WorldWideScience

Sample records for european foreign policy

  1. FOREIGN POLICY OF EUROPEAN UNION: EURASIAN AGENDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksiy KANDYUK

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available EU’s influence at so-called post-Soviet space gradually increases and becomes a significant factor of regional policy. Today we can already speak of the European Union as a full participant in the political processes occurring in the post-Soviet and broader – Eurasian area. Foreign policy of EU is evolving under impact of reasons stemming from both structural and political context and from external geopolitical trends. At the same time, challenges in the geopolitical environment in Europe today require the EU to develop new conceptual approaches helping to deal with the problems of relations with its eastern neighbours and the Russian impact. Only the development of a new Eurasian agenda could help to improve European eastern policy, consolidate the position of EU as a geopolitical actor in this region and foster Europeanization and integration of neighbour countries.

  2. Un-National Normative Justification for European Union Foreign Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The European Union's foreign policy has traditionally been described in terms of national, supranational or transnational interests rather than being justified in terms of normative political theory. As European Commissioner Bonino declared over a decade ago, such differentiation between descript......The European Union's foreign policy has traditionally been described in terms of national, supranational or transnational interests rather than being justified in terms of normative political theory. As European Commissioner Bonino declared over a decade ago, such differentiation between...

  3. European vector of foreign policy of the Barack Obama administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Lymar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article researches the basic principles and conceptual approaches to shaping the foreign policy of the   Barack Obama. It is noted that: the foreign policy of the United States should strengthen U.S. global leadership; the special role in determining the directions of U.S. foreign policy is given to the principle of «smart power»; it is important to cooperate with international organizations; the dialogue with Europe should be based on the axis of NATO­EU. This study examines the main areas of cooperation with the European Union, including: overcoming the global crisis and reforming the international financial system; settling the situation in Afghanistan and Pakistan; ensuring energy security; finding the ways to prevent new climate changes; defusing the situation which is related to the deployment of U.S. strategic plans in Eastern Europe. It is analyzed the beginning of Obama administration activity on inetnational area, discussed its achievements and shortcomings. The article marks that the USA focuses its attention more on the «Asian vector» and it causes some concern of the European Community. Attention is drawn to the main priorities of «National Security Strategy 2010». The author concludes that despite the absence of significant changes in U.S.­European relations during the first term of Barack Obama as the president, the current era of transatlantic relations has witnessed a process of constant functional cooperation with varying success.

  4. THE FOREIGN AND SECURITY POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Menon

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In only a decade the European Union has moved from being a new kid on the block in terms of foreign and security policies to being a high profile and surprisingly effective international actor. Certainly, it has failed to match the ambitions of some of its most enthusiastic proponents. Certainly, too, European publics know next to nothing about what the Union does in the international realm. It is because of this that, despite their potential and their effectiveness to date, EU policies in this sphere were widely derided as failures following the moment when the attacks of 11 September 2001 shook the western world to its core. The Convention on the Future of Europe and subsequent intergovernmental conference look set to make significant institutional changes to the Union’s foreign and security policy systems. In undertaking these reforms, Convention members, and national governments are doubtless motivated by the laudable objective of enabling the Union to do more on the international stage. One can only hope that these motives notwithstanding, they do not simply propose reforms for their own sake and, in the process, undermine a system that, to the surprise of many, has continued to function respectably in an ever more complex and ever more dangerous world.

  5. The Foreign Policies of European Union Member States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foreign Policies of EU Member States provides a clear and current overview of the motivations and outcomes of EU Member States regarding their foreign policy-making within and beyond the EU. It provides an in-depth analysis of intra-EU policy-making and sheds light, in an innovative...... and understandable way, on the lesser-known aspects of the inter-EU and extra-EU foreign policies of the twenty-eight Member States. The text has an innovative method of thematic organisation in which case study state profiles emerge via dominant foreign policy themes. The text examines the three main policy...... challenges currently faced by the twenty-eight Member States: • First, EU Member States must cooperate within the mechanisms of the EU, including the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). • Second, EU Member States continue to construct their own inter-EU foreign policies. • Third, the sovereign...

  6. The Revised European Neighbourhood Policy: Continuity and Change in EU Foreign Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouris, D.; Schumacher, T.

    2017-01-01

    This book analyses the revised European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) which entered into force in May 2011, thereby replacing its predecessor of 2003/2004. The edited volume provides a structured and comprehensive overview of the most recent developments in EU foreign policy (EUFP) towards the EU’s

  7. Gaps in EU Foreign Policy: the Role of Concepts in European Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik

    of Capability-Expectations Gap in the study of European foreign policy. Through examples from the literature, it is shown that the concept sets up standards for the EU as a foreign policy actor that are not met by most other international actors and that this curtails analysis of EU foreign policy......This book argues that theories of European foreign policy are performative: they create the objects they analyse.The book first outlines the performativity approach to the role of theories based on the work of Derrida. It then examines the performative role of Christopher Hill's concept....... It then demonstrates that the widespread use of the concept of ‘gap’ in different forms affects the way in which EU foreign policy has been studied and that it always produces the same result: the EU is an unfulfilled actor outside the realm of “normal” actors in IR....

  8. Book Review: Michael Baun and Dan Marek (eds. The New Member States and the European Union. Foreign Policy and Europeanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelin Dumitru

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A radical decision at the time, the 2004 enlargement constituted a critical juncture for the Central and Eastern European Countries. Although a great deal of literature has been written in regard to other aspects of Europeanization, the effects of EU membership on the foreign policy of the new member states have been rarely discussed. This is what the volume coordinated by Michael Baun and Dan Marek seeks to accomplish, namely to fill a gap in the European Studies with a series of articles explaining the more or less significant institutional and behavioural changes which occurred at the level of the new member states’ political elites. Focusing on three main domains in which Europeanization purportedly occurred, namely national preferences and interests, institutions and procedures, foreign policy strategies and actions, the studies gathered in this volume provide a useful overview of the effects of EU membership on what was traditionally known as “foreign policy”.

  9. Foreign Policy Making and the U.S. Vision of European Integration in the Nixon Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Hang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers an insight into Washington’s foreign policy establishment and its vision of European integration under the Nixon administration. It argues that President Nixon and his National Security Advisor, Henry Kissinger, managed to formulate many important aspects of foreign policy at the White House. From a realist perspective, the Nixon-Kissinger team saw the emergence of a new world order and in it the evolvement of European integration in a way different from previous U.S. administrations. The paper begins by discussing the Nixon administration’s realist approach to foreign policy before analyzing President Nixon’s determination to make decisions on foreign relations at the White House. Next, the paper examines the main features of the Nixon-Kissinger team’s vision of European integration. It concludes that, as realists, the Nixon administration supported integration in Western Europe, yet Washington was ambivalent if a united Europe with increasing self-confidence and self-assertiveness would be in the U.S. national interest. Henceforth, the European integration process had to be, in the Nixon-Kissinger view, taking place under U.S. control in the form of the consultative mechanism and the U.S. military umbrella.

  10. Explaining the evolution of European Union foreign climate policy: A case of bounded adaptiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Schunz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the inception of the United Nations climate regime in the early 1990s, the European Union has aspired to play a leading part in the global combat against climate change. Based on an analysis of how the Union has developed its foreign climate policy to fulfil this role over the past two decades, the paper sets out to identify the driving factors behind this evolution. It demonstrates that the EU’s development in this area was co-determined by adaptations to shifting international dynamics strongly bounded by purely domestic concerns. Providing a concise understanding and explanation of how the Union designs its foreign policy with regard to one emblematic issue of its international activity, the contribution provides insights into the remarkably rapid, but not always effective maturation of this unique actor’s involvement in global politics.

  11. A Shift in U.S. Foreign Policy under the Nixon Administration and European Political Cooperation: A Historical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Thuy Hang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available With a historical approach, this paper examines the Nixon administration’s policy and stance towards the European Political Cooperation (the EPC. In December 1969, at The Hague Summit the leaders of the European Community expressed their determination for deepening European integration. The final communiqué of The Hague Summit stressed the European Community’s desire to achieve the EPC and to parallel the European Community’s increasing economic strength with a role to play in the world affairs. With this in mind, the paper will examine the impacts that Nixon administration’s attempts to rebalance U.S. foreign relations reflected in the opening to China and the détente with the Soviet Union had on the European political integration. Then, it will be argued that the Nixon administration’s shifting of foreign policy priorities can be seen as one of the driving forces of the EPC. The paper puts forth that a European Community, whose weight was increased first by its economic integration and then by its political cooperation, was seen by the Nixon administration as a challenge to the United States. It is concluded that after a long time of consistently supporting European integration as a means to secure peace and prosperity in Europe, the United States under the Nixon administration had to reconsider its foreign relations and rebalance its focus on the global chessboard. This rebalancing certainly impacted the EPC in particular and the European integration process in general.

  12. NOT SO WIDE, EUROPE: RECONSIDERING THE NORMATIVE POWER OF THE EU IN EUROPEAN FOREIGN POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Nicholas Romaniuk

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Through the use of political conditionality, the European Union (EU exercises what Ian Manners has termed ‘normative power’, which many scholars and political analysts have regarded as the primary force behind the speedy democratization process of the 2004 enlargement of the EU. The two most recent enlargements of the EU have extended the Union into a new neighbourhood bordering still relatively democratically infant and unstable states such as Belarus and Ukraine. Following the relative success of conditionality during the enlargement process, the ENP was developed in 2003 to once again take advantage of conditionality to spread EU ‘norms’ and secure political stability at its borders, this time without the incentive of membership. This article analyzes the ability of the EU to exercise normative power in Eastern Europe. It presents the argument that despite systematic attempts to spread EU policies, or so-called ‘norms’ beyond the Union’s external borders, disparities in norm-adoption among ENP target-states exemplifies incongruence in the success of the EU’s normative power in foreign relations. To address the question of whether the EU demonstrates normative power through its application of the Neighbourhood Policy, the authors’ analysis will address the cases of Ukraine and Belarus.

  13. Interpreting change : international challenges and variations in foreign policy beliefs as explanations for shifts in China’s policy towards the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaenssmantel, Frank

    This article examines why and how China upgraded its engagement with the European Union (EU) in the years between 2001 and 2004, with reference to pre-existing foreign policy traditions and practices in reform-era China. It argues that most of the observed changes can be explained with reference to

  14. Peculiarities of Ukrainian foreign policy strategy of European orientation in the context of development of European and Euro-atlantic integration processes in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bostan Sergii Ivanovich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Development of integration processes in the region of Eastern Europe has received a new impulse to the expansion of the European Union and NATO. Accessions to those associations in most countries of Central and Eastern Europe represent a redistribution of spheres of influence, strengthening the position of the United States, the EU and the weakening of Russian position. In many ways, the stability of the region will depend on Ukrainian policy that announced the desire to join the European Community and has already signed an Association Agreement with the EU, but recent events in the country complicate the implementation of the foreign policy strategy.

  15. Peculiarities of foreign policy of Ukraine: European Integration or Accession with Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bostan Sergii Ivanovich

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Geopolitical location of Ukraine on the map of Europe gave the country a number of benefits, as well as serious problems with which it is trying to understand and use as their advantage. The country, its government has a hard choice: to define their own place in Europe and the world. In general, European integration or accession to the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia, choice of Eurasian movement or the Western European traditions. The way out of the difficult domestic political situation in the country, raise of economy depend on the foreign policy of the country and the choice of integration model for its further development.

  16. Asylum migration and the construction of the European Common Foreign and Security Policy: evidence from the Greek case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Lucía Forero Castañeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how the recent evolution of asylum migration has affected the construction of the European Common Foreign and Security Policy (EU-CFSP, taking the Greek case during the 2001-2012 period as a starting point. With this in mind, the normative progress of the EU-CFSP facing the reception of asylum seekers in Greece is analyzed, under the scope of what Barry Buzan and Ole Waever would call Securitization Process. Both legal and political frameworks on asylum migration in Greece and in the European Union are approached, in the context of the evolution of the EU-CFSP in three main areas: Neighborhood Policy, Development and Cooperation Policy, and Human Rights Protection. The conclusión points toward the partial influence of asylum migration in the configuration of the UE-CFSP during the studied period.

  17. The Europeanization of Romanian Foreign Policy: Mitigating European and National ‘Misfits’ in the International Criminal Court and Kosovo Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Micu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to tackle some of the challenges posed to the Europeanization research agenda and to examine the usefulness of the Europeanization approach to the study of national foreign policy (selecting Romania as a test case. It proposes a research design that lays emphasis on pinpointing and mitigating the ‘misfit’ between EU and national levels, and on the role of the ‘political vulnerability’ stemming from the EU conditionality imposed on candidate countries and from different perceptions of threat. The two case studies chosen refer to EU-Romanian disagreements over the International Criminal Court’s jurisdiction and Kosovo’s unilateral declaration of independence.

  18. European integration and transatlantic relations as the cornerstone of the foreign policy of the Federal Republic of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Bojan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main task of this paper is to determine the main factors of the foreign policy of the Federal Republic of Germany, as well as to predict in which direction its foreign policy will move in the upcoming period. The consolidation and rise of the Federal Republic of Germany after World War II are based on its Westbindung policy (policy of binding for the West, which, basically, relied on a firm integration of Germany into Euro-Atlantic structures. By joining the euro-integration processes, whose prerequisite was a historic reconciliation with the powerful neighbor, France, Germany was no longer a disruptive factor in the European scene, and the NATO as a security “umbrella”, in which the United States of America had the most important role, provided it with adequate framework within which Germany could devote itself to the further development of society and economy. The preservation and further development of the European Union, as well as the transatlantic partnership, whose core consists of partnership relations with the United States of America, for Germany represents one of the key preconditions for maintaining global order, providing a mechanism within which the Federal Republic of Germany achieves the stability and prosperity of its society. As a country whose share in 2015 amounted to over 7% of the world trade (world’s third largest exporter and importer, there is no doubt that modern Germany “harvests” the fruits of globalization in an effective manner. Accordingly, the Federal Republic of Germany has every reason to defend the existing global order, whose leaders are the countries which are its main foreign policy partners.

  19. Could less be more? : small state influence on European Foreign Policies

    OpenAIRE

    L'Orange, Sara

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis I have found that Sweden has had influence on the Euro-Med Partnership. Size, side payments, or threats to veto or form alternative alliances can not explain the how influence was possible. Instead, Sweden s reputation for value-added foreign policies and lack of colonial past seems to have given them a status that facilitates influence both in relation to EU states and the partner states on the other shore of the Mediterranean. In chapter one, I presented a matrix that cou...

  20. Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wivel, Anders

    2017-01-01

    'Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis' traces how realist thinking on foreign policy has developed over the years and discusses the challenges and opportunities faced by various strands of realism when applied to foreign policy analysis.......'Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis' traces how realist thinking on foreign policy has developed over the years and discusses the challenges and opportunities faced by various strands of realism when applied to foreign policy analysis....

  1. THE EUROPEAN UNION’S EXTERNAL AFFAIRS POLICY – THE HIGH REPRESENTATIVE OF THE UNION FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS AND SECURITY POLICY – A FAVORABLE FRAMEWORK FOR CREATING A SINGLE VOICE FOR THE EUROPEAN DIPLOMATIC SYSTEM OR JUST A NEW BUREAUCRATIC STRUCTURE?

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Bogdan CALANCE

    2015-01-01

    Starting with the Lisbon Treaty, which establishes the new European diplomatic landscape structure, this paper analyses the difference between the objectives expressed in the treaties governing the European Union's foreign policy, and the diplomatic European and international reality. The main objective of this paper is to reveal the extent in which the European Union runs a coherent and unified foreign policy, especially highlighting the problems faced by these institutions in the current in...

  2. Global Strategy Choices (GSC) : Prognosis and Strategic Planning for European Foreign and Security Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitter, Andrej; Kettle, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The European Security Strategy (ESS) is currently being reformulated. This working paper puts forward a new methodological approach in the construction of global strategies for stakeholders in the international system. It makes the case that contemporary strategy formulation (including the ESS)

  3. Foreign policy and political possibility

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, J

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between foreign policy and political possibility in two parts. First, the relationship between foreign policy and political possibility is theorized around three analytical moments: political possibility is linked to the framing of conceivable, communicable and coercive foreign policy. Second, this framework is developed and demonstrated through a brief analysis of Coalition foreign policy in the War on Terror, considering American, British and Australia...

  4. Kenya's Foreign Policy and Geopolitical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (i) Are Kenya's foreign policy interests vis-a-vis the Nile River question influenced by her internal demand for water? g ... This article examines Kenya's foreign policy interests on the Nile water question and the implications of the ...... Okodi, C. Odidi, 1980, 'Legal and Policy Regime of Lake Victoria and Nile Basins', Indian.

  5. Securitization: Conceptualizing Qatari Foreign Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Dogan, Betul

    2017-01-01

    The role of security in Qatari foreign policy is one of the central discussions in the literature on the Gulf security. This thesis represents Qatari foreign policy strategies through lenses of the Copenhagen School for security studies, established by seminal publications of Barry Buzan, Ole Waever and Jaap de Wilde. The research highlights the question of how can the dynamics of Qatari foreign policy be evaluated within the context of Copenhagen School's security sectors in seven chapters. ...

  6. Global Health and Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldbaum, Harley; Lee, Kelley; Michaud, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Health has long been intertwined with the foreign policies of states. In recent years, however, global health issues have risen to the highest levels of international politics and have become accepted as legitimate issues in foreign policy. This elevated political priority is in many ways a welcome development for proponents of global health, and it has resulted in increased funding for and attention to select global health issues. However, there has been less examination of the tensions that characterize the relationship between global health and foreign policy and of the potential effects of linking global health efforts with the foreign-policy interests of states. In this paper, the authors review the relationship between global health and foreign policy by examining the roles of health across 4 major components of foreign policy: aid, trade, diplomacy, and national security. For each of these aspects of foreign policy, the authors review current and historical issues and discuss how foreign-policy interests have aided or impeded global health efforts. The increasing relevance of global health to foreign policy holds both opportunities and dangers for global efforts to improve health. PMID:20423936

  7. THE PROBLEMS OF SERBIAN SELF-DETERMINATION IN FOREIGN POLICY: THROUGH THE THORNS TO THE “STARS” OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Lobanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the features of contemporary political development of Serbia, including the main areas of cooperation with the European Union (EU. Since the early 2000s the strategic priority of the country's foreign policy is participation in the European integration process, which is accompanied by support of consistent and pragmatic relations with the other key partners, primarily with Russia. The principle of multi-vector foreign policy has been developed since the fi rst half of the 2010s, but its use is treated with the lack of uniqueness by different social strata and political movements. Mechanisms of acceleration or slowing down the integration process are used by offi cial Brussels depending on the current aims and political conjuncture (for example, to weaken Russian infl uence in the country and in the region. However, despite the success achieved on the path to the EU accession and the favorable dynamics of negotiation process, the level of support of pro-European policy has been decreasing in Serbian society since the end of the 2000s. The main challenges of the near future, in addition to the growth of euroscepticism, include problems of institutional harmonization with the EU and the compliance with the Copenhagen criteria, the enforcement of the Brussels agreement with Pristina, as well as maintaining of balanced foreign policy.

  8. Modern Lithuanian foreign policy: the adjustment of traditional policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batorshina Irina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the core areas of Lithuanian foreign policy. Special attention is paid to the adjustment of the major foreign policy vector, which concentrated earlier on the cooperation with the United States of America and strategic partnership with the Republic of Poland. The article analyses the attempts of Lithuanian president Dalia Grybauskaitė to formulate the so-called «new foreign policy» based on the multivector approach to the intergovernmental cooperation. This research is timely because of an increasing influence of small states on foreign policy decision-making within the European Union. It emphasizes the need to analyse foreign policy priorities of the Baltic States and Central and Eastern European countries and to identify the dominant trends in the international policy in the region in order to forecast further development at European and global levels. This objective is achieved with the help of an integrated approach with elements of interdisciplinary research. Special attention is paid to the comparative-historical approach, which facilitates the analysis of the relations between the Republic of Lithuania and the neighbouring states and its principal partners. Alongside traditional methods of historical research, this work employs such methods as participant observation, content and event analysis, and simultaneous and comparative analysis. The research and practical significance of this work is explained by its emphasis on the need to apply an additional theoretical framework to studies into the foreign policy initiatives of the Republic of Lithuania in the international arena. While earlier they were determined by the value (democratic approach, which was a reflection of American realism, today an increasingly important factor is the personality of the president, who does not always positively influence the changing policy of the country. The results of the research contribute substantially to the understanding of

  9. European Cyber Security Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Bendiek, Annegret

    2012-01-01

    The gradually developing European cyber security policy tries to establish minimum standards in all EU member states with regard to prevention, resilience and international cooperation. It aims to foster national security without compromising democratic principles or unduly limiting individual liberties. However, it is hard to find a balance between these goals, and the EU’s measures thus inevitably raise questions about the democratic implications of European cyber security policy. Are the i...

  10. European Neighbourhood Policy. A Polish Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Marcinkowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Before the bing-bang enlargement of the EU in 2004, the Union needed to define a coherent policy towards its new neighbours. The European Neighbourhood Policy was formulated when Poland became a member of the EU. Due to its close ties with the Eastern European countries, Poland tried to shape the EU foreign policy towards its neighbouring countries and became their advocate in Brussels. In 2009 it succeeded in establishing the Eastern Partnership as one of the dimensions of the European Neighbourhood Policy.

  11. Kenya's Foreign Policy and Geopolitical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the flow of the Nile. (v) Egypt claimed the right to construct engineering works on the Nile without the consent of other riparian states' (N g'wandu 2003). This article examines Kenya's foreign policy interests on the Nile water question and the implications of the geopolitics of the region as well as the riparian states' policies.

  12. Perspectives on Russian Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    domestic and foreign conditions, elites, and other factors (as is U.S. foreign policy). Marx was right. While men make his- tory, they do not do so as they...disseminate through Russian society not just a cult of Putin’s personality ( thereby confirming Marx that when history repeats itself the first time...many major world cities, including Washington and New York.12 The network was nominated for the best documentary prize from the 2011 Monte Carlo TV

  13. Brazil's foreign policy under Lula

    OpenAIRE

    Zilla, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Under the presidency of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Brazil launched numerous foreign policy initiatives in Latin America and beyond, raised its profile as a mediator in regional and international conflicts, played an active role in international organizations and shaped global governance debates. In fact, one can safely say that the “Lula era” marked Brazil’s ascent in foreign policy, which was the result of a continuous expansion of external action pursued with an extraordinary amount of ener...

  14. Identity politics: Exploring Georgian foreign policy behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornely Kakachia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the extent to which Georgia's pro-Western foreign policy orientation stems from ideas and identity rather than from materialist and systemic factors alone. Finding such narrow approaches insufficient for explaining small state behavior, and drawing on liberal and constructivist approaches to international relations theory, the article argues that Georgia's foreign policy orientation has a strong basis in the widespread ideological perception amongst the local political elite that Georgia “belongs” in the West. Based on this theoretical framework, this paper provides a historical overview of Georgia's foreign policy, tracing the evolution of Georgia's identity from seeing itself as “Christian” in contrast to its Islamic neighbors, to identifying as European in contrast to a modern, Russian “other”. As Georgia attempts to construct a collective international identity, the devotion to the idea of Euro-Atlantic integration as a “sacred destiny” amongst the country's elite has significant foreign policy implications. This article overviews the current challenges and dilemmas of self-identification and investigates the roles that national identity and the prevailing “European” identity play in Georgia's quest for “desovietization”.

  15. Foreign Policy: Approaches, Levels Of Analysis, Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Šoljan

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of key issues related to foreign policy and foreign policy theories in the wider context of political science. Discussing the origins and development of foreign policy analysis (FPA), as well as scholarly work produced over time, it argues that today FPA encompasses a variety of theoretical approaches, models and tools. These share the understanding that foreign policy outputs cannot be fully explained if analysis is confined to the systemic level. Furthermore,...

  16. Foreign Policy: Approaches, Levels Of Analysis, Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Šoljan

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of key issues related to foreign policy and foreign policy theories in the wider context of political science. Discussing the origins and development of foreign policy analysis (FPA), as well as scholarly work produced over time, it argues that today FPA encompasses a variety of theoretical approaches, models and tools. These share the understanding that foreign policy outputs cannot be fully explained if analysis is confined to the systemic level. Furthermore,...

  17. New Labour 'Ethical' Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Alexandrovna Stepanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article discusses problems and contradictions associated with the attempt of the Labour Party under the leadership of Tony Blair to start a 'new era' in international relations by putting the 'ethical dimension' into the heart of their foreign policy. Indeed, having come to power and possessing great credibility among the British society, New Labour undertook a number of actions, which marked the formal break with the practices of the previous governments. Thus, they shifted the focus from the foreign trade interests to human rights considerations on the international arena, introduced innovations in the field of international aid and development of poor countries, declared the priority of so-called 'advanced' national interests. These solutions, however, have led to some ambiguous results. The author argues that, on the one hand, the Labour Party 'new' foreign policy was a tribute to the historical tradition and continuity and on the other - the spirit of the times, as other Western countries leaders claimed similar statements, and that, in fact, it contributed to the moral authority of the government in the eyes of the British society. The article contains examples proving how ambiguity and contradictoriness of certain decisions have been the conscious choice made by politicians, when declared altruistic goals actually proved to protect interests of certain business structures and direct opposite of the stated ethical principles. It is suggested that the divergence between word and deed had been initially present in the New Labour international doctrine and that the 'ethical foreign policy' can be considered as one of the tools of Realpolitik. The author concentrates on such aspects of the New Labour foreign policy as development, aid, debt relief, and arms trade, rather than on Blair’s just wars’ that are widely discussed in the Russian language historical literature and press.

  18. 17 October 2013 - C. Ashton High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, Vice-President of the European Commission visiting the ATLAS cavern with ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson D. Charlton; visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Technology Department Head F. Bordry and signing the Guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2013-01-01

    17 October 2013 - C. Ashton High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, Vice-President of the European Commission visiting the ATLAS cavern with ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson D. Charlton; visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Technology Department Head F. Bordry and signing the Guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer.

  19. Member State Foreign Policy towards EU Military Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    2017-01-01

    suggest that another operation in CAR may be underway shortly. The EU’s military endeavours are particularly interesting to this enquiry, as they suggest a radical change in the cohort of member states’ foreign policy towards the Union, which until the turn of the Millennium had been considered by its MS...... dimensions of the Union, which has been under-researched so far. This contribution takes its starting point in a series of political, diplomatic and institutional changes in European foreign, security and defence policy. These, this chapter suggests, have made way for the change in MS foreign policy towards...

  20. Peculiarities of Modern Foreign Policy of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V I Yourtaev

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is focuses on the analysis of the main peculiarities of modern foreign policy of iranian President M. Ahmadinejad, his constructive interaction concept in foreign policy. The formation of the nuclear gate for entering into world policy and basic problems of Iranian development as a new regional leader in the context of globalization and international relations transformation process are considered.

  1. The Ultimate Stumbling Block? The Common Foreign and Security Policy, and Accession of the European Union to the European Convention on Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2016-01-01

    The protection of human rights within Europe diverges between two systems. On the one hand, there are 28 Member States of the European Union; and on the other are 47 states, including 19 other non-EU states that are a party to the Convention. For states that wish to become Member States of the EU......, supported by Protocol 8 and Declaration 2 of the Treaties. Between 2010 and 2013, a Draft Accession Agreement (‘DAA’ or ‘Draft Agreement’) was negotiated during intense rounds of discussion between the relevant parties. With a long history of attempted EU accession to the Convention and the level...

  2. The Transmission of Foreign Shocks to South Eastern European Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrevski, Goran; Bogoev, Jane; Tevdovski, Dragan

    2014-01-01

    reference rate are relatively quickly transmitted to domestic money market rates. We can explain these effects by several factors, such as: the fixed exchange rates, the relatively high integration of SEE financial markets to EMU financial markets as well as the dependence of banks on foreign financing......This paper investigates the transmission of foreign shocks to economic activity and macroeconomic policies in the South Eastern European (SEE) economies with fixed exchange rate regimes: Croatia, Macedonia and Bulgaria. Specifically, we provide empirical evidence on the influence of the EMU policy...... and non-policy shocks (the output gap, the money market rate and the inflation rate in the euro-zone) on monetary and fiscal policies and economic activity in the analysed countries. The main motivation behind our empirical investigation is the fact that all of these economies are small open economies...

  3. Solidarity in European Foreign Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik

    Der er ikke meget forskning om, hvorvidt EU handler støttende over for medlemsstater i nationale udenrigspolitiske kriser. Papiret præsenterer en tredelt analyseramme til forståelse af karakteren af EU´s response i nationale udenrigspolitiske kriser, som baserer sig på diskursiv institutionalisme...

  4. The European Security and Defence Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    The European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP), which is the operational military and civilian dimension of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), is today one of the most dynamic areas of the European Union. However, it is only recently that the EU has acquired explicit military decision....... The Union is thus gradually emerging as an important player on the international scene, with a strategic vision, as well as diplomatic, civilian and military crisis-management instruments that complement the existing economic, commercial, humanitarian and development policies on which the EU has hitherto...... built its reputation as a ‘soft power'. Despite its rapid development, many still regard the EU as weak and ineffi cient when it comes to security and defence policy. Moreover, the EU struggles with internal divisions and has a strained relationship with NATO. Nonetheless, there are good reasons...

  5. The European Union's Africa Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2013-01-01

    For a number of years, there has been an international debate on whether and to what extent small member states can influence the common external policies of the European Union. Recent research on the role of small EU states concludes that these states are neither per se political dwarfs nor powe...... place. Rather, it appears adequate to talk about convergence of policies between the Nordics and the EU and therefore, the Africa policies of both actors are basically the result of Europeanization....

  6. Towards Parliamentarization of Foreign and Security Policy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, W.M.; Raunio, T.

    2017-01-01

    It is customary to argue that foreign policy is very much dominated by the executive, with parliaments wielding limited influence. However, with the exception of the US Congress, legislative‒executive relations in the realm of foreign and security policy have attracted remarkably little scholarly

  7. EU foreign policy after Lisbon - will the new high representative and the external action service make a difference?

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Jonas

    2008-01-01

    "The Lisbon treaty will fundamentally alter the foreign policy set-up of the European Union. Among the key innovations figure the establishment of the foreign affairs high representative and the European External Action Service (EAS). Their creation may well lead to a new era of European diplomacy, providing the Union with a genuine foreign policy chief and a full-fledged foreign service. Are these only high hopes, or will the Lisbon institutional engineering really make a difference? Will th...

  8. European Integration and environmental policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ike, Paul; Bakker, Liesbeth

    1990-01-01

    There appears to be considerable enthusiasm about the expected macroeconomic consequences of European integration. If we regard integration, however, in the light of the environment and environmental policy, concern seems more appropriate. Predicted growth in production levels will damage the

  9. Innovation Policy in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta-Christina Suciu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The innovation policies aim to analyze priority factors shaping innovative performance and to reflect the increasing appreciation of the economic and social importance of innovation. This paper is commissioned to examine topics of current interest or concern to innovation policy-makers in Europe. Based on literature and the framework of the European Action Plan for Innovation, this paper investigates different levels and fields of European innovational systems and practices.

  10. EUROPEAN MARITIME TRANSPORT POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kujawa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the common EU policy on maritime transport, which comprises almost 80% of the volume of external trade of the Union and about 40% of internal transport needs. The first part of the paper presents the origins of the common maritime transport policy and the difficulties encountered during its initial formation. Subsequently, the evolution of the concepts of the policy and its current shape is discussed. The final, substantial part of the article describes the main aims and directions of the EU maritime transport policy and includes an evaluation of the effects of the policy.

  11. Strengthening Foreign Policy Through Public Diplomacy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Claud

    2004-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War and the terrorist attacks of September 11 2001 the United States of America is engaged in a major effort to inform and influence understanding of its foreign policy around the world...

  12. Globalization and US Foreign Policy Toward Iran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amland, George

    2003-01-01

    .... Globalization is the force that in some instances is assisting US foreign policy. At the same time, other elements of globalization are eroding US desires with respect to Iranian programs in WMD...

  13. Domestic bureaucratic politics and Chinese foreign policy

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Hongyi; Kang, Su-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    One of the outstanding features of China’s domestic politics is the prominence of the bureaucracy in the policy-making process. Arguably, bureaucracy is the next major player in the policy-making process in China after the top leaders. In this article, the three following aspects of the role of bureaucracy in the Chinese foreign policy-making process are examined: (1) the structure of the bureaucracy, especially the main agencies of the bureaucracy involved in foreign policy making; (2) the r...

  14. A. Davutoglu's Ideology of Turkish Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alim Vidadievich Suleymanov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In article the ideology of turkish foreign policy is analyzed, elaborated and successfully put into practice by the former Minister for Foreign Affairs, and nowadays by prime minister Ahmet Davutoglu. Foreign policy strategy of Davutoglu represents set of the interconnected theoretical (the flexible approach; consistency and systematic approach; new diplomatic style and practical principles directed on increase of a role of the Turkish state on international scene - balance between democracy and safety; “zero of problems with neighbours”; preventive and priority peace diplomacy; multidimensional foreign policy; rhythmical diplomacy. Each of principles possesses certain properties and characteristics which have always been presented as a certain purpose which is necessary for reaching Turkey in the difficult international environment. Undoubtedly, A. Davutoglu's ideology has brought the huge contribution to activization and expansion of foreign policy of Turkey last decade. The merit of Davutoglu consists that it has cardinally changed the approach of the Turkish state to the foreign policy which was based earlier on such postulate - “the best friend of a Turk is a Turk”. However the destructive events which have passed and occurring today as in the Turkish state (terrorism strengthening, instability of political system, and also in region of the Middle East - civil war in Syria, deterioration of relations with Russia, Greece, Syria, Iran and Iraq have called into question a number of positions of the concept of Davutoglu in this connection in article some attention to the critic of its approach is paid also.

  15. Sovremennaja vneshnjaja politika Litvy: korrektirovki tradicionnogo kursa [Modern Lithuanian foreign policy: the adjustment of traditional policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batorshina Irina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the core areas of Lithuanian foreign policy. Special attention is paid to the adjustment of the major foreign policy vector, which concentrated earlier on the cooperation with the United States of America and strategic partnership with the Republic of Poland. The article analyses the attempts of Lithuanian president Dalia Grybauskaitė to formulate the so-called «new foreign policy» based on the multivector approach to the intergovernmental cooperation. This research is timely because of an increasing influence of small states on foreign policy decision-making within the European Union. It emphasizes the need to analyse foreign policy priorities of the Baltic States and Central and Eastern European countries and to identify the dominant trends in the international policy in the region in order to forecast further development at European and global levels. This objective is achieved with the help of an integrated approach with elements of interdisciplinary research. Special attention is paid to the comparative-historical approach, which facilitates the analysis of the relations between the Republic of Lithuania and the neighbouring states and its principal partners. Alongside traditional methods of historical research, this work employs such methods as participant observation, content and event analysis, and simultaneous and comparative analysis. The research and practical significance of this work is explained by its emphasis on the need to apply an additional theoretical framework to studies into the foreign policy initiatives of the Republic of Lithuania in the international arena. While earlier they were determined by the value (democratic approach, which was a reflection of American realism, today an increasingly important factor is the personality of the president, who does not always positively influence the changing policy of the country. The results of the research contribute substant

  16. Conflict within the Turkish foreign policy decision making mechanism:

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa OĞUZ; Oguz, Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents an analysis of Turkish foreign policy decision making in a theoretical model and argues that Turkish foreign policy is a product of negotiation and compromises among various foreign policy making actors. Theoretical foundation is built on decision units framework advanced by Margaret G. Herman. It applies this framework to two cases and four decision occasions to investigate who made foreign policy decisions and how this influenced foreign policy of Turkey. The first case...

  17. European Union's consumer policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Maja

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available EU's consumer protection legislation concerns product safety measures (general product safety and liability for defective products, as well as protection of the economic interests of consumers (misleading and comparative advertising, distance contracts, unfair terms in consumer contracts, etc.. In the future, EU's consumer policy will face various challenges due to the factors such as globalization of markets and technological developments, which have had a profound effect on products, services and in marketing. In order to respond to these challenges, more flexible approach will be needed.

  18. FOREIGN POLICY SOVIET CONSTRUCT. LESSONS LEARNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin MEGHEŞAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Soviet foreign policy is a field where theories abund. Most of these theories contend that one or more factors are extremely important determinant factors for Soviet behaviour in all or most situations. Soviet foreign policy has usually been analysed in terms of the leader’s objectives, their perceptions and iniatives in the outer environment of the world politics, and their response to development abroad. The main purpose of this article is to briefly examine the internal and external factors that shape Soviet foreign policy and behavior, and to analyse the forces that shape Soviet international behaviour, focusing on the national interest issue. Why Soviet foreign policy? Because we consider that even a brief look into the Soviet foreign policy may represent the key to understanding Russias current behaviour on the world stage. The first step in constructing viable security strategies is to understand the surrounding political world, as well as what Russia was, is and could be.

  19. Benchmarking & European Sustainable Transport Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    2003-01-01

    to support Sustainable European Transport Policies. The key message is that transport benchmarking has not yet been developed to cope with the challenges of this task. Rather than backing down completely, the paper suggests some critical conditions for applying and adopting benchmarking for this purpose. One...... way forward is to ensure a higher level of environmental integration in transport policy benchmarking. To this effect the paper will discuss the possible role of the socalled Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism developed by the European Environment Agency. The paper provides an independent......, Benchmarking is one of the management tools that have recently been introduced in the transport sector. It is rapidly being applied to a wide range of transport operations, services and policies. This paper is a contribution to the discussion of the role of benchmarking in the future efforts...

  20. LENDING IN FOREIGN CURRENCY AND CURRENT CHALLENGES AT EUROPEAN LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘARGU Alina Camelia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, most countries in Central and Eastern Europe, Member States of the EU, that we selected for the analysis (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania have recorded a significant expansion of lending in foreign currency, which was one of the major factors of the accelerated growth of loans to economy. Such developments have led to an increase of indebtedness in foreign currency of the non-financial private sector, especially of the households and of the accumulation of major macroeconomics and financial imbalances. The issue of lending in foreign currency, the determinants of increasing the share of loans in foreign currency and the risks generated at the level of financial stability are the subject of numerous studies, including: Basso, Calvo-Gonzales and Jurgilas (2007; Rosenberg and Tirpak (2008; Csajbók-Andras et al. (2010; Zettelmeyer, Nagy and Jeffrey (2010. Another significant issue addressed in the specialized literature regarding foreign currency loans refers to the role of monetary policy in limiting growth of these loans. Thus, in addition to those noted studies we remark other studies, such as: Kiss et al. (2006; Sirtaine and Skamnelos (2007; Hilbers et al. (2006; Brzoza-Brzezina et al. (2010. Our paper complements the specialized literature on the approached subject, in particular, by highlighting and discussing current issues of high interest for policymakers, both at national and European level regarding lending in foreign currency. The extremely negative implications of lending in foreign currency on financial stability in most countries under review, outlined clearly in the context of the current crisis, determined the focus of the policymakers concern, both at European and national level, regarding the issue of foreign currency loans, which became one of the most discussed issues on the agenda of the monetary-financial authorities. The aim of our research is to

  1. Essays on Economic Policy and Foreign Policy,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    orthopedic surgeons about a ligament injury : one recommended immediate surgery; the second suggested a cast for six weeks, and then surgery, maybe; the third...for example, the Administration rejected import quotas for copper, but accepted higher tariffs on Japanese motorcycles . Nevertheless, as between the...have to look for other explanations than the actual injury or penalty foisted on the Europeans and their Soviet partners. One familiar, but I think

  2. European environmental policy: The pioneers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen and Liefferink's edited volume takes a different approach to comparative environmental policy studies. It looks at how domestic environmental policies and activities In six specific countries (Sweden, Austria, Finland, Germany, The Netherlands, Denmark and Norway) have affected environme......Andersen and Liefferink's edited volume takes a different approach to comparative environmental policy studies. It looks at how domestic environmental policies and activities In six specific countries (Sweden, Austria, Finland, Germany, The Netherlands, Denmark and Norway) have affected...... environmental politics at the European Union level. Following Robert Putnam's theory, environmental policymaking in the EU is viewed as a reciprocal two-level game in which activities, actors and politics in domestic and EU arenas affect each other. Governments at times need to build domestic political support...

  3. The Heroic Framing of US Foreign Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, Emily D.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation concerns the US presidential use of heroic framing in connection with foreign policy. I identify "heroic framing" as speech which describes policies in terms evoking the heroic narrative, either explicitly or implicitly through references to heroic characters. The technique of heroic framing both encourages audiences to view a situation in terms of stark moral absolutes and normalizes casualties and violence as an aspect of these heroic conflicts. This rhetorical technique t...

  4. Recent Foreign Language Education Policies in Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Muhammad Hasan

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the development of foreign language education policies in Palestine at a time when the establishment of a Palestinian state has become a real option, and when, following the Oslo agreements, the Palestinians have become responsible for Palestinian education. (Author/VWL)

  5. The Model of Turkish Foreign Policy: Opening New Horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špak Valerij

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Seeking international authority Turkey uses a self-designed democracy model; therefore, this Muslim state has more possibilities to address societies of the Middle East region and propose to them a new paradigm concerning the future of these countries, thus guaranteeing their aspirations for justice and equality. Turkey is the only Muslim state with a functioning democracy, oriented towards the world of the West. The position of the political elite of Turkey concerning a vision for the country’s modernization and its traditional Muslim society world outlook, reflects the compatibility of the internal development of the country. While analyzing the principles of Turkish foreign policy, the doctrine of the “Strategic Depth”, the guidelines, tendencies, strategies, directions and visions of Turkish foreign policy, one may discern the possibilities of the use of doctrine principles, taking into consideration essential geopolitical changes of the 20th and 21st centuries. The issue of Turkey’s accession to the European Union is a complicated and controversial aspect of the foreign policy of the EU. Therefore, an understanding of the decision-taking model of the Turkish political elite will enable European Union politicians (as well as those of Lithuania to make clear substantiated decisions regarding this country.

