Philippe-Jean

    2017-11-01

    In Earth Observation, Universe Observation and Planet Exploration, scientific return of the instruments must be optimized in future missions. Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MOEMS) could be key components in future generation of space instruments. These devices are based on the mature micro-electronics technology and in addition to their compactness, scalability, and specific task customization, they could generate new functions not available with current technologies. French and European space agencies, the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and the European Space Agency (ESA) have initiated several studies with LAM and TAS for listing the new functions associated with several types of MEMS, and developing new ideas of instruments.

  3. Geostatistical enhancement of european hydrological predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Alessio; Castellarin, Attilio; Parajka, Juraj; Arheimer, Berit; Bagli, Stefano; Mazzoli, Paolo; Montanari, Alberto; Blöschl, Günter

    2016-04-01

    Geostatistical Enhancement of European Hydrological Prediction (GEEHP) is a research experiment developed within the EU funded SWITCH-ON project, which proposes to conduct comparative experiments in a virtual laboratory in order to share water-related information and tackle changes in the hydrosphere for operational needs (http://www.water-switch-on.eu). The main objective of GEEHP deals with the prediction of streamflow indices and signatures in ungauged basins at different spatial scales. In particular, among several possible hydrological signatures we focus in our experiment on the prediction of flow-duration curves (FDCs) along the stream-network, which has attracted an increasing scientific attention in the last decades due to the large number of practical and technical applications of the curves (e.g. hydropower potential estimation, riverine habitat suitability and ecological assessments, etc.). We apply a geostatistical procedure based on Top-kriging, which has been recently shown to be particularly reliable and easy-to-use regionalization approach, employing two different type of streamflow data: pan-European E-HYPE simulations (http://hypeweb.smhi.se/europehype) and observed daily streamflow series collected in two pilot study regions, i.e. Tyrol (merging data from Austrian and Italian stream gauging networks) and Sweden. The merger of the two study regions results in a rather large area (~450000 km2) and might be considered as a proxy for a pan-European application of the approach. In a first phase, we implement a bidirectional validation, i.e. E-HYPE catchments are set as training sites to predict FDCs at the same sites where observed data are available, and vice-versa. Such a validation procedure reveals (1) the usability of the proposed approach for predicting the FDCs over the entire river network of interest using alternatively observed data and E-HYPE simulations and (2) the accuracy of E-HYPE-based predictions of FDCs in ungauged sites. In a

  4. Biofuels barometer - EurObserv'ER - July 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-07-01

    The European biofuel market is now regulated by the directive, known as ILUC, whose wording focuses on the environmental impact of first generation biofuel development. This long-awaited clarification has arrived against the backdrop of falling oil prices and shrinking European Union biofuel consumption, which should drop by 1.7% between 2014 and 2015, according to EurObserv'ER

  5. European climate change experiments on precipitation change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Claus

    Presentation of European activities and networks related to experiments and databases within precipitation change......Presentation of European activities and networks related to experiments and databases within precipitation change...

  6. European good practice in composite floor construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brekelmans, J.W.P.M.; Daniels, B.J.; Stark, J.W.B.; Darwin, David; Buckner, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    Previous European experience, research and design for composite slabs with profiled steel decking are discussed. Present efforts to harmonize composite slab design and good construction practice are presented. Future European developments, for the next five years, are postulated.

  7. The European Union: Challenges and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botescu Ion

    2017-01-01

    If to all these we add the protectionist measures that the new president of the United States wishes to implement, as well as some deterioration in the European Union credibility generated by Brexit, the bureaucratic aspects that characterize the European institutions, etc., we can outline the context of the European Union, which requires a series of measures to ensure the progress of the European Union as a whole and, in particular, the effective integration of each Community country.

  8. The European Crisis Management: An Organizational Narrative

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Kaplánová

    2016-01-01

    The debate of scholars in the field of international relations in last years has put the European Union’s role into the consideration. The European Foreign and Security Policy has positioned itself through its development to the constructive and normative line of research of world politics. With this respect, this article examines a character of crisis management of the European Common Foreign Policy based on the institutional development. Besides the European Union does not po...

  9. Analysis of the European Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Banse, Martin; McDonald, Scott; Joint Research Centre; Institute for Prospective Technological Studies; Kaditi, Eleni

    2008-01-01

    This report is based on a study assigned to the Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS) by the European Commission¿s Joint Research Centre, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (JRC-IPTS) to investigate recent developments in the European food industry and the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) and trade flows on the food industry in the EU-25. The report illustrates trends in and the structure of the European food industry. Past and possible future developments are ana...

  10. Decomposing European bond and equity volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2004-01-01

    The paper investigates volatility spillover from US and aggregate European asset markets into European national asset markets. A main contribution is that bond and equity volatilities are analyzed simultaneously. A new model belonging to the "volatilityspillover" family is suggested: The conditional variance of e.g. the unexpected German stock return is divided into separate effects from the contemporaneous idiosyncratic variance of US bonds, US stocks, European bonds, European stocks, German...

  11. The Croatian Strategy of European Integration 2000-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sošić

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In June 2000, the European Council established that Croatia fulfi lled the conditions for acquiring the status of potential candidate for membership in the European Union.Thereafter, the integration process aimed at the candidature for, and subsequent full membership in the EU has been the fundamental Croatian “governmental strategy” and foreign policy goal, developing with “diff erent speeds” and diff erent levels of success towards the fi nal expected goal. Research is focused on the identifi cation and description of actions of the major foreign and internal actors in the process (Croatian governments and the European Union, as well as on the assessment of the achieved results of their interaction in the sixyear period under observation. The empirically studied phenomenon is analysed through the theoretical approach of actor-based institutionalism and the game theory model. The result of analysis shows a comparative advantage of the management of Ivo Sanader’s single-party government (2003-2005 in contrast to the coalition government of Ivica Račan (2000-2003 with respect to their achievement and level of success in managing the process of European integration.The European Union’s contribution and quality of support to that process are ambiguous and complex, in keeping with its structure and politics.

  12. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE EVOLUTION OF EUROPEAN FUNDS ABSORPTION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA TATIANA STANESE

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the evolution of the absorption of European funds in Romania reported to the closure period of the operational programms related to the European Union cohesion policy during the years 2007 – 2013. This programming period officially concluded only at the end of year 2015. Considering the financial aspects of the 2007- 2013 programming period for European funds the analysis focuses exclusively on the Structural and Cohesion Funds and the absorption rate of these funds in Romania, namely 90.44%, recorded in March 2017. Nearly 3 years from the start of the new programming period 2014-2020 related to the European Union’s cohesion policy, there is a direct link between the quality of public administration’s activity and the application of the principle of investment programming. Despite a slow and difficult start, we can observe an accelerated trend over the last few hundred meters. Identifying priority projects at national and regional level, followed by a alteration and adaptation of strategic documents such as National Reform Programs, could be a solution for Romania to gain a more rigorous planning that leads to a higher and faster absorption of European funds in the current programming period 2014-2020.

  13. Changes in the European business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoehle, S.J.

    1997-12-31

    The paper gives a view on some of the changes that the European gas business is currently undergoing and the possible effects of these changes. There are two major items that stand out in this respect covering the continued deregulation of the UK gas market and the final content of EU`s gas Directive. No participant in the European gas business will be unaffected by these two events. According to the author, the dynamics of these changes to the gas business will create interesting business opportunities for those companies and individuals that are anticipating the future and willing to take risks in order to succeed. Topics are: Infrastructure; the market - supply and demand; main changes. 14 figs.

  14. European wood-fuel trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, B.; Vinterbaeck, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses research carried out during the l990s on European wood fuel trade at the Department of Forest Management and Products, SLU, in Sweden. Utilisation of wood-fuels and other biofuels increased very rapidly in some regions during that period. Biofuels are replacing fossil fuels which is an effective way to reduce the future influence of green house gases on the climate. The results indicate a rapid increase in wood-fuel trade in Europe from low levels and with a limited number of countries involved. The chief products traded are wood pellets, wood chips and recycled wood. The main trading countries are, for export, Germany and the Baltic states and, for import, Sweden, Denmark and to some extent the Netherlands. In the future, the increased use of biofuel in European countries is expected to intensify activity in this trade. (orig.)

  15. European Committee for Future Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulvey, John

    1983-01-01

    Nearly 21 years ago, in December 1962, Viktor Weisskopf and Cecil Powell, then respectively CERN's Director General and Chairman of the Scientific Policy Committee, called together a group of European high energy physicists to advise on steps to reach higher energy. The CERN PS had been in operation since 1959, its experimental programme was well established and the time had come to think of the future. The Chairman of the group, which later took the title 'European Committee for Future Accelerators', was Edoardo Amaldi and his influential report, presented to the CERN Council in June 1963, reviewed the whole structure and possible development of the field in the CERN Member States. Its proposals included the construction of the Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR), and of a 300 GeV proton accelerator which was then envisaged as being the major facility of a second CERN Laboratory elsewhere in Europe

  16. MAPPING EUROPEAN CAPITAL MARKETS TENDENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Avadanei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to analyze the main tendencies influencing European capitalmarkets development. In order to point out their implications, we structured our study onfour chapters. The first one illustrates the consolidation of stock exchanges at the Europeanlevel; the seconds presents some considerations about the deregulation/re-regulation of EUcapital markets; the third section highlights the globalization implications on their evolutionand the fourth one indicates the effects of financial innovation. The progressive integrationof European capital markets over the past decade contributed to the lowering of capital costas a result of increased risk diversification opportunities and reduced transaction costs dueto the specialization of financial system provisions. Moreover, the expansion of thesemarkets improved firms financing decisions, leading to an increased share of non-bankfunding sources.

