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Sample records for european enlargement provide

  1. European Enlargement Across Rounds and Beyond Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enlargement has been an almost constant part of European integration history – going from an improvised exercise to the EU’s most developed foreign policy tool. However, neither the longevity nor the complexity of enlargement has been properly historicised. European Enlargement across Rounds...... and Beyond Borders offers three interdisciplinary, innovative, and indeed radical, new ways of understanding and analysing EC/EU enlargements: first, tracing Longue Durée developments; second, investigating enlargement Beyond the Road to Membership; and third, exploring the Entangled Exchanges and synergies...... between the EC/EU and its outside. This edited volume will provide fresh perspectives on enlargement as one of the defining processes in Europe in the second half of the 20th century: How are we to understand enlargement as a policy? How has it changed the EU? What is the historical role of the British...

  2. The European Union's Eastward Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanns-D. Jacobsen

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available In July 1997 the Commission of the European Union presented its Agenda 2000. This document not only suggested to start accession talks with some East and Central European countries (CEEC in early 1998 but it also provided proposals for a restructuring of EU expenditures. On this background this contribution discusses the state of readiness of the Central and East European countries to become EU members over the next few years and the Union's capacity to absorb up to ten CEEC over the next decade or so. This study concludes that the European Union has become an anchor of stability to the CEEC that guarantees both democracy and economic security--much more than could be expected only a couple of years ago. The Union's readiness to accept the membership of CEEC has, in a decisive way, contributed to their societal, political and economic stabilization. There is almost a contest among the CEEC on which one is going to meet the accession criteria first and best. The enlargement process, however, is connected to problems the resolution of which realistically postpone its successful conclusion at least into the year 2005. The main reasons are (1 the welfare gap between the EU area and the CEEC, (2 the need for more institutional and economic changes in the CEEC to make them ready for acces-sion, and, most importantly, (3 the necessity for the European Union to prepare herself for accession by a comprehensive financial reform and fundamental institutional changes.

  3. Fiscal Convergence in an Enlarged European Union

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    Georgeta VINTILĂ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Taxation convergence in the European Union has always been a heatedly debated issue, and it has constantly resurfaced to the limelight as more and more fiscal directive proposals are being discussed. The current study is an analysis of the evolution of taxation convergence tendencies within the European Union in recent years, using sigma-convergence and cluster analysis. Our goal is to analyze the fiscal convergence trends in the context of European Union enlargement over the last two decades.

  4. The dilemmas of tax coordination in the enlarged European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøchner, Jens; Jensen, Jesper; Svensson, Patrik

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the economic effects of corporate tax coordination in the enlarged European Union (EU) using a computable general equilibrium model. Our main findings are as follows: (i) Corporate tax coordination can yield modest aggregate welfare gains. The 2004 enlargement of the EU has...... increased the potential gains from tax harmonization, provided corporate tax rates and tax bases are harmonized at their unweighted averages. (ii) All scenarios for coordination leave some EU Member States as winners and others as losers. An agreement on tax coordination is therefore likely to require...

  5. POSSIBLE TRADE EFFECTS OF THE NEXT EUROPEAN UNION ENLARGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedelescu-Ionescu Daniela

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Union next enlargement will constitute a significant qualitative change in the structure of the current Union, as the accession of the Western Balkan countries and of Turkey in particular will bring a brand new set of economic problems. It is expected that this enlargement to have a considerable effect for the new entrants, as well as for the European Union as a whole.\\r\

  6. Challenges for monetary policy in the enlarged European monetary Union

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    Radović Irena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The eastward enlargement of the Euro area entails significant implications for the accession candidates in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, the existing Euro system and the monetary policy of the European Central Bank (ECB. The present analysis assesses the challenges and critical aspects in monetary policy modeling with special emphasis to enlargement. The focus is on the difficulty of implementing a unique currency policy in view or growing heterogeneity within the enlarged monetary union, and secondly - the issue of the voting mechanism within the ECB. When analyzing those two issues, it is conclusive that the difficulties for the ECB and the current Euro zone members will increase. For the enlarged Euro zone, which is becoming more divergent, it will be very hard to find adequate recipes to meet the needs and requirements of all. The big question is: whether centralization of monetary policy is a sustainable and superior solution?.

  7. A STRAINED EUROPEAN MODEL. IS EASTERN ENLARGEMENT TO BLAME?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Daianu

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available As anticipated, the recent enlargement has put considerable pressure on the European construction, as most of the EU15 member countries are economically and socially strained and policy-makers have a very hard time in devising proper answers to society’s ills. The paper examines various factors which have strained the European Social Model and which, arguably, make this period of Euro-pessimism quite peculiar. It looks at the race for competitiveness in today’s world and the economic rise of Asia; it looks at some inner dynamics in the European societies (demographics, the crisis of the welfare state, a sort of decadence and it tries to explore what lies ahead, including policy options. An underlying thesis herein is that eastern enlargement is not the culprit for the current pains of the EU member countries, though it may have accentuated some.

  8. Old 'foundations' and new 'rules' - For an enlarged European Union

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    Philippe C. Schmitter

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel arrangement for the distribution of votes and the rules of decision-making in an enlarged European Union (EU. We make two assumptions: (1 that the EU is condemned to enlarge its membership in the near future; and (2 if it does this without changing the existing rules for voting in the Council of Ministers and distributing seats in the European Parliament, such an expanded EU would suffer severe distortions and disequilibria. However, if it were to adopt a new, simplified system that would combine arrangements for proportional proportionality in representation and concurrent majorities in decision-making, this impending dilemma could be avoided. Moreover, if these reforms were introduced sooner rather than later, they would be easier to agree upon, their impact would be phased in gradually, and their legitimacy could be stabilized in the face of far greater challenges in the future.

  9. Enlargement of the European Union and agricultural policy reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Skovager; Lind, Kim Martin Hjorth; Zobbe, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    is that intensiveness of agricultural production corresponds to the willingness to reform the CAP. Political CAP positions, together with the development of member states’ structural fundamentals, are analysed using cluster analysis. The results show that EU enlargements have extensified agricultural production......A connection exists between enlargement of the European Union and reforms of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Based upon rational choice theory, we examine whether the member states’ CAP positions are related to structures in their agricultural sectors. The overall hypothesis...... at the EU level, and that extensive agricultural production in a member state is often an indicator of reduced willingness to reform. However, the intensiveness of agricultural production is only part of the explanation. Moreover, negotiation tactics play an important role for the positions on the CAP....

  10. Western Balkan States and the European Union Enlargement

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    Gelina Maliqi (Ramolli

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available For half a century, European Union-(EU has pursued ever-deeper integration while taking in new members. It’s marked as an important step in relationship deepening between EU and Western Balkans-(WBs where Albania is part of. In 2003, EU declared that the future of WBs is within EU. Initially it adopted a generous strategy that linked the timetable for accession to the pace of reform in WBs. The declaration contained a conditional promise; EU would consider WBs for membership only if they reached EU standards. The EU was motivated by usual economic considerations connected to enlargement and a desire to increase regional stability. The enlargement process regarding Albania will bring several reforms on different fields. Our country will benefit from a share of multibeneficiary funds for competitiveness, SMEs, energy efficiency and banking sector regulation. This presentation handles out these main issues: EU policy and the enlargement process regarding Albania inspecting the way and progress done up to now by our country, the main features of our national EUcoordination system, concluding in a SWOT Analysis of EU-coordination system in Albania. Eventually, I believe that Albania being part of WBs is at one time an opportunity and a challenge for the future of EU.

  11. Western Balkan States and the European Union Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelina Maliqi (Ramolli,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For half a century, European Union-(EU has pursued ever-deeper integration while takingin new members. It’s marked as an important step in relationship deepening between EU and WesternBalkans-(WBs where Albania is part of. In 2003, EU declared that the future of WBs is within EU.Initially it adopted a generous strategy that linked the timetable for accession to the pace of reform inWBs. The declaration contained a conditional promise; EU would consider WBs for membership onlyif they reached EU standards. The EU was motivated by usual economic considerations connected toenlargement and a desire to increase regional stability. The enlargement process regarding Albaniawill bring several reforms on different fields. Our country will benefit from a share of multibeneficiaryfunds for competitiveness, SMEs, energy efficiency and banking sector regulation. Thispresentation handles out these main issues: EU policy and the enlargement process regarding Albaniainspecting the way and progress done up to now by our country, the main features of our national EU coordinationsystem, concluding in a SWOT Analysis of EU-coordination system in Albania.Eventually, I believe that Albania being part of WBs is at one time an opportunity and a challenge forthe future of EU.

  12. The EU and ‘Enlargement Fatigue’: Why Has the European Union Not Been Able to Counter ‘Enlargement Fatigue’?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szolucha

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an up-to-date overview of the problems connected with European integration. It focuses on the phenomenon of ‘enlargement fatigue’ and examines its meaning as utilised by the media, EU officials and academics. The article argues that ‘enlargement fatigue’ is not a new concept since the EU has witnessed many 'symptoms' of fatigue at multiple times in its history. The two main arguments that are often presented in order to explain why the EU has not been able to counter ‘enlargement fatigue’, namely the insufficiently tight conditionality applied to prospective members and the EU's crisis of confidence and accountability after the failed attempt to introduce the Constitutional Treaty and prolonged Lisbon Treaty ratification process, are insufficient to explain why fatigue has been so persistent a phenomenon. This article argues that the EU's failure to develop a new vision of the organisation and adjust its structural design accordingly is a reason why the Union has not dealt successfully with fatigue. Such a vision would encompass notions of “variable geometry”, “avant-garde groups” and make European borders flexible and fuzzy.

  13. Poland, variable geometry and the enlarged European Union.

    OpenAIRE

    Schweiger, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the role of Poland in the European Union, where the traditional Franco-German leadership axis has been replaced by a new ‘variable geometry’ of leadership constellations across a variety of policy areas. In this setting Poland has the potential to move from maintaining an initially passive role as a policy-taker towards becoming an agenda-setter alongside other larger and more traditionally dominant member states, especially Germany. However, Poland's success in this mat...

  14. A Constructivist Discourse Analysis of the German Debate over the Eastern Enlargement of the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Ecker-Ehrhardt, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    With a view to the Eastern enlargement of the European Union (EU), political debate in Germany took a remarkable turn. After the 1990s little has remained of the earlier euphoria over German unification and the establishment of friendly relations with the country's Eastern European neighbors. In its stead there have been vehement demands for stricter accession criteria, greater reform of the EU, and the institution of transition periods for member candidates prior to full accession. This stud...

  15. THE EUROPEAN UNION, THE ENLARGEMENT AND THE SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE

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    Malkidis Theofanis

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Ιn 1989, the countries of South-eastern Europe and central Europe promoted their integration of military, political and economic collaboration and developed narrow relations with the European Union (Ε.U. Thus resulted the new enlargement of EU, in order to transfer in south-eastern Europe the places of EU, for peace, stability, growth. The new enlargement constitutes a big challenge, after the integrations of states in the EU in 1973, in 1981, in 1986, in 1995 they did not have the extent and the expectations 2004 and particularly the South-eastern Europe afterwards 2007. The article analyzes the course of integration of South-eastern Europe in the EU and analyzes the essential changes that are required, the transition in the free market economy, the creation of political system that will be based on the state of right and the respect the human and minorities’ rights, the political plurality and the multi-party system with democratic elections. The article supports that the enlargement in the South-eastern Europe is very important for the EU, enlargement that closes the Cold War, a hope for the common European region of peace, cooperation, democracy and development.

  16. The Border-making Policy of the European Union: Eastern Enlargement

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    Lika Mkrtchyan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Having no internal borders, what is a border for the European Union (EU? Which criteria does this powerful organization pursue in its decision-making on further expansion: geographical, political, cultural, economic or all of these? What is the profi t of the Union in advancing its external borders to the east? And why to the east and not the south or west across the Atlantic? Does it still mean that there is the reason for enlarging eastward based on the geographical belonging to Europe? This paper discusses the expansion of the European Union to the east with the main focus on its political and economic aspects of integration. The fi rst part includes introduction to the concept of Europe, historic background about the formation of the united Europe in terms of geography, culture, politics and economy, juxtaposing opinions and viewpoints of different experts and political scientists on “what is Europe?” and what are the core issues of its enlargement. The second and third parts are dedicated to the advantages and disadvantages of European Integration for both parties concerned – the EU and the candidate/member state, in the case of the former having its own “demarcation policy” towards certain regions of the continent when it comes to unifi cation. And the fourth part is about the communication and miscommunication of the informative bodies of the European Union that are responsible for public awareness on any process that goes on within the European family. The lack of information results in the ignorance of citizens of European and partner countries, which, of course, refl ects on the further processes of expansion on the political level and cultural perception and mentality on the social level. The conclusion sums up the research, and the bibliography lists the books, articles, monographs and Internet sources used in the course of the study.

  17. The Eurosafe Forum 2003: Nuclear expertise and challenges of the enlargement of the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacronique, Jean-Francois; Repussard, Jacques (eds.) [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, B.P. 17, F - 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Hahn, Lothar (ed.) [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH, GRS, Schwertnergasse 1, D - 50667 Koeln (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    EUROSAFE is an international forum for discussions among experts from technical safety organisations, research institutes, safety authorities, utilities, the industry, public authorities and non-governmental organisations concerning the status of and recent achievements in nuclear installation safety, waste management, radiation safety and nuclear material security. The Eurosafe Forum 2003 - the fifth of its kind - was held at the Palais Brongniart in Paris on November 25 and 26, 2003. This year's theme was: 'Nuclear expertise and challenges of the enlargement of the European Union: speakers in the various European countries about the environmental scan before enlargement, development and structuring perspectives within the enlarged Europe'. The event brought together 445 experts and researchers from around the world (including 124 from Germany, 184 from France, 88 from Eastern Europe, as well as representatives from Korea, Japan, the United States, Canada, Cuba, and Armenia. The proceedings of the symposium can now be consulted online. The fifth edition of the forum focused on nuclear expertise and the challenge of EU-enlargement and the latest work carried out by GRS, IRSN and their partners from the European Union, Switzerland and Eastern Europe. Nuclear energy contributes approximately one third of European electricity production. A high level of nuclear safety is a priority for the countries of Europe. The technical safety organisations play an important role in contributing to that objective through appropriate approaches to major safety issues as part of their assessments and research activities. The challenges to nuclear safety are increasingly international. Changes in underlying technologies such as instrumentation and control, the impact of electricity market deregulation, demands for improved safety, the ageing of nuclear facilities, waste management, maintaining and improving scientific and technical knowledge and the need for greater

  18. Mobility in Europe since the Eastern enlargement: emergence of a European labour market?

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    Klára FÓTI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the most recent trends in labour mobility after the two waves of Eastern enlargement, within the context of labour market developments mainly in the newly joined Central and Eastern European Member States. The article focuses on the question of how the current economic and financial crisis impacted on these trends, whether a slowdown of labour outflow from the Central and Eastern European Member States could be detected as a consequence. From a policy point of view, it is important to assess the consequences of the new mobility trends not only in the receiving countries, but also in the sending ones, as well as the individuals and families affected. Due to the short time which passed since the enlargement, there is limited empirical evidence, but the paper makes an attempt to highlight those issues in this regard, which could have important policy implications in the future. The analysis is based partly on previous research, partly on the most recent empirical data

  19. The European Commission in the power relations of the European Union after the 2004–07 enlargement

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    Ekaterina Ostrovskaya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available pplying a comparative perspective, this article argues that the current crisis of European Union integration cannot be resolved by member states either transferring additional competences to the EU level or strengthening the intergovernmental dimension of integration. The systemic character of the ongoing process is weakening the institutional structure, which affects both the institutions and their power relations. The European Commission (EC, once a highly independent supranational actor on the eve of the integration process in the 1950s, now faces growing competition from intergovernmental elements in the institutional balance. The theoretical approach of historical neo-institutionalism offers new, useful insights into this research area. The articles uses this theory to analyze the EC’s evolution since the time of its creation in the form of the High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community, focusing on the links between the gradual changes in its internal structure and its institutional position. Although the phenomenon of “path dependence” was initially present in the EC’s internal systems, the later development of its competences in the institutional balance provoked member states to limit the commission’s activities in the second half of the 1960s. First attempts were made mainly by appointing weak presidents, but the later reform of the EC’s internal structure, undertaken by Neil Kinnock in the beginning of the 21st centry, directed its further structural development as a more technocratic institution. Consequently, the EC was not able to pursue its aims effectively in preparing for its enlargement to include Central and Eastern Europe. The increased heterogeneity of the member states after the 2004–07 enlargement also weakened the EC’s position in the institutional balance, diminishing its traditional function as the “engine of integration.”

  20. NATO's Dual Challenge at the Start of the 21st Century - European Security and Defense Policy and NATO Enlargement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fischer, Hans-Joachim

    2001-01-01

    .... The decision at the European Union (EU) summit in Helsinki in 1999 to expand enlargement negotiations and to develop a military force of up to 50,000 to 60,000 persons opened a public debate, to the praise of some and the criticism of others...

  1. The fifth wave of the European Union enlargement: pro et contra

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    Batorshina Irina

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the principal complex of economic and political motivations of the states of Central and Eastern Europe and the EU members related to the EU enlargement towards the East. Special attention is paid to the discussion on the reasonableness of the EU enlargement and the positions of certain EU members.

  2. The impact of citizenship on intermarriage: Quasi-experimental evidence from two European Union Eastern enlargements

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    Davide Azzolini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to assimilation theory, the more immigrants are integrated within host countries the more likely they are to intermarry. However, status exchange theory argues instead that when integration is low, immigrants may use intermarriage as a means of improving their integration prospects in host countries, in which case an increase in levels of integration would reduce immigrants' propensity to intermarry. Objective: To test these two hypotheses, this paper assesses the causal effect of a positive shift in immigrants' level of integration, namely the acquisition of citizenship, on intermarriage in Italy. Over the past 20 years Italy has experienced an unprecedented growth in intermarriage involving primarily Eastern European women. Methods: We study two EU Eastern enlargements, following which citizens of the new EU member countries became EU citizens and thus experienced a marked improvement in their legal status. We apply the synthetic control method to data on marriages between native men and foreign women. Results: We find that the acquisition of citizenship has a significant negative impact on immigrant women's propensity to marry native men. That impact is much greater for immigrants coming from less affluent countries. Conclusions: Our results support the status exchange hypothesis. This can be explained by the poor socioeconomic integration and precarious legal status of immigrants in Italy. Contribution: The growth of intermarriage per se cannot be seen as an indicator of greater immigrant integration. The negative impact of citizenship acquisition on immigrants' propensity to intermarry also calls for a rethinking of the role of institutions such as marriage and citizenship in the process of immigrant integration.

  3. Editorial Foreword: The Internal Dynamics of the Enlarged Single European Market

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    Ruth Wittlinger

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This Special Issue consists of a small selection of the wide range of papers which were delivered at the seminars. It can thus only provide a snapshot. We have, however, tried to ensure that the choice of the papers included in this volume also reflects the fact that it was academics AND practitioners who contributed to the overall success of the series. Whereas the first five contributors (Schweiger, de la Porte, Funk, Allen and Aldred, Pogátsa examine their various topics from an academic perspective, the last two papers (Galgóczi and Medhurst/Tortolano provide assessments of the impact of the Single European Market on Central and Eastern European and wider EU member state economies and societies from a trade union perspective.

  4. When news matters: media effects on public support for European Union enlargement in 21 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azrout, R.; van Spanje, J.; de Vreese, C.

    2012-01-01

    First, this study tests for media effects on support for EU enlargement in a natural setting, while including actual media content in the analysis. Second, the moderation by anti-immigrant attitudes of media effects is tested, as it is argued that perceptions of ‘others’ influences how new

  5. Fiscal policy surveillance in the enlarged European Union: Procedural checks or simple arithmetic?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, Nico; Batten, Jonathan A.; Kearney, Colm

    2006-01-01

    In its recommendation on the 2004 update of the Broad Economic Policy Guidelines (BEPGs), the European Commission (2004) issued country-specific recommendations for fiscal policy in the Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries that have recently joined the European Union (EU) (henceforth the

  6. The share of renewable energy in the EU. Country Profiles. Overview of Renewable Energy Sources in the Enlarged European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The promotion of renewable energy has an important role to play in addressing the growing dependence on energy imports in Europe and in tackling climate change. Since 1997, the Union has been working towards the ambitious target of a 12% share of renewable energy in gross inland consumption by 2010. In 1997, the share of renewable energy was 5.4%; by 2001 it had reached 6%. This Staff Working Document gives an overview of the different situations of renewable energy sources in the European Union. It includes part of the formal report that the Commission is required to make under Article 3 of Directive 2001/77/EC on electricity from renewable energy sources, and it completes the overall picture with information at a country level on the heat produced from renewable energies and biofuels in the transport sector. This Staff Working Document complements the Communication on 'The share of Renewable Energy sources in the EU'. Data is based on different sources. Firstly, on the reports from Member States on national progress in achieving the targets on electricity from renewable energy sources. Secondly, on a study launched by the Commission on the evolution of renewable energy sources. And thirdly, on a variety of sources like the European Barometer of renewable energies, data from the industry, etc. With the enlargement of the European Union, the new Member States are required to adopt the RES-E Directive (renewable energy sources for electricity) by 1 May 2004. In the accession treaty, national indicative targets are set and the overall renewable electricity target for the enlarged Union will therefore be 21% of gross electricity consumption by 2010. The Commission has the legal obligation to report on the degree of achievement of new Member States' targets by 2006. Although it is too early to assess RES-policy in the new Member States due to very recently adopted regulations, this document also includes national information on the States now joining the

  7. EU Enlargement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Pytlikova, Mariola

    We look at migration flows from 8 Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) to 5 Nordic countries over the years 1985 - 2005 and we can exploit a natural experiment that arose from the fact that while Sweden opened its labour market from the day one of the 2004 EU enlargement, the other Nordic...... are interested in the overall effect of the "EU entry" on migration. Therefore we look at migration flows from CEECs during the first round EU enlargement towards CEECs in 2004 and compare them with migration flows from Bulgaria and Romania. We again used a DD estimator in our analysis. The estimated effect...... countries chose a transition period in relation to the "new" EU members. We employ a differences-in-differences estimator in our analysis. The results show that the estimated effect of the opening of Swedish labour market in 2004 on migration is insignificantly different from zero. Further, we...