  6. MULTIFRACTAL STRUCTURE OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN FOREIGN EXCHANGE MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cn#259;pun#351;an Rn#259;zvan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that empirical data coming from financial markets, like stock market indices, commodities, interest rates, traded volumes and foreign exchange rates have a multifractal structure. Multifractals were introduced in the field of economics to surpass the shortcomings of classical models like the fractional Brownian motion or GARCH processes. In this paper we investigate the multifractal behavior of Central and Eastern European foreign exchange rates, namely the Czech koruna, Croatian kuna, Hungarian forint, Polish zlot, Romanian leu and Russian rouble with respect to euro from January 13, 2000 to February 29, 2012. The dynamics of exchange rates is of interest for investors and traders, monetary and fiscal authorities, economic agents or policy makers. The exchange rate movements affect the international balance of payments, trade flows, and allocation of the resources in national and international economy. The empirical results from the multifractal detrending fluctuation analysis algorithm show that the six exchange rate series analysed display significant multifractality. Moreover, generating shuffled and surrogate time series, we analyze the sources of multifractality, long-range correlations and heavy-tailed distributions, and we find that this multifractal behavior can be mainly attributed to the latter. Finally, we propose a foreign exchange market inefficiency ranking by considering the multifractality degree as a measure of inefficiency. The regulators, through policy instruments, aim to improve the informational inefficiency of the markets, to reduce the associated risks and to ensure economic stabilization. Evaluation of the degree of information efficiency of foreign exchange markets, for Central and Eastern Europe countries, is important to assess to what extent these countries are prepared for the transition towards fully monetary integration. The weak form efficiency implies that the past exchange rates cannot help to

  7. Toward a better union: improving the effectiveness of foreign policies

    OpenAIRE

    Bradshaw, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A fundamental characteristic of state-state interaction in a globalized system is the explicitness with which states communicate their foreign policies to each other. In order to understand the role and the importance of foreign policy explicitness in the global foreign policy system, I first created a simple mesh model of the actors and institutions that form the U.S. foreign policy system. By optimizing this model with various system...

  8. Federal and European Union Policy Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    By using the policy cycle approach, this paper compares the policy-process in a number of Anglo-Saxon type federations with the policy-process in continental-European style federations from within the European Union (EU) area.  The comparison would reveal: a) distinct different styles of policy...... making in European style federations in relation with the Anglo-Saxon ones. b) that the policy-process in the EU resembles that of the European style federations, and c) the Constitutional Treaty (CT) or a possible CT-light would strengthen the federal policy-making characteristics already present...

  9. Competing Foreign Policy Visions: Rhetorical Hybrids after the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Mary E.

    1995-01-01

    Examines ways in which two very different political actors, George Bush and Bill Clinton, attempted to construct a new foreign policy consensus by blending the rhetorical forms of the Cold War with other foreign policy metaphors. Argues that these hybrids have not proven persuasive as justifications for American actions in foreign policy. (SR)

  10. Foreign Policy and Public Opinion: An Assessment of Ijebu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Much has been said on the nexus between public opinion and foreign policy. There are those who believe that public opinion is the primary, if not the sole, molder of foreign policy. On the other hand, there are those who hold that the elite, rather than the general public, determine foreign policy. There are also others who ...

  11. Danish Foreign Policy and the Balance between the EU and the US

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    In the international debate it is often argued that Denmark in its major foreign policy priorities has sided with the USA since the Cold War rather than with the EU or its European partners. The article examines whether this is correct, and if it is, why this is so, since 2001. The paper also asks...... partner across foreign policy areas since 2001, in spite of ad hoc foreign policy cooperation with the US, and that this is due to a dominant discourse which articulates the EU as `our most important alliance´. However, the US is the most important partner on military security issues based on a discourse...... which articulates cooperation with the US as a central part of Danish foreign policy identity and an`offensive foreign policy´....

  12. The foreign investments phenomena in south-eastern European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Teodora ALECU

    2010-01-01

    The south-eastern Europe countries have all the common history of the communism policy and economy, which from the foreign investments perspective meant a radical approach, which promoted a nationalism view against foreign capital interference. Similar to China, perhaps India and other countries, the governments of the south-eastern Europe’s countries expressed a rejection to foreign investments, emphasizing the negative effects of such operations, arguing that any foreign capital inflow is f...

  13. The foreign investments phenomena in southeastern European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Teodora ALECU

    2010-01-01

    The south-eastern Europe countries have all the common history of the communism policy and economy, which from the foreign investments perspective meant a radical approach, which promoted a nationalism view against foreign capital interference. Similar to China, perhaps India and other countries, the governments of the south-eastern Europe’s countries expressed a rejection to foreign investments, emphasizing the negative effects of such operations, arguing that any foreign capital inflow is f...

  14. European Union Energy Saving Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Y. Kaveshnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses methods of energy efficiency stimulation in the European Union. The author investigates basic areas of the EU activity; in particular, the author estimates results of implementation of the Energy Star program, new provisions of labeling of energy-using products, measures to increase energy efficiency in buildings. The paper also analyzes the provisions of the Directive 2012/27 that is the first EU document, providing for a comprehensive approach to energy saving at all stages: production, transformation and consumption. Today EU policy includes: 7 a general political and regulatory framework laid down by the European action plan on energy efficiency and Directive 2012/27; 2 national action plans on energy efficiency, which should be in line with indicative targets set at the EU level; 3 special EU documents in key areas of energy efficiency (buildings, energy-consuming equipment etc.; 4 accompanying instruments, such as target funding, information dissemination, support of specialized networks. The paper gives a comprehensive analysis of the key methods of implementation of EU policy in the area of energy saving. The author concludes that EU operates within the framework of the open method of coordination. The system of mandatory/voluntary technical standards has allowed to achieve significant success, but indicative planning and monitoring of national actions are not completely effective. In the long term EU policy in the area of energy efficiency is restrained by member states unwillingness to delegate to the European Union a more detailed powers in this field and to give the EU bodies facilities to execute more strict control. In the short term - in conditions of economic crisis, the EU countries are not ready to invest significant budget funds in projects with long payback period.

  15. China's Assertive Foreign Policy in South China Sea Under Xi Jinping: Its Impact on United States and Australian Foreign Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Sinaga, Lidya C.

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines the impact of the assertiveness of China's Foreign Policy in the South China Sea under Xi Jinping on United States and Australian foreign policy. The essay focuses on the Xi Jinping period from 2013 because Xi has a different approach in foreign policy making from that of his predecessors. His determination to defend and advance maritime claims and interests as well as the external developments, have made his foreign policy more assertive. This essay will argue that China...

  16. China's Assertive Foreign Policy in South China Sea Under XI Jinping: Its Impact on United States and Australian Foreign Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Sinaga, Lidya Christin

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines the impact of the assertiveness of China's Foreign Policy in the South China Sea under Xi Jinping on United States and Australian foreign policy. The essay focuses on the Xi Jinping period from 2013 because Xi has a different approach in foreign policy making from that of his predecessors. His determination to defend and advance maritime claims and interests as well as the external developments, have made his foreign policy more assertive. This essay will argue that Chin...

  17. Foreign Policy: Public Opinion and Political Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Aaron T.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To the degree that public opinion, as domestic variable, influences a leaders decision-making in the area of foreign affairs is significant. Political leaders use public opinion polling to support government position or in attempts to mold policy position(s in the affirmative. The following article investigates how public opinion affects U.S. presidential foreign policy decisions and to the degree those decisions are the base for political legacy. The theoretical argument is that domestic variables and leaders decisions often act in mutual support of each others in complementary interests and when not the case, it is the leader whose agenda setting or creating a frame impacts public opinion.

  18. A study on the nuclear foreign policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jae Soo; Lee, H. M.; Jun, E. J.; Lee, D. H.; Lee, B. W.; Won, B. C.; Kim, H. J.

    2011-12-15

    This study addresses four arenas to assist national nuclear foreign policies under international nuclear nonproliferation regimes. Firstly, this study analyzes the trends of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime, which includes the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the international nuclear export control regime, and fissile material cut-off treaty. Secondly, this study analyzes the trends of international nuclear organizations and fora, which include the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as a central body of international nuclear diplomacy and technical cooperation and International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation (IFNEC) as a forum for international nuclear cooperation. Thirdly, this study analyzes the nuclear foreign policy of the U. S. Administration and reviews bilateral nuclear cooperation agreement between the ROK and the other countries including the U. S. Lastly, this study analyzes the nuclear issues of North Korea and Iran and multilateral nuclear approaches as assurances of nuclear fuel supply.

  19. Russian Foreign Policy. Sources and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    desire to restore Russia’s international prestige; and a favorable inclination toward the Russian Orthodox Church , including its sometimes xenophobic...Celebrating the 62nd Anniversary of Victory in the Great Patriotic War,” Moscow, May 7, 2007c. Russian Foreign Policy 87 ple, General Nikolai Solovtsov...6.7:10.0; our projected goal is 3.4:10.0.) 32 Nikolai Proskurin, “Kontraktnik—Velichina Postoyannaya [Contract Soldier—Perma- nent Size],” Voyenno

  20. Advancing women's status: a foreign policy goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, M

    1997-01-01

    US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright asserted in a March 1997 speech to the State Department that integrating gender issues into foreign policy forwards the interests of the US government. Albright noted that advancing the status of women is necessary to build the kind of future the US wants for the world. This cannot happen unless women have the equal access, rights, and protection necessary to contribute to society to their full potential. Advancing the status of women is crucial for realizing the goals of building peace, expanding the circle of democracy, sustaining a growing global economy, and spreading US-endorsed values. The US is incorporating concerns relating to women into the mainstream of its foreign policy by supporting foreign aid programs that expand the political and economic participation of women, increase access for women to education and health care, and augment the ability of women to protect themselves from violence and disease. This integration process means that the US will be working with other governments as well as with nongovernmental organizations and other agents of progress. This gender perspective will affect every stage from policy-making to program implementation. The US will be seeking an end to the old era of injustice and repression to make way for a new era of opportunity and full participation.

  1. Constitutional Limits of the EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    The Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) of the European Union (EU) is a highly exceptional component of the EU legal order. This constitutionalised foreign policy regime, with legal, diplomatic and political DNA woven throughout its fabric, is a distinct sub-system of law on the outer...... and judicial jurisdiction at Union level. There is constitutional significance to the choice of legal basis for foreign policy and external relations acts of the Union. Legal tensions therefore exist in EU external relations between CFSP and non-CFSP fields, as the institutional competences differ in terms...

  2. ENERGY POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Pazderníková, Kamila

    2006-01-01

    This work focuses on the reasons and beginnings of creation of European energy policy, the role of environment in this policy and different kinds of energy sources with special focus on the renewable ones. The hot topic of liberalization of European energy policy is also discussed. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)

  3. The foreign investments phenomena in south-eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora ALECU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The south-eastern Europe countries have all the common history of the communism policy and economy, which from the foreign investments perspective meant a radical approach, which promoted a nationalism view against foreign capital interference. Similar to China, perhaps India and other countries, the governments of the south-eastern Europe’s countries expressed a rejection to foreign investments, emphasizing the negative effects of such operations, arguing that any foreign capital inflow is followed by a foreign capital outflow which at the end will destabilize the balance of external payments and will overall result in no favorable effect upon the economy of their countries.

  4. Russia’s New Irredentist Foreign Policy Approach & Energy Card

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail KÖSE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Soon after Industrial Revolution fossil energy resources became extremely one of the irrevocable essentials of humankind. Nowadays, use of fossil energy resources paved the way of several problems. Throughout last two hundred years of human history disagreements to share energy resources led dramatic conflicts and wars broke out. Notably WWII and Cold War were a kind of proxy clashes over energy resources. In 1991 the long lasting Cold War came to an end yet neither energy disputes nor conflicts related to the sharing of energy resources have not ended. Starting with Industrial Revolution so far oil and coal are were unmatched basic energy sources to run the engines of industry. Especially after 1980’s hitherto natural gas and shale gas gained a new status in the energy need of humanity. Because both are more effective, clean and environment friendly. Beside shale gas, Europe and Turkey do not have natural gas reserves nowadays border neighborhood of Russian Federation has rich reserves. In other words Russian Federation is between rich reserves owing Central Asian countries and importer European countries. This fact led Russia to use energy card as a tool of foreign policy. Especially after the collapse of SU, the successor state Russia has not stopped intervening domestic affairs of post-communist countries. While intervening domestic affairs of former Iron-Curtain countries Russia uses numerous excuses such as to protect the rights of Russian originated people, to save its former citizens’ lives despite the fact nobody asked such a protection. Russia also argues that it has cultural and territorial rights in former Iron-Curtain countries. This kind of foreign policy aspects in international relations are called “irredentism” and European states could not force Russia to stop such conflict escalating policies. European dependency on Russian natural gas and energy problems one way or another affects European foreign policy priorities on

  5. Political elites and foreign policy : democratization in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wibisono, Aria Teguh Mahendra

    2009-01-01

    In the investigation, the domestic sources of foreign policy analytical framework were used to analyze the dynamics of elites in foreign policy making. After analyses of the results of mostly personal interviews and historical materials, it was determined that political elites do matter in foreign

  6. Great Decisions 1988: Foreign Policy Issues Facing the Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoepli, Nancy, Ed.

    Eight selected U.S. foreign policy issues are explored in this study and discussion guide. Issue 1, "U.S. Foreign Policy: Projecting U.S. Influence," describes United States involvement in diplomacy, military power, intelligence, trade, and foreign aid since World War II. U.S.-Mexico relations are considered in issue 2, "Mexico and…

  7. 78 FR 51266 - Foreign Affairs Policy Board Meeting Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ..., 5 U.S.C. App., the Department of State announces a meeting of the Foreign Affairs Policy Board to take place on September 9, 2013, at the Department of State, Washington, DC. The Foreign Affairs Policy... national security interests; (3) tools and capacities of the civilian foreign affairs agencies; and (4...

  8. 78 FR 34702 - Foreign Affairs Policy Board Meeting Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ..., 5 U.S.C. App., the Department of State announces a meeting of the Foreign Affairs Policy Board to take place on July 15, 2013, at the Department of State, Washington, DC. The Foreign Affairs Policy... national security interests; (3) tools and capacities of the civilian foreign affairs agencies; and (4...

  9. International migration, international relations and foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C

    1989-01-01

    Recent literature on migration, international relations, and foreign policy is reviewed in this article, stressing applications of global systems paradigms, studies of state entry and exit rules, and anatomies of domestic policy-setting processes on migration. After a concise assessment of the contemporary theory of global political economy, the paper argues for seeking mid-range generalizations on the international relations of migration. It also suggests that analysis begin with the policy-setting processes of the state. Especially through the use of comparative perspectives available from domestic policy making studies and from the field of international comparative public policy, this approach offers the opportunity to fix empirically the political roles of transnational social forces, which often present themselves as participants in domestic policy contests. Promising future directions in the study of state-to-state relations are also evaluated, with the anticipation that verifying regional or other intermediate patterns of world migration politics may contribute to more general theories of international political economy.

  10. Health, human rights and Australia's foreign policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Elizabeth A

    2004-02-16

    International human rights law affirms that everyone has a right to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. States that are parties to human rights treaties are obliged under international law to observe these rights. Australia has ratified all international human rights law instruments in which the right to health is enshrined, and so is obliged to ensure that its foreign policy, including its development assistance program, contributes towards the progressive realisation of the right to health. International trade regulation should be consonant with the progressive realisation of the right to health globally.

  11. Restructuring Foreign Worker Policy and Community Transformation in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz, Mohd Amar; Ayob, Noor Hadzlida; Abdulsomad, Kamaruddin

    2017-01-01

    Malaysia is one of the most rapidly growing economies in Asia and is blessed with foreign workers inflow to sustain the economic growth process. However, the strong national sentiments among the local community, which harbors ill perception towards the foreign workers, lead to regrettably vague policies concerning foreign workers. As far as this issue is concerned, Malaysia needs to reform the policy regulations so that foreign workers will be able to integrate into the economic transformatio...

  12. Globalisation, health and foreign policy: emerging linkages and interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, John Wyn; Roberts, Olivia

    2005-01-01

    A discussion of the growing links between the issues of globalisation, health and foreign policy. This article examines the effect this has on health, development and foreign policy communities in the UK and internationally and considers what steps the policy community must take to address the challenges and opportunities of this new relationship. PMID:16053520

  13. Sources of change in foreign policy. A review of foreign policy models for developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba E. Gámez

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of what could be called the reorientation of State foreign policy is not a new phenomenon. Changes in alliances, economic partners and attitudes in the face of international issues have been reflected in myriad texts. Nevertheless, few theoretical frameworksdeal with this issue as an area of study in and of itself. Overcoming this situation would contribute to identifying and comparing the changes in attitude and discourse in the relations between countries, especially in the case of developing countries, and, by extension, thesources of these changes. This article reviews the different models for the analysis of foreign policy, using the conceptual framework of Hermann (1990 as its starting point. This framework suggests the existence of four graded levels of change which allow for studying forms of change which are subtle but important in foreign policy; it also offers a reasoned analysis for testing the relative importance of their sources. This conceptual framework can be situated in the traditional division of levels of analysis: the characteristics of the leader, bureaucratic proposer, internal adjustment, and external impact; and, while it does not provide a conclusive answer, it may be a useful tool in clarifying the ways of using empirical evidence and establishing the relative importance of the sources of change in foreign policy orientation.

  14. Eastern Dimension of the European Neighbourhood Policy: Europeanization Mutual Trap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Latkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the Europeanization policy of the European Union towards the Eastern Partnership participant countries. Suffering from the lack of clear strategy and ultimate goal in the European Neighbourhood Policy the European Union enhances external democratization and its governance in post soviet states without immediate Union's membership perspective. Underestimation of common neighbourhood geopolitical duality in the context of growing rivalry between European (EU and Eurasian (Custom Union/Eurasian Economic Union integration gravitation centers presents the Eastern partners of the EU with a fierce dilemma of externally forced immediate geopolitical and civilizational choice while not all of them are well prepared to such a choice. The mutual Europeanization trap here to be studied both for the EU and its Eastern partners (involving Russia is a deficiency of regulating cooperation mechanism in the situation of European and Eurasian free trades zones overlapping. Vilnius Summit 2013 results test the "European aspirations" of the New Independent States and upset the ongoing process of the European Neighbourhood Policy in the context of growing economic interdependence in Wider Europe. Besides, the Ukrainian crisis escalation during 2014 as a new seat of tension provokes unbalance of the whole European security system and creates new dividing lines in Europe from Vancouver to Vladivostok.

  15. The European Social Survey and European research policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kropp, Kristoffer

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the history of the European Social Survey (ESS) and its relationship to changes in European research policy, using Bourdieu’s field-analytical approach. It argues that the success of the ESS relied on three interwoven processes that we can understand theoretically in terms o...

  16. INDUSTRIAL POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Nica

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The differences registered in the early 90s between the economy of the European Union as compared to the economies of the United States and Japan, in regards of growth rates, investment rates, R&D and innovation, international trade, etc., as well as the fast changes of the world economy determined the European Commission to issue the white paper on “Growth, Competitiveness and Employment”, underlining the meaning of the European economy’s competitiveness in the new conditions, and the legal frame for EU’s industrial policy was settled through the Treaty of Maastricht. The document was setting theobjectives, priorities and the six basic principles of the European industrial policy, in a unitary concept. In the spring of 2000, the European Council from Lisbon sets the objective of transforming the European Union in the most dynamic and competitive economy of the world, and, therefore, foresees a working agenda with specific actions going until the horizon of 2009. In December 2002, after EUs enlargement, the Commission forwards to the Council the document titled “Industrial Policy in an Enlarged Europe”, in which theindustrial development at the moment of new member states integration is analyzed, as well as the effects of EU’s enlargement over the industry, and it suggests actions for the future development of the sector. The industrial policy of the EU must offer solutions for industrial development, by answering the challenges concerning globalization, the technological and organizational changes, the increasing role of innovation and entrepreneurship, and the sustainable development taking into consideration the new socialrequirements. The development objectives set at European level cannot be reached without a tight interconnection of the industrial policy measures with those of some complementary policies, such as thecommercial policy, the single market policy, transport and energy policies, research and development policies

  17. SURVEY OF PERSONNEL POLICIES IN RELATION TO FOREIGN LANGUAGE COMPETENCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WELLEMEYER, JOHN F.

    THE PRINCIPLE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT AGENCIES THAT OPERATE IN FIELDS REQUIRING FOREIGN LANGUAGE COMPETENCIES, THE U.S. MILITARY SERVICES AND SOME PRIVATE ORGANIZATIONS, WERE SURVEYED TO DETERMINE THEIR OPERATING POLICIES THAT RELATE TO PERSONNEL WITH FOREIGN LANGUAGE SKILLS. THE AGENCIES THAT HAVE THE GREATEST NEED FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE SKILLS…

  18. A Study on the Nuclear Foreign Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Wook; Lee, H. M.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Oh, K. B.; Yang, M. H.; Lee, K. S

    2007-12-15

    This study approaches the international trends related to nuclear non-proliferation in four aspects. First, this study analyzes the trend of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime, which includes the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the international nuclear export control regime and proposals for assurance of nuclear fuel supply. Second, this study analyzes the trend of international nuclear organizations, which includes the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a central body of development of nuclear technology and international nuclear diplomacy, and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA), a intergovernmental organization to consist of a group of nuclear advanced countries. Third, this study analyzes the trends of the U.S.'s nuclear foreign policies, particularly nuclear non-proliferation. Fourth, this study analyzes the nuclear issues of North Korea and Iran as they cause serious concerns to a international society.

  19. Policy-making in the European Union

    CERN Document Server

    Pollack, Mark A; Young, Alasadair R

    2015-01-01

    Constantly evolving, and with far-reaching implications, European Union policy-making is of central importance to the politics of the European Union. From defining the processes, institutions and modes through which policy-making operates, the text moves on to situate individual policies within these modes, detail their content, and analyse how they are implemented, navigating policy in all its complexities. The first part of the text examines processes, institutions, and the theoretical and analytical underpinnings of policy-making, while the second part considers a wide range of policy areas, from economics to the environment, and security to the single market. Throughout the text, theoretical approaches sit side by side with the reality of key events in the EU, including enlargement, the ratification of the Lisbon Treaty, and the financial crisis and resulting euro area crisis, exploring what determines how policies are made and implemented. In the final part, the editors consider trends in EU policy-makin...

  20. Foreign Policy Involvement Matters: Towards an Analytical Framework Examining the Role of the Media in the Making of Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Schulz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Foreign policy processes have long played a minor role in the study of political communication. There is a broad consensus that the media is the central mediating actor and primary conduit between political decision-makers and the public. However, the media’s influence on foreign policy remains contingent across various processes and phases of foreign policy making; it is dynamic and multi-directional. Considering that the public sphere is essential for the legitimacy of foreign policy making, there is a demand for further research on the media’s performance in the making of foreign policy. Based on secondary research, this paper proposes an analytical framework for the systematic analysis of media–foreign policy relations by integrating foreign-policy context conditions as a research variable. The framework is based on the assumption that the role of the media varies across diverse foreign policy contexts depending on the intensity of governmental involvement in foreign affairs. The intensity is distinguished according to three dimensions: no involvement, indirect involvement and direct involvement. Finally, a case study is suggested in order to demonstrate the framework’s explanatory power: the German media coverage of Russia.

  1. Global health in foreign policy--and foreign policy in health? Evidence from the BRICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Nicola F; Gomez, Eduardo J; McKee, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Amidst the growing literature on global health, much has been written recently about the Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa (BRICS) countries and their involvement and potential impact in global health, particularly in relation to development assistance. Rather less has been said about countries' motivations for involvement in global health negotiations, and there is a notable absence of evidence when their motivations are speculated on. This article uses an existing framework linking engagement in global health to foreign policy to explore differing levels of engagement by BRICS countries in the global health arena, with a particular focus on access to medicines. It concludes that countries' differing and complex motivations reinforce the need for realistic, pragmatic approaches to global health debates and their analysis. It also underlines that these analyses should be informed by analysis from other areas of foreign policy. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  2. Challenges of Nigeria's foreign policy | Enuka | AFRREV IJAH: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria's foreign policy like those of every other elsewhere, is hoped to achieve for the benefit of Nigeria and Nigerians, the aspired goals and articulated interests of the Nigerian state. This expectation, by the judgment of many informed Nigerians, is yet to be fully realized. Nigeria's foreign policy inter alia, has failed to work ...

  3. Foreign language policy and the development of Mandarin Chinese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the development offoreign language policy in higher educationin the United States (US) and indicates gaps in the study of foreign languages in highereducation in that country. A discussion of current policy, provision, programmes andfunding of foreign languages in higher education are presented, ...

  4. Towards a social theory of EU foreign and security policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bickerton, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    This article argues that the study of EU foreign and security policy has been hampered by its conceptualization of the sovereign state. Realist and constructivist scholars share Stanley Hoffmann's formulation of states as either 'obstinate or obsolete'. EU foreign and security policy is puzzling in

  5. Toward a Better Union: Improving the Effectiveness of Foreign Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    method of using a “linear unobserved components model” to combine indicators represents a systematic and scalable means of creating composite indicators...combination of the carrot , the stick, and explicit declarations of foreign policy objectives can form the most effective foreign policies amidst the

  6. Foreign Policy and Public-Private Partnership for Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines foreign policy and public-private partnership for economic development in Nigeria. It proceeds from the assumption that foreign policy goes beyond spontaneous reaction to international issues and events, but an extrapolative and empirical attempt at achieving a state's short and long term goals ...

  7. Judicial policy-making and Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2011-01-01

    Judicial policy-making is having an increasing impact on political domains traditionally guarded by national sovereignty. This paper examines how the European judiciary has expanded Community competences into the policy domains of welfare and immigration, followed by subsequent Europeanization...... been cautious to apply the principle beyond economic law, it no longer treads as reluctantly, instead generally limiting the inner core of national policy control, i.e. the capacity of the national executive to detail, condition and administer national policies in almost all domains....

  8. Foreign policy of the New Left: explaining Brazil's Southern partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Pickup

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study is to consider the relationship between domestic change and foreign policy in Brazil, a country seeking to become Latin America's hegemon, and achieve greater global status. It focuses on Brazil's partnerships with other countries in the Global South. It argues that, due to the combination of institutions and interests behind foreign policy-making in Brazil, there is no coherent project of South-South engagement. As a result, South-South ties tend to contradict the Brazilian government's foreign policy objective of acting as a global equaliser. The study also examines the drivers of Brazil's foreign conduct, and argues that the politico-economic determinants of foreign policy differ from those of domestic policy.

  9. Theories and myths of European foreign policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    , multilateralising and multipolarising processes. In order to make greater sense of EFP in a global political-cultural context, this chapter will consider the ways in which political theories and cultural myths co-constitute each other in both symbolic and substantive terms. EFP is understood here to involve...

  10. FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING AND THE EUROPEAN HIGHER EDUCATION AREA: IMPACT AND IMPLEMENTATION AFTER THE BOLOGNA PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Ballesteros Martín

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Union authorities have constantly fostered foreign language learning policies due to the special contribution of this competence to social cohesion and economic prosperity. Since Bologna Declaration and the attempt to build a European Higher Education Area, that interest has also extended to decision-making and regulatory bodies in universities. This article reviews the main declarations and implementations to promote multilingual training in universities: The Portfolio in 2001, the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages in 2001, the ENLU network project in 2003 and the Nancy Declaration in 2006. It also describes the situation of Spanish institutions regarding foreign language acquisition. Finally, it provides some suggestions for achieving convergence plans within the EHEA context, expected by the 2010 deadline.

  11. Poland´s Foreign and Security Policy. Main Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Bieńczyk-Missala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to present the main areas of Polish foreign and security policy. Poland’s membership in the EU and in NATO was the strongest determinant of its position in international relations and the guiding light of its foreign policy. Poland’s work in the EU was focused in particular on EU policy towards its eastern neighbours, common energy policy and security issues, while in NATO, Poland has always been a proponent of the open doors policy and has maintained close relationship with the US, supporting many of its policies and initiatives.

  12. APPLICATION OF THE EUROPEAN EXPERIENCE IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHERS’ TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Barkasi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article defines the role of the European experience in the foreign language teachers` training in the modern society, the use of International relations in education. The concept of common European education is analyzed. Due to this concept teaching and learning standards, educational models, and teaching objectives are brought together with the aim to create the common all-European educational system. In order to join this all-European scheme Ukraine needs to make modifications in its educational system. The fundamental idea is to use blended learning as the dominant instructional mode in higher education. The authors examine how the study of the leading European powers` educational experience helps to approach the problems of education in Ukraine critically. English Language Department of Mykolaiv V. Sukhomlynsky National University as a part of the consortium, composed of ten higher education institutions, takes part in the TEMPUS-project «Improving teaching European languages through the introduction of on-line technology (blended learning to train teachers." Blended learning is a powerful technology to be implemented into the modern model of Ukrainian education in order to get the level of European educational system. The article highlights how participation in the implementation of TEMPUS-project can be an effective tool for improving the training of the foreign languages teachers.

  13. Workplace innovation: European policy and theoretical foundation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, F.; Totterdill, P.; Dhondt, S.

    2016-01-01

    Workplace innovation is gaining profile as an emerging European policy, creating organisational performance and quality jobs. DG GROW and DG EMPL are leading. Policies regarding work organisation and workplace innovation in the EU over the last 20 years used to be rather fragmented, but more

  14. Standardizing the European Education Policy Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Countries in Europe, through the European Union, are creating, as part of the market and its governance, a new policy space in education. It is being formed through law, regulation, networking and harmonization. The development of standards across the different fields of policy, statistical calculation and commerce underpins and extends the…

  15. New European policy toward chronically ill employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopnina, H.; Haafkens, J.; Elling, L.R.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of current policies related to the chronically ill employees in the Netherlands. Different levels of policy are discussed: those formulated at the European, Dutch and organizational levels. A significantg percentage of Dutch employees suffer from longstanding

  16. Current approaches to the European Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda CURTA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify the key elements that define the new European health policy. We observed that the health policy actually appeared to be an enclave within the integration process. The development of health policy in the new Member States followed a common pattern. Therefore, the European health policy reflected a general desire on behalf of the members to have more clarity of the rules in this area, given the different interpretation of the rules by different Member States.The Lisbon Treaty does not bring substantive changes regarding the public health policy, therefore the Member States shall keep their competence in defining the organization and financing this domain. However, the EU2020 Strategy states that “Europe faces a moment of transformation”. Therefore, the “Europeanization” of health policy could lead to the positive developments that all EU citizens are expecting.

  17. Foreign Labor in Singapore: Rationale, Policies, Impacts, and Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Chia, Siow Yue

    2013-01-01

    Singapore has one of the most open economies in Asia in terms of trade, capital inflows, and foreign labor inflows. The foreign labor policy is dual track, with measures to attract foreign talent and control the inflow of low-skilled labor through work permits and levies and dependency ceilings. In 2010, foreigners accounted for a high 34.7 percent of the labor force, as a result of buoyant labor demand and deficit labor supply due to declining total fertility rate, as well as a foreign labor...

  18. The Interparliamentary Conference on the CFSP/CSDP: A new forum for the Oireachtas in Irish and EU foreign policy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the Interparliamentary Conference (IPC) on the European Union's Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) since its establishment in 2012. In light of the increasing cavities and skewed power balances between executives...... and legislatures in the policy domains of foreign affairs, security and defence, compounded by the loss of institutional influence experienced by national parliaments as a result of the European integration process, interparliamentarianism within the EU has seen significant growth over the past number of years...... seen elsewhere in the EU, back at home in Leinster House....

  19. European policies in the management of tuberculosis among migrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia D’Ambrosio

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Globally 10.4 million new tuberculosis (TB incident cases were estimated to have occurred in 2015, of which 3% were reported in the World Health Organization European Region. Importantly, about 25% of the global multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB cases are reported in the European Region, representing one of the greatest challenges to TB control; these are reported particularly in the countries of the Former Soviet Union. Over a quarter of TB cases in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA are reported among foreign-born individuals. In line with the recent increase of migration flows towards Europe, TB among migrant populations is also on the rise, emphasizing the need for a better understanding of the TB trends at the regional and sub-regional levels, and of the existing policies on migrants and refugees. The present article is aimed at describing the policies and practices of European countries with a low and intermediate TB incidence with regard to the detection and management of TB and latent TB infection (LTBI among refugees in Europe.

  20. India's Foreign Policy: Big Shift or Pragmatic Makeover?

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Akanksha; Narain, Akanksha

    2015-01-01

    In light of recent events, especially President Obama’s visit to India and Indian Foreign Minister Sushma Swaraj’s visit to China, India’s foreign policy appears to have undergone a transformative shift since the heyday of Non-Alignment. Is this indeed the case?

  1. Missionary Diplomacy and Benevolence in American Foreign Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the mid-nineteenth century, American missionaries have advanced the objectives of American foreign policy by preparing the people and governments in foreign territories for formal diplomatic intercourse with the American government. Apart from their original missionary activities, the Christian organisations sent ...

  2. The role of e-PR in foreign policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereshchuk Vitaliy Ivanovych

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the role of the Internet as a global communication tool in the PR-support of the implementation of foreign policy. Special attention is paid to such innovative directions of electronic foreign PR as the creation of "virtual embassies" (on the example of the United States.

  3. Strategic imperative formation of foreign economic policy of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Borysenko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Deep rethinking and thorough elaboration require a general plan for the development of the state management in the sphere of foreign economic processes - strategy formation and implementation of foreign economic policy of Ukraine. Formed in conditions of political and economic crisis, it is not aimed at providing qualitative change - innovation development, enhance national business investment, measuring asymmetry foreign trade balance, optimize the structure of imports, increasing competitiveness of Ukrainian goods and so on. Significant changes need in government regulation mechanisms of transformation processes, their system updates, meaningful transition to a model of a market transformations, which combined with effective self-governance. The purpose of the article is to explore the strategic principles of foreign economic policy formation, identifying directions Ukraine’s foreign economic strategy formation and ways to improve its effectiveness. Today in Ukraine needs logically consistent application of the basic model of strategy formation and implementation of foreign economic policy: strategy of protectionism, strategy of competitiveness and foreign economic trade integration strategy. The scale and fragmentation tasks are preventing their full implementation. For a targeted and effective state influence on the economy suggest to build a strategy of foreign economic policy on the principles of consistency, integrity, comprehensiveness, subordination, continuity, dynamism, system-creating relations.

  4. The Analysis of Imperial Character of the USA Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е О Savchenko

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on various aspects of such phenomenon of world politics as 'empire', its key features. It also raises the question whether it is possible to define US foreign policy as imperial.

  5. Faultlines, Synergies and Frontiers of India’s Foreign Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    Paper and presentation for the International workshop “The Internal and External Constraints on Foreign Policy in India: Exploring Culture and Ethnic Sensitivities”. Jadavpur University, Kolkata in Collaboration with Political Science Department, Aalborg University and Nordic Institute for Asian...

  6. Rethinking the National Interest: Putin's Turn in Russian Foreign Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Medvedev, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines the historical and political roots behind a transformation in Russian foreign policy undertaken by President Vladimir Putin in the wake of the terrorist acts of September 11, 2001...

  7. Evolving Bureaucratic Politics in Chinese Foreign Policy-Making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qingmin Zhang

    2015-01-01

    .... Its conclusion is that the foreign policy-making process of the People's Republic of China (PRC) has progressed from the ideology based in-party factionalism of "line battles" to interest-based government politics of organizational competition...

  8. The competitiveness of Slovak foreign trade in the European market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavličková Viera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the competitiveness of the Slovak Republic in its ability to succeed in foreign markets. It provides a complex view of Slovak foreign trade within the European Union using a sectoral classification of products. Several appropriate methods (Constant Market Share Analysis, Revealed Comparative Advantage, Michaely Index, and unit export and import values are applied to quantify the competitiveness of Slovak foreign trade and to identify the level and trend of its specialisation. The analysis uses the data provided by the Eurostat Comext database for the period 1999-2011. The results confirmed Slovakia as a former transition country to be a fast developing open economy. Its production is competitive in the European market, although mainly with prices. Labour- and capital-intensive commodities, along with the automotive industry, dominate Slovak foreign trade. Technology- and R&D-driven goods have a comparative disadvantage as a consequence of several factors, such as lack of innovation and creativity in the business sphere. A shift towards export of more sophisticated products would be beneficial in supporting long-term sustainable development; however, no significant change in Slovak commodity structure has occurred over the past years.

  9. European Union energy policy integration: A case of European Commission policy entrepreneurship and increasing supranationalism

    OpenAIRE

    Maltby, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on gas, this article explores the role of the European Commission in the process of European Union energy security policy development, and the extent to which the policy area is becoming increasingly supranational. Situating the article within the literature on agenda-setting and framing, it is argued that a policy window was opened as a result of: enlargement to include more energy import dependent states, a trend of increasing energy imports and prices, and gas supply disruptions. ...

  10. OF LANGUAGE EDUCATION POLICY AND CHILD FOREIGN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foreign language education, particularly in French, has taken root in Kenyan education institutions namely in secondary schools, universities, language schools and in other tertiary institutions. The subject has also, as it is, penetrated the learning system in primary schools in Kenya. However, learning of foreign languages ...

  11. Russia's foreign policy toward the Caucasus under Vladimir Putin

    OpenAIRE

    Farajirad, Abdolreza; Khezerzade, Asaad

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine Russia's foreign policy toward the Caucasus during Vladimir Putin's presidency. Moreover, the period between 2000 and 2008 was one of the most important eras for Russian-Caucasian relations under Vladimir Putin in Russia, since his presidency brought about significant changes in Russia's foreign policy. However, this study will not analyze pre-2000; instead, it will concentrate on certain facts and events that are important for understanding the period between 2000...

  12. The Modern Media: The Impact on Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Washington, DC: The Annenberg Washington Program, 1993), 10. 3 Strobel, 34. 4 Livingston, 3. 62 5 Ibid. 6 Strobel, 35. 7 Livingston, 3. 8 Philip Seib ...problem for the politician and policy maker may be Cybernews, as Philip Seib believes, “Cybernews is already an important medium that trumps the ‘CNN...Foreign Affairs 78 (July-August 1999): 24. Seib , Philip , “Politics and the Fourth Estate: The Interplay of Media and Politics in Foreign Policy.” Harvard

  13. Current Trends in Foreign Trade Theory and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław W. Puślecki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, Author focus on the current analysis trends in foreign trade theory and policy. Accordance with the foreign trade policy theory further trade liberalisation and improved framework policies would increase trade and promote growth. It must be emphasized that openness to trade is associated with higher incomes and growth and there is the need for new approaches to trade cooperation in light of the forces that are currently re-shaping international business. What indicates the importance and innovativeness of the research is the presentation of the new models of the foreign trade policy and trade interests. First of all, it must underline that in the new theoretical terms in demand for trade policy very important is factor specificity. The low specificity of factors means that factor returns are equalized throughout a region’s economy. On the other hand, some factors are stuck in their present uses; therefore, factor returns are not equalized throughout a region’s economy but are industry specific. The main objective of the research task is to give a comprehensive analysis of current trends in foreign trade theory and policy and in particular models of foreign trade policy, trade interests indicated by export orientation and import sensitivity, foreign trade policy in different types of authoritarian regimes, protectionist pressures in different political system, the level of protectionist pressures, the tendencies to bilateralism in the foreign trade policy. It should be stressed that free trade in itself is not responsible for economic growth, but more significant are the determining macroeconomic stability and increasing investment.

  14. Health in All (Foreign) Policy: challenges in achieving coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonté, Ronald

    2014-06-01

    Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach is generally perceived as an intersectoral approach to national or sub-national public policy development, such that health outcomes are given full consideration by non-health sectors. Globalization, however, has created numerous 'inherently global health issues' with cross-border causes and consequences, requiring new forms of global governance for health. Although such governance often includes both state and non-state (private, civil society) actors in agenda setting and influence, different actors have differing degrees of power and authority and, ultimately, it is states that ratify intergovernmental covenants or normative declarations that directly or indirectly affect health. This requires public health and health promotion practitioners working within countries to give increased attention to the foreign policies of their national governments. These foreign policies include those governing national security, foreign aid, trade and investment as well as the traditional forms of diplomacy. A new term has been coined to describe how health is coming to be positioned in governments' foreign policies: global health diplomacy. To become adept at this nuanced diplomatic practice requires familiarity with the different policy frames by which health might be inserted into the foreign policy deliberations, and thence intergovernmental/global governance negotiations. This article discusses six such frames (security, trade, development, global public goods, human rights, ethical/moral reasoning) that have been analytically useful in assessing the potential for greater and more health-promoting foreign policy coherence: a 'Health in All (Foreign) Policies' approach. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Framing health and foreign policy: lessons for global health diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Global health financing has increased dramatically in recent years, indicative of a rise in health as a foreign policy issue. Several governments have issued specific foreign policy statements on global health and a new term, global health diplomacy, has been coined to describe the processes by which state and non-state actors engage to position health issues more prominently in foreign policy decision-making. Their ability to do so is important to advancing international cooperation in health. In this paper we review the arguments for health in foreign policy that inform global health diplomacy. These are organized into six policy frames: security, development, global public goods, trade, human rights and ethical/moral reasoning. Each of these frames has implications for how global health as a foreign policy issue is conceptualized. Differing arguments within and between these policy frames, while overlapping, can also be contradictory. This raises an important question about which arguments prevail in actual state decision-making. This question is addressed through an analysis of policy or policy-related documents and academic literature pertinent to each policy framing with some assessment of policy practice. The reference point for this analysis is the explicit goal of improving global health equity. This goal has increasing national traction within national public health discourse and decision-making and, through the Millennium Development Goals and other multilateral reports and declarations, is entering global health policy discussion. Initial findings support conventional international relations theory that most states, even when committed to health as a foreign policy goal, still make decisions primarily on the basis of the 'high politics' of national security and economic material interests. Development, human rights and ethical/moral arguments for global health assistance, the traditional 'low politics' of foreign policy, are present in discourse but do

  16. Framing health and foreign policy: lessons for global health diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonté, Ronald; Gagnon, Michelle L

    2010-08-22

    Global health financing has increased dramatically in recent years, indicative of a rise in health as a foreign policy issue. Several governments have issued specific foreign policy statements on global health and a new term, global health diplomacy, has been coined to describe the processes by which state and non-state actors engage to position health issues more prominently in foreign policy decision-making. Their ability to do so is important to advancing international cooperation in health. In this paper we review the arguments for health in foreign policy that inform global health diplomacy. These are organized into six policy frames: security, development, global public goods, trade, human rights and ethical/moral reasoning. Each of these frames has implications for how global health as a foreign policy issue is conceptualized. Differing arguments within and between these policy frames, while overlapping, can also be contradictory. This raises an important question about which arguments prevail in actual state decision-making. This question is addressed through an analysis of policy or policy-related documents and academic literature pertinent to each policy framing with some assessment of policy practice. The reference point for this analysis is the explicit goal of improving global health equity. This goal has increasing national traction within national public health discourse and decision-making and, through the Millennium Development Goals and other multilateral reports and declarations, is entering global health policy discussion. Initial findings support conventional international relations theory that most states, even when committed to health as a foreign policy goal, still make decisions primarily on the basis of the 'high politics' of national security and economic material interests. Development, human rights and ethical/moral arguments for global health assistance, the traditional 'low politics' of foreign policy, are present in discourse but do

  17. Framing health and foreign policy: lessons for global health diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labonté Ronald

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Global health financing has increased dramatically in recent years, indicative of a rise in health as a foreign policy issue. Several governments have issued specific foreign policy statements on global health and a new term, global health diplomacy, has been coined to describe the processes by which state and non-state actors engage to position health issues more prominently in foreign policy decision-making. Their ability to do so is important to advancing international cooperation in health. In this paper we review the arguments for health in foreign policy that inform global health diplomacy. These are organized into six policy frames: security, development, global public goods, trade, human rights and ethical/moral reasoning. Each of these frames has implications for how global health as a foreign policy issue is conceptualized. Differing arguments within and between these policy frames, while overlapping, can also be contradictory. This raises an important question about which arguments prevail in actual state decision-making. This question is addressed through an analysis of policy or policy-related documents and academic literature pertinent to each policy framing with some assessment of policy practice. The reference point for this analysis is the explicit goal of improving global health equity. This goal has increasing national traction within national public health discourse and decision-making and, through the Millennium Development Goals and other multilateral reports and declarations, is entering global health policy discussion. Initial findings support conventional international relations theory that most states, even when committed to health as a foreign policy goal, still make decisions primarily on the basis of the 'high politics' of national security and economic material interests. Development, human rights and ethical/moral arguments for global health assistance, the traditional 'low politics' of foreign policy, are

  18. Politicising financial foreign policy: an analysis of Brazilian foreign policy formulation for the financial sector (2003- 2015)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duarte, Rubens de S; Lima, Maria Regina Soares de

    2017-01-01

    Abstract At the start of the 21st century, there was a reconfiguration of the Brazilian domestic political dynamic, as its actors gradually became more interested in the formulation of foreign policy...