  17. Europeans come together on qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittle, J.

    1996-01-01

    Utilities operating nuclear power plants in Europe have formed the European Network for Inspection Qualification (ENIQ) to produce a common approach to demonstrating that non-destructive testing is capable providing the information to ensure the absence of significant defects in nuclear plants. Major developments over recent months have included the issue by ENIQ of a formal document defining the methodology for the conduct of qualification which sets out the principles that detailed systems, within an individual country context, should embody. A pilot study on pipe welds typical of those in BWR recirculation loops is being conducted to explore the issues involved in the practical application of the methodology. In parallel with ENIQ, the European Nuclear Regulators Working Group has set up a Task Force in an attempt to define a common regulatory position on non-destructive testing qualifications and has produced its own document which is wider in scope than that of ENIQ. (UK)

  18. European Research in Marine Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, C.Guedes; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Incecik, A.

    2012-01-01

    An overview is presented of the results obtained in Europe by a network with a large number of research groups in the field of Marine Structures during a period of 6 years. The European Union has funded a project aimed at improving the collaboration among European research groups specialized...... in marine structures, which has led, among other results to a number of benchmark studies organized in 6 main topical areas, namely, Methods and Tools for Loads and Load Effects, Methods and Tools for Strength Assessment, Experimental Analysis of Structures, Materials and Fabrication of Structures, Methods...... and Tools for Structural Design and Optimization and Structural Reliability, Safety and Environmental Protection. This paper presents an overview of various studies performed, which helps identifying the level of consistency and robustness of different numeric tools used in this field....

  19. Security Economics and European Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ross; Böhme, Rainer; Clayton, Richard; Moor, Tyler

    In September 2007, we were awarded a contract by the European Network and Information Security Agency (ENISA) to investigate failures in the market for secure electronic communications within the European Union, and come up with policy recommendations. In the process, we spoke to a large number of stakeholders, and held a consultative meeting in December 2007 in Brussels to present draft proposals, which established most had wide stakeholder support. The formal outcome of our work was a detailed report, “Security Economics and the Internal Market”, published by ENISA in March 2008. This paper presents a much abridged version: in it, we present the recommendations we made, along with a summary of our reasoning.

  20. European Initiatives in Postgraduate Education in Gerontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijsselt, Rene J. T.; Parkatti, Terttu; Troisi, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes three innovative European initiatives in postgraduate education in gerontology. The first is the European Masters Program in Gerontology (EuMaG), developed as an interdisciplinary joint program, supported and delivered by 22 European universities. Second, the Nordplus initiative to increase mobility of students and staff in…

  1. European initiatives in postgraduate education in gerontology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijsselt, R.J.T.; Parkatti, T.; Troisi, J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes three innovative European initiatives in postgraduate education in gerontology. The first is the European Masters Program in Gerontology (EuMaG), developed as an interdisciplinary joint program, supported and delivered by 22 European universities. Second, the Nordplus initiative

  2. How Is European Governance Configuring the EHEA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, António; Veiga, Amélia; Sousa, Sofia; Ribeiro, Filipa

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the interaction between the European dimension driven by the creation of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) and the development of national reforms to fulfil that objective. On the basis of data gathered in eight countries involved in EuroHESC project TRUE (Transforming European Universities), the curricular and the…

  3. The politics of a European civil code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    Last year the European Commission published its Action Plan on European contract law. That plan forms an important step towards a European Civil Code. In its Plan, the Commission tries to depoliticise the codification process by asking a group of academic experts to prepare what it calls a 'common

  4. ETUDE - European Trade Union Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creanor, Linda; Walker, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Describes transnational distance learning activities among European trade union educators carried out as part of the European Trade Union Distance Education (ETUDE) project, supported by the European Commission. Highlights include the context of international trade union distance education; tutor training course; tutors' experiences; and…

  5. European Union Financial Crisis: A Marxist Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrus Kanisius Farneubun, P.

    European financial crisis poses a serious challenge to the fundamental structure of the European Union, political and financial institutions, as well as the values that bind European together. Different factors have been suggested as the causes of the crisis notably the failure of national

  6. Conditions for spatial segregation: some European perspectives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musterd, S.; de Winter, M.

    1998-01-01

    Evaluates some theses on the theme of spatial segregation in Europe. Spatial segregation as an important issue on the political agendas of European nations; Two views of segregation in Europe; Strategies of European nations to deal with segregation; Segregation in European cities

  7. The European energy community is now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andoura, Sami; Buzek, Jerzy; Delors, Jacques; Vitorino, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    On the eve of the European Council on 22 May dealing with energy issues, the Jacques Delors Institute publishes a Tribune calling for the implementation of a positive agenda for the European energy policy and the definition of the concrete bases of a genuine European Energy

  8. European Conference „Meetbike“. Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd-Axel AHRENS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The information is devoted European Conference „Meetbike“ 3-4 April2008 in Dresden, Germany. Stronger networking of European bicycle-friendly cities and better cooperation of bike use and public transport has been considered. Results of the European Conference „MeetBike“ are presented.

  9. Volatility Spillover Effects in European Equity Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baele, L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper quantifies the magnitude and time-varying nature of volatility spillovers from the aggregate European (EU) and US market to 13 local European equity markets.I develop a shock spillover model that decomposes local unexpected returns into a country speciffic shock, a regional European

  10. Globalized Trade, Logistics and Intermodality: European Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henstra, D.; Ruijgrok, C.J.; Tavasszy, L.A.; Capineri, C.; Leinbach, T.; Black, W.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes megatrends that are shaping international trade, logistics organization and (multi)modal transport in Europe. It focuses on impacts on the European context, both from the peculiarities arising from the European uni?cation process and the European transport policies but also

  11. Rocket observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    The Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) sounding rocket experiments were carried out during the periods of August to September, 1982, January to February and August to September, 1983 and January to February, 1984 with sounding rockets. Among 9 rockets, 3 were K-9M, 1 was S-210, 3 were S-310 and 2 were S-520. Two scientific satellites were launched on February 20, 1983 for solar physics and on February 14, 1984 for X-ray astronomy. These satellites were named as TENMA and OHZORA and designated as 1983-011A and 1984-015A, respectively. Their initial orbital elements are also described. A payload recovery was successfully carried out by S-520-6 rocket as a part of MINIX (Microwave Ionosphere Non-linear Interaction Experiment) which is a scientific study of nonlinear plasma phenomena in conjunction with the environmental assessment study for the future SPS project. Near IR observation of the background sky shows a more intense flux than expected possibly coming from some extragalactic origin and this may be related to the evolution of the universe. US-Japan cooperative program of Tether Experiment was done on board US rocket.

  12. Radiation research: the European programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, G.B.

    1985-01-01

    A summary is given of an oral presentation on the European Community's Radiation Protection Programme. Aspects of the programme discussed included its development which began 25 years ago, the administrative structure, the financial success and the funding for 1985/89. Finally, the six subject sectors of the programme were discussed, giving a broad description of where the emphases had been laid and how each sector had fared. (U.K.)

  13. Benchmarking & European Sustainable Transport Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    2003-01-01

    , Benchmarking is one of the management tools that have recently been introduced in the transport sector. It is rapidly being applied to a wide range of transport operations, services and policies. This paper is a contribution to the discussion of the role of benchmarking in the future efforts to...... contribution to the discussions within the Eusponsored BEST Thematic Network (Benchmarking European Sustainable Transport) which ran from 2000 to 2003....

  14. Brexit and the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Dagnis; Snaith, Holly

    2018-01-01

    When on 23 June 2016 a majority voted in favour of the United Kingdom (UK) leaving the European Union (EU), it generated a host of unknowns. Prior to the referendum, scholars had already started to anticipate the implications of a potential Brexit from different perspectives, including considering...... lie and suggesting where Britain’s exit will leave the greatest strategic vacuums. The subsequent analysis centres on the actors that will likely win and lose from the UK’s exit from the Union....

  15. Evolution of the European region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeger, Eh.

    1984-01-01

    The problem on geochronological study of the European region is covered. The most ancient age values are determined by U-Pb methods by zircones from paragneisses. The model of evolution, being in agreement with the data obtained by U-Pb and Rb-Sr methods, is considered. The history of the Schwarzwald development is typical for the continent as a whole. The diagram of evolution of primary 87 Sr/ 86 Sr for orthogneisses and granites in France is given

  16. Virtual Models of European Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sanya Gertsen

    2003-01-01

    The study provides a detailed report on the current and possible future use of ICT by European universities for educational and organisational purposes. The report presents: • A general description of the current situation regarding the use of ICT in EU universities in both the educational...... and the organisational setting. • An in-depth study of selected institutions through case studies. • A future-oriented analysis. • A set of recommendations for future action....