  8. Alice is not missing wonderland the eastward enlargement of the European Union

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    Prokopijević Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will try to show that the EU enlargement from 2004 is not a good economic move for eight newcomers from Central and Eastern Europe (CEECs. It is unlikely that newcomers will get larger FDI, speed up their economic growth and catch up with richer EU countries, although this was broadly advertised both academically and by the EU "propaganda for happiness." The EU subsidies, intended to offset accession costs, turn out to be useless if not damaging for acceding economies, because they change the structure of incentives. So, instead of being rewarded for accession accession countries are going to be punished twice. Firstly, by lower FDI and a persisting GDP gap. Secondly, by getting subsidies which worsen the situation. CEECs would be better off staying outside the EU and continuing to improve economic freedom and the rule of law. But even after they have acceded, there is still some space for reasonable objectives of the CEECs due to unintended consequences of the socialist enlargement design.

  9. Hub-and-Spoke or else? Free trade agreements in the 'enlarged' European Union

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    Roberta De Santis

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to estimate if and how the Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA and the Baltic Free Trade Agreement (BFTA exerted a significant impact on intra-European trade, effectively reducing the influence of the European Association Agreements (EAs in shaping the European trade structure as a hub-and-spoke system - with the EU15 being the hub and the CEECs the spoke. This paper analyses bilateral trade flows between eight CEECs and EU-23. We estimate a gravity equation using a system GMM dynamic panel data approach. Results support the assumptions that gravity forces and "persistence effects" matter. With respect to the effect of free trade agreements, evidence is found that Free trade agreements between CEECs matter: There is evidence that the presence of intra-periphery agreements helped expand intra-periphery trade and limited the emergence of a "hub-and-spoke" relationship between CEECs and EU. This results have important policy implications for the trade strategy of "future" EU members of the Southeastern European Countries as well as of the Southern Mediterranean Countries. According to the empirical results, these countries should move towards a regional free-trade area as exemplified by the CEFTA and the BFTA to avoid "hub-and-spoke" effects.

  10. Romania in the Complex Mosaic of Reform Formulas of the European Enlargement Project

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    Georgiana Ciceo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In a period of hectic diplomatic activity for breathing a new life into the project of European integration and bouncing it back after the economic crisis came to threaten its credibility, Romania is bound to take an active role in the ongoing discussions on the future of Europe. The deliberations that have been going on for the past few months advance now along several lines and aim at creating a banking union, a fiscal union, an economic union and a political union. Each of them taken separately and all of them taken together will alter fundamentally the governance structures of the European Union.

  11. Rough Waters, Dark Shadows and Cross-Cutting Winds:the impact of European Union enlargement on Turkey’s EU accession negotiations

    OpenAIRE

    Icener, Erhan; Phinnemore, David

    2014-01-01

    For a multiplicity of socio-economic, geo-political, strategic and identity-based reasons, Turkey’s progress towards EU membership is often treated as a sui generis case. Yet although Turkey’s accession negotiations with the European Union (EU) are essentially a bilateral – and often stormy – affair, they take place within a wider and dynamic process of enlargement in which not only can the gloomy – sometimes dark – shadows of past and prospective enlargements be clearly detected, but so too ...

  12. CHANGING FROM WITHIN? THE INTRA-ORGANIZATIONAL DYNAMICS OF EU ENLARGEMENT

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    Velibor JAKOVLESKI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper opens up the black box of enlargement, focusing on how the intra-organizational relationships among the Council of the European Union, the European Commission, and the European Parliament affect the process of enlargement. Formally speaking, enlargement is an intergovernmental process, suggesting that member states are firmly in control of its outcomes. However, the EU’s supranational actors, specifically the European Parliament and European Commission also attempt to influence enlargement at various stages. I posit that the process of enlargement to the Western Balkans has evolved, influenced by changing constraints which are operating on the aforementioned actors. The added value of this work is in disaggregating the enlargement process based on its institutionalized relationships in both a vertical and horizontal dimension. It provides a supply-side argument for how enlargement policy has evolved from within the EU, rather than simply as a function of external factors.

  13. Mental health of immigrants from the former Soviet Bloc: a future problem for primary health care in the enlarged European Union? A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Blomstedt, Yulia; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Sundquist, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Enlargement of the European Union has caused worries about the possibility of increased migration from its new members, the former Soviet countries, and consequently increased demands on the health care systems of the host countries. This study investigated whether or not earlier immigrants from the former Soviet Bloc have poorer self-reported mental health, measured as self-reported psychiatric illness and psychosomatic complaints, than the host population in Sweden. It a...

  14. Bütünleşme Kuramlarının Avrupa Birliği Genişlemesine Bakışı(The View of Integration Theories on European Union Enlargement

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    Hüseyin Kutay AYTUĞ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Enlargement, which is on the agenda of European Union since Rome Treaty, is one of the most important political agents. Enlargements, each of which has been carefully devised, canvassed and implemented within the historical process, have been analysed by theories and approaches which try to explain European integration. The Union, on the one hand enlarges, on the other hand attempts to deepen. The theories and approaches which try to explain that process have been developed and diversified with the Union’s evolution. Though such theories are sometimes seen as they compete with each other, actually they complement each other and partly overlap. The aim of this study is to assess views of the following theories and approaches on enlargement: federalism, neo-functionalism, liberal intergovernmentalism, multi level governance, new institutionalism, social constructivism and to display Central and Eastern Europe enlargement from viewpoints of different theories.

  15. Mental health of immigrants from the former Soviet Bloc: a future problem for primary health care in the enlarged European Union? A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomstedt, Yulia; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Sundquist, Jan

    2007-02-28

    Enlargement of the European Union has caused worries about the possibility of increased migration from its new members, the former Soviet countries, and consequently increased demands on the health care systems of the host countries. This study investigated whether or not earlier immigrants from the former Soviet Bloc have poorer self-reported mental health, measured as self-reported psychiatric illness and psychosomatic complaints, than the host population in Sweden. It also examined the particular factors which might determine the self-reported mental health of these immigrants. The cross-sectional national sample included 25-84-year-old Swedish-born persons (n = 35,459) and immigrants from Poland (n = 161), other East European countries (n = 164), and the former Soviet Union (n = 60) who arrived in Sweden after 1944 and were interviewed during 1994-2001. Unconditional multivariate logistic regression was used in the analyses. The findings indicated that the country of birth had a profound influence on self-reported mental health. Polish and other East European immigrants in general had a twofold higher odds ratio of reporting psychiatric illness and psychosomatic complaints, which fact could not be explained by adjustments for the demographic and socioeconomic variables. However, immigrants from the former Soviet Union had odds similar to those of the Swedish-born reference group. Adjustments for migration-related variables (language spoken at home and years in Sweden) changed the association between the country of birth and the outcomes only to a limited extent. Since poor mental health may hinder acculturation, the mental health of immigrants from Poland and other East European countries should be acknowledged, particularly with the expansion of the European Union and inclusion of nine former Soviet Bloc countries by 2007.

  16. Mental health of immigrants from the former Soviet Bloc: a future problem for primary health care in the enlarged European Union? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundquist Jan

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enlargement of the European Union has caused worries about the possibility of increased migration from its new members, the former Soviet countries, and consequently increased demands on the health care systems of the host countries. This study investigated whether or not earlier immigrants from the former Soviet Bloc have poorer self-reported mental health, measured as self-reported psychiatric illness and psychosomatic complaints, than the host population in Sweden. It also examined the particular factors which might determine the self-reported mental health of these immigrants. Methods The cross-sectional national sample included 25–84-year-old Swedish-born persons (n = 35,459 and immigrants from Poland (n = 161, other East European countries (n = 164, and the former Soviet Union (n = 60 who arrived in Sweden after 1944 and were interviewed during 1994–2001. Unconditional multivariate logistic regression was used in the analyses. Results The findings indicated that the country of birth had a profound influence on self-reported mental health. Polish and other East European immigrants in general had a twofold higher odds ratio of reporting psychiatric illness and psychosomatic complaints, which fact could not be explained by adjustments for the demographic and socioeconomic variables. However, immigrants from the former Soviet Union had odds similar to those of the Swedish-born reference group. Adjustments for migration-related variables (language spoken at home and years in Sweden changed the association between the country of birth and the outcomes only to a limited extent. Conclusion Since poor mental health may hinder acculturation, the mental health of immigrants from Poland and other East European countries should be acknowledged, particularly with the expansion of the European Union and inclusion of nine former Soviet Bloc countries by 2007.

  17. National responsibility in an enlarged European Union?; Nationellt ansvar foer anvaent kaernbraensle i en utvidgad Europeisk Union?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, Per; Stendahl, Sara; Erhag, Thomas [Dept. of Law, School of Business, Economics and Law, Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden)

    2007-04-15

    -proliferation aspects. The political decision to take part in such international cooperation lies however without any doubt within the national competence. In the European Union the question about responsibility for spent nuclear fuel is not directly regulated. Common legislation initiatives from the commission concerning methods for disposal and storage of spent nuclear fuel has been blocked by member states. The EURATOM-treaty and the EU treaty have a potential reach to national regulation about handling of nuclear wastes and spent nuclear fuel. It should also be noted that there is no binding community legislation where the principle of national responsibility comes to expressions, although the the national legislation competence in the area is expressed in miscellaneous political documents. There exists a hypothetical possibility that the question about the member states' right to maintain a principle of national responsibility can be examined of the EU Court of Justice.

  18. Design of low DMD few-mode optical fibers with extremely enlarged core diameter providing nonlinearity suppression for operating over "C"-band central region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, Vladimir A.; Bourdine, Anton V.; Burdin, Vladimir A.; Evtushenko, Alexander S.; Halikov, Rashid H.

    2017-04-01

    We present method for design of refractive index profile for silica GeO2-doped graded-index few-mode optical fibers with reduced differential mode delay and suppressed mode nonlinearity due to extremely enlarged core diameter up to 42 μm. Proposed solution is based on earlier on developed modified Gaussian approximation generalized for analysis of silica weakly guiding optical fibers with single outer cladding and arbitrary axially-symmetric refractive index profile, that provides ability to derive analytical expressions for guided mode delays. Therefore the objective function is represented as a sum of squares of deviations between mode staff delays and reference value corresponding to refractive index profile of current iteration. Based on developed method we performed computation for various combination of the reference mode delay and first iteration profile parameter. Some results of desired graded-index profile for a few-mode optical fibers 42/125 providing differential mode delay minimization over central region of "C"-band are represented.

  19. Enlarged prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bother you. Your provider will also take into account other medical problems you may have. Treatment options ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  20. Enlarged Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z Appointments Patient & Visitor Guide Billing & Insurance Patient Online Services Departments & Centers Meet the Staff Find a directory ... available for medical professionals. Get updates. . Provider Relations Online Services for Referring Physicians Video Center Publications Continuing Medical ...

  1. Public-Elite Gap on European Integration : The Missing Link between Discourses about EU Enlargement among Citizens and Elites in Serbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortenska, E.G.; Sircar, I.; Steunenberg, B.

    2016-01-01

    Enlargement is often regarded as an elite-driven process, which does not or not sufficiently include the views of ordinary citizens. At the same time, support for integration has been eroding over the last decade, contributing to a public-elite gap in preferences towards the process. This paper

  2. German and British Trade Unions: Problems and opportunities after enlargement

    OpenAIRE

    Zahn, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines and compares German and British trade union responses in a European context following the recent European enlargements in 2004 and 2007, enlargements that are unprecedented in the history of the European Union. In particular, the paper undertakes a contextualized comparison of trade union behaviour in responding to the changing regulatory and opportunity structures which present themselves following the enlargements. Account is taken of the role that trade unions adopt wit...

  3. Enlarged prostate - after care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000398.htm Enlarged prostate - after care To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The prostate is a gland that produces the fluid that ...

  4. Enlarged Adenoids (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Tonsils and Tonsillectomies Strep Throat Obstructive Sleep Apnea Preparing Your Child for Surgery ... the Operating Room? Snoring Tonsillitis All About Adenoids Strep Throat Enlarged Adenoids Tonsils and Tonsillectomies What's It Like ...

  5. INTEGRATING ROMA IN MODERN EUROPEAN SOCIETY. NEW CHALLENGES, NEW OPPORTUNITIES. AN OVERVIEW OF THEIR PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE IN THE LIGHT OF AN ENLARGED EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu COSTACHIE

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Roma population, with approximately 10 million people, is the largest minority of Europe. Since the end of the communist era in Eastern Europe, mass emigration has occurred, mainly to Western Europe. Today across Western Europe the Roma still face huge problems in regard of discrimination and exclusion. A general change in the way they are perceived is necessary. In the last years, the European Union have put the Roma questions on the forefront of their discussions. Nevertheless, the situation of the minority is still very precarious and demands more concrete research and action.

  6. Public opinion and enlargement - A gravity approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Erik; van der Bijl, Niels

    This paper examines European Union (EU) member state attitudes toward enlargement. We use Eurobarometer data for aggregate national support from 1996 to 2002 for the accession of each of 13 candidate countries - the 10 that will join the EU in 2004 plus Bulgaria, Romania, and Turkey. Analyzing our

  7. EMODNet Bathymetry - building and providing a high resolution digital bathymetry for European seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, D.

    2016-12-01

    Access to marine data is a key issue for the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the EU Marine Knowledge 2020 agenda and includes the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) initiative. The EMODnet Bathymetry project develops and publishes Digital Terrain Models (DTM) for the European seas. These are produced from survey and aggregated data sets that are indexed with metadata by adopting from SeaDataNet the Common Data Index (CDI) data discovery and access service and the Sextant data products catalogue service. SeaDataNet is a network of major oceanographic data centres around the European seas that manage, operate and further develop a pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management. SeaDataNet is also setting and governing marine data standards, and exploring and establishing interoperability solutions to connect to other e-infrastructures on the basis of standards such as ISO and OGC. The SeaDataNet portal provides users a number of interrelated meta directories, an extensive range of controlled vocabularies, and the various SeaDataNet standards and tools. SeaDataNet at present gives overview and access to more than 1.8 million data sets for physical oceanography, chemistry, geology, geophysics, bathymetry and biology from more than 100 connected data centres from 34 countries riparian to European seas. The latest EMODnet Bathymetry DTM has a resolution of 1/8 arcminute * 1/8 arcminute and covers all European sea regions. Use is made of available and gathered surveys and already more than 13.000 surveys have been indexed by 27 European data providers from 15 countries. Also use is made of composite DTMs as generated and maintained by several data providers for their areas of interest. Already 44 composite DTMs are included in the Sextant data products catalogue. For areas without coverage use is made of the latest global DTM of GEBCO who is partner in the EMODnet Bathymetry project. In return GEBCO integrates the EMODnet

  8. CHANGING FROM WITHIN? THE INTRA-ORGANIZATIONAL DYNAMICS OF EU ENLARGEMENT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jakovlevski, Velibor

    2015-01-01

    This paper opens up the black box of enlargement, focusing on how the intra-organizational relationships among the Council of the European Union, the European Commission, and the European Parliament...

  9. Mapping ecosystem services provided by benthic habitats in the European North Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibon eGalparsoro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mapping and assessing the ecosystem services provided by benthic habitats are a highly valuable source of information for understanding their current and potential benefits to society. The main objective of this investigation is to assess and map the ecosystem services provided by benthic habitats of the European North Atlantic Ocean, in the context of Mapping and Assessment of Ecosystems and their Services (MAES programme, the European Biodiversity Strategy and the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. In total, 62 habitats have been analysed in relation to 12 ecosystem services over 1.7 million km2. Results indicated that more than 90% of the mapped area provides biodiversity maintenance and food provision services; meanwhile grounds providing reproduction and nursery services are limited to half of the mapped area. Benthic habitats generally provide more services closer to shore than offshore and in shallower waters. This gradient is likely to be explained by difficult access (i.e. distance and depth and lack of scientific knowledge for most of the services provided by distant benthic habitats. This research has provided a first assessment of the benthic ecosystem services at Atlantic European scale, with the provision of ecosystem services maps and their general spatial distribution patterns. Related to the objectives of this research, the conclusions are: (i benthic habitats provide a diverse set of ecosystem services, being the food provision and biodiversity maintenance services the ones that are more extensively represented. In addition, other regulating and cultural services are provided in a more limited area; and (ii the ecosystem services assessment categories are significantly related to the distance to the coast and with depth (higher near the coast and in shallow waters.

  10. Enlargement of filtration with finance in view

    CERN Document Server

    Aksamit, Anna

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents classical results of the theory of enlargement of filtration. The focus is on the behavior of martingales with respect to the enlarged filtration and related objects. The study is conducted in various contexts including immersion, progressive enlargement with a random time and initial enlargement with a random variable.  The aim of this book is to collect the main mathematical results (with proofs) previously spread among numerous papers, great part of which is only available in French. Many examples and applications to finance, in particular to credit risk modelling and the study of asymmetric information, are provided to illustrate the theory. A detailed summary of further connections and applications is given in bibliographic notes which enables to deepen study of the topic.  This book fills a gap in the literature and serves as a guide for graduate students and researchers interested in the role of information in financial mathematics and in econometric science. A basic knowledge of...

  11. Whole-genome sequencing of Berkshire (European native pig) provides insights into its origin and domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingzhou; Tian, Shilin; Yeung, Carol K L; Meng, Xuehong; Tang, Qianzi; Niu, Lili; Wang, Xun; Jin, Long; Ma, Jideng; Long, Keren; Zhou, Chaowei; Cao, Yinchuan; Zhu, Li; Bai, Lin; Tang, Guoqing; Gu, Yiren; Jiang, An'an; Li, Xuewei; Li, Ruiqiang

    2014-04-14

    Domesticated organisms have experienced strong selective pressures directed at genes or genomic regions controlling traits of biological, agricultural or medical importance. The genome of native and domesticated pigs provide a unique opportunity for tracing the history of domestication and identifying signatures of artificial selection. Here we used whole-genome sequencing to explore the genetic relationships among the European native pig Berkshire and breeds that are distributed worldwide, and to identify genomic footprints left by selection during the domestication of Berkshire. Numerous nonsynonymous SNPs-containing genes fall into olfactory-related categories, which are part of a rapidly evolving superfamily in the mammalian genome. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a deep phylogenetic split between European and Asian pigs rather than between domestic and wild pigs. Admixture analysis exhibited higher portion of Chinese genetic material for the Berkshire pigs, which is consistent with the historical record regarding its origin. Selective sweep analyses revealed strong signatures of selection affecting genomic regions that harbor genes underlying economic traits such as disease resistance, pork yield, fertility, tameness and body length. These discoveries confirmed the history of origin of Berkshire pig by genome-wide analysis and illustrate how domestication has shaped the patterns of genetic variation.

  12. OneGeology-Europe: architecture, portal and web services to provide a European geological map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez-Arenas, Agnès.; Serrano, Jean-Jacques; Tertre, François; Laxton, John

    2010-05-01

    OneGeology-Europe is a large ambitious project to make geological spatial data further known and accessible. The OneGeology-Europe project develops an integrated system of data to create and make accessible for the first time through the internet the geological map of the whole of Europe. The architecture implemented by the project is web services oriented, based on the OGC standards: the geological map is not a centralized database but is composed by several web services, each of them hosted by a European country involved in the project. Since geological data are elaborated differently from country to country, they are difficult to share. OneGeology-Europe, while providing more detailed and complete information, will foster even beyond the geological community an easier exchange of data within Europe and globally. This implies an important work regarding the harmonization of the data, both model and the content. OneGeology-Europe is characterised by the high technological capacity of the EU Member States, and has the final goal to achieve the harmonisation of European geological survey data according to common standards. As a direct consequence Europe will make a further step in terms of innovation and information dissemination, continuing to play a world leading role in the development of geosciences information. The scope of the common harmonized data model was defined primarily by the requirements of the geological map of Europe, but in addition users were consulted and the requirements of both INSPIRE and ‘high-resolution' geological maps were considered. The data model is based on GeoSciML, developed since 2006 by a group of Geological Surveys. The data providers involved in the project implemented a new component that allows the web services to deliver the geological map expressed into GeoSciML. In order to capture the information describing the geological units of the map of Europe the scope of the data model needs to include lithology; age; genesis and

  13. EU Enlargement Law: History and Recent Developments: Treaty Custom Concubinage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitry Kochenov

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This note provides a detailed account of the development of the EU enlargement law. Based on the material provided by the latest enlargement round, it outlines the main set of enlargement principles, criteria and procedural tools employed by the Union in the process, also making a sketch of the actual chronology of enlargement events. Based on the analysis of the legal regulation of five rounds of enlargement and making parallels with the notion of customary law as understood in public international law, it argues that the Union enlargements have always enjoyed a dual regulation: by written (mostly Treaty based and also by customary enlargement law. The existence of customary law explains the consistency of enlargement regulation throughout all the rounds of this process, notwithstanding the stage of the Treaty reform in force at the time of every particular accession. The minimal amendments introduced into the enlargement article by the Treaty Establishing a Constitution for Europe (Art. I-58 suggest that the future enlargements are likely to be building on the body of customary law in force to date. The process of gradual incorporation of customary law into the written law of the EU is also likely to continue.

  14. Language Centres as Translation-Service Providers: Joining Forces at European Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Julia; Owen, David; Palumbo, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    The Translation Focus Group (TFG) within CercleS has paid particular attention to issues concerning the production of multilingual institutional texts within the context of European higher education, specifically in order to enhance the quality and effectiveness of terminology and style in ways that ensure the availability of the best possible…

  15. Enlarged Vestibular Aqueducts and Childhood Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infections, and Deafness Enlarged Vestibular Aqueducts and Childhood Hearing Loss On this page: What are vestibular aqueducts? How ... How are enlarged vestibular aqueducts related to childhood hearing loss? Research suggests that most children with enlarged vestibular ...

  16. The Trade and FDI Effects of EMU Enlargement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Paap (Richard); J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie); J. Brouwer (Jelle)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper considers the nature and the distribution of trade and FDI effects of a potential enlargement of the European Monetary Union (EMU) to the ten countries that obtained EU membership in 2004. Intuitively, the implementation of a single currency for these countries means replacing

  17. Similarities and Differences between NATO and the EU Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Bilbil Kastrati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After the end of the Cold War the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO and the European Union (EU enlargement were two main political processes in the European continent. Both organizations since their inception, promoted the idea of integrated Europe without borders, which meant creating a Europe without divisions and bringing back all Central Eastern European (CEE countries into the European family where they belong. However, after half a century of isolation in the totalitarian communist system the CEE countries (CEEC had to undertake fundamental institutional, political, economic, military and other reforms in order to join NATO and the EU. In order to ease the process of accession, both organizations set certain criteria for membership for the CEECs. While NATO’s requirements for membership were more general and flexible, the EU’s requirements, on the other hand, were non-negotiable and closely enforced. Therefore, this article will explore NATO’s and the EU’s enlargement process eastwards, its similarities and differences. In addition, it will analyse the difficulties and challenges with special focus on Russia’s opposition to this process. The author will identify the similarities and differences between NATO and the EU’s enlargement and will argue that the eastern enlargement marked the final end to the Cold War antagonism and it created conducive preconditions for more secure and prosperous Europe.