  19. ENERGY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE PRESENT CHALLENGES TO THE EUROPEAN COMMON SECURITY AND DEFENCE POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel ANDRUSEAC

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Common Security and Defence Policy is a part of the European Union’s Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP and establishes the policy framework for the institutional structures and military instruments which have to deal with the security challenges in Europe’s geopolitical neighborhood. The article aims to identify and analyze the role of energy as one of the present challenges to the European Common Security and Defence Policy in the context of the recent events in the world economy.

  20. Foreign Policy and Economy of Slovakia: the Russian Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Hopta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The lasting ties of cooperation and cooperation that have been formed for several decades in the Czechoslovakia-Russia format, and after the «velvet divorce» and Slovakia’s independence and sovereignty in 1993 - in the format Slovakia-Russia prove that Russia has been and still is remains a stable, reliable and strategically important partner of Slovakia not only in the areas of foreign policy and diplomacy, economic and economic cooperation, education, culture, but also in the energy and non-governmental organizations.The article analyzes in detail the foreign political and economic cooperation of Slovakia and Russia, while taking into account the transformations taking place today in the international arena. In particular, special attention is paid to the position of Slovakia on the Crimean issue and the problem of anti-Russian sanctions, which at the moment are among the most discussed topics regarding not only European political structures, but also EU member states, including Slovakia.The author proves that the anti-Russian sanctions introduced by the West in 2014 and annually prolonged, after three years showed their senselessness and counterproductive nature, since their main goal - to drive out Russia into the corner of the international arena - was not achieved. The long-term «freezing» of political and economic relations between the West and Russia, on the contrary, caused significant damage to EU member states, including Slovakia, which is a subcontractor of large states. The negative impact of anti-Russian sanctions and the subsequent imposition of retaliatory sanctions on Russia adversely affected the Slovak economy, primarily because of the «forced» reduction in Slovak exports to Russia. Therefore, it is not surprising that the Slovak government is extremely concerned about the current situation and officially expresses interest in the complete cancellation or at least partial easing of anti-Russian sanctions.Analyzing the

  1. EUROPEAN UNION POLICIES FOR CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Canter

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the most important challenges that humanity faces in the 21st century, and for the European Union, combating this phenomenon represents an important element, which is reflected both in the actions carried out in recent years, domestically and internationally, as well as in the EU policy on climate change. Within the EU, regulations were adopted, that demonstrate the importance that the Union confers to the limitation of this phenomenon, stressing at the same time the need for an integrated policy framework to ensure the security for potential investors and a coordinated approach between Member States. This paper will present recent developments for the most important policies to combat and mitigate climate change in the European Union, starting with "20-20-20" objectives, which are to be met through the package "Energy-Climate Change", continuing with 2030 and 2050 timeframes, and finally presenting the main lines of action to combat climate change.

  2. "Normalization," U.S. Foreign Policy and Domestic Linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, James C.

    In this paper, the United States' foreign policy with regard to normalization of relations with mainland China and the implications of various normalization strategies is discussed. Failures in Kissinger's policy (fixation upon super-actors, but neglect of regional powers and the attitude that Taiwan was disposable) are identified. The effects of…

  3. THE COMPETITION POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitriţa Florea (Ionescu

    2012-09-01

    2009.The economic development of each community country, of the European Union as a whole isunthinkable without maintaining a functioning competitive environment, fundamental requirement in themarket economy. Moreover, competition is considered as the most important cause of economic andscientific-technical progress.The purpose of the present work is the elucidation of the specific notions attached to competition,competition policy, give-away of the types of competition and the analyze of the existent policies in thedomain of the competition.Leaving from the hypothesis off the specialty literature (reminding here: Ioan Alexandru and theco-workers, Aurelia Cotutin, Dumitru Mazilu, Tudorel Ştefan, Beatrice Grigoriu, such as the relationshipswhich it’s proceed between the participants on the same market with the intention to accomplish somepersonal concerns by the conditions of economic liberty, we try to analyze each type of competition, thecompetition policies, following concomitantly the achievements of the specific nature of the policy in thedomain of competition.The question which it’s shape is if the process of the European integration it’s manage to generatean competition policy materialized in a necessary condition for the existence of the unique internal market.Another problem tackle in this paper-work is the evolution of the competition policy in theEuropean Union bringing close-up the mains international documents which is settle the competition andthose evolution in time. As well, an important bearing represent the European institution whichadministrate the competition policy, an aspect which is debate in the section 3 of this scientific demarche.

  4. European Union security policy through strategic culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beriša Hatidža

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we shall pay attention to the security policy of the European Union, through the strategic culture, starting from the existing various options for cooperation in the field of security and defense. Our goal is to look at the implementation of the Strategic Culture of the European Union (EU SK, research ways to improve the international position of the Union and its impact on policy cooperation and trust with other collectives. Analysis of flexible cooperation between the European Union, as well as access to special procedures in the field of security and defense policy, we will follow the ambition and capacity in implementing the same. Paper aims to introduce the idea of the European Union, which allows its members to rationally consider and check the box of options available to decision makers. In this regard, the EU seeks to build its own armed forces to protect the association of interests-investment terms. Reviewing and understanding the strategic culture of the EU by countries that are not its members can be seen as reasons for strengthening the capacity of the Union for the realization of the impact of the global security as well as predicting its future steps.

  5. Migrants, refugees and foreign policy: prevention and intervention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, M; Munz, R

    1997-03-01

    The authors discuss policy development options to deal with migrants and refugees to developed countries. "Our principal argument--perhaps to state the obvious--is that international migration and refugee movements are foreign policy, not simply domestic, issues. Nevertheless, citizens and policy makers are all too often unaware that if they want to secure their borders against unwanted population flows, this cannot be done simply by unilateral decisions to regulate entry." The focus is on Germany and the United States. excerpt

  6. EU foreign direct investment policy and human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro, Sérgio

    2016-01-01

    The acquisition, through the Treaty of Lisbon, of the exclusive competence in the negotiation of trade and investment agreements , binding all European Union member states, represents a significant change in the role of the European Union as a global actor. The relationship between human rights and foreign direct investment is a search for the densification of the cosmopolitan ideal of human dignity in the reality of twentyfirst century. Being regarded as an iconic figure for the defense and ...

  7. Leadership From the Centre: A New Foreign and Security Policy for Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    been a core of its foreign policy, and this fact remains true even today in a globalized world of interlocking crises and German and European interest...would also like to extend my warm appreciation to the professors of the Department of National Security Affairs for greatly expanding my knowledge of...it announces to the world that Germany recognizes that it has to assume more responsibility in maintaining global security in the new world order

  8. [Tuberculosis screening of foreigners in European, North-American, and Oceanian countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Emiko; Ito, Kunihiko

    2011-07-01

    To plan a tuberculosis control program of foreign-born people in Japan, we reviewed the policies of tuberculosis screening on entrance for immigrants and non-immigrant visitors other than refugees and asylum-seekers in European, North American and Oceanic countries. Medical literature review and Internet search for the official governmental web sites. In most countries, the main targets of tuberculosis screening programs for foreign-born people are refugees and asylum-seekers. Very few countries have a tuberculosis screening system on entrance for non-immigrant visitors. Such counties include Norway, The Netherlands, UK, Canada, New Zealand and Australia. The USA only screens immigrants who will settle permanently in USA. Screening policies and methods are highly variable, but many of the screening systems are not working well. The effectiveness of mass screening on entrance by chest X-ray, as a tuberculosis control program, is not well analyzed, and the validity of such screening is questionable. It is not accurate to think that a tuberculosis-screening program for foreign-born people on entrance to a country is an effective world standard. We must adopt a wider perspective in planning a tuberculosis control program for foreign-born people, including community-based approaches.

  9. Energy supplying of the Europe and foreign policy; Approvisionnement energetique de l'Europe et politique etrangere commune. Une problematique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P

    1998-03-01

    This paper aims to answer the question on the impact of the energy supply in Europe on the foreign and safety policy. The geo-political principles of the energy, the european petroleum and gaseous supply and the american policy facing the european energy supply are analyzed. (A.L.B.)

  10. Turkish Foreign Policy towards the Arab Revolutions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ozkan, Mehmet; Korkut, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    ... the rise of Turkey's involvement in the region. The Arab Spring came at a time when Turkey's relations with the United States, Israel and the European Union were going through significant turbulence...

  11. The Internal and External Constraints on Foreign Policy in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2018-01-01

    The main argument of this contribution is that the distinction between internal and external is at best blurred and in reality does not make much sense in the case of India’s foreign policy. It may start and end at the border and be determined by negotiations, diplomacy or brute force...... with the legitimacy of the state. The aim of the paper serves four purposes. To unpack and give a critical overview of the debates concerned with the internal and external aspects of India’s foreign policy; situate the literature dealing more specifically with domestic issues related to culture and ethnicity...... and outline the main approaches involved; to give an overview of how external factors impact foreign policy conduct and relate to India’s role in defining international norms and regulations; finally the paper gives some theoretical markers, suggestions and concluding remarks....

  12. EUROPEAN UNION POLICIES FOR CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Canter

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is one of the most important challenges that humanity faces in the 21st century, and for the European Union, combating this phenomenon represents an important element, which is reflected both in the actions carried out in recent years, domestically and internationally, as well as in the EU policy on climate change. Within the EU, regulations were adopted, that demonstrate the importance that the Union confers to the limitation of this phenomenon, stressing at the same time the ...

  13. IEA energy policies review: the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-09-04

    For the first time, the IEA has reviewed the energy policies of the European Union which shape the energy use of almost 500 million citizens in 27 EU member countries. A unique entity governed under complex and almost constantly evolving structures, the EU constitutes a challenge for energy policy makers. Its energy policy has a global impact, not only because of its 16% share of world energy demand, but also because of the EU leadership in addressing climate change. Strong policy drives are underway in the EU to achieve the completion of the internal energy market, increase renewable energy supply, reduce CO2 emissions and make the EU more energy-efficient. Concerns about security of supply have also led to a greater focus on improved energy relations with supplier countries, and new institutional structures are being put in place. How much progress has been made in the field of security, internal market and external energy policies? And in which of these areas has the EU already implemented a fully integrated policy? This publication addresses these questions and also analyses the impact of the most recent major EU policy measures, in particular the Energy and Climate Package of January 2008 and the 3rd Liberalisation Package of September 2007. This book finds that both of these proposals are highly ambitious. But implementing them and reviewing both volume and allocation of energy R and D will be necessary to achieve a sustainable energy future in a fully competitive integrated EU energy market.

  14. CONVERGENCE IN THE EUROPEAN SOCIAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Iovitu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Union has developed a series of strategies that aim to limit the consequences of non-employment (due to the continuing crisis. These strategies aim by the objectives and mechanisms specific to the eco-social area, to improve the access to employment, social services, professional education and a more efficient European fund management. All this are subordinated to the coupling policy public-private in terms of partnerships both at a national level and European level. The problem is related to differences manifested between the social objectives at the national level and those imposed by the European context. The differences come from different degrees of economic development of the member states, economic development which is reflected on the living standards. The convergence between the social policies is based on the economic convergence, which represents the only way to ameliorate the discrepancies between the united nations of Europe. Social Europe dream or certainty? The answer can be found in the words of Jean Monnet: “we are not bringing together states, we are uniting people”. The efforts to define the four types of actions regarding the free movement of labor force and the correlation of the social security schemes, ensuring equal opportunities, respecting labor rights and the fight against discrimination can be found in the results obtained on these priorities.

  15. Gazprom and Russia: The economic rationality of Russian foreign energy policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloudis, Stergos Carl Thornton

    Charges of imperialism underpinned by coercive economic tactics are some of the accusations leveled against Vladimir Putin's foreign energy policy during his presidential tenure. However, after the traditional policies of coercion failed to secure Russian interests in Europe during the 1990's, this dissertation argues Putin adopted a radically different approach upon his rise to the Presidency. Driven by public demand to continue the domestic subsidization of natural gas and realizing that the chief avenue for securing revenue was in gas sales to Europe, this project suggests that Putin developed a new foreign energy policy approach meant to secure Russian interests. This transformation was accomplished by the Presidential Administration's efforts during Putin's tenure to bring the Russian natural gas monopoly, Gazprom, under its control. Dubbed Persuasive Politics, this paradigm suggests that the foreign energy policies of the Presidential Administration and Gazprom during Putin's tenure were underpinned by the rational economic argument that the only route to Russian resurgence in the medium term was through profitable economic relations with the European states. To test this theoretical approach the author employs a case study analysis of Russian relations with the European Union member state Greece as well as the non-EU state of Ukraine. The intent is to identify how a mutually beneficial relationship was constructed to persuade both governments through the utilization of economic inducements that cooperation with Russia in the natural gas sphere was in their own best interest.

  16. US foreign policy towards West Africa after September 11 attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Akinwande, FO

    2014-01-01

    The United States foreign policy towards West Africa experienced a significant shift after the terrorist attacks of US strategic institutions in September 11, 2001. This was marked by the securitization of US foreign policy beyond the military-security context of security into other aspects of US security strategy after the Cold War. In that context, political, economic and environmental sectors became part of US security agenda, as reflected in the post-9/11 US\\ud War on Terror in global reg...

  17. Chinese Foreign Policy in Transition: Trends and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohui Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese foreign policy has been transformed in recent years. This article seeks to provide a systematic analysis of the most salient features of the new Chinese foreign policy. It identifies five such features. Based on these features, the article suggests that China is poised to become a true global power. This view differs significantly from Gerald Segal’s famous claim in 1999 that China was no more than a middle power. The article utilizes many current Chinese sources to help readers understand China’s new motives and goals in international and regional affairs.

  18. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES IN EUROPEAN UNION IMPACT OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Apolzan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic integration refers to trade unification between different states , and one of its most important aspects is liberalisation of capital movement. In this paper is presented a brief evolution of economic integration cases focusing on one of the most integrated economies European Union. We concentrate on the participation of foreign investors in different economies and their impact, taking the example of Central and Eastern European Countries and their markets. Also , the level of influence that direct investments in capital markets entails on the Stock Exchange evolution is presented for the case of Romania .

  19. European Cohesion Policy: A Proposed Evaluation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Bouroşu (Costăchescu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The current approach of European Cohesion Policy (ECP is intended to be a bridge between different fields of study, emphasizing the intersection between "the public policy cycle, theories of new institutionalism and the new public management”. ECP can be viewed as a focal point between putting into practice the principles of the new governance theory, theories of economic convergence and divergence and the governance of common goods. After a short introduction of defining the concepts used, the author discussed on the created image of ECP by applying three different theories, focusing on the structural funds implementation system (SFIS, directing the discussion on the evaluation part of this policy, by proposing a model of performance evaluation of the system, in order to outline key principles for creating effective management mechanisms of ECP.

  20. Do the CIS member states share foreign policy preferences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flemming Splidsboel Hansen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Relying on a large quantitative data set from the United Nations General Assembly voting records in the years 1992–2013, this study analyses developments in the foreign policy preferences of the member states of the Commonwealth of Independent States [CIS]. It finds that the general level of disagreement between the member states as a whole has increased significantly and that policies have become more radicalised, causing member states to hold directly opposing views still more often. It also finds that a majority of member states, led by Russia, have converged on the foreign policy mean, causing the core of the organisation to become still denser. This suggests that the CIS will undergo a future development where member states will travel along increasingly different trajectories. This research has important implications for our understanding of the CIS and of the policies of the individual member states.

  1. Effectiveness Of Foreign Direct Investment Policy In Nigeria (1986 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The coefficients of the explanatory variables are statistically significant and there is a positive relationship between foreign direct investment and liberalization and capital repatriation.The null hypothesis was tested using f- ratio and the student t- test was used to test the statistical significance of the policy variables at 95.

  2. conceptualizing the qatari-african foreign policy and economic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    country's efforts to build for itself an attractive brand abroad as a means of persuading targeted states to ... 1990s, first in his book, Bound to Lead: The Changing Nature of American. Power, and then elaborated upon it in ..... With its emphasis on image branding, particularly as a foreign policy objective in itself, the emphasis ...

  3. Foreign Assistance Policies of India and China | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Foreign Assistance Policies of India and China. International development assistance has traditionally been dominated by former colonial powers and wealthy industrialized nations. But today, emerging economies are beginning to make their mark: these new, emerging donors are an increasingly important source of ...

  4. Nigeria: Foreign Policy and Diplomatic Disarray | Fafowara | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of International Affairs. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 1 (1998) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Nigeria: Foreign Policy and Diplomatic Disarray.

  5. Global health diplomacy: advancing foreign policy and global health interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Josh; Kates, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    Attention to global health diplomacy has been rising but the future holds challenges, including a difficult budgetary environment. Going forward, both global health and foreign policy practitioners would benefit from working more closely together to achieve greater mutual understanding and to advance respective mutual goals.

  6. Book Review: 'Gulliver's Troubles: Nigeria's Foreign Policy after the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This elegant book covers an expansive thematic mosaic. Its sixteen chapters provide incisive analytical coverage, conceptual insights and empirical richness, pointing to the factors and imperatives which have shaped Nigeria's foreign policy since the end of the Cold War. That it succeeds so admirably is a tribute to the ...

  7. History: An Analysis of the Former Soviet Union Foreign Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts an appraisal of the FSU's foreign policy using Russia and Ukraine as case studies. The international context which Russia and Ukraine have confronted in view of the gravity of change, combined with the unique circumstances of their emergence through a process of the soviet state collapse, has ...

  8. A Brief Introduction to Foreign Languages Education Policy in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwen

    2012-01-01

    Based on a series of official published documents and relevant research reports, the paper make a brief introduction to foreign languages education policies in China, which included national English teaching guidance, national English language textbooks, national English curriculum standard and the massive English teachers training program, etc.…

  9. Personality Variables in Foreign Policy Decision Making Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karen S.

    Described and critiqued are studies that attempt to describe how personality factors affect foreign policy decision making. Political behavior cannot be explained in terms of personality alone. Such an attempt is a psychological reductionism that ignores the chains of causation that run from underlying personality construct to social and political…

  10. Spanish foreign policy toward Latin America: recent trends and prospects for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Grasa Hernández

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on Spanish foreign policy toward Latin America in the years since the Socialist government left office and the Popular Party (PP, headed by José María Aznar, came to power. With the historical constants in the relationship between Spain andLatin America as a starting point, the author analyses how the European dimension has shaped the Latin American dimension and identifies the changes and trends observable in recent years. After noting a growing Europeanization of Spanish foreign policy, he generally observes a growing pragmatism and realism in adjusting policy to the available means. During the PP’s second term, the emphasis in Latin American policy appear to be on the economic dimension, reflecting the significant corporate investment of the last decade, and on the strengthening of cultural ties. Nevertheless, the Latin American option has not received the same attention as other regions in the formulation of policy. There continues to be a large element of rhetoric not consistent with a solid strategic line as well as a lack of precision in goals, tools and means.

  11. European Union energy policy integration: A case of European Commission policy entrepreneurship and increasing supranationalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, Tomas

    2013-04-01

    Focusing on gas, this article explores the role of the European Commission in the process of European Union energy security policy development, and the extent to which the policy area is becoming increasingly supranational. Situating the article within the literature on agenda-setting and framing, it is argued that a policy window was opened as a result of: enlargement to include more energy import dependent states, a trend of increasing energy imports and prices, and gas supply disruptions. From the mid-2000s, the Commission contributed to a shift in political norms, successfully framing import dependency as a problem requiring an EU-level solution, based on the institution's pre-existing preferences for a diversified energy supply and internal energy market. Whilst Member States retain significant sovereignty, the Commission has achieved since 2006 creeping competencies in the internal, and to a lesser extent external, dimensions of EU energy policy.

  12. News media representations of a common EU foreign and security policy: a cross-national content analysis of CFSP coverage in national quality newspapers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kandyla, A.-A.; de Vreese, C.

    2011-01-01

    This study is a cross-national comparative content analysis of the broadsheet press coverage of EU Common Foreign and Security issues (n=1453) focusing on the presence of indicators of a European Public Sphere. Specifically, we investigated the visibility of Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP)

  13. Exchange rate policy, growth, and foreign trade in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gligorić Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes a hot topic: the influence of an undervalued currency on macroeconomic variables - primarily on the economic growth and trade balance of a country, but also on employment, foreign exchange reserves, competition, and living standards. It also reviews and explains the consequences of yuan undervaluation, points out the need for its appreciation, and states the negative effects that stem from this measure. Special attention is given to the problematic bilateral relations between China and the USA and the reasons why Americans are worried about the exchange rate policy that China implements. Although yuan appreciation would decrease the American foreign trade deficit, it also raises the question of further financing of the American deficit. There are also other problems that the possible appreciation would cause for the American economy, due to the effect of J-curve, passthrough, larger costs of input imported from China, etc. Therefore, Chinese foreign exchange policy is an important subject, but it is not the solution to the problems of the global economy - which have deeper roots than that. However, there is no excuse for China implementing unfair exchange rate policies, or replacing such policies with controversial protectionist policies (as some authors have suggested.

  14. Politics and Policies of Promoting Multilingualism in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaine, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the politics of policies promoting multilingualism in the European Union (EU), specifically in light of the recently released European Union Civil Society Platform on Multilingualism. As the most far-reaching and ambitious policy document issued by the European Commission, the Platform warrants close scrutiny at a significant…

  15. Do current European policies support soil multifunctionality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helming, Katharina; Glaesner, Nadia; de Vries, Wim

    2017-04-01

    Soils are multifunctional. Maximising one function, e.g. production of biomass, is often at the costs of the other functions, e.g. water purification, carbon sequestration, nutrient recycling, habitat provision. Sustainable soil management actually means the minimization of trade-offs between multiple soil functions. While Europe does not have a policy that explicitly focuses on soil functions, a number of policies exist in the agricultural, environmental and climate domains that may affect soil functions, in particular food production, water purification, climate change mitigation, biodiversity conservation. The objective of this study was to identify gaps and overlaps in existing EU legislation that is related to soil functions. We conducted a cross-policy analysis of 19 legislative policies at European level. Results revealed two key findings: (i) soil functions are addressed in existing legislation but with the approach to their conservation rather than their improvement. (ii) Different legislations addressed isolated soil functions but there is no policy in place that actually addressed the soil multifunctionality, which is the integrated balancing of the multitude of functions. Because soil degradation is ongoing in Europe, it raises the question whether existing legislation is sufficient for maintaining soil resources and achieving sustainable soil management. Addressing soil functions individually in various directives fails to account for the multifunctionality of soil. Here, research has a role to play to better reveal the interacting processes between soil functions and their sensitivity to soil management decisions and to translate such understanding into policy recommendation. We conclude the presentation with some insights into a research approach that integrates the soil systems into the socio-economic systems to improve the understanding of soil management pressures, soil functional reactions and their impacts on societal value systems, including

  16. Understanding the contemporary United States and European Union foreign policy in the Middle East Entendiendo la política exterior de Estados Unidos y la Unión Europea en el Medio Oriente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necati Anaz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available United States, as the dominant geopolitical power in the Middle East, has been struggling to stabilize the region to achieve its geopolitical objectives and interests. Especially since the Second World War, the US has rioritized, enacted and represented Middle East policies as vital to securing its "national interests" till terrorist attacks on the twin towers in New York City. As it is understood, the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, markeda dramatic changenot onlyin US policy, but in USrhetoricandinternational discourses as well. Following the terror attacks, US Middle East policy shifted from being the matter of "national security," which primarily puts more emphases on "responsive securitization", to the "preventive securitization of national interests," particularly under the neo-conservative Bush Administrations. Consequently, US launched two direct military engagements in Afghanistan (2001 and Iraq (2003, and involved in unilateral regime change in those states ostensibly, to secure its national interests and provide world peace in the long run. It is important to highlight here that US cleared the full support (rhetorically, at least of the United Nations to disarm the Taliban regime in Afghanistan. This study, therefore, attempts to revisit and conceptualize the contemporary US and EU Middle East foreign policy -though they are not identical- before and after the September 11 terror attack. The argument here is that the Middle East policy objectives of the US and the EU primarily agglomerate around two main headings: security of oil and protecting the state of Israel in an Arab-dominated region. Closely related, but not equivalent, both the US and EU have a stake in establishing good relations with the Arab states and promoting democracy and liberal market economies in the Middle East. This study also reviews the President Barack Obama’s Middle Eastern foreign policy initiatives and attempts to suggest several key points

  17. Civil Society Participation in Brazilian Foreign Policy: an Analysis of its Democratic Quality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pomeroy, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    ... high degree of informality. Keywords: Participation; Brazilian Foreign Policy; Civil Society; Democratic Quality; Foreign Policy Analysis. Introduction The Brazilian processes of democratisation and the economic opening of the last three decades favoured a diversification of foreign policy agendas. On the one hand, the commercial opening a...

  18. 77 FR 38126 - Foreign Affairs Policy Board Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... Foreign Affairs Policy Board to take place on July 19, 2012, at the Department of State, Washington, DC. The Foreign Affairs Policy Board reviews and assesses: (1) Global threats and opportunities; (2... affairs agencies; and (4) priorities and strategic frameworks for U.S. foreign policy. Pursuant to section...

  19. 76 FR 72236 - Foreign Affairs Policy Board Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... Foreign Affairs Policy Board Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the... Foreign Affairs Policy Board to take place on December 19, 2011, at the Department of State, Washington, DC. The Foreign Affairs Policy Board reviews and assesses: (1) Global threats and opportunities; (2...

  20. A Non-Conventional IR Approach to India's Foreign Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    that an alternative Critical IPE approach (CPE) contributes to a more nuanced understanding of India's foreign policy. In generic terms, shifting governments have a variety of options both in defining and refining what 'national interest' means, how security and threats are perceived, and which factors shape geo...... structure. The aim then is to explore the boundaries of the state in its current conjunctures, its historical dynamic and the process of social change. In this way, the paper seeks an understanding of the underlying and prevailing tensions between geo-politics and geo-economics in foreign policy......Paper presentation for the Panel 'India's international relations: empirical and theoretical perspectives'. EISA Pan-Euro Conference in Warsaw, 18 - 21st September, 2013 Abstract The paper elaborates on a critique of mainstream IR theory - neo-realism and liberal IR - and suggests...

  1. INDIA: THE PERMANENT AGENDA OF ITS FOREIGN POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÉSAR ROSS ORELLANA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The article tries to identify and explain the permanent subjects of the international agenda of India, from the perspective of its own intellectuality.  This set of ideas is considered by the Indian elite, as an structural key to understand its place in the world-wide, regional and local context. Also, allows us to understand and to explain the present and the future Indian foreign policy. This is a very interesting point of view, considering the increasing influence of India in the world-wide scene. The hypothesis stated by this article considers that the permanent international agenda of India has been composed by four main variables: foreign policy, geographic, historical and security and defense, those that were integrated as well by a total of 20 general subjects.

  2. The Internal and External Constraints on Foreign Policy in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2017-01-01

    and outline the main approaches involved; to give an overview of how external factors impact foreign policy conduct and relate to India’s role in defining international norms and regulations; finally the paper gives some theoretical markers, suggestions and concluding remarks.......The main argument of this contribution is that the distinction between internal and external is at best blurred and in reality does not make much sense in the case of India’s foreign policy. It may start and end at the border and be determined by negotiations, diplomacy or brute force...... but there is no conclusive evidence in the literature to decide what determines what. There are important dynamics and interplays across the thin line between the domestic and international sphere especially in terms of understanding the reciprocal challenges related to how factors of culture and ethnicity relate...

  3. The EU vs. Russia in the foreign policy discourse of Armenia: the fragility of normative power or the power of Russian coercion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aram TERZYAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Constructivist-driven conventional wisdom posits that ideas and beliefs are pivotal to shaping foreign policy trajectories. Thus, the explanatory power ascribed to material forces falls back on ideas and cultural practices (Wendt, 1999. Whereas the case of Armenia, characterized by the co-existence of European foreign policy identity with Russia-led foreign policy preferences suggests that identity and beliefs may well be outweighed by material forces. This paper seeks to explain the evolution of how the European Union (EU and Russia have been conceptualised within the foreign policy discourse of Armenia. The study relies on the critical discourse analysis of relevant speeches and statements of Armenia’s foreign policy-makers and, particularly, on those of the President. It scrutinizes the core notions and discursive structures, employed in the Armenian foreign policy discourse for justifying the choice of the Russia-led path. It suggests that Armenia’s deviation from the identity driven path towards the EU has been broadly justified in terms of the country’s economic and, particularly, security needs, which prompted to treat Russia as an indispensable ally. Yet, a closer scrutiny of external constraints indicates that Russian coercive policy left little room for Armenia to achieve a Russian-European balance.

  4. The Dynamic between National Identity and Foreign Policy in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    National Identity, Foreign Policy, Neo-Ottoman, Recip Tayyip Erdogan, Turgut Ozal, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk , Political Islam, Justice and Development Party...was founded on by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk in 1923. For the purposes of this thesis, this dominant national identity will be called “neo-Ottoman”5 or...forth by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk , Turkey’s founding father; but have grown to respect and recognize multiple self-images Turkish citizens identify

  5. RUSSIAN FOREIGN POLICY - INTERESTS VECTORS AND ECONOMIC IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREEA – EMANUELA DRǍGOI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, Russia's foreign policy was shaped by both a number of internal factors (government strategy, political elites, culture, economics and demography and external ones (international treaties, changes in the structure of the international power balance. In the post-soviet era Russian foreign policy was radically different from that of other major economic powers. One of the factors that influenced decisively Russia’s external strategies was the collapse of the USSR as a superpower (phenomenon described by the president Vladimir Putin as "the most powerful geo-political catastrophe of the XXst century". The shift from the former communist regime (a totalitarian one to an authoritarian oligarchy (the current regime was followed by the transition to a market economy, a phenomenon that coincided with Russia’s military and political diminished influence in the international arena. Our research aims to assess the main interest vectors that shaped Russian Foreign Policy considering the main events that constitute milestones: Russia’s emerging as a great energy power, the Crimean crisis and Western international economic sanctions that followed. Our paper will base the main assumption on a joint analysis both qualitative and quantitative, using main international economic indicators (GDP, FDI flows, trade flows, general government balance and general gross debt and the most relevant approaches in the literature in the field.

  6. Continuity and Change in India’s Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan López Nadal

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation of foreign policy to the post-cold war era and the globalisation of the economy has not been easy for India, a country which occupies a key position in Asia and arguably the world due to its size, strategic position and economic potential. In Indiacontinuity and change coexist, manifesting dramatic contradictions, with the former gradually superseding the latter. The diplomacy of New Delhi has come under harsh criticism for its resistance to adapt to a changed and changing world - something rooted in its Britishcolonial heritage and its lack of enthusiasm for questioning traditional values and attitudes. An analysis of the fundamental basis underlining these traditional conceptions is necessary, as is an historical perspective on the evolution of India’s foreign policy which embraces vastly differing factors of influence such as the external environment and internal economic and political conditions. This study begins its historical perspective on the foreign policy of independent India in 1947, dividing the period up to the present decade into three phases: the period of Nehru (1947-65, including L.B.Shastri; that of Indira Ghandi and her successors (1965-1990; and the period following the end of the cold war, under an unstable and uncertain leadership.

  7. From Obsolete Normative to Realpolitik in the EU and Russia Foreign Policy Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Păsătoiu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Growing global and regional challenges in terms of security and prosperity call for cooperation and “new type of great power” relations. Yet, both the EU and Russia took a U-turn in terms of rejuvenation of the Cold War politics announcing an astonishing overt deviation to a binary ideology fuelled zero-sum game. The EU failed to transpose Russia radical twist in foreign policy into a new design of the ENP and directly recalibrating the instruments managed to address the Eastern neighbourhood. The liberal functionalist approach would have been compatible assuming Russia had maintained its Western course; here, an exclusive design of the policy based on the normative matrix might have worked, although still at risk as it was excluding other regional power dynamics, the influences of the proximity of geography and the path-dependency that seems to reveal Cold War legacies. The Russia-Georgia war of 2008 and the annexation of Crimea were just a few of the outstanding signals that Russia’s assertiveness announced a reset of the power relations in the region. Hence, we reckon that it was a wrongly inspired policy choice for the EU to conclude prematurely enough that “Russia lacks the means of maintaining great-power status”, and consequently not predict state-like behaviour scenarios in response to a particular foreign policy pursued by the EU. In order to demonstrate the inappropriateness of the EU foreign policy design, we apply the concept of power and the regional security complex. Despite the fact that one of the pillars of the European Neighbourhood Policy is security for all, the EU has relied exclusively on policy stewardship built on a normative paradigm while miscalculating national security concerns of the Russian Federation.

  8. Foreign Aid, FDI and Economic Growth in East European Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal Upadhyaya; Gyan Pradhan; Dharmendra Dhakal; Rabindra Bhandari

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of foreign aid and foreign direct investment in the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland. The model includes the labor force, capital stock, foreign aid and foreign direct investment, and is estimated using pooled annual time series data from 1993 to 2002. Before carrying out the estimation, the time series properties of the data are diagnosed and an error-correction model is developed and estimated using a fixed-effects estimato...

  9. EU Energy Policy and Future European Energy Markets: Consequences for the Central and East European States

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita M. Balmaceda

    2002-01-01

    This working paper explores the European Union vector in the Central and East European (CEE) energy situation, in particular in terms of the CEE countries' energy relationship with Russia. Attention is paid not only to concrete EU energy policies but also to the larger question of European energy markets. EU policies impact the CEE states' energy relationship with Russia through specific EU requirements vis-à-vis the candidate countries, through the side-effects of other EU policies, through ...

  10. Is Gender Mainstreamed? : A study of the European Commission's use of gender mainstreaming in development policies

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    The EU has long expressed a will to be a normative power and to externally promote the values it views as important. Seeing as the EU collectively is the largest donor of foreign aid in the world, development policies are a perfect platform for doing this. One value that has gained ground in recent years is the notion of gender equality. Bearing this in mind, this thesis explores how the EU’s largest institutional donor of foreign aid, the European Commission, has chosen to promote the value ...

  11. The guests who stayed--the debate on 'foreigners policy' in the German Federal Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castles, S

    1985-01-01

    The recruitment of "guest workers" between 1956 and 1973 by West German employers has given rise to new ethnic minorities. The Federal Republic of Germany (GFR) claims that it is not a country of immigration--a controversy that reflects the basic dilemma over policies towards foreign residents, who now comprise about 7% of the total population. The shift from temporary labor migration to long-term settlement has been accompanied by structural changes in the foreign resident population. The logic of the migratory process is inescapable: virtually all migrations, whether organized or spontaneous, start with movements of young adult workers. When recruitment stated in the late 1950s state migration policies were concerned only with short-term fulfillment of capital's labor requirements. The state established a system of institutionalized discrimination, through which temporary guest workers could be recruited, controlled, and sent away, as the interests of capital dictated. This policy was impracticable because many firms found that rotation led to problems of labor fluctuation and high training costs. The trend toward restrictive policies on migration continued in the early 1980s; rising unemployment and urban problems led to widespread hostility towards foreigners. 3 key issues need resolving quickly: 1) the granting of security of residence status, so that migrant families have a clear basis for planning their own future, 2) the extending of political rights to foreign residents, and 3) the issue of citizenship. Like other West European countries, the GFR has become a multiethnic society through the postwar labor migrations. The early reform of legal structures to give migrants more rights is a precondition for social peace, and for achieving the benefits which multiculturalism can offer to all members of society.

  12. Myths and Realities of European Union Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The article focuses on the need for calibration in the language rights and language use in law and in practice related to the European Union language policy. It mentions the impact of Brexit on linguistic imperialism and European Commission language policies and mentions use of English in higher...

  13. Business, Government and Foreign Policy: Brazilian Construction Firms Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Frossard Silva Rego

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the interaction between Brazilian companies and government in the context of foreign policy, observing the state's support for the internationalization of large Brazilian civil construction firms. The results show that over the years these companies had privileged access to the Federal Executive, including civil service agencies. One consequence of this system of channelling demands through the Executive was to demote the Legislative branch to a secondary role. This pattern of interaction changed following the restoration of Congress's decision-making capacity, prompting the sector to diversify its areas of influence, focusing in particular on the Congress. To expand internationally, construction firms interact with the government primarily through the Executive, specifically via the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Itamaraty, which provides technical and diplomatic support, and the Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico, which supplies funding. The main argument of this article is that foreign policy should be examined through the relations between state and non-state actors in a multitude of decision-making arenas, taking into consideration both domestic and international factors.

  14. Unanswered Questions in Colombia’s Foreign Language Education Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Andrés Bonilla Carvajal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the trend of much of the Western, non-English speaking world, Colombia has tirelessly strived for spreading English education in an effort to augment economic benefits. This paper aims at providing a critical account of foreign language education policy in Colombia, with special attention to English. It outlines the impact of its multiple transitions over the past decades through a historical description that overviews all previous policies, the critical reception by scholars, and present-day initiatives. We then move on to analysing the choice of English as a synonym for bilingualism and conclude with emerging questions that are to be considered for future debates and reassessments of Colombia’s English-Spanish bilingual education policy.

  15. 77 FR 74048 - Foreign Affairs Policy Board Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ..., 5 U.S.C. App., the Department of State announces a meeting of the Foreign Affairs Policy Board to take place on January 3, 2013, at the Department of State, Washington, DC. The Foreign Affairs Policy... national security interests; (3) tools and capacities of the civilian foreign affairs agencies; and (4...

  16. World population growth, family planning, and American foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpless, J

    1995-01-01

    The US decision since the 1960s to link foreign policy with family planning and population control is noteworthy for its intention to change the demographic structure of foreign countries and the magnitude of the initiative. The current population ideologies are part of the legacy of 19th century views on science, morality, and political economy. Strong constraints were placed on US foreign policy since World War II, particularly due to presumptions about the role of developing countries in Cold War ideology. Domestic debates revolved around issues of feminism, birth control, abortion, and family political issues. Since the 1960s, environmental degradation and resource depletion were an added global dimension of US population issues. Between 1935 and 1958 birth control movements evolved from the ideologies of utopian socialists, Malthusians, women's rights activists, civil libertarians, and advocates of sexual freedom. There was a shift from acceptance of birth control to questions about the role of national government in supporting distribution of birth control. Immediately postwar the debates over birth control were outside political circles. The concept of family planning as a middle class family issue shifted the focus from freeing women from the burdens of housework to making women more efficient housewives. Family planning could not be taken as a national policy concern without justification as a major issue, a link to national security, belief in the success of intervention, and a justifiable means of inclusion in public policy. US government involvement began with agricultural education, technological assistance, and economic development that would satisfy the world's growing population. Cold War politics forced population growth as an issue to be considered within the realm of foreign policy and diplomacy. US government sponsored family planning was enthusiastic during 1967-74 but restrained during the 1980s. The 1990s has been an era of redefinition of

  17. Policy Redaction Note: A positioning of the APRILAB research project in the European policy and research landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Rohr; Savini, Federico; Salet, Willem

    2013-01-01

    Policy Redaction Note: A positioning of the APRILAB research project in the European policy and research landscape.......Policy Redaction Note: A positioning of the APRILAB research project in the European policy and research landscape....

