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Sample records for european epidemiological studies

  1. Fraser syndrome : epidemiological study in a European population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barisic, Ingeborg; Odak, Ljubica; Loane, Maria; Garne, Ester; Wellesley, Diana; Calzolari, Elisa; Dolk, Helen; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Bergman, Jorieke; Bianca, Sebastiano; Boyd, Patricia A; Draper, Elizabeth S; Gatt, Miriam; Haeusler, Martin; Khoshnood, Babak; Latos-Bielenska, Anna; McDonnell, Bob; Pierini, Anna; Rankin, Judith; Rissmann, Anke; Queisser-Luft, Annette; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; Stone, David; Tenconi, Romano

    Fraser syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cryptophthalmos, cutaneous syndactyly, laryngeal, and urogenital malformations. We present a population-based epidemiological study using data provided by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) network of

  2. The European Study of Epidemiology and Treatment of Cardiac Inflammatory Diseases (ESETCID). First epidemiological results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufnagel, G; Pankuweit, S; Richter, A; Schönian, U; Maisch, B

    2000-05-01

    By including immunohistochemical parameters the WHF Task Force for the Definition of Acute and Chronic Myocarditis expanded the light microscopical Dallas criteria of myocarditis. The rapid development of new molecular biological techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in-situ hybridization has improved our understanding of the underlying etiological and pathophysiological mechanisms in inflammatory heart disease. Treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy with inflammation is still controversial, however. The American Myocarditis Treatment Trial could not demonstrate a significant difference in the improvement of ejection fraction between patients with active myocarditis in the cyclosporine/prednisolone treated group when compared to placebo. In the European Study of Epidemiology and Treatment of Inflammatory Heart Disease (ESETCID) patients with acute or chronic myocarditis are treated specifically according to the etiology of the disease. Patients are screened not only for infiltrating cells, but also for the presence of persisting viral genome (enterovirus, cytomegalovirus and adenovirus). By investigating endomyocardial biopsies of 3,055 patients ongoing inflammatory processes in the heart could be found in 17.2%. Only 182 showed a reduced ejection fraction below 45% fulfilling the entrance criteria for the ESETCID trial. These data imply that in symptomatic patients inflammatory heart muscle disease has to be considered regardless of left ventricular function and that endomyocardial biopsy can be an important tool for diagnosis. Virus could be detected in 11.8% (enterovirus 2.2%, cytomegalovirus 5.4%, adenovirus 4.2%). These first epidemiological results of this prospective randomized study demonstrate that viral persistence may contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory heart muscle disease, and that in chronic myocarditis viral persistence occurs in a smaller percentage of patients compared to previously published studies which were performed on

  3. Long-term particulate matter exposure and mortality: a review of European epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boffetta Paolo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies considered the relation between long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM and total mortality, as well as mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Our aim was to provide a comprehensive review of European epidemiological studies on the issue. Methods We searched the Medline database for epidemiological studies on air pollution and health outcomes published between January 2002 and December 2007. We also examined the reference lists of individual papers and reviews. Two independent reviewers classified the studies according to type of air pollutant, duration of exposure and health outcome considered. Among European investigations that examined long-term PM exposure we found 4 cohort studies (considering total and cardiopulmonary mortality, 1 case-control study (considering mortality from myocardial infarction, and 4 ecologic studies (2 studies considering total and cardiopulmonary mortality and 2 studies focused on cardiovascular mortality. Results Measurement indicators of PM exposure used in European studies, including PM10, PM2.5, total suspended particulate and black smoke, were heterogeneous. This notwithstanding, in all analytic studies total mortality was directly associated with long-term exposure to PM. The excesses in mortality were mainly due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes. Three out of 4 ecologic studies found significant direct associations between PM indexes and mortality. Conclusion European studies on long-term exposure to PM indicate a direct association with mortality, particularly from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases.

  4. The epidemiology of sports-related injuries in older adults: a central European epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerlander, Christian; Braito, Matthias; Kates, Stephen; Jeske, Christian; Roth, Tobias; Blauth, Michael; Dallapozza, Christian

    2012-10-01

    The population is rapidly aging and remaining more active over the age of 65. An increasing number of sports related injuries in individuals 65 and older are thus anticipated. The aim of this study is to analyze the epidemiology of sports injuries in the age group aged 65 and older. Data from the medical records of adults aged 65 years and older who were treated for sports-related injuries at a level one trauma center between December 1994 and February 2008 was collected and statistically analyzed. A total of 2635 patients met our inclusion criteria. There were 1647 men (62.5%) and 988 women (37.5%) with a mean age of 70.9 years. The yearly number of injuries doubled during the study period (1996-2007). The most common mechanism of injury was a simple fall from standing height (69%). Nearly 75% of all injuries occurred during alpine skiing, cycling or mountain climbing. The median Injury Severity Score was 4. Minor injuries and wounds (40%) were recorded most commonly followed by fractures (27%), sprains, ligament injuries (19%) and injuries of muscles and tendons (6%). The most frequent diagnoses were minor injuries to the head and ligament injuries around the knee joint. Injuries to the upper extremities occurred in 33.7%, injuries to the lower extremities in 29.4% and injuries to the head occurred in 20% of the patients. Women sustained substantially more fractures than men. Adults aged 65 and older are remaining active in sports, which results in higher numbers of sports related injuries in this age group. Identification of type, mechanism and distribution of the injuries can help with the recognition of risk factors for injury. This may enable us to develop appropriate preventative measures to reduce the incidence, and morbidity of such injuries.

  5. Psychotropic drug utilization in Europe : results from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD) project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, J; Angermeyer, M C; Bernert, S; Bruffaerts, R; Brugha, T S; Bryson, H; de Girolamo, G; Graaf, R; Demyttenaere, K; Gasquet, I; Haro, J M; Katz, S J; Kessler, R C; Kovess, V; Lépine, J P; Ormel, J; Polidori, G; Russo, L J; Vilagut, G; Almansa, Josue; Arbabzadeh-Bouchez, S; Autonell, J; Bernal, M; Buist-Bouwman, M A; Codony, M; Domingo-Salvany, A; Ferrer, M; Joo, S S; Martínez-Alonso, M; Matschinger, H; Mazzi, F; Morgan, Z; Morosini, P; Palacín, C; Romera, B; Taub, N; Vollebergh, W A M

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess psychotropic drug utilization in the general population of six European countries, and the pattern Of use in individuals with different DSM-IV diagnoses of 12-month mental disorders. Method: Data were derived from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders

  6. Invasive mucormycosis in children: an epidemiologic study in European and non-European countries based on two registries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoi Dorothea Pana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mucormycosis has emerged as a rare but frequently fatal invasive fungal disease. Current knowledge on paediatric mucormycosis is based on case reports and small series reported over several decades. Contemporary data on a large cohort of patients is lacking. Methods Two large international registries (Zygomyco.net and FungiScope™ were searched for mucormycosis cases in ≤19 year-old patients. Cases enrolled between 2005 and 2014 were extracted, and dual entries in the two databases merged. Epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnostic procedures, therapeutic management and final outcome were recorded and analysed with SPSS v.12. Results Sixty-three unique cases (44 proven and 19 probable were enrolled from 15 countries (54 in European and 9 in non-European countries. Median age was 13 years [Interquartile Range (IQR 7.7] with a slight predominance (54.1 % of females. Underlying conditions were haematological malignancies (46 %, other malignancies (6.3 %, haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (15.9 %, solid organ transplantation, trauma/surgery and diabetes mellitus (4.8 % each and a variety of other diseases (7.9 %; in 9.5%, no underlying medical condition was found. Neutropenia was recorded in 46 % of the patients. The main sites of infection were lungs (19 %, skin and soft tissues (19 %, paranasal sinus/sino-orbital region (15.8 % and rhino-cerebral region (7.9 %. Disseminated infection was present in 38.1 %. Mucormycosis diagnosis was based on several combinations of methods; culture combined with histology was performed in 31 cases (49.2 %. Fungal isolates included Rhizopus spp. (39.7 %, Lichtheimia spp. (17.5 %, Mucor spp. (12.7 %, Cunninghamella bertholletiae (6.3 % and unspecified (23.8 %. Treatment comprised amphotericin B (AmB monotherapy in 31.7 % or AmB in combination with other antifungals in 47.7 % of the cases, while 14.3 % received no antifungals. Surgery alone was performed in 6.3 %, and combined

  7. A comprehensive review of European epidemiological studies on particulate matter exposure and health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negri, E.; Gallus, S. [Department of Epidemiology, Mario Negri Institute, Milan (Italy); Boffetta, P. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France); McLaughlin, J.K. [International Epidemiology Institute, Rockville, MD (United States); La Vecchia, C. [Institute of Medical Statistics and Biometry, University of Milan (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    There are a limited number of papers on the long term effect of air pollution on morbidity and mortality in Europe, particularly with reference to small particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5). Most information comes from US cohort studies, including the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II, the Harvard Six Cities Study, the Adventists' Health Study of Smog, and the Veterans' Cohort Mortality Study. Ambient levels of several relevant pollutants are more variable within Europe than in the USA, and are in several areas comparably high. Selected European cohort studies, including the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer and the European Prospective Investigation on Cancer and Nutrition study found some association between indicators of air pollution such as PM10 or NO2 and lung cancer risk, but the results were inconsistent and inadequate to address the health effects of exposure to PM2.5. In addition to the effect on mortality, there are open issues on the potential impact of air pollution on childhood asthma, allergy and airway disease. In consideration of the difficulties in estimating the prevalence of the conditions in various populations, these issues require additional focus. In order to provide an indication on possible further analyses of existing European datasets, and on future new studies, a critical review of existing literature (with a focus on European data) was performed. The project resulted in a detailed report (see Appendix 1) and in a paper published in the European Journal of Cancer Prevention.

  8. Epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis among European AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Danner, S; Lazzarin, A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study epidemiology and possible risk factors associated with the development of cryptosporidiosis among European patients with AIDS. METHODS: An inception cohort of 6548 patients with AIDS, consecutively diagnosed from 1979 to 1989, from 52 centres in 17 European countries was studied....... Data on all AIDS defining events were collected retrospectively from patients' clinical records. Kaplan-Meier estimates, log rank tests and Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine for possible risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis. RESULTS: Cryptosporidiosis was diagnosed in 432 (6.......6%) patients, 216 at time of the AIDS diagnosis and 216 during follow-up. The probability of being diagnosed with cryptosporidiosis at AIDS diagnosis was significantly lower for intravenous drug users (1.3%) than for homosexual men (4.1%) and for patients belonging to other transmission categories (4.0%) (p...

  9. Design and Feasibility of an International Study Assessing the Prevalence of Contact Allergy to Fragrances in the General Population : The European Dermato-Epidemiology Network Fragrance Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, Marta; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Diepgen, Thomas; Svensson, Ake; Elsner, Peter; Goncalo, Margarida; Bruze, Magnus; Naldi, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims: Data on contact allergy to fragrances in the general population are limited. Data from allergological services suggest that the frequency of contact allergy to fragrances is increasing. The European Dermato-Epidemiology Network (EDEN) Fragrance Study aims to obtain reliable data on

  10. Epidemiological study concerning the characteristics of organic pig farming in selected European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Sundrum, Albert; Goebel, Amke; Bochicchio, Davide; Bonde, Marianne Kjær; Bourgoin, Aude; Cartaud, Gérald; Dietze, Klaas; Dippel, Sabine; Gunnarsson, Stefan; Hegelund, Lene; Leeb, Christine; Lindgren, Kristina; Lubac, Stanislas; Prunier, Armelle; Wiberg, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    Interviews and on-farm assessments were conducted in a total of 101 organic pig farms in different European countries (Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, and Sweden) to gain knowledge about farm management and health status of organic pigs in Europe. 66 farms kept at least one age group outdoors while 35 farms kept their pigs exclusively indoors, for the most part with a concrete outside run. Housing and feeding conditions were characterised by a large heterogeneity within and betw...

  11. Are attitudes towards mental health help-seeking associated with service use? Results from the European Study of Epidemiology of Mental Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Have, M.; de Graaf, R.; Ormel, J.; Vilagut, G.; Kovess, V.; Alonso, J.

    To investigate the prevailing attitudes towards mental health help-seeking in Europe, their correlates, and whether these attitudes are associated with actual service use for mental health problems. Data were derived from the European Study of Epidemiology of Mental Disorders, a survey

  12. The European concerted action on air pollution epidemiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann-Liebrich, U. [Basel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. for Social and Preventive Medicine

    1995-12-31

    The European Concerted Action on Air Pollution Epidemiology was started in 1990 with the aim of bringing together European researchers in the field and improving research through collaboration and by preparing documents which would help to this end and by organizing workshops. A further aim was to stimulate cooperative research. Air pollution epidemiology investigates human effects of community air pollution by epidemiological methods. Epidemiology in general investigates the distribution and determinants of health-related states and events in populations. Diseases in which air pollution may play a significant role are mainly diseases of the respiratory system, for example chronic non-specific lung disease and lung cancer. Most diseases caused by air pollution can also be caused by other factors. Air pollution epidemiology is therefore specific in the expo variable (community air pollution) rather than in the type of health effects being studied. Air pollution epidemiology is beset with some specially challenging difficulties: ubiquitous exposure and as a consequence limited heterogeneity in exposure, low relative risks, few or specific health end points, and strong confounding. Further on the exposure-effect relationship is complicated by assumptions inherent to different study designs which relate to the exposure duration necessary to produce a certain health effect. In reports and workshops the concerted action tries to propose strategies to deal with these problems. (author)

  13. Plasma folate as marker of folate status in epidemiological studies: the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drogan, D; Klipstein-Grobusch, K; Wans, S; Luley, C; Boeing, H; Dierkes, J

    2004-09-01

    Folate deficiency is often discussed as a potential risk factor for CVD and some cancers. Reliable assessment of folate status in large-scale epidemiological studies is therefore of major importance. The present study assessed the value of plasma folate (PF) compared with erythrocyte folate (EF) as a marker of folate status in 363 participants in the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam cohort. EF and PF, total homocysteine (tHcy), pyridoxine, cobalamin, creatinine, total protein and packed cell volume were determined; glutamate carboxypeptidase (GCP) C1561T, reduced folate carrier (RFC) G80A and methylenetetrahydrofolate (MTHFR) C677T polymorphisms were analysed. Anthropometric measurements were taken and dietary intake was assessed with the EPIC-Potsdam food-frequency questionnaire. Comparison of EF and PF with factors that may modulate their concentrations was performed. Cross-classification of blood folates in quintile categories resulted in correct classification into the same or adjacent category of 75.5 % of all subjects. Age, BMI, pyridoxine and cobalamin, fruit and vegetable intake, and vitamin supplementation 24 h before blood draw were positively associated with EF and with PF. For tHcy an inverse association was found. Participants with the MTHFR 677TT genotype showed significantly elevated EF concentrations compared with those with 677CT genotype; EF and PF were more strongly correlated (r 0.78, P<0.0001) for participants with MTHFR 677TT genotype than for those with the 677CC or 677CT genotype. In summary, our present results indicate that plasma folate seems to be a suitable marker for assessment of folate status for use in large-scale epidemiological studies.

  14. Molecular epidemiology of MRSA in 13 ICUs from eight European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hetem, D. J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357298403; Derde, L. P G|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338002219; Empel, J.; Mroczkowska, A.; Orczykowska-Kotyna, M.; Kozińska, A.; Hryniewicz, W.; Goossens, H.; Bonten, M. J M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/123144337; Cooper, B.; Malhotra-Kumar, S.; Willems, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/106866370; Gniadkowski, M.; Dautzenberg, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357298969; Annane, D.; Aragão, I.; Chalfine, A.; Dumpis, U.; Esteves, F.; Giamarellou, H.; Muzlovic, I.; Nardi, G.; Petrikkos, G.; Tomic, V.; Torres Martí, A.; Stammet, P.; Brun-Buisson, C.; Aires, E.; Antoniadou, A.; Armaganidis, A.; Blairon, F.; Carneiro, J.; Chaskou, D.; Coppadoro, P.; Dias, A. P.; Drinovec, I.; Elia, M.; Exarchou, V.; Flet, A.; Fournier, J.; Gillet, N.; Jaklič, A.; Jereb, M.; Kane, A.; Karkali, E.; Kieffer, J.; Kirpach, P.; Landelle, C.; Landercy, F.; Lawrence, C.; Legrand, P.; Lopes, V.; Magira, E.; Marco, F.; Martínez, J. A.; Melbarde-Kelmere, A.; Misset, B.; Monte, R.; Moreno, E.; Nguyen, J. C.; Novak, M.; Orazi, D.; Papadomichelakis, E.; Papaparaskevas, J.; Paris, M.; Pavleas, J.; Pimenta, F.; Piñer, R.; Radouan, A.; Ramunno, M. G.; Reis, M.; Rinaldi, I.; Ronco, E.; San Jose, A.; Seme, K.; Skiada, A.; Trapassi, S.; Tronci, M.; Verachten, M.; Vila, J.; Vrankar, K.; Winkler, M.; Zagavierou, S.; Hopman, M.; Leus, F.; Schotsman, J.; Zwerver, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The European epidemiology of MRSA is changing with the emergence of community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) and livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA). In this study,we investigated the molecular epidemiology of MRSA during 2 years in 13 ICUs in France, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Luxemburg,

  15. European Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Pechatnov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of Western countries and teaching courses on the related subjects have longstanding and established tradition at MGIMO-University. The basis of this brilliant research and teaching tradition was laid down by such academicians as E.V. Tarle and V.G. Trukhanovsky, Professor L.I. Clove, Y. Borisov, F.I. Notovitch, G.L. Rozanov. Their work in 1940-1960's at the Department of World History at MGIMO-University progressed in following directions: France studies, German studies, American studies. The work resulted in a number of monographs and textbooks on modern history and foreign policy of the studied countries and regions. The aim of the publications was dictated by the goal of the Institute - to prepare the specialists in international affairs primarily for practical work. A close relationship with the Foreign Ministry was "binding advantage" sometimes limiting researchers in choosing periods and subjects for the study. At the same time the undisputed advantage and quality of regional studies at MGIMO were strengthened by the practical relevance of research, making it a vital and interesting not only for specialists but also for students and researchers from other research centers. Another characteristic of the tradition is the analysis of foreign policy and diplomacy in a close relationship with the socio-economic and political processes. Such an integrated approach to regional geography also formed largely under the influence of institutional profile designed to train highly skilled and versatile specialists in specific countries and regions with a good knowledge of their languages, history, economics, politics, law and culture. Therefore, scientific and educational-methodical work at MGIMO-University has always relied on a wealth of empirical data and has been focused on the analysis of real-world phenomena and processes, acute problems of foreign countries. Scientific research at MGIMO-University traditionally intertwined with

  16. Cancer mortality among European asphalt workers: an international epidemiological study. II. Exposure to bitumen fume and other agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffetta, Paolo; Burstyn, Igor; Partanen, Timo; Kromhout, Hans; Svane, Ole; Langård, Sverre; Järvholm, Bengt; Frentzel-Beyme, Rainer; Kauppinen, Timo; Stücker, Isabelle; Shaham, Judith; Heederik, Dick; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Cenée, Sylvie; Ferro, Gilles; Heikkilä, Pirjo; Hooiveld, Mariëtte; Johansen, Christoffer; Randem, Britt G; Schill, Walter

    2003-01-01

    An increased risk of lung cancers among asphalt workers has been suggested in epidemiological studies based on large scale statistical analyses. In a multi-country study of 29,820 male workers employed in road paving, asphalt mixing and roofing, 32,245 ground and building construction workers and 17,757 other workers from Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Israel, the Netherlands, Norway, and Sweden, with mortality that was documented from 1953-2000. Exposures to bitumen fume, coal tar, 4-6 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organic vapor, diesel exhaust, asbestos, and silica dust were assessed via a job-exposure matrix. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) based on national mortality rates, as well as relative risks (RRs) based on Poisson regression models were calculated. The SMR of lung cancer among workers exposed to bitumen fume (1.08, 95% CI 0.99-1.18) was comparable to that of non-exposed workers (SMR 1.05, 95% CI 0.92-1.19). In a sub-cohort of bitumen-exposed workers without exposure to coal tar, the SMR of lung cancer was 1.23 (95% CI 1.02-1.48). The analysis based on the semi-quantitative, matrix-based exposures in the whole cohort did not suggest an increased lung cancer risk following exposure to bitumen fume. However, in an analysis restricted to road pavers, based on quantitative estimate of bitumen fume exposure, a dose-response was suggested for average level of exposure, applying a 15-year lag, which was marginally reduced after adjustment for co-exposure to coal tar. The results for cancer of the head and neck were similar to those of lung cancer, although they were based on a smaller number of deaths. There was no clear suggestion of an association with bitumen fume for any other neoplasm. The results of the analysis by bitumen fume exposure do not allow us to conclude on the presence or absence of a causal link between exposure to bitumen fume and risk of cancer of the lung and the head and neck. Copyright

  17. Epidemiological studies on syncope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Martin Huth

    2013-01-01

    of the patients play an essential role. In epidemiology these factors have major impact on the outcome of the patients. Until recently, even the definition of syncope differed from one study to another which has made literature reviews difficult. Traditionally the data on epidemiology of syncope has been taken......The epidemiology and prognosis of ''fainting'' or syncope has puzzled physicians over the years. Is fainting dangerous? This is a question often asked by the patient--and the answer is ''it depends on a lot of things''. The diverse pathophysiology of syncope and the underlying comorbidites......: 1) the use, validity and accuracy of the ICD-10 diagnosis of syncope R55.9 in the National Patient Registry for the use of this diagnosis in the epidemiology of syncope, 2) diagnostics used and etiology of a random selection of patients who had a discharge diagnosis of R55.9, 3) the incidence...

  18. Comparative epidemiological study of non-melanoma skin cancer between Spanish and north and central European residents on the Costa del Sol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Bernier, M; Rivas Ruiz, F; De Troya Martín, M; Blázquez Sánchez, N

    2012-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common tumour in white people. The progressive increase of these malignancies in such populations as those found in Europe represents an important public health concern which it is presumed will have a great impact on healthcare costs. However, the lack of comparable epidemiological information between countries hinders the development of a common health policy. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects of NMSC in the public health area of the western part of the Costa del Sol, in southern Spain, and study the differences between the Spanish (S) population and that originally between the north and centre of Europe (N). We undertook a retrospective analysis of all patients with histologically confirmed tumours in both populations during the period 1 January 2006 to 30 June 2009. In comparison with the Spanish, the patients from the north and centre of Europe were more likely to have phototype I/II (S: 56.9%; N: 85.8%), recreational photoexposure (S: 48.4%; N: 83.8%), multiple carcinomas (S: 16.8%; N: 28.2%) and more carcinomas per patient (S: 1.7 ± 1.3; N: 2.3 ± 2.3). The tumours were more often located on the trunk and limbs (S: 28.3%; N: 50.2%) with a predominance of the less aggressive histological types (S: 34.7%; N: 42.6%) and non-invasive treatments in patients from the north and centre of Europe (S: 25.6%; N: 35.3%) when compared with the Spanish population. Persons from the north and centre of Europe living on the Costa del Sol present a different pattern of NMSC to the local Spanish population and usually require a less invasive therapeutic approach. These findings highlight the need to define prevention and treatment policies for NMSC according to the characteristics of each particular population. This would help reduce not only the frequency but also the associated morbimortality of this disease, particularly in high-risk populations. © 2011 The Authors

  19. Main traumatic events in Europe: PTSD in the European study of the epidemiology of mental disorders survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darves-Bornoz, Jean-Michel; Alonso, Jordi; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Haro, Josep-Maria; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Nachbaur, Gaëlle; Negre-Pages, Laurence; Vilagut, Gemma; Gasquet, Isabelle

    2008-10-01

    A potentially traumatic event (PTE) contributes to trauma through its frequency, conditional probability of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and experience of other PTEs. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, enrolling 21,425 adults nationally representative of six European countries. Using the WHO-Composite International Diagnostic Interview, 8,797 were interviewed on 28 PTEs and PTSD. Prevalence of 12-month PTSD was 1.1%. When PTSD was present, the mean number of PTEs experienced was 3.2. In a multivariate analysis on PTEs and gender, six PTEs were found to be more traumatic, and to explain a large percentage of PTSD, as estimated by their attributable risk of PTSD: rape, undisclosed private event, having a child with serious illness, beaten by partner, stalked, beaten by caregiver.

  20. A pan-European epidemiological study reveals honey bee colony survival depends on beekeeper education and disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Antoine; Laurent, Marion; Ribière-Chabert, Magali; Saussac, Mathilde; Bougeard, Stéphanie; Budge, Giles E; Hendrikx, Pascal; Chauzat, Marie-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Reports of honey bee population decline has spurred many national efforts to understand the extent of the problem and to identify causative or associated factors. However, our collective understanding of the factors has been hampered by a lack of joined up trans-national effort. Moreover, the impacts of beekeeper knowledge and beekeeping management practices have often been overlooked, despite honey bees being a managed pollinator. Here, we established a standardised active monitoring network for 5 798 apiaries over two consecutive years to quantify honey bee colony mortality across 17 European countries. Our data demonstrate that overwinter losses ranged between 2% and 32%, and that high summer losses were likely to follow high winter losses. Multivariate Poisson regression models revealed that hobbyist beekeepers with small apiaries and little experience in beekeeping had double the winter mortality rate when compared to professional beekeepers. Furthermore, honey bees kept by professional beekeepers never showed signs of disease, unlike apiaries from hobbyist beekeepers that had symptoms of bacterial infection and heavy Varroa infestation. Our data highlight beekeeper background and apicultural practices as major drivers of honey bee colony losses. The benefits of conducting trans-national monitoring schemes and improving beekeeper training are discussed.

  1. A pan-European epidemiological study reveals honey bee colony survival depends on beekeeper education and disease control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Antoine; Laurent, Marion; Ribière-Chabert, Magali; Saussac, Mathilde; Bougeard, Stéphanie; Budge, Giles E.; Hendrikx, Pascal; Chauzat, Marie-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Reports of honey bee population decline has spurred many national efforts to understand the extent of the problem and to identify causative or associated factors. However, our collective understanding of the factors has been hampered by a lack of joined up trans-national effort. Moreover, the impacts of beekeeper knowledge and beekeeping management practices have often been overlooked, despite honey bees being a managed pollinator. Here, we established a standardised active monitoring network for 5 798 apiaries over two consecutive years to quantify honey bee colony mortality across 17 European countries. Our data demonstrate that overwinter losses ranged between 2% and 32%, and that high summer losses were likely to follow high winter losses. Multivariate Poisson regression models revealed that hobbyist beekeepers with small apiaries and little experience in beekeeping had double the winter mortality rate when compared to professional beekeepers. Furthermore, honey bees kept by professional beekeepers never showed signs of disease, unlike apiaries from hobbyist beekeepers that had symptoms of bacterial infection and heavy Varroa infestation. Our data highlight beekeeper background and apicultural practices as major drivers of honey bee colony losses. The benefits of conducting trans-national monitoring schemes and improving beekeeper training are discussed. PMID:28278255

  2. A pan-European epidemiological study reveals honey bee colony survival depends on beekeeper education and disease control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Jacques

    Full Text Available Reports of honey bee population decline has spurred many national efforts to understand the extent of the problem and to identify causative or associated factors. However, our collective understanding of the factors has been hampered by a lack of joined up trans-national effort. Moreover, the impacts of beekeeper knowledge and beekeeping management practices have often been overlooked, despite honey bees being a managed pollinator. Here, we established a standardised active monitoring network for 5 798 apiaries over two consecutive years to quantify honey bee colony mortality across 17 European countries. Our data demonstrate that overwinter losses ranged between 2% and 32%, and that high summer losses were likely to follow high winter losses. Multivariate Poisson regression models revealed that hobbyist beekeepers with small apiaries and little experience in beekeeping had double the winter mortality rate when compared to professional beekeepers. Furthermore, honey bees kept by professional beekeepers never showed signs of disease, unlike apiaries from hobbyist beekeepers that had symptoms of bacterial infection and heavy Varroa infestation. Our data highlight beekeeper background and apicultural practices as major drivers of honey bee colony losses. The benefits of conducting trans-national monitoring schemes and improving beekeeper training are discussed.

  3. Prevalence of refractive error in Europe: the European Eye Epidemiology (E3) Consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Williams (Katie M.); V.J.M. Verhoeven (Virginie); P. Cumberland (Phillippa); G. Bertelsen (Geir); C. Wolfram (Christian); G.H.S. Buitendijk (Gabrielle); A. Hofman (Albert); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); J.R. Vingerling (Hans); R.W.A.M. Kuijpers (Robert); R. Höhn (René); A. Mirshahi (Alireza); A.P. Khawaja (Anthony P.); R.N. Luben (Robert N.); M.G. Erke (Maja Gran); T. Von Hanno (Therese); O. Mahroo (Omar); R. Hogg (Ruth); C. Gieger (Christian); A. Cougnard-Grégoire (Audrey); E. Anastasopoulos (Eleftherios); A. Bron (Alain); J.-F. Dartigues; J.-F. Korobelnik (Jean-François); C. Creuzot-Garcher (Catherine); F. Topouzis (Fotis); C. Delcourt (Cécile); J.S. Rahi (Jugnoo); T. Meitinger (Thomas); A. Fletcher (Astrid); P.J. Foster (Paul J.); N. Pfeiffer (Norbert); C.C.W. Klaver (Caroline); C.J. Hammond (Christopher)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractTo estimate the prevalence of refractive error in adults across Europe. Refractive data (mean spherical equivalent) collected between 1990 and 2013 from fifteen population-based cohort and cross-sectional studies of the European Eye Epidemiology (E3) Consortium were combined in a random

  4. Epidemiological studies in mucus hypersecretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    Respiratory mucus in epidemiology has mainly been studied using standardized questionnaires including questions on cough and phlegm. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) much controversy exists regarding the importance of mucus hypersecretion. From being the key element in the 'British...

  5. Epidemiology of tuberculosis in big cities of the European Union and European Economic Area countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, G; Aldridge, R W; Cayla, J A; Haas, W H; Sandgren, A; van Hest, N A; Abubakar, I

    2014-03-06

    This cross-sectional survey aimed to examine the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) cities with populations greater than 500,000. National TB programme managers were asked to provide data on big city population size, total number of notified TB cases in big cities and national notification rate for 2009. A rate ratio was calculated using the big city TB notification rate as a numerator and country TB notification rate, excluding big city TB cases and population, as a denominator. Twenty of the 30 EU/EEA countries had at least one big city. Pooled rate ratios were 2.5, 1.0, and 0.7 in low-, intermediate- and high-incidence countries respectively. In 15 big cities, all in low-incidence countries, rate ratios were twice the national notification rate. These data illustrate the TB epidemiology transition, a situation whereby TB disease concentrates in big cities as national incidence falls, most likely as a result of the higher concentration of risk groups found there. This situation requires targeted interventions and we recommend that big city TB data, including information about patients' risk factors, are collected and analysed systematically, and that successful interventions are shared.

  6. Pirating European Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Timus

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Open Science has gained a lot of attention not only within the academic community but also among policy-makers. Some international publishers have been active in moving towards open access publications and research data, but, overall, modest results have been achieved so far. In this context, the digital piracy engines emerge as vital actors in disseminating and determining the impact of research. This study examines the Sci-Hub downloads data in order to uncover patterns of piracy in European Studies research. We identify journals and the subjects of articles that have been pirated the most. We also study the geographical distribution of download requests. The analysis reveals that the readers are mostly interested in subjects reflecting the current major European challenges, specifically populism and the economic crisis. Both developing countries as well as the ‘old’ EU members are active in illegal downloads.

  7. European and Integration Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Kaveshnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soviet scientific school of pan-European integration studies began to emerge in the 1960s at the Institute of World Economy and International Relations (Russian Academy of Science. Among the leading scientists who have developed methodological approaches of Soviet integration studies were M.M. Maximova, Y.A. Borko, Y. Shishkov, L.I. Capercaillie. Later, a new center for integration studies became the Institute of Europe, created in 1987. It was led by such renowned scientists as Academicians V.V. Zhurkin and N.P. Shmelev. In the 1980s the subject of the integration process in Europe attracted attention of experts from MGIMO. An important role in the development of school of integration research in the USSR was played by a MGIMO professor, head of the chair of history of international relations and foreign policy of the USSR V.B. Knyazhinskiy. His work contributed to the deliverance of the national scientific community from skepticism about the prospects for European integration. Ideas of V.B. Knyazhinsky are developed today in MGIMO by his followers A.V. Mal'gin and T.V. Ur'eva. In the mid-1990s, having retired from diplomatic service, professor Yu. Matveevskiy started to work at MGIMO. With a considerable practical experience in the field, he produced a series of monographs on the history of European integration. In his works, he analyses the development of integration processes in Western Europe from their inception to the present day, showing the gradual maturation of the necessary spiritual and material prerequisites for the start of integration and traces the various stages of the "integration". In the late 1990s, the growing demand from the domestic business and government for professionals who are capable of interacting with the European Union, has produced the necessary supply in the form of educational programs based on accumulated scientific knowledge. Setting up a discipline "European Integration" was a major step in the development

  8. Prevalence of refractive error in Europe: the European Eye Epidemiology (E(3)) Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Katie M; Verhoeven, Virginie J M; Cumberland, Phillippa; Bertelsen, Geir; Wolfram, Christian; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H S; Hofman, Albert; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vingerling, Johannes R; Kuijpers, Robert W A M; Höhn, René; Mirshahi, Alireza; Khawaja, Anthony P; Luben, Robert N; Erke, Maja Gran; von Hanno, Therese; Mahroo, Omar; Hogg, Ruth; Gieger, Christian; Cougnard-Grégoire, Audrey; Anastasopoulos, Eleftherios; Bron, Alain; Dartigues, Jean-François; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine; Topouzis, Fotis; Delcourt, Cécile; Rahi, Jugnoo; Meitinger, Thomas; Fletcher, Astrid; Foster, Paul J; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Klaver, Caroline C W; Hammond, Christopher J

    2015-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence of refractive error in adults across Europe. Refractive data (mean spherical equivalent) collected between 1990 and 2013 from fifteen population-based cohort and cross-sectional studies of the European Eye Epidemiology (E(3)) Consortium were combined in a random effects meta-analysis stratified by 5-year age intervals and gender. Participants were excluded if they were identified as having had cataract surgery, retinal detachment, refractive surgery or other factors that might influence refraction. Estimates of refractive error prevalence were obtained including the following classifications: myopia ≤-0.75 diopters (D), high myopia ≤-6D, hyperopia ≥1D and astigmatism ≥1D. Meta-analysis of refractive error was performed for 61,946 individuals from fifteen studies with median age ranging from 44 to 81 and minimal ethnic variation (98 % European ancestry). The age-standardised prevalences (using the 2010 European Standard Population, limited to those ≥25 and prevalence of myopia in younger participants [47.2 % (CI 41.8-52.5) in 25-29 years-olds]. Refractive error affects just over a half of European adults. The greatest burden of refractive error is due to myopia, with high prevalence rates in young adults. Using the 2010 European population estimates, we estimate there are 227.2 million people with myopia across Europe.

  9. Molecular epidemiology of MRSA in 13 ICUs from eight European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetem, D J; Derde, L P G; Empel, J; Mroczkowska, A; Orczykowska-Kotyna, M; Kozińska, A; Hryniewicz, W; Goossens, H; Bonten, M J M

    2016-01-01

    The European epidemiology of MRSA is changing with the emergence of community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) and livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA). In this study, we investigated the molecular epidemiology of MRSA during 2 years in 13 ICUs in France, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Luxemburg, Portugal, Slovenia and Spain. Surveillance cultures for MRSA from nose and wounds were obtained on admission and twice weekly from all patients admitted to an ICU for ≥3 days. The first MRSA isolate per patient was genotyped in a central laboratory by MLST, spa typing, agr typing and SCCmec (sub)typing. Risk factors for patients with an unknown history of MRSA colonization were identified. Overall, 14 390 ICU patients were screened, of whom 8519 stayed in an ICU for ≥3 days. Overall MRSA admission prevalence was 3.9% and ranged from 1.0% to 7.0% for individual ICUs. Overall MRSA acquisition rate was 2.5/1000 patient days at risk and ranged from 0.2 to 8/1000 patient days at risk per ICU. In total, 557 putative MRSA isolates were submitted to the central laboratory for typing, of which 511 (92%) were confirmed as MRSA. Each country had a distinct epidemiology, with ST8-IVc (UK-EMRSA-2/-6, USA500) being most prevalent, especially in France and Spain, and detected in ICUs in five of eight countries. Seventeen (3%) and three (70 years and hospitalization within 1 year prior to ICU admission. The molecular epidemiology of MRSA in 13 European ICUs in eight countries was homogeneous within, but heterogeneous between, countries. CA-MRSA and LA-MRSA genotypes and Panton-Valentine leucocidin-producing isolates were detected sporadically. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The occurrence and epidemiology of Salmonella in European pig slaughterhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Wingstrand, Anne; Swanenburg, M.

    2003-01-01

    This study was part of an international research project entitled SALINPORK (FAIR CT-950400) initiated in 1996. The objectives were to investigate the occurrence of Salmonella in pig slaughterhouses and to identify risk factors associated with the contamination of pig carcasses. Data was collected...... from 12 slaughterhouses in five European countries. Isolates were characterized by serotyping, phage typing and antimicrobial susceptibility. In one country, no Salmonella was found. Salmonella was isolated from 5.3% of 3485 samples of pork and from 13.8% of 3573 environmental samples from the seven...... slaughterhouses in the four remaining countries. The statistical analyses (multi-level logistic regression) indicated that the prevalence was significantly higher during the warmer months and that the environmental contamination increased during the day of slaughter. The polishing (OR 3.74, 95% CI 1...

  11. Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of European Bat Lyssavirus 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhinney, Lorraine M; Marston, Denise A; Wise, Emma L; Freuling, Conrad M; Bourhy, Hervé; Zanoni, Reto; Moldal, Torfinn; Kooi, Engbert A; Neubauer-Juric, Antonie; Nokireki, Tiina; Müller, Thomas; Fooks, Anthony R

    2018-01-05

    Bat rabies cases in Europe are mainly attributed to two lyssaviruses, namely European Bat Lyssavirus 1 (EBLV-1) and European Bat Lyssavirus 2 (EBLV-2). Prior to the death of a bat worker in Finland in 1985, very few bat rabies cases were reported. Enhanced surveillance in the two subsequent years (1986-1987) identified 263 cases (more than a fifth of all reported cases to date). Between 1977 and 2016, 1183 cases of bat rabies were reported, with the vast majority (>97%) being attributed to EBLV-1. In contrast, there have been only 39 suspected cases of EBLV-2, of which 34 have been confirmed by virus typing and presently restricted to just two bat species; Myotis daubentonii and Myotis dasycneme . The limited number of EBLV-2 cases in Europe prompted the establishment of a network of European reference laboratories to collate all available viruses and data. Despite the relatively low number of EBLV-2 cases, a large amount of anomalous data has been published in the scientific literature, which we have here reviewed and clarified. In this review, 29 EBLV-2 full genome sequences have been analysed to further our understanding of the diversity and molecular evolution of EBLV-2 in Europe. Analysis of the 29 complete EBLV-2 genome sequences clearly corroborated geographical relationships with all EBLV-2 sequences clustering at the country level irrespective of the gene studied. Further geographical clustering was also observed at a local level. There are high levels of homogeneity within the EBLV-2 species with nucleotide identities ranging from 95.5-100% and amino acid identities between 98.7% and 100%, despite the widespread distribution of the isolates both geographically and chronologically. The mean substitution rate for EBLV-2 across the five concatenated genes was 1.65 × 10 -5 , and evolutionary clock analysis confirms the slow evolution of EBLV-2 both between and within countries in Europe. This is further supported by the first detailed EBLV-2 intra

  12. Standardisation of an European end-user nutrient database for nutritional epidemiology: what can we learn from the EPIC Nutrient Database (ENDB) project?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, N.; Deharveng, G.; Unwin, I.

    2007-01-01

    the absence of a reference European nutrient database for international nutritional epidemiology studies, the EPIC Nutrient Database (ENDB) project has been set up to standardise nutrient databases (NDBs) across 10 European countries participating in the EPIC study. This paper reports the main...

  13. The European Nutrient Database (ENDB) for nutritional epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charrondiere, U.R.; Vignat, J.; Møller, Anni Rosendal

    2002-01-01

    Food composition databases (FCDB), as well as standardized calculation procedures are required for international studies on nutrition and disease to calculate nutrient intakes across countries. Comparisons of national FCDBs have shown that major improvements are needed in standardization and docu......Food composition databases (FCDB), as well as standardized calculation procedures are required for international studies on nutrition and disease to calculate nutrient intakes across countries. Comparisons of national FCDBs have shown that major improvements are needed in standardization...... a standardized and critically assessed nutrient database for the 10 countries involved in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Great Britain, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Spain and Sweden. It will be compiled using the general concept...... Nutrient Database (ENDB) will contain values for approximately 100 nutrients for 1000 foods per country, which is mainly derived from EPIC consumption data. In the future, this database could be extended to include more foods, components and countries. Additionally, methodological issues should...

  14. Epidemiological studies in mucus hypersecretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    hypothesis' it was reduced to being an innocent disorder in the 1980s but is now again recognized as a potential risk factor for an accelerated loss of lung function. Whereas early studies in mainly occupational cohorts showed no effect of chronic mucus hypersecretion on decline in lung function...... with the presence of mucus. In asthma recent findings suggest that in epidemiology chronic mucus hypersecretion may indicate lack of control which leads to an accelerated loss of lung function and increased mortality in subjects with self-reported asthma....

  15. The occurrence and epidemiology of Salmonella in European pig slaughterhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hald, T.; Wingstrand, A.; Swanenburg, M.; von Altrock, A.; Thorberg, B. M.

    2003-01-01

    This study was part of an international research project entitled SALINPORK (FAIR CT-950400) initiated in 1996. The objectives were to investigate the occurrence of Salmonella in pig slaughterhouses and to identify risk factors associated with the contamination of pig carcasses. Data was collected from 12 slaughterhouses in five European countries. Isolates were characterized by serotyping, phage typing and antimicrobial susceptibility. In one country, no Salmonella was found. Salmonella was isolated from 5.3% of 3485 samples of pork and from 13.8% of 3573 environmental samples from the seven slaughterhouses in the four remaining countries. The statistical analyses (multi-level logistic regression) indicated that the prevalence was significantly higher during the warmer months and that the environmental contamination increased during the day of slaughter. The polishing (OR 3.74, 95% CI 1.43-9.78) and pluck removal (OR 3.63, 95% CI 1.66-7.96) processes were found to contribute significantly to the total carcass contamination, the latter especially if the scalding water also was contaminated. To reduce carcass contamination, it is recommended to ensure sufficiently high temperatures of scalding water (62 degrees C) and appropriate cleaning and disinfection of the polishing equipment at least once a day in order to reduce the level of carcass contamination and consequently the prevalence of Salmonella in pork. PMID:14959787

  16. Implementation epidemiology: The study of the frequency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... evidenced-based prevention practice. The contribution of 'implementation epidemiology' beyond the more traditionally defined scope of the discipline is to extend the definition of epidemiology from 'the study of the distribution and determinants of health conditions' to include the empirical measurement and quantification ...

  17. The occurrence and epidemiology of Salmonella in European pig slaughterhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hald, T.; Wingstrand, A.; Swanenburg, M.; Altrock, von A.; Thorberg, B.M.

    2003-01-01

    This study was part of an international research project entitled SALINPORK (FAIR CT-950400) initiated in 1996. The objectives were to investigate the occurrence of Salmonella in pig slaughterhouses and to identify risk factors associated with the contamination of pig carcasses. Data was collected

  18. Epidemiological studies on some parasitological and ecological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemiological studies on some parasitological and ecological aspects of ... for S. mansoni and other intestinal parasites using the concentration technique. ... and Biomphilaria species that act as intermediate host for schistosoma were 37 ...

  19. Epidemiological Study of Heart Failure in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Guo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF is a complex clinical syndrome that results from any structural or functional impairment of ventricular filling or ejection of blood. HF is one of the most important and severe end stages of many cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiological studies of HF have focused mainly on the prevalence, incidence, mortality, fatality, and distribution and temporal trends of these indicators among different populations. This review highlights important epidemiological studies of HF in China.

  20. The role of confounding factors in a radon epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Onishchenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A simulation of a large-scale epidemiological case-control study to identify the relationship between exposure to radon and lung cancer in the presence of factors that distort the results of the assessment of exposure to radon in homes. Materials and Methods: Analysis of sources of uncertainties arising during radon epidemiologic case-control studies. Evaluation of the uncertainties caused by the errors of the measurements of the long-term variations in the radon concentration, exposure to radon in other places of the human habitat, except dwellings, etc. Simulation by Monte Carlo technique of radon epidemiologic study, comparable to the combined European radon study, and assessment of uncertainties, which affect the evaluation of dose-effect dependence. Results: The multiplicative error in the assessment of individual exposure based on the radon concentration is shown generally caused by the combined effect of long-term variations of the radon concentration and the differences in the levels of the radon concentration in living houses and other places of the human habitat. The logarithmic standard deviation of this errors σerr is from 0,70 to 0,90. The estimated value of this error is 2,0 times higher than the value used for correction of the results of the combined European radon study. It is shown that for the σerr <0,9 regression calibration technique, there is a possibility to make a full correction of uncertainty. Conclusion: Errors in the assessment of uncertainties of the radon exposure based on the radon concentration in the combine European radon case-control study has led to an underestimation of the relative risk of lung cancer incidence at least with a factor of 1,5.

  1. The early European lithium studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, M

    1999-12-01

    Cade's discovery of lithium's antimanic effect soon became known in Europe and was confirmed by a Danish controlled trial. The same investigators discovered a prophylactic action of lithium against both manic and depressive recurrences, which was confirmed by a Swiss-Czech-Danish cooperative trial. The evidence of these studies was met with skepticism based on methodological speculations, but a Danish randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of discontinuation design established the prophylactic action of lithium, as did a number of European controlled trials of start design and discontinuation design. The review ends with personal memories of John Cade.

  2. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF CARCINOMA OESOPHAGUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Oesophageal malignancies are not an uncommon disease entity in this part of India. It is observed in both the sexes. Patients present with progressive dysphagia for solids. The duration of symptoms varies from 6 months to 2 years. Among the various aetiological factors, smoking, alcohol intake, spicy hot food intake, industrial pollution and achalasia cardia are a few worth mentioning. AIM OF THE STUDY To evaluate the differences in the predisposing factors causing squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of oesophagus in this part of India. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study is conducted in the Department of Surgery at Government Medical College Hospital, Kozhikode; Kerala. One hundred patients attending the Department with history of Dysphagia were included after thorough history taking, clinical and endoscopic examination and found to have malignant growths in the oesophagus which was confirmed by biopsy and histopathological examination. Various aetiological factors were elicited and analysed in both the histological varieties of malignancy of oesophagus. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS Significant number of patients with history of paan chewing presented with histological picture of squamous cell carcinoma as compared to patients who had adenocarcinoma. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was more commonly associated with adenocarcinoma. Out of 37 patients with adenocarcinoma, 31 patients had history of gastroesophageal reflux disease (83.8%. 6 patients had no history of gastroesophageal reflux disease (16.2% within histology. Consumption of hot drinks, tea and coffee more than 10 per day has been analysed. 52 were consuming, 48 were not consuming, P value 0.179 non-significant. CONCLUSIONS Squamous cell carcinoma is more prevalent as compared to adenocarcinoma in present study. The main factor that has emerged is lifestyle, dietary habit, smoking and alcohol, and environmental factor. Consumption of alcohol and smoking is known risk factors in

  3. Epidemiological characterization of oral cancer. Study Protocol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Fernández

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is a disease of high impact globally. It ranks as the sixth more frequent one among all types of cancer. In spite of being a widely known pathology and easy access to the diagnosis, the lack of epidemiological data reported in the last 10 years in Chile called attention to. At the global level, the World Health Organization (WHO has developed a project called “GLOBOCAN” in order to collect epidemiological data of the global cancer, between its data, highlights the high incidence and high rate of mortality in the male sex, parameter that shows tendency to replicate in both America and Chile. In consequence to these data, a narrative review of the literature concerning the epidemiological profile of the different forms of oral cancer in the past 15 years was done. The diagnosis of oral cancer crosses transversely the Dental Science, forcing us to establish triads of work between oral and maxillofacial surgeons, pathologists and dentists of the various specialties, so as to allow a timely research, appropriate biopsies and histopathological studies finishes with the purpose of, on the one hand, obtain timely and accurate diagnostics, in addition, maintaining the epidemiological indicators.

  4. Conducting Molecular Epidemiological Research in the Age of HIPAA: A Multi-Institutional Case-Control Study of Breast Cancer in African-American and European-American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine B. Ambrosone

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer in African-American (AA women occurs at an earlier age than in European-American (EA women and is more likely to have aggressive features associated with poorer prognosis, such as high-grade and negative estrogen receptor (ER status. The mechanisms underlying these differences are unknown. To address this, we conducted a case-control study to evaluate risk factors for high-grade ER- disease in both AA and EA women. With the onset of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, creative measures were needed to adapt case ascertainment and contact procedures to this new environment of patient privacy. In this paper, we report on our approach to establishing a multicenter study of breast cancer in New York and New Jersey, provide preliminary distributions of demographic and pathologic characteristics among case and control participants by race, and contrast participation rates by approaches to case ascertainment, with discussion of strengths and weaknesses.

  5. Comparative Epidemiologic Characteristics of Pertussis in 10 Central and Eastern European Countries, 2000-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heininger, Ulrich; André, Philippe; Chlibek, Roman; Kristufkova, Zuzana; Kutsar, Kuulo; Mangarov, Atanas; Mészner, Zsófia; Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta; Petrović, Vladimir; Prymula, Roman; Usonis, Vytautas; Zavadska, Dace

    2016-01-01

    We undertook an epidemiological survey of the annual incidence of pertussis reported from 2000 to 2013 in ten Central and Eastern European countries to ascertain whether increased pertussis reports in some countries share common underlying drivers or whether there are specific features in each country. The annual incidence of pertussis in the participating countries was obtained from relevant government institutions and/or national surveillance systems. We reviewed the changes in the pertussis incidence rates in each country to explore differences and/or similarities between countries in relation to pertussis surveillance; case definitions for detection and confirmation of pertussis; incidence and number of cases of pertussis by year, overall and by age group; population by year, overall and by age group; pertussis immunization schedule and coverage, and switch from whole-cell pertussis vaccines (wP) to acellular pertussis vaccines (aP). There was heterogeneity in the reported annual incidence rates and trends observed across countries. Reported pertussis incidence rates varied considerably, ranging from 0.01 to 96 per 100,000 population, with the highest rates generally reported in Estonia and the lowest in Hungary and Serbia. The greatest burden appears for the most part in infants (<1 year) in Bulgaria, Hungary, Latvia, Romania, and Serbia, but not in the other participating countries where the burden may have shifted to older children, though surveillance of adults may be inappropriate. There was no consistent pattern associated with the switch from wP to aP vaccines on reported pertussis incidence rates. The heterogeneity in reported data may be related to a number of factors including surveillance system characteristics or capabilities, different case definitions, type of pertussis confirmation tests used, public awareness of the disease, as well as real differences in the magnitude of the disease, or a combination of these factors. Our study highlights the

  6. [Social inequality and epidemiological studies: a reflection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Maria Angela Fernandes; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Social indicators are now indispensable in the list of variables of epidemiological studies, based on the fact that the determination of health complaints is complex and multidimensional. From this perspective, social inequality has gained prominence as an explanatory factor for the health conditions of populations. The scope of this article is to discuss the different concepts that underpin the selection of the indicators used in epidemiological studies and examine the psychosocial effects on human beings caused by social inequality. A literature review of epidemiological studies that used social inequality and social capital indicators was conducted for a better understanding of health problems, as well as an investigation in the fields of sociology and social psychology. The research revealed that there is some controversy surrounding the effect of social inequality on health, possibly because these indicators are predominantly based on income and individual consumption capacity. Likewise, social capital indicators at cognitive and structural levels are too limited to understand the dynamism of social relations. Accordingly, further studies are needed for the construction of social indicators capable of examining the complexity of modern societies.

  7. [Hot spot: epidemiology of measles and rubella in Germany and the WHO European region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysiak-Klose, D

    2013-09-01

    The elimination of measles and rubella by 2015 is an important goal set by the World Health Organization European Region (WHO/Europa). Since 1991, the incidence of measles in WHO/Europa declined owing to routine childhood vaccination and supplementary immunization activities in the region. However, in many countries of Western Europe elimination of measles and rubella remains a challenge, and every year there are outbreaks with partly long-lasting transmission chains and dissemination of the virus internationally. In Germany, outbreaks occur because of the high proportion of susceptible individuals in specific population groups. In 2011, over 1,600 cases were reported (19.7 per 1,000,000 inhabitants, data from the Robert Koch Institute) whereas in 2012 only 167 cases were reported to the Robert Koch Institute (2 per 1,000,000 inhabitants). It is unclear whether the declining trend will continue in the following years due to improved vaccination coverage or whether number of cases will rise again because of the accumulation of susceptible groups. In Germany, there are currently no representative, country-wide data on rubella; however, data from the eastern federal states provide important epidemiological insights. Outbreaks are seldom reported, but statutory notification of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome was implemented in March 2013. As a result, it will be possible to better assess the epidemiology of rubella in Germany, although a considerable underreporting of rubella cases is anticipated.

  8. [Bad habits and dysgnathia: epidemiological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordasco, G; Lo Giudice, G; Dolci, E; Romeo, U; Lafronte, G

    1989-01-01

    The authors refer about an epidemiological survey in 651 children in the school-age. The aim of study is to investigate about the frequency of the bad habits and the pathogenetic relations between these and the development of the dento-maxillo-facial deformities. They point out an incidence of these bad habits in the 35,48% with a predominance of mouth breathers (45,45%). After they discuss the necessity of an early detection of anomalous neuromuscular attitudes.

  9. European birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, T; Kulig, M; Simpson, A

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The reasons for the rise in asthma and allergies remain unclear. To identify risk or protective factors, it is essential to carry out longitudinal epidemiological studies, preferably birth cohort studies. In Europe, several birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases have been...... initiated over the last two decades. AIM: One of the work packages within the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN) project was designed to identify and compare European birth cohorts on asthma and atopic diseases. The present review (part I) describes their objectives, study settings......, recruitment process and follow-up rates. A subsequent review (part II) will compare outcome and exposure parameters. METHODS: For each birth cohort, we collected detailed information regarding recruitment process, study setting, baseline data (pregnancy, birth, parents/siblings) as well as follow-up rates...

  10. Epidemiological characteristics, management and early outcomes of acute coronary syndromes in Greece: The PHAETHON study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Andrikopoulos

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: The PHAETHON study provided valuable insights into the epidemiology, management and outcome of ACS patients in Greece. Management of ACS resembles the management observed in other European countries. However, several issues still to be addressed by public authorities for the timely and proper management of ACS.

  11. Wildlife disease reservoirs: the epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis infection in the European badger (Meles meles) and other British mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahay, R J; Cheeseman, C L; Clifton-Hadley, R S

    2001-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis infection has been confirmed in a wide range of mammals hosts throughout the world. The European badger (Meles meles) and the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) are implicated as significant sources of infection for domestic cattle in the UK and New Zealand respectively. The risk of transmission of infection between a wildlife population and domestic animals will be determined by both the epidemiology of the disease and the ecology of the host. In the UK, surveys by the UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) have identified M. bovis infection in deer (Cervus sp., Capreolus sp., Dama sp.), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), mink (Mustela vison), feral ferret (Mustela furo), mole (Talpa europaea), brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) and feral cat (Felis catus). However, the potential contribution to cattle herd breakdowns, of reservoirs of M. bovis infection in mammals other than the badger is poorly understood and is the subject of current research. In contrast, M. bovis infection in the badger has been the subject of a long term ecological and epidemiological study at Woodchester Park in South-West England, where the prevalence and distribution of infection in a wild population has been intensively monitored. The pattern of infection in the population and potential risks to cattle, are profoundly influenced by badger social organization and behaviour. The pattern of land use and cattle farming practices in the UK brings badgers into close contact with domestic animals and provides conditions that may enhance the likelihood of disease transfer. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  12. European Values Study 1981-2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijkx, A.R.C.M.; Halman, L.C.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The European Values Study is a large-scale, cross-national, and longitudinal survey research program on basic human values providing insight into the ideas, beliefs, preferences, attitudes, values and opinions of citizens all over Europe. It is a unique research project on how Europeans think about

  13. KARAKTERISTIK PASIEN DISFUNGSI TIROID : STUDI EPIDEMIOLOGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Puspita Asturiningtyas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Iodine is an essential element for thyroid hormone synthesis important for growth and development. An Epidemiological study is important to describe who the case were, area mostly affected and trends of disease over time. Objective. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiological characteristics of patients with thyroid dysfunction. Method. This is a descriptive study. Data taken from medical record of 291 patients with hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism diagnoses from Klinik Litbang GAKI Magelang in 2011-2012. Medical records used were the one that recorded age and gender, address and time of diagnose. The differences characteristic comparation of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism were analyzed using Chi Square. Results. Result found that hypothyroidism affected younger (<20 years patients while hyperthyroidism affected older (20-39 years, p=0.00. Women suffered thyroid dysfunction more than men with 58.8% hypothyroidism and 88.35% hyperthyroidism, p=0.00. Patients with hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism came from areas with history of mild endemic area (p=0.247. The trend showed that hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism increase from 2011 to 2012, although not statistically significant (p=0.194. Conclusion. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are more common in female. Hyperthyroidism affected older age group compare to hypothyroidism. Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism more prevalent on patient came from areas with history of mild endemic and showed increasing trend.

  14. Recommendations for epidemiological studies on COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, P S; Rönmark, E; Eagan, T

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been extensively studied, especially in Western Europe and North America. Few of these data are directly comparable because of differences between the surveys regarding composition of study populations, diagnostic criteria...... of the disease and definitions of the risk factors. Few community studies have examined phenotypes of COPD and included other ways of characterising the disease beyond that of spirometry. The objective of the present Task Force report is to present recommendations for the performance of general population...... studies in COPD in order to facilitate comparable and valid estimates on COPD prevalence by various risk factors. Diagnostic criteria in epidemiological settings, and standardised methods to examine the disease and its potential risk factors are discussed. The paper also offers practical advice...

  15. Recommendations for epidemiological studies on COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, P S; Rönmark, E; Eagan, T

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been extensively studied, especially in Western Europe and North America. Few of these data are directly comparable because of differences between the surveys regarding composition of study populations, diagnostic criteria...... studies in COPD in order to facilitate comparable and valid estimates on COPD prevalence by various risk factors. Diagnostic criteria in epidemiological settings, and standardised methods to examine the disease and its potential risk factors are discussed. The paper also offers practical advice...... of the disease and definitions of the risk factors. Few community studies have examined phenotypes of COPD and included other ways of characterising the disease beyond that of spirometry. The objective of the present Task Force report is to present recommendations for the performance of general population...

  16. Enantiomeric profiling of chiral illicit drugs in a pan-European study

    OpenAIRE

    Castrignano, Erika; Yang, Zhugen; Bade, Richard; Baz-Lomba, Jose A.; Castiglioni, Sara; Causanilles, Ana; Covaci, Adrian; Gracia-Lor, Emma; Hernandez, Felix; Kinyua, Juliet; McCall, Ann-Kathrin; Nuijs, van, Alexander L.N.; Ort, Chris; Plósz, Benedek G.; Ramin, Pedram

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present the first study on spatial and temporal variation in the enantiomeric profile of chiral drugs in eight European cities. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) and enantioselective analysis were combined to evaluate trends in illicit drug use in the context of their consumption vs direct disposal as well as their synthetic production routes. Spatial variations in amphetamine loads were observed with higher use in Northern European cities. Enantioselec...

  17. Epidemiological studies on cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farahmand M, Nahrevanian H, Shirazi HA, Naeimi S,. Farzanehnejad Z. An overview of a diagnostic and epidemiologic reappraisal of cutaneous leishmaniasis in. Iran. Braz J Infect Dis 2011; 15(1): 17-21. 12. Bousslimi N, Aoun K, Ben-Abda I, Ben-Alaya-Bouafif N,. Raouane M, Bouratbine A. Epidemiologic and clinical.

  18. Genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: application in epidemiologic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Maeda, Midori; Metcalfe, John Z.; Flores, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Genotyping is used to track specific isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a community. It has been successfully used in epidemiologic research (termed ‘molecular epidemiology’) to study the transmission dynamics of TB. In this article, we review the genetic markers used in molecular epidemiologic studies including the use of whole-genome sequencing technology. We also review the public health application of molecular epidemiologic tools. PMID:21366420

  19. Epidemiological and Clinical Studies of Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Todd M.; Ferrucci, Leah M.; Tangrea, Joseph A.; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we briefly summarize some of the key developments in nutritional epidemiology and cancer over the past two decades with a focus on the strengths and limitations of study designs and dietary assessment methods. We present the evidence on dietary fat, meat, fiber, antioxidant nutrients, and calcium in relation to carcinogenesis from large cohort studies and randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and refer to the conclusions of the 2007 World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research summary report. One prominent theme that emerged is the lack of concordance of results from RCTs and observational studies. There are multiple potential reasons for these discrepancies, including differences in study population, dose and timing of the exposure, adherence to an intervention, length of follow-up, and the primary endpoint. Therefore, null findings of RCTs do not necessarily indicate a lack of effect for the tested dietary factors on cancer risk, as some of these nutrients may have chemopreventive effects if given at the right time and in the right dose. It is likely that potential benefits from the diet are due to a combination of food constituents rather than single components acting in isolation. Future efforts need to recognize the integrative nature of dietary exposures and attempt to study nutrients in the larger context of the foods and diets in which they are consumed. PMID:20709210

  20. Epidemiological study of mortality in epilepsy in a Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro-Muñoz, María Isabel; García-Martín, Guillermina; Pérez-Errazquin, Francisco; Romero-Acebal, Manuel; García-Rodríguez, Antonio; Gutiérrez-Bedmar, Mario

    2017-03-01

    Studies concerning mortality in epilepsy have been performed primarily in Northern-Central Europe and US. The aim of this study was to provide information about mortality in people with epilepsy in Southern European countries. We studied a Spanish prevalence and incidence cohort of 2309 patients aged ≥14 years with epilepsy who were treated in an outpatient epilepsy clinic between 2000 and 2013. The deceased were identified through Civil Registries. Causes of death were determined using death certificates, forensic autopsies, hospital reports, family practitioners, and care-givers' records. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated. In a total of 15,865 person-years of follow-up, 152 patients died, resulting in an SMR of 2.11 (95% CI 1.79-2.47), which was higher for those aged 14-24. There was also a high rate of death for symptomatic epilepsies, progressive causes (SMR=6.12, CI 3.50-9.94), and remote causes (SMR=2.62, CI 2.12-3.21). High SMRs were found for all kinds of epilepsy and for respiratory and tumoural causes. Patients who died of epilepsy itself were 12.5%. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy incidence was 0.44:1000. Death from status epilepticus incidence was 20:100,000. SMRs for external causes were of no statistical significance. This is the first epidemiological study to examine rate of mortality in epilepsy in a Southern European country. The identified mortality pattern is similar to the one provided by researchers from developed countries. The similarities between our results concerning epilepsy-related deaths and those provided by population-based studies are the result of the scarcely selected character of our study cohort. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Epidemiological study of autism spectrum disorder in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Virginia C N; Hui, Stella L H

    2008-01-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the epidemiologic pattern of autism spectrum disorder in Chinese children. An autism spectrum disorder registry has been established in Hong Kong since 1986 by collecting data in a single center (the only university-affiliated child assessment center in Hong Kong). Since 1997, inpatient data from all public hospitals under the Hospital Authority have been stored in a central computerized program and retrieved from the Clinical Data Analysis and Reporting System. Clinical data have also been retrieved through the Clinical Data Analysis and Reporting System to ensure the completion of the registry, and these suspected cases have undergone the same diagnostic evaluation for autism spectrum disorder, as some of the new autism cases might be hospitalized in the public hospital. The incidence and prevalence of autism spectrum disorder have been calculated for the period of 1986 to 2005 using the population statistics available in the government for children less than 15 years old in Hong Kong. This study has included 4 247 206 person-years from 1986 to 2005 for children less than 15 years old and 1 174 322 person-years for those less than 5 years old in Hong Kong. Altogether, 645 children 0 to 4 years old with diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder were identified from 1986 to 2005. The estimated incidence of autism spectrum disorder was 5.49 per 10 000. The prevalence was 16.1 per 10 000 for children less than 15 years old for the same period. The male to female ratio was 6.58:1. This is the first reported epidemiologic study of autism spectrum disorder in Chinese children. The incidence rate is similar to those reported in Australia and North America and is lower than Europeans.