  18. Business process integration between European manufacturers and transport and logistics service providers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ole; Lemoine, W

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the Supply Chain Management process is to create value for customers, stakeholders and all supply chain members, through the integration of disparate processes like manufacturing flow management, customer service and order fulfillment. However, many firms fail in the path of achieving...... a total integration. This study illustrates, from an empirical point of view, the problems associated to SC integration among European firms operating in global/international markets. The focus is on the relationship between two echelons in the supply chain: manufacturers and their transport and logistics...

  19. Judicial review of the management of assistance provided by the European Social Fund for the promotion of employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios V. Skiadas

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the matters arising during the judicial review of the management of the assistance provided through the European Social Fund for the promotion of employment. Issues such as the direct actions for annulment, the actions for failure to act, the enforcement actions, the preliminary rulings and the actions for damages are examined in detail. The analysis focuses on topics like the identity of the reviewable acts, the standing of the applicants, the grounds of review, etc.

  20. Judicial review of the management of assistance provided by the European Social Fund for the promotion of employment

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrios V. Skiadas

    2002-01-01

    This article considers the matters arising during the judicial review of the management of the assistance provided through the European Social Fund for the promotion of employment. Issues such as the direct actions for annulment, the actions for failure to act, the enforcement actions, the preliminary rulings and the actions for damages are examined in detail. The analysis focuses on topics like the identity of the reviewable acts, the standing of the applicants, the grounds of review, etc.

  1. Health care providers underestimate symptom intensities of cancer patients: A multicenter European study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laugsand, E.A.; Sprangers, M.A.G.; Bjordal, K.; Skorpen, F.; Kaasa, S.; Klepstad, P.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Many patients with advanced cancer depend upon health care providers for symptom assessment. The extent of agreement between patient and provider symptom assessments and the association of agreement with demographic- and disease-related factors was examined. METHODS: This

  2. Content of Orthopedic Patient Education Provided by Nurses in Seven European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalambous, Andreas; Papastavrou, E; Valkeapää, K; Zabalegui, A; Ingadóttir, B; Lemonidou, C; Fatkulina, N; Jouko, K; Leino-Kilpi, H

    2017-07-01

    Patients' and their significant others' education during the perioperative phase is an important and challenging aspect of care. This study explored the content of education provided by nurses to arthroplasty patients and their significant others. Data were collected with the Education of Patients-NURSE content (EPNURSE-Content), Received Knowledge of Hospital Patient (RKhp), and Received Knowledge of Significant Other (RKso) scales. The results showed that the content of education emphasized biophysiological and functional needs, differed between countries, and was related to how physically demanding nurses found their job to be and the amount of education provided. There is congruence between the received knowledge of patients and their significant others in relation to the content of education provided by nurses. The findings can support nurses in developing aid material for patients and significant others explaining the nature of education and advising them what to expect and how to optimize their participation in the process.

  3. Theorizing the European union as Union as an International Security Provider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This final paper will summarise the theoretical strands of the discussion in the preceding papers and reflect on the suitability of the analytical framework in the introduction in light of the empirical analysis by other contributors to the special issue. It will sketch out the main tenets of a t...... of a theory of the EU as an international security provider and point to directions for further research in this area....

  4. Prostate Enlargement: Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Prostate Prostate Enlargement (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia) Prostate Enlargement (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia) What is benign prostatic ... associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. What is the prostate? The prostate is a walnut-shaped gland that ...

  5. NATO Transformation in an Era of Enlargement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perry, Richard

    2002-01-01

    .... Enlargement is good politically but harmful militarily if done too quickly. If NATO continues to enlarge at its current pace it will damage both its military capability and credibility as a collective defense mechanism...

  6. The Application of the DMC Strategy and Experience to Provide Additional Support to a European Global Monitoring System Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutter, M. A.; Giwa, S. C.; Graham, K. L.; Hodgson, D. J.; Mackin, S.; Sweeting, M. N.; Vanotti, M.; Regan, A.

    2008-08-01

    Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd has reviewed the ability of small satellites to provide additional capability to the presently defined Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) space segment, allowing the broadest set of user requirements to be met. User- focused services have been compared with the instruments defined for the currently proposed Sentinels. SSTL has developed the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) of small satellites at a very low cost, which provide land-focused data products in the visible wavebands with daily access capability. The study undertaken by SSTL for the European Space Agency analysed the DMC operational concept in a GMES context, reviewing a range of possible services with different payload configurations on small satellite platforms. One concept was selected and an appropriate payload definition derived. The chosen mission concept was based on the provision of near time operational oceanography information using a constellation of small satellites. The aim is to provide sea surface height, significant wave height and wind speed.

  7. The Eastward Enlargement Effects on Trade and FDI

    OpenAIRE

    Caetano, José; Galego, Aurora; Vieira, Carlos; Vieira, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    The process of international economic integration has been continuously reinforced over the past decade. Such phenomenon is especially visible at the regional level, with the increase of Regional Integration Agreements (RIA), such as Mercosur, ASEAN, NAFTA and the project of European Union (EU) Eastern enlargement. Trade and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) flows are generally recognised as the two main channels of economic integration. Consequently, the most relevant issues in the debate on R...

  8. Does the creative economy provide a sustainable urban form?: Some European experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić-Brković Milica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Three urban redevelopment projects recently undertaken in Europe-Ria 2000 in Bilbao, Spain; Emscher Park in Germany; and Gasometer in Vienna, Austria, are presented and discussed in the paper. All three innovate on three independent levels culture, economy and urban organization, and provide high quality places to assist their cities and regions to cope with a global competitive environment. All three were also designed to represent the best of the sustainable practice in Europe at the time. In the same time, the basic philosophy of all three is deeply rooted in creative economies and elaborate their basis principles. The paper explores their design solution in order to identify the points where creative industries and sustainability meet, and investigates if, and to what extent, they comply with the principles of sustainability. Urban design and physical space are in focus, while other areas are considered as long as they contribute to the design, or reflect a credo that architecture and urban design are among those that play a central role in building cities' reputation and character. The author argues that all three materialized some of the basic principles of sustainability, by elaborating ideas of genius loci and the relationship between identity and locality. Emscher Park has been the most successful in demonstrating how the Brownfield site and devastated area could be transformed into the cultural landscape. Ria 2000 brought in a new interpretation of balance between the man made and natural environments. Gasometer has been least successful, and rather its solutions go after the traditional redevelopment paradigm.

  9. Opportunities Provided by the Design of a Website Focused on the Promotion of Collaborative Projects Within European IT Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru CAPATINA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Our paper emphasizes the opportunities provided both for the academic research and business partnerships by the design of a website which promotes the collaborative projects within European IT industry. From the academic perspective, the companies registered in the website database will represent the sample for different researches focused on cross-cultural interactions, intellectual capital components and competitive intelligence strategies. From the business perspective, the registration of the companies will allow the access to the list with all the potential future partners’ in the field of software development. In the first part of the paper dedicated to literature review, we highlighted the main types of IT collaborative projects; then, we presented the tools provided by the website that was designed in view to increase the awareness of the European IT companies. In the last part of the paper, we tested by means of chi-square statistical method the correlation between R&D investments and average length of time for software design in the case of a sample of 58 IT companies included in the database. We also revealed our future research intentions related to the domain of IT partnerships patterns.

  10. The Fungal Defensin Family Enlarged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are an emerging source of peptide antibiotics. With the availability of a large number of model fungal genome sequences, we can expect that more and more fungal defensin-like peptides (fDLPs will be discovered by sequence similarity search. Here, we report a total of 69 new fDLPs encoded by 63 genes, in which a group of fDLPs derived from dermatophytes are defined as a new family (fDEF8 according to sequence and phylogenetic analyses. In the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpine, fDLPs have undergone extensive gene expansion. Our work further enlarges the fungal defensin family and will help characterize new peptide antibiotics with therapeutic potential.

  11. Unusual Gingival Enlargement: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Dixit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an atypical case report of a 20-year-old male patient who suffered from unusual unilateral, gingival enlargement together with rapidly progressive alveolar bone loss. The enlarged gingiva completely covered his left posterior teeth in both arches. The patient was diagnosed with gingival fibromatosis and aggressive periodontitis based on the clinical, histological, and radiographic findings. The gingival enlargement was treated by conventional gingivectomy under local anaesthesia. The postoperative result was uneventful.

  12. Hilar enlargement in respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odita, J.C.; Aghahowa, J.E. (Benin Univ., Benin City (Nigeria). Dept. of Radiology); Nwankwo, M. (Benin Univ., Benin City (Nigeria). Child Health Coll. of Medical Sciences)

    1989-08-01

    The clinical and radiographic features of ten children with hilar enlargement in association with proven Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection are described. Hilar enlargement was seen in 10/35 children with RSV infection, and was invariably unilateral and right sided. It is recommended that RSV pneumonia be considered in children with unilateral hilar enlargement if tuberculosis has been excluded, and the onset of disease is rapid. (orig.).

  13. European practices of providing of efficiency of self-organizations institutions of population in the context of public services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Serohina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The research revealed that European countries devote sufficient attention to ensuring the effectiveness of the institutions of self-organization in the context of their public services. The most common areas where they operate are a system of health, education and assistance during emergencies. The study showed that in the development of public services, there were significant transformations in terms of subject-provider. Historically it was confessional organizations working on a voluntary basis, and linked their activity with the realization of Christian mission. Subsequently, when there had been formation of a «welfare state», the state took over responsibility for the area of public services. In favor of institutions of self-organization has been a change in the system when it became clear that they are best in the provide public services, especially in the social sphere, because they are the demonstrating of social needs. The main mechanisms of cooperation between institutions of self-organization and the public sector are, first, subsidies for statutory activities of the organization. Another mechanism is delegating services or outsourcing and in this case contracts mostly are for one year with possibility of further extension. In addition there is auxiliary element of providing of effectiveness institutions of self-organization, it consists in deprivation of their donors from taxes. Although institutions of self-organization are financed mainly by public authorities, they remain independent, because they have opportunity of funding from other sources. German experience showed that the starting point in the system of public services is the understanding of the necessity of paying taxes as acknowledgment of the rights of all members of society. That is why every taxpayer expects to receive public services at the appropriate level. This unwritten rule contributes to a very high level of provision of public services through an adequate

  14. Nuclear power and the continuity of supply in the enlarged European Union. Opening address at the 2004 winter meeting; Kernenergie und Versorgungssicherheit in der erweiterten Europaeischen Union - Wintertagung 2004. Eroeffnungsansprache zur Wintertagung 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maichel, G. [Atomforum e.V., Essen (Germany)

    2004-03-01

    The EU expansion in 2004 will completely change the face of the European community of states. The structure of the power supply system, too, will undergo major changes. Both the expansion of the EU and the reliability of electricity supply are topical problems in need of perspectives of solutions. Nuclear power can and will contribute to these solutions. For Germany, it is imperative that an energy consensus be worked out and put into effect across all party lines in an effort to create reliable framework conditions for the next twenty or thirty years. The goal must be a balanced energy mix also ensuring the competitiveness of Germany as an industrialized country. The individual strengths of each of the energy sources must be pooled so as to result in an optimum. Foregoing the use of nuclear power in the future is wrong in respect of the national economy, power economy, and climate policy. Developments in the neighboring countries in Europe and worldwide document that the opting-out policy of the German federal government is an approach peculiar to Germany. The final storage of radioactive waste in Germany is a topic to be finalized speedily. The Konrad and Gorleben mines constitute a promising concept of final storage of all types of radioactive waste in Germany. This goal must be pursued further in a firm policy and must not be delayed by new site selection procedures. In the field of nuclear research, Germany must not be separated from international developments. Nuclear competence must be preserved and promoted. The future power supply situation in Europe is characterized by the need for a considerable addition of generating capacity. As is demonstrated by the project of the new nuclear power plant to be built in Finland, nuclear power is going to play an important role in meeting this need.(orig.) [German] Das Jahr 2004 wird der europaeischen Staatengemeinschaft mit der EU-Erweiterung ein voellig neues Gesicht verleihen. Auch die Energieversorgungsstruktur

  15. The EU Eastern enlargement: Policy choices of the Spanish government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Piedrafita Tremosa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Eastern enlargement is a process in which the very identity of the European Union is under construction, with its constitutive principles and values being challenged. Policy choices of the member governments participating in this process can not exclusively being explained by rational choice assumptions, but a sociological approach to the issue also becomes necessary. Through the analysis of the Spanish government's policy on enlargement, this paper aims to show how policy preferences might not only respond to a cost-benefit calculus and how policy contents might develop endogenously during the process of policy formation in the EU. In this process there is room for member states to pursue their goals and search a collective decision that better accommodates their self-interest. However, deliberation also matters, and governments have to justify their actions in terms considered legitimate by all according to the constitutive principles and values of the EU polity.

  16. Treatment of the Enlarged Clitoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kaefer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Management of the enlarged clitoris, because of its import for sexual function, has been and remains one of the most controversial topics in pediatric urology. Early controversy surrounding clitoroplasty resulted from many factors including an incomplete understanding of clitoral anatomy and incorrect assumptions of the role of the clitoris in sexual function. With a better understanding of anatomy and function, procedures have evolved to preserve clitoral tissue, especially with respect to the neurovascular bundles. These changes have been made in an effort to preserve clitoral sensation and preserve orgasmic potential. It is the goal of this manuscript to describe the different procedures that have been developed for the surgical management of clitoromegally, with emphasis on the risks and benefits of each. Equally important to any discussion of such a sensitive topic is an understanding of long-term patient outcomes. As we will see, despite its importance, there has been a dearth of data in this regard. Future work in the arena of patient satisfaction will undoubtedly play a major role in directing our surgical approach.

  17. European Integration and Labour Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julda Kielyte

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper studies how European integration might affect the migration of workers in the enlarged EU. Unlike the reduced-form migration models, we base our empirical analysis on the theory of economic geography à la Krugman (1991, which provides an alternative modelling of migration pull and push factors. Parameters of the theoretical model are estimated econometrically using historical migration data. Our empirical findings suggest that European integration would trigger selective migration between the countries in the enlarged EU. In the Baltics, Lithuania would gain about 7.25% of the total work force. In the Visegrád Four, the share of the mobile labour force would increase the most in Hungary, 8.35%, compared to the pre-integration state. Our predictions for the East-West migration are moderate and lower than those of reduced-form models: between 5.44% (from the Baltics and 3.61% (from the Visegrád Four would emigrate to the EU North. Because migrants not only follow market potential, but also shape the region’s market potential, the long-run agglomeration forces are sufficiently weak to make a swift emergence of a core-periphery pattern in the enlarged EU very unlikely.

  18. European Enlargement and the Integration of the Western Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    4, McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, 1995 and Pollo , S. and Puto, A., The History of Albania from its Origins to the Present Day, p. 1...160-193, Assidon-Wesley Publishing Company, 1979. 13 Pollo , p. 146 and Jelavich, B, pp 100-103. 14 In 1913 the Conference of Ambassadors in...5). 17 Zickel, pp 28-32. 18 Pollo , p. 227. 8 The frequent invasions of the Balkan Peninsula are largely responsible for the political

  19. Non-drug induced gingival enlargement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Michelle L; Cohen, Robert E

    2013-08-01

    Gingival enlargement refers to an increase in the size of the gingival tissue. The etiology varies, and often is multifactorial; however, local and systemic conditions, disease, and idiopathic factors may contribute to gingival enlargement. Tissue consistency can vary from soft and spongy to dense, typically appearing darker in shade compared to the drug-induced gingival enlargement. Treatment modalities usually involve surgical removal of excess tissue, non-surgical debridement, use of chemotherapeutic agents, and/or elimination or mitigation of contributing factors and conditions.

  20. Severe gingival enlargement associated with aggressive periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Padmanabhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Enlargement of the gingiva can be due to various causes. Most prevalent are the inflammatory type and drug-induced type of gingival hyperplasia. However, sever enlargement associated with an aggressive type of periodontitis is an infrequent finding. Reported here is a case of a female patient aged 18 years who presented with severe enlargement of the maxillary and mandibular gingiva. Examination revealed enlargement extending up to the incisal edge of all the teeth and also an associated generalized loss of attachment with radiographic evidence of reduced bone height resembling an aggressive type of periodontitis. There were no associated systemic signs and symptoms or any family history except that there was generalized vitiligo of the skin and oral mucous membrane. The case was treated by gross electrosection of the gingiva.

  1. NATO Enlargement: Balancing Economic and Military Objectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bostick, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    The military requirements of NATO Enlargement should be tied to NATO's overall goal of seeking stability in all of Europe such that it does not undermine political and economic success in new member countries...

  2. The “transforming power” of EU Enlargement policy in Serbia. An anthropological reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Florindi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The enlargement process of the European Union contributed substantially to the harmonisation of legal systems over the continent. The article provides an anthropological critique to the way harmonisation to EU law is implemented in the Balkans, underlining the general lack of awareness by both Serbian government and the EU of Serbian social and legal systems. While applying the anthropological method to EU law’s effects in Serbia, the author investigates also the inner value of the EU project itself. For instance the State's failure to regulate anti-corruption matters has been experienced even when the State's provision in question were in full compliance with several other international obligations and with a positively hierarchically superior legal system: the Constitution.

  3. Mapping farm animal welfare research in an enlarged Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, Marlene K.; Košťál, Ľubor; Bilčík, Boris

    2017-01-01

    Against the background of divergent political developments across Europe, farm animal welfare (FAW) science has evolved during the last three decades as an inter-disciplinary research area. Recent achievements include pan-European research projects and the implementation of animal welfare...... on questionnaires sent out to a wide researcher network in regions of an enlarged Europe, we found differences with regard to ‘input factors’ such as human resources, animal and laboratory facilities and national and international research funding and ‘output factors’ such as inter/national collaboration...... assessment systems on-farm. The aim of this study was mapping activities for FAW science and investigating geographical differences in FAW research in Europe (EU28 + candidate countries and the European Economic Area) with regard to available resources (e.g. human resources, infrastructure, funding...

  4. Thymic enlargement in patients with hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myung, Jae Sung; Goo, Jin Mo; Im, Jung Gi [College of medicine and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mi Young [Sejong General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yang Hee [National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-08-01

    To evaluate the radiologic findings and clinical feasibility of thymic enlargement in patients with hyperthyroidism. Seven patients with hyperthyroidism and anterior mediastinal bulging revealed by chest radiography were evaluated. The CT findings were analyzed with regard to the shape of the anterior mediastinal mass, surrounding infiltration, and enlargement of mediastinal lymph nodes. Whether or not tumor markers (alpha-fetoprotein, beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin, and chorionic embryonic antigen) showed increased levels was determined, and the size and thickness of the anterior mediastinal mass were measured and compared with previously described age-matched thymus data. In addition, changes in the thyroid gland were evaluated. In all seven patients, anterior mediastinal masses were bi-lobed, with no surrounding infiltration or enlarged mediastinal lymph node, and tumor marker levels showed no increase. The masses were therefore considered to be thymus. In six patients, the size of the thymus exceeded two upper standard deviations of mean value and in one patient, it was smaller than this. In three patients, PCNB (percutaneous needle biopsy) revealed normal thymic tissue and in two, follow-up chest PA demonstrated no interval change. CT showed that in three patients, the thyroid glands were diffusely enlarged. In patients with hyperthyroidism, an anterior mediastinal mass seen on chest radiographs was due to thymic enlargement. The recognition of CT findings of thymic enlargement in such patients may avoid unnecessary biopsy. (author)

  5. Parotid gland enlargement in pediatric HIV population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolude, Bamidele M; Oladokun, Regina E

    2013-01-01

    To establish the significance of parotid enlargement, state frequency, cytological features and effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on parotid enlargement among a pediatric HIV population. A 6 month cross sectional survey that utilised clinical features, serial immunological indices and fine needle aspiration cytology. 287 HIV positive children were seen at special paediatric clinic of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, 114 (39.7%) had oral features and among these 24 (8.4%) had parotid involvement comprising of 10 males and 14 females. The overall mean age was 43.4 + 39.7 months compared with 59.6 + 36.5 months in the parotid enlargement group (p = 0.03). Mean ages of parotid enlargement and non enlargement group was significantly different (p = 0.03). The mode of transmission was vertical in (91.7%), 87.5% was bilateral (87.5%) and (75%) presented as a syndrome state with generalised lymphadenopathy. The predominant cytology was lymphoid hyperplasia (62.5%). ART resulted in marked clinical reduction in all the cases and statistically significant improvement in serum indices of CD4 count, CD4% and viral load (p = 0.001, 0.000 & 0.009 respectively). HIV positive children often present with bilateral parotid enlargement and the syndrome state with classical clinical and cytological features of lymphoid hyperplasia predominated. ART resulted in satisfactory reduction of the swellings in most of the cases with no need for further intervention.

  6. Acute exacerbation of airspace enlargement with fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Kakugawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, Kawabata et al. described a lesion which they termed “airspace enlargement with fibrosis” that could be included on the spectrum of smoking-related interstitial lung diseases. This group also reported that patients with airspace enlargement with fibrosis but without coexisting interstitial pneumonia of another type had no acute exacerbations and favorable prognoses on clinical follow-up. Here we describe the first case, to our knowledge, of acute exacerbation of airspace enlargement with fibrosis without coexisting interstitial pneumonia of another type. An 82-year-old man was referred to our department for worsening dyspnea and new alveolar opacities on chest radiograph following left pulmonary segmentectomy (S6 for cancer. A diagnosis of acute exacerbation of airspace enlargement with fibrosis without coexisting interstitial pneumonia of other types was made, based on pathological evidence of airspace enlargement with fibrosis and organizing diffuse alveolar damage. Treatment with high-dose methylprednisolone followed by tapered oral prednisolone resulted in gradual improvement of the clinical condition and chest radiographic findings. Clinicians should be aware that patients with airspace enlargement with fibrosis may experience acute exacerbation.

  7. MP-AzeFlu provides rapid and effective allergic rhinitis control in real life: A pan-European study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Ludger; Bachert, Claus; Stjärne, Par; Dollner, Ralph; Larsen, Petter; Haahr, Peter; Agache, Ioana; Scadding, Glenis; Price, David

    2016-09-01

    The European Union has prioritized allergic rhinitis (AR) control. Contre les Maladies Chronique pour un Vieillissement Actif Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma has endorsed the visual analog scale (VAS) as the AR control language and incorporated it into a new AR treatment algorithm. Concurrently, the Respiratory Effectiveness Group and the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology are striving to improve the quality of published real-life AR research. Our aim was to assess the effectiveness of MP-AzeFlu by using a VAS in a well-designed, real-life, pan-European study. A total of 2988 patients (aged ≥ 12 years) with Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma defined moderate-to-severe AR from Germany, Sweden, Romania, United Kingdom, Denmark, and Norway were included. Patients (except from the United Kingdom) assessed symptom severity by using a VAS from 0 mm (not at all bothersome) to 100 mm (very bothersome) on days 0, 1, 3, 7, and the last visit (∼day 14) in the morning before MP-AzeFlu use. Patients' perceived level of disease control was assessed on day 3. A VAS score cutoff on day 3 for "well controlled" was determined, and the proportion of patients who achieved this response was calculated. MP-AzeFlu was associated with a mean VAS score reduction from 73.7 mm at baseline to 23.4 mm by the last visit. This reduction was significant (p Vieillissement Actif Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma, the Respiratory Effectiveness Group, and the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology objectives, supporting MP-AzeFlu as the drug of choice for the treatment of moderate-to-severe AR.