  18. National policy measures. Right approach to foreign direct investment flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin-Emilian HUIDUMAC-PETRESCU

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available 2011 was a difficult year for all the countries, developed and emerging ones. For overcoming the negative effects of the financial crisis, many economies have established as purpose to adopt new economic policies regarding the foreign direct investment flows (FDI, even to stimulate the flows or to reduce it (protectionism measures. So, there can be identified two categories of national policies: measures for the FDI flows stimulation and measures whose aim was the weighting of FDI developing, through restriction and regulation. In the first category we could include the liberalization measures and promotional and faciletation policies. In this study we evidenced that the fundament of the second category of policies is the belief that the FDI outward lead to job exports, to a raise of unemployment and a weakness of the industrial base.Many reports on FDI flows, here we talk about those made by UNCTAD, show that the regulation and restriction policies are seen as a possible protectionism, especially in the agricultural and extractive industries, where there have been required nationalization processes and divestments. Even more, the economies which adopted this kind of policies have been less interested in investing abroad, the outward of FDI being affected and globally the total outward decreased.

  19. Climate Policy Tracker for the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, N.; Vieweg, M.; Blok, K.; Becker, D. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-11-15

    The Climate Policy Tracker for the EU is a comprehensive review of policies of EU Member States that affect greenhouse gas emissions. It provides an overview of the policy situation of each Member State broken down by sector and policy area. In addition, it provides a rating to measure the impact of these climate policies via 83 indicators. The indicators measure whether policies directed at emission reduction are in place, and if counterproductive policies and barriers for emission reduction are adequately removed.

  20. Current Policy Issues in Early Foreign Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Enever

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of policy in relation to language learning at the early primary level of schooling has received only limited attention in the literature on policy studies in general, and within the framework of an emerging education policy space across Europe specifically. This paper offers an introductory discussion of the growth of education policy in Europe, identifying the extent to which the histories of national language policies are being re-shaped by the rise of numerical data and comparison within a newly-formed European education space. A summary review of key measures of particular relevance to early language learning illustrates thescale of “soft” policy mechanisms now available as tools in an on-going process of shaping, adapting and refining policy in response to the continuously shifting language priorities that arise particularly during periods of economic instability. This paper draws on key themes from a transnational, longitudinal study of early language learning in Europe to discuss the extent to which implementation in schools has so far been moulded by a plethora of recommendations, reports and indicators formulated in response to the step change in policy development that has occurred since the publication of the Lisbon Strategy (2000.

  1. CORRUPTION AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT. EVIDENCE FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Mihaela Amarandei

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of corruption on foreign direct investment inflows for ten Central and Eastern European states. The paper attempts to answer the question: what is the role of corruption in attracting foreign direct investments? Using the data from UNCTAD for foreign direct investment and Corruption Perception Index from Transparency International, for a period of 12 years, 2000-2012, we evaluate the specific impact of corruptions on FDI using GDP as control variable. Our result...

  2. Teachers' Perspectives and Practices in Assessing Young Foreign Language Learners in Three Eastern European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumen, Mihaela; Cagran, Branka

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate foreign language teachers' experiences, understanding, attitudes and expertise in regard to the assessment of foreign languages at the primary level in three Eastern European countries (the Czech Republic, Slovenia and Croatia). The central part of the paper focuses on the current assessment…

  3. Europeanization and the Mechanics of Economic Policy Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien A. Schmidt

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available To explain divergence in member-state policy adjustment in response to the economic pressures of globalization and Europeanization (distinguished from European integration as the impact of EU level decisions on national level policies and institutions, this paper identifies five mediating factors: economic vulnerability, political institutional capacity, policy legacies, policy preferences, and discourse. In addition to these factors, it outlines four institutional adjustment pressures, including when an EU model is required, recommended, suggested, or not, to help explain the differential outcomes to Europeanization, whether policy inertia, absorption, or transformation. To illustrate, it focuses on the policy responses of three countries, France, Britain, and Germany, in such sectors as monetary policy, financial services, telecommunications, electricity, transport, the environment, and employment.

  4. Trailing the unpredictable pathways of European Union lifelong learning policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cort, Pia

    2014-01-01

    Since 2000 the concept of Europeanization has gained importance as a way of conceptualizing the changes in education and training policy in the European Union. Not least the introduction of the Open Method of Coordination in education and training has launched important policy processes through...... actors from different sites to make a ‘European Area of Lifelong Learning a Reality’ (EU Commission, 2001). The changes challenge policy research and its traditional analytical units of the nation-state and the EU as a supranational organization. As stated in the introduction of the book, decision...... actors within the new structures of a European education space. The aim of this chapter is to offer a tentative proposal on how to study the unpredictable pathways of EU LLL policy. The methodology of policy trailing and the use of the mixed methods of discourse analysis and narrative inquiry...

  5. Liberal democracy and nuclear despotism: two ethical foreign policy dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Doyle

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article advances a critical analysis of John Rawls's justification of liberal democratic nuclear deterrence in the post-Cold War era as found in The Law of Peoples. Rawls's justification overlooked how nuclear-armed liberal democracies are ensnared in two intransigent ethical dilemmas: one in which the mandate to secure liberal constitutionalism requires both the preservation and violation of important constitutional provisions in domestic affairs, and the other in which this same mandate requires both the preservation and violation of the liberal commitment to international legal arrangements and to the rule of law generally. On this view, the choice to violate constitutional provisions and international legal arrangements is evidence of nuclear despotism. Moreover, this choice does not imply that the ethical foreign policy dilemmas were resolved. Instead, it implies that the dilemmas force liberal democratic governments into implementing ethically paradoxical policy outcomes.

  6. Alcohol Policies. European Series No. 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Marcus, Ed.

    This book examines alcohol control policies in Europe in an effort to present an integrated approach to the question of policy formation; analyze the past; assess research priorities; suggest the logical sequence of stages in national policy development; examine the role of economics; and demonstrate that alcohol policies are practical, necessary,…

  7. Governing by inspection? European inspectorates and the creation of a European education policy space

    OpenAIRE

    Grek, Sotiria; Lawn, Martin; Ozga, Jenny; Segerholm, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This paper draws on the first, completed phase of a research project on inspection as governing in three European inspection systems. The data presented here draw attention to the rather under-researched associational activities of European inspectorates and their developing practices of policy learning and exchange, and highlight their significance as contributing to an emergent European Education Policy Space (EEPS). The paper is framed by original approaches to inspection that locate it as...

  8. RUSSIA’S ‘FOREIGN AGENT’ LAW: A RESPONSE TO AMERICAN DEMOCRATIC PROMOTION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently passed the Russian ‘Foreign Agent’ law against foreign funding of NGOs and civil society has attracted criticism from almost every quarter. From home to abroad all party concerned (i.e., civil society organizations, NGO groups, donor countries (especiallyAmericaand European countries as well as some Russian opposition political parties are of the view that this bill has been introduced to scuttle the independent civic activities and in this way unconstitutional. However on the basis of overall analysis of ‘Foreign Agent’ law in the context of American democratic promotion policy this paper is of the view that this law simply cannot be characterized as anti-democratic, which is against the very basis of freedom and rule of law, by the anti-democratic Russian government but it should be seen as extension of same challenge which American democratic promotion policy is facing around the whole world. It is because of its illegal and unconstitutional method of regime change policy, with the help of foreign funded NGOs, and civil society which has compelled various countries includingRussiato resort this type of law. It is important to note that the promise of peace, stability and prosperity by the democratic promotion protagonists after the fall ofSoviet Unionhas not been realised till today. Instead what post-Soviet states are witnessing today is emergence of chauvinist nationalist government in respective countries which witnessed colour revolution. Whole region is now plunging into economic turmoil, ethnic nationalism, rise of religious fundamentalism and identity politics. Recent overthrow of legitimate Viktor Yanukovych government inUkraineand subsequent decision by incumbent government to exclude Russian as administrative language can be sited as example. That is why former American Republican Congressman Ron Paul is of the view that “US‘Democracy Promotion’ Destroys Democracy Overseas’’. In this context this paper

  9. A Digital European Self-Assessment Tool for Student Teachers of Foreign Languages: The EPOSTL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirici, Ismail Hakki; Hergüner, Sinem

    2015-01-01

    The acronym "EPOSTL" stands for the "European Portfolio for Student Teachers of Languages", which is a digital self-assessment tool for students in foreign language teacher training programs across Europe. It builds on insights from the "Common European Framework of Reference" ("CEFR") and the "European…

  10. LODGEMENT OF FOREIGN CREDITORS’ CLAIMS ACCORDING TO THE EUROPEAN REGULATION ON INSOLVENCY PROCEEDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasnica Garašić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rules of the European Regulation on insolvency proceedings regarding the right of foreign creditors to lodge their claims, the duty to inform foreign creditors on the opening of insolvency proceedings as well as the form, the content and the language of the lodgement of a claim of foreign creditors, that are contained in special Chapter IV of this Regulation, are analysed and evaluated in this paper. Furthermore, the paper examines the changes which are foreseen by the reformed European Regulation on insolvency proceedings of 2015 with regard to these rules and evaluates the adequacy of these changes considering difficulties which foreign creditors have in the practice when lodging their claims in insolvency proceedings that are opened in the Member States of the European Union.

  11. An Ethical Foreign Policy? Globalism as a Threat to the US National Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassim Daghrir

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An ethical foreign policy can have no objectives other than those that are of service to its own people. An unethical foreign policy, however, may pursue objectives that enhance the nation as a power, seeking dominance for its own sake, for the honor, glory and wealth of the state or a minority within the state, or spreading its ideology out of missionary fervor. The mainstream wisdom in the United States is that the US foreign policy agendas are virtuous and ethical, since they are oriented mainly towards the protection and enhancement of the American ‘National Interest’. Nevertheless, the orthodox perception among many foreign observers is that the American foreign policy is by no means ethical, since it is oriented exclusively towards the promotion of the Americans’ interests at the expense of the rest of the world. My thesis is that the US foreign policy is unethical and anti-democratic mainly because it is causing a lot of harm to the American taxpayers’ interests. I esteem that the American people are the real permanent victims of their country’s globalist stance. This article is based on an argumentative criticism of the mainstream American perception of U.S. foreign policy as well as a criticism of the foreign observers’ perception of American foreign policy. In a nutshell, this article tries to highlight the unethical nature of the American foreign policy with a focus on the complex justifications for such an undemocratic globalist agenda.

  12. European energy policy: the green book; Politique energetique europeenne: le livre vert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2006-03-15

    Energy dependence, insecurity of supplies, rise of demand and prices, global warming: these are the characteristics of the energy situation of the 21. century. The new green book of the European Commission about 'a European strategy for a safe, competitive and durable energy' starts from this alarming status and proposes some suggestions for the building up of a new global European energy policy: realization of the European domestic energy markets (a European energy network, a priority interconnection plan for gas networks, a separation of transport and distribution activities for equitable rules, a reinforcement of the competitiveness of the European industry), a joint security of supplies between member states (redefining the EU position about strategic oil and gas reserves), a sustainable, efficient and diversified energy offer, an integrated approach to fight against global warming (improving energy efficiency, development of renewable energy sources, carbon sequestration), encouraging innovation, developing a consistent foreign policy of energy (a clear policy for the security and diversification of energy supplies, energy partnerships between producers, transit countries and other international actors). (J.S.)

  13. Analysis of Ukraine’s foreign trade turnover in context of free trade zone with European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К.Shymanska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the free trade zone between Ukraine and the European Union has many advantages and disadvantages for our country. The changes in Ukraine’s economic integration vector cause much dispute about its prospects and profitability. Nevertheless, the strengthening of economic and political crisis leads to the reduction in foreign trade of Ukraine with the EU. Although in recent years, many institutional limitations for the Ukrainian producers’ entrance to European markets have been removed. The analysis of Ukraine's foreign trade turnover with EU countries showed the indicators of exports and imports structure in the partner countries and allowed to reveal decreasing of intensity of these operations. This can be a negative indicator of activities for the implementation of the Association Agreement with the EU. The study has formulated the perspective directions of foreign trade policy of Ukraine, in particular with respect to the modernization of informational and technical support of the customs clearance of the goods movement, increasing control over the quality of Ukrainian goods and opportunities for the small and mediumsized entities entrance to the European markets.

  14. THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY PRIORITY - THE SOCIAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ignat

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available At the level of European Union, starting from the necessity of insurance economic growth, social community law gradually developed, benefitting by sinuous construction, extremely complex, beingcontinuously transformed. Familiarization with the model of social community law prescribed by European Union represents not only a forward step in the process of harmonization with community law, but also an alignment in settlement of European Union, which finally establishes the modernization of the whole domestic law system.

  15. Teaching foreign language during adaptation process to European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayet TOK

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to give information about language teaching in EU and Turkey which started negotiations for being full member in EU. Language teaching in both EU countries and in Turkey is studied comparatively in respect of some variables. These variables are: the age at which pupils are first taught foreign languages as a compulsory subject; the number of language taught during compulsory education, using “ CLIL” type provision in education; percentage distribution of all pupils according to the number of foreign languages learnt in primary and secondary education; percentage of all pupils in primary and secondary education who are learning English, German and/or French; relative priority given to the aims associated with the four major skills in curricula for compulsory foreign languages in full-time compulsory education; the minimum number of hours recommended for teaching foreign languages as a compulsory subject during a notional year in primary and secondary education; minimum number of hours recommended for teaching the first foreign language as a compulsory subject in a notional year in full-time compulsory general education and number of years spent for teaching; the proportion of minimum total time prescribed for the teaching of foreign languages as a compulsory subject, as a percentage of total teaching time in primary and fulltime compulsory general secondary education; and regulations or recommendations regarding maximum class sizes for foreign languages in primary education. In the end of this study, there are regulations and recommendations about teaching foreign languages which are foreseen to be implemented in the adaptation process of EU.

  16. Information Policy in the European Community: Balancing Protection and Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillince, J. A. A.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses European Community policy relating to information technology and the information industry. Topics addressed include the information services industry; transborder information flow, including electronic mail, data owner responsibility, and software piracy; digital data networks; electronic data interchange; telecommunications; information…

  17. Customs policy of Ukraine in terms of development of relations with the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Ya. Sofishenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the retrospective, estimates the state of modern customs policy of Ukraine, and identifies the organizational and the economic mechanisms of using of customs tools to regulate foreign trade during the development of integration processes. The procedure of forming of customs policy priorities of Ukraine in the development of relations with the European Union is researched. The dynamics of export-import transactions of Ukraine and the EU is analyzed. The measures, that are aimed at the development of domestic import, enhancing the level of protection of national interests while balanced implementation of international requirements and the standards, ensuring the implementation in the customs departments of universalized technologies of customs control and customs clearance, the creation of the most favorable environment for participants of foreign economic activity enhancing the efficiency of operative identification and contraction to negative phenomena in the environment of foreign trade, the improvement the existing tax and tariff policy of Ukraine by sectorial principles have been determined as the priorities of improving the efficiency of customs policy. The article works out the recommendations to improve the efficiency of customs policy of state in the development of relations with the EU and the recommendations allow the involvement of Ukraine in the integration processes as well as the development of domestic business.

  18. European Policies for the Stimulation of Development of SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandi (Pop R.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Europe’s small and medium-sized enterprises are the engine of the European economy and the main drivers for achieving sustainable growth and more and better jobs. At EU level, the European Commission has developed a comprehensive SME policy, which aims to ensure that Community policies and actions are small-business friendly and contribute to making Europe a more attractive place for setting up a company and doing business.

  19. 77 FR 13383 - Foreign Affairs Policy Board Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... Foreign Affairs Policy Board reviews and assesses: (1) Global threats and opportunities; (2) trends that implicate core national security interests; (3) tools and capacities of the civilian foreign affairs... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office STATE DEPARTMENT Foreign...

  20. European Market Making and Policy Duplication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that private regulation has been essential to the making of the common European market. The distinction between negative and positive integration, usually used to understand the making of the common European market, only gives us part of the picture, as it focuses on public...... authorities and the regulation issued by them, and tends to ignore private authorities. A focus on private regulation is suggested to enlarge the focus on positive and negative integration, and this is used in an analysis of EU's removal of barriers to trade from 1958 to 2000. The paper shows that private...... regulation in the form of technical standardisation has become essential to European market making....

  1. The management of evaluating the European programs and policies implemented in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doctoral student ROMAN MIHAELA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting with the reform and modernization of the public administration in Romania in the mid 1990s, an important element of this process being the development of the management process, respectively of planning and managing public policies, the Romanian government started also a process of developing the capacity for evaluating public programs and policies, both the ones with European or foreign financing and the ones with domestic financing. Up-to-date analyses and studies have showed, however, that at the level of the national public sector there is a major discrepancy between the progress made in the evaluation of European programs or the ones with foreign financing and the programs financed from public funds, namely that there is a consolidated evaluation practice as regards the first types of programs, which is virtually inexistent as regards programs financed from the public budget.This paper intends to identify the progress made at the level of the Romanian public administration as regards the management of evaluating programs with European financing, to see the characteristics of building the evaluation capacity within the national system of these programs and the motivation stimulating such approaches. The first part of this paper shall contain a presentation of the background of the current evaluation system, including both the legislative framework and the institutional framework with duties of management and evaluation of European programs; further, I shall analyze the evolution of this system in order to be able to draw conclusions regarding the evaluation capacity of Romania.

  2. Burst Diplomacy The Diplomacies of Foreign Policy: Actors and Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Devin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Approaches to diplomacy tend to be restrictive because of an exclusively interstate insight. Indeed, historically, the state monopoly over diplomacy has always been challenged by private actors. Today, it is defied both from the inside because of growing public fragmentation (every ministry tends to lead its own foreign policy; subnational authorities develop their diplomatic relations and from the outside (the business sector and civil society play a growing role on the international scene. This proliferation of actors has transformed diplomatic methods. Beyond the binary division between “old diplomacy” – bilateral, secret and resident – and “new diplomacy” – multilateral, public and itinerant – this article shows that diplomacy has to adapt to number and complexity. Therefore a more global conception need now be considered. Diplomacy today is a system of multiple actors using diverse methods in order to coordinate positions of common interest in a competitive and sometimes hostile environment.

  3. U.S. foreign policy for North Korea flexibility is the best policy

    OpenAIRE

    Simmers, Keith A.

    2006-01-01

    The North Korean nuclear weapons program poses a challenge to stability in Northeast Asia. The United States' foreign policy with North Korea takes a hard-line position, and cannot solve this problem unilaterally and must rely on support from the other countries in the region. Solving this nuclear issue is only one piece of the stability challenge in this region. North Korea's nuclear program gained international attention when it signed the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) in 1985, thr...

  4. The European Union's Mediterranean Policy in the Context of the "Arab Spring"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A. Latkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the policy of the European Union aimed at the export of its democratic values, acquis communautaire and governance models to the neighbour countries in the Southern Mediterranean. The process of Europeanization reflects a particular case of global megatrend -democratization which in its turn positioned as democracy promotion through soft power instruments. From the EU point of view the goal of the Barcelona process launched in 1995 was to construct Euro-Mediterranean Partnership and common identity in order to promote democratic transitions in Southern Mediterranean. While the EU Foreign Policy in the Mediterranean region was historically conditioned by the security interests of the European Union, it suffered from securitization/democratization dilemma. The article analyses the process of external Europeanization in the Southern Mediterranean as a regional dimension of global democratization process in the context of Union for the Mediterranean development before and after the Arab Spring and new approach in the framework of the ENP Partnership for Democracy and Shared Prosperity with the Southern Mediterranean. The article proposes that the lack of political strategic vision in the EU toward the Arab democratic transition during 2011-2013 narrows its role as a transformative democratic power, hinders Europeanization/ democratization process in the macro-region of North Africa and Middle East and presents the EU with a new dilemma - to continue its traditional democratization policy or to shift towards a more pragmatic approach to cooperating with new Arab regimes.

  5. European Union dairy policy reform: impact and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reforms have affected dairy policy, including the milk quota system, and increased the market orientation of the sector. A modelling exercise, using the European Dairy Industry Model (EDIM), simulates an initial sharp decline in the EU milk price in response

  6. Underlying Paradox in the European Union's Multilingualism Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fern L.

    2013-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has developed comprehensive policies in recent years to promote multilingualism. In this article, major EU policy statements on multilingualism are analyzed to demonstrate how their underlying language ideology produces paradox by both encouraging multilingualism and regulating its definition within the EU. The first…

  7. Industrial Policy Approaches from Theory to Practice in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Dachin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The main debate about industrial policy consists of the attitude regarding the role of state versus market. The admission of possible market failures was the inspiration source for policies in the field of competition strengthening, supply of public goods, overcoming the deficit of capital etc. The general objectives of industrial policy may vary from the absolute role of the market to the market control. The European Community has applied a diversity of policies, differentiated from one period to another, in connection with the competition pressure on the world market and with the European integration stages. The EC had at its beginning a complete faith in the market mechanism, then a period of protectionism followed, as an answer to the oil shock and to the pressure of competition on international markets, especially coming from large American and Japanese companies. During the period 1985-1990, the European Community began to establish an industrial policy to encourage partnership between European companies and to promote cooperation in the field of research and development. In 1990 the European Commission proposed a new coherent concept of market oriented industrial policy, according to the model of neutral policy. Industrial policy is strongly connected to the competition policy. Especially after 1995, there have been signs of worry about the lower competitiveness in terms of productivity growth rate, expenditures for research and innovation capacity compared to USA and Japan. In addition, the European industry must face the competition pressure coming from the emergence of countries, mainly those from South-East Asia. In this context, the key factor which ensures a favorable perspective for the industry is competitiveness. This also implies expected positive effects of EU enlargement. The decision to sustain competitiveness was already taken in Lisbon, where a modern strategy was presented. Its priorities are the creation of a suitable

  8. Industrial Policy Approaches from Theory to Practice in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Dachin

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The main debate about industrial policy consists of the attitude regarding the role of state versus market. The admission of possible market failures was the inspiration source for policies in the field of competition strengthening, supply of public goods, overcoming the deficit of capital etc. The general objectives of industrial policy may vary from the absolute role of the market to the market control. The European Community has applied a diversity of policies, differentiated from one period to another, in connection with the competition pressure on the world market and with the European integration stages. The EC had at its beginning a complete faith in the market mechanism, then a period of protectionism followed, as an answer to the oil shock and to the pressure of competition on international markets, especially coming from large American and Japanese companies. During the period 1985-1990, the European Community began to establish an industrial policy to encourage partnership between European companies and to promote cooperation in the field of research and development. In 1990 the European Commission proposed a new coherent concept of market oriented industrial policy, according to the model of neutral policy. Industrial policy is strongly connected to the competition policy. Especially after 1995, there have been signs of worry about the lower competitiveness in terms of productivity growth rate, expenditures for research and innovation capacity compared to USA and Japan. In addition, the European industry must face the competition pressure coming from the emergence of countries, mainly those from South-East Asia. In this context, the key factor which ensures a favorable perspective for the industry is competitiveness. This also implies expected positive effects of EU enlargement. The decision to sustain competitiveness was already taken in Lisbon, where a modern strategy was presented. Its priorities are the creation of a suitable

  9. Fiscal policies in the European Union during the crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreiro Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the fiscal policies implemented in the European Union countries since the beginning of the current crisis. With this aim in mind we have analyzed separately the expansionary fiscal policies implemented at the first stage of the crisis and the fiscal consolidation policies that became widespread at the beginning of the current decade. Studying the content of the national fiscal policies (discretionary measures versus built-in stabilizers, revenue-based versus expenditure-based fiscal policies, the relationship existing between the size of the fiscal impulses-adjustments and the composition of these measures shows the significant differences between the fiscal policies implemented in the European Union countries.

  10. Liberty versus Security? EU Asylum Policy and the European Commission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Kaunert

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The Common European Asylum System (CEAS experienced significant developments during the Tampere programme (1999 – 2004. This article analyses how security is constituted or viewed by the European Union in the area of asylum policy; more importantly how the European Commission, in the face of the emerging discourse on the ‘war on terror’ decided to push for a more inclusive agenda. Thus, the European Commission can (though not always does play a significant role in this process - the role of a supranational policy entrepreneur that enables the normative construction of a policy. The article analyses the high-profile case of the first phase of the CEAS, particularly the four main directives, its legal and political construction, and suggests the significance of the Commission in the political and normative process. Despite the challenges of the ‘war on terror’, the Commission managed to keep the CEAS within the limits of the Geneva Convention.

  11. Branding technologies in the foreign policy of Ukraine: regulatory and organizational aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereshchuk Maryna Ihorivna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses regulatory and organizational components of the application of branding technology as a tool of foreign policy of Ukraine. Particular attention is paid to the activities of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine in this sphere, as well as to the problems impeding the full implementation of the branding policy.

  12. REGIONAL FOREIGN POLICY OF NAMIBIA: THE AGENCY OF A SECONDARY POWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Castellano da Silva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses Namibia’s foreign policy to Southern Africa focusing on the period between 1990 and 2010 and evaluates its position in face of the order of the regional system and the explanations for this behavior, connected to the State building process and to the interests and security of the defining elites of foreign policy.

  13. U.S. Foreign Policy: Illusions of Powerlessness and Realities of Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Harlan

    The foreign policy of the United States has not taken into consideration the dynamics of world politics and the kinds of power required to participate in it. Foreign policy makers need a post-Kissinger, post-Brzezinski doctrine that corrects the distorted focus on U.S.-Soviet relations as on our central problem, accepts the inherent linkage…

  14. Predicting a State’s Foreign Policy: State Preferences between Domestic and International Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alons, G.C.

    2007-01-01

    In order to understand a state’s foreign policy preferences, we need to take both its domestic and international considerations into account. This article aims to contribute to the analysis of foreign policy by exploring the conditions under which states will either give precedence to domestic or

  15. Utility of Military Strategy as an Instrument of Foreign Policy | Ebaye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the pursuit of foreign policy objectives, states adopt different strategies, one of which is military strategy. This research has taken a critical appraisal of state actors in the international system, and the utility of military power as an instrument of foreign policy. The paper asserts as Osgood did, that one of the main prerequisite ...

  16. 78 FR 54365 - Foreign Affairs Policy Board Meeting Notice: Closed Meeting; Notice of Rescheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Foreign Affairs Policy Board Meeting Notice: Closed Meeting; Notice of Rescheduling The meeting of the Foreign Affairs Policy Board, formerly scheduled for September 9, 2013, has been rescheduled to September 11, 2013...

  17. Regarding the presence of European foreign words in the Dictionary of Americanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Aleza-Izquierdo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the study of European foreign words in Latin-American Spanish using as a corpus a selection of entries from the Diccionario de Americanismos (ASALE 2010. More specifically, this paper provides an analysis of the foreign words with no interlanguage adaptation which are registered in the academic dictionary, thus contributing to the knowledge about the influence of other languages on the development of the current Latin American lexicon.

  18. Public interest norms in European investment policy : A shattered hope?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levashova, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Through the Lisbon Treaty, the EU acquired exclusive competence over foreign direct investment (FDI). Hence, the EU began to form the EU Investment Policy, which, among other issues, attempts to regulate on Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs). This article addresses the role of public interest

  19. Foreign Labor in Singapore: Trends, Policies, Impacts, and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Yue, Chia Siow

    2011-01-01

    Singapore has one of the most open economies in Asia in terms of trade, foreign direct investment inflows, and foreign labor inflows. By 2010, citizens formed only 63.6% of the population and foreigners (not including permanent residents) form 34.7% of the labor force. This high foreign labor ratio reflects buoyant labor demand, limited domestic labor supply with declining total fertility rate, and the lack of xenophobia and labor protectionism. Foreign labor is needed to grow the population,...

  20. French perspectives in the emerging European Union energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meritet, Sophie [CGEMP, Paris Dauphine University (France)

    2007-10-15

    The debate over a common European energy policy, its necessity and its establishment has been going on for a number of decades. The discussions have been recently brought back into the spotlight by the evolution of energy market fundamentals and the taking into account of environmental protection. In spite of the energy diversity of the European Union (EU), a common vision has always been shared by all over energy development for the future. The achievements of the internal market, the fight against climate change and supply security are the common energy battles that call for a solution in common. This policy remains the responsibility of the States, but decisions vary from one country to the next. To move from a shared vision to a European energy policy, large steps are necessary. The European construction is making evolve the 'typically French vision' of energy policy. France was often characterized as the 'black sheep' in the EU. In the political context of president elections, the energy debate in French is of a high interest. This paper discusses the main issues with the French energy policy in the emerging European energy policy. (author)

  1. Introduction. New Challenges for the EU in the Arab Mediterranean and the Revision of the European Neighbourhood Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter; Shteiwi, Musa

    2017-01-01

    . The review emphasizes that ongoing transition processes are affecting the Mediterranean states, leading to a complex and differentiated Middle Eastern reality, which challenges the EU and calls for a rethinking of European foreign and security policies. A key notion of the review is the term ‘stabilization......This Introduction presents a conceptual framework for the Thematic Issue of European Foreign Affairs Review and sets the analytical scene for the contributions. The point of departure for the articles is the launching of a comprehensive review of the European Neighbourhood Policy 18 November 2015......’ and it is underlined that causes of instability not only can be found within a traditional security domain, but also should be traced back to weak economic and social development, migration, lack of opportunities, etc. The Introduction discusses theoretical paradigms of relevance for analysing recent perspectives...

  2. Some consequences for the Union’s common foreign and security policy of the EU-enlargement with the former Soviet bloc countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marácz, L.

    2008-01-01

    In this era of multilateralism with strong monolithic, global political actors such as the US, Russia and China the European Union (EU) should coordinate its foreign and security policy, if it wants to play a role in the global political arena. In recent treaties however, the Union has not succeeded

  3. CORRUPTION AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT. EVIDENCE FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mihaela Amarandei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of corruption on foreign direct investment inflows for ten Central and Eastern European states. The paper attempts to answer the question: what is the role of corruption in attracting foreign direct investments? Using the data from UNCTAD for foreign direct investment and Corruption Perception Index from Transparency International, for a period of 12 years, 2000-2012, we evaluate the specific impact of corruptions on FDI using GDP as control variable. Our results confirm the majority of literature and show a negative significant relation between the variables analyzed, but at a lower intensity than expected.

  4. Relatedness and diversification in the European Union (EU-27) and European Neighbourhood Policy countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, Ron; Capone, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the process of industrial diversification in the countries that were part of the European Union (EU-27) and those that were the target of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) in the period 1995–2010 by means of world trade data derived from the BACI database (elaborated UN

  5. Governing by Inspection? European Inspectorates and the Creation of a European Education Policy Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grek, Sotiria; Lawn, Martin; Ozga, Jenny; Segerholm, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This paper draws on the first, completed phase of a research project on inspection as governing in three European inspection systems. The data presented here draw attention to the rather under-researched associational activities of European inspectorates and their developing practices of policy learning and exchange, and highlight their…

  6. A rural typology for strategic European policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eupen, van M.; Metzger, M.J.; Pérez-Soba, M.; Verburg, P.H.; Doorn, van A.M.; Bunce, R.G.H.

    2012-01-01

    The role that the agricultural sector plays in rural areas has considerably changed in the last five decades, and is reflected in a major shift towards multi-dimensional, multi-sectoral land use. Existing European rural typologies are mostly one-dimensional, based on a rather coarse administrative

  7. Three main approaches of diaspora diplomacy in foreign policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo A. Torrealba

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to analyze the notion of ldquodiaspora diplomacyrdquo and the main concepts connected with it. Methods dialectic approach to cognition of the social phenomena allowing to analyze them in their historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors which determined the choice of the following research methods systemicstructural formaljuridical comparative. Results it is proved in the article that a diaspora is a part of a nation or a community located in different parts of the world outside the country of origin. In some states diasporas may develop strong ties with the leaders of their present countries thus influencing their internal and external policy. This phenomenon is known in Americal science as ldquodiaspora diplomacyrdquo. In the recent period it has become increasingly important to analyze the objective and subjective factors of forming the external policy of some countries and the role of diaspora in this process. However basing on the analyzed sources we can conclude that the notion ldquoDiaspora diplomacyrdquo is still being formed as it is being interpreted as various political realities. The studied scientific literature contains several approaches towards the notion of ldquoDiaspora diplomacyrdquo a a branch of political sociology of international relations b the basic tool for determining various types of external policy c diplomatic strategy. Scientific novelty the article analyzes the notion of quotDiaspora diplomacyquot as well as the related basic concepts describes the features of development dynamics of foreign relations between different countries and the role of diaspora in them. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in research and teaching when addressing the issues of the nature of diaspora diplomacy and related concepts.

  8. European Aid to Foreign Countries in Emergencies - Are ECHO and the EU Large-Donor Countries on the Same Track?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio Attinà

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses financial aid given by the richest countries of the European Union and by ECHO (European Commission’s Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection Department to six geographical groups of countries. It aims at advancing existing knowledge about the relevance of enabling conditions and the importance of general interest and self-interest to emergency aid. In political science, explanation focuses on economic power and political interest as, respectively, the enabling condition and the contingent reason for aid. The paper analyses the ECHO/EDRIS dataset which weakly supports the enabling conditions explanation and disconfirms the geopolitical interest explanation. The large similarity of the data of the emergency aid policies of the most rich EU MSs requests further study about the EU countries’ preference for funding assistance directly to a larger extent than through the EU’s programs, and about keeping foreign assistance as shared competence in the EU system.

  9. Fiscal policy in the European Union – present and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Ramona Mara

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the main trends of fiscal policy in the European Union, following the economic crisis impact and fiscal policy measures that were applied in this economic context. The study is focused in a few key areas: the evolution of fiscal policy captured by indicators measuring tax burden, public sector size analysis by quantifying public expenditure share in GDP and the evolution of budget deficits. Finally, the study watched correlations between fiscal policy and macroeconomic developments, identifying trends and anticipating possible solutions of fiscal policy to achieve the required coordinates of fiscal governance in the European Union. For realizing this study we use annual data from Eurostat Database for 2000-2010 for EU countries. The major findings of the study are the negative impact of the size of public sector on economic growth for EU and also for Romania and the increase of the tax revenue if the economic growth rates increase.

  10. Trump's foreign policy: A victory for the deep state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifković Srđa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Donald Trump, an outsider who won the Presidency against all odds and predictions, came to the White House apparently determined to chart a new strategic course in foreign affairs. His opponent, Hillary Clinton, was committed to a hegemonistic vision and to specific policies based on the decades-old globalist-liberal orthodoxy. As this paper points out, Trump's 'America First' approach in essence rejected the doctrine of America as a proposition nation, criticized its global engagement, questioned NATO's utility and core mission, advocated rapprochement with Russia, and condemned the regime-change focus of earlier administrations. It further emphasizes that Trump explicitly sought to reaffirm the raison d'état as the guiding principle of foreign policymaking. His biggest problem all along was that the American 'deep state' - key components of the national security apparat, the military-industrial complex, and the bipartisan political duopoly in Washington - rejected any realist criteria in their definition of 'interests' and 'threats.' They were intent on the maintenance of American global primacy, and they proved effective in imposing agenda contrary to Trump's stated positions on all key global issues. At the same time, as this paper documents, Trump himself has been stepping ever farther away from his campaign pledges. It would be incorrect to say that the permanent state has successfully subverted and undermined the chief executive. It would be more accurate, we conclude, to recognize that a mutinous president has tried, and failed, to alter the long-charted global course of the permanent state.

  11. Civil Society Participation in Brazilian Foreign Policy: an Analysis of its Democratic Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa Pomeroy

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Working from an analytical framework that emphasises the horizontalisation of the decision-making process of Brazilian foreign policy, considered as public policy and subject to democratic control, this article analyses the democratic quality of this policy’s participatory institutions, using the criteria established by democratic theory. Civil society participation is analysed in three areas of foreign policy: multilateral international negotiations, regional integration, and...

  12. Trade Union Channels for Influencing European Union Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Larsson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes what channels trade unions in Europe use when trying to influence European Union (EU policies. It compares and contrasts trade unions in different industrial relations regimes with regard to the degree to which they cooperate with different actors to influence EU policies, while also touching on the importance of sector differences and organizational resources. The study is based on survey data collected in 2010–2011 from unions affiliated with the European Trade Union Confederation and from below peak unions in 14 European countries. Results of the survey show that the ‘national route’ is generally the most important for trade unions in influencing EU policies in the sense that this channel is, on average, used to the highest degree. In addition, the survey delineates some important differences between trade unions in different industrial relations regimes with regard to the balance between the national route and different access points in the ‘Brussels route’.

  13. Policy Analysis, International Relations, and European Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Christian Dagnis; Tatham, Michaël

    2017-01-01

    The article highlights the rationale of the special issue in terms of its objectives and guiding principles. It maps different evolutions and challenges within three analytical streams (1) regarding the field of policy analysis, (2) concerning the interaction between domestic and international...

  14. Central and Eastern European Social Policy and European Union Accession: Time for Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi Lendvai

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available European Union enlargement and accession are reflexive of both EU and post-communist social policies. There is a unique “dialogue“ going on, indicative of fundamental aspects of post-communist, post-transitional social policy. It is also a 'mirror' that reflects shortcomings of governance, and often presents a neglected institutional landscape. Therefore, the Europeanisation of social policy is an essential transformation process for post-communist countries whereby a new language and new concepts are introduced, the outlines of new social-policy governance emerge and enter the space in which social policy is formulated and considered.

  15. A limited toolbox: Explaining the constraints on Russia’s foreign energy policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Orttung

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Explanations of Russia’s foreign energy policy typically focus on major events, such as the gas conflicts with Ukraine, and argue that these events represent simplistic patterns of behavior, reflecting the policy-makers’ emphasis on politics, commercial gain, corruption, or ad hoc opportunism. This analysis goes beyond these explanations to argue that the Russian leadership pursues a rational set of political and economic goals in its foreign energy policy, but that it is constrained in its efforts by the set of tools available to it. To understand the resulting patterns of behavior, it is necessary to devote more analytical attention to Russia’s foreign policy tools and their limits. The article draws on a new dataset of Russia’s policy tools in 31 energy conflicts with 20 countries from 2000 to 2010. These conflicts are defining moments in Russia’s foreign policy because they put to the test the toolkit that Russia has assembled to impose its will on a counterpart. The study finds increased use of transit pipelines, generally decreased use of subsidies and persistent use of efforts to purchase assets in foreign countries, cutoff pipeline supplies, and attempts to use energy to achieve specific political goals. By emphasizing the tools that Russian policy-makers use to conduct policies, the article provides a more nuanced analysis of the capacity and limits of Russian foreign energy policy than is currently available.

  16. 26 CFR 46.4371-2 - Imposition of tax on policies issued by foreign insurers; scope of tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Imposition of tax on policies issued by foreign... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX ON POLICIES ISSUED BY FOREIGN INSURERS AND OBLIGATIONS NOT IN REGISTERED FORM Tax on Policies Issued by Foreign Insurers § 46.4371-2...

  17. Foreign workers in the labour market in the Czech Republic and in selected European countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Čižinský, Pavel; Čech Valentová, Eva; Hradečná, Pavla; Holíková, Klára; Jelínková, Marie; Rozumek, Martin; Rozumková, Pavla

    2014-01-01

    The publication we have prepared for you concerns a relatively narrow issue: the position of foreign workers in the labour market in the Czech Republic and in several other selected countries of the European Union. Our original intention was to address mainly the question of job safety for these persons, as well as work accidents and occupational diseases.

  18. Clinton administration forging population-foreign policy links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sherbinin, A

    1994-12-01

    In the US, the Clinton administration has renewed the link between global population and national security issues. These so-called "soft security issues" receive attention from the Under-Secretary of State for Global Affairs, Tim Wirth, and the senior director of the Global Environmental Affairs branch of the National Security Council, Eileen Claussen. Wirth and Claussen draft the US response to soft security issues such as environmental security, refugee and migration movements, political instability, and religious and ethnic conflict as well as the other nonmilitary threats of illegal drug trafficking, terrorism, and international organized crime. Population was first considered a foreign policy concern in the 1960s. By 1965, President Johnson decided that the US would provide family planning supplies and technical assistance to any country which asked for help. The initial justification for assuming a leading role in developing innovative population strategies for less developed countries was a humanitarian desire to forward economic development, the self-interest of maintaining access to resources, and concern that rapid growth produced more communists. Today the US remains concerned about resource access and economic development and is also wary of spill-over environmental effects, economic migration, diminished US trade opportunities, political asylum seekers and refugees, and increasing demand for US peacekeepers. It is also believed that rapid population growth leads to political destabilization. Critics of these views blame the development difficulties of less developed countries on poor governing decisions (inadequate institutions, trade barriers, or indifference). Women's reproductive rights advocates fear that using security as a rationale for population assistance could lead to restrictions on women's rights to choose the number and spacing of births. Despite such objections, the belief that population growth is an underlying problem in imploding

  19. The Arctic - A New Region for China's Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V S Yagiya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to foreign policy of China in the Arctic. Main attention is paid to strategic view of the China concerning the Arctic, to bilateral and multilateral cooperation on the Arctic issues, also to opinion of Russian experts about discussing of Russian-China economic partnership. It was shown interests of the People's Republic of China in the Arctic: use Arctic transport system from the Pacific Rim to Europe; possibility of access to the Arctic resources; seeks of partners for the realized of Arctic projects and programs. It was pointed six directions of China cooperation in the Arctic: a scientific researches, b natural minerals, oil and gas issues, c tourism, d routes of the Arctic navigation, e use of high technologies in development of regional economy, e cooperation in the cultural and educational spheres. Authors are summarized that at the initial stage of the international cooperation in the Arctic polar scientific researches become as the tool of “he soft power”, and in the long term - the Northern Sea Route of the Russian Federation is included in the Strategy of China Economic belt and the Maritime Silk Route in the XXI century.

  20. Shanghai Cooperation Organization and Future Perspective in Turkish Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem EREN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Following the end of the Cold War, as a result of the disintegration of the USSR, many new states has gained their independence in Turkistan, Central Asia and the South Caucasus and multipolar global system has ended and following that the new order emerged building USA as a global power. However, this led to instability in many regions. Firstly, with the emergence of the Independent States Community headed by the Russian Federation, and then a growing giant of China the Shanghai Cooperation Organization was established against the unilateral order of the United States. In Turkey's foreign policy, the organization has been seen as an alternative to the EU which has been on the verge of membership for many years, and which was applied for the application for membership in 2007. However, Turkey needs to be analyzed multidimensionally with positive and negative aspects of membership process; it seems that Turkey can build a long-term relationship with Russia and China based on mutual trust and benefit.