  2. Crossroads in European Union Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet; Löfgren, Karl; Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades the educational practices within EU studies have been challenged by the lack of comprehensive texts on research strategy, design and method useful for study programmes. Since the ‘comparative turn’ of the 1990s, where we saw a shift towards applying theories, analytical ...

  3. Wastewater-based epidemiology to assess pan-European pesticide exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousis, Nikolaos I.; Gracia-Lor, Emma; Zuccato, Ettore

    2017-01-01

    human exposure to pesticides in eight cities across Europe. 24 h-composite wastewater samples were collected from the main wastewater treatment plants and analyzed for urinary metabolites of three classes of pesticides, namely triazines, organophosphates and pyrethroids, by liquid chromatography......Human biomonitoring, i.e. the determination of chemicals and/or their metabolites in human specimens, is the most common and potent tool for assessing human exposure to pesticides, but it suffers from limitations such as high costs and biases in sampling. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE......) is an innovative approach based on the chemical analysis of specific human metabolic excretion products (biomarkers) in wastewater, and provides objective and real-time information on xenobiotics directly or indirectly ingested by a population. This study applied the WBE approach for the first time to evaluate...

  4. Grading of age-related maculopathy for epidemiological studies: is digital imaging as good as 35-mm film?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Redmer; Chakravarthy, Usha; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Brussee, Corina; Hooghart, Ada J.; Mulder, Paul G.; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.

    2003-01-01

    To compare stereo digital images with stereo 35-mm color transparencies as to the quality and reliability of grading age-related maculopathy (ARM) in the context of a multicenter European epidemiologic study (the EUREYE Study). Instrument validation study. Ninety-one subjects (137 eyes) with varying

  5. 40 CFR 159.170 - Human epidemiological and exposure studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Human epidemiological and exposure studies. 159.170 Section 159.170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATEMENTS OF POLICIES AND INTERPRETATIONS Reporting Requirements for Risk/Benefit Information § 159.170 Human epidemiological and...

  6. Epidemiological studies on syncope--a register based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Martin Huth

    2013-01-01

    of the patients play an essential role. In epidemiology these factors have major impact on the outcome of the patients. Until recently, even the definition of syncope, differed from one study to another which has made literature reviews difficult. Traditionally the data on epidemiology of syncope has been taken...

  7. Clinico epidemiological study of pitted keratolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naik Chandra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pitted keratolysis is a common dermatological condition. However, very few studies are available on the clinical characteristics and epidemiological features of this disorder from India and abroad. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients from rural area of Kolar at Sri R.L.J.H. and S.N.R. Hospital, presenting with clinically distinctive lesions of pitted keratolysis were included in the study. Cases were interviewed with particular emphasis on triggering factors and findings were recorded. Investigations like Gram′s stain, culture studies, Wood′s ultraviolet light examination, histopathology etc, was done in selected cases to ascertain the clinical diagnosis. Results: Age of the patients varied from 20 to 40 years in 52% with male preponderance in 82% of cases. Duration of the disease varied from 15 days to five years, most of the patients were bare-footed farmers (62% of cases. Hyperhidrosis and pruritus were most frequently observed symptoms in 70% and 60% of patients. Most of the patients presented with the characteristic pits which varied from 1 to 50 in number in 56 % of cases, located predominantly on the pressure bearing areas in 92% of cases and depth of the pits varied from 1 to 2 mm in 60% of cases. Associated skin conditions recorded in present study were fissuring of soles in 38%, psoriasis 10%, dermatophyte infections in 6%, planter warts 6% and Corynebacterial triad and corn in 2% of patients each. Discussion: Affection of bare-footed individuals, male preponderance, presence of hyperhidrosis and occurrence of lesions over pressure bearing areas of soles, observed in the present study were consistent with earlier studies on the subject. However, pruritus as commonest presenting symptom reported by 60% patients in the present study, has not been documented in the previous studies. Conclusion: Pitted keratolysis is fairly common in bare footed male farmers of rural India. The condition is predominantly seen over the

  8. Epidemiological and performance indicators for occupational health services: a feasibility study in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godderis, Lode; Johannik, Kristien; Mylle, Godewina; Bulterys, Simon; Moens, Guido

    2014-09-19

    In many European countries, Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) providers report their activities and results annually. Ideally, this report should offer an overview of their activities and of the outcome regarding occupational health and safety. To establish a set of epidemiological and performance indicators for electronic reporting of data that can be used for OHS surveillance and prevention purposes. Consequently, the selected data can serve as indicators for exposure to and prevention of occupational risks (epidemiology), and contribute to the evaluation of the functioning (performance) of OHS providers. An extensive literature search in combination with an investigation of existing reporting models was performed. The resulting list of potential indicators was assessed by different stakeholders and divided into indicators for epidemiology and for performance. Then in a feasibility study, the relevance and availability of the indicators were assessed in 17 external, 49 internal (in company) and 10 mixed OHS providers. From the literature survey, we obtained 1100 indicators. After validation, 257 were taken into account in the feasibility study. An indicator was considered relevant when more than 2/3 of the respondents answered in favour of the indicator. The same criterion was applied for availability. Respectively, 82% and 62% of the performance and epidemiological indicators were considered to be relevant for external OHS providers. All relevant performance indicators were available. Of the epidemiological data, only 53% were available. Remarkably, internal OHS providers assessed fewer indicators as relevant (29% and 27% of performance and epidemiology indicators respectively), but these were mostly all available (90%). This study shows that it is possible to provide a snapshot of the state of OHS by means of the registration of data. These findings could be used to build a data warehouse to study national health and safety profiles and to develop a uniform

  9. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology-Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut: An Extension of the STROBE Statement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Lachat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Concerns have been raised about the quality of reporting in nutritional epidemiology. Research reporting guidelines such as the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE statement can improve quality of reporting in observational studies. Herein, we propose recommendations for reporting nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research by extending the STROBE statement into Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology-Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut.Recommendations for the reporting of nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research were developed following a systematic and consultative process, coordinated by a multidisciplinary group of 21 experts. Consensus on reporting guidelines was reached through a three-round Delphi consultation process with 53 external experts. In total, 24 recommendations for nutritional epidemiology were added to the STROBE checklist.When used appropriately, reporting guidelines for nutritional epidemiology can contribute to improve reporting of observational studies with a focus on diet and health.

  10. Degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis: an epidemiological perspective: the Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Rovsing, Hans

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional epidemiological survey of 4151 participants of the Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study. OBJECTIVE: To identify prevalences and individual risk factors for degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study has...

  11. Implementation epidemiology: The study of the frequency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    methodological dimension, implementation epidemiology requires first a shift in the public health approach to injury prevention from the traditional proximal risk factor ... level (World Health Organization, 2008). Road traffic injury is one of the best researched and best understood causes of serious injury, death and disability.

  12. A Genetic Epidemiological Study of Behavioral Traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Amin (Najaf)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractHuman behavioural genetics aims to unravel the genetic and environmental contributions to variations in human behaviour. Behaviour is a complex trait, involving multiple genes that are affected by a variety of other factors. Genetic epidemiological research of behaviour goes back to

  13. Retrospective study of epidemiological, clinicopathological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Algeria, the CRC wing and become the first digestive cancer in both sexes, outperforming stomach cancer. To enrich the Algerian cancer registries, we analyzed the profiles of patients with these cancers in Jijel Willaya. This was a retrospective and descriptive analysis of epidemiological, clinicopathological and biological ...

  14. Leveraging Epidemiologic and Clinical Collections for Genomic Studies of Complex Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Dana C; Goodloe, Robert; Farber-Eger, Eric; Boston, Jonathan; Pendergrass, Sarah A; Haines, Jonathan L; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Bush, William S

    2015-01-01

    Present-day limited resources demand DNA and phenotyping alternatives to the traditional prospective population-based epidemiologic collections. To accelerate genomic discovery with an emphasis on diverse populations, we--as part of the Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE) study--accessed all non-European American samples (n = 15,863) available in BioVU, the Vanderbilt University biorepository linked to de-identified electronic medical records, for genomic studies as part of the larger Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) I study. Given previous studies have cautioned against the secondary use of clinically collected data compared with epidemiologically collected data, we present here a characterization of EAGLE BioVU, including the billing and diagnostic (ICD-9) code distributions for adult and pediatric patients as well as comparisons made for select health metrics (body mass index, glucose, HbA1c, HDL-C, LDL-C, and triglycerides) with the population-based National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) linked to DNA samples (NHANES III, n = 7,159; NHANES 1999-2002, n = 7,839). Overall, the distributions of billing and diagnostic codes suggest this clinical sample is a mixture of healthy and sick patients like that expected for a contemporary American population. Little bias is observed among health metrics, suggesting this clinical collection is suitable for genomic studies along with traditional epidemiologic cohorts. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Migration-related tuberculosis: epidemiology and characteristics of tuberculosis cases originating outside the European Union and European Economic Area, 2007 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ködmön, Csaba; Zucs, Phillip; van der Werf, Marieke J

    2016-01-01

    Migrants arriving from high tuberculosis (TB)-incidence countries may pose a significant challenge to TB control programmes in the host country. TB surveillance data for 2007-2013 submitted to the European Surveillance System were analysed. Notified TB cases were stratified by origin and reporting country. The contribution of migrant TB cases to the TB epidemiology in EU/EEA countries was analysed. Migrant TB cases accounted for 17.4% (n = 92,039) of all TB cases reported in the EU/EEA in 2007-2013, continuously increasing from 13.6% in 2007 to 21.8% in 2013. Of 91,925 migrant cases with known country of origin, 29.3% were from the Eastern Mediterranean, 23.0% from south-east Asia, 21.4% from Africa, 13.4% from the World Health Organization European Region (excluding EU/EEA), and 12.9% from other regions. Of 46,499 migrant cases with known drug-susceptibility test results, 2.9% had multidrug-resistant TB, mainly (51.7%) originating from the European Region. The increasing contribution of TB in migrants from outside the EU/EEA to the TB burden in the EU/EEA is mainly due to a decrease in native TB cases. Especially in countries with a high proportion of TB cases in non-EU/EEA migrants, targeted prevention and control initiatives may be needed to progress towards TB elimination.

  16. Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of Influenza Viruses Circulating within European Swine between 2009 and 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J. Watson, Simon; Langat, Pinky; M. Reid, Scott

    2015-01-01

    The emergence in humans of the A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus, a complex reassortant virus of swine origin, highlighted the importance of worldwide influenza virus surveillance in swine. To date, large-scale surveillance studies have been reported for southern China and North America, but such data...... have not yet been described for Europe. We report the first large-scale genomic characterization of 290 swine influenza viruses collected from 14 European countries between 2009 and 2013. A total of 23 distinct genotypes were identified, with the 7 most common comprising 82% of the incidence...... in swine differ at the global level. IMPORTANCE The influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus contains a reassortant genome with segments derived from separate virus lineages that evolved in different regions of the world. In particular, its neuraminidase and matrix segments were derived from the Eurasian avian virus...

  17. The Brazilian Football Association (CBF) model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Runco, Jose Luiz; Cohen, Moisés

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to establish a national methodological model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries and to describe the numerous relevant studies previously published on this topic. INTRODUCTION: The risk of injury in professional soccer is high. However, previous studies of injury risk in Brazil and other countries have been characterized by large variations in study design and data collection methods as well as definitions of injury, standardized diagnostic criteria, and recovery times. METHODS: A system developed by the Union of European Football for epidemiological studies on professional soccer players is being used as a starting point to create a methodological model for the Brazilian Football Association. To describe the existing studies on professional soccer player injuries, we developed a search strategy to identify relevant epidemiological studies. We included the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and Medline databases in our study. RESULTS: We considered 60 studies from Medline and 16 studies from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences in the final analysis. Twelve studies were selected for final inclusion in this review: seven from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and five from Medline. We identified a lack of uniformity in the study design, data collection methods, injury definitions, standardized diagnostic criteria, and the definition of recovery time. Based on the information contained within these articles, we developed a model for epidemiological studies for the Brazilian Football Association. CONCLUSIONS: There is no uniform model for epidemiological studies of professional soccer injuries. Here, we propose a novel model to be applied for epidemiological studies of professional soccer player injuries in Brazil and throughout the world. PMID:22012041

  18. The Brazilian Football Association (CBF model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Goncalves Arliani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aims to establish a national methodological model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries and to describe the numerous relevant studies previously published on this topic. INTRODUCTION: The risk of injury in professional soccer is high. However, previous studies of injury risk in Brazil and other countries have been characterized by large variations in study design and data collection methods as well as definitions of injury, standardized diagnostic criteria, and recovery times. METHODS: A system developed by the Union of European Football for epidemiological studies on professional soccer players is being used as a starting point to create a methodological model for the Brazilian Football Association. To describe the existing studies on professional soccer player injuries, we developed a search strategy to identify relevant epidemiological studies. We included the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and Medline databases in our study. RESULTS: We considered 60 studies from Medline and 16 studies from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences in the final analysis. Twelve studies were selected for final inclusion in this review: seven from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and five from Medline. We identified a lack of uniformity in the study design, data collection methods, injury definitions, standardized diagnostic criteria, and the definition of recovery time. Based on the information contained within these articles, we developed a model for epidemiological studies for the Brazilian Football Association. CONCLUSIONS: There is no uniform model for epidemiological studies of professional soccer injuries. Here, we propose a novel model to be applied for epidemiological studies of professional soccer player injuries in Brazil and throughout the world.

  19. [Environmental risk factors and epidemiologic study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, C; Limina, R M

    2002-01-01

    The problems regarding communication of risks in the environmental sector and the analysis of certain causes of pollution, together with their effects on human health are the subjects of this article. In an illustrative and concise manner results of the most important epidemiological studies concerning the effects of non-ionizing radiations, of radon and of air pollution have been analyzed. Throughout this analysis emphasis has been placed on the difficulty of obtaining clear and scientifically based results. Such results are needed in order to provide the population with satisfying information and thus meet the increasing demand for unambiguous answers. Among the risk factors for human health are the high frequency electromagnetic fields used for mobile phones (radiofrequency--RF) nd extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) of power-lines. Even though these risk factors may be minimal the high number of persons exposed could make them an important impact on public health. Regarding the topic of air pollution, effects on particular segments of the population (children, elderly people and subjects with chronic diseases) have been found in various studies; for example, for an increase of PM(10) of 10 microg/m(3) an increase in daily mortality of 0.69% (CI 0.40-0.98) due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes has been estimated as well as an increase in general daily mortality of 0.54% (CI 0.33-0.76). Due to the populations' low risk perception (caused by unawareness of the problem) radon is undoubtedly the environmental pollutant which has the most impact on public health. This is true even in Italy where 4,000 cases of lung cancer attributable to radon (about 11% of total lung cancer) have been estimated per year; this risk is heightened by the combined effect with smoking. When dealing with health risks the tools of communication must be simple and correct; the mass-media are the most important mediators between the scientific community and the

  20. An Epidemiological Study of Mercury Sensitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Sato

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury sensitization has been historically in question and may be related to recent increases of type I allergic diseases. To clarify the epidemiological factors of mercury sensitization, we investigated factors relating to mercury sensitization in 215 medical students. Their allergic symptoms, family histories and lifestyles were studied by questionnaire. Patch tests were performed with HgCI2 (0.05% aq. and NiS04 (5% aq.. Anti- Dermatophagoides and anti-Crypfomeria pollen IgE antibodies in sera were also measured. Urinary mercury concentrations were measured in 25 mercury sensitized and 44 non-sensitized subjects (controls. Hair mercury concentrations were also measured in 19 sensitized and 22 non-sensitized subjects. While the positive rate of nickel was 6.0% (13/215, that of mercury was high (13.0%; 28/215. The subjects' individual histories of allergic rhinitis, eczema, urticaria and allergic conjunctivitis were significantly associated with family histories of these conditions (P<0.01, P<0.005 and P<0.005, respectively, as reported in the literature. However, no allergen- specific antibody positivity or past history of allergic disease was associated with mercury sensitization. Mercury sensitized subjects had experienced eczema caused by cosmetics, shampoos, soaps and haircreams significantly more frequently (P<0.05. The history of mercurochrome usage was not associated with mercury sensitization. The number of teeth treated with metals in mercury sensitized subjects was significantly higher than that in the control group (6.8±4.3 vs 4.8±1; P<0.05. There were significant differences in urinary mercury concentrations (specific gravity adjusted levels between mercury sensitized subjects and non-sensitized subjects (2.0±0.9 and 1.3±0.6 (xg/L, respectively; P<0.001. There were also significant differences in hair mercury concentrations between mercury sensitized and non-sensitized subjects (2.0±0.9 and 1.2±0.5 μg/g, respectively; P<0

  1. Video-game epilepsy: a European study.

    OpenAIRE

    KASTELEIJN‐NOLST TRENITÉ, D.G.; Da Silva, A. M.; Ricci, S; Binnie, C D; Rubboli, G; Tassinari, C A; SEGERS, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Epilepsia. 1999;40 Suppl 4:70-4. Video-game epilepsy: a European study. Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité DG, da Silva AM, Ricci S, Binnie CD, Rubboli G, Tassinari CA, Segers JP. Stichting Epilepsie Instellingen Nederland, Heemstede, The Netherlands. Abstract With the introduction of Nintendo video-games on a large scale, reports of children having seizures while playing suggested a possible specific, provocative factor. Although 50% of the photosensitive patients are al...

  2. Wastewater-based epidemiology to assess pan-European pesticide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousis, Nikolaos I; Gracia-Lor, Emma; Zuccato, Ettore; Bade, Richard; Baz-Lomba, Jose Antonio; Castrignanò, Erika; Causanilles, Ana; Covaci, Adrian; de Voogt, Pim; Hernàndez, Félix; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Kinyua, Juliet; McCall, Ann-Kathrin; Plósz, Benedek Gy; Ramin, Pedram; Ryu, Yeonsuk; Thomas, Kevin V; van Nuijs, Alexander; Yang, Zhugen; Castiglioni, Sara

    2017-09-15

    Human biomonitoring, i.e. the determination of chemicals and/or their metabolites in human specimens, is the most common and potent tool for assessing human exposure to pesticides, but it suffers from limitations such as high costs and biases in sampling. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is an innovative approach based on the chemical analysis of specific human metabolic excretion products (biomarkers) in wastewater, and provides objective and real-time information on xenobiotics directly or indirectly ingested by a population. This study applied the WBE approach for the first time to evaluate human exposure to pesticides in eight cities across Europe. 24 h-composite wastewater samples were collected from the main wastewater treatment plants and analyzed for urinary metabolites of three classes of pesticides, namely triazines, organophosphates and pyrethroids, by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The mass loads (mg/day/1000 inhabitants) were highest for organophosphates and lowest for triazines. Different patterns were observed among the cities and for the various classes of pesticides. Population weighted loads of specific biomarkers indicated higher exposure in Castellon, Milan, Copenhagen and Bristol for pyrethroids, and in Castellon, Bristol and Zurich for organophosphates. The lowest mass loads (mg/day/1000 inhabitants) were found in Utrecht and Oslo. These results were in agreement with several national statistics related to pesticides exposure such as pesticides sales. The daily intake of pyrethroids was estimated in each city and it was found to exceed the acceptable daily intake (ADI) only in one city (Castellon, Spain). This was the first large-scale application of WBE to monitor population exposure to pesticides. The results indicated that WBE can give new information about the "average exposure" of the population to pesticides, and is a useful complementary biomonitoring tool to study population-wide exposure to pesticides. Copyright

  3. Pesticide poisoning in Chitwan, Nepal: a descriptive epidemiological study

    OpenAIRE

    Gyenwali, Deepak; Vaidya, Abhinav; Tiwari, Sundar; Khatiwada, Prakash; Lamsal, Daya Ram; Giri, Shrikrishana

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Globally, there is a growing concern over pesticides use, which has been linked to self-harm and suicide. However, there is paucity of research on the epidemiology of pesticides poisoning in Nepal. This study is aimed at assessing epidemiological features of pesticides poisoning among hospital-admitted cases in selected hospitals of Chitwan District of Nepal. Methods A hospital-based quantitative study was carried out in four major hospitals of Chitwan District. Informatio...

  4. Wastewater-based epidemiology to assess pan-European pesticide exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rousis, N.I.; Gracia-Lor, E.; Zuccato, E.; Bade, R.; Baz-Lomba, J.A.; Castrignanò, E.; Causanilles, A.; Covaci, A.; de Voogt, P.; Hernàndez, F.; Kasprzyk-Hordern, B.; Kinyua, J.; McCall, A.-K.; Plósz, B.G.; Ramin, P.; Ryu, Y.; Thomas, K.V.; van Nuijs, A.; Yang, Z.; Castiglioni, S.

    2017-01-01

    Human biomonitoring, i.e. the determination of chemicals and/or their metabolites in human specimens, is the most common and potent tool for assessing human exposure to pesticides, but it suffers from limitations such as high costs and biases in sampling. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is an

  5. Epidemiology of adverse drug reactions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvy, Jacoline C; De Bruin, Marie L; Koopmanschap, Marc A

    2015-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) cause considerable mortality and morbidity but no recent reviews are currently available for the European region. Therefore, we performed a review of all epidemiological studies quantifying ADRs in a European setting that were published between 1 January 2000 and 3...... regarding the epidemiology of ADRs in this setting....

  6. Perceptions of molecular epidemiology studies of HIV among stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Schairer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advances in viral sequence analysis make it possible to track the spread of infectious pathogens, such as HIV, within a population. When used to study HIV, these analyses (i.e., molecular epidemiology potentially allow inference of the identity of individual research subjects. Current privacy standards are likely insufficient for this type of public health research. To address this challenge, it will be important to understand how stakeholders feel about the benefits and risks of such research. Design and Methods: To better understand perceived benefits and risks of these research methods, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with HIV-infected individuals, individuals at high-risk for contracting HIV, and professionals in HIV care and prevention. To gather additional perspectives, attendees to a public lecture on molecular epidemiology were asked to complete an informal questionnaire. Results: Among those interviewed and polled, there was near unanimous support for using molecular epidemiology to study HIV. Questionnaires showed strong agreement about benefits of molecular epidemiology, but diverse attitudes regarding risks. Interviewees acknowledged several risks, including privacy breaches and provocation of anti-gay sentiment. The interviews also demonstrated a possibility that misunderstandings about molecular epidemiology may affect how risks and benefits are evaluated. Conclusions: While nearly all study participants agree that the benefits of HIV molecular epidemiology outweigh the risks, concerns about privacy must be addressed to ensure continued trust in research institutions and willingness to participate in research.

  7. Food consumption and the actual statistics of cardiovascular diseases: an epidemiological comparison of 42 European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Grasgruber

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this ecological study was to identify the main nutritional factors related to the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs in Europe, based on a comparison of international statistics. Design: The mean consumption of 62 food items from the FAOSTAT database (1993–2008 was compared with the actual statistics of five CVD indicators in 42 European countries. Several other exogenous factors (health expenditure, smoking, body mass index and the historical stability of results were also examined. Results: We found exceptionally strong relationships between some of the examined factors, the highest being a correlation between raised cholesterol in men and the combined consumption of animal fat and animal protein (r=0.92, p<0.001. The most significant dietary correlate of low CVD risk was high total fat and animal protein consumption. Additional statistical analyses further highlighted citrus fruits, high-fat dairy (cheese and tree nuts. Among other non-dietary factors, health expenditure showed by far the highest correlation coefficients. The major correlate of high CVD risk was the proportion of energy from carbohydrates and alcohol, or from potato and cereal carbohydrates. Similar patterns were observed between food consumption and CVD statistics from the period 1980–2000, which shows that these relationships are stable over time. However, we found striking discrepancies in men's CVD statistics from 1980 and 1990, which can probably explain the origin of the ‘saturated fat hypothesis’ that influenced public health policies in the following decades. Conclusion: Our results do not support the association between CVDs and saturated fat, which is still contained in official dietary guidelines. Instead, they agree with data accumulated from recent studies that link CVD risk with the high glycaemic index/load of carbohydrate-based diets. In the absence of any scientific evidence connecting saturated fat with CVDs, these

  8. Food consumption and the actual statistics of cardiovascular diseases: an epidemiological comparison of 42 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasgruber, Pavel; Sebera, Martin; Hrazdira, Eduard; Hrebickova, Sylva; Cacek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this ecological study was to identify the main nutritional factors related to the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in Europe, based on a comparison of international statistics. The mean consumption of 62 food items from the FAOSTAT database (1993-2008) was compared with the actual statistics of five CVD indicators in 42 European countries. Several other exogenous factors (health expenditure, smoking, body mass index) and the historical stability of results were also examined. We found exceptionally strong relationships between some of the examined factors, the highest being a correlation between raised cholesterol in men and the combined consumption of animal fat and animal protein (r=0.92, pconsumption. Additional statistical analyses further highlighted citrus fruits, high-fat dairy (cheese) and tree nuts. Among other non-dietary factors, health expenditure showed by far the highest correlation coefficients. The major correlate of high CVD risk was the proportion of energy from carbohydrates and alcohol, or from potato and cereal carbohydrates. Similar patterns were observed between food consumption and CVD statistics from the period 1980-2000, which shows that these relationships are stable over time. However, we found striking discrepancies in men's CVD statistics from 1980 and 1990, which can probably explain the origin of the 'saturated fat hypothesis' that influenced public health policies in the following decades. Our results do not support the association between CVDs and saturated fat, which is still contained in official dietary guidelines. Instead, they agree with data accumulated from recent studies that link CVD risk with the high glycaemic index/load of carbohydrate-based diets. In the absence of any scientific evidence connecting saturated fat with CVDs, these findings show that current dietary recommendations regarding CVDs should be seriously reconsidered.

  9. Epidemiologic study on penile cancer in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano A. Favorito

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess epidemiologic characteristics of penile cancer in Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From May 2006 to June 2007, a questionnaire was distributed to all Brazilian urologists. Their patients' clinical and epidemiological data was analyzed (age, race, place of residence, history of sexually transmitted diseases, tobacco smoking, performance of circumcision, type of hospital service, as well as the time between the appearance of the symptoms and the diagnosis, the pathological characteristics of the tumor (histological type, degree, localization and size of lesion, stage of disease, the type of treatment performed and the present state of the patient. RESULTS: 283 new cases of penile cancer in Brazil were recorded. The majority of these cases occurred in the north and northeast (53.02% and southeast (45.54% regions. The majority of patients (224, or 78.96% were more than 46 years of age while only 21 patients (7.41% were less than 35 years of age. Of the 283 patients presenting penile cancer, 171 (60.42% had phimosis with the consequent impossibility to expose the glans. A prior medical history positive for HPV infection was reported in 18 of the 283 cases (6.36%. In 101 patients (35.68% tobacco smoking was reported. The vast majority of the cases (n = 207; 73.14% presented with tumors localized in the glans and prepuce. In 48 cases (16.96% the tumor affected the glans, the prepuce and the corpus penis; in 28 cases (9.89% the tumor affected the entire penis. The majority of the patients (n = 123; 75.26% presented with T1 or T2; only 9 patients (3.18% presented with T4 disease. CONCLUSION: Penile cancer is a very frequent pathology in Brazil, predominantly affecting low income, white, uncircumcised patients, living in the north and northeast regions of the country.

  10. Wastewater-based epidemiology to assess pan-European pesticide exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Rousis, Nikolaos I.; Gracia-Lor, Emma; Zuccato, Ettore; Bade, Richard; Baz-Lomba, Jose Antonio; Castrignanò, Erika; Causanilles, Ana; Covaci, Adrian; de Voogt, Pim; Hernàndez, Félix; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Kinyua, Juliet; McCall, Ann-Kathrin; Plósz, Benedek Gy.; Ramin, Pedram

    2017-01-01

    Human biomonitoring, i.e. the determination of chemicals and/or their metabolites in human specimens, is the most common and potent tool for assessing human exposure to pesticides, but it suffers from limitations such as high costs and biases in sampling. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is an innovative approach based on the chemical analysis of specific human metabolic excretion products (biomarkers) in wastewater, and provides objective and real-time information on xenobiotics directly ...

  11. Safety and efficacy of the long-term adjuvant treatment of primary intermediate- to high-risk malignant melanoma (UICC/AJCC stage II and III) with a standardized fermented European mistletoe (Viscum album L.) extract. Results from a multicenter, comparative, epidemiological cohort study in Germany and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Matthias; Bock, Paul R; Hanisch, Jürgen; Karasmann, Marita; Schneider, Berthold

    2005-01-01

    Mistletoe therapy is the most frequently used complementary treatment in cancer patients in Germany and Switzerland. However, its safety and efficacy were controversially discussed, also in case of malignant melanoma (MM). The present study should evaluate the therapeutic safety and efficacy of a long-term therapy with a standardized fermented European mistletoe (Viscum album L.) extract Iscador (FME) during post-surgical aftercare of primary intermediate to high-risk MM (UICC/AJCC stage II-III) patients and compare it with an untreated parallel control group from the same cohort. The study was designed as a multicenter, comparative, retrolective, epidemiological cohort study with parallel groups, carried out according to the guidelines of Good Epidemiological Practice (GEP). All patients suffered from surgically treated and histopathologically confirmed primary MM in UICC/AJCC stage II-III without distant metastases. In the study group, FME was administered subcutaneously 2-3 times weekly for at least three months, while the untreated control group was merely observed ("watchful waiting"). In both groups some patients also received radio-, chemo-, and/or immunotherapy. The patients were followed until the last visit or until death. Unselected, chronologically ordered, and standardized anonymous data from medical records that satisfied the predefined eligibility criteria were included for the "per protocol" analysis. Safety was assessed by the number of patients with FME-associated adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and by the search for tumor enhancement. The primary endpoint of efficacy was the adjusted tumor-related survival. Secondary end-points were the overall-, the disease-free- and the brain metastasis-free survival. The survival results were analyzed after adjustment for baseline imbalances, treatment regimens and other potential confounders by the Cox proportional hazard regression method. 686 eligible patients (329 FME vs. 357 controls) from 35 centers were

  12. Epidemiology of sepsis in Catalonia: analysis of incidence and outcomes in a European setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yébenes, Juan Carlos; Ruiz-Rodriguez, Juan Carlos; Ferrer, Ricard; Clèries, Montserrat; Bosch, Anna; Lorencio, Carol; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Nuvials, Xavier; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Artigas, Antoni

    2017-12-01

    Up-to-date identification of local trends in sepsis incidence and outcomes is of considerable public health importance. The aim of our study was to estimate annual incidence rates and in-hospital mortality trends for hospitalized patients with sepsis in a European setting, while avoiding selection bias in relation to different complexity hospitals. A large retrospective analysis of a 5-year period (2008-2012) was conducted of hospital discharge records obtained from the Catalan Health System (CatSalut) Minimum Basic Data Set for Acute-Care Hospitals (a mandatory population-based register of admissions to all public and private acute-care hospitals in Catalonia). Patients hospitalized with sepsis were detected on the basis of ICD-9-CM codes used to identify acute organ dysfunction and infectious processes. Of 4,761,726 discharges from all acute-care hospitals in Catalonia, 82,300 cases (1.72%) had sepsis diagnoses. Annual incidence was 212.7 per 100,000 inhabitants/year, rising from 167.2 in 2008 to 261.8 in 2012. Length of hospital stay fell from 18.4 to 15.3 days (p < .00001), representing a relative reduction of 17%. Hospital mortality fell from 23.7 to 19.7% (p < .0001), representing a relative reduction of 16.9%. These differences were confirmed in the multivariate analysis (adjusted for age group, sex, comorbidities, ICU admission, emergency admission, organ dysfunction, number of organ failures, sepsis source and bacteraemia). Sepsis incidence has risen in recent years, whereas mortality has fallen. Our findings confirm reports for other parts of the world, in the context of scarce administrative data on sepsis in Europe.

  13. Problem Drug Use, Marijuana, and European Projects: How Epidemiology Helped Czech Policy Reformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Morávek

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available I examine the transfer of the Problem Drug Use (PDU concept into Czech scientific discourse through European institutions’ projects, and view PDU’s utilization by Czech researchers in relation to marijuana decriminalization efforts.PDU is defined as intravenous and/or long-term and regular use of opiates, cocaine, or amphetamines. Out of a vast array of illicit drug use patterns, this concept isolates a relatively small population with the riskiest use patterns to become the focus of public policies. A series of European Union and Council of Europe projects in 1990’s helped bring PDU into European research mainstream. The new common standard, promoted by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, was utilized by Czech authors in a 2001 policy analysis entitled “Impact Analysis Project of the New Drug Legislation in the Czech Republic” (PAD. PDU played a crucial role in PAD’s drug problem modeling, focusing on a “hard core” of opiate and methamphetamine users, while diverting attention from a large group of cannabis users.By using the new European methodological standard, PAD’s authors constructed marijuana as a non-problem. This helped drug policy reformers in the Czech Government legitimize their focus on “harder” drugs, and subsequently propose more lenient sanctions for the possession and cultivation of marijuana. I argue that continued ignorance of marijuana problems might jeopardize the tolerant expert-driven drug policy in the Czech Republic. Measurement of problem cannabis use should be introduced.

  14. [How to write high-quality epidemiological research paper Ⅵ. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology-Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, C Y; Cao, Y; Yang, C; Sun, F; Zhan, S Y

    2017-01-10

    Concerns have been raised about the reporting quality in nutritional epidemiology. Therefore, strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology-nutritional epidemiology (STROBE-nut) has been proposed by extending the STROBE statement to include additional recommendations on issues related to nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment, aiming to provide more specific guidelines on how to report observational research in the field. This paper presents a brief introduction to STROBE-nut and also an explanation of the key points in the additional items, with an example illustrating the application of the checklist.

  15. Using death certificate data to study place of death in 9 European countries: opportunities and weaknesses

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Joachim; Bilsen, Johan; Miccinesi, Guido; Löfmark, Rurik; Addington-Hall, Julia; Kaasa, Stein; Norup, Michael; van der Wal, Gerrit; Deliens, Luc

    2007-01-01

    Background: Systematic and reliable epidemiological information at population level, preferably cross-national, is needed for an adequate planning of (end-of-life) health care policies, e.g. concerning place of death, but is currently lacking. This study illustrates opportunities and weaknesses of death certificate data to provide such information on place of death and associated factors in nine European countries (seven entire countries and five regions). Methods: We investiga...

  16. Functional disability of mental disorders and comparison with physical disorders : a study among the general population of six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist-Bouwman, MA; De Graaf, R; Vollebergh, WAM; Alonso, J; Bruffaerts, R; Ormel, J

    Objective: To examine the association of mental and physical disorders with multiple domains of functioning and compare the two. Method: Data were derived from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders, a general population study in which adults (n > 21 000) from Belgium, France,

  17. Degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis: an epidemiological perspective: the Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Rovsing, Hans

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional epidemiological survey of 4151 participants of the Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study. OBJECTIVE: To identify prevalences and individual risk factors for degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study has...... spondylolisthesis was associated with increased age in both sexes (L4: P risk factors for degenerative...

  18. Epidemiological Study of Greek University Students' Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounenou, Kalliope; Koutra, Aikaterini; Katsiadrami, Aristea; Diacogiannis, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, 805 Greek students participated by filling in self-report questionnaires studying depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale), general health status (General Health Questionnaire), general psychopathology (Symptom Checklist-90-R), and personal demographic features. Some of the more prevalent findings…

  19. Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL-NT): An update on epidemiology, clinical presentation, and natural history in North American and European cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkos, Bradley M.; Pan, Zenggang; Gru, Alejandro A.; Freud, Aharon G.; Rabinovitch, Rachel; Xu-Welliver, Meng; Otto, Brad; Barrionuevo, Carlos; Baiocchi, Robert A.; Rochford, Rosemary; Porcu, Pierluigi

    2016-01-01

    Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL-NT) is an aggressive extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma most commonly occurring in East Asia and Latin America but with increasing incidence in the U.S. Data on epidemiology, disease presentation, and outcome for European and North American (“Western”) cases are very limited. We review published landmark clinical studies on ENKTL-NT in the West and report in detail recent data, including our institutional experience. We highlight key observations in its epidemiology, natural history, and trends in clinical management. In the U.S., ENKTL-NT is more common among Asian Pacific Islanders (API) and Hispanics compared to non-Hispanic whites. Published studies indicate less heterogeneity in clinical presentation in Western ENKTL-NT compared to Asian patients. While there is variation in age at diagnosis, presence of antecedent lymphoproliferative disorders, and outcomes among racial/ethnic groups, the universal association of ENKTL-NT with EBV and the poor response of this neoplasm to anthracycline-based therapy are consistent across all geographic areas. PMID:27778143

  20. Expressions of anxiety in African Americans: ethnography and the epidemiological catchment area studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heurtin-Roberts, S; Snowden, L; Miller, L

    1997-09-01

    High levels of anxiety have long been reported for African Americans. Recent analyses of Epidemiological Catchment Area (ECA) data have failed to support this, although contemporary ethnographies have discussed important African American folk idioms of anxiety. This study compares ethnographically reported symptoms of anxiety in African Americans to those reported in the ECA data. A multivariate analysis of female African American and European American differences in comparable ECA and ethnographic symptoms was performed. Significant differences were found not in ethnicity but in education levels. Alternative interpretations are discussed. Methodological problems are discussed highlighting limitations of both household survey research, such as the ECA project, and ethnography.

  1. [Methodology for the epidemiologic study on acute respiratory infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Ochoa, E; Bravo González, J R; Armas Pérez, L; Pérez Rodríguez, A; de Rojas López del Rincón, V

    1992-01-01

    The foundations and methodology for an epidemiological study on acute respiratory diseases are described. The study took place in 4 urban health areas in Havana City and 4 rural doctor's offices in Matanzas. A discussion is carried out regarding the intervention design for the staff of the health primary assistance team headed by the family doctor.

  2. Epidemiological study of small ruminant mange mites in three agro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal health year book FAO, Rome Italy, Pp 7, 10, 17. Gashaw Takele 1986: Epidemiological study of small ruminant mange mites in Harrar- ghe region. DVM Thesis, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University,. Debre-Zeit, Ethiopia. Haffize, M. 2001. Study on skin diseases of small ruminant in central Ethiopia.

  3. Outlook for the development of European forest resources; a study prepared for the European Forest Sector Outlook Study (EFSOS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelhaas, M.J.; Brusselen, van J.; Pussinen, A.; Pesonen, E.; Schuck, A.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Sasse, V.

    2006-01-01

    This Outlook for the Development of European Forest Resources provides the methodologies, data, scenarios, and results of the outlook on the European forest resources from 2000 to 2040. The aim of this forest resource study was to analyse the impacts on the European forest resources under the level

  4. Teaching European Studies: A Blended Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Christova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will be looking into the teaching method developed by the Institute for European Studies in Brussels, combining an e-learning tool- the E-modules- with face-to-face training sessions and webinars. The main aim is to analyse the three different components of this “blended learning” pedagogical approach, as well as the way they complement each other and to address a few of the challenges that have emerged from the experience of working with them so far. The E-modules are an e-learning platform that has been designed with the purpose of offering a structured and interactive way of learning how the European Union functions. The face-to-face training component currently takes the form of three days in-house seminars, covering in an intensive manner the most important areas of the curriculum. The lectures are held by a mix of academics and practitioners, hereby ensuring a balanced approach, in which theory and practice come together to facilitate the learning experience. The third element of the “blended learning” method is placed in-between online and face-to-face learning: interactive seminars and debates are held online, giving the participants the chance to deepen their knowledge in certain fields of interest and to discuss the content of the course with specialists and among themselves. The mixture of delivery and interaction methods was chosen in order to accommodate a large variety of target groups, ranging from students to professionals working with EU-related issues, with different backgrounds and geographical origins. One of the main challenges is to use each medium for the functionalities it is best designed for and to ensure that the various pieces of the pedagogical puzzle fit together perfectly, while allowing the learners the flexibility that had initially directed them towards “blended learning” instead of a classical classroom approach.

  5. [Way of 'analytical thinking' on data from epidemiological studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Chen, Changzhong

    2014-06-01

    Analysis on data from epidemiological studies is the sequencing process of applying statistical methods to collected data from different angles, interpreting intermediate results, drawing statistical conclusions and forming scientific findings based on existing knowledge. This is also called the 'process of converting data to evidence'. Final results from the analysis are expressed through scientific papers. Process of an accurate, clear and comprehensive data analysis is critical to form a convincing conclusion on a paper. This article discusses how to form the analytical thoughts for conducting a thorough data analysis in order to draw a convincing evidence from epidemiological data.

  6. Indian Psychiatric epidemiological studies: Learning from the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Math, Suresh Bada; Srinivasaraju, Ravindra

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a systematic review on the epidemiology of psychiatric disorders in India based on the data published from 1960 to 2009. Extensive search of PubMed, NeuroMed, Indian Journal of Psychiatry website and MEDLARS using search terms "psychiatry" "prevalence", "community", and "epidemiology" was done along with the manual search of journals and cross-references. Retrieved articles were systematically selected using specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. Epidemiological studies report prevalence rates for psychiatric disorders varying from 9.5 to 370/1000 population in India. These varying prevalence rates of mental disorders are not only specific to Indian studies but are also seen in international studies. Despite variations in the design of studies, available data from the Indian studies suggests that about 20% of the adult population in the community is affected with one or the other psychiatric disorder. Mental healthcare priorities need to be shifted from psychotic disorders to common mental disorders and from mental hospitals to primary health centers. Increase in invisible mental problems such as suicidal attempts, aggression and violence, widespread use of substances, increasing marital discord and divorce rates emphasize on the need to prioritize and make a paradigm shift in the strategies to promote and provide appropriate mental health services in the community. Future epidemiological research need to focus on the general population from longitudinal prospective involving multi-centers with assessment of disability, co-morbidity, functioning, family burden and quality of life.

  7. A descriptive epidemiological study on stroke in Kampala, Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Basic stroke features are hardly known in sub-Saharan countries, and no data are available in Uganda. Objective To characterize patients presenting with clinical stroke to Mulago Hospital. Design Descriptive epidemiological study. Setting Mulago National referral Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. Participants ...

  8. An epidemiological study of physical activity patterns and weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical activity during pregnancy has been investigated for its potential benefits which includes weight control. Physical activity patterns of pregnant women in Tshwane, South Africa, were investigated using the EPIC–Norfolk Physical Activity Questionnaire (EPAQ-2) in an epidemiological cross-sectional study. Differences ...

  9. Air Pollution Exposure Modeling for Epidemiology Studies and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution epidemiology studies of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) often use outdoor concentrations as exposure surrogates. These surrogates can induce exposure error since they do not account for (1) time spent indoors with ambient PM2.5 levels attenuated from outdoor...

  10. Epidemiological study of risk factors in pediatric asthma | Tageldin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Childhood asthma is a major public health problem in Egypt and worldwide. Epidemiologic, physiologic, and social factors appear to be associated with an increased risk of asthma. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the most frequent risk factors of childhood asthma exacerbation and severity in ...

  11. Profile of an epidemiological study of urinary schistosomiasis in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: This study was conducted in an attempt to establish the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in relation to epidemiological factors among children in Buruku and Katsina-Ala local government areas, Benue, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Urine filtration technique using polycarbonate membrane filters was employed ...

  12. Adiposity and hand osteoarthritis: the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.W.; Ioan-Facsinay, A.; de Mutsert, R.; Widya, R.L.; Loef, M.; de Roos, A.; Le Cessie, S.; den Heijer, M.; Rosendaal, F.R.; Kloppenburg, M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity, usually characterized by the body mass index (BMI), is a risk factor for hand osteoarthritis (OA). We investigated whether adipose tissue and abdominal fat distribution are associated with hand OA.Methods: The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study is a

  13. Epidemiological Study and Treatment Outcome of Primary Ocular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-12-13

    Dec 13, 2016 ... carcinoma, especially among young patients, should be kept in mind. The outcome of management is better, with possible cure, if diagnosis is made early and proper surgery along with other adjuvant measures are undertaken. Keywords: Epidemiological study, periocular malignancies, primary ocular ...

  14. Epidemiological studies on the relation between diet and COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabak, C.

    2000-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. In the early 1990's several dietary factors were suggested to protect against COPD, based on proposed biological mechanisms and a small number of epidemiological studies.

  15. Epidemiological and biochemical studies on bovine anaplamosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemiological and biochemical studies on bovine anaplamosis in dakahlia and demiatta governorates in Egypt. ... Unstable situation of Anaplasma marginale in rural farms, and minimal situation disease in modern farms were recorded. The different Anaplasma marginale situation in the district needs more attentionin ...

  16. Epidemiological study on gastrointestinal tract hel- minthosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Veterinary Journal 2015, 19 (1):63-82. Epidemiological study on gastrointestinal tract hel- minthosis of small ruminants in Dawuro Zone. Amenu Asha*1,. Bulako Chebo1. 1School of Veterinary Medicine, Wolaita Sodo University, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia. *Corresponding author: E-mail address: amenuasha@gmail.

  17. Polyphenols and disease risk in epidemiologic studies 1-4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, I.C.W.; Hollman, P.C.H.

    2005-01-01

    Plant polyphenols, a large group of natural antioxidants, are serious candidates in explanations of the protective effects of vegetables and fruits against cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiologic studies are useful for evaluation of the human health effects of long-term exposure to

  18. Assessment of Cigarette Smoking in Epidemiologic Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Weitkunat R; Coggins CRE; Sponsiello-Wang Z; Kallischnigg G; Dempsey R

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of cumulative exposure based on collecting information on the history of active cigarette smoking has been and is being undertaken in a variety of ways. While a very detailed assessment may be required for studies with a focus on particular aspects of smoking behavior and history, comparability of measurements and results across studies remains a primary concern. Addressing the problem of heterogeneity of exposure assessment across studies can be achieved by a core set of quest...

  19. Assessment of Cigarette Smoking in Epidemiologic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weitkunat R

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of cumulative exposure based on collecting information on the history of active cigarette smoking has been and is being undertaken in a variety of ways. While a very detailed assessment may be required for studies with a focus on particular aspects of smoking behavior and history, comparability of measurements and results across studies remains a primary concern. Addressing the problem of heterogeneity of exposure assessment across studies can be achieved by a core set of questions that cover the major dimensions of cigarette smoking, and yet comply with current criteria used for defining smoking history and status. In studies where no very high level of exposure assessment is required or where smoking is not the major subject of investigation, a practical standardized core set of questions appears to be of considerable value, in particularwith regard to making results more comparable across studies.

  20. Epidemiological and clinicopathological study of oral leukoplakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Minati

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oral white lesions that cannot be clinically or pathologically characterized by any specific disease are referred to as leukoplakia. Such lesions are well known for their propensity for malignant transformation to the extent of 10-20%.Exfoliative cytology is a simple and useful screening tool for detection of malignant or dysplastic changes in such lesions. AIMS: A clinicoepidemiological and cytological study of oral leukoplakia was undertaken to detect their malignant potential and value of cytology in diagnosis. METHODS: This 2 year duration multicentre study was undertaken on all patients presenting with oral white lesions to the out patient department of the two institutions. Those cases in which a specific cause (infective, systemic disease or specific disease entity for the white lesions were elicited were excluded from the study. The group with idiopathic white lesions was included in the study and was subjected to periodic exfoliative cytological study at three monthly intervals to detect any malignant change. Patients presenting less than two times for follow up were excluded from the final analysis of the study. RESULTS: Out of total 2920 patients studied, 89.53% showed benign, 9.93% showed dysplastic and, 0.72% showed malignant cells on exfoliative cytological study. All the dysplastic and malignant lesions were subjected to histopathological study by incisional biopsy. Among the dysplastic lesions 13.79% proved benign and the rest true dysplastic. Among the cytologically malignant group 4.76% showed dysplasia and the rest true malignant lesions. CONCLUSION: Persistent leukoplakia has a potential for malignant transformation and exfoliative cytology could be a simple method for early detection of dysplastic and malignant changes.

  1. Widespread Reassortment Shapes the Evolution and Epidemiology of Bluetongue Virus following European Invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomikou, Kyriaki; Hughes, Joseph; Wash, Rachael; Kellam, Paul; Breard, Emmanuel; Zientara, Stéphan; Palmarini, Massimo; Biek, Roman; Mertens, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Genetic exchange by a process of genome-segment 'reassortment' represents an important mechanism for evolutionary change in all viruses with segmented genomes, yet in many cases a detailed understanding of its frequency and biological consequences is lacking. We provide a comprehensive assessment of reassortment in bluetongue virus (BTV), a globally important insect-borne pathogen of livestock, during recent outbreaks in Europe. Full-genome sequences were generated and analysed for over 150 isolates belonging to the different BTV serotypes that have emerged in the region over the last 5 decades. Based on this novel dataset we confirm that reassortment is a frequent process that plays an important and on-going role in evolution of the virus. We found evidence for reassortment in all ten segments without a significant bias towards any particular segment. However, we observed biases in the relative frequency at which particular segments were associated with each other during reassortment. This points to selective constraints possibly caused by functional relationships between individual proteins or genome segments and genome-wide epistatic interactions. Sites under positive selection were more likely to undergo amino acid changes in newly reassorted viruses, providing additional evidence for adaptive dynamics as a consequence of reassortment. We show that the live attenuated vaccines recently used in Europe have repeatedly reassorted with field strains, contributing to their genotypic, and potentially phenotypic, variability. The high degree of plasticity seen in the BTV genome in terms of segment origin suggests that current classification schemes that are based primarily on serotype, which is determined by only a single genome segment, are inadequate. Our work highlights the need for a better understanding of the mechanisms and epidemiological consequences of reassortment in BTV, as well as other segmented RNA viruses.

  2. Widespread Reassortment Shapes the Evolution and Epidemiology of Bluetongue Virus following European Invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriaki Nomikou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetic exchange by a process of genome-segment 'reassortment' represents an important mechanism for evolutionary change in all viruses with segmented genomes, yet in many cases a detailed understanding of its frequency and biological consequences is lacking. We provide a comprehensive assessment of reassortment in bluetongue virus (BTV, a globally important insect-borne pathogen of livestock, during recent outbreaks in Europe. Full-genome sequences were generated and analysed for over 150 isolates belonging to the different BTV serotypes that have emerged in the region over the last 5 decades. Based on this novel dataset we confirm that reassortment is a frequent process that plays an important and on-going role in evolution of the virus. We found evidence for reassortment in all ten segments without a significant bias towards any particular segment. However, we observed biases in the relative frequency at which particular segments were associated with each other during reassortment. This points to selective constraints possibly caused by functional relationships between individual proteins or genome segments and genome-wide epistatic interactions. Sites under positive selection were more likely to undergo amino acid changes in newly reassorted viruses, providing additional evidence for adaptive dynamics as a consequence of reassortment. We show that the live attenuated vaccines recently used in Europe have repeatedly reassorted with field strains, contributing to their genotypic, and potentially phenotypic, variability. The high degree of plasticity seen in the BTV genome in terms of segment origin suggests that current classification schemes that are based primarily on serotype, which is determined by only a single genome segment, are inadequate. Our work highlights the need for a better understanding of the mechanisms and epidemiological consequences of reassortment in BTV, as well as other segmented RNA viruses.

  3. Widespread Reassortment Shapes the Evolution and Epidemiology of Bluetongue Virus following European Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomikou, Kyriaki; Hughes, Joseph; Wash, Rachael; Kellam, Paul; Breard, Emmanuel; Zientara, Stéphan; Palmarini, Massimo; Biek, Roman; Mertens, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Genetic exchange by a process of genome-segment ‘reassortment’ represents an important mechanism for evolutionary change in all viruses with segmented genomes, yet in many cases a detailed understanding of its frequency and biological consequences is lacking. We provide a comprehensive assessment of reassortment in bluetongue virus (BTV), a globally important insect-borne pathogen of livestock, during recent outbreaks in Europe. Full-genome sequences were generated and analysed for over 150 isolates belonging to the different BTV serotypes that have emerged in the region over the last 5 decades. Based on this novel dataset we confirm that reassortment is a frequent process that plays an important and on-going role in evolution of the virus. We found evidence for reassortment in all ten segments without a significant bias towards any particular segment. However, we observed biases in the relative frequency at which particular segments were associated with each other during reassortment. This points to selective constraints possibly caused by functional relationships between individual proteins or genome segments and genome-wide epistatic interactions. Sites under positive selection were more likely to undergo amino acid changes in newly reassorted viruses, providing additional evidence for adaptive dynamics as a consequence of reassortment. We show that the live attenuated vaccines recently used in Europe have repeatedly reassorted with field strains, contributing to their genotypic, and potentially phenotypic, variability. The high degree of plasticity seen in the BTV genome in terms of segment origin suggests that current classification schemes that are based primarily on serotype, which is determined by only a single genome segment, are inadequate. Our work highlights the need for a better understanding of the mechanisms and epidemiological consequences of reassortment in BTV, as well as other segmented RNA viruses. PMID:26252219

  4. Erythema Nodosum Epidemiology: 5-Years Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arife Öz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Erythema nodosum (EN is the most common type of septal panniculitis. Although triggering factors of EN are drugs, infections, malignancies, inflammatory diseases however disease is idiopathic in 32-72%. Factors are changing from region to region and from country to country. In this study, our aim was to investigate the etiologic factors and to evaluate the clinic and laboratory findings of EN. Methods: Sixty-six patients who were histopathologically diagnosed as EN in our department between 2005 and 2010 were included to this study. Demographic data and treatment were evaluated. Results: Fifty-two of 66 patients had underlying etiologic factors (Group 1 and 14 of were idiopatic (Group 2. Most common etiologic factor was Behçet’s disease (n=15, and followed by drug (n=13, sarcoidosis (n=10, upper respiratory tract infection (n=6, autoimmune disease (n=4, pregnancy (n=2, tuberculosis (n=2 in decreasing frequencies. In our study malignancy and inflammatory bowel disease are not appointed. Conclusion: Behcet’s disease is a rare cause of EN. In other studies in our country the idiopatic group was in majority. In our study because of finding the common etiologic factor as Behçet’s disease due to being of Behçet’s disease high prevalance (11-42/10000 in our country and existence of Behçet’s disease center in our faculty (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 87-90

  5. Epidemiological studies of exercise in diabetes prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Gang; Lakka, Timo A; Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas

    2007-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is one of the fastest growing public health problems in both developed and developing countries. It is estimated that the number of people with diabetes in the world will double in coming years, from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030. Cardiovascular disease accounts...... for more than 70% of total mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes. The associations of physical activity, physical fitness, and changes in the lifestyle with the risk of type 2 diabetes have been assessed by a number of prospective studies and clinical trials in the past decade. Several studies have...... also evaluated the joint associations of physical activity, body mass index, and glucose levels with the risk of type 2 diabetes. Prospective studies and clinical trials have shown that moderate or high levels of physical activity or physical fitness and changes in the lifestyle (dietary modification...

  6. Epidemiological Study Of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Among Nursery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bateriuria in preschool children of different age and sex groups and to isolate the organisms responsible for asymptomatic bacteriuria and determine their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. A total of 475 children from 17 nurseries in Ahvaz city, Iran ...

  7. Coffee and cardiovascular risk; an epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.A. Bak (Annette)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis comprises several studies on the effect of coffee and caffeine on cardiovascular risk in general, and the effect on serum lipids, blood pressure and selected hemostatic variables in particular. The association between coffee use and cardiovascular morbidity and

  8. Epidemiological studies on cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dawadimi region of Saudi Arabia. Methods: Data from the patients included in this retrospective study were collected from the Leishmaniasis Control Center of Ad-Dawadimi District of Saudi Arabia. A total of 370 patients with CL were recorded from ...

  9. Epidemiologic Studies of Isoflavones & Mammographic Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A. Tice

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones, phytoestrogens in soy beans with estrogen-like properties, have been examined for their cancer protective effects. Mammographic density is a strong predictor of breast cancer. This review summarizes studies that have examined the association between isoflavones and breast density. Observational investigations in Hawaii and Singapore suggest slightly lower breast density among women of Asian descent with regular soy intake, but two larger studies from Japan and Singapore did not observe a protective effect. The findings from seven randomized trials with primarily Caucasian women indicate that soy or isoflavones do not modify mammographic density. Soy foods and isoflavone supplements within a nutritional range do not appear to modify breast cancer risk as assessed by mammographic density.

  10. Epidemiology of Imported Leishmaniasis in Italy: Implications for a European Endemic Country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trentina Di Muccio

    Full Text Available In the past decade, the number of imported leishmaniasis cases has increased in countries of Western Europe. The trend is associated with increasing travels, ecotourism activity, military operations and immigration. While in endemic countries leishmaniasis is usually well diagnosed, accurate patient history and parasite identification are necessary to distinguish between autochthonous and imported cases. This is particularly important, as new Leishmania species/genotypes may be introduced and transmitted by local phlebotomine vectors without appropriate surveillance, with unpredictable consequences. We report on the surveillance of imported leishmaniasis performed by the Leishmania Identification Reference Centre of Rome from 1986 through 2012, involving health care centres from 16/20 Italian regions. Suspected imported cases were analyzed and conclusions were based on clinical, epidemiological and diagnostic findings. Over the years, different parasite identification methods were employed, including MultiLocus Enzyme Electrophoresis and molecular techniques combining disease diagnosis (SSU rDNA nested-PCR and Leishmania typing (nuclear repetitive sequence and ITS-1 PCR-RFLPs. A total of 105 imported cases were recorded (annual range: 0-20 of which 36 were visceral (VL (16 HIV-coinfections and 69 cutaneous (CL cases; 85 cases (52 CL were from the Old World and 20 (17 CL from the New World. Eight Leishmania species were identified, of which 7 were exotic to Italy. VL importation until 1995 was associated with the spread of Mediterranean Leishmania-HIV co-infections in early 1990s. Following the introduction of HAART treatment, such cases became occasional in Italians but relatively frequent among immigrants. In contrast, a steady increase of CL cases was observed from different areas of the Old and New Worlds, that in recent years included mainly immigrants 'visiting friends and relatives' and Italian tourists. This positive trend likely depends

  11. Epidemiology of Imported Leishmaniasis in Italy: Implications for a European Endemic Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Muccio, Trentina; Scalone, Aldo; Bruno, Antonella; Marangi, Massimo; Grande, Romualdo; Armignacco, Orlando; Gradoni, Luigi; Gramiccia, Marina

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, the number of imported leishmaniasis cases has increased in countries of Western Europe. The trend is associated with increasing travels, ecotourism activity, military operations and immigration. While in endemic countries leishmaniasis is usually well diagnosed, accurate patient history and parasite identification are necessary to distinguish between autochthonous and imported cases. This is particularly important, as new Leishmania species/genotypes may be introduced and transmitted by local phlebotomine vectors without appropriate surveillance, with unpredictable consequences. We report on the surveillance of imported leishmaniasis performed by the Leishmania Identification Reference Centre of Rome from 1986 through 2012, involving health care centres from 16/20 Italian regions. Suspected imported cases were analyzed and conclusions were based on clinical, epidemiological and diagnostic findings. Over the years, different parasite identification methods were employed, including MultiLocus Enzyme Electrophoresis and molecular techniques combining disease diagnosis (SSU rDNA nested-PCR) and Leishmania typing (nuclear repetitive sequence and ITS-1 PCR-RFLPs). A total of 105 imported cases were recorded (annual range: 0-20) of which 36 were visceral (VL) (16 HIV-coinfections) and 69 cutaneous (CL) cases; 85 cases (52 CL) were from the Old World and 20 (17 CL) from the New World. Eight Leishmania species were identified, of which 7 were exotic to Italy. VL importation until 1995 was associated with the spread of Mediterranean Leishmania-HIV co-infections in early 1990s. Following the introduction of HAART treatment, such cases became occasional in Italians but relatively frequent among immigrants. In contrast, a steady increase of CL cases was observed from different areas of the Old and New Worlds, that in recent years included mainly immigrants ‘visiting friends and relatives’ and Italian tourists. This positive trend likely depends on

  12. INJURIES IN QUIDDITCH: A DESCRIPTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Rachel; Cooper, Ashley; Edmond, Evan; Faulkner, Alastair; Reidy, Michael J; Davies, Peter S E

    2017-10-01

    Quidditch is a fast growing, physically intense, mixed-gender full-contact sport. Originally adapted from Harry Potter novels, quidditch was first played in 2005 in the USA but is now played worldwide. It is essential to elucidate patterns of injury for the safety and growth of the sport of quidditch. It also provides a unique opportunity to study injury patterns in mixed-gender full-contact sport, an area of increasing importance with the developing culture of transition from single-gender to mixed-gender sports. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the types of injuries sustained while playing quidditch in terms of their incidence, anatomical distribution and severity, and gender distribution. An anonymous self-reporting questionnaire was distributed to all active quidditch players in the UK. Data collection included player demographics, type of injury, mechanism of injury, player position, experience and treatment required, relating to the previous 12 months. A total of 348 participants of 684 eligible athletes responded to the questionnaire representing a 50.87% response rate. There were 315 injuries reported by 180 athletes in total, with an overall incidence of 4.06 injuries per 1,000 hours. A statistically significantly different rate of concussion was observed with female athletes sustaining more concussion than males (p=0.006). The overall rate of concussion was 0.651/1000hrs in males and 1.163/1000hrs in females (0.877/1000 hours overall). This study provides the first quantitative description of injury rates in quidditch. The overall injury rates are no higher than those reported in other recreational contact sports. Female athletes were found to have a higher rate of concussion, which needs further investigation. These findings are relevant to players concerned about safety in quidditch and to governing bodies regarding governance of the sport. 3b.

  13. Optimizing malarial epidemiological studies in areas of low transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amerasinghe, Priyanie H; Alifrangis, Michael; van der Hoek, Wim

    2005-01-01

    Malaria risk factor studies have traditionally used microscopy readings of blood slides as the measure of malaria infection in humans, although alternatives are available. There is the need for an assessment of how the use of these alternative diagnostic approaches will influence the efficiency...... was not statistically significant when microscopy was used, which can be explained by the lower prevalence of microscopy positivity in comparison to the prevalence of ELISA- and PCR-positivity. This study suggests that in low-transmission areas, such as Sri Lanka, smaller sample sizes can be used for epidemiological...... and PCR but it can also be a useful tool in malaria epidemiological studies. This study indicates that cross-sectional surveys are only efficient if they take place during peak transmission season. Cross sectional surveys currently implemented by the Sri Lankan government in response to local malaria...

  14. Doses for post-Chernobyl epidemiological studies: are they reliable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Chumak, Vadim; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Bouville, André

    2016-09-01

    On 26 April 2016, thirty years will have elapsed since the occurrence of the Chernobyl accident, which has so far been the most severe in the history of the nuclear reactor industry. Numerous epidemiological studies were conducted to evaluate the possible health consequences of the accident. Since the credibility of the association between the radiation exposure and health outcome is highly dependent on the adequacy of the dosimetric quantities used in these studies, this paper makes an effort to overview the methods used to estimate individual doses and the associated uncertainties in the main analytical epidemiological studies (i.e. cohort or case-control) related to the Chernobyl accident. Based on the thorough analysis and comparison with other radiation studies, the authors conclude that individual doses for the Chernobyl analytical epidemiological studies have been calculated with a relatively high degree of reliability and well-characterized uncertainties, and that they compare favorably with many other non-Chernobyl studies. The major strengths of the Chernobyl studies are: (1) they are grounded on a large number of measurements, either performed on humans or made in the environment; and (2) extensive effort has been invested to evaluate the uncertainties associated with the dose estimates. Nevertheless, gaps in the methodology are identified and suggestions for the possible improvement of the current dose estimates are made.

  15. Epidemiologic study of anisometropia in students of Natal, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alexandre de Amorim Garcia; Erymar de Araújo Dantas; Araken Britto de Souza; Raquel Araújo Costa Uchoa; Fernando Oréfice

    2005-01-01

    To perform an epidemiologic study in students in Natal/Brazil,with relation to refractional anisometropia, evaluating criteria such as: gender, age, and association with strabismus and amblyopia. Methods: A study of 1,024 students randomly selected from several districts of Natal/Brazil was undertaken by the Department of Ophthalmology of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), observing the following criteria of ≥ 2 spherical or cylindrical diopter refractional anisometropia...