  17. European energy supplies; some considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahgat, G.

    2009-01-01

    European leaders are increasing conscious of their heavy dependence on energy supplies from Russia. In an attempt to articulate a strategy to improve energy security and Solidarity Action Plan in november 2008. This essay examines the E U-Russia energy partnership and argues that despite a number of supply-interruptions, of threats of interruptions, the interdependence between Brussels and Moscow is likely to endure, at least the foreseeable future. [it

  18. The European wind energy programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beurskens, H.J.M.; Lalas, D.

    1993-01-01

    A general review is given of national wind energy programmes in European countries. First, tendencies of the past wind energy programmes are described and linked to the present developments. Not only the separate aspects are reviewed (R+D, wind turbine development, market stimulation, utility involvement, regulatory issues and operational experiences), but also the synergetic aspects of their integration is addressed. The main conclusion is that the integration of R+D, industrial development and market stimulation works. 4 ills., 3 tabs

  19. BEBC Big European Bubble Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    A view of the dismantling of the magnet of BEBC, the 3.7 m European Bubble Chamber : iron magnetic shielding ; lower and upper parts of the vacuum enclosure of the magnet; turbo-molecular vacuum pumps for the "fish-eye" windows; the two superconducting coils; a handling platform; the two cryostats suspended from the bar of the travelling crane which has a 170 ton carrying capacity. The chamber proper, not dismantled, is inside the shielding.

  20. European Radiation Protection Course - Basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massiot, Philippe; Ammerich, Marc; Viguier, Herve; Jimonet, Christine; Bruchet, Hugues; Vivier, Alain; Bodineau, Jean-Christophe; Etard, Cecile; Metivier, Henri; Moreau, Jean-Claude; Nourredine, Abdel-Mijd

    2014-01-01

    Radiation protection is a major challenge in the industrial applications of ionising radiation, both nuclear and non-nuclear, as well as in other areas such as the medical and research domains. The overall objective of this textbook is to participate to the development of European high-quality scheme and good practices for education and training in radiation protection (RP), coming from the new Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom laying down basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation. These ERPTS (European Radiation Protection Training Scheme) reflects the needs of the Radiation Protection Expert (RPE) and the Radiation Protection Officer (RPO), specifically with respect to the Directive 2013/59/Euratom in all sectors where ionising radiation are applied. To reflect the RPE training scheme, six chapters have been developed in this textbook: Radioactivity and nuclear physics; Interaction of ionising radiation with matter; Dosimetry; Biological effects of ionising radiation; Detection and measurement of ionising radiation; Uses of sources of ionising radiation. The result is a homogeneous textbook, dealing with the ERPTS learning outcomes suggested by ENETRAPII project (European Network on Education and Training in Radiological Protection II) from the 7. Framework Programme. A cyber-book is also part of the whole training material to develop the concept of 'learning more' (http://www.rpe-training.eu). The production of this first module 'basics' training material, in the combined form of a textbook plus a cyber-book as learning tools, will contribute to facilitate mutual recognition and enhanced mobility of these professionals across the European Union. (authors)

  1. European Space Imaging & Skybox Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.; Schichor, P.

    2015-01-01

    Skybox and European Space Imaging have partnered to bring timely, Very High-Resolution imagery to customers in Europe and North Africa. Leveraging Silicon Valley ingenuity and world-class aerospace expertise, Skybox designs, builds, and operates a fleet of imaging satellites. With two satellites currently on-orbit, Skybox is quickly advancing towards a planned constellation of 24+ satellites with the potential for daily or sub-daily imaging at 70-90 cm resolution. With consistent, high-resolution imagery and video, European customers can monitor the dynamic units of human activity - cars, trucks, shipping containers, ships, aircraft, etc. - and derive valuable insights about the global economy. With multiple imaging opportunities per day, the Skybox constellation provides unprecedented access to imagery and information about critical targets that require rapid analysis. Skybox's unique capability to deliver high-definition video from space enables European customers to monitor a network of globally distributed assets with full-motion snapshots, without the need to deploy an aircraft or field team. The movement captured in these 30-90 second video windows yield unique insights that improve operational decisions. Skybox and EUSI are excited to offer a unique data source that can drive a better understanding of our world through supply chain monitoring, natural resource management, infrastructure monitoring, and crisis response. (author)

  2. How Does the Majority Public React to Multiculturalist Policies? A Comparative Analysis of European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooghe, Marc; de Vroome, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Migration and ethnic minority integration remain heavily contested issues in numerous European countries. Over the past decade, researchers and political commentators have observed an apparent retreat from multiculturalist policies related to a belief that multiculturalism has lost support among the

  3. European Nanotechnology Experts Visit NCL; Harmonize Best Practices for Nanomedicine Collaboration in Europe | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    European nanotechnology experts visited the Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory (NCL) to observe best practices and methods and to share their own knowledge with NCL scientists as they prepared to launch an NCL-like operation in Europe. The Eu

  4. European Nanotechnology Experts Visit NCL; Harmonize Best Practices for Nanomedicine Collaboration in Europe | FNLCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    European nanotechnology experts visited the Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory (NCL) to observe best practices and methods and to share their own knowledge with NCL scientists as they prepared to launch an NCL-like operation in Europe. The Eu

  5. Meeting staff representatives of the European Agencies

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      The AASC (Assembly of Agency Staff Committee) held its 27th Meeting of the specialized European Agencies on 26 and 27 May on the premises of the OHIM (Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market) in Alicante, Spain. Two representatives of the CERN Staff Association, in charge of External Relations, attended as observers. This participation is a useful complement to regular contacts we have with FICSA (Federation of International Civil Servants' Associations), which groups staff associations of the UN Agencies, and the annual CSAIO conferences (Conference of Staff Associations of International Organizations), where each Autumn representatives of international organizations based in Europe meet to discuss themes of common interest to better promote and defend the rights of the international civil servants. All these meetings allow us to remain informed on items that are directly or indirectly related to employment and social conditions of our colleagues in other international and Europ...

  6. European Breast Cancer Service Screening Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paci, Eugenio; Broeders, Mireille; Hofvind, Solveig

    2014-01-01

    A recent comprehensive review has been carried out to quantify the benefits and harms of the European population-based mammographic screening programs. Five literature reviews were conducted on the basis of the observational published studies evaluating breast cancer mortality reduction, breast...... seven to nine breast cancer deaths are avoided, four cases are overdiagnosed, 170 women have at least one recall followed by noninvasive assessment with a negative result, and 30 women have at least one recall followed by invasive procedures yielding a negative result. The chance of a breast cancer...... cancer overdiagnosis, and false-positive results. On the basis of the studies reviewed, the authors present a first estimate of the benefit and harm balance sheet. For every 1,000 women screened biennially from ages 50 to 51 years until ages 68 to 69 years and followed up until age 79 years, an estimated...

  7. The European Small Claims Procedure: Striking the Balance between Simplicity and Fairness in European Litigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X.E. Kramer (Xandra)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis article deals with the European Small Claims Procedure (ESCP). After the European Order for Payment procedure, this is the second autonomous European procedure that has been established. Attention is paid to the background of harmonization of small claims proceedings in the European

  8. Centre of the European gas market. The European Autumn Gas Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hasselt, F.; Van der Wal, W.; Ruinen, H.

    1998-01-01

    From the results of the 1997 European Autumn Gas Conference in Barcelona, Spain, it appears that the European gas industry is mainly focused on the liberalization of the European energy market. The main topic of the Conference was 'dealing with surplus'. A brief overview is given of the natural gas trade developments in the European countries. 1 ill., 1 tab. 2 ills

  9. The European Union in International Financial Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niamh Moloney

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the role of the European Union in international financial governance after the institutional reforms it undertook in connection with the global financial crisis. It suggests that the new administrative actors that support the governance of the European Union's single financial market, notably the European Supervisory Authorities, have the potential to reshape how the European Union engages with international financial governance. It finds that the European Union’s effectiveness in influencing international financial governance—and the effectiveness of international financial governance more generally—is likely to strengthen as a result.

  10. Natural gas in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalim, Z.

    1991-01-01

    A report is presented on 'Natural Gas in the European Community'. Aspects discussed include the challenges facing the gas industry in the EC, the development of the European gas industry, the structure and role of European gas companies, the sources of European supply, gas contracts and the influences that operate on sales into end markets, electricity generation from natural gas, evolving markets for natural gas in the EC, life in the private sector using British Gas as a role model and country profiles for eleven European countries. (UK)

  11. Theories and myths of European foreign policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    interactions of European international organizations, and the behaviour of European non-governmental actors working through the above agents as part of transnational and globalizing activism. The chapter adopts a pan-European approach in analysing EFP at the interfaces of these international, supranational...... the international, supranational and transnational policy processes of European states and institutions in relation to the rest of the world. In this respect, the study of EFP includes an analysis of the engagements of European states in international and multilateral diplomacy, the interregional and multipolar...... activity, whether international, supranational or transnational, in order to identify common patterns....

  12. European standards and regulation - CEN/CENELEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero, J. [AENOR, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-02-27

    An overview is given of the European Standards structure, as well as the general Directives and Regulations related to the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Sector. The importance of standardisation, both on quality and as a strategic tool for manufacturers, is stressed. Participation in the elaboration of standards makes it possible to reflect a manufacturer`s technology in the standards. Voluntary standardisation can be used as a differentiating element. European standards for the HVAC sector are being elaborated by the European Standardisation Committee (CEN), the European Electrotechnical Standardisation Committee (CENELEC) and by the European Telecommunication Institute (ETSI)

  13. Gendering European welfare states and citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Borchorst, Anette

    2017-01-01

    on gender, class, ethnicity or race, and nationality. One issue is what has been the effect of the European emphasis on women’s wage work and gender equality policies for women in different European countries? Another issue concerns how multiple discrimination is tackled and institutionalized in European......The chapter revisits the feminist scholarship on gendering of European welfare states and European citizenship, and reflects on the effects of globalization, Europeanization and migration. It first presents feminist perspectives on the liberal, the conservative and the social democratic welfare...... welfare states. A third issue is to what extent the Nordic welfare states still represent an attractive alternative model of social and gender equality to neo-liberalism. The final part discusses feminist approaches to reframe gender equality and gender justice from the transnational European contexts....