  1. Convergence to the European Energy Policy in European countries: case studies and comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Teixeira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Our paper aims at analyzing how different European countries cope with the European Energy Policy, which proposes a set of measures (free energy market, smart meters, energy certificates to improve energy utilization and management in Europe.Design/methodology/approach – The paper first reports the general vision, regulations and goals set up by Europe to implement the European Energy Policy. Later on, it performs an analysis of how some European countries are coping with the goals, with financial, legal, economical and regulatory measures. Finally, the paper draws a comparison between the countries to present a view on how Europe is responding to the emerging energy emergency of the modern world.Findings – Our analysis on different use cases (countries showed that European countries are converging to a common energy policy, even though some countries appear to be later than others In particular, Southern European countries were slowed down by the world financial and economical crisis. Still, it appears that contingency plans were put into action, and Europe as a whole is proceeding steadily towards the common vision.Research limitations/implications – European countries are applying yet more cuts to financing green technologies, and it is not possible to predict clearly how each country will evolve its support to the European energy policy.Practical implications – Different countries applied the concepts and measures in different ways. The implementation of the European energy policy has to cope with the resulting plethora of regulations, and a company proposing enhancement regarding energy management still has to possess robust knowledge of the single country, before being able to export experience and know-how between European countries.Originality/Value – Even though a few surveys on energy measures in Europe are already part of the state-of-the-art, organic analysis diagonal to the different topics of the European

  2. Policies of ‘modernisation’ in European education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle Damkjær; Larson, Anne; Rönnberg, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This special issue offers empirically and theoretically informed accounts from education policy research carried out in different national contexts in Europe. This special issue sheds light on how modernising approaches to educational governance and reform, grouped under the umbrella of new public...... management, are strongly present in European education policy, both at transnational levels and in individual countries, and points to important implications for these developments....

  3. European Fiscal Policy of Tax Havens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Mironov

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Taxation system is a necessary evil. Almost the entire world admits its utility, but even necessary as it is, the taxation system remains an evil. Fiscal paradises had been born heavily, but they multiplied quickly. In specialization literature, as well as in juridical and economical literature there are few and modest attempts of analysis of fiscal paradises, although a circumscribing of the area that is covered is not difficult to realize. Every state can be used as fiscal paradises for certain persons on the basis of several taxation agreements that provide an auspicious system for certain types of incomes and investments performed by foreigners in the respective country. There is a multitude of possibilities for the decrease of fiscal overwhelming. A legal possibility is the fiscal scheduling using the offshore companies registered in jurisdictions with fiscal paradise status. Fiscal scheduling through offshore company means the election of that type of company that fits for the purpose and interests of the business. There is also the problem of the election of the best jurisdiction in concordance with the purpose pursued. Fiscal paradises represent the fertile ground for the manipulation of taxation basis of the benefits, through utilization of intermediate transfer prices, having as justifiable basis economical transactions, most of the times simulated transactions. The legality, but most of all the ethics of the techniques used are al least controversial.

  4. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: European Union 2008 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    For the first time, the IEA has reviewed the energy policies of the European Union which shape the energy use of almost 500 million citizens in 27 EU member countries. A unique entity governed under complex and almost constantly evolving structures, the EU constitutes a challenge for energy policy makers. Its energy policy has a global impact, not only because of its 16% share of world energy demand, but also because of the EU leadership in addressing climate change. Strong policy drives are underway in the EU to achieve the completion of the internal energy market, increase renewable energy supply, reduce CO2 emissions and make the EU more energy-efficient. Concerns about security of supply have also led to a greater focus on improved energy relations with supplier countries, and new institutional structures are being put in place. How much progress has been made in the field of security, internal market and external energy policies? And in which of these areas has the EU already implemented a fully integrated policy? IEA Energy Policies Review: The European Union - 2008 addresses these questions and also analyses the impact of the most recent major EU policy measures, in particular the Energy & Climate Package of January 2008 and the 3rd Liberalisation Package of September 2007. This book finds that both of these proposals are highly ambitious. But implementing them and reviewing both volume and allocation of energy R&D will be necessary to achieve a sustainable energy future in a fully competitive integrated EU energy market.

  5. International terrorism in internal and foreign policy of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Shchyholev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complexity of the problem of social radicalization that lead to terrorism, because it is the basis and the crisis in the socio ­economic, political and spiritual spheres , and the context of inter­ethnic and inter­religious relations , geopolitical and foreign influences. This is a problematic basis on which the transformation processes of radicalization in immediate threat of terrorist attacks, it becomes more tangible in some member states of the European Union. The global financial and economic crisis, which significantly affected the welfare of the population, especially in Greece, Spain , Italy, led to an increase in the number of terrorist acts organized by members of the radical left and anarchist groups. According to Europol, there has been increasing aggressiveness of these groups, which have become priority objectives authorities. Moreover, almost twice the share of terrorist attacks using explosive devices. Finding effective ways to counter radicalization, extremism and terrorism , without exaggeration, be called one of the most serious challenges of the XXI century for most of the leading countries of the world. In today no one doubts the fact that effective work in this area requires a systematic approach by the state, not limited by narrow national boundaries. International experience suggests that the threat of the spread of radicalism , extremism and terrorism is becoming more global scale. Thus it is not only the common (or similar roots , but also the general trends of transformation and adaptation to modern conditions , respectively ­ and similar systematic countermeasures .Experience of leading nations to set the most common          (conceptual approach to the formulation of guidelines , directions and forms of state activity in combating radicalism , extremism and terrorism.

  6. The Evolution of the Conceptual Basis of the Foreign Policy of the PRC (1950-1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Tsvyk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the analysis of the conceptual basis of the foreign policy of the PRC (1950-1990 period, the «Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence», the «Three Worlds Theory», the concept of the «intermediate zones» as well as the «four modernizations» are under consideration. Since the foundation of the People's Republic of China in 1949 Asian state has passed several stages of the formation of an independent foreign policy, foreign policy, which not only allows to respond to the contemporary challenges of international relations, but also to gain a decisive voice in the world. And if in the early 50-ies China relies solely on foreign experience in this area, after ten years the government was forced to develop a new foreign policy concept, independent of the USSR and the USA. In the 70-ies of XX century, China not only transformed foreign policy into the tool of economic development promotion, but in fact became the leader of the «Third World». It is noteworthy that China still considers itself as developing country. After the collapse of the Soviet Union and the collapse of the bipolar system Beijing had to adjust its foreign policy settings once again, what eventually led to the strengthening of the desire to create a polycentric system of international relations. The study concludes that the modern concept of China's foreign policy was the natural result of the evolution of China's foreign policy doctrines since its inception.

  7. Energy policy and foreign policy in Italy; Politica energetica e politica estera in Italia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venanzi, F. (comp.)

    2001-06-01

    Energy policy in Italy is principally a matter of foreign policy. As a result, extensive programmes for the exploration, development, transport and marketing of oil and natural gas have to be planned and carried out together with the producing countries. In this effort, the country shall need the support of its national energy companies. That is why ENI's controlling interest as well as its mission had better be on Italian hands. [Italian] Per l'Italia la politica energetica deve essere principalmente politica estera. Occorre pertanto realizzare vasti programmi di esplorazione mineraria, coltivazione, trasporto e commercializzazione di petrolio e gas naturale con i Paesi produttori. Ci sara' quindi bisogno di contare sulle imprese energetiche nazionali: per questa ragione, si auspica che il controllo e la missione dell'ENI restino italiani.

  8. AZERBAIJAN’S BALANCED FOREIGN POLICY TRAPPED IN A VOLATILE GEOPOLITICAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina STRIMBOVSCHI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Following a study visit in Baku, the author exposes in this paper some of the research results, being also embedded the opinions of Azerbaijanis experts that were interviewed. The aim is to perform an analysis on the evolution of Azerbaijani state interpreted both from the European and Azerbaijani perspective. On the one hand, it is approached the development of the Republic of Azerbaijan after the collapse of Soviet Union and the way the Nagorno-Karabakh unsolved conflict has influenced Azerbaijan’s foreign policy. On the other hand, it is researched the manner in which the European Union – Azerbaijan relations have evolved since 1991, but especially once the Eastern Partnership has been created. Considering the fundamental purpose of the European Neighborhood Union, to ensure security, stability and prosperity in the EU’s vicinity, it is analyzed the impact of two multilateral platforms within the Eastern Partnership (Democracy, good governance and stability, and Energy security was achieved on the Republic of Azerbaijan. At the same time, it is investigated whether the European Union should accept an authoritarian leadership, as a legitimate actor and partner on the international stage just because the EU has a strategic interest to diversify its energy sources and, eventually, reduce the dependence on Russian Federation, or it should change its approach and adopt a firmer stance. Last but not least, are revealed the geopolitical frictions in the South Caucasus region and the reasons for which Azerbaijan tries to maintain its status as a sovereign and independent country, avoiding to ally with any geopolitical bloc, but opting for economic, energy and military cooperation with both sides.

  9. The foreign policy of the Gabonese Republic: new priorities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ch Ndakissa Onkassa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the features of formation and realization of foreign policy and the basic characteristics of the international image of modern Gabon are considered. It is shown, that the foreign policy is the important direction in the state activity of Gabon and is intended to offer the General public all over the world complete and reliable information on the situation in the country on key international issues, activities and initiatives of Gabon in the field of political space and the processes and projects of socio-economic development, its cultural and scientific achievements. Foreign policy activity is aimed at creating favorable conditions for the realization of the historic choice of the Gabonese people to strengthen the rule of law, market economy and democratic society, to focus on the social dimension. Нerewith this article analyzes the main provisions of the foreign policy of the Gabonese Republic, considered in conjunction with the country's development objectives defined in the strategic plan “A prosperous Gabon”. Particular attention is paid to the role of the President in making foreign policy decisions and ideas about the prospects for the development of Gabon's foreign policy. Key value of principles of maintenance of the sovereignty and the international inclusiveness, influence of the factor of the French language and policy of multilateral diplomacy is underlined at definition of objectives and priorities of foreign policy of Gabon during an epoch of new international realities. It is noted, that foreign policy activity of Gabon is aimed at creation a wide range of the international partnership in interests of national development in in the context of globalization.

  10. Post-Cold War International Relations and Foreign Policies in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    environment, including the reality of Africa's marginalisation and the forces of globalisation. These, along with ... new thrust of foreign policies, informed by the need for foreign aid, has not occurred without a price. Among ..... the new paradigm focuses on the peace and security of people. The key point of departure of the ...

  11. Globalisation and the Political Economy of Singapore's Policy on Foreign Talent and High Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Linda

    2002-01-01

    Faced with an aging population, economic restructuring, and cyclical economic change, Singapore's government adopted flow-through policy of bringing in foreign capital, technology, and workers. The challenges of balancing the delicate sociopolitical compact between foreign talent and local skills are increasingly complex. (Contains 32 references.)…

  12. Foreign Policy Communication Dramas: How Mediated Rhetoric Played in Peoria in Campaign '76.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragan, John F.; Shields, Donald C.

    A message-centered dramatistic theory of communication was used in conjunction with Q-sort technique and factor analysis to build and test a message-centered foreign-policy inventory that contained three dramatic interpretations of U.S. involvement in foreign affairs: cold war, power politics, and neo-isolationism. Analysis of results from two…

  13. E-PR as an instrument of forming the foreign policy image of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereshchuk Vitaliy Ivanovych

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the role of the Internet as a global communication tool in the PR-support of the implementation of Ukraine's foreign policy. The article pays particular attention to the features of the websites of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and diplomatic missions of Ukraine as an image-forming tool.

  14. Changing foreign policy: the Obama Administration’s decision to oust Mubarak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Céu Pinto Arena

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper analyses the decision of the Obama administration to redirect its foreign policy towards Egypt in the wake of the Arab Spring. It attempts to highlight the issue of how governments deal with decision-making at times of crisis, and under which circumstances they take critical decisions that lead to major shifts in their foreign policy track record. It focuses on the process that led to a reassessment of US (United States foreign policy, shifting from decades of support to the autocratic regime of Hosni Mubarak, towards backing his ouster. Specifically, the paper attempts to assess to what extent the decision to withdraw US support from a longstanding state-leader and ally in the Middle East can be seen as a foreign policy change (FPC. A relevant research question this paper pursues is: how can the withdrawal of US support to a regime considered as an ally be considered, in itself, as a radical FPC?

  15. (Inefficiency of EU Common Foreign and Security Policy: Ukraine, Brexit, Trump and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipec Ondřej

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is to explore and analyze key determinants of EU Common Foreign and Security Policy efficiency. For this purpose a 3C analytical approach is used, exploring EU foreign and security policy consistency, capacities and the dimension of cooperation. Article analyzes both horizontal and vertical, consistency of EU Foreign and Security policy especially with connection to Ukraine crises and diverging interests of EU member states. EU capacities are explored with main focus on military spending and challenges related to limited spending. EU military decline is put in contrast with new emerging regional powers. In the area of cooperation article is dedicated mainly to ineffective partnership with Turkey, cold attitude of Trump administration towards Europe and the implications of Brexit for EU foreign and security policy.

  16. The Impact of Environmental Policy on Foreign Trade: Tobey revisited with a Bilateral Flow Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beers, van Cees; Bergh, van den Jeroen C.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Whereas theoretical analyses of trade and environment indicate thatrelatively strict environmental policies can have a strong impact on foreign trade, empirical studies present mixed results. This study presents new empirical results that tie together two previous empirical studies employing a

  17. Mediation as a foreign policy tool in the Arab Spring: Turkey, Qatar and Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Akpınar, Pınar; Akpinar, Pinar

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent mediation has been a relevant foreign policy tool during the Arab Spring by looking into the mediation attempts of Turkey, Qatar and Iran. To answer this question, the paper examines why and how these actors mediated, to what extent they were able to apply mediation as a tool of foreign policy, whether their mediation attempts could deliver any results and whether there was a receptive audience with respect to their mediation. Despite certain setbacks, m...

  18. A Review of the Turnaround in Iranian Foreign Policy during President Hassan Rohani's Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Haghgoo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The transition of power in the Islamic Republic of Iran is not only a change of guards in the different political and executive institutions during each electoral cycle but it also radically redefines the fundamental aspects of self-identity and the very definition of national interests and priorities and even how they should be defined. Upon the assumption of power by President Hassan Rohani in Iran, foreign policy of the government of the Islamic Republic of Iran has been exposed to tremendous developments. Prevalence of conservatism over revolutionary mindset, nationalism over trans-nationalism, and structuralism over agent-oriented trends are considered as the three main pillars of these developments. In Rohani’s administration there is no longer any trace of the revolutionary behavior of Ahmadinejad’s era. This turnaround in the Islamic Republic of Iran’s foreign policy is not a new phenomenon. We have witnessed such a shift in Iranian foreign policy after the end of the 8-year war with Iraq, albeit with different dimensions. An assessment of this issue would greatly enhance our understanding of the country’s foreign policy. Accordingly, assessment of the real roots of these foreign policy shifts is the main objective of the present article. Evidently, the shift in foreign policy, more than anything else can be attributed to changes in the definition of the concept of national interests, and how each administration defines such national and transnational interests. Any shift or transformation in this concept, as the guiding principal of foreign policy, creates a context for the shift in the national priorities, orientations, and strategies in its interaction with its external environment. By highlighting the three concepts of “circulation of elites”, “perception towards national identity”, and “structural developments”, the present article endeavors to review the causes of differing understandings of the concept of

  19. On Law and Policy in a European and European Union Patent Court (EEUPC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Clement Salung; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2010-01-01

    generis, transnational court system with exclusive jurisdiction in respect of civil litigation related to the infringement and validity of European patents and EU patent. This paper considers this proposal for the establishment of the EEUPC under two basic observations, namely that substantive law......On 4 December 2009, the European Council unanimously adopted conclusions on an enhanced patent system in Europe, which inter alia intends to establish a new EU patent as well as a new common patent judiciary – the European and European Union Patent Court (EEUPC). The EEUPC will constitute a new sui...... requires legal institutions, which support the purposes and policies underlying the substantive law in question, and that legal institutions affect the law. The first observation leads to a discussion of the requirements which a common judiciary in the European patent system should satisfy and different...

  20. International equity and global environmental politics. Power and principles in U.S. foreign policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, P.G.

    2001-10-01

    International environmental equity is an issue that has rapidly gained global significance. Defining this concept as a fair and just distribution of the benefits, burdens, and decision-making authority associated with international environmental relations, this text shows how it has started to permeate global environmental politics and, importantly, U.S. foreign policy. Discussing the implications for the world of embracing - or failing to embrace -international equity, as a core objective of global environmental policy is an essential exercise, which this book undertakes with diligence and vigour. Written in an accessible style, this is essential reading for students of international relations and world politics, global environmental policy and American foreign policy. (author)

  1. Three decades of policy layering and politically sustainable reform in the European Union's agricultural policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Swinbank, Alan

    2016-01-01

    The study of policy reform has tended to focus on single-stage reforms taking place over a relatively short period. Recent research has drawn attention to gradual policy changes unfolding over extended periods. One strategy of gradual change is layering, in which new policy dimensions are introdu......The study of policy reform has tended to focus on single-stage reforms taking place over a relatively short period. Recent research has drawn attention to gradual policy changes unfolding over extended periods. One strategy of gradual change is layering, in which new policy dimensions...... dynamics that can result in lasting reform trajectories. The European Union's Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has changed substantially over the last three decades in response to emerging policy concerns by adding new layers. This succession of reforms proved durable and resilient to reversal in the lead......-up to the 2013 CAP reform when institutional and political circumstances changed....

  2. How Strong Is Europeanisation, Really? The Danish Defence Administration and the Opt-Out from the European Security and Defence Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2011-01-01

    thesis. The article shows that in spite of the opt-out, the administrative structures and the policy processes in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) have adapted to the common foreign and security policy (CFSP) and the European security and defence policy (ESDP). Surprisingly, the administrative...... is not an explanation of administrative adaptation. The pressure from Europeanisation has to be propagated by actors. In the case of the Danish defence administration, the promoter is government officials embedded in a domestic political-bureaucratic environment, which is remarkably positive towards the integration...

  3. The consensus on foreign policy between the Colorado and Nacional parties in Uruguay (1985 - 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo M. López Burian

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The following written work explores Foreign Policy Analysis in a larger investigative context where the disciplines of International Relations and Political Science merge. The central argument postulates that foreign policy at the beginning of the Uruguayan period of redemocratization was not an example of state policy but rather one of political consensus between the founding Colorado and Nacional political parties. In order to found said argument, the text draws on the 1985-2005 period during which one minority government and three coalition governments are represented by the founding political parties. Through the historical reconstruction of the actions of each government, each administration could be cataloged based on its foreign policy during their respective periods while also analyzing other systemic factors that impacted the historic evolution of the subject matter whilst at the same time taking a closer look at other domestic factors that make up and explain the dynamic of public policy.

  4. MODERN TRENDS OF EUROPEAN UNION’S MIGRATION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sergeevna Matveevskaya

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background research consists in exacerbating migration crisis in Europe, accompanied by many thousands of illegal border crossings of the EU, the death of migrants suffering a disaster in the Mediterranean Sea while trying to reach European coast, as well as changes in the asylum system.The subject of research is the migration policy of the European Union, reacting to new threats and challenges of the migration crisis.The aim of the article is to examine the decisions taken by the EU institutions and documents, as well as analysis of joint international activities of EU Member States in solving the current migration problems.Method of research is a theoretical analysis of the effect of migration on the economic and social life of the EU; comparative method for estimating the effectiveness of the European countries documents aimed to resolve migration problems.The results showed that the EU’s migration policy has achieved some significant results, such as the solution of the problem on rescue of migrants in distress in the Mediterranean Sea, or the security of the external borders of the EU. But in general, it should be noted, low efficiency and productivity of EU migration policy, which is associated with a number of economic, political and geopolitical factors.Field of application results. The results can serve as a basis for further development and improvement of the immigration policy of the EU.

  5. European University Students' Experiences and Attitudes toward Campus Alcohol Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hal, Guido; Tavolacci, Marie-Pierre; Stock, Christiane

    2018-01-01

    focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted among students from universities in five European countries: Belgium (4 FGDs), Denmark (6 FGDs), France (5 FGDs), Hungary (6 FGDs), and the Slovak Republic (8 FGDs), with a total number of 189 participants. RESULTS: Across the five European countries......, students recognized that alcohol was a big problem on their campuses yet they knew very little, if any, about the rules concerning alcohol on their campus. CONCLUSIONS: Students will not support an on campus alcohol restriction and a policy should therefore focus on prevention initiatives....

  6. Unity in Diversity. The Language Policy of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the connections between the law and language in the European Union. The paper concerns the language policy of the European Union (EU and English language priority. The EU faces challenges of finding a common ground for respecting the diversity of its members. So many different states are gathered in one organisation which establishes the law for diversified legal orders. The research question is - which language(s is or should be used in the EU? Does English become lingua franca of the EU?

  7. Foreign Shocks, Monetary Policy, and Macroeconomic Fluctuations in a Small Open Economy: A SVAR Study of Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zulkefly Abdul Karim; Bakri Abdul Karim

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of foreign shocks upon domestic macroeconomic fluctuations and monetary policy, and examines the effectiveness of domestic monetary policy as a stabilization policy in Malaysia...

  8. The Impact of Tax Compliance Policies on Foreign Investment Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    John McLees

    2002-01-01

    This document identifies tax compliance issues that have the potential to create significant barriers to foreign investment in Latin America and suggests some steps that local tax authorities and the international tax community can take.

  9. Learning about policy learning. Reflections on the European Employment Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Hartlapp

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of policy learning has been attracting increasing attention in the political science literature, notably in the many publications on the Open Method of Coordination (OMC. However, much research faces fundamental methodological problems regarding the mode of functioning and extent of policy learning. This paper shows that these problems can be avoided if we take a closer look at the potential of the OMC instruments to stimulate learning. The paper differentiates between three types of learning: learning by own experience, learning from others and learning with others. Systematic links are established between them and the learning conditions created by the European Employment Strategy (EES tools casting doubt on the steering capacity of the EES through learning. Moreover, there is a fundamental contradiction between actor orientation in deliberative policy learning and competitive policy bargaining which questions the learning potential of the EES.

  10. Challenges for monetary policy in the enlarged European monetary Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radović Irena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The eastward enlargement of the Euro area entails significant implications for the accession candidates in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, the existing Euro system and the monetary policy of the European Central Bank (ECB. The present analysis assesses the challenges and critical aspects in monetary policy modeling with special emphasis to enlargement. The focus is on the difficulty of implementing a unique currency policy in view or growing heterogeneity within the enlarged monetary union, and secondly - the issue of the voting mechanism within the ECB. When analyzing those two issues, it is conclusive that the difficulties for the ECB and the current Euro zone members will increase. For the enlarged Euro zone, which is becoming more divergent, it will be very hard to find adequate recipes to meet the needs and requirements of all. The big question is: whether centralization of monetary policy is a sustainable and superior solution?.

  11. Making health an imperative of foreign policy: The value of a human rights approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustreo, Flavia; Doebbler, Curtis F J

    2010-06-15

    Health is increasingly seen as relevant to foreign policy; nevertheless, it remains subordinate to other interests. In particular, the interests of security and economics are often presented as more critical than health. This is due to a failure to sufficiently recognize the legal obligations that states have undertaken to ensure the human right to health. This article argues that health should be an imperative of foreign policy, equally valid, and prioritized in resource allocation. We suggest application of the human rights approach with attention to the legal duty of cooperation and the necessity of ensuring broad participation. We suggest that the human rights approach to health can contribute to achieving this result and is compatible with, and beneficial to, other foreign policy concerns. Finally, we conclude that the human rights approach to health requires that health be an imperative in foreign policymaking processes.

  12. Symbolic Power in European Diplomacy: The Struggle Between National Foreign Services and the EU's External Action Service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    's new diplomatic service (the European External Action Service, EEAS), which is one of the most important foreign policy inventions in Europe to date. I show that the EEAS does not challenge national diplomacy in a material sense – but at a symbolic level. The EEAS questions the state's meta...... form of diplomacy. A focus on symbolic power opens up new avenues for the study of transformations of authority in world politics.......National diplomacy is challenged by the rise of non-state actors from transnational companies to non-governmental organisations. In trying to explain these challenges, scholars tend to either focus on a specific new actor or argue that states will remain the dominant diplomatic players...

  13. Challenges of the introduction of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages at foreign-language universities in Vietnam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nguyen, Viet anh

    2014-01-01

    In today’s globalized world, it seems necessary, or even indispensable for the teaching/learning of foreign languages to be based on international standards proposed by the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFRL...

  14. Health law and policy in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Scott L; Hervey, Tamara K; Mackenbach, Johan P; McKee, Martin

    2013-03-30

    From its origins as six western European countries coming together to reduce trade barriers, the European Union (EU) has expanded, both geographically and in the scope of its actions, to become an important supranational body whose policies affect almost all aspects of the lives of its citizens. This influence extends to health and health services. The EU's formal responsibilities in health and health services are limited in scope, but, it has substantial indirect influence on them. In this paper, we describe the institutions of the EU, its legislative process, and the nature of European law as it affects free movement of the goods, people, and services that affect health or are necessary to deliver health care. We show how the influence of the EU goes far beyond the activities that are most visible to health professionals, such as research funding and public health programmes, and involves an extensive body of legislation that affects almost every aspect of health and health care.

  15. Benefits of European Climate Policies for Mercury Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Rafaj, Peter; Cofala, Janusz; Kuenen, Jeroen; Wyrwa, Artur; Zyśk, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and results of impact assessment of renewable energy policies on atmospheric emissions of mercury in Europe. The modeling exercise described here involves an interaction of several models. First, a set of energy scenarios has been developed with the REMix (Renewable Energy Mix) model that simulates different levels of penetration of renewable energies in the European power sector. The energy scenarios were input to the GAINS (Greenhouse Gas and Air Polluti...

  16. Review and Analysis of the Colombian Foreign Language Bilingualism Policies and Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Sará, Mary Mily

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the background of the foreign language bilingualism in Colombia, as well as the Colombian bilingualism plans and the policy launched between 2004 and 2016. Then, these plans and policy are analyzed taking into account the most common criticisms from the academic community. In this sense, aspects such as the lack of continuity,…

  17. 75 FR 54540 - Effects of Foreign Policy-Based Export Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... current Annual Foreign Policy Report to the Congress are available at http://www.bis.doc.gov/news/2010.... policy toward the country subject to the controls; 4. Whether the reaction of other countries to the...

  18. Lessons from History: Defining Moments in the American Presidency and Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claunch, Ann

    2008-01-01

    For much of American history, political leaders have stood by a principle that "politics stops at the water's edge." While political disagreements about domestic policies are seen as inevitable and even healthy, there has been a tradition of trying to avoid partisan disagreements over foreign policy. As a result, intense disagreements…

  19. Political Strategies and Language Policies: The European Union Lisbon Strategy and Its Implications for the EU's Language and Multilingualism Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyzanowski, Michal; Wodak, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the interplay between the politics and policies of multilingualism by looking at the role of political macro-strategies in shaping language and multilingualism policies within the European Union. The paper focuses on the relationship between the European Union's 2000-2010 Lisbon Strategy on the European Knowledge-Based Economy…

  20. Transgovernmental Networks in the European Security and Defense Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastien Irondelle

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of authors describe the European Union as an advanced form of transgovernmentalism. Whether called Europeanization, supranational intergovernmentalism, multilevel governance, administrative fusion or Brusselisation, the transgovernmentalist thesis states that European politics is shaped by the growing interaction of national government officials at every level of the decision-making process. This paper tests the transgovernmentalist thesis by looking at patterns of formal and informal cooperation in the framework of the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP. The data is based on a questionnaire circulated among 73 defence officials in France, Germany, the United Kingdom and Brussels-based institutions. The results are analyzed through social network analysis. We find that the governance of ESDP is characterized by a weak form of transgovernmentalism, in which cross-border links do exist but formal state actors occupy strategic positions. In particular, two groups display transgovernmental features: a core policy group of crisis management and capability development officials in and around the Council, and a Franco-German group of capital-based defence actors.

  1. Border dimension of Chilean foreign policies: Immobility and urgency of new dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Ovando Santana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The following article draws the priorities of border public policy that define the Chilean foreign policy. Through a theoretical framework from the rational–reflective approach of International Relations, we argue that despite of the increasing openness, internationalization of the country, and the emergence of new actors and subnational initiatives; the views and options between the actors of this new area and the definitions of foreign policy not always match. We propose the need to establish mechanisms that settle the positions among regional social–political actors, intermediate agencies and the central level.

  2. Soft Power, Hard Aspirations: the Shifting Role of Power in Brazilian Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo M. Valença

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Journalists and policy analysts have highlighted the emergence of Brazil as a regional power. However, little attention has been paid to its foreign policy strategies. Brazil's rise to prominence in world politics represents the historical culmination of a foreign policy featuring two main strategies – persuasion and consensus building – both of which emphasise the use of soft power. We analyse four current foreign policy initiatives: the campaign for a permanent seat on the UNSC; the development of a nuclear submarine; Brazil's leadership of the UN peacekeeping mission in Haiti; and government support for Brazilian multinationals. We suggest a growing tension between these initiatives and the two strategies identified above. These initiatives reflect the view current among some policymakers that if Brazil is to rise as a global power it must play by the rules of great power politics.

  3. Foreign Policy Aspect of Regional Politics of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Shabaga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the regional participation of Autonomous Communities of Spain in European upbringing. The history of the process is investigated as well as the main initiatives of the Spanish government towards the integration of Autonomous Communities in the European Union decision making process are analyzed.

  4. A not so delicate sound of Europeanness : European fiscal policy events and the euro-dollar risk premium

    OpenAIRE

    Fahrholz, Christian; Schneider, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Although the European Monetary Union (EMU) is mainly an economic institution, its future has always hinged upon political manoeuvres. This article examines whether and to what extent non-scheduled and scheduled political events concerning the fiscal governance framework of the EMU have influenced foreign exchange markets. In particular, we estimate how decisions made by the European Commission, the Economic and Financial Affairs Council and the European Council affected the systematic euro-do...

  5. Oslo Ministerial Declaration--global health: a pressing foreign policy issue of our time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-21

    Under their initiative on Global Health and Foreign Policy, launched in September, 2006, in New York, the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Brazil, France, Indonesia, Norway, Senegal, South Africa, and Thailand issued the following statement in Oslo on March 20, 2007-In today's era of globalisation and interdependence there is an urgent need to broaden the scope of foreign policy. Together, we face a number of pressing challenges that require concerted responses and collaborative efforts. We must encourage new ideas, seek and develop new partnerships and mechanisms, and create new paradigms of cooperation. We believe that health is one of the most important, yet still broadly neglected, long-term foreign policy issues of our time. Life and health are our most precious assets. There is a growing awareness that investment in health is fundamental to economic growth and development. It is generally acknowledged that threats to health may compromise a country's stability and security. We believe that health as a foreign policy issue needs a stronger strategic focus on the international agenda. We have therefore agreed to make impact on health a point of departure and a defining lens that each of our countries will use to examine key elements of foreign policy and development strategies, and to engage in a dialogue on how to deal with policy options from this perspective. As Ministers of Foreign Affairs, we will work to: increase awareness of our common vulnerability in the face of health threats by bringing health issues more strongly into the arenas of foreign policy discussions and decisions, in order to strengthen our commitment to concerted action at the global level; build bilateral, regional and multilateral cooperation for global health security by strengthening the case for collaboration and brokering broad agreement, accountability, and action; reinforce health as a key element in strategies for development and for fighting poverty, in order to reach the

  6. European industrial policy as a non-tariff barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Sarfati

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the contradictions between the EU and EU national states industrial policies and the Single Market program of elimination of NTBs (non-tariff barriers. The scope of NTBs connected to European industrial policy is divided into two spheres: the first are barriers on the level of Member States and the second are barriers on the EU level. On the national level, after the 1992 programme, the EU Member States continued to adopt many technical national regulations. On the EU level measures such as new standards, environment and anti-dumping rules, as well as Community expenditures in the different funds constitute new NTBs. Moreover, external competitors have to face other NTBs, such as VERs (Voluntary export restrictions, biased rules on public procurement, ecolabeling, and limitations on ownership, among other barriers. In this essay I demonstrate that the EU and the European national states run an active, unofficial industrial policy that distort the internal and external competition. The paper concludes that the EU industrial policy is not harmonized with the Single Market.

  7. [European integration and health policies: repercussions of the internal European Market on access to health services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Luisa; Giovanella, Lígia

    2006-09-01

    This article explores the health policy repercussions of countries' regional integration into the European Union. The aim is to review the regulation of access in other countries, with the conclusion of the single European market and the free circulation of persons, services, goods, and capital. The article begins by reviewing the various forms of integration and describes the expansion and institutionalization of Community agencies. The repercussions of European integration on health policies and regulation of access are analyzed. Market impacts on health result from Treaty directives and internal policy adjustments to free circulation. Health services access is gradually regulated and granted by rulings. Projects along borders illustrate the dynamics where differences are used to achieve comprehensive care. In the oldest integration experience, the market regulation has generated intentional and non-intentional impacts on the health policies of member states, regardless of the organizational model. Knowledge and analysis of this experience signals challenges for the Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur) and adds to future debates and decisions.

  8. TOWARDS A COMMON ENERGY POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Inotai

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy policy issues have got increasing relevance in the strategic orientation of the European Union (EU in general, and in identifying specific economic policy tasks, in particular. Steadily high energy (oil and gas prices in the last years constitute one factor. However, global political and security issues of growing degree of uncertainty, the level of dependence on imported energy and, not less importantly, the forecasts of growing external dependence of the EU in this field have substantially contributed to the upgrading of the energy question. Finally, the liberalization of the single market, not least in the crucial area of energy supply and the enlargement of the EU by 12 new members, with specific composition of production and not less specific pattern of imports of energy, enhanced the importance of energy in the enlarged EU, with a view to shape and implement a common energy policy.

  9. The Impact of the Regional Policy on the European Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo-Victor Ionescu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, EU28 operates in a very sensitive socio-economic environment. This is why the paper faces to the idea of changing the political approach in the EU. In order to support this idea, two essential common policies (Regional Policy and Cohesion Policy are analyzed, using pertinent indicators, as GDP per capita, gross value added and labor productivity. A comparative analysis covers EU28 and Euro area. On the other hand, the regional analysis points out the economic disparities between NUTS2 regions. The intermediate conclusions of the analysis led to a cluster approach for the Member States. Moreover, the forecasting procedures applied to the above three economic indicators led to the same idea: an EU more divided than integrated. The main conclusion of the paper is that the present economic approach has to be change into another focused on maintaining and, after that, decreasing the present European socio-economic disparities.

  10. US Foreign Policy as a Factor of Rapprochement between Russia and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M G Kabasakalova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the foreign policy course of the USA towards Russia and China, as well as bilateral U.S.-Russian and U.S.-Chinese cooperation. The author attempts to discover the main reasons and retrace the process of rapprochement between Russia and China in the context of the Washington’s foreign policy implementation on the world stage. Analyzing the particular foreign policy steps of the U.S. since the late 1990s up to the events of 2014, the author focuses on the fact that Washington’s global foreign policy strategy not only meets the national interests of Russia and China, but also poses a threat to their national security. This is an additional factor for rapprochement between Moscow and Beijing both in bilateral relations and issues on a global basis. Consequently, the author concludes that the U.S. foreign policy causes the rapprochement between Russia and China, which should be considered as a strategically well-targeted step of the both states, based on the desire to achieve mutually beneficial cooperation and support, the similarity of positions on many international issues and common approaches to adaptation in a changing world order.

  11. Turkey in Search of Relevant Foreign Policy Strategy (2002-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmanov Dayan R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main idea of this article is to describe the process of Turkish foreign policy evolvement during the rule of Justice and Development party (JDP. From weak economy and unstable political situation in 2001, JDP quickly formulated a new strategy of foreign policy and stabilized economy. In the article the Turkish foreign policy in the 21st century is divided into several stages which respond to different international threats and circumstances. The first stage was a peacekeeping stage when Turkey tried to stabilize the situation near its borders and implement peace initiatives for the purpose to find new markets and allies. As a result, Turkey formulated a new strategy of foreign policy, called “Zero Problems Policy” which aimed to create a ring of friendly countries on the borders. On the second stage, Turkish foreign policy was more active – Turkey tried to balance among regional power centers and confront with one of the most powerful actors – Israel. Confrontation with Tel Aviv was a preface to the third stage, and today under the influence of “Arab Spring” and desire to change its role in international relations, Turkey refused “Zero Problems Policy” strategy and turned to a new aggressive and revanchist idea – neo- Ottomanism. Ankara tries to build a new regional set of rules where Turkey will play a leading role.

  12. Foreign Assistance Policies of India and China | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... understanding of their systems and strategies. This study addresses this gap by updating data on each country's foreign assistance and mapping the institutions involved, the beneficiaries, the sectors they are investing in, and their funding approaches. It also examines the underlying philosophy that guides each country's ...

  13. The Role of Marketization in the Europeanization of Defense Industry Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britz, Malena

    2010-01-01

    European integration has increased to encompass security-related policies. One such policy is defense industry policy, which traditionally has been a national concern rooted in defense and security policy. Efforts have been made since the 1990s to create a European defense industry market. However, there have been different ideas of how this goal…

  14. Immigration policy, foreign agricultural labor, and exit intentions in the United States dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, D; Rosson, C P; Anderson, D P; Adcock, F J

    2010-04-01

    United States agriculture is dependent on foreign labor. Current US immigration policies have been alleged to disrupt agricultural labor availability, particularly that of hired foreign labor. A national survey of dairy farmers across herd sizes and regions of the United States was conducted and the results were used to estimate the extent to which hired foreign labor dependency will affect exit intentions in dairy farming. This study found that the expected probability of exit from dairy farming increased as the use of hired foreign labor intensified. But the expected probability of exit also decreased rapidly as herd sizes got larger. Given the immigration policy currently in place, farmers expecting labor shortages in the future are expected to experience greater tendency to exit the industry. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Global health diplomacy: barriers to inserting health into Canadian foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnels, Vivien; Labonté, Ronald; Ruckert, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Health opportunities and risks have become increasingly global in both cause and consequence. Governments have been slow to recognise the global dimensions of health, although this is beginning to change. A new concept - global health diplomacy (GHD) - has evolved to describe how health is now being positioned within national foreign policies and entering into regional or multilateral negotiations. Traditionally, health negotiations have been seen as 'low politics' in international affairs: however, attention is now being given to understanding better how health can increase its prominence in foreign policy priorities and multilateral forums. We sought to identify how these efforts were manifested in Canada, with a focus on current barriers to inserting health in foreign policy. We conducted individual interviews with Canadian informants who were well placed through their diplomatic experience and knowledge to address this issue. Barriers identified by the respondents included a lack of content expertise (scientific and technical understanding of health and its practice), insufficient diplomatic expertise (the practice and art of diplomacy, including legal and technical expertise), the limited ways in which health has become framed as a foreign policy issue, funding limitations and cuts for global health, and lack of cross-sectoral policy coordination and coherence, given the important role that non-health foreign policy interests (notably in trade and investment liberalisation) can play in shaping global health outcomes. We conclude with some reflections on how regime change and domestic government ideology can also function as a barrier to GHD, and what this implies for retaining or expanding the placement of health in foreign policy.

  16. The Effects of Foreign Government Policies on the Location of U.S. Direct Investment Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee Min

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Many argue about which policy and non-policy variables play an important role in influencing foreign direct investment decisions. This article contributes to this debate by considering the effects of foreign government policies on the location of U.S. direct investment abroad. The analysis used pooled cross-section and time series data for 44 countries over three time periods to examine the effects of different types of non-policy and policy variables, including market size, per capita income, country risks, tax rates, investment incentives, and investment regulations. This study found that a policy variable, investment regulation and two non-policy variables, market size and per capita income impact investment decision. A moderately strong effect is found in investment incentive policy, whereas country risks and tax rates turned out not to be strong factors in influencing U.S. investment locations. However, in the case of FDI in developing countries, country risk and tax rates appeared to be more important factors for the location of U.S. FDI than host countries' market size. Strong interaction effects between policy variable and market size are found, while less strong interaction is found between policy variable and per capita income. This study concludes that policy variables are also important factors along with non-policy factors and the determinants of FDI are not independently exerting an influence but jointly affecting U.S. investment locations.

  17. The Mid-Century Revolution in American Foreign Policy Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    world politics in the 20th century: 1 I. The expansion of the European state system into a world system, with the superpowers peripheral to Europe playing...emergence of science and technology as great and semi-independent variables in the equations of world politics . This has, in turn, created the...transoceanic states of .. , THERE HAVE BEEN AT LEAST SIX IMPORTANT TRANS- FORMATIONS AFFECTING THE US ROLE IN WORLD POLITICS IN THE 20TH CENTURY. European

  18. [The role of the state and society relationship in the foreign policy making process : arvustus] / Hiski Haukkala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haukkala, Hiski

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Maria Groeneveld. The role of the state and society relationship in the foreign policy making process. Tartu : Tartu University Press, 2012. ( Dissertationes rerum politicarum Universitatis Tartuensis ; 7)

  19. THE IMPACT OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT ON EXPORT PERFORMANCE: CASE OF EUROPEAN TRANSITION ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Mitic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important conditions for succesful prosess of economy restructuring and efficient return into the global market framework of transition countries from Central and Eastern Europe, including Balkans region, is opening of these economies towards foreign investors. Export orientation of multinational companies has a significant impact on transition economies, especially from the Balkans, which are still fragile and exposed to different pressures. European integration processes also had the great effect, especially on the changes in the foreign trade exchange of transition economies and countries which were able to strengthen the exports sector and provide high level of exports, have gone through the process of transition more quickly and easily. The research presented in this paper is focused on the effects of foreign direct investments (FDI in the last two decades, regarding relation of FDI to the export of goods and high-tech exports in transition economies, based on correlation analysis and including time-lag of one year. This analysis is covering eleven transition countries that are currently at different levels of economic development. As an imperative and guideline for the future, remains the focus on export oriented foreign direct investments, in order to harmonize two strategies on two fields: export competitiveness and attracting FDI.