  16. MELASMA: A CLINICO-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF 312 CASES

    OpenAIRE

    Achar, Arun; Rathi, Sanjay K

    2011-01-01

    Background: Melasma is an acquired increased pigmentation of the skin, characterized by gray-brown symmetrical patches, mostly in the sun-exposed areas of the skin. The pathogenesis is unknown, but genetic or hormonal influences with UV radiation are important. Aims: Our present research aims to study the clinico-epidemiological pattern and the precipitating or provocation factors in melasma. Materials and Methods: A total of 312 patients were enrolled for the study over a period of one year....

  17. Childhood Graves' ophthalmopathy: results of a European questionnaire study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krassas, G. E.; Segni, M.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of the frequency of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) and its management in children and adolescents up to 18 years old with Graves' hyperthyroidism. Study design: This was a questionnaire study (QS) among members of the European Thyroid Association and the European Society for

  18. Video-game epilepsy: a European study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, D G; da Silva, A M; Ricci, S; Binnie, C D; Rubboli, G; Tassinari, C A; Segers, J P

    1999-01-01

    With the introduction of Nintendo video-games on a large scale, reports of children having seizures while playing suggested a possible specific, provocative factor. Although 50% of the photosensitive patients are also sensitive to a 50-Hz television, nonphotosensitive patients with a history of video-game seizures were described as well. The question arises whether this is a mere coincidence, provoked by fatigue and stress, is related to the reaction to the television screen itself, or depends on the movement and color of the pictures of this specific game. A European study was performed in four countries and five sites. All patients were selected because of a history of television, video- or computer-game seizures, with a history of sun-light-, discotheque-, or black and white pattern-evoked seizures, or were already known to be sensitive to intermittent photic stimulation. A total of 387 patients were investigated; 220 (75%) were female and 214 (55%) of those were Super Mario World and a standard relatively nonprovocative TV program, both on a 50- and 100-Hz television. Regardless of the distance, Super Mario World proved to be more provocative than the standard program (Wilcoxon, p computer-game seizure, were significantly more sensitive to pattern and to the 50-Hz television (chi square, p Super Mario, compared with the standard program (Wilcoxon, p = 0.001) and more sensitive with playing versus viewing (p = 0.016). Of the patients who were referred because of seizures in front of the television, or evoked by a video- or computer game, 14% proved not to be photosensitive. Although no difference in age or use of medication was found, twice as many men were found in this nonphotosensitive group.

  19. How to study the history of European law?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    the emerging academic field of European law was deeply involved in legitimating the jurisprudence of the Court of Justice in the 1960s. In the second part of the article, the starting point is to place mainstream legal and political science studies of European law in a historical perspective in order...... of the development of European law. To historians, mainstream legal and political science scholarship rather seems to be part of the research object....... constituted by the Commission’s legal service, transnationally organised pro-European jurists and the European Parliament. When the Court of Justice in the two key judgments, Van Gend en Loos (1963) and Costa V. ENEL (1964), took the decisive steps to transform European law into a semi-federal legal order...

  20. European contribution to the study of ROS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egea, Javier; Fabregat, Isabel; Frapart, Yves M

    2017-01-01

    The European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) provides an ideal framework to establish multi-disciplinary research networks. COST Action BM1203 (EU-ROS) represents a consortium of researchers from different disciplines who are dedicated to providing new insights and tools for better u...

  1. Epidemiological study on feline gastric Helicobacter spp. in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota-Aizawa, Sanae; Ohno, Koichi; Kanemoto, Hideyuki; Nakashima, Ko; Fukushima, Kenjiro; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Chambers, James K; Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Mimuro, Hitomi; Watanabe, Takayasu; Sekizaki, Tsutomu; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2017-05-18

    Epidemiological and pathological studies on Helicobacter spp. in feline stomachs in Japan were conducted using genus- and species-specific (H. felis, H. bizzozeronii, H. heilmannii sensu stricto [s.s.] and H. pylori) polymerase chain reactions (PCRs), ureAB gene sequencing and histopathology. PCR results showed that 28 of 56 cats were infected with Helicobacter spp., and H. heilmannii s.s. was the most prevalent species by both PCR (28/28) and ureAB gene sequencing (26/28). Some of the sequences showed high similarities with those from human patients with gastric diseases (99%). There were no significant differences between Helicobacter spp.-positive and -negative cats in the severity of chronic gastritis (P=0.69). This is the first extensive epidemiological study on feline gastric Helicobacter spp. in Japan.

  2. Risk factors and outcomes for late presentation for HIV-positive persons in Europe: results from the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe Study (COHERE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mocroft, Amanda; Lundgren, Jens D.; Sabin, Miriam Lewis; Monforte, Antonella d'Arminio; Brockmeyer, Norbert; Casabona, Jordi; Castagna, Antonella; Costagliola, Dominique; Dabis, Francois; de Wit, Stéphane; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Furrer, Hansjakob; Johnson, Anne M.; Lazanas, Marios K.; Leport, Catherine; Moreno, Santiago; Obel, Niels; Post, Frank A.; Reekie, Joanne; Reiss, Peter; Sabin, Caroline; Skaletz-Rorowski, Adriane; Suarez-Lozano, Ignacio; Torti, Carlo; Warszawski, Josiane; Zangerle, Robert; Fabre-Colin, Céline; Kjaer, Jesper; Chene, Genevieve; Grarup, Jesper; Kirk, Ole; Lundgren, Jens; Sabin, Miriam; Johnson, Anne; Lazanas, Mario; Post, Frank; Suarez-Loano, Ignacio; Johnson, Hansjakob Furrer Anne; Touloumi, Giota; Meyer, Laurence; Dabis, François; Krause, Murielle Mary; Ghosn, Jade; de Wolf, Frank; Prins, Maria; Bucher, Heiner; Gibb, Diana; Hamouda, Osamah; Bartmeyer, Barbara; del Amo, Julia; Thorne, Claire; Stephan, Christoph; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Noguera-Julian, Antoni; Antinori, Andrea; Monforte, Antonella d' Arminio; Ramos, José; Battegay, Manuel; Rauch, Andri; Mussini, Cristina; Tookey, Pat; Miro, Jose M.; de Wit, Stephane; Goetghebuer, Tessa; Teira, Ramon; Garrido, Myriam; Judd, Ali; Haerry, David; Weller, Ian; Schwimmer, Christine; Termote, Monique; Touzeau, Guillaume; Campbell, Maria; Friis-Møller, Nina; Bohlius, Julia; Bouteloup, Vincent; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Dorrucci, Maria; Egger, Matthias; Engsig, Frederik; Lambotte, Olivier; Lewden, Charlotte; Lodwick, Rebecca; Matheron, Sophie; Miro, Jose; Paredes, Roger; Phillips, Andrew; Puoti, Massimo; Scherrer, Alexandra; Smit, Colette; Sterne, Jonathan; Thiebaut, Rodolphe; von Wyl, Viktor; Wittkop, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have monitored late presentation (LP) of HIV infection over the European continent, including Eastern Europe. Study objectives were to explore the impact of LP on AIDS and mortality. LP was defined in Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (COHERE) as HIV

  3. Assessing the first wave of epidemiological studies of nanomaterial workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing, E-mail: shliou@nhri.org.tw [National Health Research Institutes, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (China); Tsai, Candace S. J. [Colorado State University, Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Science (United States); Pelclova, Daniela [Charles University in Prague, Department of Occupational Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine (Czech Republic); Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Schulte, Paul A. [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (United States)

    2015-10-15

    The results of early animal studies of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and air pollution epidemiology suggest that it is important to assess the health of ENM workers. Initial epidemiological studies of workers’ exposure to ENMs (<100 nm) are reviewed and characterized for their study designs, findings, and limitations. Of the 15 studies, 11 were cross-sectional, 4 were longitudinal (1 was both cross-sectional and longitudinal in design), and 1 was a descriptive pilot study. Generally, the studies used biologic markers as the dependent variables. All 11 cross-sectional studies showed a positive relationship between various biomarkers and ENM exposures. Three of the four longitudinal studies showed a negative relationship; the fourth showed positive findings after a 1-year follow-up. Each study considered exposure to ENMs as the independent variable. Exposure was assessed by mass concentration in 10 studies and by particle count in six studies. Six of them assessed both mass and particle concentrations. Some of the studies had limited exposure data because of inadequate exposure assessment. Generally, exposure levels were not very high in comparison to those in human inhalation chamber studies, but there were some exceptions. Most studies involved a small sample size, from 2 to 258 exposed workers. These studies represent the first wave of epidemiological studies of ENM workers. They are limited by small numbers of participants, inconsistent (and in some cases inadequate) exposure assessments, generally low exposures, and short intervals between exposure and effect. Still, these studies are a foundation for future work; they provide insight into where ENM workers are experiencing potentially adverse effects that might be related to ENM exposures.

  4. MODELING AN IRRITANT GAS PLUME FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Jani, Dev D.; Reed, David; Feigley, Charles E.; Svendsen, Erik R.

    2015-01-01

    Plume dispersion modeling systems are often used in assessing human exposures to chemical hazards for epidemiologic study. We modeled the 2005 Graniteville, South Carolina, 54,915 kg railcar chlorine release using both the Areal Locations of Hazardous Atmospheres (ALOHA) and Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) plume modeling systems. We estimated the release rate by an engineering analysis combining semi-quantitative observations and fundamental physical principles. The use of ...

  5. The Epidemiology of Delirium: Challenges and Opportunities for Population Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel H.J.; Kreisel, Stefan H.; Muniz Terrera, Graciela; Hall, Andrew J.; Morandi, Alessandro; Boustani, Malaz; Neufeld, Karin J.; Lee, Hochang Benjamin; MacLullich, Alasdair M.J.; Brayne, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Delirium is a serious and common acute neuropsychiatric syndrome that is associated with short- and long-term adverse health outcomes. However, relatively little delirium research has been conducted in unselected populations. Epidemiologic research in such populations has the potential to resolve several questions of clinical significance in delirium. Part 1 of this article explores the importance of population selection, case-ascertainment, attrition, and confounding. Part 2 examines a specific question in delirium epidemiology: What is the relationship between delirium and trajectories of cognitive decline? This section assesses previous work through two systematic reviews and proposes a design for investigating delirium in the context of longitudinal cohort studies. Such a design requires robust links between community and hospital settings. Practical considerations for case-ascertainment in the hospital, as well as the necessary quality control of these programs, are outlined. We argue that attention to these factors is important if delirium research is to benefit fully from a population perspective. PMID:23907068

  6. Multicollinearity in Regression Analyses Conducted in Epidemiologic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatcheva, Kristina P; Lee, MinJae; McCormick, Joseph B; Rahbar, Mohammad H

    2016-04-01

    The adverse impact of ignoring multicollinearity on findings and data interpretation in regression analysis is very well documented in the statistical literature. The failure to identify and report multicollinearity could result in misleading interpretations of the results. A review of epidemiological literature in PubMed from January 2004 to December 2013, illustrated the need for a greater attention to identifying and minimizing the effect of multicollinearity in analysis of data from epidemiologic studies. We used simulated datasets and real life data from the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort to demonstrate the adverse effects of multicollinearity in the regression analysis and encourage researchers to consider the diagnostic for multicollinearity as one of the steps in regression analysis.

  7. Genotyping of Giardia isolates in Scotland: a descriptive epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C; Jones, B; Inverarity, D; Pollock, K G J

    2014-08-01

    Giardiasis, caused by the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis (synonyms: G. lamblia, G. duodenalis), is one of the most frequent parasites to infect the Scottish population. Transmission of the infective cysts in faecal matter is commonly via food and/or water. Giardia is subdivided into assemblages, where clinical and epidemiological differences have been described between assemblages A and B. This snapshot descriptive epidemiological study examines 30 positive cases of Giardia of which 72% (n = 21) were shown to be assemblage A, 14% (n = 4) assemblage B and 10% (n = 3) mixed assemblages (A and B). There was a 2:3 female:male ratio of affected individuals with foreign travel recorded in 22 of these cases. The commonest symptom was diarrhoea which was reported in 80% of cases followed by tiredness. Five cases required hospitalization emphasizing the importance of gaining a greater understanding of how Giardia assemblages influence clinical outcomes to assist in formulating guidelines to manage potential Giardia outbreaks.

  8. European Working Time Directive and doctors' health: a systematic review of the available epidemiological evidence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriguez-Jareño, Maria Cruz; Demou, Evangelia; Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Sanati, Kaveh A; Skerjanc, Alenka; Reis, Pedro G; Helimäki-Aro, Ritva; Macdonald, Ewan B; Serra, Consol

    2014-01-01

    .... A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed and EMBASE. Study selection, quality appraisal and data extraction were carried out by independent pairs of researchers using pre-established criteria...

  9. Linking Public Administration and Law Studies within European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela V. Cărăuşan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The year 1987 represented for us, scholars, the turning point for the Europeanization of highdegree studies. The European Region Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students (ERASMUS isa European Union student exchange program which has proved its utility in the last two decade. The publicadministration and law studies are two of the fields of studies which have benefited from the ERASMUSProgramme. In this respect we will try to learn the lesson of internationalization from the European contactthrough ERASMUS programme. The ‘win win’ for students is not just in the increase of knowledge in thearea of administrative sciences and law, but also in the share of cultures. The ERASMUS gives students abetter sense of what it means to be a European citizen. In addition, many employers highly value such aperiod abroad, which increases the students’ employability and job prospects.

  10. A nationwide study of the epidemiology of relapsing polychondritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horváth A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Anna Horváth,1 Nóra Páll,2 Katalin Molnár,1 Tamás Kováts,3 György Surján,3 Tamás Vicsek,4,5 Péter Pollner2,4 13rd Department of Internal Medicine, Semmelweis University, 2Regional Science Center, Faculty of Science, Eötvös Loránd University, 3National Healthcare Service Center, 4MTA-ELTE Statistical and Biological Physics Research Group, 5Department of Biological Physics, Eötvös Loránd University Budapest, HungaryObjective: Relapsing polychondritis (RP is a rare autoimmune inflammatory disease that attacks mainly cartilaginous structures or causes serious damage in proteoglycan-rich structures (the eyes, heart, blood vessels, inner ear. This study shows results regarding the epidemiology, progression, and associations of this highly variable disease by collecting all cases from a 124-million-person-year Central European nationwide cohort.Methods: We used the Hungarian Health Care Database to identify all persons with possible RP infection. We followed patients who had International Classification of Diseases 10th edition code M94.1 at least once in their inpatient or outpatient records between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2013 in Hungary. We classified these patients into disease severity groups by their drug consumption patterns between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2013. We analyzed the regional distribution of RP incidences as well. Overall maps of comorbidity are presented with network layouts.Results: We identified 256 patients with RP among cumulatively 11.5 million registered inhabitants. We classified these patients into four severity classes as "extremely mild" (n=144, "mild" (n=22, "moderate" (n=41, and "severe" (n=4. Two additional groups were defined for patients without available drug data as "suspected only" (n=23 and "confirmed but unknown treatment" (n=22. The age and sex distributions of patients were similar to worldwide statistics. Indeed, the overall survival was good (95% confidence interval for 5

  11. Understanding and preventing childhood obesity and related disorders--IDEFICS: a European multilevel epidemiological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, W; Bammann, K; de Henauw, S; Halford, J; Palou, A; Pigeot, I; Siani, A; Sjöström, M

    2006-05-01

    The environment of children has drastically changed in Europe during the last decades as reflected in unhealthy dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle. Nutrition obviously plays a part in the development of overweight in childhood. However, dietary factors and physical activity are also involved in the development of metabolic syndrome, type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, and postural deformities like scoliosis, effects related in part to excessive weight gain. To stop the resulting epidemic of diet- and lifestyle-induced morbidity, efficient evidence-based approaches are needed. These issues are the focus of IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants), a five-year project proposed under the sixth EU framework. The IDEFICS consortium comprises 25 research centres and SMEs across Europe. The planned prospective study will identify risk profile inventories for children susceptible to any of these disorders with emphasis on obesity and its co-morbid conditions. Genetic and non-genetic factors, psychosocial factors and social settings will be considered. The project will devise tailored prevention strategies that are effective, easy to implement and that account for the needs of different social groups. Population-based studies will investigate the impact of sensory perception and provide results concerning internal and external triggers of food choices and children's consumer behaviour. The ethical implications of a "right not to know" of genetic factors will be addressed. We will propose knowledge-based guidelines on dietary and lifestyle activities for health promotion and disease prevention in children for health professionals, stakeholders and consumers.

  12. Epidemiological study of the Danish Acute Intermittent Porphyriapopulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brusgaard, Klaus

    The aim of our study was to describe the occurrence of Acute Intermittent Porphyria (AIP) in Denmark demographically, genetically and biochemically.The study was based on a database of porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) mutations detected in the period of 2000-2010. A total of 148 individuals were...... in several other countries (Sweden (10:100.000),Finland (3:100.000),USA (4:100.000), and Western Australia (3:100.000)).[1] 1. Bylesjö I. Epidemiological, clinical and pathogenetic studies of Acute Intermittent Porphyria. Dissertation, Umeå University. 2008....

  13. Aspartame: a safety evaluation based on current use levels, regulations, and toxicological and epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, B A; Burdock, G A; Doull, J; Kroes, R M; Marsh, G M; Pariza, M W; Spencer, P S; Waddell, W J; Walker, R; Williams, G M

    2007-01-01

    Aspartame is a methyl ester of a dipeptide used as a synthetic nonnutritive sweetener in over 90 countries worldwide in over 6000 products. The purpose of this investigation was to review the scientific literature on the absorption and metabolism, the current consumption levels worldwide, the toxicology, and recent epidemiological studies on aspartame. Current use levels of aspartame, even by high users in special subgroups, remains well below the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Food Safety Authority established acceptable daily intake levels of 50 and 40 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. Consumption of large doses of aspartame in a single bolus dose will have an effect on some biochemical parameters, including plasma amino acid levels and brain neurotransmitter levels. The rise in plasma levels of phenylalanine and aspartic acid following administration of aspartame at doses less than or equal to 50 mg/kg bw do not exceed those observed postprandially. Acute, subacute and chronic toxicity studies with aspartame, and its decomposition products, conducted in mice, rats, hamsters and dogs have consistently found no adverse effect of aspartame with doses up to at least 4000 mg/kg bw/day. Critical review of all carcinogenicity studies conducted on aspartame found no credible evidence that aspartame is carcinogenic. The data from the extensive investigations into the possibility of neurotoxic effects of aspartame, in general, do not support the hypothesis that aspartame in the human diet will affect nervous system function, learning or behavior. Epidemiological studies on aspartame include several case-control studies and one well-conducted prospective epidemiological study with a large cohort, in which the consumption of aspartame was measured. The studies provide no evidence to support an association between aspartame and cancer in any tissue. The weight of existing evidence is that aspartame is safe at current levels of consumption as a nonnutritive

  14. Epidemiological study of venous thromboembolism in a big Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Marianne Tang; Kristensen, Søren Risom; Overvad, Kim

    Introduction: Epidemiological data on venous thromboembolism (VT), i.e. pulmonary emboli (PE) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) are sparse. We have examined VT-diagnoses registered in a big Danish Cohort study.  Methods: All first-time VT diagnoses in The Danish National Patient Register were...... identified among participants in the Danish cohort study "Diet, Cancer and Health" in which 57,053 50-64 years old persons were included 1993-7. Medical records were retrieved and reviewed by an experienced physician using a detailed standardized form, and information on the diagnostic work-up and presence...

  15. The EMBARC European Bronchiectasis Registry: protocol for an international observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Chalmers

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchiectasis is one of the most neglected diseases in respiratory medicine. There are no approved therapies and few large-scale, representative epidemiological studies. The EMBARC (European Multicentre Bronchiectasis Audit and Research Collaboration registry is a prospective, pan-European observational study of patients with bronchiectasis. The inclusion criterion is a primary clinical diagnosis of bronchiectasis consisting of: 1 a clinical history consistent with bronchiectasis; and 2 computed tomography demonstrating bronchiectasis. Core exclusion criteria are: 1 bronchiectasis due to known cystic fibrosis; 2 age <18 years; and 3 patients who are unable or unwilling to provide informed consent. The study aims to enrol 1000 patients by April 2016 across at least 20 European countries, and 10 000 patients by March 2020. Patients will undergo a comprehensive baseline assessment and will be followed up annually for up to 5 years with the goal of providing high-quality longitudinal data on outcomes, treatment patterns and quality of life. Data from the registry will be available in the form of annual reports. and will be disseminated in conference presentations and peer-reviewed publications. The European Bronchiectasis Registry aims to make a major contribution to understanding the natural history of the disease, as well as guiding evidence-based decision making and facilitating large randomised controlled trials.

  16. Epidemiological Study of Epilepsy in Yazd-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Vakili

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder. This study was aimed to investigate the epidemiological features of epilepsy patients admitted to neurology ward of Shahid Saddoughi hospital, Yazd, Iran.  Methods: In an epidemiological descriptive study the data of 121 epilepsy patients admitted in neurology ward of hospital during 2015 and 2016 was gathered from hospital records and telephone contacts with patients or their families in some cases. The gathered data was analyzed trough SPSS16 and by using descriptive statistics. Results: 50.4% of studied patients were in the age group below 10 years old and 57% of them were female. The majority of research sample (84.3% had less than high school education. The type of disease was generalized tonic-colonic epilepsy in 76% of patients. In 49.6% of studied patients, epilepsy was idiopathic and 87.7% of them had been admitted in hospital due to seizure. Also a single drug treatment had been prescribed for 60.3% of studied patients. Conclusion: Based on our results in the studied population the prevalence of epilepsy is more common among children, females and people with lower education. Also, the general and idiopathic types of epilepsy are more common. 

  17. Enantiomeric profiling of chiral illicit drugs in a pan-European study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castrignanò, Erika; Yang, Zhugen; Bade, Richard

    2018-01-01

    with the other cities tested. An enrichment of MDMA with the R-(−)-enantiomer was observed in European wastewaters indicating MDMA consumption rather than disposal of unused drug. MDA's chiral signature indicated its enrichment with the S-(+)-enantiomer, which confirms its origin from MDMA metabolism in humans......The aim of this paper is to present the first study on spatial and temporal variation in the enantiomeric profile of chiral drugs in eight European cities. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) and enantioselective analysis were combined to evaluate trends in illicit drug use in the context......-(+)-enantiomer in wastewater suggests stereoselective metabolism in humans, hence consumption, rather than direct disposal of the drug. The investigation of drug precursors, such as ephedrine, showed that their presence was reasonably ascribed to their medical use....

  18. The Cases of the European Values Study and the European Social Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kropp, Kristoffer

    2017-01-01

    This article is a comparative analysis of the European Values Study (EVS) and the European Social Survey (ESS) using five analytical dimensions: agents, ideas, methods, institutions and context. From the outset, both surveys were closely connected to national and European social science...... institutions, had ties to the EU, and used survey techniques to address urgent contemporary political and social problems. Despite their similarities, the surveys represent two rather different constellations of social science knowledge production. The EVS emerged from a coalition of Catholic-oriented agents...... from a diverse set of social institutions driven by political and ethical concerns about social change in the 1960s and 1970s. The EVS used its links to various social institutions to set up and run the survey, and its ethical and political concerns and connections to Catholic Church organisations...

  19. Epidemiology of Cryptosporidium molnari in Spanish Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata L.) and European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) Cultures: from Hatchery to Market Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitjà-Bobadilla, A.; Padrós, F.; Aguilera, C.; Alvarez-Pellitero, P.

    2005-01-01

    A long-term epidemiological study of Cryptosporidium molnari in aquacultured European sea bass (ESB) and gilthead sea bream (GSB) was performed in different types of facilities on the Atlantic, Cantabric, and Mediterranean coasts. Four types of studies were carried out. In study A, fish raised from juveniles to marketable size (ongrowing stage) were periodically sampled in three different types of cultures. Studies B and C focused on hatchery and nursery facilities. In study D, occasional samplings were performed during mortality or morbidity outbreaks. As a general trend, C. molnari was more prevalent in GSB than in ESB. Data on the distribution pattern of C. molnari in total sampled GSB (studies A, B, and D) had a variance higher than the mean (overdispersion). In GSB (study A), the type of ongrowing system (sea cages, earth ponds, or indoor tanks) was found to have no significant effect. There was a significant relationship between the presence of the parasite and both fish weight and season. The highest infection values were recorded in spring. Prevalence and intensity had convex weight profiles, with a peak in 30- to 100-g fish. In study D, the prevalence of infection was higher in fish recently introduced in sea cages and in preongrowing systems. In studies B and C, fish were almost never infected before entering the postlarval and nursery facilities. The parasite seems to enter the host mainly through the water in production steps with less stringent water treatment. Recirculation systems and fish cannibalism could contribute to oocyst concentration and dispersion in aquaculture facilities. PMID:15640180

  20. Genetic Epidemiology of Tuberculosis Susceptibility: Impact of Study Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Catherine M.

    2011-01-01

    Several candidate gene studies have provided evidence for a role of host genetics in susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB). However, the results of these studies have been very inconsistent, even within a study population. Here, we review the design of these studies from a genetic epidemiological perspective, illustrating important differences in phenotype definition in both cases and controls, consideration of latent M. tuberculosis infection versus active TB disease, population genetic factors such as population substructure and linkage disequilibrium, polymorphism selection, and potential global differences in M. tuberculosis strain. These considerable differences between studies should be accounted for when examining the current literature. Recommendations are made for future studies to further clarify the host genetics of TB. PMID:21283783

  1. MODELING AN IRRITANT GAS PLUME FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Dev D.; Reed, David; Feigley, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    Plume dispersion modeling systems are often used in assessing human exposures to chemical hazards for epidemiologic study. We modeled the 2005 Graniteville, South Carolina, 54,915 kg railcar chlorine release using both the Areal Locations of Hazardous Atmospheres (ALOHA) and Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) plume modeling systems. We estimated the release rate by an engineering analysis combining semi-quantitative observations and fundamental physical principles. The use of regional meteorological conditions was validated by comparing concentration estimates generated by two source-location weather data sets. The HPAC model estimated a chlorine plume with 20 ppm outdoor concentrations up to 7 km downwind and 0.25 km upwind/downgrade. A comparative analysis of our two models showed that HPAC was the best candidate for use as a model system on which epidemiologic studies could be based after further model validation. Further validation studies are needed before individual exposure estimates can be reliable and the chlorine plume more definitively modeled. PMID:25772143

  2. Serum Biomarkers of (AntiOxidant Status for Epidemiological Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugène Jansen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we disclose a selection of serum/plasma biomarkers of (antioxidant status related to nutrition, which can be used for measurements in large-scale epidemiological studies. From personal experience, we have come to the following proposal of a set of biomarkers for nutritional intake, (antioxidant status, and redox status. We have selected the individual antioxidant vitamins E and A, and the carotenoids which can be measured in large series by HPLC. In addition, vitamin C was selected, which can be measured by an auto-analyzer or HPLC. As a biomarker for oxidative stress, the ROM assay (reactive oxygen metabolites was selected; for the redox status, the total thiol assay; and for the total antioxidant status the BAP assay (biological antioxidant potential. All of these biomarkers can be measured in large quantities by an auto-analyzer. Critical points in biomarker validation with respect to blood sampling, storage conditions, and measurements are discussed. With the selected biomarkers, a good set is presented for use in the risk assessment between nutrition and (chronic diseases in large-scale epidemiological studies. Examples of the successful application of these biomarkers in large international studies are presented.

  3. Epidemiologic study of Phenylketonuria disease in Lorestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azita Zafar Mohtashami

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background : Phenylketonuria (PKU is a metabolic disease with autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance caused by a deficiency or absence of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase in the liver. Phenylketonuria incidence is 1 in 10,000 births. This study aimed to determine the epidemiological characteristics of phenylketonuria in Lorestan province. Materials and Methods: All 81 phenylketonuria patients known in Lorestan province up to winter 2014 were considered in this descriptive epidemiologic study. Based on the goals and variables of the study, a complete questionnaire was developed to collect data through interviews with parents and the records and they were analyzed by use of SPSS v.16 software with preparing tables and graphs and using chi-square and t-test. Results: Results showed that phenylketonuria prevalence is 4.3 out of 100,000 people in Lorestan province. Twenty of the patients (24.7% were identified through screening and 61 patients (75.3% through other methods. Forty-six of the samples (56.8% were female and 35 cases (43.2% were male. Nearly 75% of PKU patients had a positive history of consanguinity marriage in their parents. The prevalence of the disease was significantly different from other cities. Conclusion: Neonatal screening for phenylketonuria is necessary and should be done within 3-5 days of birth. In families with children suffering from PKU, prenatal diagnosis is necessary for other pregnancies.

  4. First molecular epidemiological study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amro, Ahmad; Gashout, Aisha; Al-Dwibe, Hamida; Zahangir Alam, Mohammad; Annajar, Badereddin; Hamarsheh, Omar; Shubar, Hend; Schönian, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major public health problem in Libya. The objective of this study was to investigate, for the first time, epidemiological features of CL outbreaks in Libya including molecular identification of parasites, the geographical distribution of cases and possible scenarios of parasite transmission. We studied 450 patients that came from 49 areas distributed in 12 districts in north-west Libya. The patients' ages ranged from 9 months to 87 years (median age 25 years); 54% of the cases were males. Skin scrapings spotted on glass slides were collected for molecular identification of causative agent. The ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) was amplified and subsequently characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. In total, 195 samples were successfully identified of which 148 (75.9%) were Leishmania major, and 47 (24.1%) Leishmania tropica. CL cases infected with L. major were found in all CL areas whereas L. tropica cases came mainly from Al Jabal Al Gharbi (46.4%), Misrata (17.8%) and Tarhuna districts (10.7%). A trend of seasonality was noticed for the infections with L. major which showed a clear peak between November and January, but was less pronounced for infections by L. tropica. The first molecular study on CL in Libya revealed that the disease is caused by L. major and L. tropica and the epidemiological patterns in the different foci were the same as in other Mediterranean foci of CL.

  5. Consensus statement on assessment of waterpipe smoking in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziak, Wasim; Ben Taleb, Ziyad; Jawad, Mohammed; Afifi, Rima; Nakkash, Rima; Akl, Elie A; Ward, Kenneth D; Salloum, Ramzi G; Barnett, Tracey E; Primack, Brian A; Sherman, Scott; Cobb, Caroline O; Sutfin, Erin L; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Numerous epidemiological accounts suggest that waterpipe smoking (aka hookah, shisha, narghile) has become a global phenomenon, especially among youth. The alarming spread of waterpipe and accumulating evidence of its addictive and harmful effects represent a new threat in the global fight to limit tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. In response to waterpipe's alarming trends, major public health and tobacco control organisations have started or are considering systematic collection of data about waterpipe smoking to monitor its trends and assess its harmful effects in different societies. Such plans require coordination and agreement on epidemiological measurement tools that reflect the uniqueness of this tobacco use method, and at the same time allow comparison of waterpipe trends across time and place, and with other tobacco use methods. We started a decade ago our work to develop standardised measures and definitions for the assessment of waterpipe smoking in epidemiological studies. In this communication, we try to expand and update these assessment tools in light of our increased knowledge and understanding of waterpipe use patterns, its context and marketing, as well as the need for evidence-guided policies and regulations to curb its spread. We have assembled for this purpose a group of leading waterpipe researchers worldwide, and worked through an iterative process to develop the suggested instruments and definitions based on what we know currently about the waterpipe epidemic. While the suggested measures are by no means comprehensive, we hope that they can provide the building blocks for standard and comparable surveillance of waterpipe smoking globally. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. European Studies and Public Engagement: A Conceptual Toolbox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Müllerleile

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Journal of Contemporary European Research User Username Password Remember me Subscribe... Sign up for issue alerts Follow JCER on Twitter Font Size Make font size smaller Make font size default Make font size larger Journal Content Search Search Scope Browse By Issue By Author By Title Information For Readers For Authors For Librarians Journal Help Keywords CFSP Communication ESDP EU EU enlargement EU trade policy Energy, EU, External Policy Europe European Commission European Parliament European Union European integration Europeanisation First Enlargement Germany Liberty Lisbon Treaty Poland Russia Security teaching European studies The UACES Blog The Commission after the 2014 EP... Power shift? The EU’s pivot to Asia 100 Books on Europe to be Remembered For a Global European Studies? EU Member State Building in the... Open Journal Systems Home About Login Register Search Current Archives Announcements UACES Home > Vol 10, No 4 (2014 > Müllerleile European Studies and Public Engagement: A Conceptual Toolbox Andreas Müllerleile Abstract This article examines public engagement strategies for academics working in the field of European Studies. Should academics engage with the public? What are the most effective outreach strategies? And what are the implications for universities and departments? The article argues that engaging with the public should be considered an integral part for academics working on topics that relate to the European Union or European politics. The article has a theoretical and a practical dimension. The first part of the paper deals with the nature of public engagement, explaining why it is an important issue and how it differs from the mainstream understanding of public engagement. The practical part of the paper presents the idea of building an online presence through which academics can engage with the public debate both during periods of low issue salience and high issue salience. The final section includes a toolbox

  7. PREGO (presentation of Graves' orbitopathy) study: changes in referral patterns to European Group On Graves' Orbitopathy (EUGOGO) centres over the period from 2000 to 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perros, Petros; Žarković, Miloš; Azzolini, Claudio; Ayvaz, Göksun; Baldeschi, Lelio; Bartalena, Luigi; Boschi, Antonella; Bournaud, Claire; Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Covelli, Danila; Ćirić, Slavica; Daumerie, Chantal; Eckstein, Anja; Fichter, Nicole; Führer, Dagmar; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Kahaly, George J.; Konuk, Onur; Lareida, Jürg; Lazarus, John; Leo, Marenza; Mathiopoulou, Lemonia; Menconi, Francesca; Morris, Daniel; Okosieme, Onyebuchi; Orgiazzi, Jaques; Pitz, Susanne; Salvi, Mario; Vardanian-Vartin, Cristina; Wiersinga, Wilmar; Bernard, Martine; Clarke, Lucy; Currò, Nicola; Dayan, Colin; Dickinson, Jane; Knežević, Miroslav; Lane, Carol; Marcocci, Claudio; Marinò, Michele; Möller, Lars; Nardi, Marco; Neoh, Christopher; Pearce, Simon; von Arx, George; Törüner, Fosun Baloş

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiology of Graves' orbitopathy (GO) may be changing. The aim of the study was to identify trends in presentation of GO to tertiary centres and initial management over time. Prospective observational study of European Group On Graves' Orbitopathy (EUGOGO) centres. All new referrals with a

  8. Epidemiologic study of ankle fractures in a tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaki, Marcos Hideyo; Matsumura, Bruno Akio Rodrigues; Dotta, Thiago De Angelis Guerra; Pontin, Pedro Augusto; Dos Santos, Alexandre Leme Godoy; Fernandes, Tulio Diniz

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the epidemiology of ankle fractures surgically treated at the Instituto de Ortopedia e Traumatologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de São Paulo. Medical records of patients admitted with foot and ankle fractures between 2006 and 2011 were revised. Seventy three ankle fractures that underwent surgical treatment were identified. The parameters analyzed included age, gender, injured side, AO and Gustilo & Anderson classification, associated injuries, exposure, need to urgent treatment, time to definitive treatment and early post-operative complications. retrospective epidemiological study. Male gender was predominant among subjects and the mean age was 27.5 years old. Thirty nine fractures resulted from traffic accidents and type B fracture according to AO classification was the most common. Twenty one were open fractures and 22 patients had associated injuries. The average time to definitive treatment was 6.5 days. Early post-operative complications were found in 21.3% of patients. Ankle fractures treated in a tertiary hospital of a large city in Brazil affect young people victims of high-energy accidents and present significant rates of associated injuries and post-operative complications. Level of Evidence IV, Cases Series.

  9. Myasthenia Gravis: a population-based epidemiological study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rutledge, S

    2016-02-01

    Myasthenia Gravis (MG) is a disorder affecting components of the neuromuscular junction. Epidemiological studies show rising incidence and prevalence rates. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and prevalence of MG in the Republic of Ireland. Data sources included patient lists from consultant neurologists and ophthalmologists, a neuroimmunology laboratory, general practitioners and the Myasthenia Gravis Association. A total of 1,715 cases were identified, of which 706 definite, probable or possible autoimmune and congenital MG cases were included. The overall prevalence rate from the data obtained is 15.38\\/100,000. The study demonstrated a female preponderance (female:male of 1.3: 1) and some geographical variation within Ireland. The average incidence rate for the years 2000 to 2009 was 11.3 per year; the rate for the current decade is 18 per year. The increasing number of diagnoses may be due to improved access to diagnostic investigations and increasing awareness of the clinical manifestations.

  10. Epidemiological studies of the respiratory effects of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowitz, M D

    1996-05-01

    Environmental epidemiological studies of the health effects of air pollution have been major contributors to the understanding of such effects. The chronic effects of atmospheric pollutants have been studied, but, except for the known respiratory effects of particulate matter (PM), they have not been studied conclusively. There are ongoing studies of the chronic effects of certain pollutant classes, such as ozone, acid rain, airborne toxics, and the chemical form of PM (including diesel exhaust). Acute effects on humans due to outdoor and indoor exposures to several gases/fumes and PM have been demonstrated in epidemiological studies. However, the effects of these environmental factors on susceptible individuals are not known conclusively. These acute effects are especially important because they increase the human burden of minor illnesses, increase disability, and are thought to decrease productivity. They may be related to the increased likelihood of chronic disease as well. Further research is needed in this latter area, to determine the contributions of the time-related activities of individuals in different microenvironments (outdoors, in homes, in transit). Key elements of further studies are the assessment of total exposure to the different pollutants (occurring from indoor and outdoor source) and the interactive effects of pollutants. Major research areas include determination of the contributions of indoor sources and of vehicle emissions to total exposure, how to measure such exposures, and how to measure human susceptibility and responses (including those at the cellular and molecular level). Biomarkers of exposures, doses and responses, including immunochemicals, biochemicals and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) adducts, are beginning to promote some basic knowledge of exposure-response, especially the mechanisms. These will be extremely useful additions to standard physiological, immunological, and clinical instruments, and the understanding of biological

  11. Pesticide poisoning in Chitwan, Nepal: a descriptive epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyenwali, Deepak; Vaidya, Abhinav; Tiwari, Sundar; Khatiwada, Prakash; Lamsal, Daya Ram; Giri, Shrikrishana

    2017-07-03

    Globally, there is a growing concern over pesticides use, which has been linked to self-harm and suicide. However, there is paucity of research on the epidemiology of pesticides poisoning in Nepal. This study is aimed at assessing epidemiological features of pesticides poisoning among hospital-admitted cases in selected hospitals of Chitwan District of Nepal. A hospital-based quantitative study was carried out in four major hospitals of Chitwan District. Information on all pesticides poisoning cases between April 1 and December 31, 2015, was recorded by using a Pesticides Exposure Record (PER) form. A total of 439 acute pesticides poisoning cases from 12 districts including Chitwan and adjoining districts attended the hospitals during the 9-month-long study period. A majority of the poisoned subjects deliberately used pesticides (89.5%) for attempted suicide. The total incidence rate was 62.67/100000 population per year. Higher annual incidence rates were found among young adults (111.66/100000 population), women (77.53/100000 population) and individuals from Dalit ethnic groups (98.22/100000 population). Pesticides responsible for poisoning were mostly insecticides (58.0%) and rodenticides (20.8%). The most used chemicals were organophosphates (37.3%) and pyrethroids (36.7%). Of the total cases, 98.6% were hospitalized, with intensive care required for 41.3%. The case fatality rate among admitted cases was 3.8%. This study has indicated that young adults, females and socially disadvantaged ethnic groups are at a higher risk of pesticides poisoning. Pesticides are mostly misused intentionally as an easy means for committing suicide. It is recommended that the supply of pesticides be properly regulated to prevent easy accessibility and misuse. A population-based study is warranted to reveal the actual problem of pesticides exposure and intoxication in the community.

  12. Magnetic field effects on humans: epidemiological study design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budinger, T.F.; Wong, P.; Yen, C.K.

    1978-10-01

    This report presents details of the study design and methods for a retrospective epidemiological study on the health effects, if any, of stationary and alternating magnetic fields produced by man-made devices such as cyclotrons, controlled thermonuclear reactors (CTR), high voltage-high current transmission lines, magnetohydrodynamic devices (MHD), energy storage systems, and isotope separation facilities. The magnetic fields to which the workers can be exposed are as high as 10,000 gauss and the anticipated increase in magnetic fields associated with the environment and transmission lines near these devices is a few times the natural earth magnetic field. Thus the objectives include acquisition of low exposure data which can be used to evaluate any risks to the population incidentally exposed to environmental increases in magnetic fields, as well as an acquisition of high exposure data to be used in determining allowable exposure standards for the technical personnel working at CTR and MHD facilities. From the present status of knowledge on biological effects of magnetic fields, it is not possible to extrapolate or rationally conclude maximum permissible exposure levels for magnetic device workers and the population at large. There are no known previous studies of the effects of long-term exposure to magnetic fields involving large samples and matched controls. Thus this human epidemiological study was commenced in 1977 in parallel with experimental studies on biological and medical effects of magnetic fields being conducted by Dr. T. Tenforde and co-workers at LBL, by investigators at Battelle Northwest, and smaller projects at a number of laboratories around the world. The data base for the exposed population is comprised of approximately 1,000 cyclotron and bubble chamber workers.

  13. Quality control for exposure assessment in epidemiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornkessel, C; Blettner, M; Breckenkamp, J

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of an epidemiological study, dosemeters were used for the assessment of radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure. To check the correct dosemeter's performance in terms of consistency of recorded field values over the entire study period, a quality control strategy...... was developed. In this paper, the concept of quality control and its results is described. From the 20 dosemeters used, 19 were very stable and reproducible, with deviations of a maximum of +/-1 dB compared with their initial state. One device was found to be faulty and its measurement data had to be excluded...... from the analysis. As a result of continuous quality control procedures, the confidence in the measurements obtained during the field work was strengthened significantly....

  14. Exposure assessment issues in epidemiology studies of phthalates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Lauren E; Cooper, Glinda S; Galizia, Audrey; Meeker, John D

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review exposure assessment issues that need to be addressed in designing and interpreting epidemiology studies of phthalates, a class of chemicals commonly used in consumer and personal care products. Specific issues include population trends in exposure, temporal reliability of a urinary metabolite measurement, and how well a single urine sample may represent longer-term exposure. The focus of this review is on seven specific phthalates: diethyl phthalate (DEP); di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP); diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP); butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP); di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP); diisononyl phthalate (DiNP); and diisodecyl phthalate (DiDP). Comprehensive literature search using multiple search strategies. Since 2001, declines in population exposure to DEP, BBzP, DBP, and DEHP have been reported in the United States and Germany, but DEHP exposure has increased in China. Although the half-lives of various phthalate metabolites are relatively short (3 to 18h), the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for phthalate metabolites, based on spot and first morning urine samples collected over a week to several months, range from weak to moderate, with a tendency toward higher ICCs (greater temporal stability) for metabolites of the shorter-chained (DEP, DBP, DiBP and BBzP, ICCs generally 0.3 to 0.6) compared with those of the longer-chained (DEHP, DiNP, DiDP, ICCs generally 0.1 to 0.3) phthalates. Additional research on optimal approaches to addressing the issue of urine dilution in studies of associations between biomarkers and different type of health effects is needed. In conclusion, the measurement of urinary metabolite concentrations in urine could serve as a valuable approach to estimating exposure to phthalates in environmental epidemiology studies. Careful consideration of the strengths and limitations of this approach when interpreting study results is required. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Flavan-3-ols consumption and cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies

    OpenAIRE

    LEI, LEI; Yang, Ying; He, Hongjuan; Chen, Erfei; Du, Le; Dong, Jing; Yang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous in vitro studies and animal model data have suggested that flavan-3-ols, the most common subclass of flavonoids in the diet, may exert protective effects against cancer, epidemiologic studies have reported inconclusive results for the association between flavan-3-ols intake and cancer risk. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies to investigate the preventive effects of flavan-3-ols on various types of cancers. A total of 43 epidemiologic studies,...

  16. A Descriptive Epidemiology Study of Oral Cleft in Sergipe, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The nonsyndromic orofacial cleft is the fourth most common birth defect, but in Brazil, data about the cleft epidemiology are not accurate. Objective: This study aimed to describe the epidemiologic characteristics of oral cleft cases at Specialized Society Attending Cleft Patient in Sergipe State. Methods: Data were obtained from patients' medical records in relation to the following characteristics: age; gender; race; origin; cleft type; additional malformations and/or complications; prenatal accomplishment; treatment applied. For diagnosis analysis, it was noted if mothers had received prenatal care and if they had ultrasonography performed and if the cleft was viewed in it. Results: We observed a prevalence of male gender (54%. Age between 0 and 4 years old was most prevalent (53%, and pheoderma race was observed in 47%. Transincisive foramen cleft was found in 52.3% of the individuals. The prevalence of pre- and transincisive foramen cleft was higher in men (66.3 and 55.7%, women accounted for 65.0% of postincisive foramen, and atypical facial cleft (0.3% occurred in one case. Associated malformations and complications were present in 12% of patients. Prenatal care was reported by 48% of the mothers. Conclusion: In this study male gender was the most affected, and 0 to 4 years was the most frequent age group. Transincisive foramen cleft type was most frequently encountered. Prenatal care was reported by most mothers. So, this study found that early treatment is a reality in SEAFESE (Service Specializing in Cleft Care of Sergipe, and consequently the chances of successful integration of the child to society will be better.

  17. Epidemiology of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Silja A S; Ilonen, Ilkka; Laaksonen, Sanna; Myllärniemi, Marjukka; Salo, Jarmo A; Rantanen, Tuomo

    2017-12-01

    Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPeM) is a rare cancer of the mesothelial cells in the peritoneum with poor prognosis. Earlier reports from other countries indicate an incidence of 0.2-3 new cases per million per year. No previous studies have examined the national epidemiology of MPeM in Nordic countries. This study aimed to clarify the epidemiology of MPeM in Finland over a 12-year period. The data consisted of cancer notifications, laboratory notifications, and death certificate information in the Finnish Cancer Registry (FCR) and Statistics Finland (SF) of all MPeM patients from 2000 to 2012 in Finland. We also collected data on occupational disease compensations from the Workers' Compensation Center (WCC) of Finland. Any missing information was collected from the respective patient's file of every patient obtained from health institutions that had treated the patients. Between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2012, 90 new MPeM cases (56 males, 34 females) occurred in Finland. Median annual incidence was four new cases, which corresponded to 0.74 new cases per million per year. MPeM was deemed an occupational disease in 21 patients (23.3%). 71 patients (78.9%) of whom had a known cause of death, with a median survival of 4 months. The number of deaths linked to other disease than mesothelioma was 28/74 (37.8%). Our study indicates that MPeM in Finland is rare and fatal, which is in accordance with previous reports from other countries. MPeM is also a fatal disease, since most of the patients died due to MPeM. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Epidemiological study of multiple sclerosis in La Rioja.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bártulos Iglesias, M; Marzo Sola, M E; Estrella Ruiz, L A; Bravo Anguiano, Y

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating disease that causes severe disability in younger patients. Many epidemiology studies have confirmed a variable prevalence. The objective of this study was to analyse the prevalence of this disease in La Rioja (Spain), using such variables as age and sex; type of progression, initial form of the disease, EDSS and number of relapses; disease-modifying treatment and reasons for treatment withdrawal; personal and family history of cancer; and incidence and mortality. Analysis of patients in La Rioja diagnosed with MS (according to Poser criteria or the 2005 McDonald criteria) during a 10-year period (2001-2011). Data were collected from hospital records, multiple sclerosis associations, and personal records kept by neurologists. The MS prevalence rate in La Rioja is 65 patients/100 000 inhabitants with an incidence rate of 3.5 cases/100 000 residents per year. Relapsing-remitting MS is present in 67.6% of the patient total. Mean age of onset is 20-29 years (range, 12 to 70). Most EDSS scores were mostly ≤ 2. Untreated MS cases account for 47.6% of the total and the most commonly used therapy is interferon. We detected 4 haematological tumours and 7 families with multiple members affected by MS. Prevalence and incidence are similar to those found in other regions Spain. The average age at onset age for primary progressive MS is slightly higher than in other papers (40-49 years). In families with multiple patients, MS may be more aggressive. Disability in these patients remains very severe. We require more epidemiology studies with a variety of data gathering methods to support findings for prevalence obtained in different provinces. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Epidemiological health study of a town exposed to chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, R M; Ngo, L; Hartney, C; Lloyd, K; Tager, I; Midtling, J; Huel, G

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this survey was to assess the health status of community residents exposed to a 16-day release of Catacarb from a nearby refinery and to document the prevalence rates of symptoms and illnesses of this town. The health status of the exposed residents was compared to that of unexposed residents of a demographically similar control town. An epidemiologic study design was used and questionnaires were mailed to all households in both towns. Response rate was 43%. Household cluster effects, gender, education, and race were controlled in the analysis. Questionnaire health data reveal increased reporting of symptoms in the exposed, specifically headaches, respiratory, visual, gastrointestinal, and dermatologic with odds ratios ranging between 1.3 and 3. Exposure relationships with increased symptoms and worsening of illnesses was found.

  20. Acute heat stroke. Epidemiologic, biochemical, renal, and coagulation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, T F

    1975-11-24

    Fifteen Marine recruits with acute heat stroke were examined for (1) predisposing factors, (2) blood coagulation disturbances, (3) renal function abnormalities, and (4) blood composition alterations. Epidemiologic data identified the following risk factors; previous residence in a temperate climate, first phase of training, fatigue, and strenuous exercise in hot, humid conditions. Results of blood coagulation studies disclosed an increase in prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times, with a decrease in platelet count, probably indicating a transient, low-grade consumptive process. Blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels and creatinine clearance were normal. Only mild elevations of SGOT, SGPT, and lactic dehydrogenase levels were noted, and in combination with clinical observations, they argued against significant muscle damage. No deaths or instances of renal failure occurred.

  1. Bat rabies in France: a 24-year retrospective epidemiological study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne Picard-Meyer

    Full Text Available Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter. In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France.

  2. Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis in Tehran: a three year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghabaae M

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis is the most common demyelinating disease of central nervous system. We prepared this study to find its epidemiologic pattern in the Iranian society.Methods: This case-series study involved 70 patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis according to the McDonald criteria and admitted to the Iranian Center of Neurological Research at Imam Khomeini Hospital from 2002 to 2004. Informed consent was obtained prior to patients completing a questionnaire, which included age, gender, age of onset of clinical symptoms, home location, familial history, education level, smoking habits and the season during which the disease occurred, was exacerbated or relapsed. SPSS 11 statistical software was used to analyze the data. Results: The mean age of the patients was 32.6 years. Approximately one-third of our patients were male, 92.9% resided in urban areas, 14.3% had an academic education, and 14.3% were cigarette smokers. The average age of onset of disease was 27.55±10.42 years, and 8.6% had positive a familial history for multiple sclerosis. The symptoms most commonly started in the spring (31.4%. Conclusion: The alternation of temperature and sunlight may be one reason for the high"nincidence of multiple sclerosis in spring and autumn. It seems that multiple sclerosis epidemiologic patterns in Iran are the same as those of other countries. Thus, applying the common diagnostic and treatment methods in used in other countries may raise our patients' quality of life. Ghabaae M. *1"nQelichnia Omrani H.1"nRoostaeizadeh M.2"n1- Department of Neurology,"nIranian Center of Neurological"nResearch."n2- General Physician"nTehran University of Medical"nSciences

  3. Bat rabies in France: a 24-year retrospective epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France.

  4. Current state of epidemiological studies in Belarus about Chernobyl sufferers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsko, V.P. [Institute of Radiobiology, Academy Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)

    1998-03-01

    The present paper is an analysis of the results of epidemiological studies in Belarus about the after-effects of the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station (ChAPS), based on published data at scientific institutes, organs and institutions of Ministry of Health. In the last years the affected population showed thereby more significant - as compared with republican indices - growth of incidence in the majority of diseases (first of all: digestion, urogenital, nervous, endocrine systems, diseases of ear, throat, nose both among adults and among children). Aggravation of health state continues in the participants of liquidation of the ChAPS accident consequences and the evacuees from the alienation zone which have obtained considerable radiation load to organism (rise of incidence of diseases of endocrine, cardiovascular, nervous system etc.). Considerable growth of thyroid cancer incidence is registered in Belarus children and adolescents, especially in the Gomel and Brest regions. This is conditioned by dose commitments on thyroid gland due to iodine radionuclides in first period after the accident, incorrect iodine prophylaxy, and goitre endemic. The rise of hereditary pathology is registered too. An expressed increase of oncological diseases is observed therewith mainly in the Gomel region, especially in the districts with high level of radiocontamination and, consequently, significant radiation load. First of all, this relates to the growth of incidence of cancer of lungs, mammary gland, bladder. The analysis of epidemiological studies performed in Belarus after the ChAPS catastrophe and comparison of them with data obtained in the pre-Chernobyl period testify to the aggravation of health state of Belarus population. The specialists unambiguously recognize the direct influence of radioactive pollution in the environment on rise of thyroid pathologies, hereditary and congenial diseases, and cancers of different localizations. There is no unique opinion

  5. Bat Rabies in France: A 24-Year Retrospective Epidemiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France. PMID:24892287

  6. Epidemiological study of fatal road traffic accidents in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algora-Buenafé AF

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Traffic accidents represent a priority for public health since they are responsible for high mortality tolls, elevated economic costs and a significant social impact. Ecuador ranks as the seventh country in the World with a higher mortality rate. Aims To describe the main epidemiologic characteristics of deaths caused by traffic accidents from a time and space perspective. Methods Transversal and descriptive study was conducted using the data from National Transit Agency. The data includes all deaths due to traffic accidents in Ecuador registered from January to December 2016. An analysis of percentages and frequencies of the traffic accident fatalities was performed based on demographic, temporal and geographic components. In addition, Gross Mortality Rates (x100,000 and adjusted (x1,000 per province were calculated. Results From 1,976 fatalities registered in Ecuador in 2016, 81.1 per cent corresponded to men and 18 per cent to women. Mortality Rate resulted as 13.6 per 100,000 inhabitants. With respect to men, the major portion of deaths correspond to drivers (52.1 per cent, when as for women, it correspond to passengers (51 per cent. Saturdays (21 per cent and Sundays (23.1 per cent correspond to the days with greater percentage of deaths. The incidence was greater in highways of Guayas (23.3 per cent and Pichincha (17.1 per cent. Selected by type, cause and implicated vehicles, the accidents that outstand are frontal side collision (28.5 per cent and pedestrian-motor vehicle collision (22.6 per cent, in addition to traffic law violations (46.9 per cent and motorcycle incidents (29.55 respectively. Conclusion The current study provides us, for the first time, a global perspective of the epidemiologic characteristics of fatal car accidents in Ecuador, contributing with better information for the design of national road safety regulations.

  7. Pontiac fever: an operational definition for epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Laurence

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pontiac fever is usually described in epidemic settings. Detection of Pontiac fever is a marker of an environmental contamination by Legionella and should thereby call for prevention measures in order to prevent outbreak of Legionnaire's disease. The objective of this study is to propose an operational definition of Pontiac fever that is amenable to epidemiological surveillance and investigation in a non epidemic setting. Methods A population of 560 elderly subjects residing in 25 nursing homes was followed during 4 months in order to assess the daily incidence of symptoms associated, in the literature, with Pontiac fever. The water and aerosol of one to 8 showers by nursing home were characterized combining conventional bacterial culture of Legionella and the Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH technique that used oligonucleotides probes specific for Legionellaceae. A definition of Pontiac fever was devised based on clinical symptoms described in epidemic investigations and on their timing after the exposure event. The association between incidence of Pontiac fever and shower contamination levels was evaluated to test the relevance of this definition. Results The proposed definition of Pontiac fever associated the following criteria: occurrence of at least one symptom among headache, myalgia, fever and shivers, possibly associated with other 'minor' symptoms, within three days after a shower contaminated by Legionella, during a maximum of 8 days (minimum 2 days. 23 such cases occurred during the study (incidence rate: 0.125 cases per person-year [95% CI: 0.122–0.127]. A concentration of Legionella in water equal to or greater than 104.L-1 (FISH method was associated with a significant increase of incidence of Pontiac fever (p = 0.04. Conclusion Once validated in other settings, the proposed definition of Pontiac fever might be used to develop epidemiological surveillance and help draw attention on sources of

  8. The epidemiology of HIV and AIDS reports in migrants in the 27 European Union countries, Norway and Iceland: 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Amo, Julia; Likatavičius, Giedrius; Pérez-Cachafeiro, Santiago; Hernando, Victoria; González, Cristina; Jarrín, Inma; Noori, Teymur; Hamers, Françoise F; Bolúmar, Francisco

    2011-10-01

    To describe the epidemiology of HIV and AIDS by geographical origin in the EU, 1999-2006. AIDS and HIV cases from the EU 27, Norway and Iceland reported to European Centre for Epidemiological Monitoring of AIDS were analysed. Of 75,021 AIDS reports over 1999-2006, 35% were migrants. Of 2988 heterosexual AIDS reports in 2006, 50% were migrants, largely from Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), 20% of 1404 AIDS cases in men who have sex with men (MSM) were migrants from Latin-America and Western Europe. Of 57 mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) AIDS cases, 23% were from SSA. AIDS cases decreased from 1999 to 2006 in natives (42%), Western Europeans (40%) and North Africa and Middle East (34%), but increased in people from SSA (by 89%), Eastern Europe (by 200%) and Latin-America (50%). Of 17,646 HIV infections in men and 9066 in females in 2006, 49 and 76% were migrants, largely from SSA. Of 169 MTCT infections, 41% were from SSA. Migrants, largely from SSA, represent a considerable proportion of AIDS and HIV reports in EU, especially among heterosexual and MTCT infections. Their contribution is higher among female reports. A substantial percentage of diagnoses in MSM are migrants, largely from Western Europe and Latin-America.

  9. Epidemiological study of soft-tissue sarcomas in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Nikita; Deady, Sandra; Gillis, Amy; Bertuzzi, Alexia; Fabre, Aurelie; Heffernan, Eric; Gillham, Charles; O'Toole, Gary; Ridgway, Paul F

    2016-01-01

    Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) account for 1% of adult and 7% of pediatric malignancies. Histopathology and classification of these rare tumors requires further refinements. The aim of this paper is to describe the current incidence and survival of STS from 1994 to 2012 in Ireland and compare these with comparably coded international published reports. This is a retrospective, population study based on the data from the National Cancer Registry of Ireland (NCRI). Incidence and relative survival rates for STS in Ireland were generated. Incidence of STS based on gender, age and anatomical location was examined. Annual mean incidence rate (European Age Standardized) in Ireland between 1994 and 2012 was 4.48 ± 0.15 per 100,000 person-years. The overall relative 5-year survival rate of STS for the period 1994-2011 in Ireland was 56%, which was similar to that reported in the U.K. but lower than in most of Europe and U.S.A. Survival rate fluctuated over the period examined, declining slightly in females but showing an increase in males. STS incidence trends in Ireland were comparable to international reports. Survival trends of STS were significantly different between Ireland and other European countries, requiring further study to understand causation. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Epidemiological study of soft-tissue sarcomas in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bhatt, Nikita

    2015-11-21

    Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) account for 1% of adult and 7% of pediatric malignancies. Histopathology and classification of these rare tumors requires further refinements. The aim of this paper is to describe the current incidence and survival of STS from 1994 to 2012 in Ireland and compare these with comparably coded international published reports. This is a retrospective, population study based on the data from the National Cancer Registry of Ireland (NCRI). Incidence and relative survival rates for STS in Ireland were generated. Incidence of STS based on gender, age and anatomical location was examined. Annual mean incidence rate (European Age Standardized) in Ireland between 1994 and 2012 was 4.48 ± 0.15 per 100,000 person-years. The overall relative 5-year survival rate of STS for the period 1994-2011 in Ireland was 56%, which was similar to that reported in the U.K. but lower than in most of Europe and U.S.A. Survival rate fluctuated over the period examined, declining slightly in females but showing an increase in males. STS incidence trends in Ireland were comparable to international reports. Survival trends of STS were significantly different between Ireland and other European countries, requiring further study to understand causation.

  11. Research Strategies in European Union Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James; Lynggaard, Kennet; Löfgren, Karl

    2015-01-01

    The contributing chapters of this book all illustrate the richness and diversity of problem-driven research in EU studies. This concluding chapter draws together the insights of this rich diversity in order to move the study of research strategies beyond the dichotomies of the past towards a new ...

  12. Cost effectiveness of the new pneumococcal vaccines: a systematic review of European studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vooren, Katelijne; Duranti, Silvy; Curto, Alessandro; Garattini, Livio

    2014-01-01

    Diseases caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) are a major global public health problem. Despite their importance, information on the burden of the different pneumococcal diseases is limited and estimates vary widely. We critically reviewed the full economic evaluations (FEEs) on the new pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) conducted in the European Union (EU) to assess their potential contribution to public decision making. We selected the FEEs focussed on PCV-10 and PCV-13 and published in English from January 2007 until June 2013. We screened the selected articles to assess their main methodological features using a common checklist composed of epidemiological, clinical and economic items. All the ten studies selected were based on modelling and the time horizon was always long term. Two studies focused on adults, the remaining eight on infants. Only one study based herd immunity on national data, eight used foreign data or modelling and the last did not consider it. National prices and tariffs were claimed to be sources for unit costs in all studies; however, half of them assumed price parity when one vaccine was not yet marketed, and the figures varied within the countries where more than one study was conducted. Conclusions supported the economic utility of pneumococcal vaccination in all studies, raising some concern only in (i) the independent study, which found that PCV-13 was borderline cost effective, and (ii) the study sponsored by both manufacturers, which estimated an incremental ratio slightly above the national threshold for both PCV-10 and PCV-13. The European studies we analysed are mostly based on weak sources of data. Because of the limited information on vaccine effectiveness and lack of epidemiological and economic data, the need for extensive recourse to assumptions leads to great within- and between-study variability generated by authors' choices.

  13. Research Methods in European Union Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Research methods and designs from the social sciences and beyond can, and should, be applied in research directed at EU affairs. The purpose of this edited collection is twofold: (1) to provide a state-of-the-art examination of social science research methods in EU studies and (2) to provide...... innovative guidelines to the advancement of more inclusive and empirically sensitive research methods in EU studies....

  14. Are Teachers Ready for CLIL? Evidence from a European Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Cañado, María Luisa

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the outcomes of a European study on the main training needs which pre- and in-service teachers, teacher trainers, and coordinators consider they have in order to adapt to a bilingual education model. The macro-study has designed, validated and administered four sets of questionnaires to 706 informants across the whole of…

  15. Entrepreneurial Training: A Comparative Study across Fifteen European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matricano, Diego

    2014-01-01

    This paper arises from the contents of the Lisbon Strategy, a set of cooperation policies stressing the role of education and training. The findings from a comparative study of the influence that entrepreneurial training--classified as formal or informal--can have on start-up expectations are analysed. The study covers fifteen European countries…

  16. Atopy and Specific Cancer Sites: a Review of Epidemiological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yubao; Hill, Andrew W

    2016-12-01

    Mounting evidence appears to link asthma and atopy to cancer susceptibility. This review presents and discusses published epidemiological studies on the association between site-specific cancers and atopy. PubMed was searched electronically for publications between 1995 and 2015, and cited references were researched manually. Quantitative studies relating to atopy, allergy, or asthma and cancer were identified and tabulated. Despite many exposure-related limitations, patterns in the studies were observed. Asthma, specifically, has been observed to be a risk factor for lung cancer. A protective effect of atopic diseases against pancreatic cancer has been shown consistently in case-control studies but not in cohort studies. Allergy of any type appears to be protective against glioma and adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Most studies on atopic diseases and non-Hodgkin lymphoma or colorectal cancer reported an inverse association. The other sites identified had varying and non-significant outcomes. Further research should be dedicated to carefully defined exposure assessments of "atopy" as well as the biological plausibility in the association between atopic diseases and cancer.