  14. European Economic Community/the European energy conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-30

    European Economic Community/the European energy conference (a meeting of the energy ministers of the nine member countries), held at Brussels on 3/27/79, was a continuation of the EEC Council meeting held at Paris on 3/12-13/79. Proposals for measures to be taken by the member countries included support for exploration, especially geophysical prospecting for oil off the east coast of Greenland, at a cost of 3.5 million units of account (UC); modification of the regulations for crude oil distribution among the EEC member countries in case of a supply crisis; a second series of 36 energy-conservation demonstration projects, to cost 15,626,320 UC and be undertaken in 1979-83; and the UK proposal to call for bids on the first series of 17 projects, costing 5,779,000 UC and adopted in Dec. 1978, before discussing the second series. Six of the 36 projects are French; they involve heat pumps and hybrid nuclear-electric vehicles and space-heating systems. A report on the current status of coal projects was given, and problems with fast-breeder reactors were discussed.

  15. European notary public at windflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežić-Popović Dragana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The author of the paper analyzes the reasons and consequences of vulnerability of notary profession in European countries with a Latin-type notarial system, which in recent years lurk serious threat, which could influence in the nature of this profession. The European Commission has had several persistent attempts to attack the notary: through commencing six proceedings before the European Court of Justice and six Judgments in 2011 against member States that have not abolished the requirement of citizenship for admission to the profession, and then over the proposal for revision of Directive 2005/36 / EU in which it included the expanding of the field of application of professional qualifications recognition to the notaries public, all to the Green Book on treatment in this process, with explanation that with the new means should be supported the functioning of the internal market and stimulates economic growth in the EU. The Commission has always been guided by the findings that the reforms aimed at simplifying the environment of business entities and the removal of restrictions in certain sectors and in regulated professions were not allowed to remove barriers and restrictive behavior in a number of sectors, among which are expressly mentioned notaries, and that therefore the EU suffers economic decline. This was followed by strong reactions, which were not only the expression of a desire of notary public profession and science, but came from the highest authorities in France, Germany, and other countries. The complete jurist's population in these member States recognized the insincerity of the Commission in demanding liberalization of notary public services, under the expression of reviving economic activity in the EU. All actors of the protest considered the Commission's explanation was only a reflection of the ideological prejudices and a concession to satisfy the hegemonic aims of supporters of the Anglo-Saxon model of deregulation. The

  16. Nuclear power 2005: European report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, nuclear power plants were operated and/or built in eighteen European countries. Thirteen of these countries are members of EU-25. Five of the ten countries joining the European Union on May 1, 2004 operate nuclear power stations. A total of 204 power reactors with a gross power of 181,030 MWe and a net power of 171,8479 MWe were in operation at the end of the year. In 2005, no nuclear power plant was commissioned. Two nuclear power plants were decommissioned in Europe in the course of 2005. In Germany the Obrigheim NPP and in Sweden the Barsebaeck 2 NPP have been permanently shut down due to political decisions. As a result of ongoing technical optimization in some plants, involving increases in reactor power or generator power as well as commissioning of plants of higher capacity, nuclear generating capacity increased by approx. 1.6 GW. In late 2005, five nuclear generating units were under construction in Finland (1), Romania (1), and Russia (3). 148 nuclear power plants were operated in thirteen states of the European Union (EU-25). They had an aggregate gross power of 137,023 MWe and a net power of 130,415 MWe, generating approx. 970 billion gross kWh of electricity in 2005, thus again contributing some 31% to the public electricity supply in the EU-25. In largest share of nuclear power in electricity generation is found in France (80%), followed by 72% in Lithuania, 55% in the Slovak Republic, 55% in Belgium, and 51% in Ukraine. In several countries not operating nuclear power plants of their own, such as Italy, Portugal, and Austria, nuclear power makes considerable contributions to public electricity supply as a result of electricity imports. (All statistical data in the country report apply to 2004 unless indicated otherwise. This is the year for which sound preliminary data are currently available for the states listed.) (orig.)

  17. Is autonomic modulation different between European and Chinese astronauts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiexin; Li, Yongzhi; Verheyden, Bart; Chen, Shanguang; Chen, Zhanghuang; Gai, Yuqing; Liu, Jianzhong; Gao, Jianyi; Xie, Qiong; Yuan, Ming; Li, Qin; Li, Li; Aubert, André E

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to investigate autonomic control in groups of European and Chinese astronauts and to identify similarities and differences. Beat-to-beat heart rate and finger blood pressure, brachial blood pressure, and respiratory frequency were measured from 10 astronauts (five European taking part in three different space missions and five Chinese astronauts taking part in two different space missions). Data recording was performed in the supine and standing positions at least 10 days before launch, and 1, 3, and 10 days after return. Cross-correlation analysis of heart rate and systolic pressure was used to assess cardiac baroreflex modulation. A fixed breathing protocol was performed to measure respiratory sinus arrhythmia and low-frequency power of systolic blood pressure variability. Although baseline cardiovascular parameters before spaceflight were similar in all astronauts in the supine position, a significant increase in sympathetic activity and a decrease in vagal modulation occurred in the European astronauts when standing; spaceflight resulted in a remarkable vagal decrease in European astronauts only. Similar baseline supine and standing values for heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and respiratory frequency were shown in both groups. Standing autonomic control was based on a balance of higher vagal and sympathetic modulation in European astronauts. Post-spaceflight orthostatic tachycardia was observed in all European astronauts, whereas post-spaceflight orthostatic tachycardia was significantly reduced in Chinese astronauts. The basis for orthostatic intolerance is not apparent; however, many possibilities can be considered and need to be further investigated, such as genetic diversities between races, astronaut selection, training, and nutrition, etc.

  18. Is autonomic modulation different between European and Chinese astronauts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiexin Liu

    Full Text Available The objective was to investigate autonomic control in groups of European and Chinese astronauts and to identify similarities and differences.Beat-to-beat heart rate and finger blood pressure, brachial blood pressure, and respiratory frequency were measured from 10 astronauts (five European taking part in three different space missions and five Chinese astronauts taking part in two different space missions. Data recording was performed in the supine and standing positions at least 10 days before launch, and 1, 3, and 10 days after return. Cross-correlation analysis of heart rate and systolic pressure was used to assess cardiac baroreflex modulation. A fixed breathing protocol was performed to measure respiratory sinus arrhythmia and low-frequency power of systolic blood pressure variability.Although baseline cardiovascular parameters before spaceflight were similar in all astronauts in the supine position, a significant increase in sympathetic activity and a decrease in vagal modulation occurred in the European astronauts when standing; spaceflight resulted in a remarkable vagal decrease in European astronauts only. Similar baseline supine and standing values for heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and respiratory frequency were shown in both groups. Standing autonomic control was based on a balance of higher vagal and sympathetic modulation in European astronauts.Post-spaceflight orthostatic tachycardia was observed in all European astronauts, whereas post-spaceflight orthostatic tachycardia was significantly reduced in Chinese astronauts. The basis for orthostatic intolerance is not apparent; however, many possibilities can be considered and need to be further investigated, such as genetic diversities between races, astronaut selection, training, and nutrition, etc.

  19. European Energy Law. Report VII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, U.; Roggenkamp, M.M. (eds.)

    2010-04-15

    The European Energy Law Report VII presents in four parts an overview of the most important legal developments in the field of EU and national energy and climate change law as discussed at the 2009 European Energy Law Seminar. The first part examines recent developments in EU climate change regulation. It includes an overview of the revision of the EU Directive governing CO2 emissions trading and a more detailed analysis of the new allocation regime, including the auctioning of emission rights. This is followed by an analysis of the competitiveness of the new EU emissions trading Directive and recent developments in the US regarding emissions trading. The second part focuses on the energy liberalisation process and the Third Energy Package. Following an overview of recent developments in EU competition law and the impact of the Sector Inquiry on the energy sector, this part concentrates particularly on the new Internal Energy Market Directives and most particularly on the legality of the unbundling provisions. Subsequently, the focus is on the role of the TSOs. After an analysis of the need for an increased cooperation of the German TSOs, another chapter discusses the need for more consolidation in the European gas transmission market and the role of regulation therein. Is there a new role for nuclear energy? In order to secure long term energy supply, the focus turns again to nuclear energy. The third part of this report discusses two elements of nuclear liability. First, it analyses the issue of the possible privatisation of the nuclear sector and its impact on long term liability. Although the focus is on the UK nuclear sector, a comparison is made with some other regulatory regimes. Next, the role of nuclear energy is discussed as an instrument to reduce CO2 emissions and, more particularly as a means to reach the 20-20-20 targets. The question is raised whether the international rules on civil liability provide sufficient protection to victims of nuclear

  20. The European pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leny, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The present state of development of the European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR) is outlined. During the so-called harmonization phase, the French and German utilities drew up their common requirements and evaluated the reactor concept developed until then with respect to these requirements. A main result of the harmonization phase was the issue, in September 1993, of the 'EPR Conceptual Safety Feature Review File' to be jointly assessed by the safety authorities in France and Germany. The safety objectives to be met by the EPR are specified in the second part of the paper, and some details of the primary and secondary side safety systems are given. (orig.) [de

  1. European ecological networks and greenways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Ib; Jongman, Rob H.G.; Kulvik, Mart

    2004-01-01

    renewed. Within the framework of nature conservation, the notion of an ecological network has become increasingly important. Throughout Europe, regional and national approaches are in different phases of development, which are all based on recent landscape ecological principles. Ecological networks......In the context of European integration, networks are becoming increasingly important in both social and ecological sense. Since the beginning of the 1990s, societal and scientific exchanges are being restructured as the conceptual approaches towards new nature conservation strategies have been....... This complex interaction between cultural and natural features results in quite different ways for the elaboration of ecological networks and greenways....