  20. The doctrine of human security in Canadian foreign policy: Lloyd Axworthy’s contribution to the study of world policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Ortiz Navarrete

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The multitude of changes on the international scene during the 1990’s had a major impact on thinking in the area of international relations as well as on the foreign policy decision-making processes of all nation states. One of the most difficult issues to redefine and to give a meaning appropriate to the international needs of the moment was that of security. Lloyd Axworthy, Canada’s Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1996 to 2000, convinced that, with the end of bipolarity, the challenges to security had moved from the level of states to concerns more closely related to the well-being of individuals, undertook the task of promoting, as part of his country’s foreign policy, the concept of human security.

  1. Nonproliferation economic sanctions in US foreign policy: political and juridical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y A Sedlyar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic sanctions, an age-old tool of statecraft, are becoming increasingly central to shaping strategic outcomes. In the post-Cold War economic sanctions have become virtually the default option in US foreign policy. They are now employed by American diplomacy for a wide range of purposes and always have consequences. The article focuses in particular on the economic sanctions as a powerful tool to discourage the nuclear proliferation, highlights the key concepts of nonproliferation sanctions policy. The most important nuclear sanctions legislation, like Nuclear Nonproliferation Act, Nuclear Nonproliferation Prevention Act, the Symington, the Pressler and the Glenn amendments is analyzed. A major conclusion made in the article is that in spite of the proliferation of US nonproliferation economic sanctions they rarely work as intended, but often undermine American foreign policy goals. Enhancing our understanding of nonproliferation economic sanctions in US foreign policy, this article will be of interest to policy-makers, diplomats and scholars of international politics, international law, and US foreign policy.

  2. The Internal and External Constraints on Foreign Policy in India - Exploring culture and ethnic sensitivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The main argument of this contribution is that the distinction between internal and external is at best blurred and in reality does not make much sense in the case of India’s foreign policy. It may start and end at the border and determined by negotiations, diplomacy or brute force...... with the legitimacy of the state. The aim of the paper serves four purposes. To unpack and give a critical overview of the debates concerned with the internal and external aspects of India’s foreign policy; situate the literature dealing more specifically with domestic issues related to culture and ethnicity...... and outline the main approaches involved; to give an overview of how external factors impact foreign policy conduct and give an overview about India’s role in defining international norms and regulations; finally the paper gives some theoretical markers, suggestions and tentative concluding remarks....

  3. Bollywoodization of foreign policy: How film discourse portrays tension between states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmat Rasul

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As the nexus between film industry and state apparatus has grown critical and complex in the wake of war on terror, academic circle have paid attention to identify the patterns of relationship between entertainment industry of a country and its foreign policy. To understand the role of the soft power in assisting governments to secure their interests at international level, this article examines the relationship between Bollywood and the Indian foreign policy through the lens of critical political economy of communication approach. Popular films portraying tension and cooperation between the South Asian neighbors were critically analyzed, and the results indicated that Bollywood closely followed the foreign policy initiative of the Indian government.

  4. Pragmatics of policy: the compliance of dutch environmental policy instruments to European union standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruitwagen, Sonja; Reudink, Melchert; Faber, Albert

    2009-04-01

    Despite a general decrease in Dutch environmental emission trends, it remains difficult to comply with European Union (EU) environmental policy targets. Furthermore, environmental issues have become increasingly complex and entangled with society. Therefore, Dutch environmental policy follows a pragmatic line by adopting a flexible approach for compliance, rather than aiming at further reduction at the source of emission. This may be politically useful in order to adequately reach EU targets, but restoration of environmental conditions may be delayed. However, due to the complexity of today's environmental issues, the restoration of environmental conditions might not be the only standard for a proper policy approach. Consequently this raises the question how the Dutch pragmatic approach to compliance qualifies in a broader policy assessment. In order to answer this question, we adapt a policy assessment framework, developed by Hemerijck and Hazeu (Bestuurskunde 13(2), 2004), based on the dimensions of legitimacy and policy logic. We apply this framework for three environmental policy assessments: flexible instruments in climate policy, fine-tuning of national and local measures to meet air quality standards, and derogation for the Nitrate Directive. We conclude with general assessment notes on the appliance of flexible instruments in environmental policy, showing that a broad and comprehensive perspective can help to understand the arguments to put such policy instruments into place and to identify trade-offs between assessment criteria.

  5. Pragmatics of Policy: The Compliance of Dutch Environmental Policy Instruments to European Union Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruitwagen, Sonja; Reudink, Melchert; Faber, Albert

    2009-04-01

    Despite a general decrease in Dutch environmental emission trends, it remains difficult to comply with European Union (EU) environmental policy targets. Furthermore, environmental issues have become increasingly complex and entangled with society. Therefore, Dutch environmental policy follows a pragmatic line by adopting a flexible approach for compliance, rather than aiming at further reduction at the source of emission. This may be politically useful in order to adequately reach EU targets, but restoration of environmental conditions may be delayed. However, due to the complexity of today’s environmental issues, the restoration of environmental conditions might not be the only standard for a proper policy approach. Consequently this raises the question how the Dutch pragmatic approach to compliance qualifies in a broader policy assessment. In order to answer this question, we adapt a policy assessment framework, developed by Hemerijck and Hazeu (Bestuurskunde 13(2), 2004), based on the dimensions of legitimacy and policy logic. We apply this framework for three environmental policy assessments: flexible instruments in climate policy, fine-tuning of national and local measures to meet air quality standards, and derogation for the Nitrate Directive. We conclude with general assessment notes on the appliance of flexible instruments in environmental policy, showing that a broad and comprehensive perspective can help to understand the arguments to put such policy instruments into place and to identify trade-offs between assessment criteria.

  6. East Asia’s Foreign Exchange Rate Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-16

    At the other extreme, Japan, the Philippines, and South Korea have usually allowed their currencies to float freely in foreign exchange ( forex ...China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam allow their currency to adjust in value in forex markets so long as the...There were also reports that Korea sold more dollars for won in early April 2008.7 At the time, some forex analysts claimed that the new South Korean

  7. The October Revolution’s Foreign Policy Program: Origins and Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Alekseevich Lantsov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the ideological origins of Soviet foreign policy practice after the victory of the October Revolution of 1917 are analysed. The Marxist and Liberal concepts of international politics had common roots. It predetermined the similarity of peaceful settlement's proposals made by the Russian Bolsheviks after the October Revolution; they corresponded to the proposals of the US President W. Wilson. The authors pay attention to the fact that the October revolution’s leaders initially viewed it as an integral part of the world revolution. So, the hope for success of the world revolution was a factor determining the Soviet Russia’s domestic and foreign policy. It is noticed that the Leninist conception of the world revolution supposed a close link between the labor movement and national liberation movements in colonial and semi-colonial countries. That link founded an important direction in Soviet foreign policy. In different periods of Soviet history, the attention to national liberation movements depended on the Soviet Union’s foreign policy situation. Despite all the contradictions in the foreign policy of the USSR, which was conditioned both by ideological and geopolitical factors, it always had willingness to support the principle of national self-determination, which in fact belonged to the legacy of the foreign policy platform of the October Revolution. As a result, the Soviet Union made a significant contribution to the elimination of the colonial system and thereby contributed to a change in the nature of world politics and international relations in the 20th century.

  8. Cosmopolitanism and foreign policy for health: ethics for and beyond the state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencucha, Raphael

    2013-07-08

    Foreign policy holds great potential to improve the health of a global citizenship. Our contemporary political order is, in part, characterized by sovereign states acting either in opposition or cooperation with other sovereign states. This order is also characterized by transnational efforts to address transnational issues such as those featured so prominently in the area of global health, such as the spread of infectious disease, health worker migration and the movement of health-harming products. These two features of the current order understandably create tension for truly global initiatives. National security has become the dominant ethical frame underlying the health-based foreign policy of many states, despite the transnational nature of many contemporary health challenges. This ethical approach engages global health as a means to achieving national security objectives. Implicit in this ethical frame is the version of humanity that dichotomizes between "us" and "them". What has been left out of this discourse, for the most part, is the role that foreign policy can play in extending the responsibility of states to protect and promote health of the other, for the sake of the other. The principal purpose of this paper is to review arguments for a cosmopolitan ethics of health-based foreign policy. I will argue that health-based foreign policy that is motivated by security interests is lacking both morally and practically to further global health goals. In other words, a cosmopolitan ethic is not only intrinsically superior as a moral ideal, but also has potential to contribute to utilitarian ends. This paper draws on the cosmopolitanism literature to build robust support for foreign policies that contribute to sustainable systems of global health governance.

  9. European Transportation in the Greenhouse — System and Policy Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    . Current transport growth does not help the EU in meeting its Kyoto protocol obligation to reduce GHG emission by 8% from base year to 2008-2012, and the predicted future mobility trends will pose substantial challenges for achieving possible further reduction objectives beyond the Kyoto framework....... The purpose of this paper is to give a brief overall account of the present situation and outlook in terms of transport energy use and GHG emissions in the context of European Union transport policy. The present assessment is based on a personal selection of some indicators that the author belives are key...... to evaluate the presenst situation and identify challengs for future research. The indicators are all drawn from official sources or scholarly studies, while the way they are interpreted and presented by the author should not be confused with any official EU or government review. Later this year the European...

  10. India in the Arctic: Science, Geopolitics and Soft Power - Perspectives on Contemporary Indian Foreign Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Gewelt, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is an analysis of contemporary Indian foreign policy from the vantage point of India’s recent engagements in the Arctic. By analysing what is argued to be an ‘Indian Arctic discourse’ that emerged between India’s first expedition to Svalbard in 2007 and the following accession to observer status in the Arctic Council in 2013, this thesis explores how this discourse frames the Arctic within a broader Indian foreign policy perspective. The Indian Arctic discourse establishes India a...

  11. Harmonisation of European Migration Policies: The Failure of Immigration Control Policies in the Seventh and Eighth Decades of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mesić

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Until the middle of the 1970s, the migration policies of developed European countries were based on the assumption that controlling immigration was possible. Due to various reasons discussed in this article, such policies proved unsuccessful. The result was an increase in the total number of foreigners and a change in the composition of immigrant communities, i.e. the proportion of supported family members increased. During the 1980s there was increasing convergence in the migration policies of European immigration countries and traditional overseas emigration countries. Policies were more and more oriented towards preventing illegal migration flows, on regulating refugee flows and on balancing labour migration with family migration. The turning-point in the direction of “harmonising” West European migration policies was marked by the Schengen agreement (1985 on gradual elimination of border controls between the signing parties (France, Germany and the Benelux countries. Fear in the face of a possible invasion of Eastern Europeans after the collapse of socialism in 1989 was a further strong stimulus towards the harmonisation of migration policies in the developing EU. As opposed to migration control, the integration of immigrants has remained so far the prerogative of nation-states. The text further presents an overview of migration policy reforms in individual member states of the EU and of multilateral actions. The post-1989 migration regime in Europe has four major traits: 1 an extension of the agenda; 2 an accent on joint actions; 3 defensiveness; 4 confusion and an overload of issues. While on the one hand the EU continues to seek ways of protecting itself from undesired external migration, on the other hand the process of regional integration continues to “erase” its internal borders.

  12. Between the big blocs: Armenian foreign policy untangled

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kambeck, Michael

    2014-01-01

    ...-vis Russia and the EU. It explains the idea of the policy of complementarity and how this idea was genetically enrooted in the special circumstances of the Republic of Armenia’s birth in 1991...

  13. Foreign Policy of the USA and Russia in East Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anna Corsaro; Daniel Djouder

    2015-01-01

    ...: China, Japan, Taiwan, North Korea and South Korea. Russia’s policies and actions are compared to those of the United States as the arguably predominant superpower during most of the period in exam...

  14. The French Defense and Foreign Policies: Rwanda Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    Paper Number 6, Confronting Rwandan Genocide : The Military Options What Could and Should the International Community Have Done? Clementsport: The...in the Rwandan Genocide . New York: I.B. Tauris, 2006. Waugh, Colin M. Paul Kagame and Rwanda: power, genocide and the Rwandan Patriotic Front...Study of the Rwandan crisis events highlights weaknesses in the architecture supporting the French defense and security policies. The new policies

  15. Russia Foreign Policy In Latin America - Case Study Of Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-23

    opinion-russian-tank-deal-with-nicaragua-back-to-the- future-moment-for-u-s. 4 Dmitry Yevstafiev, “Caught in the Web of Archaic Policies,” Russia in...Global Affairs, 17 June 2016, accessed 9 November 2016, http://eng.globalaffairs.ru/number/Caught-in-the- Web -of-Archaic-Policies-18244. 4...is a compilation of many different authors on the subject. Without being specific for our case study of Nicaragua, it gives an overall deep analysis

  16. European integrations and policy of multiculturality in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bašić Goran

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the policy of multiculturalism toward ethno-cultural minorities in contemporary Serbia has been reviewed within the project Regional and European Aspects of Integrative Processes in Serbia held by the Institute for Philosophy and Social Theory. The aim of this paper is directed toward examination of theoretical and empirical problems regarding the phenomenon of multiculturalism. In spite of the fact that multiculturalism is one of the striking characteristics of modern life in Serbia our social sciences pay a little attention to this topic. Ethnicity as an important part of multicultural discourse is based on nonscientific knowledge and in this manner it presents basis for policy and practice for the protection of rights of minorities in the country.

  17. Active sonar, beaked whales and European regional policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolman, Sarah J; Evans, Peter G H; Notarbartolo-di-Sciara, Giuseppe; Frisch, Heidrun

    2011-01-01

    Various reviews, resolutions and guidance from international and regional fora have been produced in recent years that acknowledge the significance of marine noise and its potential impacts on cetaceans. Within Europe, ACCOBAMS and ASCOBANS have shown increasing attention to the issue. The literature highlights concerns surrounding the negative impacts of active sonar on beaked whales in particular, where concerns primarily relate to the use of mid-frequency active sonar (1-10kHz), as used particularly in military exercises. The authors review the efforts that European regional policies have undertaken to acknowledge and manage possible negative impacts of active sonar and how these might assist the transition from scientific research to policy implementation, including effective management and mitigation measures at a national level. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. EU External Relations Law and the European Neighbourhood Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Vooren, Bart

    -historical context of political Union, this thesis first argues why coherence is an issue at all in EU external relations, and why law is integral to attaining the ever-enigmatic single voice of the European Union. Subsequently, the text examines the role of EU external relations law in attaining a coherent...... neighbourhood policy. It is argued that the innovative nature of the ENP for coherence lies beyond the narrowly defined legal sphere, but stems mostly from its hybrid composition of hard legal, soft legal and non-legal policy instruments. It is concluded that from a purely EU-internal and institutional...... perspective, this approach was reasonably successful in involving different actors towards common objectives in the neighbourhood. However, coherence should be more than rhetorical gloss, and agreeing that a wide range of initiatives should be included in soft legal instruments is no guarantee for coherence...

  19. Economic reasons for the expansion of ENP (European Neighborhood Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Merim Kasumovic

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available As a tool to promote democratization EU has set up the Copenhagen criteria which clearly define political, judicial and economic prerequisites for EU membership. The justification of implementation of such criteria can be found in high levels of corruption, autocracy and inefficient political systems in potential members and ENP countries. Potential candidates and ENP countries are looking up to EU and expecting financial aid which only becomes available after Copenhagen criteria have been met. It becomes clear than that it is necessary to establish a fertile political ground in ENP partner countries prior to economic cooperation with the EU members. Therefore, this paper will seek to examine if the European Neighborhood Policy (ENP promotes economic cooperation through establishment of synergy between political and economic policies? Is it equally beneficial for EU and partner countries? DOWNLOAD FILE

  20. European Union and diaspora engagement policy within changing realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violina MARDARI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the European Union and diaspora engagement policy within changing realities. The author focuses on the main research question concerning how the new, uncontrolled migration flows may influence the approach on diaspora engagement policy within member states. This process could have positive as well as negative implications for the Community space even if the EU attempts to develop a new legal framework on migration. The interdisciplinary approach and methods as empirical analysis, comparison and observation on some good practices and new issues gave the possibility to estimate the results of how changing diaspora role perception reduces the gap between different migrants in the EU and improves the diaspora engagement dialogue on institutional and civil society level.

  1. The EU’s Difficulty in Translating Interests into Effective Foreign Policy Action: A Look at the Ukraine Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Nicholas Ross

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The EU’s foreign policy response(s to the unfolding Ukraine crisis has further illustrated its difficulty in making effective foreign policy decisions. Using a neoclassical realist analytical framework, this paper argues that although the EU did have tangible collective interests in pursuing its Ukraine foreign policy, it was unable to adequately filter these through its domestic setting. Three key constraints to the EU’s Ukrainian foreign policy> were identified: decision-makers ’ miscalculations; rigid normative demands; and a reliance on consensus politics. Ultimately, the Ukraine crisis illustrated that the EU, in current incarnation, cannot translate interests into effective foreign policies, even when making policy for their direct neighbourhood.

  2. THEORETICAL AND APPLIED ANALYSIS OF CULTURAL POLICY IN RESEARCH OF DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN SCIENTISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Kinash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the cultural policies in research of domestic and foreign scientists. It was found that around the world it is a part of social policy and an important tool for development. The role of culture as a powerful means of consolidation of society, strengthening of national identity and patriotism is being determined. Implementation of cultural policy of Ukraine through the idea of national cultural revival and restoration of the unity of the state has been suggested. Keywords: cultural policy models, spirituality, society values, unity, national identity. JEL: Z 10

  3. Fiscal policy surveillance in the enlarged European Union: Procedural checks or simple arithmetic?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, Nico; Batten, Jonathan A.; Kearney, Colm

    2006-01-01

    In its recommendation on the 2004 update of the Broad Economic Policy Guidelines (BEPGs), the European Commission (2004) issued country-specific recommendations for fiscal policy in the Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries that have recently joined the European Union (EU) (henceforth the

  4. Impact of policies regulating foreign physician migration to Switzerland: a modelling case study in anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Guy; Combescure, Christophe; Mamie, Chantal; Zoccatelli, Davide; Clergue, François

    2015-05-22

    Several countries have developed policies that restrict or limit duration of stay, clinical privileges or the number of residency permits allocated to migrating physicians. Switzerland is currently preparing a new law limiting overall foreign immigration. The impact of such restrictive policies is currently unknown. In a case study of anaesthesia care in Switzerland we modelled, trends in the size of physicians' workforce until 2024, following the implementation of a strict quota policy for foreign medical trainees. We developed a computer-based Markov model with Monte-Carlo simulations to project, in the context of a strict quota policy for foreign trainees, supply and demand for anaesthesia positions until 2024. We used data from a cross-sectional study performed in the French- and Italian-speaking cantons of Switzerland and the Health dataset from the OECD. With 8 to 12 (95% CI 4-20) anaesthetists retiring per year, the implementation of strict quotas of foreign graduates would result in a 38% decrease in the number of anaesthetists in intermediary (senior registrars) positions by 2024. This decrease would be particularly important in district hospitals where nearly half (49%) of the non-Swiss anaesthetists are practising. Swiss graduates are unlikely to balance the shortage. Despite efforts by Swiss universities to increase the number of medical graduates, their number has dropped from 10.5 to 9.7/100 000 inhabitants between 2000 and 2012, due to the growth of the population. This case study in Latin Switzerland shows that a restrictive policy limiting foreign immigration of trainees would result in a major deficit in the number of anaesthetists available to meet population needs. These aspects should be carefully considered when countries develop restrictions and limitations of foreign immigration.

  5. Policy benchmarking report on neonatal health and social policies in 13 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Matthias; Felderhoff-Mueser, Ursula; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Dammann, Olaf; Marlow, Neil; Hüppi, Petra; Buonocore, Giuseppe; Poets, Christian; Simbruner, Georg; Guimaraes, Hercilia; Mader, Silke; Merialdi, Mario; Saugstad, Ola D

    2010-11-01

    Preterm birth is the major cause of infant mortality and morbidity in both developed and developing countries. In Europe, the prevalence rate of premature birth ranges from 5.5 to 11.4% - an average of 7.1% of all live births. In this report, we aim to compare the current health and social policies, as well as practices in 13 EU member states. Using desk research, relevant information was gathered from each of the 13 European countries with regard to the prevalence of preterm birth, the cost of preterm birth to healthcare budgets, and the relevant policies, guidelines and practices in place at the national and, in some cases, regional level. The information comes from a range of sources, including government and parent association websites, published scientific literature and media reports. Despite the growing prevalence and increasing costs, neonatal and preterm infant health rank low on the policy agendas of EU member states. Based on the findings, there are a number of recommendations that should be considered. The European Union should (i) recognize the growing challenge of prematurity in Europe and its significant impact on infant morbidity and mortality, (ii) improve neonatal health through the development and implementation of coordinated EU health and social policies, (iii) address the lack of comparable European data on prematurity, including prevalence, mortality, acute morbidity and long-term impairment, (iv) also increase the standard of neonatal care across Europe by supporting the development and implementation of European medical guidelines and quality standards, (v) support the development of European postgraduate training programmes in Peri- and Neonatology in order to increase the quality and availability of trained healthcare professionals. © 2010 The Author(s)/Journal Compilation © 2010 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  6. Linking European Environmental Policies with the new CAP after 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Johan

    2017-04-01

    Linking European Environmental Policies with the new CAP after 2020. J.Bouma Em.prof soil science, Wageningen University, the Netherlands EU policy guidelines have been quite successful during the last decades to improve environmental quality of air, water and soil. This deserves credit. For example, the nitrate guideline of 1992 was introduced to deal with an emergency condition of groundwater in many areas of Europa and its quality has greatly improved. Comparable conclusions can be reached for other environmental components. As much new information and technologies have emerged and stakeholders become much more knowlegeable in the modern internet society, it is necessary and possible at this point in time to shift to more local approaches that are fine-tuned to local conditions and that approach land users as partners rather than as adversaries. A unique opportunity arises as the Common Agricultural Policy is being revised and a new policy will be introduced after 2020. Some suggestions will be made, based on the subsidiarity principle where the detail of measures should be in balance with the spatiale level at which they will be enforced: very general at EU level and more specific as one moves down to the level of individual enterprises. The UN Sustainable Development Goals would be an excellent guiding principle at EU level.

  7. The ambiguity of US foreign policy towards Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2017-01-01

    with the Pentagon and the State Department playing prominent roles. The paper argues that in the current century, evangelical Christian lobby groups have gained increasing influence on policymaking on Africa. Because policymaking has been influenced by a number of different actors, the American Africa policy may...... appear incoherent and ambiguous if judged narrowly on the expectation that it only aims to take care of US national security concerns and economic self-interests. The paper concludes that Africa was important to the United States during the presidencies of George W. Bush and Barack Obama because......Since 9/11, the American policy towards Africa has been strongly influenced by national security interests and in particular by the fight against international terrorism and Islamic radicalisation. Traditionally, the American Africa policy has been the result of bureaucratic policymaking...

  8. Foreign clouds in the European sky: how US laws affect the privacy of Europeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primavera De Filippi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a general analysis of how user autonomy in the cloud is increasingly put into jeopardy by the growing comfort and efficiency of the user-interface. Although this issue has not been, thus far, explicitly addressed by the law, it is a fundamental ethical question that should be carefully assessed to guide the future deployment of cloud computing. Different policy decisions might, in fact, significantly affect user’s fundamental rights and online freedoms by shifting the balance from one part or another of the trade-off. This article aims to explore emerging trends in cloud computing technologies and analyse them from an ethical perspective to identify the issues they might raise, and the extent to which current laws and regulations actually take these issues into account.

  9. BRIEF OVERVIEW ON THE CONDITIONALITY IN THE EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Mocanu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP has become a top issue on the EU agenda after the EU enlargement wave of 2004, completed in 2007. The question of efficiently managing the new borders of EU, by facing the new-fangled challenges related to security, combating trafficking, ensuring economic prosperity and environment protection has driven new and restructured EU mechanisms in order to manage the relations with its new neighbourhood - rather diverse in terms of economic and social welfare. Conditionality from the part of EU towards the ENP partner states has been an intricate issue even from the start. How committed can these countries be on the path of rough economic, political and social reforms, in the absence of a perspective of EU accession? If conditionality, as we know it from the pre-accession process of the former candidate states for example, is going to be a success or a failure in the case of the ENP states is still a matter of perception. This paper attempts to give an overview of different opinions upon the potential effect of the conditionality mechanism within the ENP. The victory or breakdown of conditionality within the ENP depends both on the commitment of the ENP partner states to the goals, values, concrete projects promoted through this policy and its consolidated initiatives (Eastern Partnership, Union for Mediterranean, but most of all on the capacity of the European Union to replace the traditional incentive of accession with a proper alternative, mostly in economic, financial, social and security terms.

  10. Russia and the energetic policy of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sánchez Andrés

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems for the Russian gas supply to the EU in 2006 and2009 raised the question on the relationship between these areas. The EU includes Russia in its energy policy, but as a geopolitical risk. The ground of this view is the big volume of hydrocarbons that the EU imports form Russia that implies a dependency of the former. It is assumed that Russia can influence the prices, the quantities, as well as the capability for restructuring the European gas sector. Nevertheless, this view doesn’t consider the role of the gas in Russia and, in particular, the Russian gas export strategic value from the Russian view. This paper questions that Russia could use the gas export to EU as a political vector and, by the way, proposes the geopolitical risk to have a minor relevance. So in the European energy policy the geopolitical risk of Russia should lose importance and should increase the priority about the absence of investments in the Russian gas sector that can establish limits to the imports of Russian gas in the future.

  11. Language policies and practices in wholly owned foreign subsidiaries: A recontextualization perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Vesa Peltokorpi; Eero Vaara

    2012-01-01

    This study adopts a recontextualization perspective on language policies and practices in wholly owned foreign subsidiaries. Drawing on a field study of 101 subsidiaries in Japan, we develop a contingency model that distinguishes between four different types of recontextualization with characteristic language policies and practices: developing/locally adaptive, developing/globally integrated, established/locally adaptive, and established/globally integrated. Our analysis shows how each of the...

  12. Policies and Networks in the Construction of the European Higher Education Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavdas, Kostas A.; Papadakis, Nikos E.; Gidarakou, Marrianna

    2006-01-01

    Within the European Union, issues of comparability and compatibility regarding higher education policy are defined by new challenges, while interest politics increasingly affect the actions and the discursive practices that constitute both the new European Higher Education Policy Area and its relation to other crucial public policies (economic,…

  13. European Union regional policy in Asia-Europe’s meeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel de Jesús Rocha Pino

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During 1996 the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM was created with the purpose of constituting a mechanism of nonexistent interregional dialogue until that moment and that united the both extremes of the eurasian territorial mass: East Asia (represented by group ANSEA 3 and Europe (represented by the European Union. The expectations erected at the moment of ASEM's creation were many, but with the years it has demonstrated a set of limits that has diminished its effectiveness, at least in the area of the political dialogue. In this paper is described the particular experience of the diplomacy of the European Union in the mechanism of the ASEM, the kind of interregional policy that this one has implemented and the contradictions that it has had to tolerate with respect to his own legal and institutional exigencies. In the paper it is argued that, despite its limits, the ASEM can be a referential case on the reaction of the European Union forehead to the transformation that in historical terms means the political and economic emergency of Asia in the international system.

  14. Using Patent Development, Education Policy and Research and Development Expenditure Policy to Increase Technological Competitiveness of Small European Union Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferraro Simona

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Belt and Road Initiative will open new trade routes between China and the European Union (EU and increase competition pressures on smaller EU member states. This article ranks where states like Estonia stand internationally in terms of innovativeness (and consequent competitiveness by conducting an econometric study of patent development, education policy and research and development (R&D expenditure policy. The authors claim that small member states such as Estonia should follow the example of countries such as Germany and adopt policies which focus more on increased public spending on R&D and innovation in public universities of science and technology, and raise support for high tech startups with a strong focus on international patenting. Member States must go further and subsidise R&D activities by focusing, inter alia, on filing of foreign patents such as triadic patents.

  15. Authoritarianism as a Driver of U.S. Foreign Policy: The Cases of Myanmar, Vietnam, and North Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    U.S. FOREIGN POLICY: THE CASES OF MYANMAR, VIETNAM, AND NORTH KOREA by Rang Lee December 2016 Thesis Co-Advisor: Tristan Mabry Thesis Co-Advisor...COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE AUTHORITARIANISM AS A DRIVER OF U.S. FOREIGN POLICY: THE CASES OF MYANMAR, VIETNAM, AND NORTH KOREA 5...This thesis compares U.S. foreign relations with three authoritarian states: Myanmar, Vietnam, and North Korea . The cases represent varying degrees

  16. Language policy for foreign language teaching in Niterói: a critical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Luana Franco Rocha

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze two language policies for foreign language teaching implemented in the city of Niterói. With a qualitative descriptive methodology, the work responds to the questions suggested by Cooper (1997) in order to develop an evaluation of both projects. The results lead us to two main issues: the training of teachers and the violence in schools.

  17. United Sta United States Foreign Policy and the Second Liberian Ci ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2013-09-28

    Sep 28, 2013 ... hence, a military intervention and its attendant risks were unwarranted. As. Beinart (2003:1) laments, 'In countries that lack oil and strategic location, rescuing suffering people still falls into the Clintonian category of 'foreign policy as social work'.' Second, the Bush administration was still suffering from what.

  18. New Reflections on Ethics and Foreign Policy: The Problem of Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kenneth

    1978-01-01

    Explores how ethics and power interact in the arena of politics with particular emphasis on foreign policy and human rights issues. Topics discussed include President Carter's human rights stance, the ubiquity of moral choice, perspectives on world politics, traditional diplomatic approaches, the legal perspective, and diplomatic-legal issues.…

  19. Simulations for the Discipline Specific and Professional Education of Foreign Policy Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelton, Maryanne; Kingsmill, Verity

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly universities aim to provide students with opportunities to graduate with skills ready to perform in the workplace. However, workplace-based opportunities for students enrolled in foreign policy subjects are more limited due to the diplomatic and sensitive political nature of the professional work. Thus there exists a need for higher…

  20. Simulating the Foreign Policy Decision-Making Process in the Undergraduate Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loggins, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation of the foreign policy decision-making process, as described in this article, can assist an instructor in linking students' abstract understanding of complex political events, circumstances, and decision making to the real-world interplay of the multiple factors involved in decision making. It is this type of active learning that helps…

  1. Policy solutions to address the foreign-educated and foreign-born health care workforce in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peggy G; Auerbach, David I; Muench, Ulrike; Curry, Leslie A; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2013-11-01

    Foreign-educated and foreign-born health workers constitute a sizable and important portion of the US health care workforce. We review the distribution of these workers and their countries of origin, and we summarize the literature concerning their contributions to US health care. We also report on these workers' experiences in the United States and the impact their migration has on their home countries. Finally, we present policy strategies to increase the benefits of health care worker migration to the United States while mitigating its negative effects on the workers' home countries. These strategies include attracting more people with legal permanent residency status into the health workforce, reimbursing home countries for the cost of educating health workers who subsequently migrate to the United States, improving policies to facilitate the entry of direct care workers into the country, advancing efforts to promote and monitor ethical migration and recruitment practices, and encouraging the implementation of programs by US employers to improve the experience of immigrating health workers.

  2. THE OMC IN THE EUROPEAN EMPLOYMENT POLICY: BRINGING SOCIALISATION IN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matia Vannoni

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues in favour of a more thorough analysis of a specific set of dynamics taking place in the Open Method of Coordination (OMC, the latter being conceived as an informal organizational framework aimed at mutual learning (de Burca and Zeitlin, 2003 and policy change (Dolowitz and Marsh, 2000; Radaelli, 2000. The aim of this paper is to uncover the missing link between these two elements, which has hitherto been black -boxed by the literature. Theoretical tools from International Relations (IR theories (i.e. constructivist institutionalism are borrowed in order to circumvent such a fallacy. The premises are the same as the ones hitherto employed by scholars studying the OMC (e.g. Jacobsson, 2004: can norms and values assume a binding character even outside the ‘territorially bounded democratic government’ (Héritier and Lehmkuhl, 2008 and thus leading to policy change? If so, how does this phenomenon take place? Nevertheless, the approach is different, in that it builds on two closely interrelated factors: the concept of socialisation with its micro-processes (Johnston, 2001; Johnston, 2008 and the institutional characteristics of social environments (Rogowski, 1999. Accordingly, this paper will address the question: is the OMC in European employment policy a social environment conducive of socialisation?

  3. The Two-Headed Eagle: Faces of Russian Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    the nation’s near abroad? What are the Russian identity consistencies during the eras of Stalin, Yeltsin and Putin ? How did external and...The Yeltsin- Putin Era – Regional Powers and Security Framework During the early 1990s, Europe’s RSC was transformed by Soviet dissolution...facets of realism and constructivism. From a realist perspective, Yeltsin and Putin both adopted policies aimed at balancing against perceptions of

  4. Chinese Foreign Policy in a Global Perspective: A Responsible Reformer "Striving For Achievement"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Weissmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last four decades, China has moved from being an isolated country separated from the international community to having become one of the world’s major powers. It is vital to understand what is guiding Chinese foreign policy, why this is so, and not least what kind of power China is and will be in the future. This article analyses the vital elements and thinking that guides Chinese foreign policy, its priorities and decision making process. It is found that China's foreign policy is embedded in domestic issues. The foremost foreign policy objective is domestic political stability, which in turn is a necessity for the survival of one-party rule. Both are dependent on a combination of two key factors: continuing domestic economic growth and nationalism. The foreign policy is also closely linked to the Chinese self-perception, both its self-superiority/self-inferiority dualism and its multitude of confusing (overlapping identities about what China is and should be. A key turning year is 2008 when the "global" financial crisis severely affected the United States and Europe at a time of Chinese economic success, which gave China confidence to pursue a more active and aggressive/assertive stance on the international stage. It is concluded that China under Xi Jinping will not be a status que power accepting the world as it is, but nor are we to expect China to become a revisionist power aiming to remodel the global order. China is what can best be described as a responsible reformer "striving for achievements".

  5. Analysis of Israel's Foreign Policy Concerning Iraqi's Kurdistan (2003-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Latifi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the Israel's Foreign Policy is one of the important issues concerned by the researchers of the international and regional affairs. Israel's Foreign Policy in years 2003-2015 has witnessed a lot of events. In these years, transformation of the Iraq's internal structures including the fall of the Baath Regime in Iraq and appearance of the terroristic group of Dashi (ISIS in this country has provided new opportunities and challenges for the Israel's Foreign Policy. In this regard, establishment of a republic system in Iraq and the reinforcement of the Kurdish streams, specially during the current transformations and the increasing desires for the independence in Iraqi's Kurdistan, have paved the way for Israel to intensify its activities in the region. In this regard, the current study has approach the issue of Israel's Foreign Policy concerning Iraqi's Kurdistan during the years 2003-2015 with a descriptive analytic method. The achieved results show that the political reasons (alliance of the periphery and development of the strategic depth in closeness to Iran, economic (accessing the energy and mineral resources in Iraqi's Kurdistan, the importance of the Kurdistan's hydro-politic resources for Israel and the Israel's economical influence from the Nile to the Euphrates, military-security (presence in the strategic environment of Iran and the external threats in the Middle East, creation of an environmental crisis un the Kurdish region of the Middle East, weakening the Iraqi's central government and disintegration of this country, Israel's security-intelligence expansion, acquiring a strategic territory and getting out of isolation and the resolving the its legitimacy crisis, controlling the currents of thought in this region, all have been influential in thein Israel's Foreign Policy Concerning Iraqi's Kurdistan.

  6. Network Governance and the Making of Brazil's Foreign Policy Towards China in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Driven by China's increasing global influence, China-Brazil relations have deepened significantly in the 21st century; for Brazil, this bilateral relationship has become one of the most important aspects of its foreign relations. This article aims at analysing how Brazil's foreign policy towards China was made and implemented during the eight years of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva's presidency, and the first four years of Dilma Rousseff's presidency. While scholars agree that the Ministry of Foreign Affairs did not exclusively dominate this policy, little is known about which state and non-state actors were involved, how and why they interacted, and how their interactions influenced policy choices. The article starts by identifying the actors that played a significant role in formulating Brazil's China policy. Next, drawing on the concept of network governance, it explores the processes and mechanisms that governed the interactions among them. It concludes with an assessment of the democratic quality of this policy area.

  7. Europeanization in making policies against domestic violence in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizsan, Andrea; Popa, Raluca

    2010-01-01

    This article looks at how Europe matters in the development of policies against domestic violence, a gender equality field outside the core European Union (EU) conditionality criteria. By analyzing the concrete workings and uses of Europe's domestic violence policy-making in five Central and Eastern European countries, it identifies three mechanisms of Europeanization in the field and shows how together they work to expand the reach of the EU to this policy realm. The findings point toward an understanding of Europeanization based on social learning and dynamic, interactive processes of constructing what membership in the EU means in terms of domestic violence policy processes.

  8. «SOFT POWER» IN GERMAN FOREIGN POLICY DURING THE «ARAB SPRING»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Yost

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The German political experience in formation and application of the concept of «soft power» in its foreign policy during the revolutionary events in North African countries in 2011-2013 («Arab spring» has been summarized on the basis of German and Russian print media content together with the analysis of scientific literature. The author explains the causality between this policy and several internal and external factors, its conceptual framework and components, as well as its focus on certain states and some specific spheres. The author makes a conclusion about the efficiency of the components of «soft power» in the foreign policy of Germany in its application in modern North Africa.

  9. Islam in Indonesian Foreign Policy: Assesing Impacts of Islamic Revivalism during the Soeharto Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azyumardi Azra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, the Islamic world has witnessed something of an Islamic revival. Indonesian Muslims to a certain extent are likewise affected by the euphoria of Islamic revivalism; and there is much evidence to suggest that Islam, like other religions in Indonesia, is also experiencing a revival. As a result frequently since the end of the 1980s, Muslims have succeeded in influencing the making of government domestic policy for the interests of Islam and Muslims. For this reason, it is interesting to consider how Muslims' increasing pressure on the government affect the course of Indonesia's foreign policy, so far as Islamic issues are at stake. This paper attempts to delineate the "role", or more appropriately the position of Islam in Indonesia's foreign policy by taking into consideration several cases, involving Islam directly or indirectly.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v7i3.701

  10. Does Where You Stand Depend on When You Were Born? The Impact of Generation on Post-Vietnam Foreign Policy Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsti, Ole R.; Rosenau, James N.

    1980-01-01

    Indicates that the most salient differences on foreign policy exist between occupational groups and within generations. Discusses the prospects for early achievement of domestic consensus on issues of international politics and American foreign policy. (Author/RL)

  11. Foreign Policy of the USA and Russia in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Corsaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available his paper analyzes the role of the Russian Federation as a world power in the East Asian area between 2000 and 2010, delving into its relations with major regional actors, namely: China, Japan, Taiwan, North Korea and South Korea. Russia’s policies and actions are compared to those of the United States as the arguably predominant superpower during most of the period in exam. Emphasis is put on the possible causes of escalation between the various actors within the Asian scenario, with a detailed comparison between the actions taken by Russia and the United States. 

  12. Expectations, foreign exchange forwards and reflections on monetary policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. FERRO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides preliminary analysis on the relationships that can be established between the rates of the forward exchange rate and the spot exchange rates at the various expectations hypothesis. The authors go on to highlight the implications of monetary policy that the various kinds of expectations entail. To test specifically the role of expectations in the determination of exchange rates at the end we will proceed through a couple of simple empirical tests that refer to the spot and forward prices of the Deutsche Mark against the pound on the Frankfurt market in the first four months of 1976.

  13. A Study of Milk Support Policies in the European Union and in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Toplu YILMAZ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an analysis of milk support policy in the European Union and in Turkey. Turkey’s adaptation of its milk policy to the Common Agricultural Policy of European Union is on the agenda since Turkey has been a candidate country in 1999. Regarding that the Common Agricultural Policy has been reformed many times, Turkey has to adapt its milk sector to a changing policy. Turkey, on the other hand, pursues different support policy in the milk sector. The producers, who are registered in the Farming Registration System, receive milk incentive premiums. There are no similarities between Turkish milk support policy and European Union’s milk support policy. According to the last progress reports, Turkey has to improve Farming Registration System. Turkey has to adjust milk production process to the European Union standards. Furthermore, in the accession process, Turkey plans to increase consumption and also needs to promote milk and milk products producers’ organizations.

  14. A Genealogy of Moderate Islam: Governmentality and Discourses of Islam in Indonesia’s Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rizky Mardhatillah Umar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the political construction of ‘Moderate Islam Discourse’ in contemporary Indonesian Foreign Policy. Since 2004, the Indonesian Ministry of Foreign Affairs has campaigned for ‘Moderate Islam’ as the main image of Indonesian Islam. Within this discourse, Islam is conceived as ‘moderate’ and ‘tolerant’ as well as inherently compatible with democracy. However, in a more critical perspective, ‘Moderate Islam’’ also contains a political and discursive construction. By using a genealogical approach, I argue that the articulation Islam in Indonesia’s foreign policy is influenced by the ideological underpinnings of each political regime as well as the hegemonic discourse operating in international politics. Furthermore, I argue that there have been three discourses of Islam in Indonesia’s foreign policy, as articulated by different political regimes, namely (1 Islam as religious identity; (2 Moderate Islam from below; and (3 Moderate Islam as a part of the Global War on Terror project.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v23i3.3157

  15. Tradable CO2 permits in Danish and European energy policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varming, S.; Eriksen, P.B.; Grohnheit, Poul Erik

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the results of the project "Tradable CO2 permits in Danish and European energy policy". The project was financed by a grant from the Danish Energy Research Programme 1998 (Grant 1753/98-0002). The project was conducted in co-operationbetween Elsamprojekt A/S (project manager......), Risø National Laboratory, Aarhus School of Business and I/S Eltra. The three major objectives of the project were: To identify and analyse the economical and political issues that are relevant with regard tothe construction of a tradable CO_2 permit market as well as proposing a suitable design...... for a tradable CO_2 permit market for the energy sector in the EU. Experience from the tradable SO_2 permit market in the US is taken into consideration as well. Topresent an overview of price estimates of CO_2 and greenhouse gas permits in different models as well as discussing the assumptions leading...