  17. The epidemiology of pituitary adenomas in Iceland, 1955-2012: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustsson, Tomas Thor; Baldvinsdottir, Tinna; Jonasson, Jon G; Olafsdottir, Elinborg; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Thorsson, Arni V; Carroll, Paul V; Korbonits, Márta; Benediktsson, Rafn

    2015-11-01

    Pituitary adenomas (PA) are among the most common human neoplasms. To describe the epidemiology and assess the disease burden of clinically significant PAs, population-based studies are needed. Iceland has a small well-defined population. The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiology of PAs in Iceland over an expanded period of time. This is a retrospective observational study, including all PAs diagnosed in Iceland from 1955 to 2012. Extensive clinical information was gathered in a database. Prevalence rates for all PA subtypes were calculated along with standardized incidence rates (SIR). Sex ratios and relationships with adenoma size, age, and symptoms were assessed. We identified 471 individuals: 190 men and 281 women. Total prevalence in 2012 was 115.57/100, 000, prolactinomas were most prevalent (54.37/100, 000) followed by non-functioning adenomas (NFPAs) (42.32/100 ,000). Throughout the period, NFPAs were most common (43.0%) followed by prolactinomas (39.9%) and 11.3% had acromegaly and 5.7% Cushing's disease. Women are diagnosed younger with smaller adenomas. Total SIR has increased significantly and is now 5.8/100 000 per year. In this nationwide study spanning six decades, we have confirmed PAs rising prevalence and incidence rates noted in recent studies. We demonstrated higher overall prevalence and incidence rates than ever previously recorded with an increasing predominance of NFPAs, which is not explained by incidental findings alone. There is a relationship with the introduction of imaging modalities, but the vast majority of patients are symptomatic at diagnosis. This underlines the importance of increased awareness, education, and appropriate allocation of resources for this growing group of patients. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  18. An Epidemiological Study of Psychiatric Disorders in Hamadan Province , 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Mohammadi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The burden of psychiatric disorders in the developed countries has been identified by the screening questionnaires and standard clinical interviews at a high level, but the epidemiological studies of psychiatric disorders in our country are brief and their numbers are few. Planning for providing essential mental health services to the people requires us to be knowledgeable about the present status of psychiatric disorders in the society. The objective of this research was to carry out the epidemiological study of the psychiatric disorders in the individuals 18 years and above in urban and rural areas of Hamadan province. 664 individuals selected through randomized clustered and systematic sampling methods among the existing families of Hamadan province and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS questionnaires completed by the clinical psychologist. The diagnosis of the disorders was based on DSM-IV classification criteria.The results of the study showed that the overall prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the province was 11.28% (17.2% in women , 5.8% in men. The anxiety and mood disorders with 5.87 and 2.71% respectively had the highest prevalence in the province. The prevalence of psychotic disorders in this study was 0.60% , neuro- cognitive disorders 1.35% and dissociative disorders 0.75%. In the group of mood disorders, major depression with 2.56% and in the group of anxiety disorders, phobia with 2.56% had the higher prevalence. This study showed that 8.13% of studied individuals suffered from at least one of the psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the province among the individuals in the age group of 66 years and above was 13.33%, individuals whose spouses had passed away 18.75%, urban residents of province 9.81%, illiterate individuals 12.80% and housewife individuals 12.31% was more than other individuals in the sample. Being aware of this matter reveals the responsibility of the

  19. Research Methods in European Union Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Research methods and designs from the social sciences and beyond can, and should, be applied in research directed at EU affairs. The purpose of this edited collection is twofold: (1) to provide a state-of-the-art examination of social science research methods in EU studies and (2) to provide inno...

  20. Invited commentary: recruiting for epidemiologic studies using social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsworth, Jenifer E

    2015-05-15

    Social media-based recruitment for epidemiologic studies has the potential to expand the demographic and geographic reach of investigators and identify potential participants more cost-effectively than traditional approaches. In fact, social media are particularly appealing for their ability to engage traditionally "hard-to-reach" populations, including young adults and low-income populations. Despite their great promise as a tool for epidemiologists, social media-based recruitment approaches do not currently compare favorably with gold-standard probability-based sampling approaches. Sparse data on the demographic characteristics of social media users, patterns of social media use, and appropriate sampling frames limit our ability to implement probability-based sampling strategies. In a well-conducted study, Harris et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2015;181(10):737-746) examined the cost-effectiveness of social media-based recruitment (advertisements and promotion) in the Contraceptive Use, Pregnancy Intention, and Decisions (CUPID) Study, a cohort study of 3,799 young adult Australian women, and the approximate representativeness of the CUPID cohort. Implications for social media-based recruitment strategies for cohort assembly, data accuracy, implementation, and human subjects concerns are discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Chapter 8. Tea and Cancer Prevention: Epidemiological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-Min; Sun, Canlan; Butler, Lesley M.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental studies have consistently shown the inhibitory activities of tea extracts on tumorigenesis in multiple model systems. Epidemiologic studies, however, have produced inconclusive results in humans. A comprehensive review was conducted to assess the current knowledge on tea consumption and risk of cancers in humans. In general, consumption of black tea was not associated with lower risk of cancer. High intake of green tea was consistently associated with reduced risk of upper gastrointestinal tract cancers after sufficient control for confounders. Limited data support a protective effect of green tea on lung and hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake on prostate cancer risk, phase II clinical trials have demonstrated an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate pre-malignant lesions. Green tea may exert beneficial effects against mammary carcinogenesis in premenopausal women and recurrence of breast cancer. There is no sufficient evidence that supports a protective role of tea intake on the development of cancers of the colorectum, pancreas, urinary tract, glioma, lymphoma, and leukemia. Future prospective observational studies with biomarkers of exposure and phase III clinical trials are required to provide definitive evidence for the hypothesized beneficial effect of tea consumption on cancer formation in humans. PMID:21419224

  2. Cancer prevention by green tea: evidence from epidemiologic studies1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the consistent results of an inhibitory effect of green tea extracts and tea polyphenols on the development and growth of carcinogen-induced tumors in experimental animal models, results from human studies are mixed. Both observational and intervention studies have provided evidence in support of a protective role of green tea intake in the development of oral–digestive tract cancer or an inhibitory role of oral supplementation of green tea extract on a precancerous lesion of oral cavity. Evidence in support of green tea intake against the development of liver cancer risk is limited and inconsistent. An inverse association between green tea intake and lung cancer risk has been observed among never smokers but not among smokers. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake against the development of prostate cancer, several phase 2 clinical trials have shown an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate premalignant lesions to malignant tumors. Prospective epidemiologic studies so far have not provided evidence for a protective effect of green tea consumption on breast cancer development. Current data neither confirm nor refute a definitive cancer-preventive role of green tea intake. Large randomized intervention trials on the efficacy of green tea polyphenols or extracts are required before a recommendation for green tea consumption for cancer prevention should be made. PMID:24172305

  3. Arsenic and breast cancer: a systematic review of epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanjani, Narges; Jafarnejad, Abu-Bakr; Tavakkoli, Leila

    2017-09-26

    Arsenic is one of the heavy metals known to be a cause of cancer and many other serious human health problems. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), has classified arsenic as a Group 1 carcinogen. Studies were performed in different populations to investigate the association between arsenic and breast cancer and the present paper attempts to review these studies. Accessible electronic resources including, PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Science Direct and Scopus and Google Scholar were searched, with relevant phrases up to October 30, 2016. All articles were reviewed by two people separately and among them, original epidemiologic studies that investigated the association between breast cancer and exposure to arsenic were included. Eventually seven articles were selected from 126 retrieved articles. Although three studies (one case-control and two ecological) were not able to show a significant affect, others provide some evidence of a relation between arsenic and breast cancer in specific subgroups. Exposure to arsenic may increase the risk of breast cancer. The strength of this relation can vary due to regional and individual differences.

  4. Epidemiological study of patients with connective tissue diseases in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Maria Do Socorro Teixeira Moreira; Bértolo, Manoel Barros; Da Silva, Benedito Borges; De Deus Filho, Antônio; Almeida, Mayra Moreira; Veras, Fabíola Ferreira Hortêncio; Mendes, Luciano Cardoso

    2005-10-01

    To study the prevalence of connective tissue disorders and identify the epidemiological profile of the population from the northern and northeastern regions of Brazil. All patients admitted to the general medical ward at Getulio Vargas Hospital were screened through history and physical examination for the existence of known, suspected or possible connective tissue disorder. A total of 120 patients were enrolled in the study - 61 (50.8%) with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 41 (34.2%) with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 16 (13.3%) with systemic sclerosis (SS), one (0.8%) with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) and one (0.8%) with polymyositis (PM). Women accounted for (104) 86.7% of the participants and (83) 70.9% were non-Caucasians. The mean age was 36.8 years. Alopecia was the most frequent symptom (55/46.6%), followed by other cutaneous lesions (50/42.4%), dyspnea (47/39.8%) and chest pain (39/33.0%). The most frequent rheumatologic disorder encountered in our hospital-based study population was systemic lupus erythematosus, which is contrary to findings of the majority of studies performed in this country.

  5. Delirium epidemiology in critical care (DECCA): an international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salluh, Jorge I; Soares, Márcio; Teles, José M; Ceraso, Daniel; Raimondi, Nestor; Nava, Victor S; Blasquez, Patrícia; Ugarte, Sebastian; Ibanez-Guzman, Carlos; Centeno, José V; Laca, Manuel; Grecco, Gustavo; Jimenez, Edgar; Árias-Rivera, Susana; Duenas, Carmelo; Rocha, Marcelo G

    2010-01-01

    Delirium is a frequent source of morbidity in intensive care units (ICUs). Most data on its epidemiology is from single-center studies. Our aim was to conduct a multicenter study to evaluate the epidemiology of delirium in the ICU. A 1-day point-prevalence study was undertaken in 104 ICUs from 11 countries in South and North America and Spain. In total, 975 patients were screened, and 497 fulfilled inclusion criteria and were enrolled (median age, 62 years; 52.5% men; 16.7% and 19.9% for ICU and hospital mortality); 64% were admitted to the ICU because of medical causes, and sepsis was the main diagnosis (n = 76; 15.3%). In total, 265 patients were sedated with the Richmond agitation and sedation scale (RASS) deeper than -3, and only 232 (46.6%) patients could be evaluated with the confusion-assessment method for the ICU. The prevalence of delirium was 32.3%. Compared with patients without delirium, those with the diagnosis of delirium had a greater severity of illness at admission, demonstrated by higher sequential organ-failure assessment (SOFA (P = 0.004)) and simplified acute physiology score 3 (SAPS3) scores (P < 0.0001). Delirium was associated with increased ICU (20% versus 5.7%; P = 0.002) and hospital mortality (24 versus 8.3%; P = 0.0017), and longer ICU (P < 0.0001) and hospital length of stay (LOS) (22 (11 to 40) versus 7 (4 to 18) days; P < 0.0001). Previous use of midazolam (P = 0.009) was more frequent in patients with delirium. On multivariate analysis, delirium was independently associated with increased ICU mortality (OR = 3.14 (1.26 to 7.86); CI, 95%) and hospital mortality (OR = 2.5 (1.1 to 5.7); CI, 95%). In this 1-day international study, delirium was frequent and associated with increased mortality and ICU LOS. The main modifiable risk factors associated with the diagnosis of delirium were the use of invasive devices and sedatives (midazolam).

  6. Psychiatric epidemiology in Turkey: main advances in recent studies and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binbay, Tolga; Direk, Neşe; Aker, Tamer; Akvardar, Yıldız; Alptekin, Köksal; Cimilli, Can; Cam, Birmay; Deveci, Artuner; Kadri Gültekin, Bülent; Sar, Vedat; Taycan, Okan; Ulaş, Halis

    2014-01-01

    To overview and evaluate the main findings, methodological shortcomings, and time trends of the recent psychiatric epidemiology studies in Turkey, as well as to provide areas prone for development in forthcoming research. PubMed and Turkish Psychiatry Index were screened to identify relevant studies. Any epidemiological study from 2000 to 2012 with a general population or unique sub-population sample was included. Papers and results were classified as depression, anxiety, psychotic, dissociative, conversion, personality, alcohol and substance abuse, and trauma-related disorders, and common geriatric disorders. There are various epidemiological studies on various psychiatric disorders in Turkey. However, there are main shortcomings and trends in research that subsequently stagnate current psychiatric epidemiological research. First, epidemiological studies were mainly conducted for academic purposes, not for addressing epidemiological issues or issues of health policy. Second, studies mainly focused on particular fields and institutions, which led to non-systematic accumulation of epidemiological results. Third, although Turkey is a natural laboratory of social conflicts and disasters, there were few studies with a focus on probable outcomes. Fourth, high-quality epidemiological studies with disseminating results tended to decrease, even in common mental disorders such as depression. Fifth, there were very few epidemiological studies using contemporary designs such as follow-up, genetic, or biomarker data in the general-population. Although psychiatric epidemiological studies of the last decade provide a suitable ground for future challenges, current trends in this research area has tended to stagnate, despite the potential for unique contributions. Forthcoming studies and researchers may notice novel methodological developments in epidemiology, with a growing attention on rapid urbanization, natural disasters, social conflicts, and migration.

  7. Survey Definitions of Gout for Epidemiologic Studies: Comparison With Crystal Identification as the Gold Standard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalbeth, N.; Schumacher, H.R.; Fransen, J.; Neogi, T.; Jansen, T.L; Brown, M.; Louthrenoo, W.; Vazquez-Mellado, J.; Eliseev, M.; McCarthy, G.; Stamp, L.K.; Perez-Ruiz, F.; Sivera, F.; Ea, H.K.; Gerritsen, M.; Scire, C.A.; Cavagna, L.; Lin, C.; Chou, Y.Y.; Tausche, A.K.; Rocha Castelar-Pinheiro, G. da; Janssen, M; Chen, J.H.; Cimmino, M.A.; Uhlig, T.; Taylor, W.J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the best-performing survey definition of gout from items commonly available in epidemiologic studies. METHODS: Survey definitions of gout were identified from 34 epidemiologic studies contributing to the Global Urate Genetics Consortium (GUGC) genome-wide association study.

  8. Characteristics of primary nocturnal enuresis in adults: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, C K; Sihoe, J D Y; Sit, F K Y; Bower, W; Sreedhar, B; Lau, J

    2004-02-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) in adults in Hong Kong, as there are currently limited epidemiological data in adults. After a telephone survey, 8534 respondents (3996 males and 4538 females) aged 16-40 years were selected for the study and stratified in age groups. The questionnaire used comprised two parts; the first started with questions mainly about the general demographic background to decrease the sensitivity of the study and to establish rapport. The second part was conducted through an automated telephone interview service, with the questions being asked by recorded messages and the respondents then keying in their responses with no need to converse with an interviewer. This part included questions about enuretic symptoms and a subjective assessment of social and psychological effects of bedwetting, and measurements of the individual's self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale) and depression (The Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale). Of the 8534 subjects interviewed, 196 had PNE, giving an overall prevalence of 2.3% (2.7% males and 2.0% females); of these 196, 36 (18.4%) also had daytime urinary incontinence. Hence, 1.9% of adults (2.2% males and 1.7% females) had monosymptomatic PNE. Of these, 53% wet >3 nights/week and 26% wet every night. Prevalence rates remained relatively stable among different age groups, with no apparent trend of a reduction with age. Compared with nonenuretic normal controls, significantly fewer enuretics reached tertiary education (33.4% vs 17.8%, P self-esteem, and a higher incidence of sleep disturbances than the control group. Among bedwetters, 32-40% felt that there was some effect on their choice of job, work performance and social activities, whilst 23% felt the condition affected their family life and in making friends of either sex. However, there was no significant difference in the marital status. Interestingly, only 34.5% of females and half of males

  9. [Hereditary ichthyosis in Tunisia: epidemiological study of 60 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharfi, Monia; El Fekih, Nadia; Ammar, Donia; Khaled, Aida; Fazaa, Bécima; Ridha Kamoun, Mohamed

    2008-11-01

    Ichthyosis are a group of inherited keratinizing disorders. The cutaneous abnormalities may be isolated or associated with extra-cutaneous symptoms. To report the epidemiological and clinical profiles of patients with these genodermatoses from a hospital tunisian study. A retrospective study of all cases of ichthyosis referred during a period of 5 years to the department of dermatology of Charles Nicole's hospital of Tunis. Sixty cases of hereditary ichthyosis were seen. The sex-ratio was of 0.5. Parental consanguinity was noted in 36 patients (60%). Seventeen patients (25.7%) had a positive familial history of ichthyosis. The clinical form of ichthyosis was determined in 52 cases. The nonbullous ichthyosiform erythroderma was observed in 25 patients (41.6%). Sixty patients presented an ichthyosis vulgaris (26.6%). The other forms of ichthyosis were rarely observed : 4 cases of X-linked recessive ichthyosis, 2 cases of lamellar ichthyosis and 2 cases of bullous ichthyosiform erythroderma. Two patients were born with collodion-like membranes. Two cases presented a complex syndrome. The NBIE, commonly considered as a rare form of ichthyosis, was the most frequently form seen in our study (41.6%), probably because of the high frequency of consanguineous marriages in Tunisia. The IV represents the most frequent form reported in the literature and was observed in 25% of our patients. The classification of some ichthyosis associated with other extracutaneous abnormalities (found in 2 of our patients) remains difficult.

  10. Air pollution exposure assessment methods utilized in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Bin; Wilson, J Gaines; Zhan, F Benjamin; Zeng, Yongnian

    2009-03-01

    The assessment of personal exposure to air pollution is a critical component of epidemiological studies associating air pollution and health effects. This paper critically reviewed 157 studies over 29 years that utilized one of five categories of exposure methods (proximity, air dispersion, hybrid, human inhalation, and biomarkers). Proximity models were found to be a questionable technique as they assume that closer proximity equates to greater exposure. Inhalation models and biomarker estimates were the most effective in assessing personal exposure, but are often cost prohibitive for large study populations. This review suggests that: (i) factors such as uncertainty, validity, data availability, and transferability related to exposure assessment methods should be considered when selecting a model; and (ii) although an entirely discreet new class of approach is not necessary, significant progress could be made through the development of a 'hybrid' model utilizing the strengths of several existing methods. Future work should systematically evaluate the performance of hybrid models compared to other individual exposure assessment methods utilizing geospatial information technologies (e.g. geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS)) to more robustly refine estimates of ambient exposure and quantify the linkages and differences between outdoor, indoor and personal exposure estimates.

  11. Teacher Behavior and Student Outcomes : Results of a European Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panayiotou, A.; Kyriakides, L.; Creemers, B.P.M.; McMahon, L.; Vanlaar, G.; Pfeifer, M.; Rekalidou, G.; Bren, M.

    This study investigates the extent to which the factors included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness are associated with student achievement gains in six different European countries. At classroom level, the dynamic model refers to eight factors relating to teacher behavior in the

  12. Ethnic Heritage Studies: Northern European Foods. Experimental Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freepartner, Susan

    This teaching guide focuses on the Northern European food heritage. It is part of the Louisville Area Ethnic Heritage Studies Project described in ED 150 043. The materials are designed to foster communication across intercultural/ethnic lines. The objective of this unit is to gain familiarity with and appreciate foods from Scandinavia, the Soviet…

  13. Ethnic Heritage Studies: Southern European Foods. Experimental Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freepartner, Susan

    This teaching guide focuses on the Southern European food heritage. It is part of the Louisville Area Ethnic Heritage Studies Project described in ED 150 043. The project materials are designed to foster communication across intercultural/ethnic lines. The objective of this unit is to gain familiarity with and appreciate foods from Spain, France,…

  14. Cycloplegic refraction is the gold standard for epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ian G; Iribarren, Rafael; Fotouhi, Akbar; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Many studies on children have shown that lack of cycloplegia is associated with slight overestimation of myopia and marked errors in estimates of the prevalence of emmetropia and hyperopia. Non-cycloplegic refraction is particularly problematic for studies of associations with risk factors. The consensus around the importance of cycloplegia in children left undefined at what age, if any, cycloplegia became unnecessary. It was often implicitly assumed that cycloplegia is not necessary beyond childhood or early adulthood, and thus, the protocol for the classical studies of refraction in older adults did not include cycloplegia. Now that population studies of refractive error are beginning to fill the gap between schoolchildren and older adults, whether cycloplegia is required for measuring refractive error in this age range, needs to be defined. Data from the Tehran Eye Study show that, without cycloplegia, there are errors in the estimation of myopia, emmetropia and hyperopia in the age range 20-50, just as in children. Similar results have been reported in an analysis of data from the Beaver Dam Offspring Eye Study. If the only important outcome measure of a particular study is the prevalence of myopia, then cycloplegia may not be crucial in some cases. But, without cycloplegia, measurements of other refractive categories as well as spherical equivalent are unreliable. In summary, the current evidence suggests that cycloplegic refraction should be considered as the gold standard for epidemiological studies of refraction, not only in children, but in adults up to the age of 50. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. An Epidemiological Study of Neuropathic Pain Symptoms in Canadian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth G. VanDenKerkhof

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The reported prevalence of neuropathic pain ranges from 6.9% to 10%; however the only Canadian study reported 17.9%. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of neuropathic pain in Canada. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a random sample of Canadian adults. The response rate was 21.1% (1504/7134. Likely or possible neuropathic pain was defined using a neuropathic pain-related diagnosis and a positive outcome on the Self-Report Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs pain scale (S-LANSS or the Douleur Neuropathique 4 (DN4 Questions. The prevalence of likely neuropathic pain was 1.9% (S-LANSS and 3.4% (DN4 and that of possible neuropathic pain was 5.8% (S-LANSS and 8.1% (DN4. Neuropathic pain was highest in economically disadvantaged males. There is a significant burden of neuropathic pain in Canada. The low response rate and a slightly older and less educated sample than the Canadian population may have led to an overestimate of neuropathic pain. Population prevalence varies by screening tool used, indicating more work is needed to develop reliable measures. Population level screening targeted towards high risk groups should improve the sensitivity and specificity of screening, while clinical examination of those with positive screening results will further refine the estimate of prevalence.

  16. Selenium neurotoxicity in humans: bridging laboratory and epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinceti, Marco; Mandrioli, Jessica; Borella, Paola; Michalke, Bernhard; Tsatsakis, Aristidis; Finkelstein, Yoram

    2014-10-15

    Selenium is a metalloid of considerable interest in the human from both a toxicological and a nutritional perspective, with a very narrow safe range of intake. Acute selenium intoxication is followed by adverse effects on the nervous system with special clinical relevance, while the neurotoxicity of long-term overexposure is less characterized and recognized. We aimed to address this issue from a public health perspective, focusing on both laboratory studies and the few epidemiologic human studies available, with emphasis on their methodological strengths and limitations. The frequently overlooked differences in toxicity and biological activity of selenium compounds are also outlined. In addition to lethargy, dizziness, motor weakness and paresthesias, an excess risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is the effect on the nervous system which has been more consistently associated with chronic low-level selenium overexposure, particularly to its inorganic compounds. Additional research efforts are needed to better elucidate the neurotoxic effects exerted by selenium overexposure. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Problem gambling among ethnic minorities: results from an epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle R. Caler

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A few studies have examined gambling behavior and problem gambling among minorities and reported higher rates of both participation and gambling problems among particular minority groups in comparison to Whites who gamble. The present study utilized a representative, epidemiological sample of adults in New Jersey to explore gambling behavior, gambling problem severity, substance use, problem behavior, and mental health issues among minorities. Univariate analyses were conducted, comparing Whites (n = 1341 to respondents who identified as Hispanic (n = 394, Black (n = 261, or Asian/other (n = 177. Overall, the highest proportion of Hispanics were high-risk problem gamblers. Hispanic participants were also significantly more likely than other groups to use and abuse substances and to report mental health problems in the past month, behavioral addictions, and/or suicidal ideation in the past year. Primary predictors of White high risk problem gamblers were being young and male with friends or family who gambled, fair to poor health status, substance use, gambling once a week or more both online and in land-based venues, and engaging in a number of gambling activities. In contrast, gender was not a predictor of minority high risk problem gamblers, who were characterized primarily by having friends or family who gambled, gambling online only, having a behavioral addiction and playing instant scratch-offs and gaming machines. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  18. Epidemiological study of scabies in district Haripur, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samina Yasmin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Scabies is a contagious disorder of skin caused by a mite called human itch mite, Sarcoptes scabiei. An epidemiological study of scabies was conducted from district Haripur to evaluate the prevalence and the important risk factors responsible for the spread of scabies. The study was conducted in General population from (February - April 2013.Surveys were carried out in general population comprising 200 families of district Haripur. Out of two hundred families in general population, 81 were scabetic showing a prevalence rate of 40.5%.Considering an individual as a unit, 109cases were detected, out of these total samples of 1193 individuals, exhibiting a prevalence rate of 9.13%.The disease was significantly more common in females (10.4%than males(7.9%,in lower socio-economic classes (13.8% than the upper and middle classes (5.22%,7.16%, in those living in uncemented houses (23.6% than those living in cemented houses (7.5%,and in those having domestic animals at home(13.4%than those without domestic animals(8.08%. Family size was of no significance but prevalence was positively co-related with the level of crowding (average number of person per room in a house. No clear trend was indicated in the prevalence rate of scabies changing with educational level. The distribution of the number of cases per family followed a Poisson distribution, demonstrating that all the families surveyed were equally exposed to the risk of scabies.

  19. [Hereditary deafness in Kirov oblast: a genetic epidemiological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinchenko, R A; Osetrova, A A; Sharonova, E I; El'chinova, G I

    2012-03-01

    The results of a genetic epidemiological study of hereditary deafness (HD) in ten raions (districts) of Kirov oblast (administrative region), Russia, are presented. A total of 122 075 people have been examined. Segregation analysis of all families with diagnosed HD has demonstrated a good fit to either the autosomal dominant (AD) or autosomal recessive (AR) mode of inheritance. The total prevalence rates of AD and AR HDs, as well as the specific prevalence rates of nonsyndromic and syndromic forms of HD, have been calculated for the population often raions. The HD prevalence rate in Kirov oblast has been found to be 1 : 1043 people (1 : 1453 and 1 : 3699 for the nonsyndromic and syndromic forms, respectively). This value has been found to vary in different raions, which is explained by differences in the genetic subdivision levels of the populations studied; the correlation coefficient between the HD load and random inbreeding (F(ST)) in district populations is r = 0.81 +/- 0.22. The diversity of syndromic hearing disorders is described.

  20. Problem gambling among ethnic minorities: results from an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caler, Kyle R; Vargas Garcia, Jose Ricardo; Nower, Lia

    2017-01-01

    A few studies have examined gambling behavior and problem gambling among minorities and reported higher rates of both participation and gambling problems among particular minority groups in comparison to Whites who gamble. The present study utilized a representative, epidemiological sample of adults in New Jersey to explore gambling behavior, gambling problem severity, substance use, problem behavior, and mental health issues among minorities. Univariate analyses were conducted, comparing Whites (n = 1341) to respondents who identified as Hispanic (n = 394), Black (n = 261), or Asian/other (n = 177). Overall, the highest proportion of Hispanics were high-risk problem gamblers. Hispanic participants were also significantly more likely than other groups to use and abuse substances and to report mental health problems in the past month, behavioral addictions, and/or suicidal ideation in the past year. Primary predictors of White high risk problem gamblers were being young and male with friends or family who gambled, fair to poor health status, substance use, gambling once a week or more both online and in land-based venues, and engaging in a number of gambling activities. In contrast, gender was not a predictor of minority high risk problem gamblers, who were characterized primarily by having friends or family who gambled, gambling online only, having a behavioral addiction and playing instant scratch-offs and gaming machines. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  1. Nosocomial rotavirus infection: An up to date evaluation of European studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervasi, G.; Capanna, A.; Mita, V.; Zaratti, L.; Franco, E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rotavirus (RV) is worldwide considered as the most important viral agent of acute gastroenteritis in children less than 5 y. Since 2006, the availability of anti-RV vaccines has deeply modified the incidence and economic burden of RV infection. In Europe, some countries have introduced an anti-RV vaccination program in the last 10 y. Although community acquired RV (CARV) disease is the most studied condition of RV infection, recently some authors have highlighted the importance of nosocomial RV (nRV) disease as an emerging public health issue. The aim of this review is to summarize the epidemiology of both CARV and nRV, in order to discuss the difficulty of a clear evaluation of the burden of the disease in absence of comparable data. In particular, we focused our attention to European studies regarding nRV in terms of divergences related to definition, report of incidence rate and methodological issues. PMID:27185183

  2. Epidemiology of venous thromboembolism in the Framingham Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puurunen, Marja K; Gona, Philimon N; Larson, Martin G; Murabito, Joanne M; Magnani, Jared W; O'Donnell, Christopher J

    2016-09-01

    Reports of the crude incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Western countries vary widely. Data regarding risk factors, incidence and recurrence of VTE from deeply-phenotyped community-based cohort studies are needed. To study the incidence, associated mortality, and predisposing factors of VTE in the prospective, longitudinal community-based Framingham Heart Study. The study sample consisted of the Framingham Heart Study Original, Offspring, Third Generation, and Omni cohorts (N=9754). Incidence rates (IR) were standardized to the 2000 US population. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to study risk factor associations. During 1995-2014 (total follow-up time 104,091 person-years [median 9.8 (range 0-20) years]), 297 incident VTE events were observed. Age-adjusted IR of VTE was 20.3/10,000 (95% CI 17.9-22.6). Of the events 120 (40%) were pulmonary embolism (PE) and 177 (60%) were deep venous thrombosis (DVT); 29% were unprovoked, 40% provoked, and 31% cancer-related. Cancer-related VTE was associated with high mortality at 30days (24.2%), 1year (66.3%), and 5years (75.6%). In multivariable models, age and obesity, but no other traditional cardiovascular risk factors, were significantly associated with VTE (hazard ratio [HR] per 10-year increase in age 1.69, 95% CI 1.48-1.92; HR for obesity (BMI≥30kg/m(2)) 1.88, 95% CI 1.44-2.45). We provide data on the epidemiology of VTE. VTE is associated with significant mortality, and prognosis after cancer-related VTE is particularly poor. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors beyond age and obesity are not associated with VTE. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Epidemiological studies on postpartum thyroid dysfunction and thyroid cancer in Southeastern Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.P. Kuijpens (Hans)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe studies described in this thesis concentrate OIl epidemiological and pathogenetic aspects of postpartum thyroid dysfunction (PPTD) and related topics, and on epidemiological and treatment aspects of thyroid cancer. The studies were petfonned in the southeastern part of the

  4. Sequencing Strategies for Population and Cancer Epidemiology Studies (SeqSPACE) Webinar Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sequencing Strategies for Population and Cancer Epidemiology Studies (SeqSPACE) Webinar Series provides an opportunity for our grantees and other interested individuals to share lessons learned and practical information regarding the application of next generation sequencing to cancer epidemiology studies.

  5. Comparison of Mycotic Keratitis with Nonmycotic Keratitis: An Epidemiological Study

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    Mohammad M. Khater

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This work aims to study the problems encountered with and the different epidemiological features of patients with fungal keratitis. Patients and Methods. All cases with keratitis attending the Outpatient Clinic of Ophthalmology Department at Tanta University Hospital during three years from the first of January 2011 to the end of December 2013 were selected and carefully examined and cases with mycotic keratitis were further examined and investigated. Results. From 66303 attendants during this period with different complaints, there were 361 cases (0.54% with mycotic keratitis and 473 cases (0.71% of nonmycotic origin. Mycotic keratitis is common between 40 and 60 years, more in farmers (64%, families with large number and large crowding index, rural than urban residence, and patients with outdoor water sources and insanitary sewage disposal. Positive fungal cultures were obtained in 84.5% and were negative in 15.5% of cases in spite of their typical clinical findings for diagnosis and their improvement with antifungal therapy. Conclusion. Mycotic keratitis is more frequent in farmers, rural areas, outdoor water supply, insanitary sewage disposal, and patients preceded with organic trauma. Atypical clinical findings were found in some cases and not all cases improved with specific antifungal therapy.

  6. Comparison of mycotic keratitis with nonmycotic keratitis: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Mohammad M; Shehab, Nehal S; El-Badry, Anwar S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. This work aims to study the problems encountered with and the different epidemiological features of patients with fungal keratitis. Patients and Methods. All cases with keratitis attending the Outpatient Clinic of Ophthalmology Department at Tanta University Hospital during three years from the first of January 2011 to the end of December 2013 were selected and carefully examined and cases with mycotic keratitis were further examined and investigated. Results. From 66303 attendants during this period with different complaints, there were 361 cases (0.54%) with mycotic keratitis and 473 cases (0.71%) of nonmycotic origin. Mycotic keratitis is common between 40 and 60 years, more in farmers (64%), families with large number and large crowding index, rural than urban residence, and patients with outdoor water sources and insanitary sewage disposal. Positive fungal cultures were obtained in 84.5% and were negative in 15.5% of cases in spite of their typical clinical findings for diagnosis and their improvement with antifungal therapy. Conclusion. Mycotic keratitis is more frequent in farmers, rural areas, outdoor water supply, insanitary sewage disposal, and patients preceded with organic trauma. Atypical clinical findings were found in some cases and not all cases improved with specific antifungal therapy.

  7. Bovine Brucellosis: An Epidemiological Study at Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchandan Sikder*, AKM Anisur Rahman1, Mohammad Rayhan Faruque, Mohammad Abdul Alim2, Shubhagata Das2, Aungshuman Das Gupta3, Bhajan Chandra Das, Mohammad Inkeyas Uddin4 and Mohammad Abdul Matin Prodhan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological survey was conducted to identify probable risk factors and prevalence of brucellosis in commercial and backyard dairy cows at Chittagong, Bangladesh. A total of 500 milk samples were collected (250 commercial and 250 backyards for Milk Ring Test (MRT. The MRT positive cows were subjected to sera collection and Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT and indirect ELISA were done for confirmatory diagnosis. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle was 5% (7.6% in commercial and 2.4% in backyard. Significantly higher (P<0.05 prevalence was found in the zero grazing (5.74%, pregnant cows (7.53% and cows with history of retained placenta (7.89% or abortion (5.88% or both (11.76% than non-pregnant (2.68% and without any reproductive disorder (4.44%. A total of 420 farm attendants and owners were interviewed where 93.55 and 99.08% commercial and backyard personnel were found to have no knowledge of brucellosis and 9.67 and 87.77% consumed raw milk and yogurt respectively were highly vulnerable to zoonotic brucellosis. The results showed that brucellosis is widely distributed locally, underscoring the need for further studies including biovar determination.

  8. [Acute and overuse injuries in elite paracycling - an epidemiological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromer, P; Röcker, K; Sommer, A; Baur, H; Konstantinidis, L; Gollhofer, A; Südkamp, N P; Hirschmüller, A

    2011-09-01

    Although paracycling is a growing discipline in high level competitive sports as well as in posttraumatic rehabilitation, epidemiological data of resulting injuries is still missing. Therefore, 19 athletes of the German national paracycling team were asked about their injuries during the 2008 season using a standardized questionnaire. Overall, 18 (94.7 %) of 19 athletes reported overuse injuries; most commonly localized at the back (83.3 %), neck/shoulder (77.8 %), knee (50 %), groin/buttock (50 %) and hands/wrists (38.9 %). Altogether, 18 accidents were registered, corresponding to an injury rate of 0,95 acute injuries per athlete per year (0,07 / 1000 km). The most common acute injuries were abrasions (69.2 %) and contusions (61.5 %), whereas fractures were stated only twice (11.8 %). The anatomical distribution of overuse injuries in disabled cyclists confirms the results of studies in able-bodied cycling, although the incidences in low-back pain and neck/shoulder pain is clearly higher in disabled cycling, as well as the rate of traumatic injuries. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Biomarkers in molecular epidemiology study of oral squamous cell carcinoma in the era of precision medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Hao Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer, which occurs in the mouth, lips, and tongue, is a multifactorial disease whose etiology involves environment, genetic, and epigenetic factors. Tobacco use and alcohol consumption are regarded as the primary risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, and betel use, other chemicals, radiation, environmental, and genetics are reported as relevant risk factors for oral carcinogenesis. The human papillomavirus infection is an independent risk factor. Traditional epidemiology studies have revealed that environmental carcinogens are risk factors for OSCC. Molecular epidemiology studies have revealed that the susceptibility to OSCC is influenced by both environmental and genetic risk factors. However, the details and mechanisms of risk factors involved in OSCC are unclear. Advanced methods and techniques used in human genome studies provide great opportunities for researchers to explore and identify (a the details of such risk factors and (b genetic susceptibility involved in OSCC. Human genome epidemiology is a new branch of epidemiology, which leads the epidemiology study from the molecular epidemiology era into the era of genome-wide association study. In the era of precision medicine, molecular epidemiology studies should focus on biomarkers for cancer genomics and their potential utility in clinical practice. Here, we briefly reviewed several molecular epidemiology studies of OSCC, focusing on biomarkers as valuable utility in risk assessment, clinical screening, diagnosis, and prognosis prediction of OSCC in the era of precision medicine.

  10. Anguillicola crassus (Nematoda, Dracunculoidea) infections of European eel (Anguila anguilla) in the Netherlands : epidemiology, pathogenensis and pathobiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haenen, O.L.M.

    1995-01-01


    In the 1980s an eel parasitic nematode, Anguillicola crassus (Nematoda, Dracunculoidea), which infects the swimbladder of European eels ( Anguilla anguilla ) and other freshwater fish species, was introduced into The Netherlands. This thesis

  11. Renal colic at emergency departments. Epidemiologic, diagnostic and etiopathogenic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, José A Hermida; Palmes, M de la Paz Pérez; Ferrer, Juan Francisco Loro; Urdangarain, Otto Ochoa; Nuñez, Abdel Buduen

    2010-04-01

    To investigate epidemiologic, etiopathogenic and clinical factors associated with emergency renal colic (RC). METHODS ANDS RESULTS: We performed a prospective cross-sectional multicenter case-control study of 146 patients treated for RC at emergency departments. Data collected included age, sex, localization/severity of pain, symptoms, personal/family medical history, urine analysis, etiopathogenic factors, chemical composition of the lithiasis, and x-ray studies. Comparative statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 12.2 software. RC was more frequent in men; maximum incidence was between 31-50 years for both sex, with 36.3% in men and 21.23% in women; 60.27% of patients rated pain as severe; 140 RC patients (95.89%) had urologic antecedents vs. 15 (10.27%) controls without RC (ppain; 23.28% of RC patients had family history for urinary lithiasis vs. 6.16% controls (pLithiasis was observed by KUB x-ray in 42.10% of RC patients vs. 57.89% controls, most frequent calculi composition was calcium oxalate monohydrate and dehydrate (61,2%). The incidence of urinary lithiasis and RC in our health care area shows a male predominance. The characteristic pain of RC is severe and appears suddenly. It starts in the back (lumbar region), below the ribs, radiating towards the groin and external genitals (testicles in man or major lips in woman) on the same side. Nausea and vomiting are frequent. Family history of urinary lithiasis and low water intake are risk factors that need to be investigated. Occupations associated with a sedentary life style or with a hot, dry workplace show a higher incidence of lithiasis. A hot, dry climate favours the formation of urinary lithiasis and the highest incidence of lithiasis is in the summer, during the months of July and August. The most frequent component of urolithiasis in our study, as well as in other studies, was calcium oxalate monohydrate and dihydrate.

  12. Injuries in national Olympic level judo athletes: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Keun-Suh; Park, Ki Jun; Lee, Jaekoo; Kang, Byung Yong

    2015-09-01

    To present an epidemiological study of injuries found among South Korea's National level Judo athletes as a foundation for future injury prevention and skill enhancement in this group. This study is a prospective study on a 4-year injury assessment held from January 2010 to December 2013 at the training centre in South Korea for National Level athletes. Athlete's weight class, gender, injury location and injury grade (grade I=1-3 treatment days, grade II=4-7 treatment days, and grade III ≥8 treatment days) were analysed. There were a total of 782 injuries recorded during this period, equalling to four injuries per athlete annually. Almost half of these injuries (47%) were grade I injuries. Injury occurrence was the highest in the Lower body (44.2%). This was then followed by injuries in the upper body (29.8%), trunk (20.3%) and head and neck (5.6%). Men and women showed similar, non-significantly different trends in the proportion of body parts injured. Women experienced more grade III injuries than males (p=0.0228). Comparison between women in different weight classes also showed that heavyweights incurred more grade III injuries than lightweights (p=0.0087). Lightweights had a higher rate of injury than heavyweights in males and females, although this was statistically significant only among males (pjudo population. Women, especially those in the heavyweight classification, were more prone to severe injuries. Lightweights experienced more injuries than heavyweights among male athletes. Specifically, further studies are needed to confirm these findings and to address the impact of rapid weight loss practices on injury risk to implement effective preventive measures. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Epidemiology of vitiligo, associated autoimmune diseases and audiological abnormalities: Ankara study of 80 patients in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akay, B N; Bozkir, M; Anadolu, Y; Gullu, S

    2010-10-01

    Recent clinical studies suggest that the pathogenetic mechanisms of vitiligo could be of systemic origin as vitiligo is associated with auditory abnormalities as well as other autoimmune disorders. To investigate clinical, genetic characteristics and laboratory findings of vitiligo as well as auditory abnormalities and the association of the disease with the other autoimmune disorders. From January to December 2008, we collected-data from 80 vitiligo patients to establish the clinical and epidemiological profile of vitiligo in Turkey. Thirty patients were men and 50 were women, with a mean age of 37 years and a mean onset age of 10 years. Vitiligo vulgaris was the most common type, followed by focal, acrofacial, segmental and universal types. Forty-four (55%) patients had an associated autoimmune disease. These associated diseases were Hashimoto thyroiditis in 25, alopecia areata in 10, pernicious anaemia in seven and diabetes mellitus in two patients. Statistically significant changes in human leukocyte antigen in patients with vitiligo were HLA A24,-30, B63, CW6, DR15, DR51, DQ5,-6. Auditory problems were observed in 37.7% patients. Nine of the 20 patients showed unilateral minimal hearing loss (>30 dB), while the other 11 demonstrated bilateral hearing loss (>30 dB) over a large range of frequencies (2000-8000 Hz). Our study demonstrates that vitiligo is a part of systemic autoimmune process. Audiological examination should be performed in all patients for auditory problems which are commonly presented as hypoacusis. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  14. Trauma in Guilan (North of Iran: An Epidemiologic Study

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    Dehnadimoghadam Anoosh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Injuries, especially traffic accidents are so important causes of death, disability, hospital expenses, economic damages to the society which World Health Organization selected them as the main subjects for investigation and research. We have done an epidemiologic study about trauma in Guilan, a province in north of Iran. This is  a descriptive study carried out on patients with traumatic injuries, admitted in Poursina Teaching Hospital, during September 2005 to July 2006. Data were collected prospectively using a data collection form including demographic information, mechanism of trauma, anatomical site of injuries, according to AIS90 and severity of head trauma according to glasgow coma scale (GCS. Data were processed by SPSS 11.5 and are shown in tables and figures. Overall 3598 patients admitted. Mean age was 31.85 ± 17.76 years with male to female ratio  about 3.5:1. Most of patients were 25-44 years old (33.9%. Traffic accidents were the leading  cause of injuries (73.84% and then fall (15.7%. Motorcycle was the most common mode of transport in our patients (47.07% after that car (24.3%. Occurrence of traffic accidents increased through evening. Forty six percent of patients transported to hospital by people or came themselves (46.42%. Head and neck were the most common injured part of body (82.4 %, however about in 81.66% of patients were mild and then limb and pelvis (34.7%. Finally about 2.8% of them died. A trauma especially traffic accidents are an important public health issue in Guilan, we recommend conducting other studies focusing on risk factors in details, and considering injury prevention in local decision making.

  15. Melasma: a clinico-epidemiological study of 312 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achar, Arun; Rathi, Sanjay K

    2011-07-01

    Melasma is an acquired increased pigmentation of the skin, characterized by gray-brown symmetrical patches, mostly in the sun-exposed areas of the skin. The pathogenesis is unknown, but genetic or hormonal influences with UV radiation are important. Our present research aims to study the clinico-epidemiological pattern and the precipitating or provocation factors in melasma. A total of 312 patients were enrolled for the study over a period of one year. The mean age of patients with melasma was 33.45 years, ranging from 14 to 54 years. There was female preponderance with a female to male ratio of approximately 4 : 1. The mean age of onset was 29.99 years, with the youngest and oldest being 11 and 49 years, respectively. The patients sought medical treatment on an average of 3.59 years after appearance of melasma. About 55.12% of our patients reported that their disease exacerbated during sun exposure. Among 250 female patients, 56 reported pregnancy and 46 reported oral contraceptive as the precipitating factors. Only 34 patients had given history of exacerbation of melasma during pregnancy. A positive family history of melasma was observed in 104 (33.33%) patients. Centrofacial was the most common pattern (55.44%) observed in the present study. Wood light examination showed the dermal type being the most common in 54.48% and epidermal and mixed were seen in 21.47% and 24.03% of the cases, respectively. We tried to find an association with endocrinal diseases and observed that 20 of them had hypothyroidism. The exact cause of melasma is unknown. However, many factors have been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Here we try to identify the causative factors and provocation to develop melasma.

  16. Melasma: A clinico-epidemiological study of 312 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Achar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Melasma is an acquired increased pigmentation of the skin, characterized by gray-brown symmetrical patches, mostly in the sun-exposed areas of the skin. The pathogenesis is unknown, but genetic or hormonal influences with UV radiation are important. Aims: Our present research aims to study the clinico-epidemiological pattern and the precipitating or provocation factors in melasma. Materials and Methods: A total of 312 patients were enrolled for the study over a period of one year. Results: The mean age of patients with melasma was 33.45 years, ranging from 14 to 54 years. There was female preponderance with a female to male ratio of approximately 4 : 1. The mean age of onset was 29.99 years, with the youngest and oldest being 11 and 49 years, respectively. The patients sought medical treatment on an average of 3.59 years after appearance of melasma. About 55.12% of our patients reported that their disease exacerbated during sun exposure. Among 250 female patients, 56 reported pregnancy and 46 reported oral contraceptive as the precipitating factors. Only 34 patients had given history of exacerbation of melasma during pregnancy. A positive family history of melasma was observed in 104 (33.33% patients. Centrofacial was the most common pattern (55.44% observed in the present study. Wood light examination showed the dermal type being the most common in 54.48% and epidermal and mixed were seen in 21.47% and 24.03% of the cases, respectively. We tried to find an association with endocrinal diseases and observed that 20 of them had hypothyroidism. Conclusion: The exact cause of melasma is unknown. However, many factors have been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Here we try to identify the causative factors and provocation to develop melasma.

  17. A lack of neuroblastoma in Down syndrome : A study from 11 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Satge, D; Sasco, AJ; Carlsen, NLT; Stiller, CA; Rubie, H; Hero, B; de Bernardi, B; de Kraker, J; Coze, C; Kogner, P; Langmark, F; Hakvoort-Cammel, FGAJ; Beck, D; von der Weid, N; Parkes, S; Hartmann, O; Lippens, RJJ; Kamps, WA; Sommelet, D

    1998-01-01

    An epidemiological investigation in 11 European countries comprising a total childhood population of 54.1 million children and using 8 separate data sources was conducted to evaluate the occurrence of neuroblastoma in Down syndrome (DS). No cases of DS were detected among 6724 infants and children

  18. Assessment of Worldwide Acute Kidney injury Epidemiology in Neonates (AWAKEN): Design of a Retrospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Garcia Jetton; Ronnie Guillet; Askenazi, David J.; Lynn Dill; Judd Jacobs; Alison L Kent; Selewski, David T.; Abitbol, Carolyn L.; Kaskel, Fredrick J.; Maroun Jean Mhanna; Namasivayam Ambalavanan; Charlton, Jennifer R.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury (AKI) affects ~30% of hospitalized neonates. Critical to advancing our understanding of neonatal AKI is collaborative research among neonatologists and nephrologists. The Neonatal Kidney Collaborative (NKC) is an international, multidisciplinary group dedicated to investigating neonatal AKI. The AWAKEN study (Assessment of Worldwide Acute Kidney injury Epidemiology in Neonates) was designed to describe the epidemiology of neonatal AKI, validate the definition...

  19. Assessment of Worldwide Acute Kidney Injury Epidemiology in Neonates: Design of a Retrospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jetton, Jennifer G.; Guillet, Ronnie; Askenazi, David J.; Dill, Lynn; Jacobs, Judd; Alison L Kent; Selewski, David T.; Abitbol, Carolyn L.; Kaskel, Fredrick J.; Mhanna, Maroun J.; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Charlton, Jennifer R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Acute kidney injury (AKI) affects ~30% of hospitalized neonates. Critical to advancing our understanding of neonatal AKI is collaborative research among neonatologists and nephrologists. The Neonatal Kidney Collaborative (NKC) is an international, multidisciplinary group dedicated to investigating neonatal AKI. The AWAKEN study (Assessment of Worldwide Acute Kidney injury Epidemiology in Neonates) was designed to describe the epidemiology of neonatal AKI, validate the definition ...

  20. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF LOW ENERGY FRACTURES IN REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saakyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Until present no data was available inArmeniain respect of incidence of low energy fractures that are typical of osteoporotic locations which consequently did not allow to evaluate the scope of this problem across the country.Purpose of the study – to identify the incidence of low energy fractures in proximal femur, in distal forearm, in proximal humerus and in distal tibia across population ofArmenia aged 50 years and older.Materials and methods. An observing population study was performed in two regions of Armenia during 2011-2013 where the frequency of selected locations in cases of moderate trauma was identified. During 2011-2012 the information was collected based on traumatology service records adding in 2013 other sources including primary level of healthcare due to observed infrequent applications for medical help in cases of trauma. Results. In 2013 the incidence of proximal femur fractures in men was reported as 136 cases per 100 000 of population aged 50 years and older, in women – 201 cases per 100 000. At the same time only 57.7% of patients with proximal femur fractures were admitted to hospital. Distal forearm fractures incidence in men and women was observed correspondingly 56/100 000 and 176/100 000 cases, proximal humerus fractures – 39/100 000 and 86/100 000 cases and distal tibia fractures – 39/100 000 and 86/100 000 cases. The predicted annual number of proximal femur fracture in Armenia amounts to 2067 cases, distal forearm fractures – 1205, proximal humerus fractures – 640.Conclusion. Epidemiological data that was collected for the first time on low energy fractures incidence confirmed the acute osteoporosis issue inArmenia and revealed the problems in organization of medical care for the group of senior patients with injuries.

  1. Use of social media by Western European hospitals: longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Belt, Tom H; Berben, Sivera A A; Samsom, Melvin; Engelen, Lucien J L P G; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2012-05-01

    Patients increasingly use social media to communicate. Their stories could support quality improvements in participatory health care and could support patient-centered care. Active use of social media by health care institutions could also speed up communication and information provision to patients and their families, thus increasing quality even more. Hospitals seem to be becoming aware of the benefits social media could offer. Data from the United States show that hospitals increasingly use social media, but it is unknown whether and how Western European hospitals use social media. To identify to what extent Western European hospitals use social media. In this longitudinal study, we explored the use of social media by hospitals in 12 Western European countries through an Internet search. We collected data for each country during the following three time periods: April to August 2009, August to December 2010, and April to July 2011. We included 873 hospitals from 12 Western European countries, of which 732 were general hospitals and 141 were university hospitals. The number of included hospitals per country ranged from 6 in Luxembourg to 347 in Germany. We found hospitals using social media in all countries. The use of social media increased significantly over time, especially for YouTube (n = 19, 2% to n = 172, 19.7%), LinkedIn (n =179, 20.5% to n = 278, 31.8%), and Facebook (n = 85, 10% to n = 585, 67.0%). Differences in social media usage between the included countries were significant. Social media awareness in Western European hospitals is growing, as well as its use. Social media usage differs significantly between countries. Except for the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, the group of hospitals that is using social media remains small. Usage of LinkedIn for recruitment shows the awareness of the potential of social media. Future research is needed to investigate how social media lead to improved health care.

  2. Epidemiological studies on Brassica vegetables and cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, D.T.H.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Poppel, G. van; Verhagen, H.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the epidemiological data concerning the cancer-preventive effect of brassica vegetables, including cabbage, kale, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower. The protective effect of brassicas against cancer may be due to their relatively high content of

  3. Studies on the Epidemiology of Dracunculiasis in Ikwo Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between April 1999 and March 2000 an epidemiological survey was conducted for prevalence and distribution of dracunculiasis in fifteen communities in Ikwo Local government area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. A total of 4568 persons were examined out of which 640 (14.0%), had active cases of guinea worm. The disease ...

  4. The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study: study design and data collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutsert, R. de; Heijer, M. den; Rabelink, T.J.; Smit, J.W.A.; Romijn, J.A.; Jukema, J.W.; Roos, A. de; Cobbaert, C.M.; Kloppenburg, M.; Cessie, S. le; Middeldorp, S.; Rosendaal, F.R.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a well-established risk factor for many chronic diseases. Incomplete insight exists in the causal pathways responsible for obesity-related disorders and consequently, in the identification of obese individuals at risk of these disorders. The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study

  5. Correlations Between Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma and Other Cancers: An Ecological Study in Forty European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Pablo Fernandez-Crehuet; Serrano, Jose Luis Fernandez-Crehuet; Allam, Mohamed Farouk; Navajas, Rafael Fernandez-Crehuet

    2016-01-01

    The presence of noncutaneous neoplasms does not seem to increase the risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma; however, it seems to be associated with the development of other hematological, brain, breast, uterine, and prostatic neoplasms. An ecological transversal study was conducted to study the geographic association between cutaneous malignant melanoma and 24 localizations of cancer in forty European countries. Cancer incidence rates were extracted from GLOBOCAN database of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We analyzed the age-adjusted and gender-stratified incidence rates for different localizations of cancer in forty European countries and calculated their correlation using Pearson's correlation test. In males, significant correlations were found between cutaneous malignant melanoma with testicular cancer (r = 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68-0.89]), myeloma (r = 0.68 [95% CI: 0.46-0.81]), prostatic carcinoma (r = 0.66 [95% CI: 0.43-0.80]), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (r = 0.63 [95% CI: 0.39-0.78]). In females, significant correlations were found between cutaneous malignant melanoma with breast cancer (r = 0.80 [95% CI: 0.64-0.88]), colorectal cancer (r = 0.72 [95% CI: 0.52-0.83]), and NHL (r = 0.71 [95% CI: 0.50-0.83]). These correlations call to conduct new studies about the epidemiology of cancer in general and cutaneous malignant melanoma risk factors in particular.

  6. Correlations between cutaneous malignant melanoma and other cancers: An ecological study in forty European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Fernandez-Crehuet Serrano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of noncutaneous neoplasms does not seem to increase the risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma; however, it seems to be associated with the development of other hematological, brain, breast, uterine, and prostatic neoplasms. An ecological transversal study was conducted to study the geographic association between cutaneous malignant melanoma and 24 localizations of cancer in forty European countries. Methods: Cancer incidence rates were extracted from GLOBOCAN database of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We analyzed the age-adjusted and gender-stratified incidence rates for different localizations of cancer in forty European countries and calculated their correlation using Pearson′s correlation test. Results: In males, significant correlations were found between cutaneous malignant melanoma with testicular cancer (r = 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.68-0.89], myeloma (r = 0.68 [95% CI: 0.46-0.81], prostatic carcinoma (r = 0.66 [95% CI: 0.43-0.80], and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL (r = 0.63 [95% CI: 0.39-0.78]. In females, significant correlations were found between cutaneous malignant melanoma with breast cancer (r = 0.80 [95% CI: 0.64-0.88], colorectal cancer (r = 0.72 [95% CI: 0.52-0.83], and NHL (r = 0.71 [95% CI: 0.50-0.83]. Conclusions: These correlations call to conduct new studies about the epidemiology of cancer in general and cutaneous malignant melanoma risk factors in particular.

  7. International biological engagement programs facilitate Newcastle disease epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patti J. Miller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Infections of poultry species with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV cause Newcastle disease (ND, one of the most economically significant and devastating diseases for poultry producers worldwide. Biological engagement programs (BEP between the Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory (SEPRL of the United States Department of Agriculture and laboratories from Russia, Pakistan, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Indonesia collectively have produced a better understanding of the genetic diversity and evolution of the viruses responsible for ND, which is crucial for the control of the disease. The data from Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine identified possible migratory routes for birds that may carry both virulent NDV (vNDV and NDV of low virulence into Europe. In addition, related NDV strains were isolated from wild birds in Ukraine and Nigeria, and from birds in continental USA, Alaska, Russia, and Japan, identifying wild birds as a possible mechanism of intercontinental spread of NDV of low virulence. More recently, the detection of new sub-genotypes of vNDV suggests that a new, fifth, panzootic of ND has already originated in Southeast Asia, extended to the Middle East, and is now entering into Eastern Europe. Despite expected challenges when multiple independent laboratories interact, many scientists from the collaborating countries have successfully been trained by SEPRL on molecular diagnostics, best laboratory practices, and critical biosecurity protocols, providing our partners the capacity to further train other employees and to identify locally the viruses that cause this OIE listed disease. These and other collaborations with partners in Mexico, Bulgaria, Israel, and Tanzania have allowed SEPRL scientists to engage in field studies, to elucidate more aspects of ND epidemiology in endemic countries, and to understand the challenges that the scientists and field veterinarians in these countries face on a daily basis. Finally, new viral

  8. An Epidemiological Study of Accidents in Teheran Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzatollah Mahboubi

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the epidemiology of accidents in Tehran City, the author has collected and analysed records of more than 25,000 accident cases for the period 1960-61 from all available sources such as newspaper rapportages,nine major hospitals of Tehran, Forensic Medicine Department of Ministry of Justice, Vital Statistics Department of Ministry of Health, Labors' Insurance Organization, etc. Approximately 1400 deaths and 17000 severe injuries are accident-induced annually in Tehran and accidents are in the sixth place, as causes of death (=6.7%. They rank first as the pause of deaths for the age group 5-45 years (=23.8% and fourth for the age group 1-44. (=9. 6%. The distribution of accident types is as follows:- The distribution of accident types is as follows:-"n1. Motor vehicle accidents                                         27/8%"n2. Other transport accidents                                      3.7%"n3. Drowning                                                            19.6%"n4. Falls and builidng collapses                                      16.8%"n5. Burns (all sorts                                                     12.4%"n6. Poisoning                                                              8.8%"n7. Accident caused by electricity                                  2.6%"n8.all other accident                                                    8.3%"nVarious epidemiological aspects of these accidents and an analysis"nof fights, suicides and murders are given in the body of the paper

  9. Ramadan Perspective Epidemiology and Education in Diabetes (RAPEED) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, N I; Kamrul-Hasan, M; Hossain, M A; Chanda, P K; Bakar, M A; Rahman, M; Kader, M A

    2017-04-01

    Ramadan fasting is one of the five pillars of Islam and is obligatory for all healthy adult and adolescent Muslims. A significant number of patients with diabetes observe fasting during Ramadan. The objectives of this Ramadan Perspective Epidemiology and Education in Diabetes (RAPEED) study were to find out the current knowledge, attitude, and practices about Ramadan fasting among people with diabetes in Bangladesh. This retrospective cross-sectional study recruited 648 subjects with diabetes mellitus attending the Endocrinology outpatient department of a tertiary level hospital of Bangladesh within two months of the end of Ramadan in 2016. Socio-demographic data, data related to diabetes treatment, complications and co-morbidities; changes in lifestyle and diabetes treatment during Ramadan and frequency of hypoglycemia were collected from all. The mean age of the study population was 50.32±12.1 years and the majority (98.6%) had type 2 diabetes and 63.9% were overweight or obese. The majority (89.35%) of the patients fasted in Ramadan and among them, more than half of the fasters received physicians' advice for Ramadan fasting (60.6%) and changed diabetes medication (69.90%) during Ramadan. Although the amount of total food consumption was unchanged in more than one half (60.6%) of the fasters, majority of them reduced sugar-sweet intake (75.5%), increased fluid drinking (75.8%) and decreased physical activity (75.8%) during the month. A large portion (37.48%) of them did not check blood glucose and more than half (54.06%) of fasters failed to visit their physicians during Ramadan. Among them 14.85% experienced mild to moderate episodes of hypoglycemia and none had severe hypoglycemia and the most (61.6%) episodes of hypoglycemia occurred in the late evening. Hypoglycemic episodes were more frequent among insulin users, patients who had received fasting advice from physicians and in those who had adjusted diabetes drugs before Ramadan fasting. Safe Ramadan

  10. Prevalence of age-related maculopathy in older Europeans: The European Eye Study (EUREYE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Augood (Cristina); J.R. Vingerling (Hans); P.T.V.M. de Jong (Paulus); U. Chakravarthy (Usha); J.H. Seland (Johan ); G. Soubrane; L. Tomazzoli (Laura); F. Topouzis (Fotis); G.C. Bentham (Graham ); M. Rahu; J. Vioque (Jesus); I.S. Young (Ian ); A.E. Fletcher (Astrid E.)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To estimate the prevalence of age-related maculopathy in an older population from 7 European countries. Methods: Randomly sampled people 65 years and older were invited to an eye examination in centers across 7 European countries (Norway, Estonia, United Kingdom, France,

  11. Epidemiological study of road traffic accident cases from Western Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Badrinarayan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Road Traffic Accident (RTA is one among the top five causes of morbidity and mortality in South-East Asian countries. [1] Its socioeconomic repercussions are a matter of great concern. Efficient addressing of the issue requires quality information on different causative factors. Research Question: What are different epidemiological determinants of RTA in western Nepal? Objective: To examine the factors associated with RTA. Study Design: Prospective observational. Setting: Study was performed in a tertiary healthcare delivery institute in western Nepal. Participants: 360 victims of RTA who reported to Manipal Teaching hospital in one year. Study Variables: Demographic, human, vehicular, environmental and time factors. Statistical analysis: Percentages, linear and logarithmic trend and Chi-square. Results: Most of the victims i.e. 147 (40.83% were young (15 to 30 years; from low i.e. 114 (31.66% and mid i.e. 198 (55% income families and were passengers i.e. 153 (42.50% and pedestrians i.e. 105 (29.16%. Sever accidents leading to fatal outcome were associated with personal problems (P< 0.01, χ2 - 8.03, recent or on-day conflicts (P< 0.001, χ2 - 18.88 and some evidence of alcohol consumptions (P< 0.001, χ2 - 30.25. Increased prevalence of RTA was also noticed at beginning i.e. 198 (55% and end i.e. 69 (19.16% of journey; in rainy and cloudy conditions (269 i.e. 74.72% and in evening hours (3 to 7 p.m. 159 i.e. 44.16%. Out of 246 vehicles involved; 162 ( 65.85% were old and ill maintained. The contributions of old vehicle to fatal injuries were 33 (50%. Head injury was found in 156 (43.33 % cases and its associated case fatality rate was 90.90%. In spite of a good percentage receiving first aid i.e. 213 (59.16% after RTA; there was a notable delay (174 i.e. 48.33% admitted after 6 h in shifting the cases to the hospitals. The estimated total days lost due to hospital stay was 4620 with an average of 12.83 days per each case. Conclusion

  12. Epidemiological study of snakebites in Ardabil Province (Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzaneh, Esmaeil; Fouladi, Nasrin; Shafaee, Yousef; Mirzamohammadi, Zahra; Naslseraji, Farnaz; Mehrpour, Omid

    2017-03-01

    Average annual incidence of snakebite worldwide is between 5.5 to 1.2 million, and at least 125,000 of them are fatal. In Iran, around 4,500-11,000 snakebites occur annually, and a small number of them are fatal. Snake bites can cause intoxity and immediate death in patients, and the aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological study of snakebites in Ardabil Province. This study was a cross-sectional that has been done on 67 snakebite patients who were admitted to the Imam Khomeini Hospital of Ardabil during 2008-2013. Information included: age and sex of victims, region of incidence, site of bite, hospitalized duration and symptoms. Data analyzed by descriptive statistical methods using SPSS version 19. There was significant difference between the two sexes (p=0.001). There was no significant difference between the mean age of male and female victims (p=0.68). Most of the victims were in the age group of 20-29 years (34.3%). All snakebites happened in rural areas. There was no significant relation between gender of victims and the residential location of victims (p=0.32). Most snakebites happened during 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. (32.8%). Most of the snakebites occurred in spring and summer seasons. Results showed that most of the bites in yearly months was seen in the summer season and the difference between seasons is significant. (p=0001). Most snakebites, with 38 cases (56.7%), were observed on lower limbs and among them right limbs with 20 cases (52.6%) had the greatest number. There was significant difference between organs of bites in victims because the most organs were in the right lower limb (p=0.002). Of all cases, 66 (98.5%) were injured by a species of viper snake. All patients, showed symptoms of pain, swelling, erythema and ecchymosis bite. Twenty-seven (40.3%) of all cases, suffered fainting. Nausea and vomiting were two other common symptoms. The antidote used in patients was 5.1±1.3 vials. The mean incidence rate of snakebite was an estimated

  13. Epidemiological studies on forestomach disorders in cattle and buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Sharma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study epidemiology of forestomach (reticuloruminal, omasal, and abomasal disorders in cattle and buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The 106 buffaloes and 32 cattle referred for treatment to the university large animals teaching hospital with the complaint of gastrointestinal diseases constituted the study material. The cases were diagnosed based on history, clinical examination, hematology, biochemistry, radiography, peritoneal fluid analysis and ultrasonography, rumenotomy, and postmortem. A questionnaire was prepared containing important information on housing, husbandry practices, including feeding practices and individual animal information viz. age, species, month of the year, parity, gestation (month, and recent parturition. The animals were divided into eight groups and analysis of variance was performed to study risk factors associated with each condition. Results: The forestomach disorders are widely prevalent in cattle and buffaloes between April and October, during summer and rainy season (90% and constituted a significant proportion of diseased cows and buffaloes (138/1840 at the hospital. Different forestomach disorders and their prevalence was: Diaphragmatic hernia (DH 17%, traumatic reticuloperitonitis (TRP 14%, idiopathic motility disorder or vagus indigestion (VI 22%, adhesive peritonitis (AP 13%, frank exudative peritonitis (FEP 12%, reticular abscess (RA 8%, ruminal and omasal impaction (RI 5%, and abomaso duodenal ulceration (ADU 9%. DH and RA were significantly more common in buffaloes as compared to cattle. Similarly, impactions were more in buffaloes but its incidence was very low (5%. ADU was present in buffalo as commonly as in cows. Exclusive feeding of wheat straw was present in an abysmally low number of animals and hence could not be considered the cause of these disorders. DH was significantly higher in buffaloes (>5 years of 5-8 years of age and TRP, VI and AP were observed in cattle and buffalo of 2-8 years

  14. Epidemiology of small intestinal atresia in Europe: a register-based study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Best, Kate E

    2012-09-01

    The epidemiology of congenital small intestinal atresia (SIA) has not been well studied. This study describes the presence of additional anomalies, pregnancy outcomes, total prevalence and association with maternal age in SIA cases in Europe.