  2. popscience - European Researchers Night 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    Jeanneret, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Vendredi 26 septembre 2014, le CERN célèbrera la Nuit européenne des chercheurs à Genève et à St-Genis-Pouilly. Le thème de l’édition 2014 est inspiré d’Andy Warhol : « Pop science is for everyone ». On Friday 26 September 2014, CERN will be celebrating European Researchers' Night at three venues in Geneva and St. Genis-Pouilly. Inspired by Andy Warhol, this year's theme is “Pop science is for everyone”.

  3. ENEN - European nuclear engineering network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsa, Olivia; Paraschiva, M.V.; Banutoiu, Maria

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the main objectives and expected results of European Project FP5 - ENEN - 'European Nuclear Engineering Network'. The underlying objective of the work is safeguarding the nuclear knowledge and expertise through the preservation of higher nuclear engineering education. Co-operation between universities and universities and research centres, will entail a better use of dwindling teaching capacity, scientific equipment and research infrastructure. 'Today, the priorities of the scientific community regarding basic research lie elsewhere than in nuclear sciences. Taken together, these circumstances create a significantly different situation from three to four decades ago when much of the present competence base was in fact generated. In addition, many of the highly competent engineers and scientists, who helped create the present nuclear industry, and its regulatory structure, are approaching retirement age. These competence issues need to be addressed at Community level and a well designed Community research and training programme should play a role that is more important than ever before. This is an area where the concept of an European research area should be further explored'. The outcome from this project should be a clear road map for the way ahead in nuclear engineering education in Europe. The underlying objective of the concerted action is the preservation of nuclear knowledge and expertise through the preservation of higher nuclear engineering education. 'Many diverse technologies, currently serving nations world-wide, would be affected by an inadequate number of future nuclear scientists and engineers. Nuclear technology is widespread and multidisciplinary: nuclear and reactor physics, thermal hydraulics and mechanics, material science, chemistry, health science, information technology and a variety of other areas. Yet the advancement of this technology, with all its associated benefits, will be threatened if not curtailed unless the

  4. The 9. European nuclear conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurel, V.; Lewis, D.; Smirnov, V.P.; Gutierrez, J.E.; Paulin, Ph.; Markov, D.V.; Smirnov, A.V.; Polenok, V.S.; Horhoianu, G.; Olteanu, G.; Van der Schaaf, B.; Gavillet, D.; Lapena, J.; Ohms, C.; Roth, A.; Van Dyck, St.; Mardon, J.P.; Thomas, A.; Cipiere, M.F.; Faidy, C.; Hedin, F.; Delnondedieu, M.; Chassignole, B.; Doudet, L.; Dupond, O.; Kang, K.; Park, K.; Kim, K.; Ha, J.; Hoon-Seok, Jung; Yong-koo, Lee; Kwang-Ho, Kim; Seungwoo, Paek; Heui-Joo, Choi; Do-Hee, Ahn; Kwang-Rag, Kim; Minsoo, Lee; Sung-Paal, Yim; Hongsuk, Chung; Detroux, P.; Meessen, O.; Defloor, J.; Lars-Erik, Holm; Barescut, J.C.; Vacquier, B.; Laurier, D.; Caer, S.; Quesne, B.; Oudalova, A.; Geras'kin, St.; Dikarev, V.; Dikareva, N.; Chernonog, E.; Yang-Geun, Chung; Gab-Bock, Lee; Sun-Young, Bang; Yong-Sun, Lee; Bolognese-Milsztajn, T.; Frank, D.; Lacoste, V.; Pihet, P.; Lacronique, J.F.; Chauliac, C.; Verwaerde, D.; Pavageau, O.; Zaetta, A.; Varaine, F.; Warin, D.; Hudelot, J.P.; Bioux, Ph.; Klann, R.; Petruzzi, A.; D'auria, F.; Yung Kwon, Jin; Chul Jin, Chol; Mihalache, M.; Radu, V.; Pavelescu, M.; Schneidesch, Ch.R.; Jinzhao, Zhang; Dalleur, J.P.; Nuttin, A.; Meplan, O.; Wilson, J.; Perdu, F.; Campioni, G.; Mounier, C.; Sigrist, J.F.; Laine, Ch.; Broc, D.; Robbe, M.F.; Cariou, Y.; Seok-Kyun, Yoon; Win, Naing; Myung-Hyun, Kim; Kyung, Hee; Fridman, E.; Shwageraus, E.; Galperin, A.; Meplan, O.; Laulan, O.; Mechel-Sendis, F.; Belgaid, M.; Kadem, F.; Amokrane, A.; Hamidouche, T.; El-Khider, Si-Ahmed

    2005-01-01

    This issue gathers the abstracts of the papers presented at the ninth European nuclear conference (ENC-2005). The main part of the conference is split into 20 sessions. These sessions cover all technical aspects of nuclear power, from reactor design to waste management, without forgetting experimental and research reactors, reactor dismantling, economy, resources, safety, radioprotection and education issues. Perspectives of a nuclear renaissance are clearly visible in the world. This renaissance, mainly due to political, economical, societal and ecological factors, is fuelled by scientific and technical progress. This conference was the opportunity to present together these aspects of nuclear power and to analyze their mutual interactions

  5. The European Convention on bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, C

    1993-03-01

    Benefiting from a widely recognised experience of the field of bioethics, the Council of Europe which represents all the democratic countries of Europe, has embarked on the ambitious task of drafting a European Convention on bioethics. The purpose of this text is to set out fundamental values, such as respect for human dignity, free informed consent and non-commercialisation of the human body. In addition to this task, protocols will provide specific standards for the different fields concerned with the application of biomedical sciences. The convention and the first two protocols (human experiments and organ transplants) are due to be ready for signature by mid 1994.

  6. Infrared observations of AE Aquarii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzi, E. G.; Chincarini, G.; Tarenghi, M.

    1981-01-01

    Broadband infrared observations of the cataclysmic variable AE Aquarii are reported. The observations were obtained in the J, H, K and L filters with the InSb photometer attached to the 1-m telescope of the European Southern Observatory. The infrared energy distribution observed from 0.35 to 3.5 microns for phase 0.5 suggests a spectral type of K5 V for the secondary and a distance to the system of approximately 70 pc if an absolute magnitude of 7.3 is assumed. Monitoring of the flux at 2.2 microns reveals a variability with an amplitude of approximately 0.3 magnitude over one third of the orbital period, the nature of which is under investigation.

  7. Neutron bomb and European defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, W.

    1980-08-15

    France's development of the controversial neutron bomb is in line with the US goal of flexible response to a Soviet threat in Europe. US neutron bomb production is on a standby basis pending agreement among the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) members for deployment. Controversy over the bomb centers on its anti-personnel nature, which many see as immoral in comparison with weapons that primarily damage property. Opponents also see it as lowering the nuclear threshold and increasing the chance of nuclear war. Supporters view the bomb as a tactical weapon to be used on a limited scale as a last resort. If Germany's Chancellor Schmidt fails to negotiate a limit to European nuclear arms deployment with the Soviet Union, neutron-bomb production in the US and France will most likely proceed. The prospects for including European nuclear weapons in the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) III are jeopardized by the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the failure of an early SALT II ratification. 17 references. (DCK)

  8. Sprawl in European urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prastacos, Poulicos; Lagarias, Apostolos

    2016-08-01

    In this paper the 2006 edition of the Urban Atlas database is used to tabulate areas of low development density, usually referred to as "sprawl", for many European cities. The Urban Atlas database contains information on the land use distribution in the 305 largest European cities. Twenty different land use types are recognized, with six of them representing urban fabric. Urban fabric classes are residential areas differentiated by the density of development, which is measured by the sealing degree parameter that ranges from 0% to 100% (non-developed, fully developed). Analysis is performed on the distribution of the middle to low density areas defined as those with sealing degree less than 50%. Seven different country groups in which urban areas have similar sprawl characteristics are identified and some key characteristics of sprawl are discussed. Population of an urban area is another parameter considered in the analysis. Two spatial metrics, average patch size and mean distance to the nearest neighboring patch of the same class, are used to describe proximity/separation characteristics of sprawl in the urban areas of the seven groups.