  16. Research Design in the study of the European Neighbourhood Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exadaktylos, Theofanis; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2017-01-01

    This chapter deals with the pitfalls and pathways of research design aimed at the study of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) and maps out the literature on questions of knowledge ambition, research ontology and epistemology, and choices of approaches to the research object. We include...... a review of traditional research designs in ENP research, through a systematic meta-analysis of a selection of the most-cited articles on the ENP. Inspired by earlier work on awareness of research design in EU studies, ENP research is categorised according to typical choices of research design in the form...... of dichotomous trade-offs. The chapter then discusses how individual contributions to this volume deal with research design challenges of the past and present innovative ways of studying the revised ENP....

  17. Enlargement of the European Union and agricultural policy reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Skovager; Lind, Kim Martin Hjorth; Zobbe, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    is that intensiveness of agricultural production corresponds to the willingness to reform the CAP. Political CAP positions, together with the development of member states’ structural fundamentals, are analysed using cluster analysis. The results show that EU enlargements have extensified agricultural production......A connection exists between enlargement of the European Union and reforms of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Based upon rational choice theory, we examine whether the member states’ CAP positions are related to structures in their agricultural sectors. The overall hypothesis...... at the EU level, and that extensive agricultural production in a member state is often an indicator of reduced willingness to reform. However, the intensiveness of agricultural production is only part of the explanation. Moreover, negotiation tactics play an important role for the positions on the CAP....

  18. Strategies of Environmental Policy in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Modiga

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for achieving environmental policy reinforce the principle of subsidiary ( delegation ofresponsibilities of Member States, while European Union outlines only the general objectives to be taken intoaccount and try replacing the traditional vertical approach, command and control type, by promoting analternative model for achieving the EU average. One can say that these strategies are a kind of “aids”, whichcomplement standard tools and acting as incentives for the adoption of measures for environmental protectionthat emphasizes the trend towards an approach based on the principle of volunteering. In the early '70s, wasrecognized the need and legitimacy of a common environment. In time, will develop a progressiveenvironmental Community law, which includes over 200 directives and regulations. They concern mainlywater protection, air quality, protection of flora and fauna, noise, waste disposal. Environmental legislationhas a particular characteristic; it takes into account economic aspects.

  19. A study on the nuclear foreign policy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Keun Bae; Choi, Y. M.; Lee, D. J.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, B. W.; Cho, I. H.; Ko, H. S.

    1996-12-01

    This study aims to analyses recent trends of international situation relating to nuclear non-proliferation and the adverse conditions in Korea`s pursuing self-support of such technology, so that it may map out effective strategies for the promotion of nuclear energy. This study analyses developments of international nuclear non-proliferation regime, which plays a main role in preventing the international proliferation of nuclear weapons. This study includes NPT, IAEA safeguards system, international export control regimes, CTBT, and NWFZs as the subjects of analysis. Second theme is international organizations concerning nuclear activities. This study mainly analyses IAEA activities which pursues the promotion of peaceful use of nuclear energy and nuclear non-proliferation simultaneously as a pivotal body of international nuclear cooperation. Third focus of this study is Northeast Asian circumstances pertaining to nuclear non-proliferation. The study looks into the DPRK nuclear issues, and reviews the developments of the proposed regional body for nuclear cooperation and the discussion on the Northeast Asian NWFZ. Fourth, but the most influential to Korean nuclear activities, is the U. S. nuclear policy, since U. S. takes the overwhelming initiative in the field of international nuclear non-proliferation. Therefore, this study gives much weight in analyzing the structure, procedures, recent trend, and pending issues of U. S. nuclear policy. (author). 78 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  20. The Problem of Partisanship in American Foreign Policy Book Review: Gries P.H. The Politics of American Foreign Policy: How Ideology Divides Liberals and Conservatives over Foreign Affairs Stanford, California: Stanford University press, 2014. 367 p.

    OpenAIRE

    Il'ya Anatol'evich Sokov

    2015-01-01

    This publication is the review on the book of Peter Hays Gries “The Politics of American Foreign Policy: How Ideology Divides Liberals and Conservatives over Foreign Affairs”. The book consists of Preface, Introduction, the Text from two parts: Part I “Concepts” includes 5 chapters, Part II “Cases” also includes 5 chapters and four of them description the relations of the USA with the world regions: Latin America, Europe, the Middle East, the South Asia and the last chapter - relations with t...

  1. Notes on Colombian Foreign Policy Since the American Involvement in the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Felipe Mesa Valencia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes Colombian foreign policy following the rupture of American neutrality. It focuses on the second stage of the Second World War, i.e., from the participation of the United States until the end of the conflict. The article also examines national defense as an indispensable mechanism to preserve national sovereignty, emphasizing the significance of the Third Meeting of Foreign Ministers, held in Rio de Janeiro, on continental security and strengthening of Pan-Americanism.

  2. Sovereign wealth funds – public investment vehicles, foreign policy element. Comparative evolution in the international context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina Drăniceanu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sovereign funds are an important actor occurring on international financial markets in the last decade, being, in fact, state controlled international investments. Generally, they are financed from foreign currency reserves of the emergent countries they are constituted in, being managed apart of the official reserves and used for external expansion; they are likely to be detrimental to certain strategic interests. As public financial vehicles, they own, endorse or manage public funds of some emergent countries, freely invested by them in a great number of assets, being seen as a foreign policy element.

  3. European Lifelong Guidance Policy Network Representatives' Conceptions of the Role of Information and Communication Technologies Related to National Guidance Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettunen, Jaana; Vuorinen, Raimo; Ruusuvirta, Outi

    2016-01-01

    This article reports findings from a phenomenographic investigation into European Lifelong Guidance Policy Network representatives' conceptions of the role of information and communication technologies (ICT) related to national lifelong guidance policies. The role of ICT in relation to national lifelong guidance policies was conceived as (1)…

  4. Trade spillovers of fiscal policy in the european union: A panel analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.; Giuliodori, M.; Klaassen, F.

    2005-01-01

    We explore the international spillovers from fiscal policy shocks via trade in Europe. A fiscal expansion stimulates domestic activity, which leads to more foreign exports and, hence, higher foreign output. To quantify this, we combine a panel VAR model in government spending, net taxes and GDP with

  5. Trade spillovers of fiscal policy in the European Union: a panel analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.; Giuliodori, M.; Klaassen, F.

    2005-01-01

    We explore the international spillovers from fiscal policy shocks via trade in Europe. A fiscal expansion stimulates domestic activity, which leads to more foreign exports and, hence, higher foreign output. To quantify this, we combine a panel VAR model in government spending, net taxes and GDP with

  6. 'Cold reality in the land of fire': The interrelations of Azerbaijan's natural gas export and foreign policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marosvari, Csaba

    Azerbaijan, a landlocked post-Soviet country since its independence has been trying to utilize its energy resources in its foreign policy. With production-sharing agreements with Western oil companies beginning with the 1994 signing of the "Contract of the Century" and the construction of the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline Azerbaijan successfully opened up its energy sector for foreign investment and used pipelines to stabilize its economy and underpin its foreign policy. The discovery of the Shah Deniz gas field opened up new opportunities for Baku to buttress its foreign policy goals with the export of natural gas. In this Master's thesis I will evaluate and show the importance and significance of natural gas export in Azerbaijani foreign policy.

  7. European Policy for Corporate Social Responsibility: Governance Context, Linkage with Sustainable development and Crisis as a Policy Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliouris, Evangelos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Political prerequisites for sustainable development (SD in European Union (EU and its member states are environmental innovation as well as transparency, social welfare, good governance and responsible entrepreneurship. The Europe 2020 Strategy and its indicators were a significant step in order EU, its member states and the social stakeholders to deal with crisis negative socioeconomic and environmental outcomes, but also to improve social trust. An important stakeholder towards these is European business sector. Therefore, responsible entrepreneurship via corporate social responsibility (CSR is a policy topic in EU in parallel with other policy topics such as transparency (e.g. non-financial reporting and good governance (e.g. political framework for CSR. The European business community was always a crucial stakeholder for development, but since 2001 CSR is explicitly part of European policy agenda through topics such as public procurement, responsible supply chains, anti-corruption policies, employment generation, reporting and disclosure etc. In EU the applied policy for CSR indicates different approaches and policy tools within the common policy framework and definitions. Moreover, the crisis evolution became an accelerator for CSR policy evolution and convergence between perspectives and member states. The renewed strategy in 2011, the report for CSR public policies in 2014 and the EU steps towards SD Agenda for 2030 in 2015 indicated issues such as corporate citizenship and responsible entrepreneurship as an ongoing policy process that focuses both on EU political convergence at member states level and the European business sector excellence.

  8. Russia and the CIS: Relations of Foreign or Domestic Policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesáreo R. Aguilera de Prat

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available What role does the Community of Independent States (CIS currently have in the area that was once called the Soviet Union, in particular in Russia’s so-called “near abroad”? The CIS was, to start with, little more than a liquidating committee of Soviet inheritance.This hybrid entity may be defined as a specific type of union among officially sovereign States that have few decision making mechanisms. For Russia its policy towards the “near abroad” is a priority given this country’s geostrategic interests in this area. The paperanalyzes some of the economic imperatives and the military’s participation in peacekeeping missions that have favored, up to a point, a “russification” of the CIS.

  9. European Transportation Policy for better Integration. Shifting the Balance between the Modes of Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhet Genç

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing need for transportation and mobility of citizen gives raises the importance oftransportation policy. The development of the European transportation policy has a great significance for theEuropean Union. The common transportation policy of the European Union is reviewed and updated everynine years. The first common transportation policy of the European Commission was published in December1992. Besides the railway sector, most of the objectives listed in this policy were realized in ten years. In2001, the European Commission proffered a new transportation policy with sixty new measures. Thus, thispaper shows the importance of transportation projects -especially in the field of railways- for European Unionmember states. In accounting, cross-border sections of projects are more or less neglected, as member statestend to prioritize the development of sections of the projects, which are economically viable for themselves,thereby delaying the overall connectivity of the trans-European network. The railway modal is the hardestmodal to interoperate between the member countries. Therefore it is not a surprise that the objectives listed inthe first European transportation policy were not realized in the railway sector. There were enormousdifferences between railway systems before the European Union. Some of them still have an influence oncurrent railway infrastructure and operations today. To sum up, this research shall deal with the crucialaspects of common transportation policies as well as problems of its implications.

  10. Selling the Arc of Crisis: Promoting Foreign Policy Change during the Carter Presidency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Vinha Luis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Carter Administration came to Office seeking to continue a policy of détente. However, the Administration’s policy vis-à-vis the Soviets became more assertive throughout the Presidency, culminating in the Carter Doctrine. The current paper applies a conceptual framework for “issue selling” to argue that a more assertive foreign policy was being promoted by the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs and his NSC staff since the early days of the Carter Presidency. By applying an assortment of issue selling strategies, Zbigniew Brzezinski and the NSC staff were able to exploit the communicative interactions amongst the political leadership to continuously promote a more forceful US policy towards the Soviets. By being able to interpret and define the problem representation facing the Administration, the APNSA was able initiate and continuously promote a wholesale policy transformation leading to the development of the Carter Doctrine.

  11. Putting science at the heart of European policy

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    One year ago, the incoming European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker shocked the scientific world by scrapping the post of Chief Scientific Advisor. This week, the Commission made amends by launching a well-considered Scientific Advisory Mechanism (SAM) that not only puts science back at the heart of policy, but does so in a much more structured and robust way than conferring such responsibility on a single individual.     The SAM has two independent strands: an advisory group of seven scientists, and funding through the Horizon 2020 programme for national academies and learned societies to network and collaborate on policy issues. Both are backed up by a secretariat at Commission headquarters in Brussels. When Mr Juncker scrapped the role of Chief Scientific Advisor, it was against a backdrop of sometimes vitriolic attacks on the incumbent, Anne Glover, due to her outspoken views on GMOs. Mr Juncker’s move was seen by some as simply giving in to a powerful lob...

  12. Benefits of European Climate Policies for Mercury Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Rafaj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the methodology and results of impact assessment of renewable energy policies on atmospheric emissions of mercury in Europe. The modeling exercise described here involves an interaction of several models. First, a set of energy scenarios has been developed with the REMix (Renewable Energy Mix model that simulates different levels of penetration of renewable energies in the European power sector. The energy scenarios were input to the GAINS (Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies model, which prepared projections of mercury releases to the atmosphere through 2050, based on the current air pollution control policies in each country. Data on mercury emissions from individual sectors were subsequently disaggregated to a fine spatial resolution using various proxy parameters. Finally, the dispersion of mercury in the atmosphere was computed by the chemistry transport model, implemented to the air quality system, Polyphemus. The simulations provided information on changes in concentrations and depositions of various forms of mercury over Europe. Scenarios that simulate a substantial expansion of renewable energies within the power sector indicate extensive co-benefits for mercury abatement, due to the restructuring of the energy system and changes in the fuel mix. The potential for mercury reductions in Europe depends on the rate of fuel switches and renewable technology deployment, but is also influenced by the stringency and timing of the air quality measures. The overall scope for co-benefits is therefore higher in regions relying on coal combustion as a major energy source.

  13. Optimal policy for mitigating emissions in the European transport sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Sylvain; Piera, Patrizio; Sennai, Mesfun; Igor, Staritsky; Berien, Elbersen; Tijs, Lammens; Florian, Kraxner

    2017-04-01

    A geographic explicit techno-economic model, BeWhere (www.iiasa.ac.at/bewhere), has been developed at the European scale (Europe 28, the Balkans countries, Turkey, Moldavia and Ukraine) at a 40km grid size, to assess the potential of bioenergy from non-food feedstock. Based on the minimization of the supply chain from feedstock collection to the final energy product distribution, the model identifies the optimal bioenergy production plants in terms of spatial location, technology and capacity. The feedstock of interests are woody biomass (divided into eight types from conifers and non-conifers) and five different crop residuals. For each type of feedstock, one or multiple technologies can be applied for either heat, electricity or biofuel production. The model is run for different policy tools such as carbon cost, biofuel support, or subsidies, and the optimal mix of technologies and biomass needed is optimized to reach a production cost competitive against the actual reference system which is fossil fuel based. From this approach, the optimal mix of policy tools that can be applied country wide in Europe will be identified. The preliminary results show that high carbon tax and biofuel support contribute to the development of large scale biofuel production based on woody biomass plants mainly located in the northern part of Europe. Finally the highest emission reduction is reached with low biofuel support and high carbon tax evenly distributed in Europe.

  14. FOREIGN POLICY OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN: PROBLEMS, PRIORITIES AND IMPLEMENTATION MECHANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usen S. Alimbetov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the foreign policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan, which occupy a special place in government programs, liberalization of foreign trade, development and consolidation of foreign economic relations , to rationalize the structure of exports and imports, in order to enhance the competitiveness of domestic goods and services. Importance of having rationalization of the structure of exports and imports . Structure of imports focused on meeting consumer needs. The main feature is the same export monoorientirovannost it, which is unusual for world exports. Monoorientirovannost means that the country’s export base are a few types of exported goods, mainly fuel and raw materials. In turn, this causes a narrow list of exports, raw specialization economy and implies a high dependence on the world market prices of fuel and raw materials.

  15. Identifying Special Operations as a Distinct Foreign Policy Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Anton Asklund

    2017-01-01

    This chapter briefly discusses political premises for the question asked and secondly provides a condensed research review that relate to the question. The author discusses questions on civilian control and the advancement of special operations and finds it specifically important for SOF to be ab...... on special operations, it is essential to have insight into the instrument’s capabilities and limitations, as this provides the prerequisites for sound contextual strategic analysis.......This chapter briefly discusses political premises for the question asked and secondly provides a condensed research review that relate to the question. The author discusses questions on civilian control and the advancement of special operations and finds it specifically important for SOF to be able...... to clarify and explain what special operations strategic qualities exactly are. The author then elaborates on specific elements of special operations with a point of departure in the “cognitive maps of SOF” as formulated in the research question. The author recommends that in order to influence policy...

  16. Global health in foreign policy in South Africa – Evidence from state actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeketsi Modisenyane

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: There are currently debates about why South Africa integrates global health into its foreign policy agendas. This study aimed at exploring motivation and interests’ South African policy actors pursue to advance global health and the processes that lead to such integration. Methods: The study utilized a mixed-method design from a sample of state policy actors at the National Department of Health of South Africa. Participants were selected purposively and had experience of more than three years participating in various international health activities. All participants completed semi-structured questionnaires. Quantitative data was analysed to determine frequencies and transcribed text was analyzed using qualitative content analysis.   Results: A total of 40 people were invited, of whom 35 agreed to participate. Of the respondents, 89.7% (n=32 strongly argued that health should facilitate ‘free movement of people, goods and services’. Majority (79.0%, n= 29 agreed that ‘development and equality’ are the main elements of foreign policy. Of the respondents, majority 77.1% (n=27 agreed that ‘moral and human rights’ are the main elements of foreign policy. Furthermore, 82.8% (n=29 agreed that the country should advance ‘Africa regionalism and south-south cooperation’ and 85.7% (n=30 strongly argued for a ‘whole-government approach’ in addressing global health challenges. ‘HIV/AIDS’ and ‘access to medicines agenda’ were the main policy issues advanced. The main domestic factors shaping South Africa’s involvement in global health were its ‘political leadership’ and ‘capacity of negotiators’. Conclusion: It is evident that within South Africa, state policy actors are largely concerned with promoting global health interest as a normative value and a goal of foreign policy, namely, human dignity and development cooperation. Furthermore, South Africa drives its global health through building coalition with other

  17. Has the United States’ Manifest Destiny Run Its Course? U.S. Foreign Policy Juxtaposed Against Fourth Generation Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    the growing trends of inter-state and international non-state actors. In my endeavor, I would like to thank Dr. Mark Jacobsen , Dr. Rebecca Johnson...military force. The “Vietnam Syndrome ”—a condition among post-Vietnam policy makers stemming from the foreign policy crises and the resulting military...foreign policy of this era. However, with the Vietnam syndrome still at play, the collapse of the Soviet Union left a void for directed U.S. foreign

  18. Exploration of Exploitation Approaches of European Projects on ICT and Foreign Language Learning: the CEFcult project case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Rajagopal, Kamakshi; Stoyanov, Slavi; Van Maele, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Rusman, E., Rajagopal, K., Stoyanov, S., & Van Maele, J. (2011, 20 October). Exploration of Exploitation Approaches of European Projects on ICT and Foreign Language Learning: the CEFcult project case. Presentation at the 4th International Conference ICT for Language Learning, Florence, Italy.

  19. Exploration of Exploitation Approaches of European Projects on ICT and Foreign Language Learning: the CEFcult project case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Rajagopal, Kamakshi; Stoyanov, Slavi; Van Maele, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Rusman, E., Rajagopal, K., Stoyanov, S., & Van Maele, J. (2011, 20-21 October). Exploration of Exploitation Approaches of European Projects on ICT and Foreign Language Learning: the CEFcult project case. Paper presented at the 4th International Conference ICT for Language Learning, Florence, Italy.

  20. Governmental policies and measures regulating nitrogen and phosphorus from animal manure in European Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses governmental policies and measures that regulate the use of animal manure in the European Union (EU-15). Systematic intervention by governments with European agriculture in general started at the end of the 19th century. Major changes in governmental policies on agriculture

  1. BULGARIA’S MULTI-VECTOR FOREIGN POLICY APPROACH TO SECURITY CHALLENGES IN EASTERN EUROPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    Russian influence in their political, economic and energy policies. The small Eastern European (EE) states are facing now a fundamentally altered...But even this deterioration of bilateral relations was not able to cut entirely the economic and military ties, and reduce the energy dependency ...policy and is involved in a new dangerous and unpredictable confrontation. Although maintaining a high dependence on Russia’s economy and energy

  2. The Crucial Role of Educational Stakeholders in the Appropriation of Foreign Language Education Policies: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez, Oscar; Usma, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on the concept of policy appropriation, this study investigates how different education stakeholders in a rural region of Colombia perceive foreign language education policies, and how these perceptions shape the way they recreate these reforms at the ground level. Contributing to the field of language policy analysis in Colombia and…

  3. Language policy for foreign language teaching in Niterói: a critical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Franco Rocha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze two language policies for foreign language teaching implemented in the city of Niterói. With a qualitative descriptive methodology, the work responds to the questions suggested by Cooper (1997 in order to develop an evaluation of both projects. The results lead us to two main issues: the training of teachers and the violence in schools.

  4. A Strategic Assessment of South Asia: Prescription for US Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    national pnde m its status as a nuclear power and seeks global recogiutlon of its leadership role m South Asia With a burgeonmg population of 900...ASSESSMENT OF SOUTH ASIA PRESCRIPTION FOR US FOREIGN POLICY COURSE 5604 ESSAY Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting...does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 1997 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1997 to 00-00-1997 4. TITLE AND

  5. Foreign and Security Policy of the Newly Independent States: Balancing between Two Power Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiy G. Fedunyak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is focusing on the interplay between foreign policy agenda of the post-Soviet states at the one hand and internal policy developments in these countries at the other hand. One of the main explanations why the post-Soviet elites in non-Russian republics are pursuing the so-called multi-vectorialism in the foreign policy is that it serves as a strategy to maximize the most from having good relations both with East and West, and thus trying to perpetuate the monopoly of the power. Uzbekistan is a country in case, as Ukraine (and Moldova is (or was indeed also. At the same time, the special relations between the elites of post-Soviet countries and Moscow are very important in shaping the foreign policy agenda of these countries as a result of the Soviet legacy, i.e. the ties of the former Communist nomenklatura with Moscow are still playing a very important role in the most of the former Soviet republics. Another relevant variable in explaining the current state of affairs in the foreign and security issues of the post-Soviet states and the still dominant role of Russia is the fact that the West (NATO and EU especially are not very successful in trying to limit Moscow’s ambitions in the “near abroad”. This is making the leaders of most NIS to be obedient to Russia’s pretensions in lack of real support from the West in order to counteract these neo-imperial claims from the part of the former metropolis.

  6. An Initial Look at the Utility of Social Media as a Foreign Policy Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    a widely cited example of the art of the possible was exemplified by Target’s ability to predict the pregnancy of a teenage girl before her father...foreign policy 13 Casey Chan, “Did Chick-fil-A Pretend to Be a Teenage Girl on Facebook...Gizmodo, 25 July 2012. http://gizmodo.com/5928926/chick+fil+a-got-caught-pretending-to-be-a-fake- teenage -girl- on-facebook 7 professionals

  7. Fighting poverty and child malnutrition: on the design of foreign aid policies

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilakis, Chrysovalantis

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we have developed a two-period overlapping-generation model featuring the effects of child nutrition in developing countries. The model gives rise to multiple equilibria including a poverty trap. It shows that child nutrition status may affect the development of human capital unfavorably and leads countries into poverty. Various exogenous foreign aid policies implemented by international organizations such as the World Food Programme (WFP) are considered. School feeding program...

  8. The Impact of Military and Political Situation in Iraq on Syrian Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Salum Hossam Eddin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the Syrian position towards the 2003 conflict in Iraq and the impact of the conflict on foreign and domestic Syrian policy. The author reveals the influence of the situation on the process of Middle East settlement, on the plan of Big Middle East building, as well as on U.S. plans on de-escalation of the USA presence in the region.

  9. Language policy and the manufacturing of consent for foreign intervention in colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Valencia Marlon

    2012-01-01

    The present paper provides a critical analysis of Colombia’s National Program of Bilingualism focusing on the ideologies behind it, how it facilitates the manufacturing of Colombian citizens’ consent for foreign intervention through free trade agreements, and the progressive dismantling of public education. The program is analyzed with a critical language policy lens that brings into consideration the historical and socio-political factors of the Colombian context. For this purpose, several n...

  10. Mapping Russian Media Network: Media’s Role in Russian Foreign Policy and Decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-14

    influence strategy. In addition, we highlight Russian decision-making and messaging through four distinct past and future scenarios along the spectrum of...instrument and lever of influence . The role of media in promoting Russian foreign policy and exerting the influence of President Vladimir Putin has...examine the role that Russia’s media and messaging plays in external influence . In addition, we highlight that while media is a key instrument of

  11. Nationalism and multilateralism in Chinese foreign policy: implications for Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher R. Hughes

    2005-01-01

    One of Michael Leifer's main fears for the future role of ASEAN arose from the spectre of a rising nationalistic China. This article assesses whether recent developments have borne out those fears by looking at the nature of Beijing's evolving multilateral approach towards the region. Agreeing with Leifer that nationalism is an important influence on Chinese foreign policy, the article explores the complex relationship between domestic politics and the discourse of multipolarity in China to p...

  12. The Arab Spring in Egypt: What are the Implications for U.S. Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    On 25 January 2011 Egyptians took to the streets demanding that Mubarak step down due to years oppression, bad economic policy, and corruption ...away.’16 The current economic situation in Egypt is fairly bleak. Unemployment is high and GDP growth is sluggish, which is creating significant...there has been a sharp drop in Foreign Direct Investment ( FDI ) following the regime change. New restrictions on the amount of capital transfers

  13. Status and Foreign Policy Change in Small States: Qatar’s Emergence in Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadzadeh, Babak

    2017-01-01

    Small states are just as easily seduced by status and glory as other states. When conceived as situated in a stratified international society, small states acquire an inherent tendency to overcome their disadvantage in conventional power terms through the pursuit of status. Hence, it is precisely because of their position in the international hierarchy, not in spite of it, that strategic ideas based on state size stimulate foreign policy change in small states. This mechanism provides an expl...

  14. What role can civil society organizations have in European health policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeegers Paget, Dineke; Renshaw, Nina; Droogers, Maaike

    2017-10-01

    Over the years, the main European institutions active in health [European Union, and the Regional Office for Europe of the World Health Organization (WHO)] have played active roles in policy for public health in Europe. Yet, more recent developments have called into question the place of public health on the European political agenda. In this article, we reflect on how European health policy is set and what the role of civil society organizations (CSOs) can or should be, by showcasing two European associations as examples of how to influence European health policy development and implementation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  15. Understanding the cost bases of Space Shuttle pricing policies for commercial and foreign customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Barbara A.

    1984-01-01

    The principles and underlying cost bases of the 1977 and 1982 Space Shuttle Reimbursement Policies are compared and contrasted. Out-of-pocket cost recovery has been chosen as the base of the price for the 1986-1988 time period. With this cost base, it is NASA's intent to recover the total cost of consumables and the launch and flight operations costs added by commercial and foreign customers over the 1986-1988 time period. Beyond 1988, NASA intends to return to its policy of full cost recovery.

  16. More of the same? The European Employment Strategy and the normalization of British employment policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which the European Employment Strategy seeks to govern and further improve the performance of British employment policies. It is argued that by creating an epistemological and normalizing space for the problematization and governing of unemployment in terms...... of activation, the European Employment Strategy contributes to the legitimation of British employment policies. By addressing unemployment as a problem of structural labor market barriers, missing incentives and inadequate employability, the European Employment Strategy serves to reinforce the British...

  17. The relationship between physical aggression, foreign policy and moral choices: Phenotypic and genetic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Rose; Hatemi, Peter K

    2017-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that both leaders and other individuals vary in dispositional levels of physical aggression, which are genetically influenced. Yet the importance of individual differences in aggression for attitudes toward foreign policy or context-laden moral choices, such as sacrificing the lives of some for the greater good of many, has yet to be fully explored. Given the global importance of such decisions, we undertook this exploration in a sample of 586 Australians, including 250 complete twin pairs. We found that individuals who scored higher on Buss-Perry's physical aggression scale were more likely to support aggressive foreign policy interventions and displayed a more utilitarian moral calculus than those who scored lower on this scale. Furthermore, we found that the majority of variance in physical aggression lay in genetic factors for men, whereas the majority of the variance was in environmental factors for women. The source of covariation between aggression and political choices also differed between the sexes. A combination of genetic and environmental factors accounted for most of the cross-trait correlations among males, whereas common and unique environmental factors accounted for most of the cross-trait correlations among females. We consider the implications of our results for understanding how trait measures of aggression are associated with foreign policy and moral choices, providing evidence for why and how individuals differ in responding to complex social dilemmas. Aggr. Behav. 43:37-46, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A Federal Constitution for the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweeney, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    that the federal government loses legitimacy. It appears vital tohave trade policy at the European Union level; for euro countries, monetary policy is alreadyfederalized. It is not clear that common foreign and defense policies are needed; insisting oncommon foreign and defense policies may lead to conflicts...... that helps drain the reservoir of goodwill that the European Union will need fordealing with other conflicts amongst member states....... within and across member statesthat severely weaken the Union, conceivably contributing to eventual collapse. Insisting onharmonization of commercial codes does not have the destructive potential of attemptingcompletely to harmonize defense and foreign policies; it may, however, lead to needlessconflict...

  19. "Foreign Language Activities" in Japanese Elementary Schools: Negotiating Teacher Roles and Identities within a New Language Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Sachiko Yokoi

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, a new language education policy called "Gaikokugo Katsudou" [Foreign Language Activities] was issued by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport, Science, and Technology (MEXT) in Japan. Effective 2011, foreign language education became mandatory in all Japanese public elementary schools for the first time. With this dramatic…

  20. Governmental policies and measures regulating nitrogen and phosphorus from animal manure in European Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Oenema, O.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses governmental policies and measures that regulate the use of animal manure in the European Union (EU-15). Systematic intervention by governments with European agriculture in general started at the end of the 19th century. Major changes in governmental policies on agriculture followed after the establishment of the EU and its Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) in 1957. Environmental side effects of the large-scale intensification of agricultural production were addressed foll...

  1. METAPHORICAL MODEL WITH THE SPHERE SOURCE «WAR» IN THE RUSSIAN AND AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S. Nikitaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers military metaphorin Russian and American foreign policy discourse. It is argued that the establishedfrequency of Russian and US militaryimages attests to the fact that those aredeeply embedded in the conceptual system of both nations.

  2. The Nexus between Czech Non-State Actors and Domestic Foreign Policy Making in the EU Presidency Context

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neuman, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Holding the EU Council Presidency presented the Czech Republic with an unprecedented opportunity to leave its imprint on, among others, EU foreign policy making by co-shaping the EU's political agenda...

  3. Customs tariffs and the policy of custom tariffs in the function of the realization of regional economic integrations: The example of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vranješ Mile

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Custom tariffs and the policy of custom tariffs have always been important instruments in the protection of domestic production from foreign competition, though the more in the past, the less in today's global economic environment. The idea of protectionism in international trade hasn't evaded the European Union either. The European Union has a common protectionist policy against countries that are not member to it. The agricultural production and the policy of administrative levies on the import of agricultural products pertain to the area that enjoys the highest degree of protection. The realization of such protectionist policy makes the international trade less free, while the free movement of goods is quintessential to the economic growth of the European Union, other regional economic integrations, individual countries and the society as such. The World Trade Organization, which imposes its own rules on the international trade, the creation of regional economic organizations in today's environment of international trade and free-trade agreements between individual states shrank to minimal the diapason of various protectionist measures and instruments. The decline of the idea of protectionism in international trade is evidenced by data on the share of the customs tariffs in the total fiscal revenues of the European Union and of the GDP of the member states. Namely, the fiscal impact of custom tariffs for some years shows a descending tendency, above all due to the process of globalization in foreign trade and liberalization at the scale of global economy. The European Union will be able to facilitate the development of the regional economic integrations only through the liberalization of foreign trade, because the idea of protectionism in international trade doesn't have perspectives on the long run.

  4. IS A NEW EUROPEAN UNION ENERGY POLICY NEEDED?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina, PETRUCA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In January 2009, because of a different between Russia and Ukraine, a major natural gas pipeline was closed, this being the worst gas cut-off of the decade. Eighteen countries have been interrupted from gas supplies and countries which had limited reserves and a shortage of alternative supply met a serious energy deficit, in the middle of an especially cold winter. After 22 days, the gas flows to all European countries were back to the normal level. A result of this, and of another similar dispute from 2006, was that the EU has put into question the confidence on the Russian gas supplies. The insecurity has led to a renewal of the political interest in energy security on EU level. The Russian cut-offs have been like a wake-up call to policy makers at a time when the EU faces significant energy security challenges as a result of the emerging world order. More than half of its energy, the EU buys from non-EU sources, while the demand for energy is always higher. In the meantime, the EU production levels of hydrocarbons are decreasing, leading to higher dependency on non-EU sources. Thereby, the energy security became a globally important topic and will raise important challenges for the EU in the future.

  5. The Dispute of Ambalat in the Perspective of Indonesian Foreign Policy in the Post-new Order Era

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi, Syamsul

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the Ambalat territorial dispute between Indonesia and Malaysia, viewing from the perspective of Indonesian foreign policy in the Post-New Order era. The writer argues that Ambalat is a typical case in which Indonesian foreign policy had been widely influenced by public pressures which force government to take a firm stance against Malaysia. The practices of democratic system, including free media, have become an important factor behind such firm stance, along withthe gro...

  6. Iraqi Foreign Policy Between Theory and Practice: Studying the State of Iraqi-Saudi Relations Until 2014 And Future Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    AGWAN, Ali Bashar

    2017-01-01

    The Iraqi foreign policy was formed after 2003 in a difficult period in which Iraq experienced a destructive war and the state was reshaped numerous times. The Iraqi foreign policy consisted of a complex mix of conflicting interests of internal political forces and driven by external engines that wish to obtain a foothold in the new phase of Iraq. This complex situation has generated an unbalanced Iraqi political performance based on common interests between 2003 and 2014, constructed on the ...

  7. Woodrow Wilson's hidden stroke of 1919: the impact of patient-physician confidentiality on United States foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menger, Richard P; Storey, Christopher M; Guthikonda, Bharat; Missios, Symeon; Nanda, Anil; Cooper, John M

    2015-07-01

    World War I catapulted the United States from traditional isolationism to international involvement in a major European conflict. Woodrow Wilson envisaged a permanent American imprint on democracy in world affairs through participation in the League of Nations. Amid these defining events, Wilson suffered a major ischemic stroke on October 2, 1919, which left him incapacitated. What was probably his fourth and most devastating stroke was diagnosed and treated by his friend and personal physician, Admiral Cary Grayson. Grayson, who had tremendous personal and professional loyalty to Wilson, kept the severity of the stroke hidden from Congress, the American people, and even the president himself. During a cabinet briefing, Grayson formally refused to sign a document of disability and was reluctant to address the subject of presidential succession. Wilson was essentially incapacitated and hemiplegic, yet he remained an active president and all messages were relayed directly through his wife, Edith. Patient-physician confidentiality superseded national security amid the backdrop of friendship and political power on the eve of a pivotal juncture in the history of American foreign policy. It was in part because of the absence of Woodrow Wilson's vocal and unwavering support that the United States did not join the League of Nations and distanced itself from the international stage. The League of Nations would later prove powerless without American support and was unable to thwart the rise and advance of Adolf Hitler. Only after World War II did the United States assume its global leadership role and realize Wilson's visionary, yet contentious, groundwork for a Pax Americana. The authors describe Woodrow Wilson's stroke, the historical implications of his health decline, and its impact on United States foreign policy.

  8. A study on the effects of exchange rate and foreign policies on Iranians dates export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Khalighi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was studying the impact of exchange rate on date export as one of the most important and greatest foreign currency income earned horticultural products in agriculture sector in Iran. Selected time period in this study was chosen between 1991 and 2011. For this purpose, ordinary least squares (OLS method has used to estimate the relationships between the value of date export and the variables taken from stationary tests. Library research method has used for the analysis. In this regard, required data have collected from various scientific and research resources. The results indicated that, exchange rate is a crucial factor for dates export and also for exporters. In addition, other factors specially government policies have been placed in export model. In this field, short-term outsourcing foreign policy has decreased the export value. Results also showed that, applying exchange rate unification policy without an appropriate exchange rate to encourage exporters has negative impact on dates export. Therefore, by applying exchange rate stabilization policy, according to inflation in the country, the potential exporters’ income has reduced and production costs have increased alternately.

  9. Past Fame, Present Frames and Future Flagship? An Exploration of How Health is Positioned in Canadian Foreign Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonté, Ronald; Runnels, Vivien; Gagnon, Michelle

    2012-06-01

    Canada has been regarded as a model global citizen with firm commitments to multilateralism. It has also played important roles in several international health treaties and conventions in recent years. There are now concerns that its interests in health as a foreign policy goal may be diminishing. This article reports on a thematic analysis of key Canadian foreign policy statements issued over the past decade, and interviews with key informants knowledgeable of, or experienced in the interstices of Canadian health and foreign policy. It finds that health is primarily and increasingly framed in relation to national security and economic interests. Little attention has been given to human rights obligations relevant to health as a foreign policy issue, and global health is not seen as a priority of the present government. Global health is nonetheless regarded as something with which Canadian foreign policy must engage, if only because of Canada's membership in many United Nations and other multilateral fora. Development of a single global health strategy or framework is seen as important to improve intersectoral cooperation on health issues, and foreign policy coherence. There remains a cautious optimism that health could become the base from which Canada reasserts its internationalist status.

  10. Past Fame, Present Frames and Future Flagship? An Exploration of How Health is Positioned in Canadian Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien Runnels

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Canada has been regarded as a model global citizen with firm commitments to multilateralism. It has also played important roles in several international health treaties and conventions in recent years. There are now concerns that its interests in health as a foreign policy goal may be diminishing. This article reports on a thematic analysis of key Canadian foreign policy statements issued over the past decade, and interviews with key informants knowledgeable of, or experienced in the interstices of Canadian health and foreign policy. It finds that health is primarily and increasingly framed in relation to national security and economic interests. Little attention has been given to human rights obligations relevant to health as a foreign policy issue, and global health is not seen as a priority of the present government. Global health is nonetheless regarded as something with which Canadian foreign policy must engage, if only because of Canada’s membership in many United Nations and other multilateral fora. Development of a single global health strategy or framework is seen as important to improve intersectoral cooperation on health issues, and foreign policy coherence. There remains a cautious optimism that health could become the base from which Canada reasserts its internationalist status.

  11. Governing Education through Data: Scotland, England and the European Education Policy Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grek, Sotiria; Ozga, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws on interview data from national policy makers in England, Scotland and the European Commission to illustrate differences in the referencing of "Europe" in education policy-making in England and Scotland in order to highlight the emergent complexity of post-devolution policy-making in education through a focus on…

  12. "Innovation and Intellectual Property Policies in European Research Infrastructure Consortia - PART I: The Case of the European Spallation Source ERIC"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Helen; Wested, Jakob; Minssen, Timo

    2017-01-01

    of the problems society is facing today. To facilitate the creation and operation of such RIs, the EU adopted legal frameworks for European Research Infrastructure Consortia (ERIC). On August 31, 2015, the European Spallation Source (ESS) was established as an ERIC. Under the ERIC Regulations and ESS Statutes......, the European Spallation Source ERIC is required to adopt various policy documents relating to the operation and management of the facility. These cover a wide variety of issues such as user access, public procurement, intellectual property rights (IPR), data management, and dissemination. One of the main goals...... international research collaborations? The complex relationship between scientific excellence, innovation, and IPRs must be carefully considered. Taking the European Spallation Source ERIC as an example, this article investigates ERIC Regulations and EU policies and discusses what issues and perspectives ERICs...

  13. Transnationalization of Czech Adult Education Policy as Glocalization of the World and European Policy Mainstream(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopecký, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the development of Czech adult education policy over the past twenty years. It comments on the fact that the processes of globalization and Europeanization represent the most significant factor of that policy. The introductory part presents the historical development from the mid-nineteenth century until the end of the…

  14. Transition in Education: Policy Making and the Key Educational Policy Areas in the Central-European and Baltic Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rado, Peter

    This report examines transition in educational systems and identifies key policy areas in Central-Eastern European countries. It summarizes policy implications of the transition process within the educational context of these countries. Chapter 1, "Transition and Education," outlines key characteristics of the transition process and…

  15. China’s Foreign- and Security-policy Decision-making Processes under Hu Jintao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Cabestan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Since 1979, foreign- and security-policy-making and implementation processes have gradually and substantially changed. New modes of operation that have consolidated under Hu Jintao, actually took shape under Jiang Zemin in the 1990s, and some, under Deng Xiaoping. While the military’s role has diminished, that of diplomats, experts, and bureaucracies dealing with trade, international economic relations, energy, propaganda and education has increased. Decision making in this area has remained highly centralized and concentrated in the supreme leading bodies of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP. However, China’s globalization and decentralization, as well as the increasing complexity of its international interests, have intensified the need to better coordinate the activities of the various CCP and state organs involved in foreign and security policy; hence, the growing importance of the CCP leading small groups (foreign affairs, national security, Taiwan, etc.. But the rigidity of the current institutional pattern has so far foiled repeated attempts to establish a National Security Council.

  16. African - American Influence on American Government‘s Foreign Trade, Investment and Aid Policies toward Africa: Continuing Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    James OKORO; Richard INGWE; Uno IJIM-AGBOR

    2012-01-01

    This paper is timely because it critically examines the influence of African-Americans on U.S. trade, foreign direct investment and aid toward the Sub-Saharan African Countries in the late 1970s, a dimension that has been largely overlooked in foreign policy analysis, despite its critical significance. In fact, African-American influence in U.S. trade, foreign direct investment and aid policy toward Africa is an aspect that has so far received scanty attention regarding their ancestral homela...