  15. Defining the Long-Toss: A Professional Baseball Epidemiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Austin V.; Mannava, Sandeep; Patel, Anita; Marquez-Lara, Alejandro; Freehill, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite widespread use of long-toss throwing in baseball as a component of arm conditioning, interval throwing programs, and rehabilitation, long-toss distance and throwing mechanics remain controversial. Purpose: To ascertain the perceived definition of long-toss throwing through a survey of professional pitchers, pitching coaches (PCs), and certified athletic trainers (ATCs) associated with Major League Baseball. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Pitchers, PCs, and ATCs associated with 5 Major League Baseball organizations completed an anonymous survey that collected demographic data, personal use of long-toss throwing, and their perception of the distance and throwing mechanics that comprised long-toss. Results: A total of 321 surveys were completed by 271 pitchers, 19 PCs, and 31 ATCs. For all respondents, the mean distance considered as long-toss was 175 ft (95% CI, 170-181 ft). Respondents categorized the throwing mechanics of long-toss, with 36% reporting throwing “on a line” and 70% reporting long-toss as “not on a line.” Of those throwing “on a line,” 28% reported using crow-hop footwork while 60% used crow-hop footwork when throwing “not on a line.” Interpretation of long-toss distance significantly varied by position: pitchers, 177 ft (95% CI, 171-183 ft); PCs, 177 ft (95% CI, 155-200 ft); and ATCs, 157 ft (95% CI, 144-169 ft) (P = .048). When asked when long-toss throwing is used, pitchers reported using it more frequently in preseason (P = .007), during the season (P = .015), and in the off-season (P = .002) compared with that by ATCs. Functional goals for long-toss throwing demonstrated that pitchers and PCs use long-toss for shoulder stretching more frequently than ATCs (P < .001 and P = .026, respectively). ATCs used long-toss more than pitchers for interval throwing programs (P < .001). Conclusion: The definition varies for long-toss throwing distance and throwing mechanics. Pitchers and PCs believe

  16. Bias from historical control groups used in orthodontic research: a meta-epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Koretsi, Vasiliki; Jäger, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    The validity of meta-analysis is dependent upon the quality of included studies. Here, we investigated whether the design of untreated control groups (i.e. source and timing of data collection) influences the results of clinical trials in orthodontic research. This meta-epidemiological study used unrestricted literature searching for meta-analyses in orthodontics including clinical trials with untreated control groups. Differences in standardized mean differences (ΔSMD) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated according to the untreated control group through multivariable random-effects meta-regression controlling for nature of the interventional group and study sample size. Effects were pooled with random-effects synthesis, followed by mixed-effect subgroup and sensitivity analyses. Studies with historical control groups reported deflated treatment effects compared to studies with concurrent control groups (13 meta-analyses; ΔSMD = -0.31; 95% CI = -0.53, -0.10; P = 0.004). Significant differences were found according to the type of historical control group (based either on growth study or clinical archive; 11 meta-analyses; ΔSMD = 0.40; 95% CI = 0.21, 0.59; P groups in orthodontic clinical research was associated with deflation of treatment effects, which was independent from whether the interventional group was prospective or retrospective and from the study's sample size. Caution is warranted when interpreting clinical studies with historical untreated control groups or when interpreting systematic reviews that include such studies. PROSPERO (CRD42015024179). None. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Multicollinearity in Regression Analyses Conducted in Epidemiologic Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Vatcheva, Kristina P.; Lee, MinJae; McCormick, Joseph B.; Rahbar, Mohammad H

    2016-01-01

    The adverse impact of ignoring multicollinearity on findings and data interpretation in regression analysis is very well documented in the statistical literature. The failure to identify and report multicollinearity could result in misleading interpretations of the results. A review of epidemiological literature in PubMed from January 2004 to December 2013, illustrated the need for a greater attention to identifying and minimizing the effect of multicollinearity in analysis of data from epide...

  18. [Hygienic and epidemiological aspects of Escherichia coli infections in light of recent epidemic in European Union countries 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szot, Wojciech; Potocki, Artur; Kolarzyk, Emilia

    2011-01-01

    The events of the spring 2011 linked to the outbreak of a new strain of Eschericha coli bacteria reflected worldwide in the media. Just like two years earlier in the case of pandemic influenza A-H1N1, also this time there was panic in media, flood of news, often contradictory and mutually exclusive information and attempts to make reliable evaluations of what exactly been happening. Known for decades Eschericha coli bacterium, probably as a result of human activity (excessive use of antibiotics) appeared in the form of new, dangerous strain. What's worse, it was also shown that both European Commission and WHO agencies are having serious problems while dealing with similar, outbreak-like situations. The problem is not with dealing with epidemic itself, but rather with population hysteria, public opinion and media in general. In this article an attempt has been made to characterize the bacteria Escherichia coli, the most common form of infection and health threats, as well as a brief description of the epidemic in 2011 and actions taken by European Union and governments of countries where disease appeared.

  19. Traumatic dental injuries in Serbian children: Epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Ana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Comprehensive epidemiological data regarding factors associated with traumatic dental injuries are scarce. Objective. The aim of the present study was to assess the frequency and analyze the factors associated with traumatic dental injuries in Serbian children. Methods. Research included children and adolescents with traumatic dental injury aged 0-19 year during the period from 2003 to 2010, in four University Dental Centres in Serbia: Belgrade, Nis, Novi Sad and Kragujevac. Patient history, demographic, clinical and radiographic data were obtained from dental trauma forms. Results. Total of 2,194 patients (748 girls, 1,446 boys (χ2=222.1; p<0.01 with 3,077 injured teeth in permanent and 953 in primary dentition were observed. Most of patients were aged 7 to 12 years (n=1,191. The most frequent injuries in primary and permanent dentition were dislocations (87.4% and teeth fractures (50.8%, respectively (χ2=706.1; p<0.01. The most frequent mechanism of injury was fall in children aged 0 to 12 years, while the collisions were most frequent in adolescents (53.9%. The most frequent injuries in adolescents were inflicted outdoor (66.8%, while the injuries in children aged 0 to 3 years occurred at home (68.2%, (χ2=360.8; p<0.01. The most frequent injuries in girls were accidental (48.3%, and in boys these were sport injuries (20.4% and violence (10.4% (χ2=79.9; p<0.01. The most frequent cause of injury in children aged 0 to 3 years was accidental (75.6%, while in adolescents it was sport (34.1% (χ2=1102.7; p<0.01. Conclusion. Dental injuries in preschool children most frequently resulted from fall at home. Schoolchildren most frequently injured teeth outdoor during play. Violence and sport injuries were most frequent cause of injury in adolescents. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172026

  20. Defining the Long-Toss: A Professional Baseball Epidemiological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Austin V; Mannava, Sandeep; Patel, Anita; Marquez-Lara, Alejandro; Freehill, Michael T

    2017-02-01

    Despite widespread use of long-toss throwing in baseball as a component of arm conditioning, interval throwing programs, and rehabilitation, long-toss distance and throwing mechanics remain controversial. To ascertain the perceived definition of long-toss throwing through a survey of professional pitchers, pitching coaches (PCs), and certified athletic trainers (ATCs) associated with Major League Baseball. Descriptive epidemiology study. Pitchers, PCs, and ATCs associated with 5 Major League Baseball organizations completed an anonymous survey that collected demographic data, personal use of long-toss throwing, and their perception of the distance and throwing mechanics that comprised long-toss. A total of 321 surveys were completed by 271 pitchers, 19 PCs, and 31 ATCs. For all respondents, the mean distance considered as long-toss was 175 ft (95% CI, 170-181 ft). Respondents categorized the throwing mechanics of long-toss, with 36% reporting throwing "on a line" and 70% reporting long-toss as "not on a line." Of those throwing "on a line," 28% reported using crow-hop footwork while 60% used crow-hop footwork when throwing "not on a line." Interpretation of long-toss distance significantly varied by position: pitchers, 177 ft (95% CI, 171-183 ft); PCs, 177 ft (95% CI, 155-200 ft); and ATCs, 157 ft (95% CI, 144-169 ft) (P = .048). When asked when long-toss throwing is used, pitchers reported using it more frequently in preseason (P = .007), during the season (P = .015), and in the off-season (P = .002) compared with that by ATCs. Functional goals for long-toss throwing demonstrated that pitchers and PCs use long-toss for shoulder stretching more frequently than ATCs (P distance and throwing mechanics. Pitchers and PCs believe that long-toss comprised longer distances than ATCs and employed long-toss differently for strength conditioning, training, stretching, and rehabilitation. This discrepancy highlights a potential lost opportunity for protecting the shoulder

  1. Genetic determinants of lipid traits in diverse populations from the population architecture using genomics and epidemiology (PAGE study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan Dumitrescu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For the past five years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified hundreds of common variants associated with human diseases and traits, including high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and triglyceride (TG levels. Approximately 95 loci associated with lipid levels have been identified primarily among populations of European ancestry. The Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE study was established in 2008 to characterize GWAS-identified variants in diverse population-based studies. We genotyped 49 GWAS-identified SNPs associated with one or more lipid traits in at least two PAGE studies and across six racial/ethnic groups. We performed a meta-analysis testing for SNP associations with fasting HDL-C, LDL-C, and ln(TG levels in self-identified European American (~20,000, African American (~9,000, American Indian (~6,000, Mexican American/Hispanic (~2,500, Japanese/East Asian (~690, and Pacific Islander/Native Hawaiian (~175 adults, regardless of lipid-lowering medication use. We replicated 55 of 60 (92% SNP associations tested in European Americans at p<0.05. Despite sufficient power, we were unable to replicate ABCA1 rs4149268 and rs1883025, CETP rs1864163, and TTC39B rs471364 previously associated with HDL-C and MAFB rs6102059 previously associated with LDL-C. Based on significance (p<0.05 and consistent direction of effect, a majority of replicated genotype-phentoype associations for HDL-C, LDL-C, and ln(TG in European Americans generalized to African Americans (48%, 61%, and 57%, American Indians (45%, 64%, and 77%, and Mexican Americans/Hispanics (57%, 56%, and 86%. Overall, 16 associations generalized across all three populations. For the associations that did not generalize, differences in effect sizes, allele frequencies, and linkage disequilibrium offer clues to the next generation of association studies for these traits.

  2. Convergence to the European Energy Policy in European countries: case studies and comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Teixeira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Our paper aims at analyzing how different European countries cope with the European Energy Policy, which proposes a set of measures (free energy market, smart meters, energy certificates to improve energy utilization and management in Europe.Design/methodology/approach – The paper first reports the general vision, regulations and goals set up by Europe to implement the European Energy Policy. Later on, it performs an analysis of how some European countries are coping with the goals, with financial, legal, economical and regulatory measures. Finally, the paper draws a comparison between the countries to present a view on how Europe is responding to the emerging energy emergency of the modern world.Findings – Our analysis on different use cases (countries showed that European countries are converging to a common energy policy, even though some countries appear to be later than others In particular, Southern European countries were slowed down by the world financial and economical crisis. Still, it appears that contingency plans were put into action, and Europe as a whole is proceeding steadily towards the common vision.Research limitations/implications – European countries are applying yet more cuts to financing green technologies, and it is not possible to predict clearly how each country will evolve its support to the European energy policy.Practical implications – Different countries applied the concepts and measures in different ways. The implementation of the European energy policy has to cope with the resulting plethora of regulations, and a company proposing enhancement regarding energy management still has to possess robust knowledge of the single country, before being able to export experience and know-how between European countries.Originality/Value – Even though a few surveys on energy measures in Europe are already part of the state-of-the-art, organic analysis diagonal to the different topics of the European

  3. Strategies to Optimize the Impact of Nutritional Surveys and Epidemiological Studies 1 2

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Densie; Leahy, Margaret M.; Milner, John A.; Allison, David B.; Dodd, Kevin W.; Gaine, P. Courtney; Matthews, Robert A.J.; Schneeman, Barbara O.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Young, S. Stanley

    2013-01-01

    The development of nutrition and health guidelines and policies requires reliable scientific information. Unfortunately, theoretical considerations and empirical evidence indicate that a large percentage of science-based claims rely on studies that fail to replicate. The session "Strategies to Optimize the Impact of Nutrition Surveys and Epidemiological Studies" focused on the elements of design, interpretation, and communication of nutritional surveys and epidemiological studies to enhance a...

  4. What is desirable and feasible in dose reconstruction for application in epidemiological studies?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouville, A.; Beebe, G.W. [National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States); Anspaugh, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Epidemiological studies of populations are of two general forms, monitoring or formal, and serve several possible purposes. Monitoring studies inform members of potentially affected population groups of the nature and magnitude of the risks that might have been imposed on them. Formal epidemiological studies can increase scientific knowledge about the quantitative risk that attends exposure. Risks of human health due to radiation exposure are most appropriately estimated by means of formal epidemiological studies. Dosimetric data are essential for any epidemiological study, but the detail and accuracy needed depend on the purposes to be served. If the need is for a monitoring study, then general information about doses will suffice. However, a formal study that is expected to contribute to scientific information about quantitative radiation risk requires careful individual dose estimation. This paper is devoted to the discussion of dosimetric data needed for formal epidemiological studies of populations exposed as a result of nuclear power operations. The recommendations made by the National Research Council have largely been followed. The examples used in this paper are relevant to the Chernobyl accident, which caused a large number of people to be exposed at relatively high doses and provided an opportunity for formal epidemiological studies to be initiated. The studies that are singled out are those of thyroid cancer among children who resided in Belarus and in Ukraine at the time of the accident, and those of leukemia among workers involved in the mitigation of the accident and in clean-up operations.

  5. 32nd European Study Group with Industry, Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ESGI (European Study Group with Industry) is Europe's leading workshop for interaction between mathematicians and industry. These workshops have taken place in Great Britain for a number of years, going back to 1968 when Prof. Alan Tayler initiated the so-called Oxford Study Group with Industry...... expertise.Danfoss wanted a an analysis and optimization of a scroll compressor.DANISCO wanted a model for the heat and moisture transport in sugar silos.Danish Maritime Institute wanted to optimize a dynamical position system in order to keep a wessel stationary on the surface of the ocean.Grundfos wanted...

  6. An epidemiological study of mental disorders at Pune, Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balbir S Deswal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The WHO Global Burden of Disease study estimates that mental and addictive disorders are among the most burdensome in the world, and their burden will increase over the next decades. The mental and behavioral disorders account for about 12% of the global burden of disease. However, these estimates and projections are based largely on literature review rather than cross-national epidemiological surveys. In India, little is known about the extent, severity and unmet need of treatment mental disorders. Thus, there was a need to carry out rigorously implemented general population surveys that estimate the prevalence of mental disorders among urban population at Pune, Maharashtra. The study attempted to address unmet need and to form a basis for formulating the mental health need of the community. Objective: The study was undertaken to estimate the lifetime prevalence and 12 month prevalence of specific mental disorders in urban population, socio-demographic correlates of mental disorders and to assess the service utilization in individuals with mental disorders. Materials and Methods: The study was undertaken among adults aged 18 years and above living in house hold and in geographical area of Pune , Maharashtra. A minimum sample of 3000 completed interviews was planned using representative probabilities to population size (PPS sampling method which ensured equal probability for every eligible member. Data listing was obtained from Census Office from recent census of 2001 data. The face to face interviews were undertaken in homes using fully structured interview schedule of World Mental Health Survey Initiative duly revised Version of WHO- Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0 by trained investigators. Clinical reappraisal was carried out using Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN among ten percent of diagnosed cases selected randomly. Data were entered into DDE (Blaize Software and analyzed using

  7. The Exposure Dimension of Environmental Epidemiology: A Critical but Under-ExploredStudy Quality Issue in Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological research plays a critical role in assessing the effects of various chemical, physical, oiological, and social exposures on human health both in the general population and the workplace. However, even epidemiological studies that are specifically designed to test c...

  8. A sera-epidemiological cross-sectional study of hepatitis B virus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    epidemiological community-based cross- sectional study. Setting. All nine provinces of Zimbabwe. Palticipants. From April 1989 to December 1991 serum samples were collected tram 1 461 males and 1 933 females in the age group 10 - 61 ...

  9. Webinar Presentation: Epidemiologic Studies of the Effects of Toxic Exposures on Brain and Behavior: Neuropsychological Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, Epidemiologic Studies of the Effects of Toxic Exposures on Brain and Behavior: Neuropsychological Assessment, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Neurodevelopment.

  10. Clinical epidemiological studies of women undergoing surgery for urogynaecological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Rikke Guldberg

    2015-10-01

    This PhD thesis was performed during my employment at the Center for Clinical Epidemiology, Odense University Hospital and University of Southern Denmark, 2010-2013. It comprises an overview and four papers, two published in international peer-reviewed scientific journals, one under review, and one in draft. Urinary incontinence (UI) and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) are prevalent disorders among women worldwide, affecting their psychological and social wellbeing, with reductions in quality of life. Treatment options are conservative (e.g. pelvic floor exercises, weight loss, and bladder training), pharmacological, and surgical. Surgery has especially for UI undergone an improvement during the last decades with development of minimally-invasive sub-urethral sling procedures, and the number of surgeries has increased in Denmark and other countries. In a population of Danish women undergoing surgery for UI or POP, we aimed: to describe the establishment of the Danish Urogynaecological Database (DugaBase), and to evaluate the completeness and the validity of surgery registration in the DugaBase; to study patient reported outcome measures in Danish women undergoing urogynaecological surgery; to study the use of symptom-relieving drugs before and after surgery for UI; to study the use of antibiotics for urinary tract infection (UTI) before and after surgery for UI METHODS: Study I The completeness of DugaBase was assessed by comparing procedure codes in the DugaBase to iodes registered in the National Patient Registry, 2006-2010. The study also included review of medical journals from 200 women (computed randomly from DugaBase), representing 22 departments in Denmark. Information on selected variables was compared to registered data in the DugaBase. the National Patient Registry, the DugaBase, and medical records. Study II was based on a national cohort of women undergoing surgery for UI and POP registered in the DugaBase, 2006-2011. Clinical data and data from patient

  11. What Are Reasons for the Large Gender Differences in the Lethality of Suicidal Acts? An Epidemiological Analysis in Four European Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Mergl

    Full Text Available In Europe, men have lower rates of attempted suicide compared to women and at the same time a higher rate of completed suicides, indicating major gender differences in lethality of suicidal behaviour. The aim of this study was to analyse the extent to which these gender differences in lethality can be explained by factors such as choice of more lethal methods or lethality differences within the same suicide method or age. In addition, we explored gender differences in the intentionality of suicide attempts.Methods. Design: Epidemiological study using a combination of self-report and official data. Setting: Mental health care services in four European countries: Germany, Hungary, Ireland, and Portugal. Data basis: Completed suicides derived from official statistics for each country (767 acts, 74.4% male and assessed suicide attempts excluding habitual intentional self-harm (8,175 acts, 43.2% male. Main Outcome Measures and Data Analysis. We collected data on suicidal acts in eight regions of four European countries participating in the EU-funded "OSPI-Europe"-project (www.ospi-europe.com. We calculated method-specific lethality using the number of completed suicides per method * 100 / (number of completed suicides per method + number of attempted suicides per method. We tested gender differences in the distribution of suicidal acts for significance by using the χ2-test for two-by-two tables. We assessed the effect sizes with phi coefficients (φ. We identified predictors of lethality with a binary logistic regression analysis. Poisson regression analysis examined the contribution of choice of methods and method-specific lethality to gender differences in the lethality of suicidal acts.Suicidal acts (fatal and non-fatal were 3.4 times more lethal in men than in women (lethality 13.91% (regarding 4106 suicidal acts versus 4.05% (regarding 4836 suicidal acts, the difference being significant for the methods hanging, jumping, moving objects, sharp

  12. What Are Reasons for the Large Gender Differences in the Lethality of Suicidal Acts? An Epidemiological Analysis in Four European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Katherina; Székely, András; Tóth, Mónika Ditta; Coyne, James; Quintão, Sónia; Arensman, Ella; Coffey, Claire; Maxwell, Margaret; Värnik, Airi; van Audenhove, Chantal; McDaid, David; Sarchiapone, Marco; Schmidtke, Armin; Genz, Axel; Gusmão, Ricardo; Hegerl, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Background In Europe, men have lower rates of attempted suicide compared to women and at the same time a higher rate of completed suicides, indicating major gender differences in lethality of suicidal behaviour. The aim of this study was to analyse the extent to which these gender differences in lethality can be explained by factors such as choice of more lethal methods or lethality differences within the same suicide method or age. In addition, we explored gender differences in the intentionality of suicide attempts. Methods and Findings Methods. Design: Epidemiological study using a combination of self-report and official data. Setting: Mental health care services in four European countries: Germany, Hungary, Ireland, and Portugal. Data basis: Completed suicides derived from official statistics for each country (767 acts, 74.4% male) and assessed suicide attempts excluding habitual intentional self-harm (8,175 acts, 43.2% male). Main Outcome Measures and Data Analysis. We collected data on suicidal acts in eight regions of four European countries participating in the EU-funded “OSPI-Europe”-project (www.ospi-europe.com). We calculated method-specific lethality using the number of completed suicides per method * 100 / (number of completed suicides per method + number of attempted suicides per method). We tested gender differences in the distribution of suicidal acts for significance by using the χ2-test for two-by-two tables. We assessed the effect sizes with phi coefficients (φ). We identified predictors of lethality with a binary logistic regression analysis. Poisson regression analysis examined the contribution of choice of methods and method-specific lethality to gender differences in the lethality of suicidal acts. Findings Main Results Suicidal acts (fatal and non-fatal) were 3.4 times more lethal in men than in women (lethality 13.91% (regarding 4106 suicidal acts) versus 4.05% (regarding 4836 suicidal acts)), the difference being significant for the

  13. Incidence and time trends of childhood lymphomas: findings from 14 Southern and Eastern European cancer registries and the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakis, Marios K; Karalexi, Maria A; Agius, Domenic; Antunes, Luis; Bastos, Joana; Coza, Daniela; Demetriou, Anna; Dimitrova, Nadya; Eser, Sultan; Florea, Margareta; Ryzhov, Anton; Sekerija, Mario; Žagar, Tina; Zborovskaya, Anna; Zivkovic, Snezana; Bouka, Evdoxia; Kanavidis, Prodromos; Dana, Helen; Hatzipantelis, Emmanuel; Kourti, Maria; Moschovi, Maria; Polychronopoulou, Sophia; Stiakaki, Eftichia; Kantzanou, Μaria; Pourtsidis, Apostolos; Petridou, Eleni Th

    2016-11-01

    To describe epidemiologic patterns of childhood (0-14 years) lymphomas in the Southern and Eastern European (SEE) region in comparison with the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER), USA, and explore tentative discrepancies. Childhood lymphomas were retrieved from 14 SEE registries (n = 4,702) and SEER (n = 4,416), diagnosed during 1990-2014; incidence rates were estimated and time trends were evaluated. Overall age-adjusted incidence rate was higher in SEE (16.9/106) compared to SEER (13.6/106), because of a higher incidence of Hodgkin (HL, 7.5/106 vs. 5.1/106) and Burkitt lymphoma (BL, 3.1 vs. 2.3/106), whereas the incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) was overall identical (5.9/106 vs. 5.8/106), albeit variable among SEE. Incidence increased with age, except for BL which peaked at 4 years; HL in SEE also showed an early male-specific peak at 4 years. The male preponderance was more pronounced for BL and attenuated with increasing age for HL. Increasing trends were noted in SEER for total lymphomas and NHL, and was marginal for HL, as contrasted to the decreasing HL and NHL trends generally observed in SEE registries, with the exception of increasing HL incidence in Portugal; of note, BL incidence trend followed a male-specific increasing trend in SEE. Registry-based data reveal variable patterns and time trends of childhood lymphomas in SEE and SEER during the last decades, possibly reflecting diverse levels of socioeconomic development of the populations in the respective areas; optimization of registration process may allow further exploration of molecular characteristics of disease subtypes.

  14. Burnout in European family doctors: the EGPRN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Jean Karl; Yaman, Hakan; Esteva, Magdalena; Dobbs, Frank; Asenova, Radost Spiridonova; Katic, Milica; Ozvacic, Zlata; Desgranges, Jean Pierre; Moreau, Alain; Lionis, Christos; Kotányi, Péter; Carelli, Francesco; Nowak, Pawel R; de Aguiar Sá Azeredo, Zaida; Marklund, Eva; Churchill, Dick; Ungan, Mehmet

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of burnout, and of associated factors, amongst family doctors (FDs) in European countries. Methodology. A cross-sectional survey of FDs was conducted using a custom-designed and validated questionnaire which incorporated the Maslach Burnout Inventory Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) as well as questions about demographic factors, working experience, health, lifestyle and job satisfaction. MBI-HSS scores were analysed in the three dimensions of emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP) and personal accomplishment (PA). Almost 3500 questionnaires were distributed in 12 European countries, and 1393 were returned to give a response rate of 41%. In terms of burnout, 43% of respondents scored high for EE burnout, 35% for DP and 32% for PA, with 12% scoring high burnout in all three dimensions. Just over one-third of doctors did not score high for burnout in any dimension. High burnout was found to be strongly associated with several of the variables under study, especially those relative to respondents' country of residence and European region, job satisfaction, intention to change job, sick leave utilization, the (ab)use of alcohol, tobacco and psychotropic medication, younger age and male sex. Burnout seems to be a common problem in FDs across Europe and is associated with personal and workload indicators, and especially job satisfaction, intention to change job and the (ab)use of alcohol, tobacco and medication. The study questionnaire appears to be a valid tool to measure burnout in FDs. Recommendations for employment conditions of FDs and future research are made, and suggestions for improving the instrument are listed.

  15. European education on natural disasters - a textbook study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komac, B.; Zorn, M.; Ciglič, R.

    2013-05-01

    Present is the role of formal education on natural disasters in Europe. To ensure a uniform overview, the study used secondary-school geography textbooks from the collection of textbooks at the Georg Eckert Institute for International Textbook Research in Braunschweig, Germany. Altogether, more than 160 textbooks from 36 European countries were examined in order to investigate how much their content (pages, text, figures) is related to natural-disasters topics, and to find out which types of hazards are presented more often. In the research it was also analyzed which disaster events are frequently used as an example.

  16. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Epidemiology and Networks"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 201758th ESPR Annual Meeting, 7th International Congress of UENPS, 3rd International Congress of EFCNIORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR, European Society for Neonatology (ESN, Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS, European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNIORGANIZING COMMITTEELuc Zimmermann (President of ESPR, Morten Breindahl (President of ESN, Manuel Sánchez Luna (President of UENPS, Silke Mader (Chairwoman of the Executive Board and Co-Founder of EFCNISCIENTIFIC COMMITTEEVirgilio P. Carnielli (Congress President Chair, Pierre Gressens (Past Scientific President, Umberto Simeoni, Manon Benders, Neil Marlow, Ola D. Saugstad, Petra Hüppi, Agnes van den HoogenSession "Epidemiology and Networks"ABS 1. AN EVALUATION OF DOCTORS AND MEDICAL STUDENT’S KNOWLEDGE OF PAEDIATRIC VACCINATIONS IN PAKISTAN • N. NadeemABS 2. AN EVALUATION OF DOCTORS AND MEDICAL STUDENT’S ATTITUDES AND BELIEFS OF PAEDIATRIC VACCINATIONS IN PAKISTAN • N. NadeemABS 3. APPLYING DATA MINING TECHNIQUES TO PREDICT BRONCHOPULMONARY DYSPLASIA IN VERY-LOW-BIRTH-WEIGHT (VLBW INFANTS. A POPULATION-BASED STUDY • Y.J. Lin, C.H. Lin, Y.C. Lin, Y.S. Chang, C.C. Huang, K.I. TsouABS 4. IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO PERFLUOROALKYL AND POLYFLUOROALKYL SUBSTANCES AND ATTENTION AND EXECUTIVE FUNCTION IN THE OFFSPRING • C.C. Bach, Z. Liew, N.B. Matthiesen, T.B. Henriksen, B.H. Bech, E.A. Nohr, E.C. Bonefeld-Jørgensen, J. OlsenABS 5. MORTALITY, MORBIDITY AND SHORT-TERM RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY OUTCOMES IN EXTREME PRETERM NEONATES: A 5 YEAR STUDY • H. Jarvis, M. Sdobnikovs, J. William, F. Dean, P. SatodiaABS 6. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN MATERNAL BODY MASS INDEX IN EARLY PREGNANCY AND INCIDENCE OF CEREBRAL PALSY • S. Johansson, E. Villamor, K. Tedroff, M. Peterson, M. Neovius, G. Petersson, S

  17. [Multicentric lymphoma in 411 dogs - an epidemiological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Theresa; Kessler, Martin; Lautscham, Esther; Willimzig, Lisanne; Neiger, Reto

    2016-08-17

    To provide an overview of the epidemiology of canine multicentric lymphoma in Germany. A total of 411 dogs with multicentric malignant lymphoma were retrospectively analysed regarding breed, age, sex, weight and the number of animals dogs with hypercalcaemic lymphoma and B-/T-immunophenotype, and compared to two reference populations (total own clinic population, n   =   52  142; dogs with health insurance in Germany, n   =   123  423). In total, 298 (72.5%) of the 411 dogs belonged to 86 different breeds, while 113 (27.5%) dogs were mixed breed. In comparison to both reference populations, a breed predisposition for the American Pitbull Terrier (odds ratio [OR] 5.2 and 18.5), American Staffordshire Terrier (OR 3.3 and 4.6), Briard (OR 5.6 and 9.5), Bullmastiff (OR 7.8 and 5.0), Irish Setter (OR 3.3 and 4.1) and Rottweiler (OR 2.8 and 3.6) was found. Golden Retrievers (n = 22, OR 1.3 and 0.9) and Bernese Mountain Dogs (n = 22, OR 2.4 and 2.0) were frequently affected in absolute numbers, but when compared to the reference populations an OR < 3 was detected. Mean body weight was 30.2 ± 13.7 kg; only 75 (18%) dogs weighed < 15 kg. Amongst the small dogs (< 15 kg), there was a large number of West Highland White Terriers (n = 12). Mean age of the dogs with lymphoma was 7.9 ± 2.7 years. Dogs weighing ≥ 15 kg were significantly (p < 0.001) younger (7.6 ± 2.4 years) compared to dogs weighing < 15 kg (9.3 ± 3.2 years). Dogs with a B-cell immunophenotype (8.5 ± 2.6 years) were significantly older compared to dogs with a T-cell immunophenotype (6.4 ± 1.8 years) (p < 0.001). There was no gender predisposition (54% male, 46% female). Hypercalcaemia as an indicator of T-cell lymphoma was present in 44 (11.4%) of the dogs. A T-cell and B-cell immunophenotype was found in 20.6% and 79.4% of the dogs, respectively. This study confirms previous data about breed predispositions for canine malignant multicentric

  18. Need for a European approach to the effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on cancer. ELF-EMF European Feasibility Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    A European feasibility study on environmental exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) and cancer was conducted. The study was motivated by public health concern about possible adverse health effects associated with ELF-EMF exposure. A review of completed research in Europe was conducted. Information on the methods and accessibility of new epidemiologic studies were requested and reviewed. Eight studies on environmental ELF-EMF exposure have been completed in Europe while 15 large studies are in progress. Although there is no known mechanism by which electric or magnetic fields of this frequency could play a role in the development of cancer or other adverse health effects, the results of the studies conducted so far provide some support for the hypothesis that they are associated with the incidence of childhood leukemia. The best use of available data will be made through a pooled re-analysis of data, particularly those on childhood tumors. It is recommended to apply multiple methods for exposure assessment in view of the heterogeneity in the methods used in different studies. New multicenter case-referent studies should not be initiated until the results of the large on-going studies have been reported. Prospective cohort studies will have to be very large to identify moderate excess risks resulting from environmental exposure to ELF-EMF, and their feasibility should be discussed after the results of the on-going case-referent studies have been reported. A European collaborative approach will lead to greater statistical power and will assess the exposure-effect association under differing exposure patterns and distributions of potential confounding factors.

  19. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute retrovirus epidemiology donor studies (Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study and Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II): twenty years of research to advance blood product safety and availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Steven; King, Melissa R; Busch, Michael P; Murphy, Edward L; Glynn, Simone A

    2012-10-01

    The Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study (REDS), conducted from 1989 to 2001, and the REDS-II, conducted from 2004 to 2012, were National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded, multicenter programs focused on improving blood safety and availability in the United States. The REDS-II also included international study sites in Brazil and China. The 3 major research domains of REDS/REDS-II have been infectious disease risk evaluation, blood donation availability, and blood donor characterization. Both programs have made significant contributions to transfusion medicine research methodology by the use of mathematical modeling, large-scale donor surveys, innovative methods of repository sample storage, and establishing an infrastructure that responded to potential emerging blood safety threats such as xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus. Blood safety studies have included protocols evaluating epidemiologic and/or laboratory aspects of human immunodeficiency virus, human T-lymphotropic virus 1/2, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, West Nile virus, cytomegalovirus, human herpesvirus 8, parvovirus B19, malaria, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, influenza, and Trypanosoma cruzi infections. Other analyses have characterized blood donor demographics, motivations to donate, factors influencing donor return, behavioral risk factors, donors' perception of the blood donation screening process, and aspects of donor deferral. In REDS-II, 2 large-scale blood donor protocols examined iron deficiency in donors and the prevalence of leukocyte antibodies. This review describes the major study results from over 150 peer-reviewed articles published by these 2 REDS programs. In 2011, a new 7-year program, the Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III, was launched. The Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III expands beyond donor-based research to include studies of blood transfusion recipients in the hospital setting and adds a third country, South Africa

  20. Review of epidemiological studies on the occupational risk of tuberculosis in low-incidence areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidler, Andreas; Nienhaus, Albert; Diel, Roland

    2005-01-01

    This review summarizes the epidemiological evidence for occupationally acquired tuberculosis and considers the implications for the prevention of tuberculosis. The relevant epidemiological studies were identified on the basis of the Medline data bank, starting with the year 1966. The evaluation of occupational groups with an elevated tuberculosis risk is exclusively based on epidemiologic studies of good or acceptable quality, applying clearly defined criteria of methodological quality. In summary, the available epidemiological evidence suggests that the risk of tuberculosis is elevated in the following occupational groups: hospital employees in wards with tuberculosis patients; nurses in hospitals; nurses attending HIV-positive or drug-addicted patients; pathology and laboratory workers; respiratory therapists and physiotherapists; physicians in internal medicine, anaesthesia, surgery and psychiatry; non-medical hospital personnel in housekeeping and transport work; funeral home employees, and prison employees. However, the epidemiological evidence is limited for all these occupations, with the exception of the nurses, because of the lack of methodologically adequate studies that have got the statistical power to differentiate between specific work tasks. There is a need for large population-based studies with precise definition of exposure, which should include molecular epidemiologic methods in the investigation of occupational risk factors of tuberculosis. (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  1. Depression in cystic fibrosis; Implications of The International Depression/Anxiety Epidemiological Study (TIDES) in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Alistair J A

    2015-10-01

    Children and adults with chronic diseases, as well as their parents, are at increased risk for depression. Where people with CF do exhibit psychological distress it is linked to poorer adherence and pulmonary function, increased hospitalisations and healthcare costs and decreased quality of life. The International Depression Epidemiological Study (TIDES) evaluated depression and anxiety in CF patients and parent caregivers across eight European countries and the USA. Two national and one international data sets have been published. This paper summarises the findings, offers explanations for differences in results, and outlines the clinical implications with consideration given to if and how recommendations could be integrated into managing CF in the UK. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Congenital talipes equinovarus: an epidemiological study in Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavone, Vito; Bianca, Sebastiano; Grosso, Giuseppe; Pavone, Piero; Mistretta, Antonio; Longo, Maria Roberta; Marino, Silvia; Sessa, Giuseppe

    2012-06-01

    Congenital talipes equinovarus (clubfoot) can present in 2 forms: "syndromic", in which other malformations exist, and the more common "idiopathic" form, where there are no other associated malformations. We analyzed the epidemiology of congenital talipes equinovarus in the Sicilian population, looking for potential etiological factors. Among the 801,324 live births recorded between January 1991 and December 2004, 827 cases were registered (560 males; M/F sex ratio: 2.1). Control infants were randomly selected from a historical cohort of live births without any major congenital malformations. A positive family history of clubfoot, gender, and maternal smoking were found to be risk factors for clubfoot. Patients with clubfoot were born most frequently during the period January-March. No association was found between clubfoot and reproductive history, peri-conceptional maternal drug exposure, maternal education, or ethnicity. Our findings emphasize the importance of birth defects surveillance programs and their usefulness in investigating potential risk factors.

  3. Register epidemiology studies of recent cancer trends in selected workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malker, H S; Weiner, J A; McLaughlin, J K

    1990-01-01

    The Swedish Cancer Environment Register (CER) was used to analyze occupational risks of cancer over time. Using expanded time coverage (1961-1984) and two census-based sources in employment information, risk in the work environment was evaluated for a 24-year period for pleural mesothelioma, nasal adenocarcinoma, and non-melanotic skin cancer. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for pleural mesotheliomas were found to increase among plumbers and pipefitters over this period, whereas those for mechanics, electricians, painters, and paperhangers remained relatively stable. Risk for nasal adenocarcinoma among cabinet makers remained exceedingly high over the 24-year period and SIRs for other kinds of woodworkers moderately increased during the same time. Excess skin cancer risk among physicians declined over the period. Reasons for these trends are discussed as well as the limitations and potential of register epidemiology in the evaluation of cancer trends in the work environment.

  4. Research Design in the study of the European Neighbourhood Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exadaktylos, Theofanis; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2017-01-01

    This chapter deals with the pitfalls and pathways of research design aimed at the study of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) and maps out the literature on questions of knowledge ambition, research ontology and epistemology, and choices of approaches to the research object. We include...... a review of traditional research designs in ENP research, through a systematic meta-analysis of a selection of the most-cited articles on the ENP. Inspired by earlier work on awareness of research design in EU studies, ENP research is categorised according to typical choices of research design in the form...... of dichotomous trade-offs. The chapter then discusses how individual contributions to this volume deal with research design challenges of the past and present innovative ways of studying the revised ENP....

  5. Ethics teaching in European veterinary schools: a qualitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, M

    2014-12-13

    Veterinary ethics is recognised as a relevant topic in the undergraduate veterinary curriculum. However, there appears to be no widely agreed view on which contents are best suited for veterinary ethics teaching and there is limited information on the teaching approaches adopted by veterinary schools. This paper provides an inside perspective on the diversity of veterinary ethics teaching topics, based on an in-depth analysis of three European veterinary schools: Copenhagen, Lisbon and Nottingham. The case study approach integrated information from the analysis of syllabi contents and interviews with educators (curricular year 2010-2011). These results show that the curriculum of veterinary ethics is multidimensional and can combine a wide range of scientific, regulatory, professional and philosophical subjects, some of which may not be explicitly set out in the course descriptors. A conceptual model for veterinary ethics teaching is proposed comprising prominent topics included within four overarching concepts: animal welfare science, laws/regulations, professionalism, and theories/concepts. It is intended that this work should inform future curriculum development of veterinary ethics in European schools and assist ethical deliberation in veterinary practice. British Veterinary Association.

  6. [Epidemiology in the study of human ecology - concept and evaluation of a seminar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schochat, T; Seidel, H J

    2001-01-01

    To assure proper methodology in medical studies epidemiology is the crucial profession. Medical students become acquainted with epidemiology within the course on human ecology. One year ago our department had the opportunity to assume the responsibility of this epidemiological seminar and to establish an activating teaching concept. In a two hour lecture, types of epidemiologic studies, their application, typical measures, strengths and limitations are illustrated on actual examples. The basic concepts of bias, confounding and causal inference are introduced. In a two hour seminar the students read and discuss primary literature on the question "Do allergic diseases increase?" in small groups. The students present the answers on provided questions in the plenum. The results are discussed together. METHOD OF EVALUATION: At the end of each seminar within the course students rate the structural and procedural quality by means of a questionnaire. Compared to the former frontal teaching in epidemiology students rate the activating teaching concept significantly better in respect to lecturing style, discussion moderation, own contribution, contribution of others and course material. Comparison to the seminar "National health reporting system" (different subject, but same teaching concept and same instructor) yielded no significant differences, nor did the comparison between different instructors with the same teaching concept at the same seminar. The structural and procedural quality of the activating teaching concept in epidemiology is rated significantly better than the former frontal teaching concept. This difference is based on conceptual differences and not on different instructors or different subjects.

  7. An epidemiological assessment of stomatal ozone flux-based critical levels for visible ozone injury in Southern European forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sicard, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.sicard@acri-he.fr [ACRI-HE, 260 route du Pin Montard, BP 234, 06904 Sophia Antipolis cedex (France); De Marco, Alessandra [ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development), 76, Lungotevere Thaon de Revel, Rome (Italy); Dalstein-Richier, Laurence [GIEFS (Groupe International d' Etudes des Forêts Sud-européennes), 60, Avenue des Hespérides, 06300 Nice (France); Tagliaferro, Francesco [IPLA (Istituto per le Piante da Legno e l‘Ambiente), Corso Casale 476, 10132 Turin (Italy); Renou, Camille [ACRI-HE, 260 route du Pin Montard, BP 234, 06904 Sophia Antipolis cedex (France); Paoletti, Elena [IPSP-CNR (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche — Istituto per la Protezione Sostenibile delle Piante), Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Florence) (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    Southern forests are at the highest ozone (O{sub 3}) risk in Europe where ground-level O{sub 3} is a pressing sanitary problem for ecosystem health. Exposure-based standards for protecting vegetation are not representative of actual field conditions. A biologically-sound stomatal flux-based standard has been proposed, although critical levels for protection still need to be validated. This innovative epidemiological assessment of forest responses to O{sub 3} was carried out in 54 plots in Southeastern France and Northwestern Italy in 2012 and 2013. Three O{sub 3} indices, namely the accumulated exposure AOT40, and the accumulated stomatal flux with and without an hourly threshold of uptake (POD1 and POD0) were compared. Stomatal O{sub 3} fluxes were modeled (DO3SE) and correlated to measured forest-response indicators, i.e. crown defoliation, crown discoloration and visible foliar O{sub 3} injury. Soil water content, a key variable affecting the severity of visible foliar O{sub 3} injury, was included in DO3SE. Based on flux–effect relationships, we developed species-specific flux-based critical levels (CLef) for forest protection against visible O{sub 3} injury. For O{sub 3} sensitive conifers, CLef of 19 mmol m{sup −2} for Pinus cembra (high O{sub 3} sensitivity) and 32 mmol m{sup −2} for Pinus halepensis (moderate O{sub 3} sensitivity) were calculated. For broadleaved species, we obtained a CLef of 25 mmol m{sup −2} for Fagus sylvatica (moderate O{sub 3} sensitivity) and of 19 mmol m{sup −2} for Fraxinus excelsior (high O{sub 3} sensitivity). We showed that an assessment based on PODY and on real plant symptoms is more appropriated than the concentration-based method. Indeed, POD0 was better correlated with visible foliar O{sub 3} injury than AOT40, whereas AOT40 was better correlated with crown discoloration and defoliation (aspecific indicators). To avoid an underestimation of the real O{sub 3} uptake, we recommend the use of POD0 calculated for

  8. Reporting of Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE association studies: An empirical assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwinn Marta

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several thousand human genome epidemiology association studies are published every year investigating the relationship between common genetic variants and diverse phenotypes. Transparent reporting of study methods and results allows readers to better assess the validity of study findings. Here, we document reporting practices of human genome epidemiology studies. Methods Articles were randomly selected from a continuously updated database of human genome epidemiology association studies to be representative of genetic epidemiology literature. The main analysis evaluated 315 articles published in 2001–2003. For a comparative update, we evaluated 28 more recent articles published in 2006, focusing on issues that were poorly reported in 2001–2003. Results During both time periods, most studies comprised relatively small study populations and examined one or more genetic variants within a single gene. Articles were inconsistent in reporting the data needed to assess selection bias and the methods used to minimize misclassification (of the genotype, outcome, and environmental exposure or to identify population stratification. Statistical power, the use of unrelated study participants, and the use of replicate samples were reported more often in articles published during 2006 when compared with the earlier sample. Conclusion We conclude that many items needed to assess error and bias in human genome epidemiology association studies are not consistently reported. Although some improvements were seen over time, reporting guidelines and online supplemental material may help enhance the transparency of this literature.

  9. Learning from older peoples’ reasons for participating in demanding, intensive epidemiological studies: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja M. Baczynska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recruitment rates of older people in epidemiological studies, although relatively higher than in clinical trials, have declined in recent years. This study aimed to explore motivating factors and concerns among older participants in an intensive epidemiological study (Hertfordshire Sarcopenia Study - HSS and identify those that could aid future recruitment to epidemiological studies and clinical trials. Methods Participants of the HSS fasted overnight and travelled several hours each way to the research facility at an English hospital for extensive diet/lifestyle questionnaires and investigations to assess muscle including blood tests and a muscle biopsy. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 13 participants (ten women at the research facility in May–October 2015. The interviews were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, coded and analysed thematically by three researchers. Results We identified personal motives for participation (potential health benefit for self and family; curiosity; comparing own fitness to others; socialising. Altruistic motives (benefit for other people; belief in importance of research were also important. Participants voiced a number of external motives related to the study uniqueness, organisation and safety record; family support; and just ‘being asked’. Anxiety about the biopsy and travel distance were the only concerns and were alleviated by smooth and efficient running of the study. Conclusions Personal and altruistic reasons were important motivators for these older people to participate in demanding, intensive research. They valued belonging to a birth cohort with previous research experience, but personal contact with the research team before and after consent provided reassurance, aided recruitment to HSS and could be readily replicated by other researchers. Any fears or concerns related to certain aspects of a demanding, intensive study should ideally be explored at an early visit

  10. DNA yield and quality of saliva samples and suitability for large-scale epidemiological studies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koni, A C; Scott, R A; Wang, G; Bailey, M E S; Peplies, J; Bammann, K; Pitsiladis, Y P

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate two saliva collection methods for DNA yield and quality as applied to a large, integrated, multicentre, European project involving the collection of biological material from children. Cross-sectional multicentre comparative study in young children. Saliva samples were collected from 14,019 children aged 2-9 years from eight European countries participating in the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study. This involved either the collection of 2 ml of saliva from children who were able to spit, or using a sponge to collect whole saliva and buccal mucosal cells from the inside of the mouth of younger children unable to spit. Samples were assembled centrally in each participating centre and subsequently despatched for DNA extraction and biobanking to the University of Glasgow. A subgroup of 4678 samples (∼33% of sampled individuals) were chosen for DNA extraction before genotyping. The whole-saliva collection method resulted in a higher DNA yield than the sponge collection method (mean±s.d.; saliva: 20.95±2.35 μg, sponge: 9.13±2.25 μg; Psaliva collection method compared with the assisted sponge collection. However, both collection methods provided DNA of sufficient quantity and quality for large-scale genetic epidemiological studies.

  11. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study: rationale, design and population characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slimani, N.; Kaaks, R.; Ferrari, P.; Casagrande, C.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Lotze, G.; Kroke, A.; Trichopoulos, D.; Trichopoulou, A.; Lauria, C.; Bellegotti, M.; Ocké, M.C.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Engeset, D.; Lund, E.; Agudo, A.; Larranaga, N.; Mattisson, I.; Andren, C.; Johansson, I.; Davey, G.; Welch, A.A.; Overvad, K.; Tjonneland, A.; Staveren, van W.A.; Saracci, R.; Riboli, E.

    2002-01-01

    The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), which covers a large cohort of half a million men and women from 23 European centres in 10 Western European countries, was designed to study the relationship between diet and the risk of chronic diseases, particularly cancer.

  12. European active surveillance study of women taking HRT (EURAS-HRT: study protocol [NCT00214903

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinemann Lothar AJ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The post marketing safety surveillance program for a drug containing a new chemical entity should assess both, the safety outcomes that relate specifically to the targeted population, as well as those that could potentially be related to special pharmacological characteristics of the drug. Active safety surveillance using valid epidemiological study designs has been proven to be a pertinent and reliable method to approach this endeavor. Methods/design The primary objective of the study is to compare incidence rates of serious adverse events in users of all types of newly prescribed oral HRT products. This active surveillance study will assess pertinent cardiovascular outcomes - in particular venous and arterial thromboembolism - and other serious adverse events (SAEs in new HRT users over a period of several years. One product under surveillance is Angeliq®, which contains the novel progestagen drospirenone (DRSP combined with estradiol. In addition, all other oral combined HRT products with a novel progestagen or estrogen that will be newly marketed during the study period will be studied. These new HRT products will be compared with established HRT products. The combined cohort will include at least 30,000 women recruited in several European countries. At least 90,000 years of observation are expected from the field work which started in early 2002 and will end around 2008. The participating women will complete a baseline survey using a self-administered questionnaire to describe the baseline risk. After 6 months, 12 months, and then on an annual basis, they will fill out a questionnaire in which they record complaints and events during the use of the prescribed HRTs. All adverse outcomes occurring during the observational period will be evaluated. Discussion A complete lifetime medical history, individually validated SAEs over time, and a low loss to follow-up rate are essential for a robust safety assessment. Therefore

  13. Molecular epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni infection in Israel-a nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, M; Moran-Gilad, J; Rokney, A; Davidov, Y; Agmon, V; Peretz, C; Valinsky, L

    2016-12-01

    The incidence of Campylobacter infection in Israel, particularly among children Campylobacter jejuni in Israel over a decade (2003-2012) using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) combined with demographic metadata. Representative clinical isolates (438) from a large national repository together with selected veterinary isolates (74) were subject to MLST. The distribution of age groups, ethnicity and clinical source across various genotypes was evaluated using Poisson modelling. The 512 studied isolates were assigned 126 distinct sequence types (STs) (18.8% novel STs) grouped into 21 clonal complexes (CCs). Most human, poultry and bovine STs clustered together in the leading CCs. Three dominant STs (ST21, ST6608, ST4766) were detected only since 2006. Patients infected with the leading CCs were similarly distributed along densely populated areas. The frequency of blood isolates was higher in patients infected with CC353 (relative rate (RR)=2.0, 95% CI 1.03-3.9, adjusted p value (adj.p) 0.047) and CC42 (RR=4.4, 95% CI 1.7-11.6, adj.p 0.018) and lower with CC257 (RR=0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.9, adj. p 0.047). The distribution of age groups and ethnicity also varied across the leading CCs. In conclusion, C. jejuni isolates in a national sample appeared highly diverse with a high proportion of new STs. Phylogenic analysis was compatible with poultry and cattle as possible food sources of clinical infection. Demographic characteristics of the infected patients coupled with strain invasiveness across different genotypes revealed a complex epidemiology of C. jejuni transmission in Israel. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection in Switzerland: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirzel, Cédric; Wandeler, Gilles; Owczarek, Marta; Gorgievski-Hrisoho, Meri; Dufour, Jean-Francois; Semmo, Nasser; Zürcher, Samuel

    2015-10-30

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection affects up to 7% of the European population. Specific HBV genotypes are associated with rapid progression to end-stage liver disease and sub-optimal interferon treatment responses. Although the geographic distribution of HBV genotypes differs between regions, it has not been studied in Switzerland, which lies at the crossroads of Europe. In a retrospective analysis of 465 HBV samples collected between 2002 and 2013, we evaluated the HBV genotype distribution and phylogenetic determinants, as well as the prevalence of serological evidence of hepatitis delta, hepatitis C and HIV infections in Switzerland. Baseline characteristics of patients were compared across their region of origin using Fisher's exact test and ANOVA, and risk factors for HBeAg positivity were assessed using logistic regression. The Swiss native population represented 15.7% of HBV-infected patients living in Switzerland. In the overall population, genotype D was most prevalent (58.3%), whereas genotype A (58.9%) was the predominant genotype among the Swiss native population. The prevalence of patients with anti-HDV antibodies was 4.4%. Patients of Swiss origin were most likely to be HBeAg-positive (38.1%). HBV genotypes of patients living in Switzerland but sharing the same original region of origin were consistent with their place of birth. The molecular epidemiology of HBV infection in Switzerland is driven by migration patterns and not by the genotype distribution of the native population. The prevalence of positive anti-HDV antibodies in our cohort was very low.

  15. Validation of autopsy data for epidemiologic studies of coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidoo, R.N.; Robins, T.G.; Murray, J.; Green, F.H.Y.; Vallyathan, V. [University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban (South Africa). Center for Occupational & Environmental Health

    2005-01-01

    South Africa has one of the largest miner autopsy databases, PATHAUT dating back to 1925. The diagnoses recorded on this database have never been evaluated for coal miners. The objective was to determine the validity of the autopsy diagnoses for coal workers, specifically bronchitis, silicosis, tuberculosis, coal workers' pneumoconiosis and emphysema, from 1975 to 1997. Three pathologists experienced in miner respiratory pathology conducted the review. They were blinded to employment and medical histories as well as to previous pathological diagnoses on PATHAUT and reviewed 28 coal miners with mixed mining exposures, and 31 cases with exclusive coal mine exposure-all selected randomly. The reviewers' independent and consensus diagnoses were compared to PATHAUT. An additional 31 cases with available whole mount sections were reviewed for the diagnosis of emphysema. Kappa statistics were used to determine degrees of agreement among reviewers and between reviewers and PATHAUT. This, the first systematic review of PATHAUT autopsy diagnoses made on coal workers, showed that PATHAUT can be used with confidence to establish a diagnosis of moderate to severe grades of coal workers' pneumoconiosis. The grade of emphysema recorded on PATHAUT could be used for epidemiological purposes, when whole mount sections have been prepared.

  16. Coffee consumption and the risk of lung cancer: an updated meta-analysis of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y; Qin, J; Nan, G; Huang, S; Wang, Z; Su, Y

    2016-02-01

    Coffee is one of the most popularly consumed beverages worldwide. Many epidemiological studies have investigated the association between coffee consumption and lung cancer risk, but the results are inconsistent. Hence, we conducted a systematic analysis of relevant population-based studies to examine this association and derive a more precise estimation. The Cochrane library, PubMed and Embase databases were searched to identify studies published through Mar 2015 that met the predetermined inclusion criterion. Seventeen studies (5 cohort and 12 case-control studies) involving 12 276 cases and 102 516 controls were included. The summary odds ratio (OR) of lung cancer was 1.17 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.33) for coffee drinkers compared with nondrinkers and 1.31 (95% CI: 1.11-1.55) for the highest category of coffee consumption compared with the lowest category. Compared with nondrinkers, the pooled ORs for lung cancer were 1.10 (95% CI: 0.92-1.31) for ⩽1 cup per day, 1.10 (95% CI: 0.93-1.30) for 2-3 cups per day and 1.20 (95% CI: 1.02-1.39) for ⩾3 cups per day. Further analysis showed that the ORs for hospital-based case-control studies, population-based case-control studies and prospective cohort studies were 1.36 (95% CI: 1.10-1.69), 0.99 (95% CI: 0.77-1.28) and 1.59 (95% CI: 1.26-2.00), respectively. Significant associations for high coffee intake with increased risk of lung cancer were observed in men (OR=1.41 95% CI: 1.21-1.63), but not in women (OR=1.16, 95% CI: 0.86-1.56), in American (OR=1.34 95% CI: 1.08-1.65) and Asian populations (OR=1.49 95% CI: 1.28-1.74), but not in European populations (OR=1.12, 95% CI: 0.74-1.67), and in smokers (OR=1.24, 95% CI: 1.00-1.54), but not in nonsmokers (OR=0.85, 95% CI: 0.64-1.11). Particularly over the last 5 years, studies have consistently indicated that lung cancer risk is significantly increased by 47% in the population with the highest category intake of coffee compared with that with the lowest

  17. [Bibliometric analysis of scientific articles on epidemiological study of burns in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, W F; Shen, Z A; Zhao, D X; Li, D W; Shang, Y R

    2017-04-20

    Objective: To analyze the current status of epidemiological study of burns in China, and to explore the related strategies. Methods: Retrospective or cross-sectional scientific articles in Chinese or English on epidemiological study of burns in China published from January 2005 to December 2015 were systemically retrieved from 4 databases. The databases include PubMed, Embase, China Biology Medicine disc, and Chinese Journals Full - text Database . From the results retrieved, data with regard to publication year, journal distribution, number of institutions participated in the study, affiliation of the first author and its location, and admission time span and age of patients in all the scientific articles were collected. Furthermore, the definition of age range and the grouping method of age of pediatric patients in English articles on epidemiological study of pediatric burns of China were recorded. Data were processed with descriptive statistical analysis. Results: A total of 256 scientific articles conforming to the study criteria were retrieved, among which 214 (83.59%) articles were in Chinese, and 42 (16.41%) articles were in English; 242 (94.53%) articles were retrospective studies, and 14 (5.47%) articles were cross-sectional studies. During the 11 years, the number of the relevant articles was fluctuant on the whole. The scientific articles were published in 130 journals, with 42 English articles in source journals for SCIENCE CITATION INDEX EXPANDED - JOURNAL LIST, accounting for 16.41%, and 116 Chinese articles in Source Journal for Chinese Scientific and Technical Papers, accounting for 45.31%. Totally 215 (83.98%) articles were single-center studies, and 29 (11.33%) articles were multicenter studies which were conducted by three or more centers. The number of affiliations of the first author of articles was 161 in total. The top 10 institutions regarding the article publishing number published 58 articles, accounting for 22.66%. Scientific articles on

  18. Ignition studies in support of the European High Power Laser ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The European High Power Laser Energy Research Facility (HiPER) project is one of a number of large-scale scientific infrastructure projects supported by the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). Part of this project involves the development of a target area for the exploration of inertial fusion ...

  19. Tuberculosis-HIV co-infection: policy and epidemiology in 25 countries in the WHO European region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Olsen, M; Ditiu, L

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were to collect and review tuberculosis (TB)-HIV data for Europe and to provide an overview of current health policies addressing co-infection.......The aims of this study were to collect and review tuberculosis (TB)-HIV data for Europe and to provide an overview of current health policies addressing co-infection....

  20. Assessing the reporting of categorised quantitative variables in observational epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabikwa, Onkabetse V; Greenwood, Darren C; Baxter, Paul D; Fleming, Sarah J

    2017-03-14

    One aspect to consider when reporting results of observational studies in epidemiology is how quantitative risk factors are analysed. The STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) guidelines recommend that researchers describe how they handle quantitative variables when analysing data. For categorised quantitative variables, the authors are required to provide reasons and justifications informing their practice. We investigated and assessed the practices and reporting of categorised quantitative variables in epidemiology. The assessment was based on five medical journals that publish epidemiological research. Observational studies published between April and June 2015 and investigating the relationships between quantitative exposures (or risk factors) and the outcomes were considered for assessment. A standard form was used to collect the data, and the reporting patterns amongst eligible studies were quantified and described. Out of 61 articles assessed for eligibility, 23 observational studies were included in the assessment. Categorisation of quantitative exposures occurred in 61% of these studies and reasons informing the practice were rarely provided. Only one article explained the choice of categorisation in the analysis. Transformation of quantitative exposures into four or five groups was common and dominant amongst studies using equally spaced categories. Dichotomisation was not popular; the practice featured in one article. Overall, the majority (86%) of the studies preferred ordered or arbitrary group categories. Other criterions used to decide categorical boundaries were based on established guidelines such as consensus statements and WHO standards. Categorisation of continuous variables remains a dominant practice in epidemiological studies. The reasons informing the practice of categorisation within published work are limited and remain unknown in most articles. The existing STROBE guidelines could provide stronger

  1. Epidemiology of congenital diaphragmatic hernia in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGivern, Mark R.; Best, Kate E.; Rankin, Judith

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Published prevalence rates of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) vary. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of CDH using data from high-quality, population-based registers belonging to the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT). METHODS: Cases of CDH...

  2. Aleutian mink disease virus in free-ranging mustelids in Finland - a cross-sectional epidemiological and phylogenetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuuttila, A; Aaltonen, K; Virtala, A-M K; Henttonen, H; Isomursu, M; Leimann, A; Maran, T; Saarma, U; Timonen, P; Vapalahti, O; Sironen, T

    2015-06-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) can cause severe immune-complex-mediated disease in American mink. AMDV has also been detected in several other mustelid species with potential negative impact on their health and population. A molecular and cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted to obtain data on the prevalence, distribution, transmission and diversity of AMDV strains in Finnish free-ranging mustelids and risk factors associated with infection. The presence of anti-AMDV antibodies and/or AMDV DNA was tested from 308 samples representing eight mustelid species and 17 administrative regions. Positive samples were detected across Finland, and in 54 % (31/57) of feral American mink, 27 % (7/26) of European badgers and 7 % (1/14) of European polecats. Samples from Eurasian otters, European pine martens, least weasels, stoat and wolverine were negative. Major risk factors for infection were the species American mink with 335 and badger with 74 times higher odds than other species, and the years 2006-2009 with five times higher odds than the years 2010-2014. No clustering according to species, geographical origin or year was evident in phylogeny, except for four divergent sequences from Estonian badgers that formed a separate phylogroup distinct from other AMDV strains. This study showed that AMDV was prevalent in certain species of Finnish free-ranging mustelids and widely distributed across Finland. Furthermore, the free-ranging mustelids carried both strains similar to those found in farmed mink, but also distinct strains that may represent novel amdoparvoviruses. © 2015 The Authors.

  3. A conceptual framework in the study of neuropsychological development in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forns, J; Aranbarri, A; Grellier, J; Julvez, J; Vrijheid, M; Sunyer, J

    2012-01-01

    A wide range of neuropsychological development outcomes in children are currently measured in a large number of birth cohort and child cohort studies. We summarized neuropsychological development assessment protocols from a number of birth cohort studies, reviews and specific books on child neuropsychology into a unifying conceptual framework. We suggest that neuropsychological development can be differentiated into two levels, i.e. functional and clinical. The functional level includes the skills, abilities, capacities and knowledge acquired during maturation of the brain as a result of the development of neural networks. It can be further divided into cognitive, psychomotor and social-emotional development subdomains. The clinical level includes the assessment of neurodevelopmental disorders or the presence of symptoms (subclinical symptomatology) of these disorders in populations under investigation in environmental epidemiology studies. Through explicit recognition of these levels of outcomes, and in using this framework, epidemiologists will be better able to design research through the informed selection of individual levels of outcomes. The framework also serves to standardize disparate terminologies across this field and allows for pooling of epidemiological data on neuropsychological endpoints where essentially similar levels of outcomes have been analyzed using different tests. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. The scientific studies on smart grid in selected European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Serhat Orkun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart grid is a power system consisting of many transmission and distribution systems subjected to an automation which are efficient, reliable and coordinated with each other. As a nature friendly technology, Smart grid come into prominence due to the increasing energy consumption and limited renewable energy sources around the world. In the near future, the use of renewable energy sources is not expected to grow rapidly; but the transmission and distribution systems will be enhanced by Smart grid technologies. Considering these significant benefits, the studies have been increased on Smart grid technologies to meet the energy requirement in each country. Herewith, the aim of this study is to analyse the scientific studies in developed European countries such as Italy, Germany, United Kingdom, France and Spain to find out the increment rate of the importance devoted to the Smart grid technologies in academicals manner. The scientific researches on Smart grid are achieved from the Web of Science database and the statistical analysis have been made by utilizing proper SQL queries in combination with Excel Power Pivot for these countries. The correlation between the scientific studies on smart grid and the virtual smart grid applications are also outlined for each selected country.