  8. Care provided and care setting transitions in the last three months of life of cancer patients: a nationwide monitoring study in four European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ko, W.; Deliens, L.; Miccinesi, G.; Giusti, F.; Moreels, S.; Donker, G.A.; Owuteaka-Philipsen, B.; Zurriaga, O.; Lopéz-Maside, A.; Block, L. van den

    2014-01-01

    Background: This is an international study across four European countries (Belgium[BE], the Netherlands[NL], Italy[IT] and Spain[ES]) between 2009 and 2011, describing and comparing care and care setting transitions provided in the last three months of life of cancer patients, using representative

  9. Care provided and care setting transitions in the last three months of life of cancer patients: a nationwide monitoring study in four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ko, W.; Deliens, L.; Miccinesi, G.; Giusti, F.; Moreels, S.; Donker, G.A.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.; Zurriaga, O.; Lopez-Maside, A.; Block, L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This is an international study across four European countries (Belgium[BE], the Netherlands[NL], Italy[IT] and Spain[ES]) between 2009 and 2011, describing and comparing care and care setting transitions provided in the last three months of life of cancer patients, using representative

  10. European Society of Cardiology smartphone and tablet applications for patients with atrial fibrillation and their health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotecha, Dipak; Chua, Winnie W L; Fabritz, Larissa; Hendriks, Jeroen; Casadei, Barbara; Schotten, Ulrich; Vardas, Panos; Heidbuchel, Hein; Dean, Veronica; Kirchhof, Paulus

    2018-02-01

    We are in the midst of a digital revolution in health care, although the application of new and useful technology in routine clinical practice is variable. The Characterizing Atrial fibrillation by Translating its Causes into Health Modifiers in the Elderly (CATCH ME) Consortium, in collaboration with the European Society of Cardiology (ESC), has funded the creation of two applications (apps) in atrial fibrillation (AF) for use in smartphones and tablets. The patient app aims to enhance patient education, improve communication between patients and health care professionals, and encourage active patient involvement in the management of their condition. The health care professional app is designed as an interactive management tool incorporating the new ESC Practice Guidelines on AF and supported by the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA), with the aim of improving best practice approaches for the care of patients with AF. Both stand-alone apps are now freely available for Android and iOS devices though the Google Play, Amazon, and Apple stores. In this article, we outline the rationale for the design and implementation of these apps. Our objective is to demonstrate the value of integrating novel digital technology into clinical practice, with the potential for patient engagement, optimization of pharmacological and interventional therapy in AF, and ultimately to improve patient outcomes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  11. Local solution method for the problem of enlargement of filtration

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Shiqi

    2013-01-01

    The enlargement of filtration theory is a study of semimartingales when the basic filtration changes. This theory provides particular techniques on stochastic calculus. We present here a technique, that we call the local solution method. We will show, with several examples, that the local solution method is an effective and flexible method. In particular, with the local solution method, we will give a unified proof of three of the classical formulas, namely Jacod's formula, the progressive en...

  12. Enlarged retrorectal space - indication for computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krestin, G.P.; Steinbrich, W.; Beyer, D.

    1985-03-01

    The reasonable use of computed tomography in the diagnosis of an enlarged retrorectal space was analysed in 92 cases. CT is useful in differentiation of a pathologically enlarged retrorectal space without mucosal lesions of the rectum. It enables the separation between tumorous masses, proliferation of connective tissue (in retrorectal fibrosis or inflammatory disease) and pelvic lipomatosis. If simultaneous mucosal involvement in barium enema or rectoscopy - especially in rectal carcinoma or recurrent carcinoma of the rectum - is found, CT may show the perirectal extension of tumorous masses and thus help to clarify local operability.

  13. Aortic Annular Enlargement during Aortic Valve Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selman Dumani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the surgery of aortic valve replacement is always attempted, as much as possible, to implant the larger prosthesis with the mains goals to enhance the potential benefits, to minimise transvalvular gradient, decrease left ventricular size and avoid the phenomenon of patient-prosthesis mismatch. Implantation of an ideal prosthesis often it is not possible, due to a small aortic annulus. A variety of aortic annulus enlargement techniques is reported to avoid patient-prosthesis mismatch. We present the case that has submitted four three times open heart surgery. We used Manouguian technique to enlarge aortic anulus with excellent results during the fourth time of surgery.

  14. The "New Politics" of EU's Eastern Enlargement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    The paper gives an overview of EU's eastern enlargement and draws some theoretical conclusions. In particular, it stresses the point that the EU member states in the process of enlargement have entered a phase of "new politics", characterised by multilateralism, conditionality, help and binding...... agreements. They gained strong influence over their surroundings, and ,albeit they had to give up substantil parts of de-facto sovereingty, they are much better off than before, in particular in terms of security. EU's "new politics" are a successful alternative model to the "old politics", represented e...

  15. Aortic Annular Enlargement during Aortic Valve Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumani, Selman; Likaj, Ermal; Dibra, Laureta; Llazo, Stavri; Refatllari, Ali

    2016-09-15

    In the surgery of aortic valve replacement is always attempted, as much as possible, to implant the larger prosthesis with the mains goals to enhance the potential benefits, to minimise transvalvular gradient, decrease left ventricular size and avoid the phenomenon of patient-prosthesis mismatch. Implantation of an ideal prosthesis often it is not possible, due to a small aortic annulus. A variety of aortic annulus enlargement techniques is reported to avoid patient-prosthesis mismatch. We present the case that has submitted four three times open heart surgery. We used Manouguian technique to enlarge aortic anulus with excellent results during the fourth time of surgery.

  16. Generalised Leukaemic Gingival Enlargement: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mechery Reenesh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute myeloblastic leukaemia is a malignant bone marrow neoplasm of myeloid precursors of white blood cells. Due to its high morbidity rate, early diagnosis and appropriate medical therapy is essential. Methods: The article highlights normal blood alterations like anaemia, thrombocytopenia, leukocytosis and advanced diagnostic aids like flow cytometry, special staining as a diagnostic modality as well as for prognostic information in acute leukaemia, particularly as a tool for assigning lineage and facilitating further pathologic classification which may be helpful in influencing treatment strategies.Results: On clinical examination the case presented with features of inflammatory gingival enlargement with presence of local deposits and calculus. Routine blood examination anaemia, thrombocytopenia, leukocytosis with haemoglobin 5.6 gm% and total leukocyte count of 1,12,000 / cu mm suggestive of leukaemia. Myeloperoxidase and leukocyte nonspecific esterase (NSE special stain were used which showed presence of myeloblasts in the peripheral smear suggestive of acute myelocytic leukaemia. Flow cytometry were done which further helped in interpretation of these cells which showed to be strongly positive for CD45, CD13, CD14, and anti HLADR and moderately positive for CD4, CD34 and Anti MPO confirming to be case of AML-M4 with 57.73% gating.Conclusions: Fact that gingival alterations are sometimes the first manifestations of the disease implies that dental professionals must be sufficiently familiarized with the clinical manifestations of systemic diseases. The timely referral by the general dentist for a suspicious lesion provided an early diagnosis and early intervention reducing the patient morbidity.

  17. A rapidly enlarging cutaneous hemangioma in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan Ma’ayeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a case of a rapidly enlarging cutaneous pedunculated tumor on a patient’s thumb during her pregnancy. This was excised and identified as a hemangioma. A literature search identified a possible hormonal factor in causing an accelerated growth of this tumor.

  18. Nato enlarging into the Baltic States

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Prahas 21.-22. novembrini 2002 toimunud NATO tippkohtumisest ja seal vastu võetud otsusest Balti riikide alliansiga ühinemise kohta. Vt. samas: Russia's attitude to the NATO enlargement; Bush in Vilnius; Baltic states' prime ministers' met; Supporting USA?

  19. A rapidly enlarging cutaneous hemangioma in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ma'ayeh, Marwan

    2014-06-18

    This is a case of a rapidly enlarging cutaneous pedunculated tumor on a patient\\'s thumb during her pregnancy. This was excised and identified as a hemangioma. A literature search identified a possible hormonal factor in causing an accelerated growth of this tumor.

  20. Leukemic Gingival Enlargement - A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Anupama

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute myeloid leukemia being a malignant neoplasm of the WBC series, has oral manifestations throughout the course of the disease. Since oral signs and symptoms arc so common, the dental surgeon may be the first to diagnose it" Here is a case report of leukemic gingival enlargement in a patient with typical clinical and oral manifestations of AML

  1. Penile Enlargement : From Medication to Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugteren, Helena M.; Balkema, G. T.; Pascal, A. L.; Schultz, W. C. M. Weijmar; Nijman, J. M.; Van Driel, M. F.

    2010-01-01

    Penis lengthening pills, stretch apparatus, vacuum pumps, silicone injections, and lengthening and thickening operations are available for men who worry about their penis size. Surgery is thus far the only proven scientific method for penile enlargement. In this article, we consider patient

  2. Pilocytic Astrocytoma Enlargement Following Irradiation: Relapse or Pseudoprogression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golanov, Andrey V.; Kostjuchenko, Valery V; Galkin, Mikhail; Konovalov, Alexander N

    2017-01-01

    Pilocytic astrocytomas are the most common gliomas (World Health Organization (WHO) grade 1) in children. According to many authors, stereotactic irradiation (radiotherapy and radiosurgery) is an effective method that provides a prolonged, recurrence-free survival in patients who have had partial tumor removal or in patients with an unresectable tumor. We present a case of a patient with midbrain pilocytic astrocytoma that enlarged considerably in the first six months after irradiation and then diminished in size during the next six months without any antitumor treatment. The clinical and radiological follow-up data for this patient, the surgery results for similar patients, and the data from other authors led us to the conclusion that early tumor volume enlargement after irradiation is usually pseudoprogression. PMID:28367384

  3. Patients' and providers' perceptions of the preventability of hospital readmission: a prospective, observational study in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Galen, Louise S; Brabrand, Mikkel; Cooksley, Tim; van de Ven, Peter M; Merten, Hanneke; So, Ralph Kl; van Hooff, Loes; Haak, Harm R; Kidney, Rachel M; Nickel, Christian H; Soong, John Ty; Weichert, Immo; Kramer, Mark Hh; Subbe, Christian P; Nanayakkara, Prabath Wb

    2017-06-22

    Because of fundamental differences in healthcare systems, US readmission data cannot be extrapolated to the European setting: To investigate the opinions of readmitted patients, their carers, nurses and physicians on predictability and preventability of readmissions and using majority consensus to determine contributing factors that could potentially foresee (preventable) readmissions. Prospective observational study. Readmitted patients, their carers, and treating professionals were surveyed during readmission to assess the discharge process and the predictability and preventability of the readmission. Cohen's Kappa measured pairwise agreement of considering readmission as predictable/preventable by patients, carers and professionals. Subsequently, multivariable logistic regressionidentified factors associated with predictability/preventability. 15 hospitals in four European countries PARTICIPANTS: 1398 medical patients readmitted unscheduled within 30 days MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: (1) Agreement between the interviewed groups on considering readmissions likely predictable or preventable;(2) Factors distinguishing predictable from non-predictable and preventable from non-preventable readmissions. The majority deemed 27.8% readmissions potentially predictable and 14.4% potentially preventable. The consensus on predictability and preventability was poor, especially between patients and professionals (kappas ranged from 0.105 to 0.173). The interviewed selected different factors as potentially associated with predictability and preventability. When a patient reported that he was ready for discharge during index admission, the readmission was deemed less likely by the majority (predictability: OR 0.55; 95% CI 0.40 to 0.75; preventability: OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.24 to 0.49). There is no consensus between readmitted patients, their carers and treating professionals about predictability and preventability of readmissions, nor associated risk factors. A readmitted

  4. Population Trends of Central European Montane Birds Provide Evidence for Adverse Impacts of Climate Change on High-Altitude Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flousek, Jiří; Telenský, Tomáš; Hanzelka, Jan; Reif, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is among the most important global threats to biodiversity and mountain areas are supposed to be under especially high pressure. Although recent modelling studies suggest considerable future range contractions of montane species accompanied with increased extinction risk, data allowing to test actual population consequences of the observed climate changes and identifying traits associated to their adverse impacts are very scarce. To fill this knowledge gap, we estimated long-term population trends of montane birds from 1984 to 2011 in a central European mountain range, the Giant Mountains (Krkonoše), where significant warming occurred over this period. We then related the population trends to several species' traits related to the climate change effects. We found that the species breeding in various habitats at higher altitudes had more negative trends than species breeding at lower altitudes. We also found that the species moved upwards as a response to warming climate, and these altitudinal range shifts were associated with more positive population trends at lower altitudes than at higher altitudes. Moreover, long-distance migrants declined more than residents or species migrating for shorter distances. Taken together, these results indicate that the climate change, besides other possible environmental changes, already influences populations of montane birds with particularly adverse impacts on high-altitude species such as water pipit (Anthus spinoletta). It is evident that the alpine species, predicted to undergo serious climatically induced range contractions due to warming climate in the future, already started moving along this trajectory.

  5. Population Trends of Central European Montane Birds Provide Evidence for Adverse Impacts of Climate Change on High-Altitude Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Flousek

    Full Text Available Climate change is among the most important global threats to biodiversity and mountain areas are supposed to be under especially high pressure. Although recent modelling studies suggest considerable future range contractions of montane species accompanied with increased extinction risk, data allowing to test actual population consequences of the observed climate changes and identifying traits associated to their adverse impacts are very scarce. To fill this knowledge gap, we estimated long-term population trends of montane birds from 1984 to 2011 in a central European mountain range, the Giant Mountains (Krkonoše, where significant warming occurred over this period. We then related the population trends to several species' traits related to the climate change effects. We found that the species breeding in various habitats at higher altitudes had more negative trends than species breeding at lower altitudes. We also found that the species moved upwards as a response to warming climate, and these altitudinal range shifts were associated with more positive population trends at lower altitudes than at higher altitudes. Moreover, long-distance migrants declined more than residents or species migrating for shorter distances. Taken together, these results indicate that the climate change, besides other possible environmental changes, already influences populations of montane birds with particularly adverse impacts on high-altitude species such as water pipit (Anthus spinoletta. It is evident that the alpine species, predicted to undergo serious climatically induced range contractions due to warming climate in the future, already started moving along this trajectory.

  6. Mapping farm animal welfare research in an enlarged Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, Marlene K.; Košťál, Ľubor; Bilčík, Boris

    2017-01-01

    assessment systems on-farm. The aim of this study was mapping activities for FAW science and investigating geographical differences in FAW research in Europe (EU28 + candidate countries and the European Economic Area) with regard to available resources (e.g. human resources, infrastructure, funding...... on questionnaires sent out to a wide researcher network in regions of an enlarged Europe, we found differences with regard to ‘input factors’ such as human resources, animal and laboratory facilities and national and international research funding and ‘output factors’ such as inter/national collaboration......, participation in EU-funded projects related to FAW and number of publications. Respondents were allocated to 4 Western and 4 Eastern geographical clusters of countries (‘hubs’). There were a larger number of researchers, students and technical staff per laboratory in Western compared to Eastern hubs...

  7. Tuberculous gingival enlargement: A rare clinical manifestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Subash Aaron Muthuraj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is an inflammatory granulomatous disease that rarely presents as primary lesion in gingiva. Gingival involvement has been reported in only a very limited number of cases. A 13-year-old boy presented with gingival enlargement in the maxillary and mandibular anterior region associated with enlargement of lower lip with no systemic manifestations. He had a history of tuberculous lymphadenitis before 5 years which was inadequately treated. The patient's erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 70 mm/h. Histopathological report of the gingival lesion revealed noncaseating granulomas with nests of epithelioid cells and multinucleated Langhans giant cells. The patient was then referred to a physician for management, who initiated active antitubercular treatment following which the condition resolved. The aim of this article is to emphasize the importance of early diagnosis of primary TB of the gingiva which may be misdiagnosed when oral lesions are not associated with any apparent systemic infection.

  8. Tuberculous gingival enlargement: A rare clinical manifestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron Muthuraj, Maria Subash; Maradi, Arun Parappa; Janakiram, Srihari; Chithresan, Koshy

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an inflammatory granulomatous disease that rarely presents as primary lesion in gingiva. Gingival involvement has been reported in only a very limited number of cases. A 13-year-old boy presented with gingival enlargement in the maxillary and mandibular anterior region associated with enlargement of lower lip with no systemic manifestations. He had a history of tuberculous lymphadenitis before 5 years which was inadequately treated. The patient's erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 70 mm/h. Histopathological report of the gingival lesion revealed noncaseating granulomas with nests of epithelioid cells and multinucleated Langhans giant cells. The patient was then referred to a physician for management, who initiated active antitubercular treatment following which the condition resolved. The aim of this article is to emphasize the importance of early diagnosis of primary TB of the gingiva which may be misdiagnosed when oral lesions are not associated with any apparent systemic infection.

  9. Enlargement of the External Mobility Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The External Mobility Programme was launched at the end of September 2007. Initially, the programme was aimed at staff members on limited-duration contracts, having received formal notification of the termination of their employment contract at CERN, to help them towards their next employment. The programme provides a privileged, fast-track entry into the recruitment process of partner companies. Despite the short time since its inception, the programme has already delivered some encouraging and concrete results in terms of interviews granted to participating staff. The Programme has raised considerable interest from both CERN personnel as well as from several major European companies. CERN Management has decided to broaden the scope of the External Mobility Programme. The Programme is now open to: All staff members whose limited duration contract will end in less than one year, as well as all those with indefinite contracts. All fellows who have been employed by CERN fo...

  10. Enlargement of the External Mobility Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The External Mobility Programme was launched at the end of September 2007. Initially, the programme was aimed at staff members on limited-duration contracts having received formal notification of the termination of their employment contract at CERN, to help them towards their next employment. The programme provides a privileged, fast-track entry into the recruitment process of partner companies. Despite the short time since its inception, the programme has already delivered some encouraging and concrete results in terms of interviews granted to participating staff. The Programme has attracted considerable interest from both CERN personnel as well as from several major European companies. The CERN Management has decided to broaden the scope of the External Mobility Programme. The Programme is now open to: All staff members whose limited duration contract will end in less than one year, as well as all those with indefinite contracts. All fellows who have been employed by CE...

  11. Localization of enlarged parathyroid glands in hyperparathyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spira, G.; Loehr, E.; Olbricht, T.; Windeck, R.; Littmann, K.

    1984-12-01

    Forty patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, 2 with and 38 without previous surgery had computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography (US) preoperatively. CT correctly identified enlarged glands in 75%, US in 80%. In 7.5% US was correctly negative. In 12.5% CT has shown only a correct suspicion. Us was false positive in 2.5%, CT in 5%. US was false negative in 10%, CT in 7.5%.

  12. Aortic Annular Enlargement during Aortic Valve Replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Selman Dumani; Ermal Likaj; Laureta Dibra; Stavri Llazo; Ali Refatllari

    2016-01-01

    In the surgery of aortic valve replacement is always attempted, as much as possible, to implant the larger prosthesis with the mains goals to enhance the potential benefits, to minimise transvalvular gradient, decrease left ventricular size and avoid the phenomenon of patient-prosthesis mismatch. Implantation of an ideal prosthesis often it is not possible, due to a small aortic annulus. A variety of aortic annulus enlargement techniques is reported to avoid patient-prosthesis mismatch. We pr...

  13. The paradox of EU enlargement and member states' policies: Dilemmas and challenges: The case of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Santos Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the issue of EU enlargement with its dual nature: of an intra-EU process, related to the consolidation of a democratic-peace based on collective security, and an external process, involving EU foreign policy and impact on relations with other major global players. Although enlargement is a multidimensional process that combines different perspectives - candidate countries' enlargement politics, member states' politics/policy, EU enlargement politics and external global impact - the paper focuses on Member States policies towards enlargement by looking at the case of Portugal, in particular in relation with the Big Bang Eastern enlargement, and aims at explaining the paradox of Portugal's strong political support to enlargement while it was one of the main potential losers in terms of economic interests. A 'foreign policy analysis' framework is adopted in order to understand the process of decision-making and the interaction between the domestic and the EU levels. The argument put forward is that an exclusive constructivist approach does not provide a satisfactory explanation, as there was also rationalist-interest logic at play. The Portuguese policy towards enlargement was determined not only by the 'solidaritysimilarity' logic, dominant in the formal political discourse but also by the consideration of long-term interests in the EU related to the preservation of the strategic alliance with Germany. The overall systemic impact of enlargement tends to weaken the EU as it presents a major paradox functioning as a double-edged sword. While it has a positive impact by contributing to the enhancement of the EU international profile as it grows in size raising expectations about its potential global role, it also leads to greater heterogeneity, undermining the EU cohesion and its ability to act together with a single voice becoming a robust global player, thus frustrating the expectations raised in the first place.

  14. An unusual case of generalized severe gingival enlargement during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Crystal L; Kolhatkar, Shilpa; Winkler, James R; Ojha, Junu; Bhola, Monish

    2010-01-01

    Increased hormone levels that are present during puberty and pregnancy are associated with localized or generalized gingival enlargement. This article reviews the gingival alterations that can occur during pregnancy and describes a case of generalized severe gingival enlargement associated with pregnancy and its management. A 36-year-old woman had severe bilateral gingival enlargement of short duration. The patient denied taking any medications. The laboratory report revealed no systemic abnormalities; however, the report disclosed that she was pregnant. Surgical therapy for the gingival enlargement included gingivectomy and gingivoplasty of all quadrants, which reduced the size of the enlarged gingiva. Postoperative visits demonstrated uneventful healing, with no recurrence seen at the one-year follow-up appointment. It appears that the English literature includes only one other case report that discusses generalized gingival enlargement during pregnancy. Pregnancy-related gingival enlargement should be included as a differential diagnosis in women who have non-drug-induced generalized gingival enlargement.