  17. The Role of Great Britain in Forming of EU’s Foreign and Security Policy in the Context of Leading Theories of Eurointegration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriy V. Groubinko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article on the basis of the original chart of the theoretical conceptual system of Eurointegration's development offered by an author base principles of Great Britain's participation in common foreign and security policy (CFSP of the European Union are examined. The country’s role in the processes of forming EU's CFSP is determined in the context of leading theories of Eurointegration. The evolution of British government's policy participation in the system of political co-operation in the European Union, character of its influence on the processes of Eurointegration in the sphere of foreign and security policies are analysed. CFSP as a specific sphere of co-operation of the EU's states fully represents conceptual dichotomy of European Union essence at level «intergovernmental - supranational». CFSP is the segment of the EU's legal reality which is historically based on intergovernmental co-operation, and in modern terms characterized by the expressed elements of funcional supranational institucialisation and insignificant strengthening of federalism. Great Britain conceptual approaches to forming EU's CFSP lie traditions of pragmatical and functional realistic approach with the elements of federalist co-operation, externalism and minimum of institucialism. For activity of British governments is inherent pistorical heredity of participating in political integration within the framework of Common Europe. It's mean a successive policy of inhibition federalist supranational tendencies, propagandas of the evolutional going to development of integration processes and it distribution on new spheres. Such approaches are correspond to the model of selective-sectoral integration or «Europe a la carte» ofThatcherist standards, which in the process of realization under influence of objective (mainly external factors evolved to practical embodiment of such more soft models of flexible integration, as «multi-speed integration» and «Europe of

  18. Challenges to Science and Technology Development Policy in the European Integration Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Novytsky

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on presentday aspects of Ukraine’s science and technology development policy in light of international phenomena and integration reali ties observed across the European continent. The author examines unique traits and practical challenges charac terizing an expansion of Ukraine — EU scientific and technological cooperation with the aim of improving the efficiency of Ukraine’s national economy and optimizing its international dimension. Special attention is paid to problems of adapting Ukraine’s technological policy to European standards, and relevant specific proposals are formulated. The article maintains that today’s advances in informa tion technology and the openness of national economies as a systemdeterminant factor of models of international cooperation broaden the scope of information technolo gies. Since telecommunications and other hitech sectors are vibrantly evolving not only in highly industrialized states but also in East European and other emerging mar ket economies, a key challenge for Ukraine appears to be lending better efficiency and productivity to its na tional policy of introducing information technologies into its socioeconomic sphere. The article provides insight into the international ex perience of the creation of technoparks and demonstrates the necessity of applying such innovation techniques of economic development to Ukraine.

  19. Foreign Aid and Microfinance: A new policy proposal for financing development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacalle-Calderón, Maricruz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review and compare the potential and limitations of foreign aid and microfinance as a top-down and bottom-up approaches to financing the development process in poor countries. We not only sustain that reviewing foreign aid is a must for the future of the least-developed countries but also posit that microfinance is a complementary and financially sustainable approach that creates better incentives for development. After calculating the potential effects of microfinance over employment and GDP through a simple empirical exercise, we propose a policy recommendation of redirecting a very small share of official development aid (ODA resources to microfinance in order to provide options for the most underprivileged populations.

  20. Brazilian new patterns of an industrial, technological and foreign trade policy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Matias Pereira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to deepen the discussion about the unavoidable way Brazil has to go through in order to construct a modern industrial and technological policy, based on knowledge and technological innovation, which will work as a stimulator of economic development. The different theories about this subject (SCHUMPETER, 1985; PAVITT, 1998; FREEMAN, 1995; KRUGMAN, 1995; COUTINHO & FERRAZ, 1994; MATIAS-PEREIRA & KRUGLIANSKAS, 2005, so as the principles set by the Brazilian Development Ministry (“Diretrizes de Política Industrial, Tecnológica e de Comércio Exterior”, give support in the search for defining a new model of industrial, technological policy and foreign trade for the country. The strategic role of industrial policy seems to be very evident, if it takes on its co-ordination work involving the productive agents, which are responsible for crucial decisions, such as those related to investments and/or innovation, in a context of great incertitude about the consequences of their decisions in the future. Finally, the conclusion arising from this discussion demonstrates that it is crucial for the country to define a modern industrial policy, which could be able to integrate the incentive to innovation as well as to exports, in order to serve as a tool to foster development. The paper also argues that the feasibility to this policy depends on Government’s ability in supplying agents with a favorable context towards adequate regulation, purchasing policy, availability on financing facilities and fiscal incentives.

  1. The foreign policy of Iran in the Middle East and the American strategy of “system containment”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Georgievitch Krasnov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In article features of forming and implementation of foreign policy of the Islamic Republic of Iran (IRI in the Middle East (Iraq, the Syria-Lebanese-Palestinian zone, Egypt, Gulf States and Yemen in the conditions of transformation of forms and methods of implementation of Washington’s strategy of “system containment” of the IRI are analyzed. Special attention is paid to identification of potential of IRI as one of leaders of the Middle East region. The main stages, the directions and implementation methods of strategy of “system containment” of the IRI as triangle complex of political, economic and military measures, performed by the USA and their allies for rendering multilateral pressure upon Tehran in order to change its foreign policy and the State power in the country, are shown. Change of a foreign policy line and approaches of Tehran to the solution of regional problems is considered in the context of escalation of pressure upon Iran from the USA and the states of the West. It is analyzed what forms and methods of the foreign policy and foreign economic activity implementation were used by Iran in the situation of increased political and economic risks, connected with toughening of the international and unilateral sanctions. In the conclusion, efficiency evaluations of Middle Eastern dimension of the Iranian foreign policy during the considered period are given and the tendencies of development of the situation around the IRI, that allow us to make the forecast for the medium term, are allocated.

  2. Europeanization of Family Policies: Comparative Analysis of Policy Discourses on Gender Equality in Care Policies in Czech Republic, Lithuania and Slovakia.

    OpenAIRE

    Ocenasova, Zuzanna; Pilinkaitė Sotirovič, Vilana

    2015-01-01

    The article explores the conceptualization of gender equality in family policies in Czech Republic, Lithuania and Slovakia from the Europeanization perspective. Through the methodology of critical frame analysis it investigates multiple meanings of gender equality concepts interwoven with care policies and reveals sources of contestation and their implication for the policy design. As family policies are often closely related to national value systems, they represent milieu of contestation of...

  3. Smorgasbord or symphony? Assessing public health nutrition policies across 30 European countries using a novel framework

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd-Williams, F; Bromley, H.; Orton, L; Hawkes, C.; Taylor-Robinson, D; O'Flaherty, M.; McGill, R; Anwar, E; Hyseni, L; Moonan, M.; Rayner, M.; Capewell, S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Countries across Europe have introduced a wide variety of policies to improve nutrition. However, the sheer diversity of interventions represents a potentially bewildering smorgasbord. We aimed to map existing public health nutrition policies, and examine their perceived effectiveness, in order to inform future evidence-based diet strategies. Methods We created a public health nutrition policy database for 30 European countries . National nutrition policies were classified and assi...

  4. THE VOICE OF FOREIGN GUESTS IN THE ROMANIAN PARLIAMENT (2007–2013. DISCURSIVE REPRESENTATIONS ON THE EUROPEAN DEMOCRATIC IDEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALENTINA PRICOPIE

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on discourse analysis of a comprehensive corpus which consists of ten speeches presented by foreign guests in the plenum of Romanian Parliament, between 2007 and 2013. We talk about European officials and representatives of other States or international organizations, other than the EU, which emphasize the democratic ideal thesis in argumentative discourses of authority, oscillating between representations on values and principles of democracy in Europe and their concrete manifestations in today`s Romania. The theoretical and methodological framework is provided by the argumentation theory and new rhetoric perspective on deliberative discourse, with focus on the current practice of public diplomacy at the European central level

  5. American Polonia’s Resources Of Ifluence And Us Foreign Policy

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    I. D. Loshkariov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes resources of political influence on the foreign policy of the country of residence that Polish diaspora in the United States possesses. This analysis is useful for two reasons. Firstly, it will expand the focus of research in the study of pressure groups and their influence on the American foreign policy. Secondly, the Polish diaspora in the United States is rarely the object of research in migrant and ethnic lobbying, despite its the significant share of the country’s population. Analysis of the given resources that the Polish diaspora (American Polonia has leads to the following. Firstly, the foreign policy agenda of the Polish diaspora in the United States faces no strong opponents. This fact means the diaspora has sufficiently developed structural resource. In addition, the Polish diaspora possesses an organizational resource: its institutions are in close cooperation and are coordinated by the Polish American Congress. Secondly, the Polish diaspora in the US is a significant group of the population, especially in the states of Wisconsin, Michigan, Connecticut, New York and Illinois. However, its electoral and financial capacities are not used to the fullest extent. Finally, there are certain difficulties with the discursive political resource of Polish diaspora. The social and political perception provides of Polonia in the USA two opposing narratives. The first one stresses that it is important for the Americans of Polish descent to share such values as democracy, defending his position, including by military means. The second narrative is a reproduction of widespread stereotypes about Poles, including in the popular culture. Thus, institutions of the American Polonia face several tasks. The most important tasks are the search for new ways of political mobilization of the diaspora and the formation of a balanced image of Polish Americans in the social and political perception in the United States.

  6. Policy assessment and policy development for physical activity promotion: results of an exploratory intervention study in 15 European Nations

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    Rütten Alfred

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Purpose of the study was to test a theoretical model to assess and develop policies for the promotion of physical activity among older people as part of an international intervention study. Methods 248 semi-standardized interviews with policy-makers were conducted in 15 European nations. The questionnaire assessed policy-makers' perceptions of organizational goals, resources, obligations, as well as organizational, political and public opportunities in the area of physical activity promotion among older people. In order to develop policies, workshops with policy-makers were conducted. Workshop outputs and outcomes were assessed for four nations nine months after the workshops. Results Policy assessment: Results of the policy assessment were diverse across nations and policy sectors. For example, organizational goals regarding actions for physical activity promotion were perceived as being most favorably by the sports sector. Organizational obligations for the development of such policies were perceived as being most favorably by the health sector. Policy development: The workshops resulted in different outputs: a national intersectoral action plan (United Kingdom, a national alliance (Sweden, an integrated policy (the Netherlands, and a continuing dialogue (Germany. Conclusions Theory-driven policy assessment and policy-maker workshops might be an important means of scientific engagement in policy development for health promotion.

  7. Summary of government sponsored foreign electronics: European union, Germany, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, United Kingdom, France, and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garian, Robert

    1994-10-01

    This report provides basic information and statistical data on foreign electronics research and development sponsored by the governments of the European Union, Germany, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, France, and Singapore. Industrial R&D funding was found to be highly significant in all of the countries studied. Government and industry typically collaborate closely in the planning of economic strategies for capturing new or larger shares of targeted segments of the electronics market.

  8. Demand driven innovation policies in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla; Goldberg, Itzhak

    The objective of the PICK-ME (Policy Incentives for Creation of Knowledge – Methods and Evidence) research project is to provide theoretical and empirical perspectives on innovation which give a greater role to the demand-side aspect of innovation. The main question is how can policy make...... throughout the paper. The main concern of policy-makers should therefore be how to support Gazelle type of firms through various policies. The effectiveness of different policy instruments are considered. For example, venture capitalism is in the paper identified as an important modern institution...... on the skills side must be targeted through education policies that fosters centers of excellence. R&D incentives are also considered as a separate instrument but more a question for future research since there is no evidence available on R&D incentives as a Gazelle type of policy. Spatial policies to foster...

  9. The Arab States from the Middle East and Iran in Romania’s Foreign Policy Agenda

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    Eduard Rudolf Roth

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at exploring the geometry of the Romania’s relations with the Arab states from the Middle East (Kuwait, Lebanon, Iraq, Egypt, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Syria, Qatar, Yemen and Iran, by unveiling the responsible elements that shaped the matrix of bilateral interactions in the period 1989-2010. Moreover, the paper will focus on the conceptual overlapping between Romania’s relations with these actors and the exogenous patterns of influences that played an important role in the articulation and development of Bucharest’s foreign policy deliverables.

  10. ACTS OF TERRORISM AS A TACTIC OF THE ISLAMIC STATE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR RUSSIAN FOREIGN POLICY

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    Aleksandr Nikolaevich Xaribin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article the analysis of the Islamic state: emergence, current status, reasons for success, control methods and prospects. The last terrorist attacks: Russian aircraft over the Sinai and the terrorist attack in Paris. A comparative analysis and reasons for election purposes by terrorists to attack, the consequences for Egypt, Europe, the middle East and Russia. At the end of the article gives practical recommendations for Russian foreign policy and the forecast of development of events in this region, it is hypothesized that the further growth of the Islamic state and the inability to move it to the borders of Russia

  11. Setting the scene in Nuuk: Introducing the cast of characters in Greenlandic foreign policy narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Marc; Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2017-01-01

    cultural traditions with envisioned future independence. Hence, the chapter introduces the central members of the cast of characters in the most important narratives, which Greenland is telling about its place in the world. The analysis shows how narratives about indigenous identity combines...... - and infrequently clashes - with narratives of modernization in different ways when Greenland relates to Inuit kinsmen, Nordic siblings, the UN, the USA, the EU and Asian powers; the presentation of each character put in historical perspective. Theoretically, the analysis draws on a tradition of analysing...... international politics and foreign policy as driven by narratively structured discourses constructing nation state identities in relation to Others....

  12. STRENGTHENING ROLE OF G20: TRANSFORMATION OF WORLD ORDER AND FOREIGN POLICY OF CHINA

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    Li Xing

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article studies the role of the G20 in the evolving world and foreign policy of China in this entity. In the current world the G20 emerges as a key global platform for economic dialogue among major powers of the world. Which role has it been playing during and after global crisis? Which forces does impact it and define its future? How does China view this entity? These questions were raised by international and Chinese scholars The current article attempts to provide reasonable answers for those questions.

  13. Fiscal policy in terms of global institutionalization: Ukraine and experience of foreign countries

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    Мар`яна Олександрівна Cухорукова

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the fiscal policy in the context of global processes of institutionalization. Solving the problem was carried out on the basis of modern scientific thoughts. Essence and main trends in fiscal sphere are highlighted regarding tax rates, implementation of the crisis tax for the purpose of accumulating additional funds in the state budget. Statistical data on the level of tax rates and tax burden in the world were analyzed. An experience of foreign countries and the possibility of considering and implementation it by national state were considered

  14. How Does the Majority Public React to Multiculturalist Policies? A Comparative Analysis of European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooghe, Marc; de Vroome, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Migration and ethnic minority integration remain heavily contested issues in numerous European countries. Over the past decade, researchers and political commentators have observed an apparent retreat from multiculturalist policies related to a belief that multiculturalism has lost support among the

  15. Status of infection control policies and organisation in European hospitals, 2001: the ARPAC study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struelens, M.J.; Wagner, D.; Bruce, J.; MacKenzie, F.M.; Cookson, B.; Voss, A.; Broek, P.J.J.A. van den; Gould, I.

    2006-01-01

    Patient safety in hospital care depends on effective infection control (IC) programmes. The Antimicrobial Resistance Prevention and Control (ARPAC) study assessed the organisation, components and human resources of IC programmes in European hospitals. A questionnaire survey of policies and

  16. World, European and National Policies in the Field of Cultural Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Popa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available At both world and national level, transnational policies in the field of tourism, in general, and of cultural tourism, in particular, come from the U.N.E.S.C.O. and from the W.T.O. represented by the U.N.O., while at European level these policies are exclusively the result of the European Union and of the European Council. National policies in the field of cultural tourism in Romania are developed by the Ministry of Tourism, and are included and detailed in the Master Plan for the Development of National Tourism. Though the number of associations, committees, councils, organisations, and other organisms dealing with world and European tourism is larger, at national level the National Authority of Tourism does not supply the necessary instruments to achieve sustainable development in the field of hospitality and of tourism, lacking marketing policies and coherent promotional strategies based on detailed understanding and on hierarchy of source markets.

  17. Maximizing the Policy Impacts of Public Engagement : A European Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emery, Steven B.; Mulder, Henk A.J.; Frewer, Lynn J

    There is a lack of published evidence which demonstrates the impacts of public engagement (PE) in science and technology policy. This might represent the failure of PE to achieve policy impacts or indicate a lack of effective procedures for discerning the uptake by policy makers of PE-derived

  18. Ownership Concentration and CSR Policy of European Multinational Enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, Lammertjan; Scholtens, Bert

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how ownership concentration in European multinational firms is associated with these firms' corporate social responsibility (CSR). We employ factor analysis on responsibility data from EIRiS and use a regression analysis. Using firm-level data for almost 700 European firms,

  19. "Innovation and Intellectual Property Policies in European Research Infrastructure Consortia - PART I: The Case of the European Spallation Source ERIC"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Helen; Wested, Jakob; Minssen, Timo

    2017-01-01

    , the European Spallation Source ERIC is required to adopt various policy documents relating to the operation and management of the facility. These cover a wide variety of issues such as user access, public procurement, intellectual property rights (IPR), data management, and dissemination. One of the main goals...

  20. Policy Formulation and Networks of Practice in European eLearning: The Emergence of a European E-Learning Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salajan, Florin D.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the emergence of a European E-Learning Area (EELA) as a consequence of three factors that can be observed in the e-learning developments over the past decade. The first factor consists of the carving of a policy sector in e-learning via formal instruments such as the eLearning Programme, the Lifelong Learning Programme and…

  1. The crisis as catalyst for reframing health care policies in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helderman, Jan-Kees

    2015-01-01

    Seen from the perspective of health, the global financial crisis (GFC) may be conceived of as an exogenous factor that has undermined the fiscal sustainability of European welfare states and consequently, their (expanding) health systems as well. Being one of the core programs of European welfare states, health care has always belonged to the sovereignty of European Member States. However, in past two decades, European welfare states have in fact become semi-sovereign states and the European Union (EU) no longer is an exogenous actor in European health policy making. Today, the EU not only puts limits to unsustainable growth levels in health care spending, it also acts as an health policy agenda setter. Since the outbreak of the GFC, it does so in an increasingly coercive and persuasive way, claiming authority over health system reforms alongside the responsibilities of its Member States.

  2. The Eastern Partnership as an expression of the European Neighbourhood Policy: reinforcing the European normative power with the Eastern partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgiana MARTÍNEZGARNELO Y CALVO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reflects the normative power of the European Union, with an emphasis on the European Neighbourhood Policy, specifically on the Eastern Partnership. It takes into consideration that the leadership of this policy is the Commission, but it is affected by the implementation of the Lisbon Treaty. Relevant changes have focused on Georgia and Moldova, highlighting the thematic platforms which have become fundamentals of approach to the acquis communautaire of the European Union. It also emphasizes some advances in sense, as the Parliamentary Assemblies Programmes focuses on energy and even beyond it, on free trade areas. It is also known that the Budget is not supported by every Member State of the EU, however agreements continue between the EU and the EP.

  3. Foreign policy matters: a normative view of the G8 and population health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonte, Ronald; Schrecker, Ted

    2007-03-01

    The Group of Eight (G8) countries occupy a dominant position in the international economic and political order. Given what is known about influences on the social determinants of health in an interconnected world, the G8 are a logical starting point for any enquiry into the relations between foreign policy and health. We first make five arguments for adopting an explicitly normative, equity-oriented perspective on the performance of G8 policy in areas related to population health. We then examine G8 performance with respect to the crucial policy triad of development assistance, debt relief and trade, finding that neither rhetoric nor promising institutional innovation has been matched by resources commensurate with demonstrated levels of need. We conclude that it is necessary to pursue advocacy efforts based on the normative perspective we have put forward and that doing so effectively requires further investigation of why some policies are more receptive than others to policies of redistribution both within and outside their borders.

  4. The Economic Impact of the European Integration on the Netherlands. A Quantitative Analysis of Foreign Trade and Foreign Direct Investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Földvári, P.

    2006-01-01

    The main objective and motivation of this thesis is to provide the reader with a quantitative analysis focusing on the impact of the European Integration on the Netherlands exclusively. To this end, two major and one minor research questions are addressed. The first main question focuses on the

  5. Teaching the Dragon? The Diffusion of European Union’s Social and Employment Policies to China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gerven-Haanpää, Minna Marja-Leena; Weiguo, Yang; Mok, Ka Ho

    2017-01-01

    This chapter analyses the extent to which we can trace the ideational spread of the European Union’s employment and social policies outside European borders, more specifically in China. Based on the analysis of labour market reforms in China between 2000 and 2012 and interview data obtained from

  6. European transport policy: reference points for the railway transport of Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Orlova, V.

    2010-01-01

    Basic positions of European transport policy in relation to integration of the railway systems of countries-participants and countries-candidates are considered. Taking into account the prospects of European integration priority directions of development of the home railway system are formed

  7. The European Social Fund: A Very Specific Case Instrument of HRD Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tome, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to review the intervention of the European Social Fund (ESF) as an instrument of human resource development (HRD) policies in the European labor market. Design/methodology/approach: The paper uses an economic background, and reviews the official documents produced by the ESF during its history to try to define its economic…

  8. CLUSTER POLICY AS THE BASIS FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF INNOVATIVE PROCESSES IN RUSSIAN AND EUROPEAN PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Nikolaevna Akhunzhanova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the experience of successful development of innovative territorial clusters. It describes the experience of cluster policy implementation within the framework of innovative standards in European countries. The article indicates the best practices of the cluster policies in the following countries: the Belgium case shows the key importance of financing of selected cluster projects and the development of large innovative hubs; the Finland case, where the significant role belongs to the national and regional centers that are unions of business representatives, state and regional authorities, universities and institutes; the Hungary case, where cluster policies are a framework concept for the entire economic policy of the country. The article also analyzes the implementation of Russian cluster policy and reveals the similarities and differences regarding European cluster policies. The purpose of the article is to analyze the experience of cluster policy implementation in European countries, and to identify similar and different points regarding the cluster policy in Russia. Methodology: general scientific and special methods were used: analysis and synthesis, comparison and generalization, system analysis. Results: recommendations for the Russian economy to strengthen cluster processes within the framework of innovative environment were proposed. Practical implementation: the article will be useful for the researches in the field of regional economy, cluster policy, and practitioners working in management and regional cluster development. The article is written with the support of the Erasmus+ programme of the European Union.

  9. Foreign direct investment and policy framework: New Granger causality evidence from African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiu Adewale Aregbeshola

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The strategic importance of foreign direct investment in the contemporary economies has been tremendous.While various countries (developed and developing economies have benefitted from the direct and spillovereffects of FDI, which range from improved technology and knowledge diffusion through to individual andcorporate capability enhancement, FDI outflow remains largely channelled to the developed countries, andthe rapidly developing countries in Asia and South America. Evidence suggests that the developmentenhancingeffects of FDI are felt more highly in the developing economies, such as economies in Africa.However, FDI inflow to the developing economies has been very low. Using data generated from the AfricanDevelopment Indicators (ADI between 1980 and 2008 in econometric estimations, this paper finds thatgovernment policies (especially fiscal and monetary policies play significant roles in facilitating FDI inflow tothe African countries studied. The study thereby suggests an improved regulatory framework to make Africamore attractive to inflow of FDI.

  10. INDIA’S FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT: CURRENT STATUS, ISSUES AND POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Ranga

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Foreign Direct Investment (FDI as an important driver of growth. It is an important source of non debt financial resources for country for economic development. Besides it is a means of achieving technical know-how and employment generation of employment. However, many are of the view that FDI is a big threat to sovereignty of host and domestic business houses. Faster exploitation of natural resources for profit may deprive host from such resources in long run. Midst of debate on pros and cons of FDI, world economy has observed a phenomenal change in volume and pattern of FDI. There is clearly an intense global competition of FDI. India is not behind this global race of attracting foreign investment. India emerged as an attractive FDI destination in services but has failed to evolve a manufacturing hub which has greater economic benefit. FDI though one of the important sources of financing the economic development, but not is not a solution for poverty eradication, unemployment and other economic ills. India needs a massive investment to achieve the goals of vision 20-20. Policy makers need to ensure transparency and consistency in policy making along with comprehensive long term development strategy.

  11. Competing Variables in Turkey’s Multi-Vector Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Nicolescu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A certain shift in the Turkish foreign policy has been noticeable over the last decade, especially after the AKP (Justice and Development Party came to power in 2002, which manifested in closer relations with its Arab neighbours and simultaneously a more aggressive stance towards Israel. These developments have led many researchers to say that Turkey’s activism in the Middle East represents its return towards the East, at the expense of its Europeanisation aspirations. The current research paper aims to study the validity of this claim by looking at different sets of interactions between Turkey and its neighbours, through a constructivist lens of competing yet complementary variables.The ascending multilateralism manifested in Turkey’s foreign policy discourse and initiatives has been interpreted by some (Reynolds 2012 as a consequence of the exhaustion of the Kemalist project, while others (vom Hau et al 2012 see it as the logical result of the complex internal and external interactions of modernisation and globalisation at the level of the Turkish society. The conceptual categories proposed for assessing Turkey’s conduct in relation to other states open up perspectives for exploring further cooperation interactions between Turkey and the EU, on the one hand, and with countries in their shared neighbourhood as well.

  12. Interpretive sociology of foreign policy: “agent” model of state behavior on the international arena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Nikolaevich Timofeev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article revisits the utility of sociological theories for the students of international relations. The failure of IR scholars to predict Ukrainian crisis revealed the limits of realism, which still remains most influential IR theory. These limits make rethink the prospects of convergence of IR and sociological theories. Pros and cons of holistic constructivist theory are examined. The article results in making an “agent-focused” model composed of the concepts of Max Weber’s interpretive sociology, Graham Allison’s typology of models of decision making and Mark Haas’s model of ideological origins of great powers’ politics. In doing so, it also revisits the concept of identity as a mean to understand “social facts” and their influence on foreign policy. The emphasis on the “agent” though not the “structure” is approached as an alternative to holistic constructivism of Alexander Wendt and his epigones. The “agent” model is supposed to be more capable for studies of great powers’, which play an active role in setting up the “structure’s” parameters. Three different approaches to “agent” are considered - “agent” as a state, as a bureaucratic body or structure within the state and as decision-makers and their staff. The model is designed for further empirical research of the Russian foreign policy.

  13. Competence development: Key issues and trends in European competence policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella

    papers, reports, and communications that led to directives and resolutions concerning the development and recognition of skills and competences in a lifelong learning perspective. In 2005 this process led to the definition of a European Framework on Key Competences for Lifelong Learning - covering those......  In recent years there has been a rising political attention on competence development both at national and international level. At European level in particular, since 2000, with the set of the Lisbon Agenda, different bodies representing the Union have been very productive in generating working...... competences that are given priority within the Union - as well as a European Qualification Framework, a reference tool for making qualifications - here described in terms of progressive levels of competence - transparent and transferable within the European borders. The aim of the paper is to investigate...

  14. What energy policy for the European Union?; Quelle politique de l'energie pour l'Union europeenne?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    ) and externally (the Common foreign and security policy should be developed by fully incorporating the strategic dimension of energy). This is no mean challenge, since for it to be met Member States have to agree to break the 'taboo' of exclusive national competence as regards the energy mix. It is on the basis of this observation that the members of the working group have attempted to define the principles that should underpin a European energy policy and, on the basis of concrete propositions, have set out its strong points and its limitations. Three main guidelines for action have been identified by the working group: - The first is geographic and inter-generational solidarity. - The second is subsidiarity, in the sense of the need 'to act together at the most appropriate level'. Since a purely national response would not permit sufficiently effective capacity of action, a policy at European level has to be envisaged, to be articulated with maintained national competence. This is a major challenge for Europe, since it will be necessary to get Member States to accept no longer being the sole masters of their energy choices and to get European citizens to agree to transfer to the European level large swathes of their national energy policies. - The last is effectiveness, which means that Europe must provide itself with the instruments that are indispensable for the implementation of policies it deems appropriate. While the statutory basis for this exists, Europe still has to provide itself with the necessary means for action. (authors)

  15. Cultural diversity and intercultural policies in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2012-01-01

    an ambiguous and contested concept within the EU, and the imprecision found in EU policy documents regarding its definition is mainly due to the coexistence of different conceptions of culture. Through discourse analysis and policy problem representation, this chapter analyses the development of ICD policies...... in the EU in relation to cultural cooperation, on the one hand, and economy and growth, on the other. Furthermore it distinguishes between the articulation of policies at the national level and the international level. I find that ICD is not well-defined in the documents, and it is conceived as a means...

  16. The European Union Policy in the Field of Rare Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moliner, Antoni Montserrat; Waligora, Jaroslaw

    2017-01-01

    Rare diseases, are defined by the European Union as life-threatening or chronically debilitating diseases with low prevalence (less than 5 per 10,000). The specificities of rare diseases - limited number of patients and scarcity of relevant knowledge and expertise - single them out as a unique domain of very high European added-value.The legal instruments at the disposal of the European Union, in terms of the Article 168 of the Treaties, are very limited. However a combination of instruments using the research and the pharmaceutical legal basis and an intensive and creative use of funding from the Health Programmes has permitted to create a solid basis that Member States have considered enough to put rare diseases in a privileged position in the health agenda.The adoption of the Commission Communication, in November 2008, and of the Council Recommendation, in June 2009, and in 2011 the adoption of the Directive on Cross-border healthcare., have created an operational framework to act in the field of rare disease with European coordination in several areas (classification and codification, European Reference Networks, orphan medicinal products, the Commission expert group on rare diseases, etc.).Rare diseases is an area with high and practical potential for the European cooperation.

  17. Forging the external dimension of the energy policy of the European union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Bartlomiej

    2010-01-15

    There is a need for a cohesive, EU-wide energy policy to ensure security of supply and reduce demand, hereby reducing the dependence of Europe on foreign energy supplies. But the actual creation of such a policy must overcome a host of obstacles, including member states' wish to protect their sovereignty, protectionism of national industries, and different approaches to Russia among member states. (author)

  18. A Third Wave of European Education Policy: Transnational and National Conceptions of Knowledge in Swedish Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlström, Ninni

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine how transnational concepts within educational policies influence national curricula in the reconceptualisation of educational policy into concrete curriculum texts. Based on a critical discourse analysis and the concepts of recontextualisation, convergence and divergence, a third wave of European policy…

  19. The role of indicators in assessing transport policies: an application to European transport scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, Sytze A.; Stead, Dominic

    1997-01-01

    Indicators play an important role in the strategic assessment of policy packages. In this paper the role of indicators in assessing transport policiesis examined. As case study, the European Common Transport Policy (CTP) is used. Its three main objectives may be summarized as

  20. The common fisheries policy of the European Union and fisheries economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Hans; Andersen, Peder

    2006-01-01

    The revision of the Common Fisheries Policy of the European Union in 2003 was communicated in a ‘Roadmap’, including the opinion of the EU Commission on how to reform the fisheries policy. This paper reviews the Roadmap and confronts the opinion and initiatives proposed by the Commission with the...

  1. How Does Transport Policy Cope with Climate Challenges? Experiences from the UK and Other European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Lawler, Mary; Meza, Maria Josefina Figueroa

    2011-01-01

    Transport is one of the fastest growing sources of emissions of greenhouse gases. Some European countries have adopted comprehensive “sustainable transport” policies, in which climate change is addressed. This paper looks into how sustainable transport policy frameworks deal with climate change c...

  2. Blueprint for EUROSCAPE 2020 : reframing the Future of the European Landscape : policy visions and research report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wascher, D.M.; Pedroli, B.

    2008-01-01

    This Blueprint for EUROSCAPE 2020 proposes to undertake a radically new strategic operational approach for the European Union when defining targets for its territorial policies. The key principles are: (1) to establish a policy monitoring for rural development on the basis of a landscape functions;

  3. Determinants of health policy impact: comparative results of a European policymaker study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rütten, A.; Lüschen, G.; Lengerke, T. von; Abel, T.; Kannas, L.; Rodríguez Diaz, J.A.; Vinck, J.; Zee, J. van der

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This article will use a new theoretical framework for the analysis of health policy impact introduced by Rutten et al. (2003). In particular, it will report on a comparative European study of policymakers' perception and evaluation of specific determinants of the policy impact, both in

  4. Equality machineries matter: The impact of women's political pressure on European social care policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenbergh, I.L.; Roggeband, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the impact of feminist pressure and European Union (EU) policies on national policy changes, such as the introduction or extension of public childcare provision, parental leave, and part-time work legislation. We compared six countries on the basis of Qualitative Comparative

  5. The European higher education area between critical reflections and future policies

    CERN Document Server

    Matei, Liviu; Pricopie, Remus; Salmi, Jamil; Scott, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Bridging the gap between higher education research and policy making was always a challenge, but the recent calls for more evidence-based policies have opened a window of unprecedented opportunity for researchers to bring more contributions to shaping the future of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA).

  6. SWOT analysis: appraisal of a new tool in European rural development policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knierim, A.; Nowicki, P.L.

    2010-01-01

    Strategic policy making for rural regions has gained increasing importance during the last few decades in the European Union. A coherent framework for the development of agricultural and rural policy measures has been made available (Council Decision 2006/144/EC), which integrates Strengths,

  7. H1-B visa program reform: Analysis of a problem facing policy decision makers on foreign labor practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović Jovan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The immigration of foreign workers is a topic of utmost importance for the United States economy. To some extent, it should be considered as a matter of national priority. Over the past years, the number of foreign students that pursue a graduate degree at United States universities has increased, and keeps rising every year. The majority of these newly made doctorate students stay in the USA, in order to pursue specialty occupations. This paper will address issues regarding foreign immigration policies, and will contain a proposal to implement a system that can effectively and selectively deal with the increasing number of both foreign students and foreign workers who apply for work visas.

  8. Transregionalism in US Foreign Policy: Comparative Analysis of TPP and TTIP Geopolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis A. Kuznetsov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The decision of US President Donald Trump to withdraw from the Trans-Pacifi c Partnership and the sluggish negotiations on Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership have fueled the debate on the future trajectories of American foreign policy in its two traditionally strategic geographic avenues – Asia Pacifi c and North Atlantic. The article analyzes the geo-political and geo-economic interests, which were pursued by the Obama administration and underlie TPP and TTIP initiatives, and suggests the outcomes of President Trump’s decision as well as the possible alternatives.Given the strategic US interests, its global positioning and the current trends of world politics, Donald Trump’s policy can be regarded as a reconsideration of the above-mentioned projects on the basis of bilateral negotiations and widening network of bilateral economic and trade agreements, rather than the policy of isolationism. In other words, it might be a policy of returning to a hub-and-spoke system of trade zones developed in the second half of the XX century. However, still emerging and competing transregional projects reduce the effectiveness of bilateralism for domestic development of states involved and reduce the international infl uence of outsiders, and that can jeopardize the US leadership.

  9. Diminished States? National Power in European Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupfer, Antonia

    2008-01-01

    The increasing research on international organisations' education policy lacks analyses of the relation between international organisations and nation states. This paper aims to analyse the power of nation states in international education policy. Focusing on the new degree system in higher education in Europe, partly from Foucault's…

  10. Danish Cultural Policy in a European and Global Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Danish Cultural policy is undergoing a series of transformations with regard to legislation, culture efficiency of the policy organization and financing, the status and rolle og teh arms length principle, the autonomy and role of arts and culture in society and the weights of different paradigms...

  11. The Europeanization of gender equality policies: A discursive–sociological approach

    OpenAIRE

    LOMBARDO, Emanuela; Forest, Maxime

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that a discursive–sociological approach to study Europeanization is particularly apt for understanding the dynamics of policy change in Europe. It oes so by bringing closer the agenda of discursive institutionalism (DI) and gender policy analysis, drawing upon the recent sociological and discursive turns in the study of the domestic impact of Europe, and the long-term interest of gender policy analysis for discursive framings, norm diffusion, actors’ interactions and EU s...

  12. Health, alcohol and EU law: understanding the impact of European single market law on alcohol policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumberg, Ben; Anderson, Peter

    2008-08-01

    Many professionals in the alcohol field see the role of the the European Court of Justice (ECJ) as negative for health. This review examines ECJ and European Free Trade Association (EFTA) case law in the context of two broader debates: firstly the extension of European Union (EU) law into alcohol policy (the 'juridification' of alcohol policy), and secondly the extent to which alcohol policy is an example of the dominance of 'negative integration' (the removal of trade-distorting policy) over 'positive integration' (the creation of European alcohol policies). A comprehensive review of all ECJ/EFTA Court cases on alcohol, with interpretation aided by a secondary review on alcohol and EU law and the broader health and trade field. From looking at taxation, minimum pricing, advertising and monopoly policies, the extension of the scope of the these courts over alcohol policy is unquestionable. However, the ECJ and EFTA Court have been prepared to prioritize health over trade concerns when considering alcohol policies, providing certain conditions have been met. While a partial juridification of alcohol policy has led to the negative integration of alcohol policies, this effect is not as strong as sometimes thought; EU law is more health friendly than it is perceived to be, and its impact on levels of alcohol-related harm appears low. Nevertheless, lessons emerge for policymakers concerned about the legality of alcohol policies under EU law. More generally, those concerned with alcohol and health should pay close attention to developments in EU law given their importance for public health policy on alcohol.

  13. Plant species introduced by foreigners according to folk tradition in Norway and some other European countries: xenophobic tales or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Torbjørn

    2015-10-05

    In their quest to understand and interpret nature, people have frequently sought religious or divine origins for plant species and their characteristics. Less often, historical events or persons are involved. This study comprises eleven cases of the latter kind, all claiming that plant species have been introduced by foreigners or at least from foreign lands. Based on literature data and a few cases recorded during my own ethnobotanical field work, eleven European examples of pseudo-historical plant origins are presented here, including Cakile maritima, Cicuta virosa, Lathyrus japonicus, Leymus arenarius, Primula vulgaris, and Scopolia carniolica in Norway, Heracleum mantegazzianum and/or H. persicum in Denmark, Phoenix dactylifera and P. theophrastii in Greece, and Jacobaea vulgaris in Scotland. The only common trait in these stories is that foreigner or at least foreign lands are claimed as sources of the plant species. In most cases, the "historical" explanations given in folk tradition are demonstrably at odds with reality. In those cases that involve poisonous or potentially harmful species (Cicuta virosa, Heracleum mantegazzianum and/or H. persicum, Jacobaea vulgaris), or the "useless" Phoenix theophrastii, with its inedible fruits, the stories may be interpreted as xenophobic, blaming foreigners for introducing dangerous or worthless species. The remaining examples merely suggest a search for exotic and seemingly rational, if erroneous, origins for plant species and stands that people considered strange and unusual. The spreading vectors assumed in folk tradition are correct and well documented, e.g. ship cargos (including goods and packing materials), which are responsible for introducing ballast plants and other anthropochores, and wartime activities, introducing a broad range of species (polemochores). They do not, however, apply to the species included in this study, which are either indigenous plants or introduced ornamentals. The foreigners appearing

  14. Policy options for the improvement of the European patent system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew J.

    2008-01-01

    This project has been initiated - and this report written - in order to assess how the European patent system best fulfils its objective of defining the exclusive rights granted to inventors so as to further the goal of enhancing social and economic welfare by means of encouraging inventions...... patent system has so far been a positive factor in promoting innovation. Therefore, it is not the objective of the report to evaluate whether such system should or should not exist. Rather, the report works from the starting position that the European patent system may be operating in certain ways...... and within certain sectors such that various improvements can be made. Thus, the aim of this report is: to analyze the historical and present impact of the European patent system on innovation and diffusion of knowledge to identify current key trends in the patent system to identify the challenges...

  15. Incorporating the catering sector in nutrition policies of WHO European Region: is there a good recipe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachat, Carl; Roberfroid, Dominique; Huybregts, Lieven; Van Camp, John; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2009-03-01

    To review how countries of the WHO European Region address issues related to the catering sector in their nutrition policy plans. Documentary analysis of national nutrition policy documents from the policy database of the WHO Regional Office for Europe by a multidisciplinary research team. Recurring themes were identified and related information extracted in an analysis matrix. Case studies were performed for realistic evaluation. Fifty-three member states of the WHO European Region in September 2007. The catering sector is a formally acknowledged stakeholder in national nutrition policies in about two-thirds of countries of the European region. Strategies developed for the catering sector are directed mainly towards labelling of foods and prepared meals, training of health and catering staff, and advertising. Half of the countries reviewed propose dialogue structures with the catering sector for the implementation of the policy. However, important policy fields remain poorly developed, such as strategies for stimulating and monitoring actual implementation of policies. Others are simply lacking, such as strategies to ensure affordability of healthy out-of-home eating or to enhance accountability of stakeholders. It is also striking that strategies for the private sector are rarely developed. Important policy issues are still embryonic. As evidence is accumulating on the impact of out-of-home eating on the increase of overweight, member states are advised to urgently develop operational frameworks and instruments for participatory planning and evaluation of stakeholders in public health nutrition policy.

  16. The making of environmental policy in the European Council

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Rasmussen, Lise Nordvig

    1998-01-01

    Details the decision-making processes regarding the legal acts approved by the European Union Council of Ministers on environmental issues during 1993 and 1994. Role of the Committee of the Permanent Representatives; Use of council presidency by member states; Significance of decision-making proc......Details the decision-making processes regarding the legal acts approved by the European Union Council of Ministers on environmental issues during 1993 and 1994. Role of the Committee of the Permanent Representatives; Use of council presidency by member states; Significance of decision...

  17. Get a Job! Active Labour Market Policies and Persons with Disabilities in Danish and European Union Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waddington, Lisa; Pedersen, Mads; Ventegodt Liisberg, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the overall level of employment is a goal of the Europe 2020 strategy and Active Labour Market Policies (ALMPs) have become a key tool used by the European Union and its Member States with a view to increasing employment. This article examines the use of ALMPs, with a special focus on

  18. ROMANIA’S AUSTERITY POLICIES IN THE EUROPEAN CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor ARPAD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic recession starting in 2007 with the collapse of the US Bank Lehman Brothers triggered waves of economic shock across the world. Various states were hit more or less hard through different mechanisms and reacted with different intensities to adjust to the crisis situation. In this article, I employ a comparative methodology to assess the austerity policies undertook by Romania during the Great recession period as regards the policies adopted at the level of other EU member states. Thus, I aim to offer an initial evaluation of the degree of similarity of Romania’s recession policy responses to that of some other EU member states, and the degree to which Romania can be labeled as an outlier. The comparative analysis tests the explanatory power of three different theoretical approaches on the causal factors explaining variation in policy responses: power resources theories, functionalist approaches and blame-avoidance.

  19. Integrating health law and health policy: a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legemaate, Johan

    2002-05-01

    Health law is intended to create an environment in which the promotion of health goes hand in hand with the protection of individual rights and the general principles of equality and justice. Over the years, the importance of health law has grown, both at national and international level. As health and human rights are closely interlinked, it is important to integrate health law and health policy. It is to be expected that, especially in Europe, the impact of health law on health policy-making will increase as a result of several developments, e.g. the internationalization of health care and health policy, the issue of consumer protection and the legalization of society. This requires a strategy to stimulate the fruitful relationship between health policy and health law. The most important components of this strategy are discussed.

  20. Recycled Materials in European Highway Environments : Uses, Technologies, and Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    The objective of this scanning tour was to review and document innovative policies, programs, and techniques that promote the use of recycled materials in the highway environment. The U.S. delegation met with more than 100 representatives from transp...