  5. Case study: Teaching European Active Citizenship (TEACh)-course, EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Bernt Sorensen, Tore

    2007-01-01

    Learning for democratic citizenship has been the object of several projects supported by the European Commission, under the Socrates / Grundtvig 1.1. Action. Nonetheless only very few had the specific aim of exploring the relations between learning for democratic citizenship and non-formal adult...... education. Among these projects, the Teaching European Active Citizenship (TEACh)-course was considered worth of a closer examination due to several reasons. Firstly, the course constitutes a follow-up of a Socrates research project which was co-financed by the European Commission within the same action...

  6. Review of the Diabetes Heart Study (DHS) family of studies: a comprehensively examined sample for genetic and epidemiological studies of type 2 diabetes and its complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Donald W; Cox, Amanda J; Freedman, Barry I; Hugenschimdt, Christina E; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Herrington, David; Agarwal, Subhashish; Register, Thomas C; Maldjian, Joseph A; Ng, Maggie C-Y; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Langefeld, Carl D; Williamson, Jeff D; Carr, J Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The Diabetes Heart Study (DHS) is a genetic and epidemiological study of 1,443 European American and African American participants from 564 families with multiple cases of type 2 diabetes. Initially, participants were comprehensively examined for measures of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) including computed tomography measurement of vascular calcified plaque, ultrasound imaging of carotid artery wall thickness, and electrocardiographic intervals. Subsequent studies have investigated the relationship between bone mineral density and vascular calcification, measures of adiposity, and biomarkers. Ongoing studies are carrying out an extensive evaluation of cerebrovascular disease using magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive assessment. A second, parallel study, the African American DHS, has expanded the sample of African Americans to investigate marked racial differences in subclinical CVD between European Americans and African Americans. Studies in development will evaluate the impact of social stress during the lifecourse on CVD risk, and the prevalence of gastroparesis in this diabetes enriched sample. In addition, the ongoing high mortality rate in DHS participants provides novel insights into the increased risks for type 2 diabetes affected individuals. A comprehensive genetic analysis of the sample is underway using the genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach. Data from this GWAS survey will complement prior family-based linkage data in the analysis of genetic contributors to the wide range of traits in the sample. To our knowledge the DHS family of studies has created the most comprehensively examined sample of individuals with type 2 diabetes yet available, and represents a unique resource for the study people with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide a collective overview of the major results from the DHS family of studies, and relate them to the larger body of biomedical investigations of diabetes and its complications.

  7. The response rate in postal epidemiological studies in the context of national cultural behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelova, Radostina A.; Naydenov, Kiril; Hägerhed-Engman, Linda

    2012-01-01

    , but the obtained response rate was different: 78.8% in DBH and 34.5% in ALLHOME. The differences in the obtained response rate and the reasons for these differences were analyzed on the basis of the Hofstede’s cultural dimensions’ indexes, which clearly show the distinction in the national cultural behaviour...... of people in Sweden and Bulgaria. It was found that national culture could strongly influence the response behaviour of people in epidemiological studies and Hofstede’s indexes can be useful tool when designing and performing epidemiological studies, and in particular – questionnaire surveys....

  8. Analysis of Factors Influencing Telephone Call Response Rate in an Epidemiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Matías-Guiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Descriptive epidemiology research involves collecting data from large numbers of subjects. Obtaining these data requires approaches designed to achieve maximum participation or response rates among respondents possessing the desired information. We analyze participation and response rates in a population-based epidemiological study though a telephone survey and identify factors implicated in consenting to participate. Rates found exceeded those reported in the literature and they were higher for afternoon calls than for morning calls. Women and subjects older than 40 years were the most likely to answer the telephone. The study identified geographical differences, with higher RRs in districts in southern Spain that are not considered urbanized. This information may be helpful for designing more efficient community epidemiology projects.

  9. Path analysis: application in an epidemiological study of echinococcosis in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burridge, M J; Schwabe, C W; Pullum, T W

    1977-04-01

    The method of path analysis is described in detail. Application of this analyogical systems is demonstrated using data from an epidemiological study of echinococcosis in New Zealand. The results identified the major causal pathways determining Echinococcus granulosus prevalence in dogs, based on multiple regression analysis of a linear causal model constructed from prior biological and epidemiological knowledge. Only ethnic and sheep husbandry variables had important direct effect on prevalence in the North Island of New Zealand, with some climate factors (maximum temperature and relative humidity) and soil porosity acting indirectly through animal husbandry practices. It is suggested that path analysis, by permitting interaction between epidemiological theory and statistical analysis, provides a valuable additional tool to epidemiologists for the study of causal relationships among variables in multivariates systems.

  10. Menopausal hormone use and ovarian cancer risk : individual participant meta-analysis of 52 epidemiological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gapstur, S. M.; Patel, A. V.; Banks, E.; Dal Maso, L.; Talamini, R.; Chetrit, A.; Hirsh-Yechezkel, G.; Lubin, F.; Sadetzki, S.; Beral, V.; Bull, D.; Cairns, B.; Crossley, B.; Gaitskell, K.; Goodill, A.; Green, J.; Hermon, C.; Key, T.; Moser, K.; Reeves, G.; Sitas, F.; Collins, R.; Peto, R.; Gonzalez, C. A.; Lee, N.; Marchbanks, P.; Ory, H. W.; Peterson, H. B.; Wingo, P. A.; Martin, N.; Silpisornkosol, S.; Theetranont, C.; Boosiri, B.; Chutivongse, S.; Jimakorn, P.; Virutamasen, P.; Wongsrichanalai, C.; Goodman, M. T.; Lidegaard, O.; Kjaer, S. K.; Morch, L. S.; Kjaer, S. K.; Tjonneland, A.; Byers, T.; Rohan, T.; Mosgaard, B.; Vessey, M.; Yeates, D.; Freudenheim, J. L.; Titus, L. J.; Chang-Claude, J.; Kaaks, R.; Anderson, K. E.; Lazovich, D.; Robien, K.; Hampton, J.; Newcomb, P. A.; Rossing, M. A.; Thomas, D. B.; Weiss, N. S.; Lokkegaard, E.; Riboli, E.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Cramer, D.; Hankinson, S. E.; Tamimi, R. M.; Tworoger, S. S.; Franceschi, S.; La Vecchia, C.; Negri, E.; Adami, H. O.; Magnusson, C.; Riman, T.; Weiderpass, E.; Wolk, A.; Schouten, L. J.; van den Brandt, P. A.; Chantarakul, N.; Koetsawang, S.; Rachawat, D.; Palli, D.; Black, A.; Brinton, L. A.; Freedman, D. M.; Hartge, P.; Hsing, A. W.; Jnr, J. V. Lacey; Lissowska, J.; Hoover, R. N.; Schairer, C.; Babb, C.; Urban, M.; Graff-Iversen, S.; Selmer, R.; Bain, C. J.; Green, A. C.; Purdie, D. M.; Siskind, V.; Webb, P. M.; Moysich, K.; McCann, S. E.; Hannaford, P.; Kay, C.; Binns, C. W.; Lee, A. H.; Zhang, M.; Ness, R. B.; Nasca, P.; Coogan, P. F.; Palmer, J. R.; Rosenberg, L.; Whittemore, A.; Katsouyanni, K.; Trichopoulou, A.; Trichopoulos, D.; Tzonou, A.; Dabancens, A.; Martinez, L.; Molina, R.; Salas, O.; Lurie, G.; Carney, M. E.; Wilkens, L. R.; Hartman, L.; Manjer, J.; Olsson, H.; Kumle, M.; Grisso, J. A.; Morgan, M.; Wheeler, J. E.; Edwards, R. P.; Kelley, J. L.; Modugno, F.; Onland-Moret, N. C.; Peeters, P. H. M.; Casagrande, J.; Pike, M. C.; Wu, A. H.; Canfell, K.; Miller, A. B.; Gram, I. T.; Lund, E.; McGowan, L.; Shu, X. O.; Zheng, W.; Farley, T. M. M.; Holck, S.; Meirik, O.; Risch, H. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Half the epidemiological studies with information about menopausal hormone therapy and ovarian cancer risk remain unpublished, and some retrospective studies could have been biased by selective participation or recall. We aimed to assess with minimal bias the effects of hormone therapy on

  11. Epidemiological studies of the relationship between occupational exposures and chronic non-specific lung disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heederik, D.J.J.

    1990-01-01

    In this thesis the relationship between occupational exposures, lung function and Chronic Non-Specific Lung Disease is studied. The study comprises an epidemiological analysis of data from the British Pneumoconiosis Field Research among coal miners and an analysis of data gathered

  12. Academic partnership in NLS resource design: a European case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Pye

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the library work package of the European Union’s Telematics for Teacher Training project, which links the Libraries and Education and Training sectors. Its two major deliverables, a user needs analysis report addressing networked learner support in European partner institutions and development of an online course for librarians, are discussed in terms of professional development opportunities for partnership between academic and information staff.

  13. Meal patterns across ten European countries - results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huseinovic, E; Winkvist, A; Slimani, N; Park, M K; Freisling, H; Boeing, H; Buckland, G; Schwingshackl, L; Weiderpass, E; Rostgaard-Hansen, A L; Tjønneland, A; Affret, A; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Fagherazzi, G; Katzke, V; Kühn, T; Naska, A; Orfanos, P; Trichopoulou, A; Pala, V; Palli, D; Ricceri, F; Santucci de Magistris, M; Tumino, R; Engeset, D; Enget, T; Skeie, G; Barricarte, A; Bonet, C B; Chirlaque, M D; Amiano, P; Quirós, J R; Sánchez, M J; Dias, J A; Drake, I; Wennberg, M; Boer, Jma; Ocké, M C; Verschuren, Wmm; Lassale, C; Perez-Cornago, A; Riboli, E; Ward, H; Forslund, H Bertéus

    2016-10-01

    To characterize meal patterns across ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study. Cross-sectional study utilizing dietary data collected through a standardized 24 h diet recall during 1995-2000. Eleven predefined intake occasions across a 24 h period were assessed during the interview. In the present descriptive report, meal patterns were analysed in terms of daily number of intake occasions, the proportion reporting each intake occasion and the energy contributions from each intake occasion. Twenty-seven centres across ten European countries. Women (64 %) and men (36 %) aged 35-74 years (n 36 020). Pronounced differences in meal patterns emerged both across centres within the same country and across different countries, with a trend for fewer intake occasions per day in Mediterranean countries compared with central and northern Europe. Differences were also found for daily energy intake provided by lunch, with 38-43 % for women and 41-45 % for men within Mediterranean countries compared with 16-27 % for women and 20-26 % for men in central and northern European countries. Likewise, a south-north gradient was found for daily energy intake from snacks, with 13-20 % (women) and 10-17 % (men) in Mediterranean countries compared with 24-34 % (women) and 23-35 % (men) in central/northern Europe. We found distinct differences in meal patterns with marked diversity for intake frequency and lunch and snack consumption between Mediterranean and central/northern European countries. Monitoring of meal patterns across various cultures and populations could provide critical context to the research efforts to characterize relationships between dietary intake and health.

  14. Spaceflight studies of tropisms in the European Modular Cultivation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, J. Z.; Correll, M. J.; Edelmann, R. E.

    Phototropism and gravitropism play key roles in the oriented growth of roots in flowering plants. In blue or white light, roots exhibit negative phototropism, but red light induces positive phototropism in Arabidopsis roots. The blue-light response is controlled by the phototropins while the red-light response is mediated by the phytochrome family of photoreceptors. In order to better characterize root phototropism, we plan to perform experiments in microgravity so that this tropism can be more effectively studied without the interactions with the gravity response. Our experiments are to be performed on the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS), which provides an incubator, lighting system, and high resolution video that are on a centrifuge palette. These experiments will be performed at μ g, 1g (control) and fractional g-levels. In order to ensure success of this mission on the International Space Station (ISS), we have been performing ground-based studies on growth, phototropism, and gravitropism in experimental unique equipment (EUE) that was designed for our experiments that will use Arabidopsis seedlings. Currently, the EMCS and our EUE are scheduled for launch on space shuttle mission STS-121. This project should provide insight into how the blue-light and red-light signaling systems interact with each other, and also with the gravisensing system.

  15. Developmental origins of adult diseases and neurotoxicity: Epidemiological and experimental studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Donald A; Grandjean, Philippe; de Groot, Didima

    2012-01-01

    and the development of metabolic-related diseases and neurotoxicity later in life. The four speakers at this symposium presented their research results on different neurotoxic chemicals relating to the developmental origins of health and adult disease (DOHaD). Philippe Grandjean presented epidemiological data......To date, only a small number of commercial chemicals have been tested and documented as developmental neurotoxicants. Moreover, an increasing number of epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies suggest an association between toxicant or drug exposure during the perinatal period...... and neurotoxic risk assessment. The results indicate that developmental neurotoxicity results in permanent changes, thus emphasizing the need to prevent such toxicity....

  16. Mechanistic and Technical Challenges in Studying the Human Microbiome and Cancer Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mukesh

    2017-04-01

    This article reviews the significance of the microbiome in cancer epidemiology, mechanistic and technical challenges in the field, and characterization of the microbiome in different tumor types to identify biomarkers of risk, progression, and prognosis. Publications on the microbiome and cancer epidemiology were reviewed to analyze sample collection and processing, microbiome taxa characterization by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, and microbiome metabolite characterization (metabotyping) by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The analysis identified methodology types, research design, sample types, and issues in integrating data from different platforms. Aerodigestive cancer epidemiology studies conducted by different groups demonstrated the significance of microbiome information in developing approaches to improve health. Challenges exist in sample preparation and processing (eg, standardization of methods for collection and analysis). These challenges relate to technology, data integration from "omics" studies, inherent bias in primer selection during 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, the need for large consortia with well-characterized biospecimens, cause and effect issues, resilience of microbiota to exposure events (requires longitudinal studies), and expanding studies for fungal and viral diversity (most studies used bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing for microbiota characterization). Despite these challenges, microbiome and cancer epidemiology studies are significant and may facilitate cancer risk assessment, diagnosis, and prognosis. In the future, clinical trials likely will use microbiota modifications to improve the efficacy of existing treatments.

  17. Epidemiological study of road traffic accident cases in Greater Noida: Hospital Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali Roy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road accidents are associated with numerous problems each of which needs to be addressed separately [1]. Accidents, therefore, can be studied in terms of agent, host and environmental factors and epidemiologically classified into time, place and person distribution [2]. Objectives: 1.To assess the prevalence of RTAs coming to hospital and 2.To know the epidemiological factors related to RTAs and associated prevalence in hospital based study. Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted at SMSR, Gr Noida, in 2012. The study group consisted of all the RTA victims reporting to casualty in the last one year. The victims of the accidents were interviewed on a pretested semi structured performa. Results: In that one year period total number of reported accident cases was 144. The age groups of the study subjects were between 13-65 years. Out of total study subjects, only 16 were female. Again out of the total accident cases 45% were attended by police and of all injured, 45.8% were driver by occupation (7% without driving license. Among these drivers, 11% were not attentive during driving because of various reasons. Ambulance services had reached in 46.5% cases. Fracture was the most common type (60% of injury among all types of injuries. Among the applicable population only 33% wore helmet or seat belts. Conclusions: Only half of the total accident cases were attended by police and again only half of them received ambulance services. One third injuries were because of not wearing seat belt and helmets.

  18. n4Studies: Sample Size Calculation for an Epidemiological Study on a Smart Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetta Ngamjarus

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was to develop a sample size application (called “n4Studies” for free use on iPhone and Android devices and to compare sample size functions between n4Studies with other applications and software. Methods: Objective-C programming language was used to create the application for the iPhone OS (operating system while javaScript, jquery mobile, PhoneGap and jstat were used to develop it for Android phones. Other sample size applications were searched from the Apple app and Google play stores. The applications’ characteristics and sample size functions were collected. Spearman’s rank correlation was used to investigate the relationship between number of sample size functions and price. Results: “n4Studies” provides several functions for sample size and power calculations for various epidemiological study designs. It can be downloaded from the Apple App and Google play store. Comparing n4Studies with other applications, it covers several more types of epidemiological study designs, gives similar results for estimation of infinite/finite population mean and infinite/finite proportion from GRANMO, for comparing two independent means from BioStats, for comparing two independent proportions from EpiCal application. When using the same parameters, n4Studies gives similar results to STATA, epicalc package in R, PS, G*Power, and OpenEpi. Conclusion: “n4Studies” can be an alternative tool for calculating the sample size. It may be useful to students, lecturers and researchers in conducting their research projects.

  19. Epidemiology and ecology of enterococci, with special reference to antibiotic resistant strains, in animals, humans and the environment - Example of an ongoing project within the European research programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, I.; Iversen, A.; Burman, L. G.

    2000-01-01

    of enterococci and (4) the diversity of the drug resistance genes in enterococci, So far, 1578 samples have been collected from different countries within the EU (Sweden, Denmark, UK and Spain), and from different habitats (pig farms, carcasses in slaughter houses, soil, manure, water, sewage, and humans). Total......The objectives of the present study are to generate knowledge of the ecology and epidemiology of enterococci in the food chain by studying the following: (1) the population structure (in measures of abundance, number of vancomycin resistant strains, antibiotic resistance patterns, diversity......, and stability) among enterococcal populations in different geographical regions and in different links of the food chain (2) possible transmission of strains through the food chain and between hospital environments and the food chain (3) the association bt tween vancomycin resistance and individual strains...

  20. Epidemiology of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in The Netherlands and Beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahné, S.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This Thesis resulted from a decade of studying the epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the Netherlands, England and Wales and at a European level, starting in 2003. The studies aimed to improve the knowledge of the local epidemiology of HBV and to assess the effectiveness of HBV

  1. Clinical evaluation of marketed orthodontic products: are researchers behind the times? A meta-epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadbinder Seehra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of marketing and industry in the treatment decisions of orthodontists has received increasing attention in recent years with clinical research typically undertaken subsequent to established use of these devices and often failing to confirm the promise of manufacturers’ claims. This meta-epidemiological study was undertaken to assess the proportion of clinical trials in orthodontics evaluating commercially marketed products and to evaluate the direction of the results of these studies. Methods Electronic searching was undertaken to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs published over a 5-year period (1 January 2012 to 31 December 2016. Data obtained included the type of marketed intervention, direction of effect and declaration of both industry sponsorship and conflict of interest. Results Eighty-four RCTs published in 23 scientific journals were included with the highest percentage in the American Journal of Dentofacial Orthopedics (AJO-DO (23.8%, followed by the European Journal of Orthodontics (EJO (14.3%, Journal of Orthodontics (JO (10.7% and Angle Orthodontist (AO (10.7%. Overall, 45% (38/84 of clinical trials assessed involved analysis of marketed products after their introduction. Interventions to improve oral health or circumvent the risk of iatrogenic damage, such as white spot lesions, were most commonly assessed (15.8%, with the relative merits of non-surgical adjuncts (14.1% and other orthodontic auxiliaries (13.1% also frequently evaluated. In 44% of RCTs, a positive effect of the marketed intervention was not reported. Industry sponsorship of the research was declared in 9.5% RCTs. No significant associations between the direction of the effect and both declaration of industry sponsorship (p = 0.56 and conflict of interest (p = 0.96 were detected. Moreover, for marketed and non-marketed products, no significant associations for both declaration of industry sponsorship (p = 0.44 and

  2. Epidemiology of adult tibial shaft fractures: a 7-year study in a major referral orthopedic center in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadi, Firooz; Vahid Farahmandi, Manouchehr; Eajazi, Alireza; Daftari Besheli, Laleh; Madadi, Firoozeh; Nasri Lari, Mehdi

    2010-05-01

    Epidemiologic differences among various fracture sites and within different populations are important as they imply different cultures and lifestyles in each region. One of these fractures is the tibial shaft fracture. Rather few epidemiological studies have been undertaken on this injury. This study was designed to provide an update on various aspects of tibial shaft fractures during 1999-2006 in a referral educational orthopedic center in Iran. The charts of 854 adult patients were evaluated in a cross-sectional study. All the patients were examined and the results were registered. The collated information was classified along with descriptive statistical analysis. The highest frequency of these fractures was seen in the 20-30 year age group in both genders, and women had a higher rate than men in people aged > or =50 years old. The most common cause of fractures was road traffic accidents; 54% of all injuries were closed fractures and 46% were open. The most frequent fracture pattern was comminuted and the fewest were segmented and with butterfly fractures. The most noticeable complication early after treatment was infection and those during at least one year follow-up were pain, nonunion, and delayed union. The peak frequency of tibial shaft fractures in Iran was one decade higher than in European populations and in those > or =50 years old the rate was higher in women, which was two decades lower than the mentioned populations. Furthermore, in this study in addition to high-energy trauma, low-energy trauma also had a great role.

  3. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandenbroucke, Jan P; von Elm, Erik; Altman, Douglas G

    2014-01-01

    to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results and discussion sections of articles. Eighteen items are common to cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies and four are specific to each of the three study designs. The STROBE Statement provides guidance to authors about how...... to improve the reporting of observational studies and facilitates critical appraisal and interpretation of studies by reviewers, journal editors and readers. This explanatory and elaboration document is intended to enhance the use, understanding, and dissemination of the STROBE Statement. The meaning...

  4. Developmental origins of adult diseases and neurotoxicity: Epidemiological and experimental studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, D.A.; Grandjean, P.; Groot, D. de; Paule, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    To date, only a small number of commercial chemicals have been tested and documented as developmental neurotoxicants. Moreover, an increasing number of epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies suggest an association between toxicant or drug exposure during the perinatal period and the

  5. Osteoarthritis of the first carpometacarpal joint: a study of radiology and clinical epidemiology:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Holm, Stig; Jacobsen, J

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show an increased prevalence of osteoarthritis of the knee and hand with increased body mass index [BMI]. Osteoarthritis of the hip joint is not related to BMI. The connection between obesity and osteoarthritis cannot exclusively be explained by genetic factors or by the a...

  6. Epidemiological and virological characteristics of influenza B: results of the Global Influenza B Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caini, S.; Huang, Q.S.; Ciblak, M.A.; Kusznierz, G.; Owen, R.; Wangchuk, S.; Henriques, C.M.P.; Njouom, R.; Fasce, R.A.; Yu, H.J.; Feng, L.Z.; Zambon, M.; Clara, A.W.; Kosasih, H.; Puzelli, S.; Kadjo, H.A.; Emukule, G.; Heraud, J.M.; Ang, L.W.; Venter, M.; Mironenko, A.; Brammer, L.; Mai, L.T.Q.; Schellevis, F.G.; Plotkin, S.; Paget, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Literature on influenza focuses on influenza A, despite influenza B having a large public health impact. The Global Influenza B Study aims to collect information on global epidemiology and burden of disease of influenza B since 2000. Methods: Twenty-six countries in the Southern (n=5)

  7. Epidemiological and virological characteristics of influenza B: results of the global influenza B study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caini, S.; Sue Huang, Q.; Ciblak, M.A.; Kusznierz, G.; Owen, R.; Wangchuk, S.; Henriques, C.M.P.; Njouom, R.; Fasce, R.A.; Yu, H.; Feng, L.; Zambon, M.; Clara, A.W.; Kosasih, H.; Puzelli, S.; Kasjo, H.A.; Emukule, G.; Hereaud, J.M.; Ang, L.W.; Venter, M.; Mironenko, A.; Brammer, L.; Mai, L.T.Q.; Schellevis, F.; Plotkin, S.; Paget, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Literature on influenza focuses on influenza A, despite influenza B having a large public health impact. The Global Influenza B Study aims to collect information on global epidemiology and burden of disease of influenza B since 2000. Methods Twenty-six countries in the Southern (n = 5)

  8. Epidemiological and virological characteristics of influenza B: results of the Global Influenza B Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caini, S.; Huang, Q.S.; Ciblak, M.A.; Kusznierz, G.; Owen, R.; Wangchuk, S.; Henriques, C.M.; Njouom, R.; Fasce, R.A.; Yu, H.; Feng, L.; Zambon, M.; Clara, A.W.; Kosasih, H.; Puzelli, S.; Kadjo, H.A.; Emukule, G.; Heraud, J.M.; Ang, L.W.; Venter, M.; Mironenko, A.; Brammer, L.; Mai, T.Q. le; Schellevis, F.; Plotkin, S.; Paget, J.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Literature on influenza focuses on influenza A, despite influenza B having a large public health impact. The Global Influenza B Study aims to collect information on global epidemiology and burden of disease of influenza B since 2000. METHODS: Twenty-six countries in the Southern (n =

  9. Modelling indoor electromagnetic fields (EMF) from mobile phone base stations for epidemiological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekhuizen, J.; Vermeulen, R.; van Eijsden, M.; van Strien, R.; Bürgi, A.; Loomans, E.; Guxens, M.; Kromhout, H.; Huss, A.

    2014-01-01

    Radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) from mobile phone base stations can be reliably modelled for outdoor locations, using 3D radio wave propagation models that consider antenna characteristics and building geometry. For exposure assessment in epidemiological studies, however, it is

  10. Asthma and rhinitis in cleaning workers: a systematic review of epidemiological studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folletti, I.; Zock, J.P.; Moscato, G.; Siracusa, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This article presents a systematic review of epidemiological studies linking cleaning work and risk of asthma and rhinitis. Methods: Published reports were identified from PubMed covering the years from 1976 through June 30, 2012. In total, we identified 24 papers for inclusion in the

  11. Polymerase chain reaction-mediated DNA fingerprinting for epidemiological studies on Campylobacter spp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesendorf, B A; Goossens, H; Niesters, H G; Van Belkum, A; Koeken, A; Endtz, H P; Stegeman, H; Quint, W G

    The applicability of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-mediated DNA typing, with primers complementary to dispersed repetitive DNA sequences and arbitrarily chosen DNA motifs, to study the epidemiology of campylobacter infection was evaluated. With a single PCR reaction and simple gel electrophoresis,

  12. Studies on the epidemiology of spear rot in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lande, van de H.L.

    1993-01-01

    The epidemiology of spear rot, an infectious disease of unknown etiology, was studied over 10 years at three government-owned oil palm plantations in Suriname. As with other and similar diseases, amarelecimento fatal in Brazil and pudrición del cogollo in Latin America, which too show rot

  13. Validating the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children in Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa; Scorza, Pamela; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah; Mushashi, Christina; Kayiteshonga, Yvonne; Binagwaho, Agnes; Stulac, Sara; Beardslee, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the validity of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) as a screen for depression in Rwandan children and adolescents. Although the CES-DC is widely used for depression screening in high-income countries, its validity in low-income and culturally diverse settings, including sub-Saharan…

  14. Chlamydia trachomatis antibody detection in home-collected blood samples for use in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenderboom, B M; van Ess, E F; van den Broek, I V F; van Loo, I H M; Hoebe, C J P A; Ouburg, S; Morré, S A

    2018-01-01

    Capillary blood collected in serum tubes was subjected to centrifugation delay while stored at room temperature. Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) IgG concentrations in aliquoted serum of these blood samples remained stable for seven days after collection. CT IgG concentrations can reliably be measured in mailed blood samples in epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Epidemiology of digital amputation and replantation in Taiwan: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dun-Hao Chang

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Our study of the National Health Insurance database characterized the epidemiology of digital amputation patients undergoing replantation and the facilities in Taiwan where these procedures are performed. The hospitals treating more digital amputation patients had higher attempt rates and lower thumb failure rates.

  16. Food intake and inflammation in European children: the IDEFICS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gil, Esther M; Santabárbara, Javier; Russo, Paola; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Claessens, Mandy; Lissner, Lauren; Börnhorst, Claudia; Krogh, Vittorio; Iacoviello, Licia; Molnar, Denes; Siani, Alfonso; Tornaritis, Michael; Veidebaum, Toomas; Moreno, Luis A

    2016-12-01

    This cross-sectional study assesses the relationship between consumption frequencies of food items and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in European children. Out of the baseline sample (N = 16.228) of the IDEFICS study, 6.403 children (1.315 boys aged 2 to food frequency questionnaire. Logistic regression adjusted for body mass index z-score, education of the mother, breast-feeding and self-reported hours of physical activity in a sport club per week was conducted. Mean frequency intake of raw vegetable was lower in boys (p = 0.022 in young and p = 0.020 in old) and older girls (p = 0.026) with high hs-CRP concentration, while in younger girls (p = 0.008) the same occurred with the cooked vegetables. The probability of having higher hs-CRP concentration was significantly associated with having low consumption frequency of vegetables (p = 0.004 in older boys, raw vegetables; and p = 0.0032 in younger girls, cooked vegetables). Also, honey/jam intake decreased the probability of having higher concentration of hs-CRP, whereas soft drinks with sugar, mayonnaise and cereals milled increased this probability. Out of all food items associated with hs-CRP, frequency intake of vegetables presented more associations across all the analysis. Findings suggest that a high-frequency intake of vegetables is inversely related to an inflammatory status in children. More studies are needed to assess the association between diet and inflammation.

  17. Is fasting glucose sufficient to define diabetes? Epidemiological data from 20 European studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DECODE-study group, [Unknown

    1999-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis. The World Health Organization Consultation recommended new diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus including: lowering of the diagnostic fasting plasma glucose to 7.0 mmol/l and introduction of a new category: impaired fasting glycaemia. The diagnostic 2-h glucose concentrations

  18. The European Union Training Mission in Mali: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicke Rachel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available For several years, the European Union (EU has been increasing its international presence and moving into the role of a global security actor. To support the goal of greater crisis management capabilities, European security integration (ESI has been deepening. This article therefore examines an Ell operation - the European Union Training Mission in Mali (EUTM Mali - with the aim of gauging the success of the EU's efforts at ESI. To determine the success of EUTM Mali and thus of ESI, three propositions are examined: if EUTM Mali is a security operation showing successful security integration, there will be evidence of (i broad participation, (ii financial burden-sharing and (iii the successful incorporation of troops and equipment. The first and third propositions are supported whereas the second does not receive as much support. Overall, EUTM Mali shows considerable success and bodes well for further ESI.

  19. Suicide in patients with Parkinson's disease. An epidemiological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Wermuth, L; Stenager, Egon

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the risk of suicide for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) in Denmark compared with that in the background population. The study involved 458 patients with a PD diagnosis, 226 men and 232 women. The follow-up period to either death or end of follow...

  20. Update on bacterial meningitis: epidemiology, trials and genetic association studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasanmoentalib, E. Soemirien; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a life-threatening disease that continues to inflict a heavy toll. We reviewed recent advances in vaccination, randomized studies on treatment, and genetic association studies in bacterial meningitis. The incidence of bacterial meningitis has decreased after implementation of

  1. Implementing a Graduate Certificate Program in Cardiovascular Epidemiology: The Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell Jenkins, Brenda W; Addison, Clifton; Wilson, Gregory; Young, Lavon; Fields, Regina; Woodberry, Clevette; Payton, Marinelle

    2015-12-22

    The Jackson Heart Study (JHS) is committed to providing opportunities for expanding the understanding of the epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The JHS Graduate Training and Education Center (GTEC) has initiated the Daniel Hale Williams Scholar (DHWS) program where students are afforded the opportunity to interact with epidemiologists and other biomedical scientists to learn to identify, predict, and prevent cardiovascular disease using the Jackson Heart Study data. This study describes the structured programs developed by JHS GTEC seeking to alleviate the shortage of trained professionals in cardiovascular epidemiology by training graduate students while they complete their academic degrees. The DHWS program provides: (1) an enrichment curriculum; (2) a learning community; (3) quarterly seminars; and (4) a Summer Institute. Students attend enrichment activities comprising: (1) Applied Biostatistics; (2) Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology; (3) Social Epidemiology; (4) Emerging Topics; and (5) Research Writing. Training focuses on developing proficiency in cardiovascular health knowledge. The DHWS program is a unique strategy for incorporating rigorous academic and career-focused training to graduate students and has enabled the acquisition of competencies needed to impact cardiovascular disease management programs.

  2. Implementing a Graduate Certificate Program in Cardiovascular Epidemiology: The Jackson Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda W. Campbell Jenkins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Jackson Heart Study (JHS is committed to providing opportunities for expanding the understanding of the epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The JHS Graduate Training and Education Center (GTEC has initiated the Daniel Hale Williams Scholar (DHWS program where students are afforded the opportunity to interact with epidemiologists and other biomedical scientists to learn to identify, predict, and prevent cardiovascular disease using the Jackson Heart Study data. This study describes the structured programs developed by JHS GTEC seeking to alleviate the shortage of trained professionals in cardiovascular epidemiology by training graduate students while they complete their academic degrees. The DHWS program provides: (1 an enrichment curriculum; (2 a learning community; (3 quarterly seminars; and (4 a Summer Institute. Students attend enrichment activities comprising: (1 Applied Biostatistics; (2 Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology; (3 Social Epidemiology; (4 Emerging Topics; and (5 Research Writing. Training focuses on developing proficiency in cardiovascular health knowledge. The DHWS program is a unique strategy for incorporating rigorous academic and career-focused training to graduate students and has enabled the acquisition of competencies needed to impact cardiovascular disease management programs.

  3. Critical Studies on Men in Ten European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pringle, Keith; Hearn, Jeff (and 13 other network partners)

    2002-01-01

    This article is one the work of The European Research Network on Men in Europe project “The Social Problem and Societal Problematization of Men and Masculinities” (2000-2003), funded by the European Commission. The Network comprises women and men researchers with range of disciplinary backgrounds...... from Estonia, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Norway, Poland, the Russian Federation, and the United Kingdom. The Network's initial focus is on men's relations to home and work, social exclusion, violences, and health. Some of findings on the Network's second phase of work, namely the review...

  4. Profile of an epidemiological study of urinary schistosomiasis in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    2, .... In each local government, school children were screened during school hours. However, pre-school children in the communities were screened in the house of community heads. ..... Few studies have dealt with urinary schistosomiasis.

  5. AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF POISONING IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen; Sahajanand; Rangalakshmi; Kasim

    2015-01-01

    AIMS : The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the rate and chara cteristics of acute poisoning cases admitted to adult intensive care unit ( ICU ) in a tertiary care medical college hospital. We report clinical features , demographic data , laboratory results , mortality rate , and the results of our treatment in cases who ca me with the history of poisoning. METHODS: The study was done in patients admitted with his...

  6. Erythema Nodosum Epidemiology: 5-Years Retrospective Study - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arife Öz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Erythema nodosum (EN is the most common type of septal panniculitis. Although triggering factors of EN are drugs, infections, malignancies, inflammatory diseases however disease is idiopathic in 32-72%. Factors are changing from region to region and from country to country. In this study, our aim was to investigate the etiologic factors and to evaluate the clinic and laboratory findings of EN.Methods: Sixty-six patients who were histopathologically diagnosed as EN in our department between 2005 and 2010 were included to this study. Demographic data and treatment were evaluated.Results: Fifty-two of 66 patients had underlying etiologic factors (Group 1 and 14 of were idiopatic (Group 2. Most common etiologic factor was Behçet’s disease (n=15, and followed by drug (n=13, sarcoidosis (n=10, upper respiratory tract infection (n=6, autoimmune disease (n=4, pregnancy (n=2, tuberculosis (n=2 in decreasing frequencies. In our study malignancy and inflammatory bowel disease are not appointed.Conclusion: Behcet’s disease is a rare cause of EN. In other studies in our country the idiopatic group was in majority. In our study because of finding the common etiologic factor as Behçet’s disease due to being of Behçet’s disease high prevalance (11-42/10000 in our country and existence of Behçet’s disease center in our faculty

  7. Using whole genome sequencing to study American foulbrood epidemiology in honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ågren, Joakim; Schäfer, Marc Oliver

    2017-01-01

    American foulbrood (AFB), caused by Paenibacillus larvae, is a devastating disease in honeybees. In most countries, the disease is controlled through compulsory burning of symptomatic colonies causing major economic losses in apiculture. The pathogen is endemic to honeybees world-wide and is readily transmitted via the movement of hive equipment or bees. Molecular epidemiology of AFB currently largely relies on placing isolates in one of four ERIC-genotypes. However, a more powerful alternative is multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) using whole-genome sequencing (WGS), which allows for high-resolution studies of disease outbreaks. To evaluate WGS as a tool for AFB-epidemiology, we applied core genome MLST (cgMLST) on isolates from a recent outbreak of AFB in Sweden. The high resolution of the cgMLST allowed different bacterial clones involved in the disease outbreak to be identified and to trace the source of infection. The source was found to be a beekeeper who had sold bees to two other beekeepers, proving the epidemiological link between them. No such conclusion could have been made using conventional MLST or ERIC-typing. This is the first time that WGS has been used to study the epidemiology of AFB. The results show that the technique is very powerful for high-resolution tracing of AFB-outbreaks. PMID:29140998

  8. Using whole genome sequencing to study American foulbrood epidemiology in honeybees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim Ågren

    Full Text Available American foulbrood (AFB, caused by Paenibacillus larvae, is a devastating disease in honeybees. In most countries, the disease is controlled through compulsory burning of symptomatic colonies causing major economic losses in apiculture. The pathogen is endemic to honeybees world-wide and is readily transmitted via the movement of hive equipment or bees. Molecular epidemiology of AFB currently largely relies on placing isolates in one of four ERIC-genotypes. However, a more powerful alternative is multi-locus sequence typing (MLST using whole-genome sequencing (WGS, which allows for high-resolution studies of disease outbreaks. To evaluate WGS as a tool for AFB-epidemiology, we applied core genome MLST (cgMLST on isolates from a recent outbreak of AFB in Sweden. The high resolution of the cgMLST allowed different bacterial clones involved in the disease outbreak to be identified and to trace the source of infection. The source was found to be a beekeeper who had sold bees to two other beekeepers, proving the epidemiological link between them. No such conclusion could have been made using conventional MLST or ERIC-typing. This is the first time that WGS has been used to study the epidemiology of AFB. The results show that the technique is very powerful for high-resolution tracing of AFB-outbreaks.

  9. Epidemiology of hypospadias in Europe : a registry-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman, Jorieke E. H.; Loane, Maria; Vrijheid, Martine; Pierini, Anna; Nijman, Rien J. M.; Addor, Marie-Claude; Barisic, Ingeborg; Beres, Judit; Braz, Paula; Budd, Judith; Delaney, Virginia; Gatt, Miriam; Khoshnood, Babak; Klungsoyr, Kari; Martos, Carmen; Mullaney, Carmel; Nelen, Vera; Neville, Amanda J.; O'Mahony, Mary; Queisser-Luft, Annette; Randrianaivo, Hanitra; Rissmann, Anke; Rounding, Catherine; Tucker, David; Wellesley, Diana; Zymak-Zakutnia, Natalya; Bakker, Marian K.; de Walle, Hermien E. K.

    2015-01-01

    Hypospadias is a common congenital malformation. The prevalence of hypospadias has a large geographical variation, and recent studies have reported both increasing and decreasing temporal trends. It is unclear whether hypospadias prevalence is associated with maternal age. To analyze the prevalence

  10. Hand hygiene and health: an epidemiological study of students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hands may be the most important means by which enteric pathogens are transmitted. Skin hygiene particularly of the hands, has been accepted as a primary mechanism to control the spread of infectious agents. Therefore the present study was undertaken to evaluate the number and type of enteric bacterial pathogens ...

  11. A review of epidemiological studies of asthma in Ghana | Amoah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context/Background: The last few decades have witnessed a rise in the global prevalence of asthma with a number of risk factors being linked to this increase. Although there is insufficient data on the prevalence of asthma in Ghana, a few studies conducted in this country have shed light on the disease aetiology and ...

  12. Epidemiological Studies on listeriosis in Sheep | El-Beskawy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study carried out at El-Dakahilia governorate on 2448 sheep located in six flocks, varied ages and with history of nervous manifestation. The Prevalence of nervous manifestations was 4.9% (105 /2448). The case fatality rate and mortality rate were 77.14 % and 3.3 % respectively. The percent of Listeria monocytogenes ...

  13. Epidemiological studies on tuberculosis control and respiratory viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloot, R.

    2015-01-01

    To effectively reach tuberculosis (TB) elimination (defined as TB incidence <1 case per million persons per year) in low-incidence countries, tailored actions, depending on country-specific conditions, are required. The studies described in this thesis investigated various aspects of the

  14. Diet and overweight. Epidemiological studies on intake, environment and genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, S.W. van den

    2016-01-01

    Aim and methods This thesis aimed to study the role of a wide range of dietary factors on the development of overweight from a population perspective. First, we estimated the energy gap, i.e. the excess daily energy intake over the daily energy expenditure, responsible for excess weight gain

  15. [Epidemiologic study of myotonic dystrophy on the island of Mallorca].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcet, J; Cañellas, F; Cavaller, G; Vich, M

    1992-02-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (MD) or Steinert's disease is the most frequent hereditary myopathy in the adult. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of prevalence of MD on the island of Mallorca. Patients diagnosed with MD were studied in all public and private surgeries and centres able to diagnose this disease on the island of Mallorca. Therefore, this study included the whole population of Mallorca (551,129 inhabitants). A total of 60 cases were studied representing a prevalence rate of 110 cases per one million inhabitants. The patients were further classified according to the existence of family history and were geographically located into the different towns. The prevalence rate found was much higher than that described in the literature which oscillates between 30 and 50 cases per million inhabitants. Furthermore, there was a concentration of cases in 10 of the 52 towns of the island with the presence of 2 cases in 6 being significant. The rate of prevalence of the disease in the city of Palma (295,136 inhabitants) representing more than half of the population of the island was very similar (120 per million) to that found for the population as a whole.

  16. An epidemiological study of gammaglobulin levels in newborn calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobbelaar, P.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Keulen, K.A.S. van

    The effect of various factors on serum gammaglobulin concentration in newborn dairy calves was studied in 181 calves on six commercial farms. The refractometer test for monitoring colostrum management was found to be a reliable, rapid and practical method up to 6 days after birth. The three factors,

  17. Dental trauma in association with maxillofacial fractures: an epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruslin, M.; Wolff, J.; Boffano, P.; Brand, H.S.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate the incidence and associated factors of dental trauma in patients with maxillofacial fractures at the VU Medical Center in Amsterdam. Material and methods Data from 707 patients who were treated surgically for maxillofacial fractures were

  18. Dental trauma in association with maxillofacial fractures: an epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruslin, M.; Wolff, J.; Boffano, P.; Brand, H.S.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate the incidence and associated factors of dental trauma in patients with maxillofacial fractures at the VU Medical Center in Amsterdam. Material and methods: Data from 707 patients who were treated surgically for maxillofacial fractures

  19. Mental health in Dutch children : an epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Verhulst (Frank)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractAt the time the present study was started (1982) correlations were not available between CBCL scores obtained from parents and independently obtained inforrnation on the same child through a teacher questionnaire~ nor between the CBCL and intensive clinical assessment of the same

  20. Epidemiological study on Gastrointestinal Helminths of horses in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of gastrointestinal helminths in horses was conducted from October 2009 to May 2010 in three districts of the Arsi-Bale highlands of Oromiya region. A total of 2683 fecal samples for the coproscopic examination and 80 pooled samples for recovery of parasitic ...

  1. Preliminary Study on the Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in Nekemte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Out of these, 68 (13.1%) were smearing positive. The extrapolated annual incidence of clinically diagnosed and smear positive TB in the study area were 124.8/100,000 and 6.32/100,000 population, respectively. Out of 25 isolate analyses by PCR, 15 were M. tuberculosis (Mtb), 4 were mixed with Mtb and M. bovis (Mb), ...

  2. Using death certificate data to study place of death in 9 European countries: opportunities and weaknesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaasa Stein

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic and reliable epidemiological information at population level, preferably cross-national, is needed for an adequate planning of (end-of-life health care policies, e.g. concerning place of death, but is currently lacking. This study illustrates opportunities and weaknesses of death certificate data to provide such information on place of death and associated factors in nine European countries (seven entire countries and five regions. Methods We investigated the possibility and modality of all partners in this international comparative study (BE, DK, IT, NL, NO, SE, UK to negotiate a dataset containing all deaths of one year with their national/regional administration of mortality statistics, and analysed the availability of information about place of death as well as a number of clinical, socio-demographic, residential and healthcare system factors. Results All countries negotiated a dataset, but rules, procedures, and cost price to get the data varied strongly between countries. In total, about 1.1 million deaths were included. For four of the nine countries not all desired categories for place of death were available. Most desired clinical and socio-demographic information was available, be it sometimes via linkages with other population databases. Healthcare system factors could be made available by linking existing healthcare statistics to the residence of the deceased. Conclusion Death certificate data provide information on place of death and on possibly associated factors and confounders in all studied countries. Hence, death certificate data provide a unique opportunity for cross-national studying and monitoring of place of death. However, modifications of certain aspects of death certificate registration and rules of data-protection are perhaps required to make international monitoring of place of death more feasible and accurate.

  3. STROBE-AMS : recommendations to optimise reporting of epidemiological studies on antimicrobial resistance and informing improvement in antimicrobial stewardship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tacconelli, Evelina; Cataldo, Maria A; Paul, M; Leibovici, L; Kluytmans, Jan; Schröder, Wiebke; Foschi, Federico; De Angelis, Giulia; De Waure, Chiara; Cadeddu, Chiara; Mutters, Nico T; Gastmeier, Petra; Cookson, Barry

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore the accuracy of application of the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) tool in epidemiological studies focused on the evaluation of the role of antibiotics in selecting resistance, and to derive and test an extension of STROBE to

  4. A geographic information system to study trauma epidemiology in India

    OpenAIRE

    Bagaria Vaibhav; Bagaria Saurabh

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Geographic Information Systems (GIS) describe the topography and chronology of events in a defined vector space. GIS may also be used for an integrated analysis of environmental and road-related risk factors for traffic accidents. Methods In a retrospective study, various features of 165 road crashes were linked to a GIS-generated digital map of an area close to a national highway in India. By overlay tools, clusters of accidents were identified, and color-coded according ...

  5. Shoulder disorders in an outpatient clinic: an epidemiological study

    OpenAIRE

    Malavolta, Eduardo Angeli; Gracitelli, Mauro Emilio Conforto; Assunção, Jorge Henrique; Pinto, Gustavo de Mello Ribeiro; Silveira, Arthur Zorzi Freire da; Ferreira Neto,Arnaldo Amado

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To describe shoulder disorders in patients evaluated by two shoulder and elbow surgeons. METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed patients evaluated by two authors, excluding acute fractures and dislocations and patients with symptoms not involving the shoulder. Age and sex distribution was determined for the different diagnoses. RESULTS: We evaluated 1001 patients. Mean age was 51.43±15.15 years and 51.0% were female. Disorders of the rotator cuff occurred in 64...

  6. Ventriculostomy-related infections--an epidemiological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Gerner-Smidt, P; Kock-Jensen, C

    1986-01-01

    In a prospective study involving a total of 87 ventriculostomies, ventriculostomy-related infections (based upon a bacteriological definition) developed in 15 patients (17.2 per cent). Intraventricular haemorrhage was related to a higher infection rate. Infection was most frequent within the firs...... days after the external ventricular drain (EVD) was inserted. There was no relation between infection and the number of manipulations of the EVD or antibiotic treatment during the time of EVD placement....

  7. Danish Rural Eye Study: Epidemiology of Adult Visual Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høeg, Tracy Beth; Ellervik, Christina; Buch, Helena; La Cour, Morten; Klemp, Kristian; Kvetny, Jan; Erngaard, Ditte; Moldow, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    To examine the frequency and causes of visual impairment (VI) in a select population of Danish adults. A total of 3843 adults aged 20-94 years from the Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) were included in the population-based, cross-sectional ophthalmological study, Danish Rural Eye Study (DRES). All DRES participants received a comprehensive general health examination preceding their eye examination, including measurement of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) for each eye, bilateral 45° retinal fundus photographs and further ophthalmological examination where indicated. Overall, 3826 of 3843 participants (99.6%) had bilateral visual acuity measurements. The overall frequency of VI (BCVA 50 years and 3.7% (95% CI 2.1-6.5%; n = 11) in participants >80 years. The primary causes of VI in the better-seeing eye were age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in 46.7% (7/15) and cataract in 26.7% (4/15). A total of 43.3% (n = 115) of participants >80 years were pseudophakic in one or both eyes. The frequency of diabetes (HbA1c ≥ 48 mmol/mol or self-reported diagnosis) was 5.9% (n = 227), including 1.3% (n = 51) newly diagnosed in the GESUS. Of participants determined to have VI due to exudative AMD, 50% had received anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment. We report a relatively low frequency of VI among Danish adults over 59 years of age compared with that observed 10-15 years ago, which is both consistent with other recent Scandinavian studies and reflective of our relatively healthy and mobile population sample.

  8. Dental trauma in association with maxillofacial fractures: an epidemiological study

    OpenAIRE

    Ruslin, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate the incidence and associated factors of dental trauma in patients with maxillofacial fractures at the VU Medical Center in Amsterdam. Material and methods: Data from 707 patients who were treated surgically for maxillofacial fractures were evaluated. The data were collected retrospectively from patient files and other available databases. The data collected included date of fracture, age, gender, type of fracture, and ...

  9. Mental disorders and violence risk : epidemiological and clinical cohort studies

    OpenAIRE

    Moberg, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Violence morbidity and mortality has been increasingly recognized to be of importance for public health. The relationship between mental illness and violent crime is complex because of the involvement of several confounding risk factors. Aim The aim of this thesis was to study the risk of interpersonal violence and violent crime in common mental disorders with a focus on the effect of early risk factors, the relationship between interpersonal violence an...

  10. Competencies of specialised wound care nurses: a European Delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eskes, Anne M.; Maaskant, Jolanda M.; Holloway, Samantha; van Dijk, Nynke; Alves, Paulo; Legemate, Dink A.; Ubbink, Dirk T.; Vermeulen, Hester

    2014-01-01

    Health care professionals responsible for patients with complex wounds need a particular level of expertise and education to ensure optimum wound care. However, uniform education for those working as wound care nurses is lacking. We aimed to reach consensus among experts from six European countries

  11. Red list assessment of European habitat types. A feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodwell, J.S.; Janssen, J.A.M.; Gubbay, S.; Schaminee, J.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents an achievable methodology for the Red List assessment of European habitats in terrestrial, freshwater and marine realms, outlines a process that will deliver such evaluations and gives an indication of resources needed. It shows how the EUNIS habitat classification can be

  12. Competencies of specialised wound care nurses : a European Delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eskes, Anne M; Maaskant, Jolanda M; Holloway, Samantha; van Dijk, Nynke; Alves, Paulo; Legemate, Dink A; Ubbink, Dirk T; Vermeulen, Hester

    2014-01-01

    Health care professionals responsible for patients with complex wounds need a particular level of expertise and education to ensure optimum wound care. However, uniform education for those working as wound care nurses is lacking. We aimed to reach consensus among experts from six European countries

  13. Epidemiology of Nocardiosis -A six years study from Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reetika Dawar, Ruchi Girotra, Seema Quadri, Firdaus Imdadi, Leena Mendiratta, Hena Rani, Avdesh Bansal, Raman Sardana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To isolate and speciate Nocardia species from clinical samples and to study their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern to different antimicrobials. Various risk factors associated with nocardiosis were also studied. Methods: 32 clinical specimens with clinical history of pneumonia, abscesses, or disseminated infections were collected over a period of 6 years (2009-2014 from Inpatient and Outpatient departments and processed for Nocardia cultures and sensitivity. Results: Twelve cases of nocardiosis were reported out of 32 clinically suspected cases. The mean age of presentation in our study was 57.9 years. Pneumonia was the most common clinical presentation followed by primary cutaneous disease and one case of disseminated disease. 8/ 10 patients with nocardiosis were immunocompromised with history of organ transplantation, use of immunosuppressive agents or steroids. Based on biochemical reactions 5 of the isolates were identified as N. asteroides, 3 N. brasiliensis, 2 N. farcinica and 1 each were N. transvalensis, & N. nova. All were sensitive to linezolid followed by cotrimoxazole (91.6% Conclusions: With increasing number of immunocompromised patients and an increased incidence of nocardiosis, diagnosis of Nocardia infections should always be kept in mind as it can present with nonspecific symptoms and can mimic confused with other diseases. Linezolid, Cotrimoxazole, imipenem and minocycline were found to be very effective, in vitro, against most Nocardia species. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2016;6(2: 60-64

  14. Oral pyogenic granuloma: a epidemiologic study of 191 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Santana SANTOS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of pyogenic granuloma and compare the data obtained with those of other reports in the worldliterature. Methods: The study material was surveyed from the records of patients with diagnosis of oral pyogenic granuloma, at the Oral Pathology Laboratory of the School of Dentistry of the University of Pernambuco, in the period from January 1992 to March 2007 (15 years. The following indicators were analyzed: gender, age group, race, anatomic location, diameter of lesions and presence of symptomatology.Results: Among the 5007 records in the laboratory, 3.81% corresponded to lesions diagnosed as oral pyogenic granuloma, in which 19.9% of the patients were in the second decade of life, 40.1% were white, the gingiva was the most affected location (77.9% and lesion of smaller diameter (0.1 to 2 cm were those most observed at the initial diagnosis. Conclusion: The clinical-pathological characteristics of oral pyogenic granuloma in the studied population are similar to those of other studies in the literature

  15. Epidemiologic Study of Melanocytic Disorders in Hamadan in 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zamanian

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Melanocytic nevi are very frequent and there is a relationship between these nevi and malignant melanoma. So we need to know the prevalence and kinds of these nevi in our country. The aim of this study was to clarify the prevalence and kinds of melanocytic nevi in rural areas of Hamadan in the west of Iran.Materials & Methods: A cluster random sampling was followed. The survey included 9450 rural inhabitant of all ages and both sexes from representative of 33 villages of Hamadan. The data were collected through personal interview and examination at homes in 2002.Results: This study showed melanocytic nevi in 88% of population, lentigo in 50%, freckling in 12.7% and café-au-lait spots in 6.7% of studied subjects. The range of age in the patients was 1-75 years with the mean of 35.7 year. Conclusion: Due to relation of melanocytic nevi with malignant melanoma avoiding sun exposure and health education are important , especially for high risk people.

  16. Epidemiology of psoriasis in malaysia: a hospital based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinniah, B; Saraswathy Devi, S; Prashant, B S

    2010-06-01

    Psoriasis is a complex chronic inflammatory skin disease with a worldwide distribution. To determine the prevalence of psoriasis according to age, gender and ethnicity among outpatients attending the dermatology clinic in Hospital Tengku Ampuan Rahimah, Klang Malaysia. All outpatients attending the specialist clinic of the dermatology department in Hospital Tengku Ampuan Rahimah, Klang, Malaysia from January 2003 to December 2005. This is a retrospective descriptive study of all outpatients who attended the specialist clinic from January 2003 to December 2005 and diagnosed for psoriasis. The study population consisted of patients of all ages, both gender and different ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese, Indians and foreign workers) living in the Klang Valley and the surrounding areas. A total of 5607 patients were examined during a period of three years and 9.5% were found to be suffering with psoriasis. It was more common in males (11.6%) than in females (7.2%). Patients within the 40-60 year age group had the highest (17.2%) rate and were lower in the younger age group including those aged over 60 years (8.1%). With regards to ethnicity, it was more common in Indians followed by Malays, Chinese and migrant foreign workers respectively. The study indicates that psoriasis is common in Malaysia and its distribution varies with age, ethnicity and gender.

  17. A clinico-epidemiological study of rescuer burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basra, Baljeet Kumar; Suri, Manav P; Patil, Nilesh; Atha, Ravish; Patel, Natvar; Sachde, Jayesh P; Shaikh, M F

    2014-08-01

    Rescuer burn is a relatively newer terminology introduced to define the burns sustained by a person attempting to rescue a primary burn victim. Few studies have been published thus far on this peculiar type of burns. Due to the general neglect of the rescuer burns victim and discontinuation of treatment in most cases, once the primary victim dies, the rescuer often ends up in badly infected wounds and has a delayed return to work. A prospective study was conducted at the B J Medical College and Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad from January 2009 to December 2012 on the rescuer burns patients treated in its burns and plastic surgery department. 3074 patients of burns received treatment during the period of study. Of these, 48 patients gave the history of sustaining burns while trying to rescue a burns victim. Male to female ratio of rescuers was approximately 7:1. It was significantly higher as compared to the ratio of 1:0.8 of females to male burn victims observed at our centre (p≤0.01). Average age of the rescuers was higher in males as compared to females but the difference was not significant (p≥0.05). Of the 45 cases of female primary burns victims, male rescuer was husband of the primary victim in 41/45 cases (91.1%), mother was rescuer in three cases (6.6% cases) and sister was rescuer in one case. Though multiple people came to rescue a burns victim, in all cases, it was seen that it was the first rescuer who sustained burns himself or herself. None of the rescuers had any knowledge of the techniques and precautions to be taken while performing a rescue operation irrespective of their education status, indirectly pointing to the lack of any teaching on burns rescue in the school education curriculum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. Viral Warts-A Clinico-Epidemiological Study

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    Laxmisha Chandrashekar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Although clinical criteria, laboratory diagnosis and treatment are well established, scanty attention has been paid to prevalence and pattern of viral warts in India. HIV is widely prevalent and its influence on the number and morphology of viral warts has not yet been studied in our setup. Hence, this study was undertaken. One hindered and forty four cases of viral warts were studied between September 2000 and June 2002 at the department of Dermatology and STD, JIPMER, Pondicherry. These included 81childeren and 63 adults. In Children, viral warts were most commonly seen in the age group of 10to14 years (41.9%, whereas in adults, the most commonly seen in the age 14to20 years (46.03%. The average age at presentation was 11.5 years. The male to female ratio was 2.2 to 1 in children and 1.8 to 1 in adults. Family history of warts was observed in 27.7% of the cases. In children, multiple site involvement (62.9% was more common than single site involvement. The most commonly involved site was hand in children as also in adults. In adults, single site involvement (66.6%was more common than multiple site involvement. The most common type of wart seen in both children and adults was the common wart. Twenty percent of the cases showed koebnerization. Four cases were found to be seropositive for HIV infection, who were adult with genital warts, but florid manifestations were not seen.

  19. Epidemiological study on vocal disorders in paediatric age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelillo, N; Di Costanzo, B; Angelillo, M; Costa, G; Barillari, M R; Barillari, U

    2008-03-01

    Few studies analyzed the diffusion of vocal alterations especially in childhood. Aim of our study was to quantify the numbers of subjects, in paediatric age, in which dysphonia was diagnosed in our department of Phoniatrics, during a period of 5 years, (January 2002-December 2006), and also to evaluate the influence of some potential risk factors. In the considered period it emerged that the diagnosis of dysphonia was made in 312 children (17.2% of the patients affected from dysphonia), aged between 2 and 16-years-old, with a major prevalence amongst males (57%) than females (43%). On the contrary in the adult population the prevalence was: 23% in males and 77% in females. In paediatric population, the most affected range of age is the one between 8 and 14, in both male and female gender (59.6%). In 82.4% of the cases there were vocal fold lesions. The 90.3% of children with vocal fold alterations presented lesions secondary to vocal abuse and misuse and classifiable as functional dysphonia. The proportion of functional dysphonia in our sample was 92%. The 65% of children belonged to large families with more than two children, and the 30% had a family history of dysphonia (brothers, parents). The study of the behavioural characteristics has shown aggressive and hyperactive attitudes in 83% of the cases. Since in the ethiopathogenesis of the childhood dysphonia the tendency to vocal abuse has a predominant role, it would be useful to encourage the diffusion of programmes of information to show the risks linked to this abuse in children, in order to prevent the development of dysphonia in paediatric age.

  20. Epidemiological and clinical profile of paediatric malaria: a cross sectional study performed on febrile children in five epidemiological strata of malaria in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwenti, Tebit Emmanuel; Kwenti, Tayong Dizzle Bita; Latz, Andreas; Njunda, Longdoh Anna; Nkuo-Akenji, Theresa

    2017-07-17

    In the wake of a decline in global malaria, it is imperative to describe the epidemiology of malaria in a country to inform control policies. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiological and clinical profile of paediatric malaria in five epidemiological strata of malaria in Cameroon including: the Sudano-sahelian (SS) strata, the High inland plateau (HIP) strata, the South Cameroonian Equatorial forest (SCEF) strata, the High western plateau (HWP) strata, and the Coastal (C) strata. This study involved 1609 febrile children (≤15 years) recruited using reference hospitals in the five epidemiological strata. Baseline characteristics were determined; blood glucose level was measured by a glucometer, malaria parasitaemia was assessed by Giemsa microscopy, and complete blood count was performed using an automated hematology analyser. Severe malaria was assessed and categorized based on WHO criteria. An overall prevalence of 15.0% (95% CI: 13.3-16.9) for malaria was observed in this study. Malaria prevalence was significantly higher in children between 60 and 119 months (p malaria (SM) attack in this study was 29.3%; SM was significantly higher in children below 60 months (p malaria anaemia and impaired consciousness. The majority (73.2%) of SM cases were in group 1 of the WHO classification of severe malaria (i.e. the most severe form). The malaria case-fatality rate was 5.8%; this was higher in Ngaoundere (HIP strata) (p = 0.034). In this study, malaria prevalence decreased steadily northward, from the C strata in the South to the SS strata in the North of Cameroon, meanwhile the mortality rate associated with malaria increased in the same direction. On the contrary, the rate of severe malaria attack was similar across the different epidemiological strata. Immunoepidemiological studies will be required to shed more light on the observed trends.

  1. Hyperemesis gravidarum in northern Israel: a retrospective epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konikoff, Tom; Avraham, Tehila; Ophir, Ella; Bornstein, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is characterized by severe intractable nausea and vomiting in pregnancy leading to electrolyte imbalance, ketonuria, and weight loss. The cause is unknown. This study sought to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of HG in the Western Galilee in two ethnic populations and to estimate its economic burden. Data on ethnicity, age, gestational age, number of pregnancies, and length of hospitalization were collected from the medical files of all women with HG admitted to the Galilee Medical Center in 2010-2013. Findings were compared between Arabs and Jews. Prevalence was assessed relative to total number of births. Economic burden was assessed by cost of hospitalization and work days lost. The cohort included 184 women, 124 Arabic (67.4 %) and 60 Jewish (32.6 %). There were 13,630 births at the medical center during the study period, for a calculated prevalence of HG of 1.2 %. There was no difference in the relative proportions of Arabs and Jews between the cohort and the total women giving birth at our center. Mean patient age was 27.2 years, gestational age 9.3 weeks, parity 2.35. Mean age was significantly higher in the Jewish group. There were no significant between-group differences in the other clinical parameters. Mean number of hospitalization days was 2.24 days, and of additional rest days prescribed, 4.62. The calculated annual cost of HG was 452,943.42 NIS (120,144.14 USD), crudely extrapolated to a nationwide cost of 15-20 million NIS (5,300,000 USD). The prevalence and characteristics of HG are similar in the Arabic and Jewish populations of northern Israel. Mean gestational age at admission for HG was lower in our study than earlier ones, probably owing to the universal health care provided by law in Israel. HG prevalence was twice that reported previously in southern Israel but still within the range observed in other world regions. The socioeconomic differences between Arabs and Jews in the Galilee are smaller

  2. Epidemiologic Study on Drug Abuse among First and Second Grade High School Students in Kerman

    OpenAIRE

    Nakhaee, Nouzar; Ziaaddini, Hassan; Karimzadeh, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the epidemiology of drug abuse among high school students in Kerman. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study on a randomly selected sample of 652 first and second grade high school students (256 boys, 396 girls) in Kerman. They were informed that their answers would be classified and nameless before they filled questionnaires. Schools and classes were selected using stratified sampling method. Findings: From total 652 students participated in this study, ...

  3. An observational study on cough in children: epidemiology, impact on quality of sleep and treatment outcome

    OpenAIRE

    De Blasio, Francesco; Dicpinigaitis, Peter V; Rubin, Bruce K; De Danieli, Gianluca; Lanata, Luigi; Zanasi, Alessando

    2012-01-01

    Background Cough is one of the most frequent symptoms in children and is the most common symptom for which children visit a health care provider. Methods This is an observational study on acute cough associated with upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in children. The study evaluates the epidemiology and impact of cough on quality of sleep and children's activities, and the outcome of cough with antitussive treatments in pediatric routine clinical practice. Study assessments were perform...