  15. [Application of natural plant pigments in enlarged health industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu-Li; Luo, Jiao-Yang; Hu, Shu-Rong; Fu, Hang; Yang, Shi-Hai; Yang, Mei-Hua

    2017-07-01

    Natural plant pigment is rich in resources, with the features of natural color and environment friendly, which has a broad space for development and market prospects. In order to further develop and utilize of natural plant pigment, this paper mainly introduces the natural plant dyes in the domains of food, cosmetics and health care products on the historical development process and their application. In addition,this paper summarizes the application of representative natural plant pigment, dyes, and prospects the market of natural plant pigment, so as to provide reference for the development of natural plant pigment in the enlarged health industry of China. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. The top five research priorities in physician-provided pre-hospital critical care: a consensus report from a European research collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lockey David

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physician-manned emergency medical teams supplement other emergency medical services in some countries. These teams are often selectively deployed to patients who are considered likely to require critical care treatment in the pre-hospital phase. The evidence base for guidelines for pre-hospital triage and immediate medical care is often poor. We used a recognised consensus methodology to define key priority areas for research within the subfield of physician-provided pre-hospital critical care. Methods A European expert panel participated in a consensus process based upon a four-stage modified nominal group technique that included a consensus meeting. Results The expert panel concluded that the five most important areas for further research in the field of physician-based pre-hospital critical care were the following: Appropriate staffing and training in pre-hospital critical care and the effect on outcomes, advanced airway management in pre-hospital care, definition of time windows for key critical interventions which are indicated in the pre-hospital phase of care, the role of pre-hospital ultrasound and dispatch criteria for pre-hospital critical care services. Conclusion A modified nominal group technique was successfully used by a European expert group to reach consensus on the most important research priorities in physician-provided pre-hospital critical care.

  17. How Can We Explain the Eastern Enlargement Process of the EU?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Enes Aşcı

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the Treaty of Rome, the expansion phenomenon of European Union is the most importalt political tool of the union. The Eastern Enlargement of the EU, the number of countries that are both included besides old and new members in terms of political, social, and economic differences have been the most compelling expansion. This study tries to explain the contributions of East expansion to the integration of Europe in the context of three theories.

  18. Mandibular Canal Enlargement: Clinical and Radiological Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Jun Ai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Enlargement of the mandibular canal is a rare radiological finding. Clinically, it may or may not be associated with sensory deficits. We report four cases of widening of the mandibular canal observed with various methods of imaging with different clinical characteristics. We describe this unique radiological finding and elaborate the importance of quality assessment of the imaging that is vital for accurate diagnosis and treatment planning. Clinicians should be mindful when assessing the imaging whenever the size of the mandibular canal is implicated. The case ranged from a benign tumor to malignancy, radiological errors, and artifacts. A more superior imaging or treatment modality was necessary to ascertain the diagnosis.

  19. Time to market and patient access to new oncology products in Italy: a multistep pathway from European context to regional health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, P; Mennini, F S; Siviero, P D; Rasi, G

    2010-10-01

    The main purpose of this study was to identify each sequential phase followed by an oncology product, from European assessment until to patient access in each Italian region (IR). A panel of oncology products approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) in the period 2006-2008 was considered. The explored sequential phases included the times to market for: the EMA; pharmaceutical companies; the Italian Medicines Agency (Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco, AIFA); and IRs as final providers of health care. The IR's time to market was also analyzed by a Cox regression model. The overall mean time required before patients access was 2.3 years. EMA accounted for the greater proportion of time (31.8%), followed by AIFA (28.2%). However, the duration for both pharmaceutical companies and IRs was associated with the highest variability. An oncology product authorized with a risk-sharing agreement showed an early access in the IRs. On the contrary, the introduction in IRs having a compulsory formulary was delayed. Both a high forecast of economic impact and a high oncology product price can also delay the patient access. The process before patient access to an oncology product is time and cost consuming. This study identifies the main predictors that affect the missing overlap between market and patient access in Italy.

  20. A Study of Digital Image Enlargement and Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Yi Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most image enlargement techniques suffer the problem of zigzagged edges and jagged images following enlargement. Humans are sensitive to the edges of objects; if the edges in the image are sharp, the visual is considered to be high quality. To solve this problem, this paper presents a new and effective method for image enlargement and enhancement based on adaptive inverse hyperbolic tangent (AIHT algorithm. Conventional image enlargement and enhancement methods enlarge the image using interpolation, and subsequently enhance the image without considering image features. However, this study presents the method based on Adaptive Inverse Hyperbolic Tangent algorithm to enhance images according to image features before enlarging the image. Experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm is capable of adaptively enhancing the image and extruding object details, thereby improving enlargements by smoothing the edge of the objects in the image.

  1. European communion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on ‘sharing’ or ‘communion......’, provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as ‘integration’ or ‘co-operation’. The concept of ‘European communion’ is defined as the ‘subjective sharing of relationships’, understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing...... relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European...

  2. Past and Current Paths to European Union Accession: Romania and Turkey a Comparative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana-Camelia Dogaru

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Several decades ago, leaders of six European countries with an inclusive vision of Europe and strong courage started a construction without precedent, the European Union. The remarkable construction evolved not only concerning the number of the Member States, but also in terms of institutional and functional development. Nowadays, the European Union is one of the most important changing factor concerning the governance and the policy-making process at European level and not only, and there is no doubt that the EU will continue to grow as an increasing number of countries express interest in membership. This paper reveals in a comparative perspective the path to European Union Accession, and is based on documentary analysis, using strategy-level documents of the countries and the Progress Reports the European Commission provided during the past enlargement.

  3. Migrations in Europe: Fears due to the enlargement of the EU to the East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morokvašić Mirjana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is confronted with the biggest enlargement in its history: ten states, among them eight middle European - the so called "buffer zone" in the new European migration landscape - will become members in 2004. Other candidates hope to join in the coming years. For all Eastern and Eastern European countries, including those that are not candidates, the end of the bi-polar world meant a hope of "return to Europe". When shifting its borders to the East, the European Union both includes and excludes. The final objective to achieve Europe as "a space of freedom, security and justice", is conditioned by the capacity and necessity to control the migratory flows. The prospect of free circulation for the citizens of the new Union members entails also fears: the EU countries are afraid of the consequences the enlargement would have on migratory flows from the countries of the Central and Eastern Europe and which transit through that area. The perception of migrants as a threat inspired the conditions that the Union imposed on the candidate countries concerning migration policy issues and which mostly focus on the protection of its Eastern borders. For the future Union members however, protecting of the thousand of kilometers of their Eastern border, implies a number of quite different problems. These countries are afraid of the impact the restrictive measures they are obliged to implement would have both on many economic and family ties which have been maintained since the socialist period and on more recently engaged cooperation with the neighbours which are not candidates. The challenge of enlargement is different therefore for the EU members, for the candidate countries and for those who are for the moment excluded from the process. The fears do not seem to be always grounded. Thus, the impact of enlargement which, it was feared, could have been so destabilizing for the Union because of potentially large migration flows, is more likely to

  4. Book Review: Michael Baun and Dan Marek (eds. The New Member States and the European Union. Foreign Policy and Europeanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelin Dumitru

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A radical decision at the time, the 2004 enlargement constituted a critical juncture for the Central and Eastern European Countries. Although a great deal of literature has been written in regard to other aspects of Europeanization, the effects of EU membership on the foreign policy of the new member states have been rarely discussed. This is what the volume coordinated by Michael Baun and Dan Marek seeks to accomplish, namely to fill a gap in the European Studies with a series of articles explaining the more or less significant institutional and behavioural changes which occurred at the level of the new member states’ political elites. Focusing on three main domains in which Europeanization purportedly occurred, namely national preferences and interests, institutions and procedures, foreign policy strategies and actions, the studies gathered in this volume provide a useful overview of the effects of EU membership on what was traditionally known as “foreign policy”.

  5. EU Enlargement between Economic and Political Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo-Victor Ionescu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper answers at two important questions: Is the EU able to support new adhering processes? and Is the Euro area able to enlarge in 2014? The comparative analysis in the paper covers four economic competitors: EU, USA, China and Japan, and is based on GDP growth rate, unemployment and inflation rates. The second part of the paper deals with an economic forecast during 2015-2016, focused on EU27, Euro area, Croatia and Latvia, in order to discuss the effects of the adhering to EU and Euro area. The results of the two-level analysis are supported by pertinent diagrams and annexes. The analysis uses a neutral statistical database – Eurostat – and dedicated forecast software. The main conclusion of the paper is that the adhering processes from 2013 and 2014 are based on economic and political criteria.

  6. Streamlining Education System Through Waqf Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Bahroni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at discussing the development of education systembased on the Waqf Empowerment. It is an experience of Gontor ModernIntegrated Islamic Institution to maintain its existence through the activitiesof Waqf Enlargement. The spirit of self-reliance which has been implementedby Gontor through various economic enterprise activities inside the campus isthe total processes of educational activities, carried out by students andteachers themselves. They act as the subjects and objects of the education atthe same time. They teach themselves through various activities, creativitiesand social interaction for their character and personality building. Thislearning process is purposely undertaken in Gontor, because the basicprinciple of this system is to actualize the community orientation throughwhich the students in the campus guided and prepared to have a spirit ofself reliance. So when they back to the society to undertake the real life theyconfidently take their role to develop their society for the sake of Allah andunity of muslim ummah.

  7. Communities, Boundaries and New Neighbours: the Discursive Construction of EU Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuditta Caliendo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The institutional discourse of the European Union (EU is undergoing important changes that are also reflected by new initiatives in its communication policy. Against a background of widespread scepticism towards EU enlargement among the public, this change is driven by the need to promote the widening of its borders in a more effective way in order to prompt popular endorsement. Through the use of its textual and visual communicative strategies, the EU is thus finding new ways to buttress its legitimacy and raise consensus around its political actions. The node of interaction between citizens and institutions is represented by the informative publications of the EU (also made available on the europa website, which become a constitutive element in building Union-to-citizen communication. The analysis of textual and visual formulations of the European Commission’s key booklets on EU enlargement in the period from 2004 to 2007 - in terms of their content and pragmatic aims - reveals the emergence of new consensus-building strategies. Results show that a sense of allegiance and belonging attributed to a deepening of European integration is now increasingly linked to the practical advantages of EU enlargement, as expressed through the use of ‘promotional’ and strategic discursive practices. Moving away from a merely informative content, communication modes ‘migrate’ towards a more direct and ‘commodified’ type of message, while an increase in visual elements plays a complementing role in promoting legitimacy and a feeling of mutual belonging between ‘old’ and ‘new’ members of the European family.

  8. EuroEco (European Health Economic Trial on Home Monitoring in ICD Patients): a provider perspective in five European countries on costs and net financial impact of follow-up with or without remote monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidbuchel, Hein; Hindricks, Gerd; Broadhurst, Paul; Van Erven, Lieselot; Fernandez-Lozano, Ignacio; Rivero-Ayerza, Maximo; Malinowski, Klaus; Marek, Andrea; Romero Garrido, Rafael F; Löscher, Steffen; Beeton, Ian; Garcia, Enrique; Cross, Stephen; Vijgen, Johan; Koivisto, Ulla-Maija; Peinado, Rafael; Smala, Antje; Annemans, Lieven

    2015-01-14

    different for remote FU vs. purely in-office FU, despite reorganized care. However, disparity in the impact on provider budget among different countries illustrates the need for proper reimbursement to ensure effective remote FU implementation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  9. PROBLEMS AND COSTS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION EXPANSION WITH OVER 27 STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Zaharioaie

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Once on his way to enlargement, the European Union has taken a road of no return. History has shown that all candidate countries have become a point of EU Member States. The question thus is not where you go to the European Union enlargement, but how it will look after the enlargement of the Union politically, economically and socially. The objective of this paper is to analyze potential problems and costs of enlargement beyond the 27 states. Thus, we performed an analysis on the implications of enlargement to the Balkans to Asia Minor and even to the former Soviet bloc countries.

  10. High-skilled labour mobility in Europe before and after the 2004 enlargement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Alexander M; Puliga, Michelangelo

    2017-03-01

    The extent to which international high-skilled mobility channels are forming is a question of great importance in an increasingly global knowledge-based economy. One factor facilitating the growth of high-skilled labour markets is the standardization of certifiable degrees meriting international recognition. Within this context, we analysed an extensive high-skilled mobility database comprising roughly 382 000 individuals from five broad profession groups (Medical, Education, Technical, Science & Engineering and Business & Legal) over the period 1997-2014, using the 13-country expansion of the European Union (EU) to provide insight into labour market integration. We compare the periods before and after the 2004 enlargement, showing the emergence of a new east-west migration channel between the 13 mostly eastern EU entrants (E) and the rest of the western European countries (W). Indeed, we observe a net directional loss of human capital from E → W, representing 29% of the total mobility after 2004. Nevertheless, the counter-migration from W → E is 7% of the total mobility over the same period, signalling the emergence of brain circulation within the EU. Our analysis of the country-country mobility networks and the country-profession bipartite networks provides timely quantitative evidence for the convergent integration of the EU, and highlights the central role of the UK and Germany as high-skilled labour hubs. We conclude with two data-driven models to explore the structural dynamics of the mobility networks. First, we develop a reconfiguration model to explore the potential ramifications of Brexit and the degree to which redirection of high-skilled labourers away from the UK may impact the integration of the rest of the European mobility network. Second, we use a panel regression model to explain empirical high-skilled mobility rates in terms of various economic 'push-pull' factors, the results of which show that government expenditure on education, per capita

  11. Variation in Structure and Process of Care in Traumatic Brain Injury: Provider Profiles of European Neurotrauma Centers Participating in the CENTER-TBI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryse C Cnossen

    Full Text Available The strength of evidence underpinning care and treatment recommendations in traumatic brain injury (TBI is low. Comparative effectiveness research (CER has been proposed as a framework to provide evidence for optimal care for TBI patients. The first step in CER is to map the existing variation. The aim of current study is to quantify variation in general structural and process characteristics among centers participating in the Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI study.We designed a set of 11 provider profiling questionnaires with 321 questions about various aspects of TBI care, chosen based on literature and expert opinion. After pilot testing, questionnaires were disseminated to 71 centers from 20 countries participating in the CENTER-TBI study. Reliability of questionnaires was estimated by calculating a concordance rate among 5% duplicate questions.All 71 centers completed the questionnaires. Median concordance rate among duplicate questions was 0.85. The majority of centers were academic hospitals (n = 65, 92%, designated as a level I trauma center (n = 48, 68% and situated in an urban location (n = 70, 99%. The availability of facilities for neuro-trauma care varied across centers; e.g. 40 (57% had a dedicated neuro-intensive care unit (ICU, 36 (51% had an in-hospital rehabilitation unit and the organization of the ICU was closed in 64% (n = 45 of the centers. In addition, we found wide variation in processes of care, such as the ICU admission policy and intracranial pressure monitoring policy among centers.Even among high-volume, specialized neurotrauma centers there is substantial variation in structures and processes of TBI care. This variation provides an opportunity to study effectiveness of specific aspects of TBI care and to identify best practices with CER approaches.

  12. Gingival enlargement as a manifestation of tuberous sclerosis: case report and periodontal management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korol, Urszula B; Schoor, Robert; Nanda, Veena; Almas, Khalid; Phelan, Joan A

    2008-04-01

    Tuberous sclerosis is an autosomal-dominant inherited disease involving many organs of the body. Oral manifestations include gingival enlargement, fibromas, and dental enamel pitting. The report presents a case of tuberous sclerosis with gingival enlargement histologically consistent with angiofibroma, describes its successful periodontal management, and reviews the literature associated with oral manifestations of tuberous sclerosis. A 26-year-old white male presented to the Department of Periodontics and Implant Dentistry, New York University College of Dentistry, with a diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis and a chief complaint of gingival enlargement affecting mastication and esthetics. Following a complete medical history review, consultation with the patient's medical team at New York University Medical Center, and a thorough oral and periodontal examination, a treatment plan was developed that included oral hygiene instructions, mechanical debridement, and periodontal reevaluation. This was followed by gingivectomy, which provided improved function and esthetics. Excised tissue was submitted for histologic examination. The patient was followed every 2 months for assessment of the outcome of the surgical treatment. An extensive search of the dental and dermatologic literature was performed on MEDLINE. Histologic examination of the gingival tissue revealed features consistent with angiofibroma. Fifteen months following gingivectomy, the contours and gingival surface appearance remained normal. The gingival enlargement was histologically consistent with the characteristic angiofibromas of tuberous sclerosis. The gingival enlargement responded very well to gingivectomy and periodontal maintenance.

  13. The Political Psychology of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    express for the EU and fellow Europeans, and the passion with which supporters of the EU argue for greater integration and enlargement are today central to understanding European integration. Being mindful of Europe - reflecting on the ways in which psychology and politics are deeply implicated in under...

  14. Normalization of Bilateral Adrenal Gland Enlargement after Treatment for Cryptococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Muraoka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcosis usually occurs in immunocompromised patients and can cause enlargement of the adrenal glands, although the morphologic changes after treatment have not been reported in detail. We report the case of 24-year-old man with fevers, headaches, and impaired consciousness who had been treated with glucocorticoids for a protein-losing gastroenteropathy. The cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed cryptococcal meningitis. Computed tomography showed bilateral adrenal enlargement. A retrospective analysis revealed that the enlargement had been detected 5 months before admission and gradually increased. The enlargement was improved with antifungal therapy and normalized 6 months later. This is the first report describing morphological changes in the adrenal glands associated with cryptococcal meningitis. Adrenal enlargement by cryptococcosis can be improved without any abnormal findings, including calcifications, which may be a unique characteristic from other diseases, including tuberculosis.

  15. Scientific collaboration between 'old' and 'new' member states: Did joining the European Union make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Mitze, Timo

    This paper provides new insights on the effects of the enlargement of the European Union (EU) and European integration by investigating the issue of scientific collaboration within the new EU member states vis - à - vis the old EU member states. The question addressed is whether the EU membership following the two enlargement waves 2004 and 2007 has significantly increased the co-publication intensity of the new member states with other member countries. The empirical results based on data collected from the Web of Science database and Difference-in-Difference estimations point towards a conclusion that joining the EU indeed has had an additional positive impact on the co-publication intensity between the new and old member states and, in particular, within the new member states themselves. These results give tentative support for the successfulness of the EU's science policies in achieving a common 'internal market' in research. We also find evidence for early anticipation effects of the consecutive EU accession.

  16. SLC26A4 mutation testing for hearing loss associated with enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Taku; Muskett, Julie; Chattaraj, Parna; Choi, Byung Yoon; Lee, Kyu Yup; Zalewski, Christopher K; King, Kelly A; Li, Xiangming; Wangemann, Philine; Shawker, Thomas; Brewer, Carmen C; Alper, Seth L; Griffith, Andrew J

    2013-05-28

    Pendred syndrome (PS) is characterized by autosomal recessive inheritance of goiter associated with a defect of iodide organification, hearing loss, enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct (EVA), and mutations of the SLC26A4 gene. However, not all EVA patients have PS or SLC26A4 mutations. Two mutant alleles of SLC26A4 are detected in ¼ of North American or European EVA populations, one mutant allele is detected in another ¼ of patient populations, and no mutations are detected in the other ½. The presence of two mutant alleles of SLC26A4 is associated with abnormal iodide organification, increased thyroid gland volume, increased severity of hearing loss, and bilateral EVA. The presence of a single mutant allele of SLC26A4 is associated with normal iodide organification, normal thyroid gland volume, less severe hearing loss and either bilateral or unilateral EVA. When other underlying correlations are accounted for, the presence of a cochlear malformation or the size of EVA does not have an effect on hearing thresholds. This is consistent with observations of an Slc26a4 mutant mouse model of EVA in which hearing loss is independent of endolymphatic hydrops or inner ear malformations. Segregation analyses of EVA in families suggest that the patients carrying one mutant allele of SLC26A4 have a second, undetected mutant allele of SLC26A4, and the probability of a sibling having EVA is consistent with its segregation as an autosomal recessive trait. Patients without any mutations are an etiologically heterogeneous group in which siblings have a lower probability of having EVA. SLC26A4 mutation testing can provide prognostic information to guide clinical surveillance and management, as well as the probability of EVA affecting a sibling.

  17. Quantum weak and modular values in enlarged Hilbert spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Le Bin; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2018-01-01

    We introduce an enlarged state, which combines both pre- and postselection states at a given time t in between the pre- and postselection. Based on this form, quantum weak and modular values can be completely interpreted as expectation values of a linear combination of given operators in the enlarged Hilbert space. This formalism thus enables us to describe and measure the weak and modular values at any time dynamically. A protocol for implementing an enlarged Hamiltonian has also been proposed and applied to a simple example of a single spin under an external magnetic field. In addition, the time-dependent weak and modular values for pre- and postselection density matrices mapping onto an enlarged density matrix are also discussed.

  18. The universe, life, and intelligence (Sixth enlarged edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shklovskii, Iosif Samuilovich

    This classic work examines the possibility of the existence of life (including intelligent life) on other planetary systems. This enlarged edition includes essays on the search for extraterrestrial civilizations and the possibility of communication with intelligent beings on other planets.

  19. How do plants enlarge? A balancing act; Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, J.S.

    1996-12-31

    Cells of plants are surrounded by strong walls that prevent rupture from internal pressures that can be two or three times that of an automobile tire. In this way, the walls protect the cytoplasm. However, at the same time, the cells can enlarge as they grow. How this balancing act works and how it enlarges the plant were the subject of a recent conference at the University of Delaware in Lewes. The aim was to identify areas for future research that could explain the enlargement of whole plants. There is a large practical need to predict and modify plant enlargement but the additional processes that overlie the molecular ones need to be integrated with the molecular information before a picture will emerge. How best to accomplish this involved input from cross-disciplinary areas in biomechanics, physics and engineering as well as molecular biology, biochemistry and ultrastructure.