  9. The European Nuclear Energy Tribunal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchetti, D.

    1977-01-01

    The European Nuclear Energy Tribunal was set up within the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (now the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) on 20th December 1957 under the Convention on Security Control. Seven independent judges are appointed for five years by decision of the Council of the Organisation; if the Tribunal includes no judge of the nationality of a party in a dispute submitted to it, the Government concerned may select an additional judge in that case. The Tribunal is competent in matters of security control, third party liability and activities of one of the Organisation's joint undertakings. At the request of any Government party to the Security Control Convention, to the Eurochemic Convention or to the Paris Convention and Brussels Supplementary Convention it may be convened to resolve any dispute concerning the interpretation or application thereof. While the Tribunal has not yet been called upon to exercise its judgment it is nonetheless an important and necessary instrument for Member States engaged in nuclear activities at international level. (NEA) [fr

  10. The European natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagland, Jan

    2001-01-01

    An increasing amount of natural gas is flowing into continental Europe, one of the largest gas markets in the world. There are three main sources of gas: Africa, Russia and Norway. Norway is an important supplier of gas, but may be vulnerable to competition. The demand for gas is increasing on a global basis and the largest increase is expected in Asia, followed by America and Europe. It is expected that Norwegian gas deliveries will be a principle source of natural gas for North Europe in the next years and that they will take an increasing part of the British market as the gas deliveries from the British shelf is going down. The European gas market is likely to become liberalized according to the EU's competition- and gas directives. This will not necessarily be a problem, and Norway may be able to increase the export of gas to Great Britain considerably from the year 2010, perhaps up to 40 billion standard m3 per year. Russia is expected to take an increased share of the European gas market, especially in East- and Central Europe, Germany and North Italy. But large investments in existing fields, new developments and new strategic pipelines are necessary

  11. Neutron bomb and European defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, W.

    1980-01-01

    France's development of the controversial neutron bomb is in line with the US goal of flexible response to a Soviet threat in Europe. US neutron bomb production is on a standby basis pending agreement among the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) members for deployment. Controversy over the bomb centers on its anti-personnel nature, which many see as immoral in comparison with weapons that primarily damage property. Opponents also see it as lowering the nuclear threshold and increasing the chance of nuclear war. Supporters view the bomb as a tactical weapon to be used on a limited scale as a last resort. If Germany's Chancellor Schmidt fails to negotiate a limit to European nuclear arms deployment with the Soviet Union, neutron-bomb production in the US and France will most likely proceed. The prospects for including European nuclear weapons in the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) III are jeopardized by the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the failure of an early SALT II ratification. 17 references

  12. Pharmaceutical policies in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Pedro Pita

    2010-01-01

    Pharmaceutical expenditures have an important role in Europe. The attempts to control expenditure have used a wide range of policy measures. We reviewed the main measures adopted by the European Union countries, especially in countries where governments are the largest third-party payers. To complement a literature review on the topic, data was gathered from national reviews of health systems and direct inquiries to several government bodies. Almost all countries regulate prices of pharmaceutical products. Popular policy measures include international referencing to set prices (using as benchmark countries that have set lower prices), internal reference pricing systems to promote price competition in domestic markets, and positive lists for reimbursement to promote consumption of generics (including in some cases substitution by pharmacists of drugs prescribed by physicians). Despite the wide range of policy measures, it is not possible to identify a "silver bullet" to control pharmaceutical expenditures. We also identified two main policy challenges: policy coordination among countries within the European Union to maintain incentives for R&D at the global level, and the development of new relationships with the pharmaceutical industry; namely, the so-called risk-sharing agreements between the pharmaceutical industry and governments/regulators (or large third-party payers).

  13. ALARA in European nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefaure, C.; Croft, J.; Pfeffer, W.; Zeevaert, T.

    1995-01-01

    For over a decade the Commission of the European Community has sponsored research projects on the development and practical implementation of the Optimization principle, or as it is often referred to, ALARA. These projects have given rise to a series of successful international Optimization training courses and have provided a significant input to the periodic European Seminars on Optimization, the last one of which took place in April 1993. This paper reviews the approaches to Optimization that have development within Europe and describes the areas of work in the current project. The on-going CEC research project addresses the problem of ALARA and internal exposures, and tries to define procedures for ALARA implementation, taking account of the perception of the hazard as well as the levels of probability of exposure. The relationships between ALARA and work management, and ALARA and decommissioning of installations appear to be other fruitful research areas. Finally, this paper introduces some software for using ALARA decision aiding techniques and databases containing feed back experience developed in Europe

  14. Citizenship Education Development: European Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Suslov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the European experience of the citizenship education developmentan important aspect of internal policy in the most countries. The education in question is considered to be the democratic citizenship training aimed at developing the loyal attitude to different value priorities in society, social responsibility, active citizenship position, awareness of democratic rights, capability of using and protecting them.The author looks at the transformation of citizenship education concept in the last three decades from the civics education (i.e. history, political science, law, etc. to the democratic citizen education. The paper analyzes differ- ent approaches to citizenship education in several European countries including the post-soviet ones. It is emphasized that both in western and eastern Europe a lot of effort is made for spreading and supporting the education in question. The author recommends considering the foreign experience of integrating the democratic citizenship education into the state academic curricula at the primary, secondary and higher school levels. 

  15. ALARA in European nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefaure, C. [CEPN, Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Croft, J. [NRPB, Chilton, Didcot (United Kingdom); Pfeffer, W. [GRS, Koeln (Germany); Zeevaert, T. [SCK/CEN, Mol (Belgium)

    1995-03-01

    For over a decade the Commission of the European Community has sponsored research projects on the development and practical implementation of the Optimization principle, or as it is often referred to, ALARA. These projects have given rise to a series of successful international Optimization training courses and have provided a significant input to the periodic European Seminars on Optimization, the last one of which took place in April 1993. This paper reviews the approaches to Optimization that have development within Europe and describes the areas of work in the current project. The on-going CEC research project addresses the problem of ALARA and internal exposures, and tries to define procedures for ALARA implementation, taking account of the perception of the hazard as well as the levels of probability of exposure. The relationships between ALARA and work management, and ALARA and decommissioning of installations appear to be other fruitful research areas. Finally, this paper introduces some software for using ALARA decision aiding techniques and databases containing feed back experience developed in Europe.

  16. European Practice for CDI Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Fidelma; Skally, Mairead; Brady, Melissa; Burns, Karen; Rooney, Christopher; Wilcox, Mark H

    2018-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Historically, two antibiotics (metronidazole and vancomycin) and a recent third (fidaxomicin) have been used routinely for CDI treatment; convincing data are now available showing that metronidazole is the least efficacious agent. The European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases CDI treatment guidelines outline the treatment options for a variety of CDI clinical scenarios, including use of the more traditional anti-CDI therapies (e.g., metronidazole, vancomycin), the role of newer anti-CDI agents (e.g., fidaxomicin), indications for surgical intervention and for non-antimicrobial management (e.g., faecal microbiota transplantation, FMT). A 2017 survey of 20 European countries found that while the majority (n = 14) have national CDI guidelines that provide a variety of recommendations for CDI treatment, only five have audited guideline implementation. A variety of restrictions are in place in 13 (65%) countries prior to use of new anti-CDI treatments, including committee/infection specialist approval or economic review/restrictions. Novel anti-CDI agents are being evaluated in Phase III trials; it is not yet clear what will be the roles of these agents. Prophylaxis is an optimum approach to reduce the impact of CDI especially in high-risk populations; monoclonal antibodies, antibiotic blocking approaches and multiple vaccines are currently in advanced clinical trials. The treatment of recurrent CDI is particularly troublesome, and several different live bio therapeutics are being developed, in addition to FMT.

  17. Population-Area Relationship for Medieval European Cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Cesaretti

    Full Text Available Medieval European urbanization presents a line of continuity between earlier cities and modern European urban systems. Yet, many of the spatial, political and economic features of medieval European cities were particular to the Middle Ages, and subsequently changed over the Early Modern Period and Industrial Revolution. There is a long tradition of demographic studies estimating the population sizes of medieval European cities, and comparative analyses of these data have shed much light on the long-term evolution of urban systems. However, the next step-to systematically relate the population size of these cities to their spatial and socioeconomic characteristics-has seldom been taken. This raises a series of interesting questions, as both modern and ancient cities have been observed to obey area-population relationships predicted by settlement scaling theory. To address these questions, we analyze a new dataset for the settled area and population of 173 European cities from the early fourteenth century to determine the relationship between population and settled area. To interpret this data, we develop two related models that lead to differing predictions regarding the quantitative form of the population-area relationship, depending on the level of social mixing present in these cities. Our empirical estimates of model parameters show a strong densification of cities with city population size, consistent with patterns in contemporary cities. Although social life in medieval Europe was orchestrated by hierarchical institutions (e.g., guilds, church, municipal organizations, our results show no statistically significant influence of these institutions on agglomeration effects. The similarities between the empirical patterns of settlement relating area to population observed here support the hypothesis that cities throughout history share common principles of organization that self-consistently relate their socioeconomic networks to structured

  18. Population-Area Relationship for Medieval European Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaretti, Rudolf; Lobo, José; Bettencourt, Luís M A; Ortman, Scott G; Smith, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Medieval European urbanization presents a line of continuity between earlier cities and modern European urban systems. Yet, many of the spatial, political and economic features of medieval European cities were particular to the Middle Ages, and subsequently changed over the Early Modern Period and Industrial Revolution. There is a long tradition of demographic studies estimating the population sizes of medieval European cities, and comparative analyses of these data have shed much light on the long-term evolution of urban systems. However, the next step-to systematically relate the population size of these cities to their spatial and socioeconomic characteristics-has seldom been taken. This raises a series of interesting questions, as both modern and ancient cities have been observed to obey area-population relationships predicted by settlement scaling theory. To address these questions, we analyze a new dataset for the settled area and population of 173 European cities from the early fourteenth century to determine the relationship between population and settled area. To interpret this data, we develop two related models that lead to differing predictions regarding the quantitative form of the population-area relationship, depending on the level of social mixing present in these cities. Our empirical estimates of model parameters show a strong densification of cities with city population size, consistent with patterns in contemporary cities. Although social life in medieval Europe was orchestrated by hierarchical institutions (e.g., guilds, church, municipal organizations), our results show no statistically significant influence of these institutions on agglomeration effects. The similarities between the empirical patterns of settlement relating area to population observed here support the hypothesis that cities throughout history share common principles of organization that self-consistently relate their socioeconomic networks to structured urban spaces.