  4. Epidemiological study of insect bite reactions from Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The physical effects of the arthropod bites on human skin receive less attention, especially in the rural areas where the per capita income is less. Ours is a rural-based hospital, the vicinity having more of plants, trees, and forests; we undertook the study to find out the relation of insect bite dermatitis in a rural area. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in the Dermatology outpatient department of our institute on 100 subjects of insect bite dermatitis who were questioned retrospectively about the sequence of events besides their environmental and living conditions. They were examined thoroughly and the relevant clinical findings were noted, also taking into account the prior treatment taken by them, if any. Results and Conclusions: It was found that insect bite dermatitis has no age or gender preponderance, and the protective factors for the same are use of full sleeve clothes and keeping the doors and windows closed at night. On the contrary, the risk factors are residence in areas of heavy insect infestation, use of perfumes and colognes, warm weather in spring and summer and the lack of protective measures. However, there was no direct association of atopy with increased risk of developing insect bite dermatitis.

  5. Prevalence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Ramshir, Iran; an Epidemiological Study

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    Vazirianzadeh B.* PhD,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a prevalent parasitological disease with diverse clinical manifestations in Iran. Therefore, the present retrospective study carried out to describe the demographic features of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ramshir, Iran. Materials & Methods This descriptive study was performed on 136 cutaneous leishmaniasis patients whose data were recorded in the Ramshir health center during 2006-9. Demographic information of patients including age, sex, habitat and sites of lesions, month and years of incidence were recorded. The data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software. Findings Totally 79 patients (58.1% resided in urban areas and the born to 9 years (49.3% was recognized as the most infected age group. Hands (41.2% had the highest rates of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions followed by face (36.0% and foot (22.8%. The maximum number of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions was reported in March. Conclusion As cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ramshir seemed to be an endemic rural type, the appropriate preventing measures regarding to the rural cutaneous leishmaniasis should be considered to decrease incidence of the disease in the region.

  6. The epidemiology of forearm nerve injuries--a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasulić, Lukas; Puzović, Vladimir; Rotim, Krešimir; Jovanović, Milan; Samardžić, Miroslav; Živković, Bojana; Savić, Andrija

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms and etiologic factors of forearm nerve injuries. This retrospective survey included all patients treated surgically in Clinical Department of Neurosurgery, Clinical Center of Serbia, from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2010. All relevant data were collected from medical records. Statistical procedures were done using the PASW 18 statistical package. Our study included 104 patients that underwent surgery after forearm nerve injury. The majority of admitted patients were male (n = 84; 80.8%) and only 20 (19.2%) were female. Ulnar nerve injury predominated with 70 cases, followed by median nerve with 54 (51.9%) cases and radial nerve with only 5 cases. Transection was the dominant mechanism of injury and it occurred in 84.6% of cases. Injury by a sharp object was the most frequent etiologic factor and it occurred in 62 (59.6%) patients, while traffic accident and gunshot injuries were the least common etiologic factor of forearm nerve injury, occurring in 7 (6.7%) and 6 (5.8%) cases, respectively. Associated injuries of muscles and tendons, bones and blood vessels occurred in 20 (19.2%), 16 (15.4%) and 15 (14.4%) patients, respectively. The etiology and mechanism of peripheral nerve injury are of great importance when choosing the right course of treatment in each individual patient because timing and type of treatment are closely related to these factors.

  7. Epidemiological trends of pediatric trauma: A single-center study of 791 patients

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    Mukesh Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the various epidemiological parameters that influence the causation of trauma as well as the consequent morbidity and mortality in the pediatric age group. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of 791 patients of less than 12 years age, was carried out over a period of 1 year (August 2009 to July 2010, and pediatric trauma trends, with regards to the following parameters were assessed: Age group, sex, mode of trauma, type of injury, place where the trauma occurred and the overall mortality as well as mortality. Results: Overall trauma was most common in the school-going age group (6-12 years, with male children outnumbering females in the ratio of 1.9:1. It was observed that orthopedic injuries were the most frequent (37.8% type of injuries, whereas fall from height (39.4%, road traffic accident (27.8% and burns (15.2% were the next most common modes of trauma. Home was found out to be the place where maximum trauma occurred (51.8%. Maximum injuries happened unintentionally (98.4%. Overall mortality was found out to be 6.4% (n = 51. Conclusions: By knowing the epidemiology of pediatric trauma, we conclude that majority of pediatric injuries are preventable and pediatric epidemiological trends differ from those in adults. Therefore, preventive strategies should be made in pediatric patients on the basis of these epidemiological trends.

  8. Balancing geo-privacy and spatial patterns in epidemiological studies

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    Chien-Chou Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To balance the protection of geo-privacy and the accuracy of spatial patterns, we developed a geo-spatial tool (GeoMasker intended to mask the residential locations of patients or cases in a geographic information system (GIS. To elucidate the effects of geo-masking parameters, we applied 2010 dengue epidemic data from Taiwan testing the tool’s performance in an empirical situation. The similarity of pre- and post-spatial patterns was measured by D statistics under a 95% confidence interval. In the empirical study, different magnitudes of anonymisation (estimated Kanonymity ≥10 and 100 were achieved and different degrees of agreement on the pre- and post-patterns were evaluated. The application is beneficial for public health workers and researchers when processing data with individuals’ spatial information.

  9. Validity of self reported male balding patterns in epidemiological studies

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    Leavy Justine E

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have investigated the association between male pattern baldness and disease such as prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease. Limitations in the lack of standardized instruments to measure male pattern baldness have resulted in researchers measuring balding patterns in a variety of ways. This paper examines the accuracy and reliability of assessment of balding patterns by both trained observers and men themselves, using the Hamilton-Norwood classification system. Methods An observational study was carried out in Western Australia with 105 male volunteers aged between 30 and 70 years. Participants completed a short questionnaire and selected a picture that best represented their balding pattern. Two trained data collectors also independently assessed the participant's balding pattern using the same system and the men's self assessment was compared with the trained observer's assessment. In a substudy, observers assessed the balding pattern in a photo of the man aged 35 years while the man independently rated his balding at that age. Results Observers were very reliable in their assessment of balding pattern (85% exact agreement, κ = 0.83. Compared to trained observers, men were moderately accurate in their self-assessment of their balding status (48–55% exact agreement, κ = 0.39–0.46. For the substudy the exact agreement between the men and the observers was 67% and the agreement within balding groups was 87%. Conclusions We recommend that male balding patterns be assessed by trained personnel using the Hamilton-Norwood classification system. Where the use of trained personnel is not feasible, men's self assessment both currently and retrospectively has been shown to be adequate.

  10. Studies of epidemiology and seroprevalence of bovine noroviruses in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y; Batten, C A; Liu, B L; Lambden, P R; Elschner, M; Günther, H; Otto, P; Schnürch, P; Eichhorn, W; Herbst, W; Clarke, I N

    2003-06-01

    Jena virus (JV) is a bovine enteric calicivirus that causes diarrhea in calves. The virus is approximately 30 nm in diameter and has a surface morphology similar to the human Norwalk virus. The genome sequence of JV was recently described, and the virus has been assigned to the genus Norovirus of the family CALICIVIRIDAE: In the present study, the JV capsid gene encoded by open reading frame 2 was cloned into the baculovirus transfer vector pFastBac 1, and this was used to transform Escherichia coli to generate a recombinant bacmid. Transfection of insect cells with the recombinant baculovirus DNA resulted in expression of the JV capsid protein. The recombinant JV capsid protein undergoes self-assembly into virus-like particles (VLPs) similar to JV virions in size and appearance. JV VLPs were released into the cell culture supernatant, concentrated, and then purified by CsCl equilibrium gradient centrifugation. Purified JV VLPs were used to hyperimmunize laboratory animals. An antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed and characterized initially with clinical specimens containing defined human noroviruses and bovine diarrheal samples from calves experimentally infected with JV; the ELISA was specific only for JV. The ELISA was used to screen 381 diarrheal samples collected from dairy herds in Thuringia, Hesse, and Bavaria, Germany, from 1999 to 2002; 34 of these samples (8.9%) were positive for JV infection. The unexpectedly high prevalence of JV was confirmed in a seroepidemiological study using 824 serum or plasma samples screened using an anti-JV ELISA, which showed that 99.1% of cattle from Thuringia have antibodies to JV.

  11. Epidemiological study of health hazards among workers handling engineered nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing, E-mail: shliou@nhri.org.tw; Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Wang, Shu-Li; Li, Lih-Ann; Chiang, Hung-Che; Li, Wan-Fen; Lin, Pin-Pin [National Health Research Institutes, Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, Taiwan (China); Lai, Ching-Huang [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Public Health, Taiwan (China); Lee, Hui-Ling [Fu Jen Catholic University, Department of Chemistry, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ming-Hsiu; Hsu, Jin-Huei; Chen, Chiou-Rong [Council of Labor Affairs, Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Taiwan (China); Shih, Tung-Sheng [College of Public Health, China Medical University and Hospital, Institute of Environmental Health, Taiwan (China); Liao, Hui-Yi; Chung, Yu-Teh [National Health Research Institutes, Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-15

    The aim of this study was to establish and identify the health effect markers of workers with potential exposure to nanoparticles (20-100 nm) during manufacturing and/or application of nanomaterials. For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 227 workers who handled nanomaterials and 137 workers for comparison who did not from 14 plants in Taiwan. A questionnaire was used to collect data on exposure status, demographics, and potential confounders. The health effect markers were measured in the medical laboratory. Control banding from the Nanotool Risk Level Matrix was used to categorize the exposure risk levels of the workers. The results showed that the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD) in risk level 1 (RL1) and risk level 2 (RL2) workers was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than in control workers. A significantly decreasing gradient was found for SOD (control > RL1 > RL2). Another antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), was significantly lower only in RL1 workers than in the control workers. The cardiovascular markers, fibrinogen and ICAM (intercellular adhesion molecule), were significantly higher in RL2 workers than in controls and a significant dose-response with an increasing trend was found for these two cardiovascular markers. Another cardiovascular marker, interleukin-6, was significantly increased among RL1 workers, but not among RL2 workers. The accuracy rate for remembering 7-digits and reciting them backwards was significantly lower in RL2 workers (OR = 0.48) than in controls and a significantly reversed gradient was also found for the correct rate of backward memory (OR = 0.90 for RL1, OR = 0.48 for RL2, p < 0.05 in test for trend). Depression of antioxidant enzymes and increased expression of cardiovascular markers were found among workers handling nanomaterials. Antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD and GPX, and cardiovascular markers, such as fibrinogen, ICAM, and interluekin-6, are possible biomarkers for medical surveillance of

  12. HIV in females: A clinico-epidemiological study

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    Mahesha Padyana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virusinfected women account for almost half the number of cases of HIV worldwide. Despite reduction in HIV prevalence among the population, the percentage of Indian women contracting the disease seems to have increased. The social implications are also different in females. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted from September 2009 to July 2011 at tertiary care hospitals attached to the Kasturba Medical College Mangalore, on a group of 200 HIV-positive patients. Patients above 18 years of age diagnosed with HIV as per National AIDS Control Organisation guidelines were included in the study. Clinical profile among women and men was compared with respect to clinical presentation, disease detection, CD4 count and response of family and society. Results: Clinical presentation was similar among both men and women. Eighty-one percent men had promiscual sexual exposure, 19% of women had so. Males were identified to be HIV-positive earlier than their spouse (tested later, time lag being 27.6 weeks. After detection of positivity 77% of females felt being less cared for by the in-laws. CD4 count less than 50 was detected in more number of females as compared to men (11% females and 1% males. Death of spouse was seen more often in females (among 35% of women and 11% of men. Conclusion: Most of the females were likely to acquire infection from their spouse. Females tend to seek and get medical attention at the late stage of disease as compared to men. HIV in females has different social implications which includes discrimination within the family.

  13. Epidemiology of hypospadias in Europe: a registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Jorieke E H; Loane, Maria; Vrijheid, Martine; Pierini, Anna; Nijman, Rien J M; Addor, Marie-Claude; Barisic, Ingeborg; Béres, Judit; Braz, Paula; Budd, Judith; Delaney, Virginia; Gatt, Miriam; Khoshnood, Babak; Klungsøyr, Kari; Martos, Carmen; Mullaney, Carmel; Nelen, Vera; Neville, Amanda J; O'Mahony, Mary; Queisser-Luft, Annette; Randrianaivo, Hanitra; Rissmann, Anke; Rounding, Catherine; Tucker, David; Wellesley, Diana; Zymak-Zakutnia, Natalya; Bakker, Marian K; de Walle, Hermien E K

    2015-12-01

    Hypospadias is a common congenital malformation. The prevalence of hypospadias has a large geographical variation, and recent studies have reported both increasing and decreasing temporal trends. It is unclear whether hypospadias prevalence is associated with maternal age. To analyze the prevalence and trends of total hypospadias, isolated hypospadias, hypospadias with multiple congenital anomalies, hypospadias with a known cause, and hypospadias severity subtypes in Europe over a 10-year period and to investigate whether maternal age is associated with hypospadias. We included all children with hypospadias born from 2001 to 2010 who were registered in 23 EUROCAT registries. Information on the total number of births and maternal age distribution for the registry population was also provided. We analyzed the total prevalence of hypospadias and relative risks by maternal age. From 2001 to 2010, 10,929 hypospadias cases were registered in 5,871,855 births, yielding a total prevalence of 18.61 per 10,000 births. Prevalence varied considerably between different registries, probably due to differences in ascertainment of hypospadias cases. No significant temporal trends were observed with the exceptions of an increasing trend for anterior and posterior hypospadias and a decreasing trend for unspecified hypospadias. After adjusting for registry effects, maternal age was not significantly associated with hypospadias. Total hypospadias prevalence was stable in 23 EUROCAT registries from 2001 to 2010 and was not significantly influenced by maternal age.

  14. Remission of suicidal thoughts: Findings from a longitudinal epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teismann, Tobias; Forkmann, Thomas; Glaesmer, Heide; Egeri, Leonie; Margraf, Jürgen

    2016-01-15

    Suicide ideation is common in young women. The present study investigated factors associated with the remission of suicidal thoughts in a representative sample of woman aged 18-24 years. A total of 1389 women were interviewed at a baseline assessment and again 17 months later. Social support, satisfaction with life, self-efficacy and positive mental health were considered as predictors of remission of suicidal thoughts - controlling for severity of psychopathology. Remission of suicidal thoughts was experienced by 67.4% of the respondents, whereas 32.6% continued to have suicide ideation at both assessments. In multiple logistic regression analyses, social support and positive mental health emerged as significant predictors of remission. Severity of psychopathology did not predict the course of suicide ideation. Suicide ideation was assessed only with the respective item of the Beck Depression Inventory. Protective factors, especially social support and positive mental health, outperform psychopathology in predicting the course of suicide ideation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. A CASE-CONTROL EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY OF ENDOMETRIOSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩美玲; 潘凌亚; 吴葆桢; 边旭明

    1994-01-01

    A case-control study involving 203 cases of pelvic endometriosis seen from 1987-1989,and 406 randomly selected and age-matched community controls was conducted in order to provide information relevant to effective prophylxaix of the disease.The diagnosis was confirmed by pathology from laparotomy and/or laproscopy.A questionnaire focused on menstrual,marital and reproductive status,professional exposurs and physical activities,and the results were analyzed by a conditional logistic regression model.Women characterized by earlier menarche (≤12 years)and longer period(≥8 days)were found to be saaociated with an elevated incurring risk,and a trend of increasing risk associated with primary dysmenorrhea(RR=2.1 for mild to moderate and RR=5.2 for severe dysmenorrhea),energetic physical activity during menstruation(RR=2.1),and allergic diathesis (RR=1.8)was seen.An inverse relationship was observed between the number of pregnancies and risk of endometrio-sis,and the protective effect was most significant when only the number of full-term pregnancies was counted.The risk factors of endometriosis are discussed,and intensive treatment of primary dysmenorrhea and avoidance of strenuous exercise during menstruation are identified as important as important measures in the prevention of endometriosis.

  16. Napping: A public health issue. From epidemiological to laboratory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraut, Brice; Andrillon, Thomas; Vecchierini, Marie-Françoise; Leger, Damien

    2017-10-01

    Sleep specialists have proposed measures to counteract the negative short- and long-term consequences of sleep debt, and some have suggested the nap as a potential and powerful "public health tool". Here, we address this countermeasure aspect of napping viewed as an action against sleep deprivation rather than an action associated with poor health. We review the physiological functions that have been associated positively with napping in both public health and clinical settings (sleep-related accidents, work and school, and cardiovascular risk) and in laboratory-based studies with potential public health issues (cognitive performance, stress, immune function and pain sensitivity). We also discuss the circumstances in which napping-depending on several factors, including nap duration, frequency, and age-could be a potential public health tool and a countermeasure for sleep loss in terms of reducing accidents and cardiovascular events and improving sleep-restriction-sensitive working performance. However, the impact of napping and the nature of the sleep stage(s) involved still need to be evaluated, especially from the perspective of coping strategies in populations with chronic sleep debt, such as night and shift workers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Epidemiological Study of Animal Leptospirosis in New Caledonia

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    Cédric Roqueplo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease in the world and a real public health concern for many years in New Caledonia. A cross-sectional survey was carried out on domestic and wild animals from New Caledonia in April 2009. Blood samples were collected from 30 cattle, 29 deers, (Cervus timorensis russa, 25 horses, 51 dogs, and 8 cats and were tested for 23 serovars of pathogenic Leptospira species by the microscopic agglutination test. From the total number of 143 samples, 84 (58.7% were found to be positive towards one or several serovars of pathogenic leptospires. According to the species, the positive sera were obtained from 43% of 30 cattle, 72% of 29 Rusa deer, 80% of 25 horses, and 43% of 51 dogs, and fromall of the 8 cats tested. This study shows the broad dispersion and the high prevalence of the different serogroups of pathogenic Leptospira species tested, particularly among deer and horses. The disease is endemic in domestic animals and concerns all the species.

  18. Spectrophotometric Determination of Malondialdehyde in Urine Suitable for Epidemiological Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tin Weitner

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A reliable method for spectrophotometric determination of urinary malondialdehyde (MDA, according to the thiobarbituric acid (TBA assay, is described. To account for matrix interference and differences in individual urine composition, standard addition procedure was applied. The method is adequately selective (LoQ = 0.09 μM in the presence of 0.1 M creatinine and 0.5 M urea and reliable (within-day and between-day variability of less than 5 %. The mean level of urinary MDA was 1.52 ± 0.73 µM that is in good agreement with spectrofluorometric determination (1.20 ± 0.56 μM; p = 0.085 as well as with previous studies that used HPLC. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that MDA is stabile in urine at room temperature for 24 h and when stored at –20 °C for 6 months. The described method enables simple, rapid and cost-effective determination of urinary MDA as a relevant and non-invasive marker of “whole-body” oxidative stress. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  19. Epidemiology of athletic knee injuries: A 10-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, M; Susanne, Habelt; Klaus, Steinbrück

    2006-06-01

    The knee is an anatomically and biomechanically complex joint. Few studies have been published reporting the type and frequency of knee injuries. However, this information that may help to prevent, diagnose, and treat knee joint injuries. We have documented 17,397 patients with 19,530 sport injuries over a 10-year period of time. 6434 patients (37%) had 7769 injuries (39.8%) related to the knee joint. 68.1% of those patients were men and 31.6% were women. Almost 50% of the patients were between the ages of 20-29 (43.1%) at the time of injury. The injuries documented were ACL lesion (20.3%), medial meniscus lesion (10.8%), lateral meniscus lesion (3.7%), MCL lesion (7.9%), LCL lesion (1.1%), and PCL lesion (0.65%). The activities leading to most injuries were soccer (35%) and skiing (26%). LCL injury was associated with tennis and gymnastics, MCL with judo and skiing, ACL with handball and volleyball, PCL with handball, lateral meniscus with gymnastics and dancing, and medial meniscus with tennis and jogging.

  20. Epidemiological study of foot and ankle injuries in recreational sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Alexandre de Paiva; Lara, Luiz Carlos Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    This is a retrospective study showing the incidence, type and extent of injuries occurring in the foot and/or ankle as a result of recreational sports practice. We treated 131 patients, of which 123 were male and 8 female, with a history of trauma and pain in the foot and/or ankle after the practicing recreational sports. The average age of the male patients was 24.53 years. The evaluation was done through a research protocol, which contained the variables age, sex, diagnosis, and type of recreational sport. The sports were classified according to the American Medical Association, which divides them into contact and non-contact sports. 82.4% of the sample practiced contact sports, while 17.6% practiced sports classified as non-contact. The sprained ankle was the most frequent type of injury, especially those of grade I and II. Soccer was the sport responsible for the highest incidence of injuries and among its various forms the indoor soccer presented the highest frequency of injuries (35%). In the non-contact sports, the highest incidence was found in running. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series.

  1. Epidemiological impact of a syphilis vaccine: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champredon, D; Cameron, C E; Smieja, M; Dushoff, J

    2016-11-01

    Despite the availability of inexpensive antimicrobial treatment, syphilis remains prevalent worldwide, affecting millions of individuals. Furthermore, syphilis infection is suspected of increasing both susceptibility to, and tendency to transmit, HIV. Development of a syphilis vaccine would be a potentially promising step towards control, but the value of dedicating resources to vaccine development should be evaluated in the context of the anticipated benefits. Here, we use a detailed mathematical model to explore the potential impact of rolling out a hypothetical syphilis vaccine on morbidity from both syphilis and HIV and compare it to the impact of expanded 'screen and treat' programmes using existing treatments. Our results suggest that an efficacious vaccine has the potential to sharply reduce syphilis prevalence under a wide range of scenarios, while expanded treatment interventions are likely to be substantially less effective. Our modelled interventions in our simulated study populations are expected to have little effect on HIV, and in some scenarios lead to small increases in HIV incidence, suggesting that interventions against syphilis should be accompanied with interventions against other sexually transmitted infections to prevent the possibility that lower morbidity or lower perceived risk from syphilis could lead to increases in other sexually transmitted diseases.

  2. The pre-diabetic epidemiological study in Depok, West Java.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunir, Em; Waspadji, Sarwono; Rahajeng, Ekowati

    2009-10-01

    To recognize the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose level (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in general population of Depok Area, West Java. the study was conducted in a population with age > or = 25 years, in Depok Area, West Java, which was selected by using two stage random sampling. Data were collected by using the Step Wise Approach of WHO. Subjects without previous diabetes history were categorized as diabetes if their fasting blood glucose level > or = 126 mg/dL, and or the 2-hour-after 75 gram glucose load > or = 200 mg/dL. While pre-diabetes was defined as IFG when the fasting blood glucose > or = 100 mg/dL to or = 200 mg/dL (ADA 2003). of 1200 participants, there were 975 participants who fulfilled the invitation and there were 969 eligible participants to be evaluated. Among the participants aged > or = 25 years, there were 40 (4.13%) subjects with isolated IFG and 234 (24.25%) subjects with isolated IGT, 55 subjects (5.68%) with mixed IFG/IGT. the prevalence of isolated impaired fasting blood glucose in population with age > or = 25 years is 4.13%; while the prevalence of isolated impaired glucose tolerance is 24.25%. Mixed IFG/IGT is 5.68%. The total prevalence of pre-diabetic patients is 33.96%.

  3. Epidemiological study of pestiviruses in South American camelids in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudry, M; Meylan, M; Regula, G; Steiner, A; Zanoni, R; Zanolari, P

    2010-01-01

    In the context of the ongoing eradication campaign for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in cattle in Switzerland, the role of South American camelids (SAC) as a possible virus reservoir needed to be evaluated. To assess and characterize the prevalence of pestivirus infections in SAC in Switzerland. Serum samples collected from 348 animals (40 herds) in 2008 and from 248 animals (39 herds) in 2000 were examined for antibodies against pestiviruses and for the presence of BVDV viral RNA. Cross-sectional study using stratified, representative herd sampling. An indirect BVDV-ELISA was used to analyze serum samples for pestivirus antibodies, and positive samples underwent a serum neutralization test (SNT). Real-time RT-PCR to detect pestiviral RNA was carried out in all animals from herds with at least 1 seropositive animal. In 2008, the overall prevalence of animals positive for antibodies (ELISA) and pestiviral RNA or was 5.75 and 0%, respectively. In 2000, the corresponding prevalences were 3.63 and 0%, respectively. The seroprevalences (SNT) for BVDV, border disease virus or undetermined pestiviruses were estimated to be 0, 1.73, and 4.02% in 2008, and 0.40, 1.21, and 2.02% in 2000, respectively. At the present time, SAC appear to represent a negligible risk of re-infection for the BVDV eradication program in cattle in Switzerland. Copyright © 2010 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  4. Los Alamos National Laboratory: A guide to records series supporting epidemiologic studies conducted for the Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to describe each series of records that pertains to the epidemiologic studies conducted by the Epidemiology Section of the Occupational Medicine Group (ESH-2) at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in Los Alamos, New Mexico. The records described in this guide relate to occupational studies performed by the Epidemiology Section, including those pertaining to workers at LANL, Mound Plant, Oak Ridge Reservation, Pantex Plant, Rocky Flats Plant, and Savannah River Site. Also included are descriptions of other health-related records generated or collected by the Epidemiology Section and a small set of records collected by the Industrial Hygiene and Safety Group. This guide is not designed to describe the universe of records generated by LANL which may be used for epidemiologic studies of the LANL work force. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of its work as the support services contractor for DOE`s Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project, HAI`s role in the project, the history of LANL the history and functions of LANL`s Health Division and Epidemiology Section, and the various epidemiologic studies performed by the Epidemiology Section. It provides information on the methodology that HAI used to inventory and describe records housed in the offices of the LANL Epidemiology Section in Technical Area 59 and at the LANL Records Center. Other topics include the methodology used to produce the guide, the arrangement of the detailed record series descriptions, and information concerning access to records repositories.

  5. Etiology and occurrence of gingival recession - An epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarpangala Mythri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Gingival recession is the term used to characterize the apical shift of the marginal gingiva from its normal position on the crown of the tooth. It is frequently observed in adult subjects. The occurrence and severity of the gingival recession present considerable differences between populations. To prevent gingival recession from occurring, it is essential to detect the underlying etiology. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of gingival recession and to identify the most common factor associated with the cause of gingival recession. Methods: A total of 710 subjects aged between 15 years to 60 years were selected. Data were collected by an interview with the help of a proforma and then the dental examination was carried out. The presence of gingival recession was recorded using Miller's classification of gingival recession. The Silness and Loe Plaque Index, Loe and Silness gingival index, community periodontal index were recorded. The data thus obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using Chi-square test and Student's unpaired t-test. Results: Of 710 subjects examined, 291 (40.98% subjects exhibited gingival recession. The frequency of gingival recession was found to increase with age. High frequency of gingival recession was seen in males (60.5% compared to females (39.5%. Gingival recession was commonly seen in mandibular incisors (43.0%. Miller's class I gingival recession was more commonly seen. The most common cause for gingival recession was dental plaque accumulation (44.1% followed by faulty toothbrushing (42.7%. Conclusion: Approximately half of the subjects examined exhibited gingival recession. The etiology of gingival recession is multifactorial, and its appearance is always the result of more than one factor acting together.

  6. Epidemiological Trends in Colorectal Cancer in China: An Ecological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinzhou; Tan, Zhengqi; Hollis-Hansen, Kelseanna; Zhang, Yong; Yu, Chaohui; Li, Youming

    2017-01-01

    Due to the changes in lifestyle and dietary behaviors, the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been rapidly increasing in China. This study is to present the trends of CRC in China over the past decade. It used a series of nationally representative data, including the National Central Cancer Registry of China, the GLOBOCAN project and the Global Burden of Disease. The age-standardized rate of CRC incidence increased from 12.8 in 2003 to 16.8 per 100,000 in 2011, while the mortality rose from 5.9 to 7.8 per 100,000. The age group most affected by incident CRC cases were those aged 60-74 years old, whereas CRC death was most associated with those >74 years. Furthermore, the east coast of China presented a higher mortality rate (>15 and 10-14.9 per 100,000 in men and women) than central and west China (5-14.9 and 5-9.9 per 100,000). Compared with other countries worldwide, China indicated lower rates of incidence (14.2 per 100,000), mortality (7.4 per 100,000), and 5-year prevalence (52.7 per 100,000) than most developed countries. However, China had a higher case-fatality ratio (14.0 %) and mortality/incidence ratio (52.1 %). Lastly, disability-adjusted life years attributed to CRC in China was 224.2 per 100,000. It presents a steady increase in CRC in China over the past decade. It also reveals the domestic diversity of age, gender, and geography and finds the differences between China and developed countries, which may yield insights for national programs and policies.

  7. [Epidemiological and clinical study on bee venom allergy among beekeepers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorello, E A; Incorvaia, C; Sarassi, A; Qualizza, R; Bigi, A; Farioli, L

    1988-01-01

    A randomized population of 222 beekeepers from Lombardy (203 males, 19 females, of mean age 42.5 years) was studied to determine the frequency of allergic reactions to bee sting. The type of reactions, the clinical evolution at the subsequent stings and the risk factors concerning the development of allergy (presence of venom specific IgE, number of stings in a year, atopy, age) were evaluated. It was found that 170 beekeepers never presented reactions to stings while 52 (23.4%) showed allergic reactions consisting in 31 large local reactions and 21 systemic reactions; of these, 3 (5.7%) were life-threatening. In the group of beekeepers with allergic reactions at the subsequent stings, 26 (50%) showed a spontaneous loss of reactivity, 16 (30.8%) presented persistent, but unchanged in severity, reactions and 10 (19.2%) had a worsening of symptoms. Specific honey bee venom IgE levels (measured by means of RAST) were significantly lower in immune beekeepers when compared with the group with allergic reactions (p less than 0.01) and in beekeepers with previous allergy when compared to the ones with persistent reactions (p less than 0.05). We also found significant differences about the number of stings received in a year by beekeepers with persistent allergic reactions (17.5 stings), beekeepers with previous allergy (89.8 stings) and immune subjects (126.9 stings). On the contrary, no significant differences were detected about the age and the presence of atopy. These results suggest that practice of bee-keeping induces a relatively high incidence of allergic reactions but with a trend to the spontaneous improvement of symptoms and a low incidence of severe reactions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Dental trauma in association with maxillofacial fractures: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruslin, Muhammad; Wolff, Jan; Boffano, Paolo; Brand, Henk S; Forouzanfar, Tymour

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate the incidence and associated factors of dental trauma in patients with maxillofacial fractures at the VU Medical Center in Amsterdam. Data from 707 patients who were treated surgically for maxillofacial fractures were evaluated. The data were collected retrospectively from patient files and other available databases. The data collected included date of fracture, age, gender, type of fracture, and injured teeth. Of the total 707 patients, 164 patients (23.2%) presented dental injuries associated with facial fractures. Mandibular condylar fractures, mandibular parasymphyseal fractures, Le Fort fractures, and mandibular body fractures were found to be significantly more associated with dental injury. Zygomatic arch or zygomatic complex fractures were significantly less associated with dental injury. Women had a significant higher risk of facial fractures with dental injuries than men. The maxilla demonstrated the highest incidence of injured teeth. The most affected teeth were the maxillary incisors (33.1%), followed by mandible incisors (13.6%), mandible molars (12.8%), and maxillary premolars (12.6%). Our findings show a higher risk of dental injury among patients with a mandibular condylar fracture and mandibular parasymphyseal fracture but a lower risk of dental injury among patients with a zygomatic arch or zygomatic complex fracture. On average, patients had more than three injured teeth, with most of the injured teeth being in the upper jaw. The maxillary incisors, followed by the mandible incisors, were the most injured teeth. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Prenatal and childhood exposure to pesticides and neurobehavioral development: review of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Hanke, Wojciech

    2008-01-01

    Conventional pesticides comprise a diverse group of substances intended to destroy, repel or control organisms identified as pests. Compared to the studies on lead, mercury, and PCBs, few epidemiological studies have assessed the developmental neurotoxicity of pesticides. Epidemiological studies focused on the neurobehavioural development of children exposed to pesticides were identified by searching the PubMed, Medline, EBSCO, Agricola and TOXNET databases. The findings of the studies reviewed imply that children's exposure to pesticides may bring about impairments in their neurobehavioral development. Children exposed to organophosphate pesticides (OP), both prenatally and during childhood, may have difficulties performing tasks that involve short-term memory, and may show increased reaction time, impaired mental development or pervasive developmental problems. In newborns, the effects of OP exposure are manifested mainly by an increased number of abnormal reflexes, while in adolescents, by mental and emotional problems. The studies investigating association between exposure to organochlorine pesticides and neurodevelopmental effects show inconsistent results. While some studies report impairments in mental and psychomotor functions, other studies do not confirm the above. The information deriving from epidemiological studies indicate a need to increase awareness among people and children exposed to pesticides about the association between the use of pesticides and neurodevelopmental impairments. Therefore, the principle of prudence should become a rule.

  10. An epidemiological study of low back pain in professional drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovenzi, Massimo; Rui, Francesca; Negro, Corrado; D'Agostin, Flavia; Angotzi, Giuliano; Bianchi, Sandra; Bramanti, Lucia; Festa, GianLuca; Gatti, Silvana; Pinto, Iole; Rondina, Livia; Stacchini, Nicola

    2006-12-01

    The prevalence of low back pain (LBP) was investigated in 598 Italian professional drivers exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) and ergonomic risk factors (drivers of earth moving machines, fork-lift truck drivers, truck drivers, bus drivers). The control group consisted of a small sample of 30 fire inspectors not exposed to WBV. Personal, occupational and health histories were collected by means of a structured questionnaire. Vibration measurements were performed on representative samples of the machines and vehicles used by the driver groups. From the vibration magnitudes and exposure durations, alternative measures of vibration dose were estimated for each subject. Daily vibration exposure, expressed in terms of 8-h energy-equivalent frequency-weighted acceleration, A(8), averaged 0.28-0.61 (range 0.10-1.18) m s -2 rms in the driver groups. Duration of exposure to WBV ranged between 1 and 41 years. The 7-day and 12-month prevalence of LBP was greater in the driver groups than in the controls. In the professional drivers, the occurrence of 12-month LBP, high intensity of LBP (Von Korff pain scale score ⩾5), and LBP disability (Roland & Morris disability scale score ⩾12) significantly increased with increasing cumulative vibration exposure. Even though several alternative measures of vibration exposure were associated with LBP outcomes, nevertheless a more regular trend of association with LBP was found for vibration dose expressed as ∑ a vit i (m s -2 h), in which the frequency-weighted acceleration, a v, and lifetime exposure duration, t, were given equal weight. In multivariate data analysis, individual characteristics (e.g. age, body mass index) and a physical load index (derived from combining manual materials handling and awkward postures) were significantly associated with LBP outcomes, while psychosocial work factors (e.g. job decision, job support) showed a marginal relation to LBP. This study tends to confirm that professional driving in industry

  11. Visiting green space is associated with mental health and vitality: A cross-sectional study in four european cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Magdalena; van Poppel, Mireille; van Kamp, Irene; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Balseviciene, Birute; Cirach, Marta; Danileviciute, Asta; Ellis, Naomi; Hurst, Gemma; Masterson, Daniel; Smith, Graham; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Uzdanaviciute, Inga; de Wit, Puck; van Mechelen, Willem; Gidlow, Christopher; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Kruize, Hanneke; Maas, Jolanda

    2016-03-01

    Many epidemiological studies have found that people living in environments with more green space report better physical and mental health than those with less green space. However, the association between visits to green space and mental health has seldom been studied. The current study explored the associations between time spent in green spaces by purposeful visits and perceived mental health and vitality in four different European cities, and to what extent gender, age, level of education, attitude towards nature and childhood nature experience moderate these associations. Data was gathered using a questionnaire administered in four European cities (total n=3748). Multilevel analyses showed significant positive associations between time spent visiting green spaces and mental health and vitality in the pooled data, as well as across the four cities. Significant effect modification was found for level of education and childhood nature experience. The findings confirm the hypothesis that more time spent in green space is associated with higher scores on mental health and vitality scales, independent of cultural and climatic contexts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessing the power and quality of epidemiologic studies of asbestos-exposed populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, D.L.; Mandula, B.; Van Ryzin, J.V.

    1985-12-01

    This paper briefly discusses criteria for evaluating epidemiologic studies for risk assessment purposes, using asbestos as an example. Asbestos is one of the few carcinogens for which substantial data exist on exposures to humans. However, there are major difficulties in using these data for conducting risk assessments. In particular, exposure data are often incomplete, and risk assessments usually involve extrapolating from the higher exposures of the occupational environments to the lower levels typically encountered in the nonoccupational environment. The term asbestos refers to the fibrous form of several minerals, and levels of exposures to these fibers are not easily assessed. Criteria for evaluating epidemiologic studies used in an Ontario Royal Commission report on asbestos are discussed. The importance of considering the statistical power of studies to detect an excess risk is examined using as examples major cohort studies of asbestos-exposed workers, as summarized in a report by the U.S. National Research Council.

  13. Assessing the power and quality of epidemiologic studies of asbestos-exposed populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, D L; Mandula, B; Van Ryzin, J V

    1985-12-01

    This paper briefly discusses criteria for evaluating epidemiologic studies for risk assessment purposes, using asbestos as an example. Asbestos is one of the few carcinogens for which substantial data exist on exposures to humans. However, there are major difficulties in using these data for conducting risk assessments. In particular, exposure data are often incomplete, and risk assessments usually involve extrapolating from the higher exposures of the occupational environments to the lower levels typically encountered in the nonoccupational environment. The term "asbestos" refers to the fibrous form of several minerals, and levels of exposures to these fibers are not easily assessed. Criteria for evaluating epidemiologic studies used in an Ontario Royal Commission report on asbestos are discussed. The importance of considering the statistical power of studies to detect an excess risk is examined using as examples major cohort studies of asbestos-exposed workers, as summarized in a report by the U.S. National Research Council.

  14. Uses of available record systems in epidemiologic studies of reproductive toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polednak, A.P.; Janerich, D.T.

    1983-01-01

    The uses of available record systems in epidemiologic studies of reproductive toxicology are described with reference to New York State. The available record systems (and relevant reproductive end points) described include: a newborn screening program for metabolic diseases and hemoglobinopathies (relevant to point mutations); chromosome registries and prenatal cytogenetics (for chromosome anomalies); live birth certificates (for birth defects, birthweight, sex ratio, etc); fetal death certificates (for spontaneous fetal deaths); and a statewide cancer registry (for childhood cancers and transplacental carcinogenesis). The uses and limitations of these record systems are discussed, along with examples of their use in descriptive and analytic epidemiologic studies. Descriptive studies outlined include investigations of temporal and geographic trends in birth defects, birth weight, and fetal deaths, with reference to environmental questions (eg, Love Canal, nuclear power plants). Analytic studies described concern parental occupation in relation to specific birth defects (neural tube defects and Down syndrome) and maternal use of contraceptive drugs.

  15. Pesticide Exposure and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes: Review of the Epidemiologic and Animal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Carol J.; McIntosh, Laura J.; Mink, Pamela J.; Jurek, Anne M.; Li, Abby A.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of whether pesticide exposure is associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children can best be addressed with a systematic review of both the human and animal peer-reviewed literature. This review analyzed epidemiologic studies testing the hypothesis that exposure to pesticides during pregnancy and/or early childhood is associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children. Studies that directly queried pesticide exposure (e.g., via questionnaire or interview) or measured pesticide or metabolite levels in biological specimens from study participants (e.g., blood, urine, etc.) or their immediate environment (e.g., personal air monitoring, home dust samples, etc.) were eligible for inclusion. Consistency, strength of association, and dose response were key elements of the framework utilized for evaluating epidemiologic studies. As a whole, the epidemiologic studies did not strongly implicate any particular pesticide as being causally related to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants and children. A few associations were unique for a health outcome and specific pesticide, and alternative hypotheses could not be ruled out. Our survey of the in vivo peer-reviewed published mammalian literature focused on effects of the specific active ingredient of pesticides on functional neurodevelopmental endpoints (i.e., behavior, neuropharmacology and neuropathology). In most cases, effects were noted at dose levels within the same order of magnitude or higher compared to the point of departure used for chronic risk assessments in the United States. Thus, although the published animal studies may have characterized potential neurodevelopmental outcomes using endpoints not required by guideline studies, the effects were generally observed at or above effect levels measured in repeated-dose toxicology studies submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Suggestions for improved exposure assessment in epidemiology studies and more effective

  16. Pesticide exposure and neurodevelopmental outcomes: review of the epidemiologic and animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Carol J; McIntosh, Laura J; Mink, Pamela J; Jurek, Anne M; Li, Abby A

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of whether pesticide exposure is associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children can best be addressed with a systematic review of both the human and animal peer-reviewed literature. This review analyzed epidemiologic studies testing the hypothesis that exposure to pesticides during pregnancy and/or early childhood is associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children. Studies that directly queried pesticide exposure (e.g., via questionnaire or interview) or measured pesticide or metabolite levels in biological specimens from study participants (e.g., blood, urine, etc.) or their immediate environment (e.g., personal air monitoring, home dust samples, etc.) were eligible for inclusion. Consistency, strength of association, and dose response were key elements of the framework utilized for evaluating epidemiologic studies. As a whole, the epidemiologic studies did not strongly implicate any particular pesticide as being causally related to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants and children. A few associations were unique for a health outcome and specific pesticide, and alternative hypotheses could not be ruled out. Our survey of the in vivo peer-reviewed published mammalian literature focused on effects of the specific active ingredient of pesticides on functional neurodevelopmental endpoints (i.e., behavior, neuropharmacology and neuropathology). In most cases, effects were noted at dose levels within the same order of magnitude or higher compared to the point of departure used for chronic risk assessments in the United States. Thus, although the published animal studies may have characterized potential neurodevelopmental outcomes using endpoints not required by guideline studies, the effects were generally observed at or above effect levels measured in repeated-dose toxicology studies submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Suggestions for improved exposure assessment in epidemiology studies and more effective

  17. Work, family and social environment in patients with Fibromyalgia in Spain: an epidemiological study: EPIFFAC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Antonio; Gomez, Emili; Coscolla, Rosa; Sunyol, Ruth; Solé, Emília; Rivera, Javier; Altarriba, Emília; Carbonell, Jordi; Castells, Xavier

    2014-11-11

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a condition characterized by widespread pain, estimated to affect 2.4% of the Spanish population. Nowadays, there are no consistent epidemiological studies on the actual impact of the disease on work and family of these patients in a representative manner; therefore, the purpose of the study is to analyze the impact on family, employment and social environment in a representative sample of patients with FM attending Primary Public Care Centers in Spain. We carried out an epidemiological study, with a probability sampling procedure, stratified, relative to the municipality size and the number of health centres, seeking territorial representation. The survey was conducted using a self-administered structured questionnaire. A sample of 325 patients with FM was studied in 35 Primary Health Care Centers (PHCCs). The sample is composed of 96.6% of women, 51.9 (8) years of mean (standard deviation- sd) age. Ninety-three percent of the patients have worked throughout their life. Mean (sd) age onset of symptoms was 37 (11) years and diagnosis of FM was established 6.6 (8) years later. Family Environment: Fifty-nine percent of patients have difficulties with their partner. Forty-four percent of the patients report to be fairly or totally dependent on a family member in household chores. The household income decreased a mean (sd) of 708 (504) Euros/month in 65% of the patients. In 81% of the patients, there was an increase in extra expenses related to the disease with a mean (sd) of 230 (192) Euros/month. Working environment: At the moment of the study, 45% of the patients had work activity (34% were working and 11% were at sick leave), 13% were unemployed seeking job and 42% were not in the labor force. Twenty-three percent of patients had some degree of permanent work disability pension. Social Environment: The degree of satisfaction with health care professionals was low and twenty-six percent of the patients were members of specific patients

  18. Cognitive epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deary, Ian J; Batty, G David

    2007-01-01

    This glossary provides a guide to some concepts, findings and issues of discussion in the new field of research in which intelligence test scores are associated with mortality and morbidity. Intelligence tests are devised and studied by differential psychologists. Some of the major concepts in differential psychology are explained, especially those regarding cognitive ability testing. Some aspects of IQ (intelligence) tests are described and some of the major tests are outlined. A short guide is given to the main statistical techniques used by differential psychologists in the study of human mental abilities. There is a discussion of common epidemiological concepts in the context of cognitive epidemiology. PMID:17435201

  19. Retrospective epidemiological study of Latin American patients with transfusional hemosiderosis: the first Latin American epidemiological study in iron overload--the RELATH study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Clarisse; Angulo, Ivan L; Aparicio, Lidia R; Drelichman, Guillermo I; Zanichelli, Maria A; Cancado, Rodolfo

    2011-09-01

    The retrospective epidemiological study of Latin Americans with transfusional hemosiderosis is the first regional patient registry to gather data regarding the burden of transfusional hemosiderosis and patterns of care in these patients. Retrospective and cross-sectional data were collected on patients ≥2 years with selected chronic anemias and minimum 20 transfusions. In the 960 patients analyzed, sickle-cell disease (48·3%) and thalassemias (24·0%) were the most frequent underlying diagnoses. The registry enrolled 355 pediatric patients (187 with sickle-cell disease/94 with thalassemia). Serum ferritin was the most frequent method used to detect iron overload. Complications from transfusional hemosiderosis were reported in ~80% of patients; hepatic (65·3%), endocrine (27·5%), and cardiac (18·2%) being the most frequent. These data indicate that hemoglobinopathies and complications due to transfusional hemosiderosis are a significant clinical problem in the Latin American population with iron overload. Chelation therapy is used insufficiently and has a high rate of discontinuation.

  20. An Overview of Genetic Polymorphisms and Pancreatic Cancer Risk in Molecular Epidemiologic Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yingsong; Yagyu, Kiyoko; Egawa, Naoto; UENO, Makoto; Mori, Mitsuru; Nakao, Haruhisa; Ishii, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kozue; Wakai, Kenji; Hosono, Satoyo; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Kikuchi, Shogo

    2011-01-01

    Background Although pancreatic cancer has been extensively studied, few risk factors have been identified, and no validated biomarkers or screening tools exist for early detection in asymptomatic individuals. We present a broad overview of molecular epidemiologic studies that have addressed the relationship between pancreatic cancer risk and genetic polymorphisms in several candidate genes and suggest avenues for future research. Methods A comprehensive literature search was performed using t...

  1. Ovarian cancer risk and nonisoflavone flavonoids intake: A systematic review of epidemiological studies

    OpenAIRE

    Vida Mohammadi; Sirous Dehghani; Bagher Larijani; Leila Azadbakht

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although several studies have investigated the association between ovarian cancer risk and nonisoflavone flavonoids intake, these findings are inconsistent. This systematic review of published epidemiological studies was conducted to summarize and clarify the evidence on the association between ovarian cancer incidence and nonisoflavone flavonoids intake. Materials and Methods: PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and EMBASE databases were searched based on MeSH term (ovarian neoplasm ...

  2. Epidemiologic studies on short-term effects of low levels of major ambient air pollution components.

    OpenAIRE

    Brunekreef, B; Dockery, D W; Krzyzanowski, M

    1995-01-01

    Since the development of the World Health Organization (WHO) Air Quality Guidelines for Europe, a large number of epidemiologic studies have been published documenting effects of major air pollutants on health at concentrations below existing guidelines and standards. In this review, recent studies are discussed that permit some evaluation of short-term health effects observed at exposure levels lower than the current WHO Guidelines or U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) standards...

  3. Important considerations for designing and reporting epidemiologic and clinical studies in dental traumatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Lars; Andreasen, Jens O

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to suggest important considerations for epidemiologic and clinical studies in the field of dental traumatology. The article is based on the authors' experiences from research in this field and editorial board work for the scientific journal Dental Traumatology. Exam....... Examples are given of issues where development is important. The importance of planning ahead of the study and consulting with experts in other fields is emphasized....

  4. Statin Use and Risk of Prostate Cancer: Results from a Population-based Epidemiologic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Agalliu, Ilir; Salinas, Claudia A.; Hansten, Philip D; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Stanford, Janet L

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of statin use in relation to prostate cancer risk have been inconclusive. Recent evidence, however, suggests that longer-term use may reduce risk of more advanced disease. The authors conducted a population-based study of 1,001 incident prostate cancer cases diagnosed in 2002–2005 and 942 age-matched controls from King County, Washington, to evaluate risk associated with statin use. Logistic regression was used to generate odds ratios for ever use, current use, and durat...

  5. A Cross-Sectional, Multicentric Clinico-Epidemiological Study of Melasma in India

    OpenAIRE

    KrupaShankar, Devasthanam Sundara Rao; Somani, Vijay Kumar; Kohli, Malvika; Sharad, Jaishree; Ganjoo, Anil; Kandhari, Sanjiv; Mysore, Venkat Ram; Aurangabadkar, Sanjeev; Malakar, Subrata; Vedamurthy, Maya; Kadhe, Ganesh; Motlekar, Salman; Ahirrao, Pashmina

    2014-01-01

    Background Melasma is one of the most common pigment disorders seen by a dermatologist and often occurs among women with darker complexion (skin type IV–VI). Aims The present study aimed to investigate the epidemiology of melasma in the Indian population and to focus on the regional variability in the demographics, clinical manifestations and factors that precipitate this condition. Methods The present multicentric study conducted across four regions in India enrolled patients (>18 years) dia...

  6. STUDY ON EUROPEAN FUNDS ABSORPTION IN ROMANIA FOR MEASURE 313

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina D. MATEI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we wish to highlight the main causes of regional disparities in Romania in terms of absorption of European funds through Measure 313: Encouragement of tourism activities. The post-accession of Romania shows a major deficiency in attracting funds from the European Union, this situation is generated, in particular, by the lack of a coherent long-term vision of the authorities, insufficient resources for co-financing projects, low administrative capacity at central and local level, lack of inter-institutional coordination, public-private partnerships failures and insufficient skilled human resources . We will analyze the number of projects approved and implemented in each region of Romania (2007-2013 to establish the real possibilities of expansion of rural tourism.

  7. Consultation-Liaison psychiatric service delivery : results from a European study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyse, FJ; Herzog, T; Lobo, A; Malt, UF; Opmeer, BC; Stein, B; de Jonge, P; van Dijck, R; Creed, F; Crespo, MD; Cardoso, G; Guimaraes-Lopes, R; Mayou, R; van Moffaert, M; Rigatelli, M; Sakkas, P; Tienari, P

    2001-01-01

    The reported Endings of the European Consultation-Liaison Workgroup (ECLW) Collaborative Study describe consultation-liaison service delivery by 56 services from ZI European countries aggregated on a C-L service level. During the period of 1 year (1991), the participants applied a standardized,

  8. Plastic surgery in the European Union: A study of development, training, manpowerplanning and migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. Tan (King Hoen)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study is to clarify the role of plastic surgery in the European Union (the former European Connnnnity). The idea is that this will lead to a better understanding of the specialty among laymen., colleagnes and healthcare officials. To this end, the historical development

  9. Progression of Alzheimer Disease in Europe: Data from the European ICTUS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellas, B.; Hausner, L.; Frolich, L.; Cantet, C.; Gardette, V.; Reynish, E.; Gillette, S.; Aguera-Morales, E.; Auriacombe, S.; Boada, M.; Bullock, R.; Byrne, J.; Camus, V.; Cherubini, A.; Eriksdotter-Jonhagen, M.; Frisoni, G.B.; Hasselbalch, S.; Jones, R.W.; Martinez-Lage, P.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.; Tsolaki, M.; Ousset, P.J.; Pasquier, F.; Ribera-Casado, J.M.; Rigaud, A.S.; Robert, P.; Rodriguez, G.; Salmon, E.; Salva, A.; Scheltens, P.; Schneider, A.; Sinclair, A.; Spiru, L.; Touchon, J.; Zekry, D.; Winblad, B.; Andrieu, S.

    2012-01-01

    The clinical progression of Alzheimer disease (AD) was studied in European subjects under treatment with AChE inhibitors (AChE-I) in relation to geographical location over a 2-years period. One thousand three hundred and six subjects from 11 European countries were clustered into 3 regions (North,

  10. The utility of web mining for epidemiological research: studying the association between parity and cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourassi, Georgia; Yoon, Hong-Jun; Xu, Songhua; Han, Xuesong

    2016-05-01

    The World Wide Web has emerged as a powerful data source for epidemiological studies related to infectious disease surveillance. However, its potential for cancer-related epidemiological discoveries is largely unexplored. Using advanced web crawling and tailored information extraction procedures, the authors automatically collected and analyzed the text content of 79 394 online obituary articles published between 1998 and 2014. The collected data included 51 911 cancer (27 330 breast; 9470 lung; 6496 pancreatic; 6342 ovarian; 2273 colon) and 27 483 non-cancer cases. With the derived information, the authors replicated a case-control study design to investigate the association between parity (i.e., childbearing) and cancer risk. Age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for each cancer type and compared to those reported in large-scale epidemiological studies. Parity was found to be associated with a significantly reduced risk of breast cancer (OR = 0.78, 95% CI, 0.75-0.82), pancreatic cancer (OR = 0.78, 95% CI, 0.72-0.83), colon cancer (OR = 0.67, 95% CI, 0.60-0.74), and ovarian cancer (OR = 0.58, 95% CI, 0.54-0.62). Marginal association was found for lung cancer risk (OR = 0.87, 95% CI, 0.81-0.92). The linear trend between increased parity and reduced cancer risk was dramatically more pronounced for breast and ovarian cancer than the other cancers included in the analysis. This large web-mining study on parity and cancer risk produced findings very similar to those reported with traditional observational studies. It may be used as a promising strategy to generate study hypotheses for guiding and prioritizing future epidemiological studies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. [Eco-epidemiology: towards epidemiology of complexity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizouarn, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    In order to solve public health problems posed by the epidemiology of risk factors centered on the individual and neglecting the causal processes linking the risk factors with the health outcomes, Mervyn Susser proposed a multilevel epidemiology called eco-epidemiology, addressing the interdependence of individuals and their connection with molecular, individual, societal, environmental levels of organization participating in the causal disease processes. The aim of this epidemiology is to integrate more than a level of organization in design, analysis and interpretation of health problems. After presenting the main criticisms of risk-factor epidemiology focused on the individual, we will try to show how eco-epidemiology and its development could help to understand the need for a broader and integrative epidemiology, in which studies designed to identify risk factors would be balanced by studies designed to answer other questions equally vital to public health. © 2016 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  12. Epidemiologic Studies in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: A Review of Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Burak Dursun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood psychiatric disorders are estimated to influence about 9 to 21% of relevant age group and interest in this disorders are increasing all over the world. The growing need to child and adolescent mental health leads the task of establishing proposals and policies in this field to become a priority for governments. The first step of such proposals should be determination of prevalence of child and adolescent mental disorders in that country. However, several major methodological problems make it hard to provide accurate prevalence estimates from epidemiological studies. Most common problems are within the fields of sampling, case definition, case ascertainment and data analyses. Such issues increases the costs of studies and hinder to reach large sample sizes. To minimize these problems, investigators have to be careful on choosing the appropriate methodology and diagnostic tools in their studies. Although there are many interviews and questionnaires for screening and diagnosing in child and adolescent psychiatry, only a few of them are suitable for epidemiological research. In parallel with the improvement in all fields of child and adolescent mental health in our country, some of the major screening and diagnosing tools used in prevalence studies in literature have already been translated and validated in Turkish. Most important of this tools for screening purposes are Child Behavior Checklist and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and for diagnosing purposes are Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version and Development and Well-Being Assessment. The aims of this article are to review the methodological problems of epidemiologic studies in child and adolescent psychiatry and to briefly discuss suitable diagnostic tools for extended sampled epidemiologic studies in our country.

  13. Late-onset primary dystonia in Zhejiang province of China: a service-based epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Chen, Yin; Hu, Beibei; Hu, Xingyue

    2016-01-01

    Dystonia is characterized by sustained muscle contractions, causing repetitive movements and abnormal postures. The epidemiological study of dystonia of Chinese population was limited reported. In this study, we investigated the epidemiology of primary dystonia, and its clinical characteristics in an adult population in China. We identified all dystonia patients from the movement disorders database and botulinum toxin clinic between 2009 and 2013. The medical records were reviewed to verify the diagnosis of dystonia, and demographic and clinical data were collected. A total of 1481 patients with primary dystonia were studied. The most common focal dystonia were blepharospasm (56.4 %), cervical dystonia (36.7 %), limb dystonia (3.4 %), oromandibular dystonia (2.9 %) and laryngeal dystonia (0.6 %). Males with primary dystonia were found to have an earlier age of onset. A female predominance was noted for most of the primary dystonia, with a men to women ratio (M:F) of 1:2.01. The minimum estimate of prevalence of primary dystonia was 27.0 (95 % confidence interval: 25.6-28.3) per million persons in this study. Despite the difference in genetic background and geographic area, the epidemiological features of dystonia in China from our study share most features around the world, such as women dystonia dominance, early-onset age of dystonia with women, etc. But East Asia countries (China and Japan) may share more common features of dystonia.

  14. Prodromal symptoms of Parkinson's disease: Implications for epidemiological studies of disease etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbaz, A

    In recent years, there has been a major shift in our understanding of the course of Parkinson's disease (PD) from a disease of the brain to a disease of long latency, characterized by the progressive emergence of multiple non-motor symptoms, including hyposmia, constipation, depression, anxiety, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder and excessive daytime sleepiness, as well as subtle motor signs, before the typical motor signs appear. Epidemiological studies have made major contributions by allowing better characterization of subsequent PD risk in relation to non-motor symptoms. Such findings have profound implications for the conduct of epidemiological studies examining risk and protective factors in PD, and the interpretation of their findings. Given the length of the prodromal period, reverse causation in particular is a major concern with many reported associations. One striking feature of PD etiology, compared with other diseases, is the presence of numerous inverse associations. If these associations are truly causal, they would have major implications for disease prevention and for slowing disease progression. However, whether these associations are truly causal remains to be demonstrated in future studies. Experimental studies play an important role by offering a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Well-designed epidemiological studies using innovative approaches will also be key in elucidating whether these intriguing associations are causal or a consequence of reverse causation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Epidemiological study of tick infestation in buffalo of various regions of district Khairpur, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Abbasi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological infestation and identification of Ixodidae and Argasidae ticks species in buffalo of different parts of district Khairpur, Pakistan. Materials and Methods: A total of 720 Water buffaloes from three tehsils (subdivisions were selected randomly and examined from organized and unorganized dairy farms for tick infestation in district Khairpur, Pakistan. This epidemiological survey was conducted during April to September 2015. Results: The overall mean population and preferred site of tick attachment to infested animals, in Gambat, Sobhodero, and Kot Diji tehsils, were observed on different body parts. The primary body area of infestation by ticks (head, thorax, abdomen, udder, and tail ranged from highest in tail and udder part compared to lowest in the abdomen, head, and thorax. In all study areas, the infestation was higher (p<0.05 in tail and udder than other parts of the body. In all the study areas, the overall highest population was found in the month of July. In addition, we first time identify four new species of ticks (Hyalomma anatolicum, H. anatolicum excavatum, Hyalomma Ixodes excavatum, and Ixodes ricinus in district Khairpur, Pakistan. Conclusion: Results of this study provide additional information of epidemiological tick infestation, and will be helpful for evolving effective control policy for the management of tick infestation in study district.

  16. A Seventeen-Year Epidemiological Surveillance Study of Borrelia burgdorferi Infections in Two Provinces of Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Lledó

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a 17-year seroepidemiological surveillance study of Borrelia burgdorferi infection, performed with the aim of improving our knowledge of the epidemiology of this pathogen. Serum samples (1,179 from patients (623, stratified with respect to age, sex, season, area of residence and occupation bitten by ticks in two regions of northern Spain were IFA-tested for B. burgdorferi antibodies. Positive results were confirmed by western blotting. Antibodies specific for B. burgdorferi were found in 13.3% of the patients; 7.8% were IgM positive, 9.6% were IgG positive, and 4.33% were both IgM and IgG positive. Five species of ticks were identified in the seropositive patients: Dermacentor marginatus (41.17% of such patients Dermacentor reticulatus (11.76%, Rhiphicephalus sanguineus (17.64%, Rhiphicephalus turanicus (5.88% and Ixodes ricinus (23.52%. B. burgdorferi DNA was sought by PCR in ticks when available. One tick, a D. reticulatus male, was found carrying the pathogen. The seroprevalence found was similar to the previously demonstrated in similar studies in Spain and other European countries.

  17. Epidemiological Study of Common Dermatological Disorders in Western Nepal: A Cross-Sectional Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokhrel Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin diseases and their complications are a major burden on the health system of many nations. Since there is a paucity of data regarding the epidemiological status among the local population at the different parts of Nepal which are geographically distinct from each other, the present study was conducted to meet the need of an hour. Aim and Objectives: To identify and compare the pattern of dermatological diseases in the outpatients reporting to a medical camp that was organized at three distinct part of Nepal. Material and Methods: All cases with dermatological complaints attending the medical camp were included in the study after thorough examination. Data were collected, tabulated and analyzed statistically. Results: Out of 1,045 dermatological cases, who reported to the camp, 45.3% (mean age 26.3±30.3 were males and 54.7% (mean age 31.8±45.5 were females with the maximum number of disorders present in patients under the age group 16 to 30 years (33.6% for all the study groups. Non-infective conditions (55.8% outweighed infective conditions (36.8%. Conclusion: The identification of these diseases which are usually neglected by the community is important for proper diagnosis, treatment and for dermatologic education and research as well.

  18. Saliva in studies of epidemiology of human disease: the UK Biobank project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, John W; Keijser, Bart J F; Williams, David M

    2016-02-01

    There has been immense interest in the uses of saliva in the diagnosis of systemic disease over the past decade and longer because it is recognized that saliva possesses great potential as a diagnostic fluid. In spite of this, the usefulness of saliva in studies of the epidemiology of human disease has still to be properly evaluated. This review describes the UK Biobank project and explores the scope to use this and other such cohort studies to gain important insights into the epidemiological aspects of systemic disease. The Biobank holds around 85,000 well-characterized saliva samples, together with blood and urine samples, the results of a battery of physiological tests, a full medical history and a detailed description of the subject's lifestyle. This repository is a resource for insightful and highly powered oral and dental research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Photon-Fluence-Weighted let for Radiation Fields Subjected to Epidemiological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Michiya

    2017-08-01

    In order to estimate the uncertainty of the radiation risk associated with the photon energy in epidemiological studies, photon-fluence-weighted LET values were quantified for photon radiation fields with the target organs and irradiation conditions taken into consideration. The photon fluences giving a unit absorbed dose to the target organ were estimated by using photon energy spectra together with the dose conversion coefficients given in ICRP Publication 116 for the target organs of the colon, bone marrow, stomach, lung, skin and breast with three irradiation geometries. As a result, it was demonstrated that the weighted LET values did not show a clear difference among the photon radiation fields subjected to epidemiological studies, regardless of the target organ and the irradiation geometry.

  20. Empirical Evidence of Study Design Biases in Randomized Trials: Systematic Review of Meta-Epidemiological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Matthew J; Higgins, Julian P T; Clayton, Gemma; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Savović, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    To synthesise evidence on the average bias and heterogeneity associated with reported methodological features of randomized trials. Systematic review of meta-epidemiological studies. We retrieved eligible studies included in a recent AHRQ-EPC review on this topic (latest search September 2012), and searched Ovid MEDLINE and Ovid EMBASE for studies indexed from Jan 2012-May 2015. Data were extracted by one author and verified by another. We combined estimates of average bias (e.g. ratio of odds ratios (ROR) or difference in standardised mean differences (dSMD)) in meta-analyses using the random-effects model. Analyses were stratified by type of outcome ("mortality" versus "other objective" versus "subjective"). Direction of effect was standardised so that ROR studies. The available evidence suggests that intervention effect estimates may be exaggerated in trials with inadequate/unclear (versus adequate) sequence generation (ROR 0.93, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99; 7 studies) and allocation concealment (ROR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.97; 7 studies). For these characteristics, the average bias appeared to be larger in trials of subjective outcomes compared with other objective outcomes. Also, intervention effects for subjective outcomes appear to be exaggerated in trials with lack of/unclear blinding of participants (versus blinding) (dSMD -0.37, 95% CI -0.77 to 0.04; 2 studies), lack of/unclear blinding of outcome assessors (ROR 0.64, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.96; 1 study) and lack of/unclear double blinding (ROR 0.77, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.93; 1 study). The influence of other characteristics (e.g. unblinded trial personnel, attrition) is unclear. Certain characteristics of randomized trials may exaggerate intervention effect estimates. The average bias appears to be greatest in trials of subjective outcomes. More research on several characteristics, particularly attrition and selective reporting, is needed.