  20. 論歐洲專利公約下手術方法可專利性之最新發展——以歐洲專利局擴大上訴委員會G 1/07案為中心 Patent Protection for Surgical Methods Under the European Patent Convention — The Opinion of the Enlarged Board of Appeal G 1/07

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    許曉芬 Hsiao-Fen Hsu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available 醫療方法之專利保護向來是一個充滿爭論且棘手的問題。歐洲專利公約於2000 年修法時,將不予醫療方法專利的立法架構,從擬制不具產業利用性變更法定不予專利事項。限制的項目維持不變,仍為人體或動物之「手術方法」、「治療方法」及在人體或動物上實施之「診斷方法」。而歐洲專利局擴大上訴委員會於2005 年關於診斷方法的G 1/04 ( Diagnostic methods/CYGNUS)案,及2010 年關於手術方法的G 1/07(Treatment by surgery/MEDI-PHYSIC)案之決定,更是進一步嘗試替爭議許久的醫療方法判斷標準及解釋方法,找出一最符合法安定性的平衡觀點。特別是在G 1/07 案中,擴大上訴委員會明確指出歐洲專利公約中之法定不予專利事項,應和其他可專利性要件採同樣之解釋方法,而非逕自認為宜採從嚴解釋。我國專利法及審查基準對醫療方法之看法,不管是定義或構成要件,都與歐洲形成之判斷標準十分接近。本文藉由對歐洲專利局最新醫療方法相關決定的詳細分析,期能提供我國法制在醫療專利和公共健康議題上,參考借鏡之處。 Under article 53(c of the European Patent Convention (the “EPC” 2000, methods for medical or veterinary treatment, namely therapeutic, surgical and diagnostic methods, are excluded from patent protection. Considering the difficulty to find a balance between the interests of public health and of patients, specially freeing the medical profession from constraints which would be imposed on them by patents granted on method of medical treatment, and the proper patent protection for these medical related inventions, the Enlarged Board of Appeal of the European Patent Office has delineated the boundaries of the exclusion to insure the necessary legal certainty by two recent decisions G 1/04 and G 1/07. This article attempts to analyze these recent

  1. Doorkeepers and Gatecrashers: EU Enlargement and Negotiation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Schröder, Philipp; Weise, Christian

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the eastward enlargement process of the EU in the framework of a simple war of attrition bargaining game. Both players -- the existing EU members and the applicants -- benefit from enlargement, yet for the applicants, reform to the acquis is costly, while the EU prefers subst...... the benefits for new members are all effective negotiation strategies for the EU that have been applied in the process....

  2. Rib enlargement in premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung; Han, Kim Bokyung; Chang, Yun Sil; Choo, In Wook [Samsung Medical Center, School of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyeong Ah [Anyang General Hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the rib changes seen in patients with brochopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Serial chest radiographs of nine premature infants with BPD who showed diffuse rib enlargement were reviewed for hyperinflation, which was compared with the observed degree of rib enlargement. Vibrator chest physiotherapy was performed in all cases, and five infants underwent conventional ventilation plus high frequency oscillatory ventilation therapy. Their calcium level was normal whereas alkaline phosphatase and phosphate levels were high. In all infants except one, liver enzyme levels were normal. For the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus, infection, and BPD, medications including indomethacin, antibiotics, and dexamethasone were administered. Vitamin D was given to all patients with total parenteral nutrition. Rib enlargement was found to be severe (n=3D4), moderate (n=3D3), or mild (n=3D2) with undulating margins or posterior tapering (n=3D2). Hyperinflation was noted in eight patients, in seven of whom it was moderate to severe. Among these seven, rib enlargement was severe (n=3D2), moderate (n=3D3), or mild (n=3D2). In one infant with mild hyperinflation, rib enlargement was severe. Bilateral irregular infiltrates and atelectases were noted in all patients. In BPD patients, rib enlargement may be seen. In order to differentiate this process from systemic bone disease or bony dysplasia, an awareness of the rib changes occurring in patients with BPD may be important. (author)

  3. Use of Macrolane VRF 30 in emicircumferential penis enlargement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sito, Giuseppe; Marlino, Sergio; Santorelli, Adriano

    2013-02-01

    Penis enlargement is increasingly in demand. Methods for penis enlargement can be classified into surgical, nonsurgical (filling), and mechanical. Each method has shown only relatively successful results. A new formulation of injectable, stabilized, hyaluronic acid (HA)-based, nonanimal gel is available that may have applications for this use. The authors propose a new technique for emicircumferential-injection filling of the penis and assess the safety and efficacy of this procedure compared with lipofilling. The authors retrospectively reviewed the charts of 83 patients who underwent penis enlargement with either their HA-injection technique or lipofilling between December 2007 and July 2011. Safety, efficacy, and patient satisfaction were assessed. The circumferential enlargement obtained from both techniques ranged from 3.2 to 4.5 cm, with a decrement during erection. In all patients, the increase in penis length ranged from 1.8 to 3.6 cm. No complications were seen in patients treated with HA, whereas 8 patients treated with lipofilling developed granuloma, and another experienced fat necrosis. The vast majority (n = 72) of patients reported being "very satisfied" with the results. The ideal technique for penis enlargement should be nonsurgical, with a satisfactory and predictable result, a low rate of complications, and long-term stability. Emicircumferential enlargement with HA filler meets these requirements. However, results have been durable but not definitive, and repeated treatment (with associated costs) is necessary.

  4. Ubx regulates differential enlargement and diversification of insect hind legs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmus Mahfooz

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Differential enlargement of hind (T3 legs represents one of the hallmarks of insect evolution. However, the actual mechanism(s responsible are yet to be determined. To address this issue, we have now studied the molecular basis of T3 leg enlargement in Oncopeltus fasciatus (milkweed bug and Acheta domesticus (house cricket. In Oncopeltus, the T3 tibia displays a moderate increase in size, whereas in Acheta, the T3 femur, tibia, and tarsus are all greatly enlarged. Here, we show that the hox gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx is expressed in the enlarged segments of hind legs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that depletion of Ubx during embryogenesis has a primary effect in T3 legs and causes shortening of leg segments that are enlarged in a wild type. This result shows that Ubx is regulating the differential growth and enlargement of T3 legs in both Oncopeltus and Acheta. The emerging view suggests that Ubx was co-opted for a novel role in regulating leg growth and that the transcriptional modification of its expression may be a universal mechanism for the evolutionary diversification of insect hind legs.

  5. Ubx Regulates Differential Enlargement and Diversification of Insect Hind Legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfooz, Najmus; Turchyn, Nataliya; Mihajlovic, Michelle; Hrycaj, Steven; Popadić, Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Differential enlargement of hind (T3) legs represents one of the hallmarks of insect evolution. However, the actual mechanism(s) responsible are yet to be determined. To address this issue, we have now studied the molecular basis of T3 leg enlargement in Oncopeltus fasciatus (milkweed bug) and Acheta domesticus (house cricket). In Oncopeltus, the T3 tibia displays a moderate increase in size, whereas in Acheta, the T3 femur, tibia, and tarsus are all greatly enlarged. Here, we show that the hox gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx) is expressed in the enlarged segments of hind legs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that depletion of Ubx during embryogenesis has a primary effect in T3 legs and causes shortening of leg segments that are enlarged in a wild type. This result shows that Ubx is regulating the differential growth and enlargement of T3 legs in both Oncopeltus and Acheta. The emerging view suggests that Ubx was co-opted for a novel role in regulating leg growth and that the transcriptional modification of its expression may be a universal mechanism for the evolutionary diversification of insect hind legs. PMID:17848997

  6. Enlargement Project: Insight into ICT Professional Skills and Jobs in the Candidate Countries. Enlargement Futures Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourova, Elissaveta

    A study examined information and communication technologies (ICT) job trends and the prospects for preservation and supply of high skilled professionals in the medium and longer term in candidate countries (CCs), for admission into the European Union, focusing on Bulgaria, Estonia, Hungary, and Poland. Rapidly changing technology and growth of…

  7. The increasing impact of Europeanization and migrating labour on the Danish labour market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refslund, Bjarke

    Somewhat unexpectedly from the experience of integrating new Southern European members, the enlargement of the European Union with the Central and Eastern European countries has quite far-reaching effects on the Danish labour market by facilitating labour migration. Since the Danish transitional...... though EU8/2 workers still only accounts for around three per cent of total Danish employment there may be more significant regulatory and institutional effects since employers use the labour inflow to put pressure on wage levels, working conditions and the general scope and range of the collective...... agreements especially for low-skilled labour in sectors like agriculture and cleaning, that have high inflows. A large number of Eastern Europeans are working significantly below the de facto minimum wages negotiated between the social partners. This paper provides case study research from the agricultural...

  8. ACTUAL REQUIREMENTS REGARDING THE INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL AT AN EUROPEAN AND INTERNATIONAL LEVEL. THE ASSESSMENT OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN ORGANISATIONS PROVIDING INSTRUCTION SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danut Neacsu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Council had and still has in view the profound changes taking place in society: globalization represents for Europe a competitors intensification in all the economical sectors, while the developing and the diversification of the information technologies can lead to a radical change of the whole learning and educational system, opening the perspectives for learning possibilities and accumulating knowledge during all one’s life. The topic actuality of this article consist from the fact that, due to the globalization and the international competition intensification the request for workers with a low qualification level decreases; the new jobs presuppose high performances, flexibility, stress on qualities such as: high level of performance, creativity, openness to change, initiative. People will be obliged to possess much more knowledge, competences and they will have to work in multi spheres teams. Of course that not all the people can become conceptual analysts, something like this cannot be required, but an adaptation to the new system, to the new economy is required. At present, more and more people work in domains in which information is created. In the future this percent will grow. The utilizing on a large scale of machines and installations will determine that even workers from the basic domains to be better and better prepared. In the countries OECD the unemployment rate is higher for the persons with a second education, unlike the persons with a higher education, the manpower being in this way forced to become more qualified. On the other hand, as more and more work is taking place at an intellectual level, the detaining and manipulating of information becomes an essential quality for each employee. This article has as a main objective the highlighting of actual requirements regarding the quality assurance in instruction services at an European and international level. Thus, the permanent learning strategies from the

  9. Cooperative diplomacy: Citizens, sovereignty, and the logic of democratic enlargement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndungu, Anthony Mark

    2000-12-01

    The contemporary theory of international regimes holds that governments collaborate when they reach a consensus on a centralized supervisory mechanism for resolving compliance, monitoring, and distributive questions. Yet, in the least likely case of international nuclear security, governments have repeatedly established major international regimes without such a consensus, even though undetected defection would impose substantial long-term costs on those continuing to comply, and seriously complicate attempts at retaliation. For example, despite more than ten years of almost continuous East-West negotiations, governments could not reach a consensus on the compliance questions related to the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) safeguards regime. Yet, threshold and potential nuclear powers, such as France and India, respectively, exempted themselves from the IAEA's safeguards regime, but gained access to the knowledge, facilities and materials intended exclusively for full participants. Similarly, France, Italy, and Germany failed to agree on a centralized mechanism for supervising the production of nuclear warheads for a Western European nuclear force. Indeed, even the member states of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) could not agree on an effective centralized mechanism for supervising the regional production of fissionable materials. Yet, under the 1958 United States-EURATOM Nuclear Cooperation agreement, the United States agreed to expand its sales of enriched uranium and other special nuclear materials to the discordant members of EURATOM, who jointly assumed responsibility for an independent regional system of safeguards. Finally, the U.S. and Soviet governments could not agree on a centralized mechanism for solving the compliance questions related to the Partial Test Ban Treaty concluded in 1963, but the two superpowers and the U.K. left the resolution of those questions to the domestic authorities of the signatory states. I hypothesize

  10. Peculiar enlargement of the nasopharynx in patients with anorexia nervosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, K. [Department of Radiology, School of Dentistry, Niigata Univ. (Japan); Ito, J. [Department of Radiology, School of Dentistry, Niigata Univ. (Japan); Tokiguchi, S. [Department of Radiology, School of Dentistry, Niigata Univ. (Japan); Kuwabara, G. [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Niigata University, Niigata (Japan); Nishihara, M. [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Niigata University, Niigata (Japan)

    1995-11-01

    We examined the nasopharynx and brain in 17 patients with anorexia nervosa by CT and compared the findings with those of 44 normal subjects and of 5 patients of the same age with marked emaciation caused by various psychiatric disorders. An enlarged nasopharyngeal space with a flattened posterior wall and enlarged lateral pharyngeal recesses were demonstrated in all patients with anorexia nervosa whose weight was lowest at the time of the CT examination, and these CT features regressed or became normal quickly after they had gained some weight. This characteristic enlargement of the nasopharynx and lateral pharyngeal recesses was observed neither in the markedly emaciated patients (2 with schizophrenia, 1 with major depression, 1 with stupor and the other with an extremely unbalanced diet) nor in 44 normal subjects without emaciation. These features were therefore thought to be characteristic and of diagnostic significance. (orig.). With 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. The Food and Drug Administration reports provided more data but were more difficult to use than the European Medicines Agency reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Jeppe Bennekou; Abdel-Sattar, Maher; Bero, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the accessibility, comprehensiveness, and usefulness of data available from the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) drug reports. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: This is a cross-sectional study. All new molecular drugs approved between January...... 1, 2011 and December 31, 2012 from the FDA and EMA Web sites were eligible. RESULTS: We included 27 drug reports. Most were searchable, but the FDA table of contents did not match the file's page numbers. Several FDA documents must be searched compared with a single EMA document, but the FDA reports...... contain more summary data on harms. Detailed information about harms was reported for 93% of the FDA reports (25 of 27 reports) and 26% of the EMA reports (7 of 27 reports). The reports contained information about trial methodology but did not include trial registry IDs or investigator names. All reports...

  12. Gingival enlargement unveiling sarcoidosis: Report of a rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabeeha Abbas Kadiwala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is classified as an acquired systemic granulomatous disease. Because of the fact that sarcoidosis affects multiple tissues and organs, it is characterized by many potential signs and symptoms, as well as by the presence of non-caseating granulomas in the organs involved. Although oral sarcoidosis is relatively rare, it may however, present in the oral cavity. This report presents a rare case of sarcoidosis with the initial presenting symptom as severe generalized gingival enlargement. The gingival enlargement was treated by gingivectomy. After histopathological examination of gingival biopsy and certain special investigations, a diagnosis of sarcoidosis was made.

  13. Holographic display with LED sources illumination and enlarged viewing angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlipała, Maksymilian; Kozacki, Tomasz

    2016-09-01

    In this work we present holographic display that uses LED sources illumination and have enlarged viewing angle. In this holographic display design we employ phase only SLM because it allows to obtain reconstructions of high quality. Our setup realizes complex coding scheme and allows to reconstruct complex holographic images. Thus reconstruction of inplane holograms is possible. Holograms displayed on SLM are computer generated. For enlargement of angular field of view we use three spatially separated illumination sources and time multiplexing technique. In experimental part, where we display computer generated holograms, we show that it is possible to obtain holographic reconstructions of 3D object with extended viewing angle.

  14. Mitral-aortic annular enlargement: modification of Manouguian's technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Mario Gesteira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We hereby present a technical modification for mitral-aortic annular enlargement. The mitral valve is replaced through the retro-septal approach, avoiding patches for left atrial roof closure. We report a mitral-aortic valve replacement in a patient whose original annuli would preclude adequate prostheses. The simultaneous annular enlargement may be necessary for avoiding patient-prosthesis mismatch and for reconstructing destroyed mitral and aortic annuli. The technique may minimize the risk of bleeding and of paravalvular leakage, using an approach well known to cardiac surgeons.

  15. Spleen and liver enlargement in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya, María Eugenia; Ceccato, Federico; Paira, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of a 51-year-old woman with a seropositive, erosive, and non-nodular rheumatoid arthritis of 15 year of evolution. The patient had poor compliance with medical visits and treatment. She came to the clinic with persistent pancytopenia and spleen and liver enlargement. Liver and bone marrow biopsies were carried out and amyloidosis, neoplasias and infections were ruled out. We discuss the differential diagnosis of pancytopenia and spleen and liver enlargement in a long-standing rheumatoid arthritis patient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Image enlargement using biharmonic Said-Ball surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaban, A.; Kherd, A.; Jameel, A. F.; Akhadkulov, H.; Alipiah, F. M.

    2017-09-01

    This paper discusses the use of biharmonic cubic Said-Ball surfaces in image enlargement area. Resizing an image through up sampling or down sampling is generally common for making smaller image fit a bigger screen in full screen mode or reducing a higher resolution image to a smaller resolution. However due to some limitation, this paper will focus on image enlargement based on scaling factor of two. We use biharmonic cubic Said-Ball subject to a given four boundary curves condition respectively. We implement and evaluate the performance of the proposed method based on peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) indicator using well-known gray-scale test images.

  17. Genome-wide methylation patterns provide insight into differences in breast tumor biology between American women of African and European ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosone, Christine B; Young, Allyson C; Sucheston, Lara E; Wang, Dan; Yan, Li; Liu, Song; Tang, Li; Hu, Qiang; Freudenheim, Jo L; Shields, Peter G; Morrison, Carl D; Demissie, Kitaw; Higgins, Michael J

    2014-01-15

    American women of African ancestry (AA) are more likely than European-Americans (EA) to be diagnosed with aggressive, estrogen receptor (ER) negative breast tumors; mechanisms underlying these disparities are poorly understood. We conducted a genome wide (450K loci) methylation analysis to determine if there were differences in DNA methylation patterns between tumors from AA and EA women and if these differences were similar for both ER positive and ER negative breast cancer. Methylation levels at CpG loci within CpG islands (CGI)s and CGI-shores were significantly higher in tumors (n=138) than in reduction mammoplasty samples (n=124). In hierarchical cluster analysis, there was separation between tumor and normal samples, and in tumors, there was delineation by ER status, but not by ancestry. However, differential methylation analysis identified 157 CpG loci with a mean β value difference of at least 0.17 between races, with almost twice as many differences in ER-negative tumors compared to ER-positive cancers. This first genome-wide methylation study to address disparities indicates that there are likely differing etiologic pathways for the development of ER negative breast cancer between AA and EA women. Further investigation of the genes most differentially methylated by race in ER negative tumors can guide new approaches for cancer prevention and targeted therapies, and elucidate the biologic basis of breast cancer disparities.

  18. Outcome of fetuses with enlarged nuchal translucency and normal karyotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilardo, C. M.; Pajkrt, E.; de Graaf, I.; Mol, B. W.; Bleker, O. P.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between nuchal translucency measurements and outcome of pregnancy with special regard to fetuses with an enlarged nuchal translucency and a normal karyotype. Fetal nuchal translucency measurements were performed on consecutive mothers attending

  19. Amygdala and Hippocampus Enlargement during Adolescence in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Wouter; Teluij, Michelle; Buitelaar, Jan; Tendolkar, Indira

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The amygdala and hippocampus are key components of the neural system mediating emotion perception and regulation and are thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of autism. Although some studies in children with autism suggest that there is an enlargement of amygdala and hippocampal volume, findings in adolescence are sparse.…

  20. Drug-induced gingival enlargement: Series of cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Manzur-Villalobos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gingival enlargement (GA is a benign condition of the oral cavity that is characterized by the excessive growth of the gingiva in mass and volume. This lesion is not only caused by hereditary factors or poor oral hygiene, but also by the intake of medications, including antihypertensive, anticonvulsant and immunosuppressive drugs. Objective: To sensitize the prevention or early care in patients with pathologies that merit the use of antihypertensive and anticonvulsants in conjunction with the dentist, to treat or avoid the drug-induced gingival enlargement (DIGE. Materials and methods: A series of clinical cases of patients with gingival enlargement by various drugs are reported, including Phenytoin, Amlodipine and Nifedipine. Periodontal and gingivectomy hygienic phase measures were applied to obtain better effects. Results: Satisfactory results were obtained with a considerable decrease in DIGE. Conclusions: The integral management is important in conjunction with the treating physician to follow up the drug that can be generating gingival enlargement. It is necessary to employ an initial approach with strategies of periodontal hygiene, and in severe cases and, as last resort, the periodontal surgery with gingivectomy and gingivoplasty.

  1. Enlarged Vestibular Aqueduct Syndrome: Sudden Hearing Loss in a Child with a Cerebral Shunt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Wendi-Jo; Hashikawa, Andrew

    2017-07-04

    Enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome (EVAS) is the most common congenital ear anomaly that causes sensorineural hearing loss in children and may predispose a child to sudden hearing loss from sudden pressure changes or minor head trauma. We report a case of a 4-year-old boy with a history of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt and migraines who presented to the emergency department with parental and child care provider reports of acute hearing loss, without a history of trauma, infection, or hardware malfunction, who was diagnosed with bilateral EVAS. Diagnosis of EVAS occurs with specific temporal bone imaging with either high-resolution, thin-cut computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scans. Enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome is typically refractory to medical treatment and often results in hearing loss that is too severe to benefit from amplification, requiring cochlear implantation.

  2. Clinical and morphological study of calf enlargement following S-1 radiculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo J. M. Nascimento

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Calf enlargement following sciatica is a rare condition. It is reported the case of a 28-year-old woman who complained of repeated episodes of lower back pain radiating into the left buttock and foot. One year after the beginning of her symptoms, she noticed enlargement of her left calf. X-ray studies disclosed L5-S1 disk degeneration. EMG showed muscle denervation with normal motor conduction velocity. Open biopsies of the gastrocnemius muscles were performed. The left gastrocnemius muscle showed hypertrophic type 2 fibers in comparison with the right gastrocnemius. Electron microscopy showed mildly increased number of mitochondria in these fibers. A satisfactory explanation for denervation hypertrophy has yet to be provided.

  3. EU Enlargement: Migration flows from Central and Eastern Europe into the Nordic countries - exploiting a natural experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Pytlikova, Mariola

    In this paper we look at migration flows from 10 Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC) to 5 Nordic countries over the years 1985 - 2007. We exploit a natural experiment that arose from the fact that while Sweden opened its labour market from the day one of the 2004 EU enlargement...... of the "EU entry" on migration. Therefore we look at migration flows from CEECs during the first round of EU enlargement towards the East in 2004 and compare them with migration flows from Bulgaria and Romania. The estimated effect from our D-in-D analyses is positive and significant in all model......, and Finland and Iceland from year 2006, the other Nordic countries chose a transition period in relation to the "new" EU members. The results based on a differences-in-differences estimator show that the estimated effect of the opening of the Swedish, Finnish and Icelandic labour markets on migration from...

  4. EU Enlargement: Migration flows from Central and Eastern Europe into the Nordic countries - exploiting a natural experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pytlikova, Mariola; Pedersen, Peder J.

    We look at migration flows from 8 Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) to 5 Nordic countries over the years 1985 - 2005 and we can exploit a natural experiment that arose from the fact that while Sweden opened its labour market from the day one of the 2004 EU enlargement, the other Nordic...... are interested in the overall effect of the "EU entry" on migration. Therefore we look at migration flows from CEECs during the first round EU enlargement towards CEECs in 2004 and compare them with migration flows from Bulgaria and Romania. We again used a DD estimator in our analysis. The estimated effect...... countries chose a transition period in relation to the "new" EU members. We employ a differences-in-differences estimator in our analysis. The results show that the estimated effect of the opening of Swedish labour market in 2004 on migration is insignificantly different from zero. Further, we...