  19. EPERC: The European Pressure Equipment Research Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darlaston, J.; McAllister, S.

    1998-01-01

    The European Pressure Equipment Research Council (EPERC) is a European Network of industries, research laboratories, inspection bodies and governmental institutions set up to foster co-operative research for the greater benefit of the European industry. The concept of a European Research Council originated at the PVRC meeting in Cannes in 1989 and since this time volunteers from the industry, research laboratories and of the European Commission Joint Research Centre, Petten have worked together to create a Statute for EPERC. In the context of the pressure equipment industry, the creation of EPERC is extremely pertinent, since in the near future, a Council directive on pressure equipment will replace the existing national regulations. In parallel to this, work is in progress for the elaboration of European Standards. It is useful to recall that ''Harmonised Standards'' will be the privileged means of complying with the Essential Safety Requirements of the directive. (author)

  20. Towards the development of European networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanreich, G.

    2004-01-01

    The second AFG (French Gas Association) forum, held on June 17, addressed the issue of links between European networks with presentations by Guenther Hainreich, Director of Trans-European Networks for the European Commission Energy and Transport DG, and Loannis Galanis, Assistant Unit Director for the European Commission Energy and Transport DG. The choice for this topic has been influenced by the opening of gas markets in Europe which supposes that two conditions are fulfilled: first, the existence of gas availabilities, and second, the development of transportation, storage and LNG terminal infrastructures. In this context, the national policies are today the regional variations of a European policy at the service of the reinforcement of isolated areas and of the sustain of expanding areas. It is thus necessary to consider the European point-of-view about the existing infrastructures, their development and their financing means

  1. The European Public on Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarta, Ancuta-Gabriela

    This study explorers the European public on social media by discussing the case of communicative interactions taking place on the official Facebook page of the European Parliament. Based on the theoretical framework conceptualizing the public and the public sphere on social network sites, the study...... examines the European social media public from two perspectives. The first is a top-down, institutional perspective of European Parliament, based on a case-study approach to the way this European institution constructs and addresses the public through its social media communication. The second is a bottom......-up perspective of the public of social media users, informed by a content analysis of Facebook comments and a discourse analysis of live chat interactions with Members of the European Parliament. Results confirm a discursive potential of the Facebook public of users. In the case of the Facebook comment threads...

  2. Strategies of development of European power producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heddebaut, D.

    2007-12-01

    This economical study answers the following questions: what is the dynamics of European power markets? What is the relative competitiveness of the different power production means? What are the determining factors of electricity wholesale prices? Who are the operators the most threatened by the rise of wholesale prices? To what extend power producers are impacted by the CO 2 constrain? Who are the most efficient producers? The analysis is based on 18 of the most representative groups of the European electric utilities. The first volume of the study presents the strategic perspectives of European power producers: dynamics and basic characteristics of European power markets, strategic options of European operators, typology and financial results of European power producers, scenarios of market reorganization according to Eurostaf (possible mega-mergers in the future, competition). Volume 2 makes a detailed analysis of the positioning and perspectives of the 18 selected groups: key figures, sourcing strategies, production means management, Eurostaf's diagnosis. (J.S.)

  3. The spatialization of the european project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Tim; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper argues the need for more critical analysis of the ?spatialisation of the European Project? than has been the case in much previous academic work on the European Union`s spatial policy so far. The focus is on the EU, and the way that this huge institutional and territorial setting...... is organised, driven and imagined according to a particular hegemonic spatiality which gives shape to the political, economic, social and territorial dimensions of the European project....

  4. European capitals of culture and life satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Lasse Steiner; Bruno S. Frey; Simone Hotz

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes whether hosting the most prestigious European cultural event, the European Capital of Culture, has an impact on regional economic development or the life satisfaction of the local population. Concerning the economic impact, we show that European Capitals are hosted in regions with above average GDP per capita, but do not causally affect the economic development in a significant way. Even a positive impact on GDP per capita would not imply a positive impact on individual ut...

  5. The newsletter 'European Research in Radiological Sciences'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pihet, P.; D'Errico, F.; Doerr, W.; Gruenberger, M.; Schofield, P.

    2004-01-01

    The newsletter 'European Research in Radiological Sciences' is jointly published by the European Late Effects Project Group and the European Radiation Dosimetry Group to disseminate information about research projects and activities carried out under the EURATOM Framework Programme. Since May 2003, the Newsletter is operated interactively from the Internet. The new site uses a dedicated database that automatically generates HTML pages. This system developed at the Univ. of Cambridge provides an innovative approach to improve the dissemination of project information. (authors)

  6. European atomic (nuclear) law and Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitzinger, R.

    2000-05-01

    The dissertation investigates the question, how the Austrian membership in the European Community works out to the Austrian Atomic Nonproliferation Law, which is a simple federal law. By the day of the Austrian accession to the European Community, the whole law of the European Community became part of the Austrian Legal Order. Also part of the primary right, the constitutional law of the European Community, is the contract for founding the European Atomic Energy Community, which also became part of the Austrian Legal Order. In 1978 Austria decided after the plebiscite of November the 5th against the opening of the nuclear power station in Zwentendorf. The result of this plebiscite was the Austrian Atomic Nonproliferation Law, a simple federal law from December the 15th, BGBl 676/1978. To continue their atomic politics, forbidding the use of nuclear powerstations for producing energy, after becoming a member of the European Community, Austria and the members of the European Community signed the Fourth Common Declaration at September the 23rd in 1993 for the use of the contract for founding the European Atomic Energy Community. This Common Declaration is neither a part of the accession of the contract, nor a part of the accessions to the acts of the contract of the European Community, and also not a part of the primary right of the European Community. It is only an agreement between the signatory states, which can be characterized as a part of the context. The sphere of the context, where the Fourth Common Declaration could be important, restrains to the secondary right of the European Community. This means, that the opinion on the rage of application is a decision of the executive bodies of the European Community. Consequently is to say, that the declaration, that the continuance of the Austrian Atomic Nonproliferation Law is save, can't resist an analysis in the law of nations. (author)

  7. Conceptual basis for the european sustainability footprint

    OpenAIRE

    PELLETIER NATHANIEL; MAAS Rob; GORALCZYK MALGORZATA; WOLF Marc-Andree

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability is central to the policy objectives of the European Commission (EC), but a widely accepted integrated sustainability assessment framework in support of policy analysis and development is currently lacking. Here, we describe the conceptual basis for the proposed European Sustainability Footprint (ESF) - an integrated sustainability assessment framework for establishing a baseline and tracking trends with respect to the sustainability of European production and consumption. This ...

  8. AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY ASSESSMENT IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Serrao, Amilcar

    2001-01-01

    This research work examines levels and trends in global agricultural productivity in fifteen European Union countries and four Eastern European countries that have already applied for European Union membership. The study makes use of data collected from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and covers the period 1980-1998. An approach based on Data Envelopment Analysis is used to provide information on the peers of the (inefficient) i-th country and to derive the Malmqui...

  9. Evaluating and projecting the European security system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, J.

    1991-01-01

    Components of the new European security system are described taking into account the new policy making and possibilities to resolve conflicts. Programmes for political and economic integration and co-operation managed by the European Community will provide main positive content of the new European security system. An insight of the future of nuclear armaments in Europe is included together with confidence building measure and the role of NATO

  10. European virtual campus for biomedical engineering EVICAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmivuo, Jaakko A; Nousiainen, Juha O; Lindroos, Kari V

    2007-01-01

    European Commission has funded building a curriculum on Biomedical Engineering to the Internet for European universities under the project EVICAB. EVICAB forms a curriculum which will be free access and available free of charge. Therefore, in addition to the European universities, it will be available worldwide. EVICAB will make high quality education available for everyone, not only for the university students, and facilitate the development of the discipline of Biomedical Engineering.

  11. The European chart of territorial planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter the European chart of territorial planning is included. This European chart contains next chapters: Introduction; The mission of the territorial planning; The basic aims; Realization of aims of the territorial planning; The confirmation of the European co-operation. In the Appendix the Specific aims: (1) The village territory; (2) The urban territory; (3) The boundary territory; (4) The mountain territory; (5) The structurally weak territory; (6) The decaying territory; (7) The coastal territories and islands

  12. Book Review: Diversity in European Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Hana Machková

    2012-01-01

    The case book “Diversity in European Marketing” is the result of the scientific cooperation of the CEMS Marketing Faculty Group. Prestigious Central European Universities - Corvinius University of Budapest and University of Economic, Prague - are members of CEMS - the Global Alliance in Management Education of 26 leading business schools and 70 multinational companies. Four authors from these two Universities share in this book their experience of Central European Marketing specifics.