  1. Designing Epidemiology Studies to Determine the Incidence and Prevalence of Encapsulating Peritoneal Sclerosis (EPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsch, Dorothea; Davenport, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    The reported incidence and prevalence of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) varies markedly between North America, Europe, Japan, and Australia. Although this could reflect differences in clinical practice patterns and access to transplantation as there is no current test for early detection, and some patients may present many years after discontinuation of peritoneal dialysis (PD), there are concerns about under-reporting, particularly for those with milder forms. Currently, only PD vintage has been identified as a significant risk factor for developing EPS, although some patients can develop EPS within months of starting PD. As such, there is a need for epidemiological studies to determine the incidence and prevalence of EPS to allow for patient education and counselling in terms of dialysis modality choice and length of treatment. In addition, carefully designed epidemiological studies could potentially allow for the identification of risk factors and bio-markers that could then be used to identify patients at increased risk of developing EPS in the future. Typically, studies to date have been underpowered with inadequate longitudinal follow-up. We review the different types of epidemiological studies and provide information as to the number of patients to be recruited and the duration of follow-up required to determine the incidence and prevalence of EPS. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  2. [Identification and sampling of people with migration background for epidemiological studies in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, K; Makarova, N; Spallek, J; Zeeb, H; Razum, O

    2013-06-01

    In 2009, 19.6% of the population of Germany either had migrated themselves or were the offspring of people with migration experience. Migrants differ from the autochthonous German population in terms of health status, health awareness and health behaviour. To further investigate the health situation of migrants in Germany, epidemiological studies are needed. Such studies can employ existing databases which provide detailed information on migration status. Otherwise, onomastic or toponomastic procedures can be applied to identify people with migration background. If migrants have to be recruited into an epidemiological study, this can be done register-based (e. g., data from registration offices or telephone lists), based on residential location (random-route or random-walk procedure), via snowball sampling (e. g., through key persons) or via settings (e. g., school entry examination). An oversampling of people with migration background is not sufficient to avoid systematic bias in the sample due to non-participation. Additional measures have to be taken to increase access and raise participation rates. Personal contacting, multilingual instruments, multilingual interviewers and extensive public relations increase access and willingness to participate. Empirical evidence on 'successful' recruitment strategies for studies with migrants is still lacking in epidemiology and health sciences in Germany. The choice of the recruitment strategy as well as the measures to raise accessibility and willingness to participate depend on the available resources, the research question and the specific migrant target group. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Using epidemiology to regulate food additives: saccharin case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordle, F; Miller, S A

    1984-01-01

    The increasing use of nonnutritive sweeteners and the widely publicized 1969 ban on cyclamate led to additional investigations in rodents of the carcinogenic potential of saccharin. Preliminary results of a long-term feeding study indicated formation of bladder tumors in rodents, and collective experimental evidence has demonstrated that high doses of the synthetic sweetener saccharin can cause bladder cancer in rodents. Based on the results of that and other rodent studies indicating an increased risk of bladder cancer associated with saccharin, the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration announced the agency's intention to propose a ban on saccharin. This intention was made known in April 1977 under the Delaney Clause of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The clause essentially states that no additive shall be deemed safe if it is found to induce cancer in man or animals, or if it is found, after tests appropriate for the evaluation of the safety of food additives, to induce cancer in man or animals. Also in 1977, a group of epidemiologists began to assess the available epidemiologic information to determine the potential human risk. This report describes the assessment of several human epidemiologic studies available then and the results of more recent epidemiologic studies.

  4. An epidemiological and genetic study of congenital profound deafness in Tunisia (governorate of Nabeul).

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Arab, S; Bonaïti-Pellié, C.; Belkahia, A

    1990-01-01

    An epidemiological and genetic study of profound deafness has been undertaken in the governorate of Nabeul in Tunisia. This paper deals with sensorineural deafness with no associated abnormalities. The prevalence was estimated to be 0.0007 and four clusters could be identified, two of which represent 51% and 34% respectively of the total number of cases. Segregation analysis performed in 29 pedigrees containing 415 subjects with 129 affected cases provided evidence for simple recessive inheri...

  5. Soy product consumption in 10 European countries: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinan-Boker, L; Peeters, P H M; Mulligan, A A; Navarro, C; Slimani, N; Mattisson, I; Lundin, E; McTaggart, A; Allen, N E; Overvad, K; Tjønneland, A; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Linseisen, J; Haftenberger, M; Lagiou, P; Kalapothaki, V; Evangelista, A; Frasca, G; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; van der Schouw, Y T; Engeset, D; Skeie, G; Tormo, M J; Ardanaz, E; Charrondière, U R; Riboli, E

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the variation of soy product intake in 10 European countries by using a standardised reference dietary method. A subsidiary aim was to characterise the pattern of soy consumption among a sub-group of participants with a habitual health-conscious lifestyle (HHL), i.e. non-meat eaters who are fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans. A 24-hour dietary recall interview (24-HDR) was conducted among a sample (5-12%) of all cohorts in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Study participants totalled 35 955 after exclusion of subjects younger than 35 or older than 74 years of age. Soy products were subdivided into seven sub-groups by similarity. Distribution of consumption and crude and adjusted means of intake were computed per soy product group across countries. Intake of soy products was also investigated among participants with an HHL. In total, 195 men and 486 women reported consuming soy products in the 24-HDR interview. Although soy product intake was generally low across all countries, the highest intake level was observed in the UK, due to over-sampling of a large number of participants with an HHL. The most frequently consumed soy foods were dairy substitutes in the UK and France and beans and sprouts among mid-European countries. For both genders, the sub-group of soy dairy substitutes was consumed in the highest quantities (1.2 g day-1 for men; 1.9 g day-1 for women). Participants with an HHL differed substantially from others with regard to demographic, anthropometric and nutritional factors. They consumed higher quantities of almost all soy product groups. Consumption of soy products is low in centres in Western Europe. Soy dairy substitutes are most frequently consumed. Participants with an HHL form a distinct sub-group with higher consumptions of fruit, vegetables, legumes, cereals and soy products compared with the other participants.

  6. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  7. Validity of Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D scale in a sample of Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R Quiñones

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Optimal depression screening necessitates measurement tools that are valid across varied populations and in the presence of comorbidities. Methods: This study assessed the test properties of two versions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale against psychiatric diagnoses established by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview among a clinical sample of US Veterans deployed during Operations Enduring Freedom, Iraqi Freedom, and New Dawn. Participants (N = 359 recruited from two Department of Veterans Affairs hospitals completed a clinical interview, structured diagnostic interview, and self-reported measures. Results: Based on diagnostic interview and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition criteria, 29.5% of the sample met diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder and 26.5% met diagnostic criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder. Both Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-20 and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-10 scales performed well and almost identically against the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-major depressive disorder in identifying Veterans with major depressive disorder (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-20 area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve 91%; Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-10 area under the ROC curve 90%. Overall, higher cut points for the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scales performed better in correctly identifying true positives and true negatives for major depressive disorder (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-20 cut point 18+ sensitivity 92% specificity 72%; Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-10 cut point 10+ sensitivity 92% specificity 69%. Conclusions: The specificity of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scales was poor among Veterans with co-occurring post-traumatic stress disorder (13% and 16%. Veterans with post

  8. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF PATIENTS WITH PENETRATING ABDOMINAL TRAUMA IN TEHRAN-IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Baradaran

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Trauma continues to be the most frequent cause of death in the first four decades of life that is a main public health problem in some countries. We perform an epidemiological study of Penetrating Abdominal Trauma (PAT. We describe epidemiological of patients in PAT. In a cross-sectional study we evaluated epidemiological PAT admitted to emergency department in six general hospitals in Tehran. The data was collected through a questionnaire that was completed by trained physician trauma center. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software (version 11.5 for windows. Statistical analysis using the chi-square and P<0.05 was accepted as being statistically significant. During the study period, 0.86 % (69/8000 of our patients sustained PAT. Sixty-six (95.7% patients were male and 3(4.3% cases were female. The peak age incidence was 15-29 years, with 43(62.3% patients. Stab wound was the leading cause of PAT in male and female, with 62(89.9% cases. Firearm was responsible for 7(10.1% cases. Young males are the most common victims. This is the most productive age group and this has grave implication for the national economy.

  9. The genetic study of three population microisolates in South Tyrol (MICROS: study design and epidemiological perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinggera Gerd K

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence of the important role that small, isolated populations could play in finding genes involved in the etiology of diseases. For historical and political reasons, South Tyrol, the northern most Italian region, includes several villages of small dimensions which remained isolated over the centuries. Methods The MICROS study is a population-based survey on three small, isolated villages, characterized by: old settlement; small number of founders; high endogamy rates; slow/null population expansion. During the stage-1 (2002/03 genealogical data, screening questionnaires, clinical measurements, blood and urine samples, and DNA were collected for 1175 adult volunteers. Stage-2, concerning trait diagnoses, linkage analysis and association studies, is ongoing. The selection of the traits is being driven by expert clinicians. Preliminary, descriptive statistics were obtained. Power simulations for finding linkage on a quantitative trait locus (QTL were undertaken. Results Starting from participants, genealogies were reconstructed for 50,037 subjects, going back to the early 1600s. Within the last five generations, subjects were clustered in one pedigree of 7049 subjects plus 178 smaller pedigrees (3 to 85 subjects each. A significant probability of familial clustering was assessed for many traits, especially among the cardiovascular, neurological and respiratory traits. Simulations showed that the MICROS pedigree has a substantial power to detect a LOD score ≥ 3 when the QTL specific heritability is ≥ 20%. Conclusion The MICROS study is an extensive, ongoing, two-stage survey aimed at characterizing the genetic epidemiology of Mendelian and complex diseases. Our approach, involving different scientific disciplines, is an advantageous strategy to define and to study population isolates. The isolation of the Alpine populations, together with the extensive data collected so far, make the MICROS study a

  10. The genetic study of three population microisolates in South Tyrol (MICROS): study design and epidemiological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattaro, Cristian; Marroni, Fabio; Riegler, Alice; Mascalzoni, Deborah; Pichler, Irene; Volpato, Claudia B; Dal Cero, Umberta; De Grandi, Alessandro; Egger, Clemens; Eisendle, Agatha; Fuchsberger, Christian; Gögele, Martin; Pedrotti, Sara; Pinggera, Gerd K; Stefanov, Stefan A; Vogl, Florian D; Wiedermann, Christian J; Meitinger, Thomas; Pramstaller, Peter P

    2007-06-05

    There is increasing evidence of the important role that small, isolated populations could play in finding genes involved in the etiology of diseases. For historical and political reasons, South Tyrol, the northern most Italian region, includes several villages of small dimensions which remained isolated over the centuries. The MICROS study is a population-based survey on three small, isolated villages, characterized by: old settlement; small number of founders; high endogamy rates; slow/null population expansion. During the stage-1 (2002/03) genealogical data, screening questionnaires, clinical measurements, blood and urine samples, and DNA were collected for 1175 adult volunteers. Stage-2, concerning trait diagnoses, linkage analysis and association studies, is ongoing. The selection of the traits is being driven by expert clinicians. Preliminary, descriptive statistics were obtained. Power simulations for finding linkage on a quantitative trait locus (QTL) were undertaken. Starting from participants, genealogies were reconstructed for 50,037 subjects, going back to the early 1600s. Within the last five generations, subjects were clustered in one pedigree of 7049 subjects plus 178 smaller pedigrees (3 to 85 subjects each). A significant probability of familial clustering was assessed for many traits, especially among the cardiovascular, neurological and respiratory traits. Simulations showed that the MICROS pedigree has a substantial power to detect a LOD score > or = 3 when the QTL specific heritability is > or = 20%. The MICROS study is an extensive, ongoing, two-stage survey aimed at characterizing the genetic epidemiology of Mendelian and complex diseases. Our approach, involving different scientific disciplines, is an advantageous strategy to define and to study population isolates. The isolation of the Alpine populations, together with the extensive data collected so far, make the MICROS study a powerful resource for the study of diseases in many fields of

  11. Replication of genetic loci for ages at menarche and menopause in the multi-ethnic Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, C L; Spencer, K L; Setiawan, V W; Fernandez-Rhodes, L; Malinowski, J; Buyske, S; Young, A; Jorgensen, N W; Cheng, I; Carlson, C S; Brown-Gentry, K; Goodloe, R; Park, A; Parikh, N I; Henderson, B; Le Marchand, L; Wactawski-Wende, J; Fornage, M; Matise, T C; Hindorff, L A; Arnold, A M; Haiman, C A; Franceschini, N; Peters, U; Crawford, D C

    2013-06-01

    Do genetic associations identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of age at menarche (AM) and age at natural menopause (ANM) replicate in women of diverse race/ancestry from the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) Study? We replicated GWAS reproductive trait single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in our European descent population and found that many SNPs were also associated with AM and ANM in populations of diverse ancestry. Menarche and menopause mark the reproductive lifespan in women and are important risk factors for chronic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Both events are believed to be influenced by environmental and genetic factors, and vary in populations differing by genetic ancestry and geography. Most genetic variants associated with these traits have been identified in GWAS of European-descent populations. A total of 42 251 women of diverse ancestry from PAGE were included in cross-sectional analyses of AM and ANM. SNPs previously associated with ANM (n = 5 SNPs) and AM (n = 3 SNPs) in GWAS were genotyped in American Indians, African Americans, Asians, European Americans, Hispanics and Native Hawaiians. To test SNP associations with ANM or AM, we used linear regression models stratified by race/ethnicity and PAGE sub-study. Results were then combined in race-specific fixed effect meta-analyses for each outcome. For replication and generalization analyses, significance was defined at P European Americans. The LIN28B SNPs (rs314277 and rs314280) were also significantly associated with AM in Asians, but not in other race/ethnicity groups. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns at this locus varied widely among the ancestral groups. With the exception of an intergenic SNP at 13q34, all ANM SNPs replicated in European Americans. Three were significantly associated with ANM in other race/ethnicity populations: rs2153157 (6p24.2/SYCP2L), rs365132 (5q35/UIMC1) and rs16991615 (20p12.3/MCM8

  12. Merchant electricity transmission expansion: A European case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristiansen, T. [RBS Sempra Commodities, 155 Bishopsgate, London EC2M3TZ (United Kingdom); Rosellon, J. [Centro de Investigacion y Docencia Economicas (CIDE), Division de Economia, Carretera Mexico-Toluca 3655, Lomas de Santa Fe, 01210 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin), Mohrenstrasse 58, 10117, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    We apply a merchant transmission model to the trilateral market coupling (TLC) arrangement among the Netherlands, Belgium and France as an example, and note that it could further be applied to other market splitting or coupling of Europe's different national power markets. In this merchant framework the system operator allocates financial transmission rights (FTRs) to investors in transmission expansion based upon their preferences, and revenue adequacy. The independent system operator (ISO) preserves some proxy FTRs to manage potential negative externalities that may result from expansion projects. This scheme could help European market coupling arrangements attract additional investment. (author)

  13. Women Organize : A Study of four European Women's Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Pincus, Sonja M

    2008-01-01

    Women organize in women’s organizations for various causes across Europe and across the globe today as they have for the past 150 years. The European Women’s Lobby (EWL) is the largest platform for non-governmental women’s organizations in the EU and on their website they state that they have more than 4000 member organizations. It is therefore reasonable to assume that there is a great deal more women’s organizations in the EU, which may not be registered at the EWL, and even more when all t...

  14. Physical activity and lung cancer among non-smokers : a pilot molecular epidemiological study within EPIC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rundle, Andrew; Richie, John; Steindorf, Karen; Peluso, Marco; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Linseisen, Jacob P.; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-De-Mesquita, Hendrik B.; Peeters, Petra H.; Lund, Eiliv; Gonzalez, Carlos A.; Martinez, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Jose Tormo, M.; Quiros, Jose R.; Agudo, Antonio; Berglund, Goran; Jarvholm, Bengt; Bingham, Sheila; Key, Timothy J.; Gormally, Emmanuelle; Saracci, Rodolfo; Kaaks, Rudolf; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo

    The association between physical activity, potential intermediate biomarkers and lung cancer risk was investigated in a study of 230 cases and 648 controls nested within the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer and Nutrition. Data on white blood cell aromatic-DNA adducts by

  15. 11th Congress of South-East European Studies. Sofia 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Mirella Korzeniewska-Wiszniewska

    2015-01-01

    11th Congress of South-East European Studies. Sofia 2015 The 11th Congress of South-East European Studies took place in Sofia, Bulgaria, between 31 August and 4 September 2015. It was organised by the International Association for Southeast European Studies (orig. in French: AIESEE – Associacion Internationale d’ Études du Sud-Est Européen). South-Eastern Europe is an area looked upon by world powers with a large amount of ambivalence. As the region’s states are not considered to be k...

  16. Exercise and limitations in physical activity levels among new dialysis patients in the United States: an epidemiologic study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stack, Austin G

    2008-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies of physical activity among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are lacking. The aim of this study was to describe the patterns of physical activity among new dialysis patients in the United States.

  17. Methods and processes of developing the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology - Veterinary (STROBE-Vet) statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sargeant, J. M.; O'Connor, A. M.; Dohoo, I. R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Reporting of observational studies in veterinary research presents challenges that often are not addressed in published reporting guidelines.Objective: To develop an extension of the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) statement that addresses...

  18. An Agent-Based Model to study the epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of Influenza viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drake John M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza A viruses exhibit complex epidemiological patterns in a number of mammalian and avian hosts. Understanding transmission of these viruses necessitates taking into account their evolution, which represents a challenge for developing mathematical models. This is because the phrasing of multi-strain systems in terms of traditional compartmental ODE models either requires simplifying assumptions to be made that overlook important evolutionary processes, or leads to complex dynamical systems that are too cumbersome to analyse. Results Here, we develop an Individual-Based Model (IBM in order to address simultaneously the ecology, epidemiology and evolution of strain-polymorphic pathogens, using Influenza A viruses as an illustrative example. Conclusions We carry out careful validation of our IBM against comparable mathematical models to demonstrate the robustness of our algorithm and the sound basis for this novel framework. We discuss how this new approach can give critical insights in the study of influenza evolution.

  19. An agent-based model to study the epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of Influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Benjamin; Drake, John M; Rohani, Pejman

    2011-03-30

    Influenza A viruses exhibit complex epidemiological patterns in a number of mammalian and avian hosts. Understanding transmission of these viruses necessitates taking into account their evolution, which represents a challenge for developing mathematical models. This is because the phrasing of multi-strain systems in terms of traditional compartmental ODE models either requires simplifying assumptions to be made that overlook important evolutionary processes, or leads to complex dynamical systems that are too cumbersome to analyse. Here, we develop an Individual-Based Model (IBM) in order to address simultaneously the ecology, epidemiology and evolution of strain-polymorphic pathogens, using Influenza A viruses as an illustrative example. We carry out careful validation of our IBM against comparable mathematical models to demonstrate the robustness of our algorithm and the sound basis for this novel framework. We discuss how this new approach can give critical insights in the study of influenza evolution.

  20. Methods for pooling results of epidemiologic studies: The pooling project of prospective studies of diet and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith-Warner, S.A.; Spiegelman, D.; Ritz, J.; Albanes, D.; Beeson, W.L.; Bernstein, L.; Berrino, F.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Buring, J.E.; Cho, E.; Colditz, G.A.; Folsom, A.R.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Giovannucci, E.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Graham, S.; Harnack, L.; Horn-Ross, P.L.; Krogh, V.; Leitzmann, M.F.; McCullough, M.L.; Miller, A.B.; Rodriguez, C.; Rohan, T.E.; Schatzkin, A.; Shore, R.; Virtanen, M.; Willett, W.C.; Wolk, A.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A.; Zhang, S.M.; Hunter, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    With the growing number of epidemiologic publications on the relation between dietary factors and cancer risk, pooled analyses that summarize results from multiple studies are becoming more common. Here, the authors describe the methods being used to summarize data on diet-cancer associations within

  1. GALEN skin test study III: Minimum battery of test inhalent allergens needed in epidemiological studies in patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousquet, P.-J.; Burbach, G.; Heinzerling, L. M.; Edenharter, G.; Bachert, C.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Bonini, S.; Bousquet-Rouanet, L.; Demoly, P.; Bresciani, M.; Bruno, A.; Gjomarkaj, M.; Canonica, G. W.; Darsow, U.; Durham, S.; Fokkens, W. J.; Giavi, S.; Gramiccioni, C.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Haahtela, T.; Kowalski, M. L.; Magyar, P.; Muraközi, G.; Orosz, M.; Röhnelt, C.; Stingl, G.; Todo-Bom, A.; von Mutius, E.; Wiesner, A.; Wöhrl, S.; Bousquet, J.; Zuberbier, T.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The number of allergens to be tested in order to identify sensitized patients is important in order to have the most cost-effective approach in epidemiological studies. Objective: To define the minimal number and the type of skin prick test (SPT) allergens required to identify a patient

  2. Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Studying Spatial Abundance of Ungulates: Relevance to Spatial Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barasona, José A.; Mulero-Pázmány, Margarita; Acevedo, Pelayo; Negro, Juan J.; Torres, María J.; Gortázar, Christian; Vicente, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    Complex ecological and epidemiological systems require multidisciplinary and innovative research. Low cost unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) can provide information on the spatial pattern of hosts’ distribution and abundance, which is crucial as regards modelling the determinants of disease transmission and persistence on a fine spatial scale. In this context we have studied the spatial epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in the ungulate community of Doñana National Park (South-western Spain) by modelling species host (red deer, fallow deer and cattle) abundance at fine spatial scale. The use of UAS high-resolution images has allowed us to collect data to model the environmental determinants of host abundance, and in a further step to evaluate their relationships with the spatial risk of TB throughout the ungulate community. We discuss the ecological, epidemiological and logistic conditions under which UAS may contribute to study the wildlife/livestock sanitary interface, where the spatial aggregation of hosts becomes crucial. These findings are relevant for planning and implementing research, fundamentally when managing disease in multi-host systems, and focusing on risky areas. Therefore, managers should prioritize the implementation of control strategies to reduce disease of conservation, economic and social relevance. PMID:25551673

  3. Maxillofacial fracture epidemiology and treatment plans in the Northeast of Iran: A retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samieirad, Sahand; Aboutorabzade, Mohammad-Reza; Tohidi, Elahe; Shaban, Baratollah; Khalife, Hussein; Salami, Hamid-Reza

    2017-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of facial injuries varies based on lifestyle, cultural background and socioeconomic status in different countries and geographic zones. This study evaluated the epidemiology of maxillofacial fractures and treatment plans in hospitalized patients in Northeast of Iran (2015-2016). Material and Methods In this retrospective study, the medical records of 502 hospitalized patients were evaluated in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery in Kamyab Hospital in Mashhad, Iran. The type and cause of fractures and treatment plans were recorded in a checklist. Data were analyzed with Mann–Whitney test, chi-squared test and Fisher’s exact test, using SPSS 21. Results The majority of patients were male (80.3%). Most subjects were in 20-30-year age range (43.2%). The fractures were mostly caused by accidents, particularly motorcycle accidents (MCAs), and the most common site of involvement was the body of the mandible. There was a significant association between the type of treatment and age. In fact, the age range of 16-59 years underwent open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) more than other age ranges (P=0.001). Also, there was a significant association between gender and fractures (P=0.002). Conclusions It was concluded that patient age and gender and trauma significantly affected the prevalence of maxillofacial traumas, fracture types and treatment plans. This information would be useful for making better health policy strategies. Key words:Epidemiology, treatment, facial injuries, maxillofacial fractures, trauma. PMID:28809369

  4. Epidemiological study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southwest of Iran during 2001–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossien Feiz Haddad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the prevalence process and epidemiological characteristics of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL during 2001–2011. Methods: This was a cross-sectional epidemiologic study examining 2 637 patients with CL in Susangerd county during 2001–2011. The data of all patients who referred to the Prevention Unit of Susangerd Health Center were registered in CL epidemiologic data summary forms. The data and parameters included age, gender, occupation, season, residence (urban, rural, and lesion location. Results: Out of 2 637 patients, 1 174 cases (44.5% were females and 1463 patients (55.5% were males. The maximum rate of infection was recorded in under 10-year-old age group (45.32% and its minimum rate was seen among those aged over 60 years (0.87%. Among them, 1 557 patients (59.0% were living in urban and 1 080 (41.0% were in rural areas. The maximum and minimum occupational frequency distributions were seen in students (49.9% and farmers (0.6%, respectively. The study showed that the maximum and minimum frequencies were observed in winter (52.33% and summer (7.62% correspondingly. The most lesion frequencies from lesion location point of view were related to hands (37.5%, faces (30.0%, feet (26.3% and other organs (6.2% and the number of lesions ranged from 1–5 and sized varied from 0.5–5.5 cm Conclusions: Epidemiological parameters such as age, gender, occupation, season, residence (urban, rural and lesion location in endemic regions have had significant effects on the prevalence of CL in Susangerd county and the findings can be effective for assessing disease prevention programs. In addition, CL might become a serious dermatological health problem in the near future due to a great population movement to the neighboring country Iraq with a high incidence to an endemic area.

  5. Study protocol: SPARCLE – a multi-centre European study of the relationship of environment to participation and quality of life in children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colver Allan

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SPARCLE is a nine-centre European epidemiological research study examining the relationship of participation and quality of life to impairment and environment (physical, social and attitudinal in 8–12 year old children with cerebral palsy. Concepts are adopted from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health which bridges the medical and social models of disability. Methods/Design A cross sectional study of children with cerebral palsy sampled from total population databases in 9 European regions. Children were visited by research associates in each country who had been trained together. The main instruments used were KIDSCREEN, Life-H, Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire, Parenting Stress Index. A measure of environment was developed within the study. All instruments were translated according to international guidelines. The potential for bias due to non response and missing data will be examined. After initial analysis using multivariate regression of how the data captured by each instrument relate to impairment and socio-economic characteristics, relationships between the latent traits captured by the instruments will then be analysed using structural equation modelling. Discussion This study is original in its methods by directly engaging children themselves, ensuring those with learning or communication difficulty are not excluded, and by studying in quantitative terms the crucial outcomes of participation and quality of life. Specification and publication of this protocol prior to analysis, which is not common in epidemiology but well established for randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews, should avoid the pitfalls of data dredging and post hoc analyses.

  6. Framing education on headache disorders into the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The European Headache Federation stands ready

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martelletti, Paolo; Mitsikostas, Dimos-Dimitrios; Lampl, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Framing education on headache disorders into the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The European Headache Federation stands ready.......Framing education on headache disorders into the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The European Headache Federation stands ready....

  7. Interpretation of epidemiological studies very often lacked adequate consideration of confounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemkens, Lars G; Ewald, Hannah; Naudet, Florian; Ladanie, Aviv; Shaw, Jonathan G; Sajeev, Gautam; Ioannidis, John P A

    2017-09-21

    Confounding bias is a most pervasive threat to validity of observational epidemiological research. We assessed whether authors of observational epidemiological studies consider confounding bias when interpreting the findings. We randomly selected 120 cohort or case-control studies published in 2011 and 2012 by the general medical, epidemiological, and specialty journals with the highest impact factors. We used Web of Science to assess citation metrics through January 2017. 68 studies (56.7%, 95% confidence interval 47.8% to 65.5%) mentioned "confounding" in the Abstract or Discussion sections, another 20 (16.7%; 10.0% to 23.3%) alluded to it, and there was no mention or allusion at all in 32 studies (26.7%; 18.8% to 34.6%). Authors often acknowledged that for specific confounders there was no adjustment (34 studies; 28.3%) or deem it possible or likely that confounding affected their main findings (29 studies; 24.2%). However, only 2 studies (1.7%; 0% to 4.0%) specifically used the words "caution" or "cautious" for the interpretation due to confounding-related reasons and eventually only 4 studies (3.3%; 0.1% to 6.5%) had limitations related to confounding or any other bias in their Conclusions. Studies mentioning that the findings were possibly or likely affected by confounding were more frequently cited than studies with a statement that findings were unlikely affected (median 6.3 vs. 4.0 citations per year, p=0.04). Many observational studies lack satisfactory discussion of confounding bias. Even when confounding bias is mentioned, authors are typically confident that it is rather irrelevant to their findings and they rarely call for cautious interpretation. More careful acknowledgement of possible impact of confounding is not associated with lower citation impact. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. An Epidemiologic Study of Pediatric Poisoning; a Six-month Cross-sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Manouchehrifar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intentional and unintentional poisoning are among the most common reasons for referrals to emergency department (ED. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate epidemiologic features and effective risk factors of intentional and unintentional poisoning in children. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was carried out in ED of Loghman Hakim Hospital, greatest referral poison center of Iran, Tehran during March to August 2014. Demographic data, medical history, history of psychiatric disease in child, the cause of poisoning, parents’ educational level, household monthly income, location of residence, history of addiction or divorce in family, and the poisoning intentionality were gathered. Data were analyzed using SPSS 18 and appropriate statistical tests based on the purpose of study. Results: 414 participants with the mean age of 4.2 ± 3.43 years were included (57.5% male. Children in the 0-4 year(s age range had the most frequency with 281 (67.9% cases. 29 (7% cases were intentional (62% female, 76% in the 10-14 years old group. Methadone with 123 (29.7% cases was the most frequent toxic agent in general and in unintentional cases. 10-14 years of age (p = 0.001, and the history of psychiatric disease in children (p <0.001, had a direct correlation with probability of intentional poisoning. While, history of addiction in the family showed an indirect correlation with this probability (p = 0.045. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, most cases of poisoning in the children were unintentional methadone intoxication in boys in the 0-4 age range with a history of a psychiatric disease, and those who had a history of addiction in the family. In addition, the most powerful risk factor for the children’s intentional poisoning was their history of psychiatric disease. The history of addiction in the child’s family had indirect correlation with intentional intoxications.

  9. Red and processed meat intake is associated with higher gastric cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiological observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongcheng Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Red and processed meat was concluded as a limited-suggestive risk factor of gastric cancer by the World Cancer Research Fund. However, recent epidemiological studies have yielded inconclusive results. METHODS: We searched Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from their inception to April 2013 for both cohort and case-control studies which assessed the association between red and/or processed meat intake and gastric cancer risk. Study-specific relative risk estimates were polled by random-effect or fixed-effect models. RESULTS: Twelve cohort and thirty case-control studies were included in the meta-analysis. Significant associations were found between both red (RR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.22-1.73 and processed (RR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.26-1.65 meat intake and gastric cancer risk generally. Positive findings were also existed in the items of beef (RR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.04-1.57, bacon (RR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.17-1.61, ham (RR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.00-2.06, and sausage (RR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.16-1.52. When conducted by study design, the association was significant in case-control studies (RR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.33-1.99 but not in cohort studies (RR: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.90-1.17 for red meat. Increased relative risks were seen in high-quality, adenocarcinoma, cardia and European-population studies for red meat. And most subgroup analysis confirmed the significant association between processed meat intake and gastric cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that consumption of red and/or processed meat contributes to increased gastric cancer risk. However, further investigation is needed to confirm the association, especially for red meat.

  10. Red and processed meat intake is associated with higher gastric cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiological observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongcheng; Yang, Xi; Zhang, Chi; Zhu, Chen; Tao, Guangzhou; Zhao, Lianjun; Tang, Shaowen; Shu, Zheng; Cai, Jing; Dai, Shengbin; Qin, Qin; Xu, Liping; Cheng, Hongyan; Sun, Xinchen

    2013-01-01

    Red and processed meat was concluded as a limited-suggestive risk factor of gastric cancer by the World Cancer Research Fund. However, recent epidemiological studies have yielded inconclusive results. We searched Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from their inception to April 2013 for both cohort and case-control studies which assessed the association between red and/or processed meat intake and gastric cancer risk. Study-specific relative risk estimates were polled by random-effect or fixed-effect models. Twelve cohort and thirty case-control studies were included in the meta-analysis. Significant associations were found between both red (RR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.22-1.73) and processed (RR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.26-1.65) meat intake and gastric cancer risk generally. Positive findings were also existed in the items of beef (RR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.04-1.57), bacon (RR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.17-1.61), ham (RR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.00-2.06), and sausage (RR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.16-1.52). When conducted by study design, the association was significant in case-control studies (RR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.33-1.99) but not in cohort studies (RR: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.90-1.17) for red meat. Increased relative risks were seen in high-quality, adenocarcinoma, cardia and European-population studies for red meat. And most subgroup analysis confirmed the significant association between processed meat intake and gastric cancer risk. Our findings indicate that consumption of red and/or processed meat contributes to increased gastric cancer risk. However, further investigation is needed to confirm the association, especially for red meat.

  11. [Epidemiology of shigellosis and colicin typing of Shigella sonnei. A 14-year study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, F J; Carranza, E; Clavel, A; Rubio, M C; Gómez-Lus, R

    1991-11-01

    To study the most important epidemiologic features of shigellosis and the application of colicinotyping as an epidemiologic marker for Shigella sonnei. A total of 44.818 stoll-cultures were performed. We classify, using colicinotyping, 156 Shigella sonnei strains isolated from different patients. The incidence of Shigellosis in our media is low (1.08% of all stool-cultures). It is more frequent in pediatric population and increases on late summer and fall. We had been able to show an increasing incidence, with an hyperendemic situation during a three-years period (1981-1983). Shigella sonnei is the most prevalent species (86% of cases), followed by S. boydii (7.3%) and S. flexneri (5.9%). All S. sonnei strains epidemiologically related showed the same colicinotype. Only two strains were not typable and we identified 9 different colicinotypes, being type 13 (30.8%), type 8 (18.6%), type 6 (17.3%) and type 12 (11.54%) the more frequent types. Colicinotype 8 was the more prevalent between 1978-1979. Type 13 was predominant between 1981 and 1985. During 1987 and 1989, at the same time that incidence had risen, types 6 and 12 were prevalent. The total number of different colicinotypes identified during a single year is never greater than five. Colicinotyping of S. sonnei is a simple typing method that gives enough useful epidemiologic information, discriminative and reproducible. Although there are changes of circulating types incidence and the prevalen colicinotype colud vary from one year to another, during longer periods of time there is a reduced number of alternating colicinotypes, which sets up a situation that could be further classified as endemic.

  12. Molecular epidemiology studies on occupational and environmental exposure to mutagens and carcinogens, 1997-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srám, R J; Binková, B

    2000-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology is a new and evolving area of research, combining laboratory measurement of internal dose, biologically effective dose, biologic effects, and influence of individual susceptibility with epidemiologic methodologies. Biomarkers evaluated were selected according to basic scheme: biomarkers of exposure--metabolites in urine, DNA adducts, protein adducts, and Comet assay parameters; biomarkers of effect--chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, micronuclei, mutations in the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene, and the activation of oncogenes coding for p53 or p21 proteins as measured on protein levels; biomarkers of susceptibility--genetic polymorphisms of genes CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1, NAT2. DNA adducts measured by 32P-postlabeling are the biomarker of choice for the evaluation of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Protein adducts are useful as a biomarker for exposure to tobacco smoke (4-aminobiphenyl) or to smaller molecules such as acrylonitrile or 1,3-butadiene. Of the biomarkers of effect, the most common are cytogenetic end points. Epidemiologic studies support the use of chromosomal breakage as a relevant biomarker of cancer risk. The use of the Comet assay and methods analyzing oxidative DNA damage needs reliable validation for human biomonitoring. Until now there have not been sufficient data to interpret the relationship between genotypes, biomarkers of exposure, and biomarkers of effect for assessing the risk of human exposure to mutagens and carcinogens. PMID:10698723

  13. Searching PubMed for molecular epidemiology studies: the case of chromosome aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugolini, Donatella; Neri, Monica; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Bonassi, Stefano; Merlo, Domenico Franco

    2006-05-01

    The available tools for searching literature in the field of Molecular Epidemiology are largely unsatisfactory. To identify major problems in retrieving information on this discipline, we comment here on the results of a literature search on cytogenetic biomarkers in children exposed to environmental pollutants. The search, done on the PubMed/MedLine database, was based on a strategy combining descriptors listed in the PubMed Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Thesaurus and other available tools (free text or phrase search tools). 178 articles were retrieved by searching the period from January 1, 1980 to November 30, 2004. Only 2 of the 178 articles were indexed by the MeSH term "Epidemiology, molecular" (introduced in 1994) and 30 of 178 by the MeSH term "Biological markers" (introduced in 1989). The case of chromosome aberration (CA) was emblematic of the problem: 44 of 78 articles (56.4%) were not pertinent to the search. The reasons for this poor performance are reported and discussed. Authors and indexers may be able to improve the efficiency of article retrieval in the field of molecular epidemiology by using relevant terms in the title and abstract. This may suggest appropriate MeSH terms to the indexers for the indexing process. As regards the difficulty in identifying population studies using CA, the introduction of a specific MeSH term for chromosome aberrations when used as a biomarker would improve the search process. Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. The EASTR study: a new approach to determine the reasons for transfusion in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewelyn, C A; Wells, A W; Amin, M; Casbard, A; Johnson, A J; Ballard, S; Buck, J; Malfroy, M; Murphy, M F; Williamson, L M

    2009-04-01

    Previous studies of blood use have used different methods to obtain and classify transfusion indications. Before undertaking a national study of transfusion recipients, a pilot study was performed over 2 months at two teaching and two district general hospitals to match information from hospital transfusion laboratories with clinical coding data from the hospital's Patients Administration System to determine the indication for transfusion in 2468 recipients. Data analysis revealed major limitations in the conventional use of primary diagnostic International Statistical Classification of Disease and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) or procedure Office of Population, Censuses and Surveys - Classification of Surgical Operations and Procedures - 4th Revision (OPCS-4) codes alone in allocating transfusion indications. A novel algorithm was developed, using both types of code, to select the probable indication for transfusion for each patient. A primary OPCS-4 code was selected for recipients transfused in relation to surgery (43%) and either the primary (36%) or the secondary (12%) ICD-10 code was chosen for recipients transfused for medical reasons. The remaining patients were unclassified. Selected codes were then collated into Epidemiology and Survival of Transfusion Recipients (EASTR) casemix groups (E-CMGs). The most frequent E-CMGs were haematology (15% of recipients), musculoskeletal (14%), digestive system (12%) and cardiac (10%). The haematology E-CMG includes patients with malignant and non-malignant blood disorders and recipients transfused for anaemia where no cause was listed. Recipients undergoing hip and knee replacement and coronary artery bypass grafting are within the musculoskeletal and cardiac E-CMGs. The digestive E-CMG includes recipients transfused for gastrointestinal (GI) bleeds and those undergoing GI surgery. This methodology provides a more useful means of establishing the probable indication for transfusion and arranging

  15. Extracting Country-of-Origin from Electronic Health Records for Gene- Environment Studies as Part of the Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber-Eger, Eric; Goodloe, Robert; Boston, Jonathan; Bush, William S; Crawford, Dana C

    2017-01-01

    We describe here the extraction of country-of-origin, an acculturation variable relevant for gene-environment studies, in a biorepository linked to de-identified electronic health records (EHRs) assessed by the Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE), a study site of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) I study. We extracted country-of-origin from the unstructured clinical free text using regular expressions within the MySQL relational database system in a cohort of 15,863 subjects of mostly non-European descent (including 11,519 African Americans, 1,702 Hispanics, and 1,118 Asians). We performed searches for 231 world countries (including independent sovereign states, dependent areas, and disputed territories) and common misspellings in >14 gigabytes of data including >13 billion characters of clinical text. Manual review of a fraction of the initial country-of-origin assignments established rules for data cleaning and quality control to achieve final country-of-origin status for each subject. After data cleaning, a total of 1,911/15,893 (12.02%) subjects were assigned to a country-of-origin outside of the United States. Mexico was the most commonly assigned country outside of the United States (264 subjects; 13.8% of subjects with a foreign country-of-origin assignment). The distribution of the countries assigned followed expectations based on known migration patterns to the United States with an emphasis on the southeastern region. These data suggest country-of-origin can be successfully extracted from unstructured clinical text for downstream genetic association studies.

  16. Asthma medication prescribing before, during and after pregnancy : A study in seven European regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charlton, Rachel A; Pierini, Anna; Klungsøyr, Kari; Neville, Amanda J; Jordan, Susan; Jong-van den Berg, de Lolkje; Thayer, Daniel; Bos, H Jens; Puccini, Aurora; Hansen, Anne V; Gini, Rosa; Engeland, Anders; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Dolk, Helen; Garne, Ester

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore utilisation patterns of asthma medication before, during and after pregnancy as recorded in seven European population-based databases. DESIGN: A descriptive drug utilisation study. SETTING: 7 electronic healthcare databases in Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, Italy (Emilia

  17. A Case—Control Study of Lung Cancer Nested in a Cohort of European Asphalt Workers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ann Olsson; Hans Kromhout; Michela Agostini; Johnni Hansen; Christina Funch Lassen; Christoffer Johansen; Kristina Kjaerheim; Sverre Langård; Isabelle Stücker; Wolfgang Ahrens; Thomas Behrens; Marja-Liisa Lindbohm; Pirjo Heikkilä; Dick Heederik; Lützen Portengen; Judith Shaham; Gilles Ferro; Frank de Vocht; Igor Burstyn; Paolo Boffetta

    2010-01-01

    Background: We conducted a nested case—control study in a cohort of European asphalt workers in which an increase in lung cancer risk has been reported among workers exposed to airborne bitumen fume, although potential bias and confounding...

  18. Energy efficiency in the European water industry. A compendium of best practices and case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frijns, J. [Watercycle Research Institute KWR, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Uijterlinde, C. [Foundation for Applied Water Research STOWA, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2010-02-15

    This European report on best practices of energy efficiency in the water industry showcases 23 energy efficiency initiatives which were collected as case studies from European water utilities. The 25 case studies presented in this report will be submitted to UKWIR and Black and Veatch, for potential inclusion in the Global Water Research Coalition (GWRC) global compendium of best practice case studies. The aim of the GWRC-compendium is to identify the promising developments and future opportunities to help deliver incremental improvements in energy efficiency through optimisation of existing assets and operations. But also more substantial improvements in energy efficiency from the adoption of novel (but proven at full scale) technologies. The European report describes case studies from: Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Norway, Spain and Switzerland. Black and Veatch has gathered furthermore information on 47 cases from the UK. These are reported separately and are not included in this European overview.

  19. Extraskeletal osteosarcoma : A European Musculoskeletal Oncology Society study on 266 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Longhi, A.; Bielack, S.; Grimer, R.; Whelan, J.; Windhager, R; Leithner, Andreas; Gronchi, A.; Biau, David J.; Jutte, P.; Krieg, A. H.; Klenke, Frank M.; Grignani, G.; Donati, D. M.; Capanna, R.; Casanova, Jose; Gerrand, Craig; Bisogno, G.; Hecker-Nolting, Stefanie; De Lisa, M.; D'Ambrosio, Lia; Willegger, M.; Scoccianti, G.; FERRARI, S

    Purpose: Prognosis of extraskeletal osteosarcoma (ESOS) is reported to be poorer than that of skeletal osteosarcoma. This multicenter retrospective study aimed to evaluate factors influencing ESOS prognosis. Patients and methods: Members of the European Musculoskeletal Oncology Society (EMSOS)

  20. Risk factors for atrophic chronic gastritis in a European population: results of the Eurohepygast study

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Background and aims: The development of atrophic chronic gastritis (ACG) is multifactorial, involving environment as well as host responses to Helicobacter pylori infection. The aim of this study was to determine factors involved in ACG in a European dyspeptic population.

  1. Status of infection control policies and organisation in European hospitals, 2001: the ARPAC study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struelens, M.J.; Wagner, D.; Bruce, J.; MacKenzie, F.M.; Cookson, B.; Voss, A.; Broek, P.J.J.A. van den; Gould, I.

    2006-01-01

    Patient safety in hospital care depends on effective infection control (IC) programmes. The Antimicrobial Resistance Prevention and Control (ARPAC) study assessed the organisation, components and human resources of IC programmes in European hospitals. A questionnaire survey of policies and

  2. Extending conceptual frameworks: life course epidemiology for the study of back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunn Kate M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have identified important causal and prognostic factors for back pain, but these frequently only identify a proportion of the variance, and new factors add little to these models. Recently, interest has increased in studying diseases over the life course, stimulated by the 1997 book by Kuh and Ben-Shlomo, a move accompanied by important conceptual and methodological developments. This has resulted in improvements in the understanding of other conditions like cardiovascular and respiratory disease. This paper aims to examine how conceptual frameworks from life course epidemiology could enhance back pain research. Discussion Life course concepts can be divided into three categories. Concept 1: patterns over time, risk chains and accumulation. Simple 'chains of risk' have been studied - e.g. depression leading to back pain - but studies involving more risk factors in the chain are infrequent. Also, we have not examined how risk accumulation influences outcome, e.g. whether multiple episodes or duration of depression, throughout the life course, better predicts back pain. One-year back pain trajectories have been described, and show advantages for studying back pain, but there are few descriptions of longer-term patterns with associated transitions and turning points. Concept 2: influences and determinants of pathways. Analyses in back pain studies commonly adjust associations for potential confounders, but specific analysis of factors modifying risk, or related to the resilience or susceptibility to back pain, are rarely studied. Concept 3: timing of risk. Studies of critical or sensitive periods - crucial times of life which influence health later in life - are scarce in back pain research. Such analyses could help identify factors that influence the experience of pain throughout the life course. Summary Back pain researchers could usefully develop hypotheses and models of how risks from different stages

  3. Water Intake and Hydration Indices in Healthy European Adults: The European Hydration Research Study (EHRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisova, Olga; Athanasatou, Adelais; Pepa, Alex; Husemann, Marlien; Domnik, Kirsten; Braun, Hans; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Ortega, Juan F.; Fernandez-Elias, Valentin E.; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Hydration status is linked with health, wellness, and performance. We evaluated hydration status, water intake, and urine output for seven consecutive days in healthy adults. Volunteers living in Spain, Germany, or Greece (n = 573, 39 ± 12 years (51.1% males), 25.0 ± 4.6 kg/m2 BMI) participated in an eight-day study protocol. Total water intake was estimated from seven-day food and drink diaries. Hydration status was measured in urine samples collected over 24 h for seven days and in blood samples collected in fasting state on the mornings of days 1 and 8. Total daily water intake was 2.75 ± 1.01 L, water from beverages 2.10 ± 0.91 L, water from foods 0.66 ± 0.29 L. Urine parameters were: 24 h volume 1.65 ± 0.70 L, 24 h osmolality 631 ± 221 mOsmol/kg Η2Ο, 24 h specific gravity 1.017 ± 0.005, 24 h excretion of sodium 166.9 ± 54.7 mEq, 24 h excretion of potassium 72.4 ± 24.6 mEq, color chart 4.2 ± 1.4. Predictors for urine osmolality were age, country, gender, and BMI. Blood indices were: haemoglobin concentration 14.7 ± 1.7 g/dL, hematocrit 43% ± 4% and serum osmolality 294 ± 9 mOsmol/kg Η2Ο. Daily water intake was higher in summer (2.8 ± 1.02 L) than in winter (2.6 ± 0.98 L) (p = 0.019). Water intake was associated negatively with urine specific gravity, urine color, and urine sodium and potassium concentrations (p hydration level. PMID:27058557

  4. Water Intake and Hydration Indices in Healthy European Adults: The European Hydration Research Study (EHRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Malisova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydration status is linked with health, wellness, and performance. We evaluated hydration status, water intake, and urine output for seven consecutive days in healthy adults. Volunteers living in Spain, Germany, or Greece (n = 573, 39 ± 12 years (51.1% males, 25.0 ± 4.6 kg/m2 BMI participated in an eight-day study protocol. Total water intake was estimated from seven-day food and drink diaries. Hydration status was measured in urine samples collected over 24 h for seven days and in blood samples collected in fasting state on the mornings of days 1 and 8. Total daily water intake was 2.75 ± 1.01 L, water from beverages 2.10 ± 0.91 L, water from foods 0.66 ± 0.29 L. Urine parameters were: 24 h volume 1.65 ± 0.70 L, 24 h osmolality 631 ± 221 mOsmol/kg Η2Ο, 24 h specific gravity 1.017 ± 0.005, 24 h excretion of sodium 166.9 ± 54.7 mEq, 24 h excretion of potassium 72.4 ± 24.6 mEq, color chart 4.2 ± 1.4. Predictors for urine osmolality were age, country, gender, and BMI. Blood indices were: haemoglobin concentration 14.7 ± 1.7 g/dL, hematocrit 43% ± 4% and serum osmolality 294 ± 9 mOsmol/kg Η2Ο. Daily water intake was higher in summer (2.8 ± 1.02 L than in winter (2.6 ± 0.98 L (p = 0.019. Water intake was associated negatively with urine specific gravity, urine color, and urine sodium and potassium concentrations (p < 0.01. Applying urine osmolality cut-offs, approximately 60% of participants were euhydrated and 20% hyperhydrated or dehydrated. Most participants were euhydrated, but a substantial number of people (40% deviated from a normal hydration level.

  5. Empirical Evidence of Study Design Biases in Randomized Trials: Systematic Review of Meta-Epidemiological Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Page

    Full Text Available To synthesise evidence on the average bias and heterogeneity associated with reported methodological features of randomized trials.Systematic review of meta-epidemiological studies.We retrieved eligible studies included in a recent AHRQ-EPC review on this topic (latest search September 2012, and searched Ovid MEDLINE and Ovid EMBASE for studies indexed from Jan 2012-May 2015. Data were extracted by one author and verified by another. We combined estimates of average bias (e.g. ratio of odds ratios (ROR or difference in standardised mean differences (dSMD in meta-analyses using the random-effects model. Analyses were stratified by type of outcome ("mortality" versus "other objective" versus "subjective". Direction of effect was standardised so that ROR < 1 and dSMD < 0 denotes a larger intervention effect estimate in trials with an inadequate or unclear (versus adequate characteristic.We included 24 studies. The available evidence suggests that intervention effect estimates may be exaggerated in trials with inadequate/unclear (versus adequate sequence generation (ROR 0.93, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99; 7 studies and allocation concealment (ROR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.97; 7 studies. For these characteristics, the average bias appeared to be larger in trials of subjective outcomes compared with other objective outcomes. Also, intervention effects for subjective outcomes appear to be exaggerated in trials with lack of/unclear blinding of participants (versus blinding (dSMD -0.37, 95% CI -0.77 to 0.04; 2 studies, lack of/unclear blinding of outcome assessors (ROR 0.64, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.96; 1 study and lack of/unclear double blinding (ROR 0.77, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.93; 1 study. The influence of other characteristics (e.g. unblinded trial personnel, attrition is unclear.Certain characteristics of randomized trials may exaggerate intervention effect estimates. The average bias appears to be greatest in trials of subjective outcomes. More research on several

  6. Epidemiological study of prostate cancer (EPICAP): a population-based case–control study in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in male in most Western countries, including France. Despite a significant morbidity and mortality to a lesser extent, the etiology of prostate cancer remains largely unknown. Indeed, the only well-established risk factors to date are age, ethnicity and a family history of prostate cancer. We present, here, the rationale and design of the EPIdemiological study of Prostate CAncer (EPICAP), a population-based case–control study specifically designed to investigate the role of environmental and genetic factors in prostate cancer. The EPICAP study will particularly focused on the role of circadian disruption, chronic inflammation, hormonal and metabolic factors in the occurrence of prostate cancer. Methods/Design EPICAP is a population-based case–control study conducted in the département of Hérault in France. Eligible cases are all cases of prostate cancers newly diagnosed in 2012-2013 in men less than 75 years old and residing in the département of Hérault at the time of diagnosis. Controls are men of the same age as the cases and living in the département of Hérault, recruited in the general population. The sample will include a total of 1000 incident cases of prostate cancer and 1000 population-based controls over a 3-year period (2012-2014). The cases and controls are face-to-face interviewed using a standardized computed assisted questionnaire. The questions focus primarily on usual socio-demographic characteristics, personal and family medical history, lifestyle, leisure activities, residential and occupational history. Anthropometric measures and biological samples are also collected for cases and controls. Discussion The EPICAP study aims to answer key questions in prostate cancer etiology: (1) role of circadian disruption through the study of working hours, chronotype and duration/quality of sleep, (2) role of chronic inflammation and anti-inflammatory drugs, (3) role of hormonal and metabolic

  7. Variability of fish consumption within the 10 European countries participating in the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welch, A.A.; Lund, E.; Amiano, P.

    2002-01-01

    study. SUBJECTS: In total, 35 955 subjects (13 031 men and 22 924 women), aged 35-74 years, selected from the main EPIC cohort. RESULTS: A six- to sevenfold variation in total fish consumption exists in women and men, between the lowest consumption in Germany and the highest in Spain. Overall, white......OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare the consumption of total fish (marine foods) and the fish sub-groups - white fish, fatty fish, very fatty fish, fish products and crustacea, in participants from the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis...... fish represented 49% and 45% of the intake of total fish in women and men, respectively, with the greatest consumption in centres in Spain and Greece and the least in the German and Dutch centres. Consumption of fatty fish reflected that of total fish. However, the greatest intake of very fatty fish...

  8. Exposure to phthalates: reproductive outcome and children health. A review of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Hanke, Wojciech

    2011-06-01

    Phthalates are a family of industrial chemicals that have been used for a variety of purposes. As the potential consequences of human exposure to phthalates have raised concerns in the general population, they have been studied in susceptible subjects such as pregnant women, infants and children. This article aims at evaluating the impact of exposure to phthalates on reproductive outcomes and children health by reviewing most recent published literature. Epidemiological studies focusing on exposure to phthalates and pregnancy outcome, genital development, semen quality, precocious puberty, thyroid function, respiratory symptoms and neurodevelopment in children for the last ten years were identified by a search of the PubMed, Medline, Ebsco, Agricola and Toxnet literature bases. The results from the presented studies suggest that there are strong and rather consistent indications that phthalates increase the risk of allergy and asthma and have an adverse impact on children's neurodevelopment reflected by quality of alertness among girls, decreased (less masculine) composite score in boys and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Results of few studies demonstrate negative associations between phthalate levels commonly experienced by the public and impaired sperm quality (concentration, morphology, motility). Phthalates negatively impact also on gestational age and head circumference; however, the results of the studies were not consistent. In all the reviewed studies, exposure to phthalates adversely affected the level of reproductive hormones (luteinizing hormone, free testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin), anogenital distance and thyroid function. The urinary levels of phthalates were significantly higher in the pubertal gynecomastia group, in serum in girls with premature thelarche and in girls with precocious puberty. Epidemiological studies, in spite of their limitations, suggest that phthalates may affect reproductive outcome and children health

  9. Profesi Epidemiologi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchari Lapau

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Makalah ini pertama kali menjelaskan perlu adanya profesi kesehatan masyarakat dalam rangka pembangunan kesehatan. Lalu dijelaskan apa profesi itu dan standar keberadaan profesi, atas dasar mana dapat ditetapkan bahwa pelayanan epidemiologi merupakan salah satu profesi. Dalam rangka pembinaan profesi kesehatan masyarakat, IAKMI dan APTKMI telah membentuk Majelis Kolegium Kesehatan Masyarakat Indonesia (MKKMI yang terdiri atas 8 kolegium antara lain Kolegium Epidemiologi, yang telah menyusun Standar Profesi Epidemiologi yang terdiri atas beberapa standar. Masing-masing standar dijelaskan mulai dari kurikulum, standar pelayanan epidmiologi, profil epidemiolog kesehatan, peran epidemiolog kesehatan, fungsi epidemiolog kesehatan, standar kompetensi epidemiologi, dan standar pendidikan profesi epidemiologi.

  10. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study: rationale, design and population characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, N.; Kaaks, R.; Ferrari, P.

    2002-01-01

    The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), which covers a large cohort of half a million men and women from 23 European centres in 10 Western European countries, was designed to study the relationship between diet and the risk of chronic diseases, particularly cancer...... population differed slightly from the overall cohort but the differences were small for most characteristics and centres. The overall results suggest that, after adjustment for age, dietary intakes estimated from calibration samples can reasonably be interpreted as representative of the main cohorts in most...

  11. Methods and processes of developing the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology - Veterinary (STROBE-Vet) statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sargeant, J. M.; O'Connor, A. M.; Dohoo, I. R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The reporting of observational studies in veterinary research presents many challenges thatoften are not adequately addressed in published reporting guidelines.Objective: To develop an extension of the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studiesin Epidemiology) statem...

  12. Statistical methods for the time-to-event analysis of individual participant data from multiple epidemiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Simon; Kaptoge, Stephen; White, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Meta-analysis of individual participant time-to-event data from multiple prospective epidemiological studies enables detailed investigation of exposure-risk relationships, but involves a number of analytical challenges....

  13. Problems in setting up an executing large-scale psychiatric epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offord, D R; Boyle, M H

    1986-01-01

    This paper focuses on problems that can be encountered in conceptualizing, executing and writing up large-scale psychiatric epidemiological studies. It makes no attempt to cover fundamental issues of design and analysis, rather it centers on problems associated with projects of considerable size. In the conceptual area, it discusses the prerequisites to be considered before deciding to launch such a study. It notes the administrative and scientific uses of epidemiological studies and considers the strengths and weaknesses of large-scale studies to address those concerns. Issues in carrying out such studies are discussed including decisions about study design, sampling method and instrumentation. All are dependent on the central purpose of the study but trade-offs between feasibility and scientific rigor are always present. Data collection and analysis problems highlighted in large-scale studies are examined. They include the difficulty, in the former, of adequately motivating and supervising field personnel and, in the latter, of dealing with problems that accompany missing data and complicated sampling strategies. Potential problems in data access and use and writing up the results are seen as arising from the presence of a large investigative team with diverse interests. Lastly, the comparative worth of these studies is considered.

  14. Investigating Prospective Social Studies Teachers? Perceptions of European Union through Metaphor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgün, Ismail Hakan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate metaphors developed by social studies teacher candidates about the European Union. 185 second, third and fourth year social studies teacher candidates participated in the study. This study was designed as a phenomenological study and mataphor analysis was conducted. At the end of the study, the students…

  15. Evaluating the use of friend or family controls in epidemiologic case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Charlie; Cockburn, Myles; Cozen, Wendy; Voutsinas, Jenna; Lacey, James V; Luo, Jianning; Sullivan-Halley, Jane; Bernstein, Leslie; Wang, Sophia S

    2017-02-01

    Traditional methodologies for identifying and recruiting controls in epidemiologic case-control studies, such as random digit dialing or neighborhood walk, suffer from declining response rates. Here, we revisit the feasibility and comparability of using alternative sources of controls, specifically friend and family controls. We recruited from a recently completed case-control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) among women in Los Angeles County where controls from the parent study were ascertained by neighborhood walk. We calculated participation rates and compared questionnaire responses between the friend/family controls and the original matched controls from the parent study. Of the 182 NHL case patients contacted, 111 (61%) agreed to participate in our feasibility study. 70 (63%) provided contact information for potential friend and/or family member controls. We were able to successfully contact and recruit a friend/family member for 92% of the case patients. This represented 46 friend controls and 54 family controls. Family controls significantly differed from original matched controls by sex and household income. Other characteristics were similar between friend controls and the original study's neighborhood controls. The apparent comparability of neighborhood controls to friend and family controls among respondents in this study suggests that these alternative methods of control identification can serve as a complementary source of eligible controls in epidemiologic case-control studies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. [Epidemiological and virological studies into the poliomyelitis in Valencia (1959-1969)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báguena Cervellera, María José

    2009-01-01

    Studies into the polio virus began in Valencia in 1959 with the work undertaken by the microbiologist Vicente Sanchis-Bayarri Vaillant. After his education at the Rochester University and at the Pasteur Institute, Sanchis-Bayarri Vaillant established a laboratory of cell cultures at the Faculty of Medicine in Valencia, where he developed a new diagnostic technique for the poliomyelitis virus. In addition, epidemiological studies were carried out both prior to and post the 1963 vaccination campaign, which proved that Sabin's oral vaccine was both effective and safe for use.

  17. Comprehensive personal RF-EMF exposure map and its potential use in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rubio, Jesus; Najera, Alberto; Arribas, Enrique

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, numerous epidemiological studies, which deal with the potential effects of mobile phone antennas on health, have almost exclusively focused on their distance to mobile phone base stations. Although it is known that this is not the best approach to the problem, this situation occurs due to the numerous difficulties when determining the personal exposure to the radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). However, due to the rise of personal exposimeters, the evolution of spatial statistics, the development of geographical information systems and the use of powerful software, new alternatives are available to deal with these epidemiological studies and thus overcome the aforementioned difficulties. Using these tools, this paper presents a lattice map of personal RF-EMF exposure from exterior mobile phone base stations, covering the entire 110 administrative regions in the city of Albacete (Spain). For this purpose, we used a personal exposimeter, Satimo EME Spy 140 model, performing measurements every 4s The exposimeter was located inside the plastic basket of a bicycle, whose versatility permitted the access to all the zones of the city. Once the exposure map was prepared, its relation with the known antenna locations was studied. The 64 mobile telephone antennas of the city were also georeferenced; the randomness of both variables (exposure and antennas) were studied by means of the Moran's I test. Results showed that the distribution of the antennas follows a grouped pattern (pEMF in these sections. The displayed map would permit the execution of more accurate epidemiological studies, since it would be possible to compare the exposure measurements with the incidence data of a disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Three decades of hospital epidemiology and the challenge of integrating Health Surveillance: reflections from a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escosteguy, Claudia Caminha; Pereira, Alessandra Gonçalves Lisbôa; Medronho, Roberto de Andrade

    2017-10-01

    This study proposes a reflection on the uses and future prospects of hospital-based health surveillance based on the account of a pioneering experience in hospital epidemiology, the epidemiology service at the Hospital Federal dos Servidores do Estado - HFSE, which served as the basis for the creation of epidemiologic surveillance units in municipal and state hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The epidemiology service has combined epidemiological surveillance, continuing education, in-service training, research, and health service evaluation since 1986. The service is part of the national epidemiological surveillance network and was responsible for the notification of 55,747 cases between 1986 and 2016, most of which were the result of active search. The integration of various levels of health surveillance and health care makes classical control activities more agile and provides instruments for measuring. The important role played by the service in human resources training is evident in the training of 1,835 medical interns and 78 residents up to 2016. In addition, this experience has served as the basis for the implantation of several other hospital epidemiological surveillance units. Current challenges include the promotion of effective communication and coordination among the other health surveillance committees.

  19. Endometriosis and ovarian cancer risk: A systematic review of epidemiological studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menelaos eZafrakas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: A possible etiological association between endometriosis and ovarian cancer has been repeatedly reported in the literature. Objective: Our aim was to evaluate published epidemiological data on this issue. Review Methods: We conducted an extensive search of the literature in MEDLINE, of articles ever published until February 2014, using the key-words endometriosis and ovarian and one of the following terms in the title: cancer or malignancy or malignant or tumor or tumour or neoplasia or neoplasm or transformation. Retrieved papers were checked for further relevant publications. Results: Overall, our search yielded one prospective cohort study, ten retrospective cohort and five case-control studies. A meta-analysis of these studies was not considered to be appropriate, due to differences in data reporting, study design and adjustment for confounding factors. Limitations: The main limitation of studies found, with one exception, was the lack of operative confirmation of endometriosis. Conclusions: An association of endometriosis with clear-cell and endometrioid ovarian cancer was a consistent finding in most studies. On the other hand, existing epidemiological evidence linking endometriosis with ovarian cancer is insufficient to change current clinical practice. Prospective cohort studies, with prior laparoscopic confirmation, localization and staging of endometriosis are needed, in order to further clarify this issue.

  20. Endometriosis and ovarian cancer risk: a systematic review of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafrakas, Menelaos; Grimbizis, Grigorios; Timologou, Anna; Tarlatzis, Basil C

    2014-01-01

    A possible etiological association between endometriosis and ovarian cancer has been repeatedly reported in the literature. Our aim was to evaluate published epidemiological data on this issue. We conducted an extensive search of the literature in MEDLINE, of articles ever published until February 2014, using the key-words "endometriosis" and "ovarian" and one of the following terms in the title: "cancer" or "malignancy" or "malignant" or "tumor" or "neoplasia" or "neoplasm" or "transformation." Retrieved papers were checked for further relevant publications. Overall, our search yielded 1 prospective cohort study, 10 retrospective cohort, and 5 case-control studies. A meta-analysis of these studies was not considered to be appropriate, due to differences in data reporting, study design, and adjustment for confounding factors. The main limitation of studies found, with one exception, was the lack of operative confirmation of endometriosis. An association of endometriosis with clear-cell and endometrioid ovarian cancer was a consistent finding in most studies. On the other hand, existing epidemiological evidence linking endometriosis with ovarian cancer is insufficient to change current clinical practice. Prospective cohort studies, with prior laparoscopic confirmation, localization, and staging of endometriosis are needed, in order to further clarify this issue.