  5. The European Virtual Broadband Seismic Network (VEBSN) and ORFEUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eck, Torild; Sleeman, Reinoud; van den, Gert-Jan Hazel; Networks, Contributing

    2010-05-01

    Since 2002 ORFEUS has been coordinating the VEBSN concept, in which (near) real-time data is exchanged between Seismological observatory networks and the Orfeus Data Center (ODC). Seismological observatories in and around Europe have usually as primary objective the monitoring and analysis of current local and regional seismicity and seismic hazard. The data gathered by the observatories is, however, also valuable for fundamental research within global and European scale seismology; and therefore a primary data source for Academic seismological research. Within the VEBSN concept, the ODC provides and improves Quality control procedures for the observatories and the observatories provide real-time data for long-term secure waveform data archives at the ODC accessible for seismological research. In this concept the data remains ownership of the contributing network, while the ODC provides a secure back-up archive of waveform data. By facilitating a few data exchange mechanism with emphasis on SeedLink, the VEBSN strategy also enables observatories to exchange data between each other, thus enhancing the capabilities of the local or regional network and improving its performance for their monitoring and hazard objectives More recently, the ODC has been enlarged into the European Distributed waveform Data Archive (EIDA) in which currently GFZ/GEOFON, INGV and RESIF participate in an effort to extend the accessible waveform archive beyond only the VEBSN data. Currently the VEBSN consists of more then 450 3-component stations, each channel well defined with a full up-to-date SEED volume, providing all relevant metadata for a full reconstruction of the true ground motion. This encompases only about 45% of the operational BB stations in the European-Mediterranean area and our goal is to enlarge this.

  6. Is the prefrontal cortex especially enlarged in the human brain allometric relations and remapping factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passingham, Richard E; Smaers, Jeroen B

    2014-01-01

    There has been no agreement as to whether the prefrontal cortex is especially enlarged in the human brain. To answer this question, we analyzed the only two datasets that provide information on total prefrontal cortex volume based on cytoarchitectonic criteria. One delineated the prefrontal cortex proper on the basis of cytoarchitectonic criteria; the other used a proxy of the prefrontal cortex based on a cytoarchitectonic delineation of the frontal lobe. To investigate whether all cortical association areas, including the prefrontal cortex, are enlarged in the human brain, we scaled the different areas to a common reference, the primary visual cortex. To investigate whether the prefrontal cortex is more enlarged than other association areas, we scaled it relative to its inputs from and outputs to other nonprimary areas. We carried out separate regression analyses using different data samples as a predictive baseline group: data for monkeys alone informs us on whether great apes are different from monkeys; data for all non-human anthropoids, including great apes, informs us on whether humans are different from all other primates. The analyses show that the value for the human prefrontal cortex is greater than expected, and that this is true even when data for the great apes are included in the analysis. They also show that the chimpanzee prefrontal cortex is greater than expected for a monkey with a similar sized cortex. We discuss possible functional consequences.

  7. Variation in structure and process of care in traumatic brain injury: Provider profiles of European Neurotrauma Centers participating in the CENTER-TBI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Cnossen (Maryse); S. Polinder (Suzanne); Lingsma, H.F. (Hester F.); A.I.R. Maas (Andrew); D.K. Menon (David ); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); Adams, H. (Hadie); Alessandro, M. (Masala); J.E. Allanson (Judith); Amrein, K. (Krisztina); Andaluz, N. (Norberto); N. Andelic (Nada); Andrea, N. (Nanni); L. Andreassen (Lasse); Anke, A. (Audny); Antoni, A. (Anna); Ardon, H. (Hilko); G. Audibert (Gérard); Auslands, K. (Kaspars); Azouvi, P. (Philippe); Baciu, C. (Camelia); Bacon, A. (Andrew); Badenes, R. (Rafael); Baglin, T. (Trevor); Bartels, R. (Ronald); Barzó, P. (Pál); Bauerfeind, U. (Ursula); R. Beer (Ronny); Belda, F.J. (Francisco Javier); B.-M. Bellander (Bo-Michael); A. Belli (Antonio); Bellier, R. (Rémy); H. Benali (Habib); Benard, T. (Thierry); M. Berardino (Maurizio); Beretta, L. (Luigi); Beynon, C. (Christopher); Bilotta, F. (Federico); H. Binder (Harald); Biqiri, E. (Erta); Blaabjerg, M. (Morten); Borgen, L.S. (Lund Stine); Bouzat, P. (Pierre); Bragge, P. (Peter); A. Brazinova (Alexandra); F. Brehar (Felix); Brorsson, C. (Camilla); Buki, A. (Andras); M. Bullinger (Monika); Bučková, V. (Veronika); Calappi, E. (Emiliana); P. Cameron (Peter); Carbayo, L.G. (Lozano Guillermo); Carise, E. (Elsa); Carpenter, C.; Castaño-León, A.M. (Ana M.); Causin, F. (Francesco); Chevallard, G. (Giorgio); A. Chieregato (Arturo); G. Citerio (Giuseppe); M. Coburn (Mark); J.P. Coles (Jonathan P.); Cooper, J.D. (Jamie D.); Correia, M. (Marta); A. Covic (Amra); N. Curry (Nicola); E. Czeiter (Endre); M. Czosnyka (Marek); Dahyot-Fizelier, C. (Claire); F. Damas (François); P. Damas (Pierre); H. Dawes (Helen); De Keyser, V. (Véronique); F. Della Corte (Francesco); B. Depreitere (Bart); Ding, S. (Shenghao); D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); K. Dizdarevic (Kemal); Dulière, G.-L. (Guy-Loup); Dzeko, A. (Adelaida); G. Eapen (George); Engemann, H. (Heiko); A. Ercole (Ari); P. Esser (Patrick); Ezer, E. (Erzsébet); M. Fabricius (Martin); V.L. Feigin (V.); Feng, J. (Junfeng); Foks, K. (Kelly); F. Fossi (Francesca); Francony, G. (Gilles); J. Frantzén (Janek); Freo, U. (Ulderico); S.K. Frisvold (Shirin Kordasti); Furmanov, A. (Alex); P. Gagliardo (Pablo); D. Galanaud (Damien); G. Gao (Guoyi); K. Geleijns (Karin); A. Ghuysen (Alexandre); Giraud, B. (Benoit); Glocker, B. (Ben); Gomez, P.A. (Pedro A.); Grossi, F. (Francesca); R.L. Gruen (Russell); Gupta, D. (Deepak); J.A. Haagsma (Juanita); E. Hadzic (Ermin); I. Haitsma (Iain); J.A. Hartings (Jed); R. Helbok (Raimund); E. Helseth (Eirik); Hertle, D. (Daniel); S. Hill (Sean); Hoedemaekers, A. (Astrid); S. Hoefer (Stefan); P.J. Hutchinson (Peter J.); Håberg, A.K. (Asta Kristine); B.C. Jacobs (Bart); Janciak, I. (Ivan); K. Janssens (Koen); J.-Y. Jiang (Ji-Yao); Jones, K. (Kelly); Kalala, J.-P. (Jean-Pierre); Kamnitsas, K. (Konstantinos); Karan, M. (Mladen); Karau, J. (Jana); A. Katila (Ari); M. Kaukonen (Maija); Keeling, D. (David); Kerforne, T. (Thomas); N. Ketharanathan (Naomi); J. Kettunen (Johannes); Kivisaari, R. (Riku); A.G. Kolias (Angelos G.); Kolumbán, B. (Bálint); E.J.O. Kompanje (Erwin); D. Kondziella (Daniel); L.-O. Koskinen (Lars-Owe); Kovács, N. (Noémi); F. Kalovits (Ferenc); A. Lagares (Alfonso); L. Lanyon (Linda); S. Laureys (Steven); Lauritzen, M. (Martin); F.E. Lecky (Fiona); C. Ledig (Christian); R. Lefering; V. Legrand (Valerie); Lei, J. (Jin); L. Levi (Leon); R. Lightfoot (Roger); H.F. Lingsma (Hester); D. Loeckx (Dirk); Lozano, A. (Angels); Luddington, R. (Roger); Luijten-Arts, C. (Chantal); A.I.R. Maas (Andrew I.R.); MacDonald, S. (Stephen); MacFayden, C. (Charles); M. Maegele; M. Majdan (Marek); Major, S. (Sebastian); A. Manara (Alex); Manhes, P. (Pauline); G. Manley (Geoffrey); Martin, D. (Didier); C. Martino (Costanza); Maruenda, A. (Armando); H. Maréchal (Hugues); Mastelova, D. (Dagmara); Mattern, J. (Julia); C. McMahon (Catherine); Melegh, B. (Béla); T. Menovsky (Tomas); C. Morganti-Kossmann (Cristina); Mulazzi, D. (Davide); Mutschler, M. (Manuel); H. Mühlan (Holger); Negru, A. (Ancuta); D. Nelson (David); E. Neugebauer (Eddy); V.F. Newcombe (Virginia F.); Noirhomme, Q. (Quentin); Nyirádi, J. (József); M. Oddo (Mauro); Oldenbeuving, A. (Annemarie); M. Oresic (Matej); Ortolano, F. (Fabrizio); A. Palotie (Aarno); P.M. Parizel; Patruno, A. (Adriana); J.-F. Payen (Jean-François); Perera, N. (Natascha); V. Perlbarg (Vincent); Persona, P. (Paolo); W.C. Peul (Wilco); N. Pichon (Nicolas); Piilgaard, H. (Henning); A. Piippo (Anna); Pili, F.S. (Floury Sébastien); M. Pirinen (Matti); H. Ples (Horia); Pomposo, I. (Inigo); M. Psota (Marek); P. Pullens (Pim); L. Puybasset (Louis); A. Ragauskas (Arminas); Raj, R. (Rahul); Rambadagalla, M. (Malinka); Rehorčíková, V. (Veronika); J.K.J. Rhodes (Jonathan K.J.); S. Richardson (Sylvia); S. Ripatti (Samuli); S. Rocka (Saulius); Rodier, N. (Nicolas); Roe, C. (Cecilie); Roise, O. (Olav); Roks, G. (Gerwin); Romegoux, P. (Pauline); J. Rosand (Jonathan); Rosenfeld, J. (Jeffrey); C. Rosenlund (Christina); G. Rosenthal (Guy); R. Rossaint (Rolf); S. Rossi (Sandra); Rostalski, T. (Tim); Rueckert, D.L. (Danie L.); Ruiz De Arcaute, F. (Felix); M. Rusnák (Martin); Sacchi, M. (Marco); Sahakian, B. (Barbara); J. Sahuquillo (Juan); O. Sakowitz (Oliver); Sala, F. (Francesca); Sanchez-Pena, P. (Paola); Sanchez-Porras, R. (Renan); Sandor, J. (Janos); Santos, E. (Edgar); N. Sasse (Nadine); Sasu, L. (Luminita); Savo, D. (Davide); I.B. Schipper (Inger); Schlößer, B. (Barbara); S. Schmidt (Silke); Schneider, A. (Annette); H. Schoechl (Herbert); G.G. Schoonman; R. Schou (Rico); E. Schwendenwein (Elisabeth); Schöll, M. (Michael); Sir, O. (Özcan); T. Skandsen (Toril); Smakman, L. (Lidwien); D. Smeets (Dirk); Smielewski, P. (Peter); Sorinola, A. (Abayomi); Stamatakis, E.L. (Emmanue L.); S. Stanworth (Simon); Stegemann, K. (Katrin); Steinbüchel, N. (Nicole); R. Stevens (Robert); W. Stewart (William); N. Stocchetti (Nino); Sundström, N. (Nina); Synnot, A. (Anneliese); J. Szabó (József); J. Söderberg (Jeannette); F.S. Taccone (Fabio); Tamás, V. (Viktória); Tanskanen, P. (Päivi); A. Tascu (Alexandru); Taylor, M.S. (Mark Steven); Te Ao, B. (Braden); O. Tenovuo (Olli); Teodorani, G. (Guido); A. Theadom (Alice); Thomas, M. (Matt); D. Tibboel (Dick); C.M. Tolias (Christos M.); Tshibanda, J.-F.L. (Jean-Flory Luaba); Tudora, C.M. (Cristina Maria); P. Vajkoczy (Peter); Valeinis, E. (Egils); W. van Hecke (Wim); D. Van Praag (Dominique); D. Van Roost (Dirk); Van Vlierberghe, E. (Eline); Vande Vyvere, T. (Thijs); Vanhaudenhuyse, A. (Audrey); A. Vargiolu (Alessia); E. Vega (Emmanuel); J. Verheyden (Jan); P.M. Vespa (Paul M.); A. Vik (Anne); R. Vilcinis (Rimantas); Vizzino, G. (Giacinta); C.L.A.M. Vleggeert-Lankamp (Carmen); V. Volovici (Victor); P. Vulekovic (Peter); Vámos, Z. (Zoltán); Wade, D. (Derick); Wang, K.K.W. (Kevin K.W.); Wang, L. (Lei); Wildschut, E. (Eno); G. Williams (Guy); Willumsen, L. (Lisette); Wilson, A. (Adam); L. Wilson (Lindsay); Winkler, M.K.L. (Maren K. L.); P. Ylén (Peter); Younsi, A. (Alexander); M. Zaaroor (Menashe); Zhang, Z. (Zhiqun); Zheng, Z. (Zelong); Zumbo, F. (Fabrizio); De Lange, S. (Stefanie); G.C.W. De Ruiter (Godard C.W.); Den Boogert, H. (Hugo); Van Dijck, J. (Jeroen); T.A. van Essen (T.); C.M. van Heugten (Caroline M.); M. van der Jagt (Mathieu); J. van der Naalt (Joukje)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: The strength of evidence underpinning care and treatment recommendations in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is low. Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has been proposed as a framework to provide evidence for optimal care for TBI patients. The first step in CER is to map

  8. Evaluation of the overweight/obese child--practical tips for the primary health care provider: recommendations from the Childhood Obesity Task Force of the European Association for the Study of Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer L; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie J; Nowicka, Paulina

    2010-01-01

    in the primary care setting. The tips and tools provided are based on data from the recent body of work that has been published in this field, official statements of several scientific societies along with expert opinion provided by the members of the Childhood Obesity Task Force (COTF) of the European......The prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents is on the rise. The majority of overweight or obese children are treated by primary health care providers including paediatricians, family practitioners, dieticians, nurses, and school health services - and not by specialists. The majority...... of obese children have no underlying medical disorder causing their obesity yet a significant proportion might suffer from obesity-related co-morbidities. This text is aimed at providing simple and practical tools for the identification and management of children with or at risk of overweight and obesity...

  9. Optimal insider control and semimartingale decompositions under enlargement of filtration

    OpenAIRE

    Øksendal, Bernt; Draouil, Olfa

    2015-01-01

    We combine stochastic control methods, white noise analysis, and Hida–Malliavin calculus applied to the Donsker delta functional to obtain explicit representations of semimartingale decompositions under enlargement of filtrations. Some of the expressions are more explicit than previously known. The results are illustrated by examples. This is the Author’s Original Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Stochastic Analysis and Applications on 01 Sep 2016, available onlin...

  10. A rare case of unusual gingival enlargement post radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Vishal Singh; G Subraya Bhat; K Mahalinga Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Oral changes following radiotherapy are not uncommon. Oral mucositis, alteration in salivary gland function, radiation caries, and gingival changes have all been reported following radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The gingival changes seen after radiotherapy may be unusual and often cause diagnostic dilemma. Metastasis to the gingiva has also to be ruled out in these cases. A 30-year-old female patient presented with enlargement of the gingiva of 6 months? duration and lower lip swelling of 7 m...

  11. Childhood asymmetrical labium majus enlargement sonographic and MR imaging appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gokli, Ami; Neuman, Jeremy; Lukse, Ruby; Koshy, June [Staten Island University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Staten Island, NY (United States); Kong, Fanyi [Staten Island University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Staten Island, NY (United States); Laor, Tal [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Childhood asymmetrical labium majus enlargement (CALME) has been described sparsely in recent surgery, pathology, pediatric and gynecology literature; however, no comprehensive description from a radiology perspective has been developed. The purpose of this case series is to describe the imaging findings of CALME and to review the current understanding of this recently described clinical entity with regard to clinical presentation, pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and treatment options. This is a retrospective analysis of 3 girls, ages 5-7 years, who presented for imaging evaluation with subsequent pathologically proven CALME. Each child's clinical history, length of symptoms, imaging appearance and pathological findings were reviewed. All three girls presented with unilateral enlargement of the labium majus (two right-side, one left-side) with no history of trauma or other inciting cause. Two girls had painless labial enlargement that was recognized for weeks, and one had similar symptoms for 1 year prior to presentation. One girl was evaluated initially with sonography, and all three children underwent MR imaging. Sonographic evaluation showed asymmetrical labial enlargement without a definable mass. In each girl, the MR imaging findings were characterized by relatively ill-defined T1-weighted hypointense signal, T2-weighted hypo- to isointense signal with interspersed hyperintense septae, and heterogeneous patchy and feathery strands of enhancement on post-contrast imaging. Biopsy from each child showed benign fibrous tissue with intervening mature fibroadipose tissue, vessels and nerves without findings of inflammation or neoplasia. The MR imaging appearance of CALME is consistent. Recognition and appreciation of this unique pediatric entity by the radiologist may be essential for appropriate diagnosis and can help to guide therapy. Current preferred treatment approach is conservative. (orig.)

  12. The sustainability of the Barcelona port enlargement works

    OpenAIRE

    Tarragó, D.; Gens Solé, Antonio; Alonso Pérez de Agreda, Eduardo; Romero Morales, Enrique Edgar; Griell, R.; Estrada, J.L.; Uzcanga, J

    2011-01-01

    In the Barcelona Port enlargement, currently under construction, part of the new quays are being backfilled with re-used materials such as tunneling waste, rubble from demolitions and dredged soils with poor geotechnical properties. This has resulted in a cost-effective and sustainable construction process that is one of the main goals of the Barcelona Port Authority (APB). A series of control tests have been carried out on the mentioned materials. In addition, dredged soils have been impr...

  13. Networks of International Student Mobility: Enlargement and Consolidation of the European Transnational Education Space?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vögtle, Eva Maria; Windzio, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of membership in the Bologna Process on patterns and driving forces of cross-national student mobility. Student exchange flows are analyzed for almost all Bologna Process member states and non-Bologna OECD members over a ten-year period (from 2000 to 2010). We apply a social network approach focusing on…

  14. The European and Japanese outbreaks of H5N8 derive from a single source population providing evidence for the dispersal along the long distance bird migratory flyways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R. Dalby

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The origin of recent parallel outbreaks of the high pathogenicity H5N8 avian flu virus in Europe and in Japan can be traced to a single source population, which has most likely been spread by migratory birds. By using Bayesian coalescent methods to analyze the DNA sequences of the virus to find the times for divergence and combining this sequence data with bird migration data we can show the most likely locations and migratory pathways involved in the origin of the current outbreak. This population was most likely located in the Siberian summer breeding grounds of long-range migratory birds. These breeding grounds provide a connection between different migratory flyways and explain the current outbreaks in remote locations. By combining genetic methods and epidemiological data we can rapidly identify the sources and the dispersion pathways for novel avian influenza outbreaks.

  15. Isolated amygdala enlargement in temporal lobe epilepsy: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beh, S M Jessica; Cook, Mark J; D'Souza, Wendyl J

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the seizure characteristics and treatment outcomes in patient groups with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) identified with isolated amygdala enlargement (AE) on magnetic resonance imaging studies. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for relevant studies using the keywords 'amygdala enlargement', 'epilepsy', and 'seizures' in April 2015. Human studies, written in English, that investigated cohorts of patients with TLE and AE were included. Of 204 abstracts initially identified using the search strategy, 14 studies met the inclusion criteria (11 epilepsy studies and 3 psychiatry studies). Ultimately, 8 full studies on AE and TLE involving 107 unique patients were analyzed. Gender distribution consisted of 50 males and 57 females. Right amygdala enlargement was seen in 39 patients, left enlargement in 58 patients, and bilateral enlargement in 7 patients. Surgical resection was performed in 28 patients, with the most common finding being dysplasia/hamartoma or focal cortical dysplasia. Most studies involved small samples of less than 12 patients. There was a wide discrepancy in the methods used to measure amygdala volume, in both patients and controls, hindering comparisons. Most TLE with AE studies observed a later age of seizure onset (mean: 32.2years) compared with studies involving TLE with HS (mean of mid- to late childhood). A higher frequency of complex partial seizures compared with that of convulsive seizures is seen in patients with AE (67-100% vs. 26-47%), and they have an excellent response to antiepileptic drugs (81.8%-100% of seizure-free patients). All studies that included controls also found a significant difference in frequency of seizure types between their cases and controls. Reliable assessment of amygdala volume remains a critical issue hindering better understanding of the clinical management and research of this focal epilepsy syndrome. Within these limitations, the literature suggests

  16. Evidence for higher-than-average air temperatures after the 8.2 ka event provided by a Central European δ18O record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Nils; Lauterbach, Stefan; Erlenkeuser, Helmut; Danielopol, Dan L.; Namiotko, Tadeusz; Hüls, Matthias; Belmecheri, Soumaya; Dulski, Peter; Nantke, Carla; Meyer, Hanno; Chapligin, Bernhard; von Grafenstein, Ulrich; Brauer, Achim

    2017-09-01

    The so-called 8.2 ka event represents one of the most prominent cold climate anomalies during the Holocene warm period. Accordingly, several studies have addressed its trigger mechanisms, absolute dating and regional characteristics so far. However, knowledge about subsequent climate recovery is still limited although this might be essential for the understanding of rapid climatic changes. Here we present a new sub-decadally resolved and precisely dated oxygen isotope (δ18O) record for the interval between 7.7 and 8.7 ka BP (103 calendar years before AD 1950), derived from the calcareous valves of benthic ostracods preserved in the varved lake sediments of pre-Alpine Mondsee (Austria). Besides a clear reflection of the 8.2 ka event, showing a good agreement in timing, duration and magnitude with other regional stable isotope records, the high-resolution Mondsee lake sediment record provides evidence for a 75-year-long interval of higher-than-average δ18O values directly after the 8.2 ka event, possibly reflecting increased air temperatures in Central Europe. This observation is consistent with evidence from other proxy records in the North Atlantic realm, thus most probably reflecting a hemispheric-scale climate signal rather than a local phenomenon. As a possible trigger we suggest an enhanced resumption of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), supporting assumptions from climate model simulations.