  13. European PV industry -- The future beckons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    The author believes that there are reasons to believe that the solar industry is poised on the brink of rapid commercial growth, leading to broadly-based industry viability. The author discusses the role that the European solar industry has to play in helping to bring about a better future. He begins his discussion with the current state of the European industry and follows with recommendations of what the European industry should be doing to encourage the solar industry growth

  14. Exposure to psychosocial work factors in 31 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedhammer, I; Sultan-Taïeb, H; Chastang, J-F; Vermeylen, G; Parent-Thirion, A

    2012-04-01

    Although psychosocial work factors are recognized as major occupational risk factors, little information is available regarding the prevalence of exposure to these factors and the differences in exposure between countries. To explore the differences in various psychosocial work exposures between 31 European countries. The study was based on a sample of 14,881 male and 14,799 female workers from the 2005 European Working Conditions Survey. Eighteen psychosocial work factors were studied: low decision latitude (skill discretion and decision authority), high psychological demands, job strain, low social support, iso-strain, physical violence, sexual harassment, bullying, discrimination, work-family imbalance, long working hours, high effort, job insecurity, low job promotion, low reward and effort-reward imbalance. Covariates were age, number of workers in household, occupation, economic activity, self-employed/employee, public/private sector and part/full time work. Statistical analysis was performed using multilevel logistic regression analysis. Significant differences in all psychosocial work factors were observed between countries. The rank of the countries varied according to the exposure considered. However, some countries, especially Denmark, Netherlands and Norway, displayed a significantly lower prevalence of exposure to four factors or more, while some Southern and Eastern countries, especially Czech Republic, Greece, Lithuania and Turkey, had a higher prevalence. Differences in psychosocial work exposures were found between countries. This study is the first to compare a large set of psychosocial work exposures between 31 European countries. These findings may be useful to guide prevention policies at European level.

  15. Welcome from ESARDA (European Safeguards Research and Development Association)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Meer, K.

    2015-01-01

    ESARDA, on the one hand being part of that European family and on the other hand working in practice to support peace by the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, can be considered as a perfect representative of that European peace process. Going now from the European to the global perspective, peace should be our motivating force and this is also expressed in the basis of safeguards: the non-proliferation Treaty. Several articles of the Treaty deal with not developing nuclear weapons and not supporting the development of nuclear weapons by other countries, and one article (Article VI) deals with the general and complete nuclear disarmament. What is ESARDA doing in practice- First we provide a forum to exchange scientific information for the benefit of all safeguards stakeholders. The most important forum is the biannual open ESARDA safeguards symposium that will be held next year from 19-21 May in Manchester. Next to the ESARDA symposia, we coordinate European safeguards research via our ESARDA Working Groups. Also non-members are welcome in these WG as observers. JRC Ispra maintains the ESARDA website that also supports exchange of safeguards information

  16. Pathological Internet Use and Risk-Behaviors among European Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Durkee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Risk-behaviors are a major contributor to the leading causes of morbidity among adolescents and young people; however, their association with pathological Internet use (PIU is relatively unexplored, particularly within the European context. The main objective of this study is to investigate the association between risk-behaviors and PIU in European adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of the FP7 European Union project: Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE. Data on adolescents were collected from randomized schools within study sites across eleven European countries. PIU was measured using Young’s Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ. Risk-behaviors were assessed using questions procured from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS. A total of 11,931 adolescents were included in the analyses: 43.4% male and 56.6% female (M/F: 5179/6752, with a mean age of 14.89 ± 0.87 years. Adolescents reporting poor sleeping habits and risk-taking actions showed the strongest associations with PIU, followed by tobacco use, poor nutrition and physical inactivity. Among adolescents in the PIU group, 89.9% were characterized as having multiple risk-behaviors. The significant association observed between PIU and risk-behaviors, combined with a high rate of co-occurrence, underlines the importance of considering PIU when screening, treating or preventing high-risk behaviors among adolescents.

  17. European supercritical water cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulenberg, T.; Starflinger, J.; Marsault, P.; Bittermann, D.; Maraczy, C.; Laurien, E.; Lycklama a Nijeholt, J.A.; Anglart, H.; Andreani, M.; Ruzickova, M.; Toivonen, A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The HPLWR reactor design is an example of a supercritical water cooled reactor. → Cladding material tests have started but materials are not yet satisfactory. → Numerical heat transfer predictions are promising but need further validation. → The research project is most suited for nuclear education and training. - Abstract: The High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR), how the European Supercritical Water Cooled Reactor is called, is a pressure vessel type reactor operated with supercritical water at 25 MPa feedwater pressure and 500 o C average core outlet temperature. It is designed and analyzed by a European consortium of 10 partners and 3 active supporters from 8 Euratom member states in the second phase of the HPLWR project. Most emphasis has been laid on a core with a thermal neutron spectrum, consisting of small fuel assemblies in boxes with 40 fuel pins each and a central water box to improve the neutron moderation despite the low coolant density. Peak cladding temperatures of the fuel rods have been minimized by heating up the coolant in three steps with intermediate coolant mixing. The containment design with its safety and residual heat removal systems is based on the latest boiling water reactor concept, but with different passive high pressure coolant injection systems to cause a forced convection through the core. The design concept of the steam cycle is indicating the envisaged efficiency increase to around 44%. Moreover, it provides the constraints to design the components of the balance of the plant. The project is accompanied by numerical studies of heat transfer of supercritical water in fuel assemblies and by material tests of candidate cladding alloys, performed by the consortium and supported by additional tests of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission. Besides the scientific and technical progress, the HPLWR project turned out to be most successful in training the young generation of nuclear engineers

  18. EMSO: European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favali, P.; Partnership, Emso

    2009-04-01

    EMSO, a Research Infrastructure listed within ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) Roadmap), is the European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the scientific objective of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes through long time series appropriate to the scale of the phenomena, constituting the new frontier of studying Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry and ocean processes. EMSO will reply also to the need expressed in the frame of GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) to develop a marine segment integrated in the in situ and satellite global monitoring system. The EMSO development relays upon the synergy between the scientific community and the industry to improve the European competitiveness with respect to countries like USA/Canada, NEPTUNE, VENUS and MARS projects, Taiwan, MACHO project, and Japan, DONET project. In Europe the development of an underwater network is based on previous EU-funded projects since early '90, and presently supported by EU initiatives. The EMSO infrastructure will constitute the extension to the sea of the land-based networks. Examples of data recorded by seafloor observatories will be presented. EMSO is presently at the stage of Preparatory Phase (PP), funded in the EC FP7 Capacities Programme. The project has started in April 2008 and will last 4 years with the participation of 12 Institutions representing 12 countries. EMSO potential will be significantly increased also with the interaction with other Research Infrastructures addressed to Earth Science. 2. IFREMER-Institut Français de Recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer (France, ref. Roland Person); KDM-Konsortium Deutsche Meeresforschung e.V. (Germany, ref. Christoph Waldmann); IMI-Irish Marine Institute (Ireland, ref. Michael Gillooly); UTM-CSIC-Unidad de

  19. Assessing European wild fire vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, F.; Oliveira, S.; Barredo, J. I.; Camia, A.; Ayanz, J. San Miguel; Pettenella, D.; Mavsar, R.

    2012-04-01

    Wild fire vulnerability is a measure of potential socio-economic damage caused by a fire in a specific area. As such it is an important component of long-term fire risk management, helping policy-makers take informed decisions about adequate expenditures for fire prevention and suppression, and to target those regions at highest risk. This paper presents a first approach to assess wild fire vulnerability at the European level. A conservative approach was chosen that assesses the cost of restoring the previous land cover after a potential fire. Based on the CORINE Land Cover, a restoration cost was established for each land cover class at country level, and an average restoration time was assigned according to the recovery capacity of the land cover. The damage caused by fire was then assessed by discounting the cost of restoring the previous land cover over the restoration period. Three different vulnerability scenarios were considered assuming low, medium and high fire severity causing different levels of damage. Over Europe, the potential damage of wild land fires ranges from 10 - 13, 732 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for low fire severity, 32 - 45,772 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for medium fire severity and 54 - 77,812 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for high fire severity. The least vulnerable are natural grasslands, moors and heathland and sclerophyllous vegetation, while the highest cost occurs for restoring broad-leaved forest. Preliminary validation comparing these estimates with official damage assessments for past fires shows reasonable results. The restoration cost approach allows for a straightforward, data extensive assessment of fire vulnerability at European level. A disadvantage is the inherent simplification of the evaluation procedure with the underestimation of non-markets goods and services. Thus, a second approach has been developed, valuing individual wild land goods and services and assessing their annual flow which is lost for a certain period of time in case of a fire event. However

  20. EMSO: European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favali, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    EMSO, a Research Infrastructure listed within ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) Roadmap (Report 2006, http://cordis.europa.eu/esfri/roadmap.htm), is the European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the scientific objective of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes through long time series appropriate to the scale of the phenomena, constituting the new frontier of studying Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry and ocean processes. The development of an underwater network is based on previous EU-funded projects since early '90 and is being supported by several EU initiatives, as the on-going ESONET-NoE, coordinated by IFREMER (2007-2011, http://www.esonet-emso.org/esonet-noe/), and aims at gathering together the Research Community of the Ocean Observatories. In 2006 the FP7 Capacities Programme launched a call for Preparatory Phase (PP) projects, that will provide the support to create the legal and organisational entities in charge of managing the infrastructures, and coordinating the financial effort among the countries. Under this call the EMSO-PP project was approved in 2007 with the coordination of INGV and the participation of other 11 Institutions of 11 countries. The project has started in April 2008 and will last 4 years. The EMSO is a key-infrastructure both for Ocean Sciences and for Solid Earth Sciences. In this respect it will enhance and complement profitably the capabilities of other European research infrastructures such as EPOS, ERICON-Aurora Borealis, and SIOS. The perspective of the synergy among EMSO and other ESFRI Research Infrastructures will be outlined. EMSO Partners: IFREMER-Institut Français de Recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer (France, ref. Roland Person); KDM-Konsortium Deutsche Meeresforschung e.V. (Germany, ref. Christoph