  17. Challenges to NATO’s Fifth Enlargement Round: Turkey’s Attitude towards Romanian’s Admission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Köse

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The relations between Romania – the only Latin nation in Balkan Peninsula, in a broader sense – and Turkey has a long history, which is traced back to the Ottoman period. These relations were relatively ceased during the Cold War. After the collapse of Soviet Union, a new era started for Turkish-Romanian relations. During the WWI, Tsarist Russia forced Romania to be its ally, in order to besiege Germany from South, and also to threat Austria. Its aim was intended to direct the Central Powers’ attacks to the Balkans, in order to keep the warfare away from the front lines and from the Russian heartland. Following the Tsarist pan-Slavist policy, the Bolshevist Russia designated Balkans territories as vital for its security and defence. At the first opportunity emerged after the WWII, Stalin had included those lands behind the Iron Curtain area. After a fairly lengthy period under the Iron Curtain, after 1989, Romania like other eastern European countries achieved its freedom, but post-Cold War attitude of Russia towards the Balkans has remained unchanged. This paper seeks to explore the post-Cold War policies of NATO and the Turkey’s attitude towards the enlargements of alliance. It focuses on the fifth round of enlargement, when Romania and other six Balkans and Baltic countries were invited to join the North Atlantic Alliance. In addition, it will insist on the role of Turkey in the enlargement process, and its firm support for Romania's accession to NATO.

  18. European Union energy policy integration: A case of European Commission policy entrepreneurship and increasing supranationalism

    OpenAIRE

    Maltby, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on gas, this article explores the role of the European Commission in the process of European Union energy security policy development, and the extent to which the policy area is becoming increasingly supranational. Situating the article within the literature on agenda-setting and framing, it is argued that a policy window was opened as a result of: enlargement to include more energy import dependent states, a trend of increasing energy imports and prices, and gas supply disruptions. ...

  19. Sodium valproate induced gingival enlargement with pre-existing chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhavi Joshipura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival enlargement is a common clinical feature of gingival and periodontal diseases. Currently, more than 20 prescription medications are associated with gingival enlargement. Although the mechanisms of action may be different, the clinical and microscopic appearance of drug-induced gingival enlargement is similar with any drug. Gingival enlargement produces esthetic changes, and clinical symptoms including pain, tenderness, bleeding, speech disturbances, abnormal tooth movement, dental occlusion problems, enhancement of caries development and periodontal disorders. Sodium valproate is considered to produce gingival enlargement, but very rarely. This case report features sodium valproate induced gingival enlargement in a patient with pre-existing chronic periodontitis, who came to the Dental Department, Chinmaya Mission Hospital, Bangalore. The case is special as the patient did not develop the enlargement in spite of taking phenytoin for 1 year and developed enlargement with sodium valproate within 6 months.

  20. European Neighbourhood Policy. A Polish Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Marcinkowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Before the bing-bang enlargement of the EU in 2004, the Union needed to define a coherent policy towards its new neighbours. The European Neighbourhood Policy was formulated when Poland became a member of the EU. Due to its close ties with the Eastern European countries, Poland tried to shape the EU foreign policy towards its neighbouring countries and became their advocate in Brussels. In 2009 it succeeded in establishing the Eastern Partnership as one of the dimensions of the European Neighbourhood Policy.

  1. European Market Making and Policy Duplication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that private regulation has been essential to the making of the common European market. The distinction between negative and positive integration, usually used to understand the making of the common European market, only gives us part of the picture, as it focuses on public...... authorities and the regulation issued by them, and tends to ignore private authorities. A focus on private regulation is suggested to enlarge the focus on positive and negative integration, and this is used in an analysis of EU's removal of barriers to trade from 1958 to 2000. The paper shows that private...... regulation in the form of technical standardisation has become essential to European market making....

  2. The European Union and its Neighbours:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Chilosi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the status of the European Neighbourhood Policy in the light of the new Financial Perspective 2007-2013 and of the present internal state of the European Union. Even if in theory the ENP could have been a valid substitute for enlargement, it does not seem to have reached its aim of providing an adequate surrogate for full membership. Considering the figures of the new Financial Perspective 2007-2013, the issue of market access, and the internal power dynamics of the EU, we see that it is hardly conceivable that the ENP could ever give to its neighbours the same economic advantages that membership gives to the poorer members of the EU. Another controversial aspect is the clear asymmetric nature of the ENP, whereby the payoff for neighbours is conditioned on their “good behaviour”, thus amounting to a form of soft imperialism. While ENP tries to establish a comprehensive and coherent framework of the EU’s relations with its neighbourhood, the actual behaviour of EU towards its neighbours is shown to present some inconsistences due to political expedience and pragmatic concerns. The consideration of some related basic issues of EU institutional reform, such as the weakening of the powers of the member states, or the introduction of some intermediate forms of partial membership, concludes the paper.

  3. Prospects for NATO Enlargement: Examining the "Big Bang" Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    simultaneously, a so called " big bang " approach to the next round of NATO enlargement. This thesis examines the " big bang " approach to NATO enlargement as well...to pursue the " big bang " approach, owing to the political, financial, and strategic implications that enlargement would entail. Indeed, the Allies may

  4. Hearing loss and enlarged internal auditory canal in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Saturnino; Domínguez, M Jesús; Cervera, Javier; Suárez, Alicia; Bueno, Antonio; Bartolomé, Margarita; López, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Among the temporal bone abnormalities that can be found in the etiological study of paediatric sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) by imaging techniques, those related to the internal auditory canal (IAC) are the least frequent. The most prevalent of these abnormalities that is associated with SNHL is stenotic IAC due to its association with cochlear nerve deficiencies. Less frequent and less concomitant with SNHL is the finding of an enlarged IAC (>8mm). Retrospective and descriptive review of clinical associations, imaging, audiological patterns and treatment of 9 children with hearing loss and enlarged IAC in the period 1999 to 2012. Two groups of patients are described. The first, without association with vestibulocochlear dysplasias, consisted of: 2 patients with SNHL without other temporal bone or systemic abnormalities, one with bilateral mixed HL from chromosome 18q deletion, one with a genetic X-linked DFN3 hearing loss, one with unilateral hearing loss in neurofibromatosis type 2 with bilateral acoustic neuroma, and one with unilateral hearing loss with cochlear nerve deficiency. The second group, with association with vestibulocochlear dysplasias, was comprised of: one patient with moderate bilateral mixed hearing loss in branchio-oto-renal syndrome, one with profound unilateral SNHL with recurrent meningitis, and another with profound bilateral SNHL with congenital hypothyroidism. The presence of an enlarged IAC in children can be found in different clinical and audiological settings with relevancies that can range from life-threatening situations, such as recurrent meningitis, to isolated hearing loss with no other associations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  5. Optional splitting formula in a progressively enlarged filtration

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Shiqi

    2012-01-01

    Let $\\mathbb{F}$ be a filtration and $\\tau$ be a random time. Let $\\mathbb{G}$ be the progressive enlargement of $\\mathbb{F}$ with $\\tau$. We study the validity of the following formula, called optional splitting formula : For any $\\mathbb{G}$-optional process $Y$, there exist a $\\mathbb{F}$-optional process $Y'$ and a function $Y"$ defined on $[0,\\infty]\\times(\\mathbb{R}_+\\times\\Omega)$ being $\\mathcal{B}[0,\\infty]\\otimes\\mathcal{O}(\\mathbb{F})$ measurable, such that $$ Y=Y'\\ind_{[0,\\tau)}+Y...

  6. Aerodynamic Analysis of Trailing Edge Enlarged Wind Turbine Airfoils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Haoran; Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun

    2014-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of blunt trailing edge airfoils generated from the DU- 91-W2-250, DU-97-W-300 and DU-96-W-350 airfoils by enlarging the thickness of trailing edge symmetrically from the location of maximum thickness to chord to the trailing edge were analyzed by using CFD and RFOIL...... methods at a chord Reynolds number of 3 × 106. The goal of this study is to analyze the aerodynamic performance of blunt trailing edge airfoils with different thicknesses of trailing edge and maximum thicknesses to chord. The steady results calculated by the fully turbulent k-ω SST, transitional k-ω SST...

  7. Aerodynamic Analysis of Trailing Edge Enlarged Wind Turbine Airfoils

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Haoran; Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun; Yang, Hua; Liu, Chao

    2014-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of blunt trailing edge airfoils generated from the DU- 91-W2-250, DU-97-W-300 and DU-96-W-350 airfoils by enlarging the thickness of trailing edge symmetrically from the location of maximum thickness to chord to the trailing edge were analyzed by using CFD and RFOIL methods at a chord Reynolds number of 3 × 106. The goal of this study is to analyze the aerodynamic performance of blunt trailing edge airfoils with different thicknesses of trailing edge and maximum th...

  8. The treatment of hemimandibular hyperplasia preserving enlarged condylar head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Yasushi; Hirabayashi, Shin-Ichi; Susami, Takafumi; Hiyama, Shigetoshi

    2002-11-01

    To present a case of hemimandibular hyperplasia (HH) treated with orthognathic surgery that preserves the condyle without disturbing mandibular function. A 27-year-old woman with HH was treated with orthognathic surgery preserving the enlarged condylar head. Radiographic examination showed typical enlargement of the right condyle, elongation of the right ascending ramus and mandibular body, and tilted occlusal plane. A mandibular sagittal split osteotomy on the unaffected side and subcondylar ramus osteotomy on the affected side, Le Fort I wedge osteotomy to relevel the tilted occlusal plane, and contouring of the lower mandibular margin were performed. Excellent results in the full-face appearance and occlusion were obtained. There was no change in the size of the reserved condylar head 4 years postoperatively. In a series of examinations of jaw function with electromyography, mandibular kinesiography, and computer-aided diagnostic axiography, more favorable findings were obtained postoperatively. In a case of HH without abnormally high growth activity, orthognathic surgery preserving hypertrophic condyle produced functional improvement in addition to good occlusal and aesthetic outcomes.

  9. A possible neurophysiological basis of the octave enlargement effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Martin F.; Delgutte, Bertrand

    2008-01-01

    Although the physical octave is defined as a simple ratio of 2:1, listeners prefer slightly greater octave ratios. Ohgushi [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 73, 1694–1700 (1983)] suggested that a temporal model for octave matching would predict this octave enlargement effect because, in response to pure tones, auditory-nerve interspike intervals are slightly larger than the stimulus period. In an effort to test Ohgushi’s hypothesis, auditory-nerve single-unit responses to pure-tone stimuli were collected from Dial-anesthetized cats. It was found that although interspike interval distributions show clear phase-locking to the stimulus, intervals systematically deviate from integer multiples of the stimulus period. Due to refractory effects, intervals smaller than 5 msec are slightly larger than the stimulus period and deviate most for small intervals. On the other hand, first-order intervals are smaller than the stimulus period for stimulus frequencies less than 500 Hz. It is shown that this deviation is the combined effect of phase-locking and multiple spikes within one stimulus period. A model for octave matching was implemented which compares frequency estimates of two tones based on their interspike interval distributions. The model quantitatively predicts the octave enlargement effect. These results are consistent with the idea that musical pitch is derived from auditory-nerve interspike interval distributions. PMID:10573885

  10. Bone tunnel enlargement on anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Adriano Barros de Aguiar; Duarte Junior, Aires; Severino, Nilson Roberto

    2014-01-01

    To assess the presence of tibial bone tunnel enlargement after surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament using quadruple graft of the flexor tendons and correlate the functional results in their presence. The studied lasted six months and included 25 patients, with ages ranging from 18 to 43 years old. Assessment was based on radiographs taken immediately postoperatively and at the third and sixth month of follow up in the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Reconstruction of ligaments was performed with tendon grafts of the semitendinosus and gracilis muscle fixated in the femur with transverse metal screw and in the tibia with interference screws. Patients were evaluated objectively by tests ligament, graded from zero to four crosses and subjectively by the Lysholm method preoperative and after sixth month follow up. Significant increase in the tunnels diameters were observed, 20.56% for radiographs in the anteroposterior view, 26.48% in profile view and 23.22% in computed tomography. Descriptive statistics showed significant improvement in subjective and objective clinical parameters. The bone tunnel enlargement is a phenomenon found in the first months after surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament and it has no implications on clinical outcomes in the short term. Level of Evidence II, Prospective Study.

  11. Unilateral Enlarged Vestibular Aqueduct Syndrome and Bilateral Endolymphatic Hydrops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, Giuseppe; Sparvoli, Luca; Ralli, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) syndrome is a common congenital inner ear malformation characterized by a vestibular aqueduct with a diameter larger than 1.5 mm, mixed or sensorineural hearing loss that ranges from mild to profound, and vestibular disorders that may be present with a range from mild imbalance to episodic objective vertigo. In our study, we present the case of a patient with unilateral enlarged vestibular aqueduct and bilateral endolymphatic hydrops (EH). EH was confirmed through anamnestic history and audiological exams; EVA was diagnosed using high-resolution CT scans and MRI images. Therapy included intratympanic infusion of corticosteroids with a significant hearing improvement, more evident in the ear contralateral to EVA. Although most probably unrelated, EVA and EH may present with similar symptoms and therefore the diagnostic workup should always include the proper steps to perform a correct diagnosis. Association between progression of hearing loss and head trauma in patients with a diagnosis of EVA syndrome is still uncertain; however, these individuals should be advised to avoid activities that increase intracranial pressure to prevent further hearing deterioration. Intratympanic treatment with steroids is a safe and well-tolerated procedure that has demonstrated its efficacy in hearing, tinnitus, and vertigo control in EH. PMID:28607789

  12. Unilateral Enlarged Vestibular Aqueduct Syndrome and Bilateral Endolymphatic Hydrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Ralli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA syndrome is a common congenital inner ear malformation characterized by a vestibular aqueduct with a diameter larger than 1.5 mm, mixed or sensorineural hearing loss that ranges from mild to profound, and vestibular disorders that may be present with a range from mild imbalance to episodic objective vertigo. In our study, we present the case of a patient with unilateral enlarged vestibular aqueduct and bilateral endolymphatic hydrops (EH. EH was confirmed through anamnestic history and audiological exams; EVA was diagnosed using high-resolution CT scans and MRI images. Therapy included intratympanic infusion of corticosteroids with a significant hearing improvement, more evident in the ear contralateral to EVA. Although most probably unrelated, EVA and EH may present with similar symptoms and therefore the diagnostic workup should always include the proper steps to perform a correct diagnosis. Association between progression of hearing loss and head trauma in patients with a diagnosis of EVA syndrome is still uncertain; however, these individuals should be advised to avoid activities that increase intracranial pressure to prevent further hearing deterioration. Intratympanic treatment with steroids is a safe and well-tolerated procedure that has demonstrated its efficacy in hearing, tinnitus, and vertigo control in EH.

  13. Objective evaluation of the clinical efficacy of fractional radiofrequency treatment for acne scars and enlarged pores in Asian skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Eun; Lee, Hae Woong; Kim, Jae Kyung; Moon, Seong Hun; Ko, Joo Yeon; Lee, Mi Woo; Chang, Sung Eun

    2014-09-01

    Ablative fractional lasers can effectively treat acne scars and enlarged pores, but cause considerable pain and downtime for patients, as well as potentially causing postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH), especially in Asian skin. To evaluate the efficacy of a novel bipolar radiofrequency (RF)-based fractional device to treat acne scars and enlarged pores in Asians with objective measurements and histologic assessments. Thirty-one Korean patients with acne scars and enlarged pores received 4 consecutive fractional RF treatments at 3-week intervals. Outcome assessments included photography, global evaluation by investigators in a blind manner, patient assessment, objective biophysical measurements of elasticity and color, and histological changes compared with untreated lesions. Follow-up assessments by physicians 3 months after the last treatment revealed that patients showed clinical improvement. Patient self-assessments paralleled physicians' assessments. Objective biophysical measurements showed significant improvements in elasticity (R2, R5, and R7) and the melanin/erythema index, together with increases in the levels of procollagen Types I and III, as well as elastin. There were no cases of PIH, and adverse events were limited to mild ones. Fractional bipolar RF provides clinical efficacy with safety in acne scars and enlarged pores through dermal matrix remodeling combined with tolerable epidermal ablation.

  14. Parteneriatul estic: începutul refluxului procesului de extindere a Uniunii Europene? (The Eastern Partnership: the beginning of the ebb for the EU enlargement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe CIASCAI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available he aim of this paper is to highlight the geopolitical limits and the strategic weakness of the European Union in his approach concerning the enlargement policy and the Neighborhood Policy after the beginning of the crisis in Ukraine. For this reason, the research will examine the evolution of the Eastern Partnership since February 2014 after the annexation of Crimea by Russian Federation and the start of war in eastern regions of Ukraine until present. Also, the paper will examine the impact of the dynamics of the Eastern Partnership for the Eastern European Partners, especially for Republic of Moldova.

  15. Aortic Annulus Enlargement: Early and Long-Terms Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumani, Selman; Likaj, Ermal; Dibra, Laureta; Beca, Vera; Kuci, Saimir; Refatllari, Ali

    2017-03-15

    Patient-prosthesis mismatch (PPM) is a common occurrence in aortic valve surgery. Even the discussions about the impact of this phenomenon on the results of aortic valve surgery, the management of this problem remain one of the main topics in this kind of surgery. One of the ways of a solution is aortic annulus enlargement. The main topic of this study is to evaluate the early and longterm results of this technique in our country. During the period January 2010 -January 2015, 641 patients performed aortic valve surgery. In ten patients we performed aortic annulus enlargement according to Manouguian technique to avoid severe patient-prothesis mismatch. Operative mortality and perioperative complications (low cardiac output, pulmonary complications, etc..) were considered the indicators of the early results. Survival, clinical presentation according to NYHA, quality of life were the indicators to evaluate long-term results. Preoperative and postoperative echocardiographic data were also used to evaluate our results. We collected the data from hospital registrations and periodical clinical visit and echographic examination after hospital discharge. In our group, 6 of 10 patients were diagnosed with stenotic aortic valve, two patients had aortic valve regurgitation and two mixed valve pathology. Four patients had concomitant cardiac surgery procedure, mitral or CABG. In all cases, aortic valve pathology was the primary diagnose. In the preoperative echocardiographic examination mean transvalvular gradient was 54.3 ± 6.42. We had no death during early or late postoperative period. Only one patient had pulmonary complications and long time of respiratory assistance because of his pulmonary pathology. The same patient had low cardiac output and wound infection. Early after surgery mean transprostethic gradient was 16.2 ± 3.44 and late postoperative was 15.9 ± 4.3. No patient had the severe patient-prothesis mismatch. Mean follow-up was 49 ± 20.26 months. During follow

  16. INDUSTRIAL POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Nica

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The differences registered in the early 90s between the economy of the European Union as compared to the economies of the United States and Japan, in regards of growth rates, investment rates, R&D and innovation, international trade, etc., as well as the fast changes of the world economy determined the European Commission to issue the white paper on “Growth, Competitiveness and Employment”, underlining the meaning of the European economy’s competitiveness in the new conditions, and the legal frame for EU’s industrial policy was settled through the Treaty of Maastricht. The document was setting theobjectives, priorities and the six basic principles of the European industrial policy, in a unitary concept. In the spring of 2000, the European Council from Lisbon sets the objective of transforming the European Union in the most dynamic and competitive economy of the world, and, therefore, foresees a working agenda with specific actions going until the horizon of 2009. In December 2002, after EUs enlargement, the Commission forwards to the Council the document titled “Industrial Policy in an Enlarged Europe”, in which theindustrial development at the moment of new member states integration is analyzed, as well as the effects of EU’s enlargement over the industry, and it suggests actions for the future development of the sector. The industrial policy of the EU must offer solutions for industrial development, by answering the challenges concerning globalization, the technological and organizational changes, the increasing role of innovation and entrepreneurship, and the sustainable development taking into consideration the new socialrequirements. The development objectives set at European level cannot be reached without a tight interconnection of the industrial policy measures with those of some complementary policies, such as thecommercial policy, the single market policy, transport and energy policies, research and development policies

  17. Welfare reform in European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immervoll, Herwig; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    2007-01-01

    microsimulation model to estimate current marginal and participation tax rates. We quantify the equity-efficiency trade-off for a range of elasticity parameters. In most countries, because of large existing welfare programmes with high phase-out rates, increasing traditional welfare is undesirable unless......This article compares the effects of increasing traditional welfare to introducing in-work benefits in the 15 (pre-enlargement) countries of the European Union. We use a labour supply model encompassing responses to taxes and transfers along both the intensive and extensive margins, and the EUROMOD...

  18. Random times and enlargements of filtrations in a Brownian setting

    CERN Document Server

    Mansuy, Roger

    2006-01-01

    In November 2004, M. Yor and R. Mansuy jointly gave six lectures at Columbia University, New York. These notes follow the contents of that course, covering expansion of filtration formulae; BDG inequalities up to any random time; martingales that vanish on the zero set of Brownian motion; the Azéma-Emery martingales and chaos representation; the filtration of truncated Brownian motion; attempts to characterize the Brownian filtration. The book accordingly sets out to acquaint its readers with the theory and main examples of enlargements of filtrations, of either the initial or the progressive kind. It is accessible to researchers and graduate students working in stochastic calculus and excursion theory, and more broadly to mathematicians acquainted with the basics of Brownian motion.

  19. A Digitally Programmable Differential Integrator with Enlarged Time Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Debroy

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available A new Operational Amplifier (OA-RC integrator network is described. The novelties of the design are used of single grounded capacitor, ideal integration function realization with dual-input capability and design flexibility for extremely large time constant involving an enlargement factor (K using product of resistor ratios. The aspect of the digital control of K through a programmable resistor array (PRA controlled by a microprocessor has also been implemented. The effect of the OA-poles has been analyzed which indicates degradation of the integrator-Q at higher frequencies. An appropriate Q-compensation design scheme exhibiting 1 : |A|2 order of Q-improvement has been proposed with supporting experimental observations.

  20. APECED syndrome in childhood: clinical spectrum is enlarging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzise, Mariella; Alessi, Luca; Bruno, Enrico; Cama, Valeria; Costanzo, Daria; Genovese, Cristina; Mignosa, Cristina; Scuderi, Veronica; DE Luca, Filippo

    2016-06-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal-distrophy (APECED) is a rare autosomal recessive disease, which is mainly characterized by the association of many autoimmune diseases, with a classic triad including chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism and adrenocortical failure. Its clinical spectrum has significantly enlarged in the last years and other non-classic components have been recently described. Aim of this review was to alert pediatricians to these novel clinical aspects of this syndrome, that have been recently included among the autoimmune APECED manifestations: a) chronic lung disease, that may evolve to cor pulmonale and terminal respiratory failure; b) chronic inflammatory demyelinating polineuropathy, with progressive muscular weakness of both arms and legs and sensory loss; c) gastrointestinal dysfunction, with recurrent diarrhea, malabsorption and steatorrhea or chronic constipation. For each of these novel components of APECED, specific autoantibodies against either lung autoantigens or peripheral nerves or tryptophan hydroxylase have been just recently identified.

  1. The Staff Association (SA) in the Enlarged Directorate (ED) meeting!

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    The Vice-President and the President presented the plan of activities of the Staff Association for 2017 and expressed the Staff Association’s concerns at the meeting of the Enlarged Directorate (Directors and Heads of Departments and Units) on 3 April. Five topics were presented, starting with the implementation of the decisions made during the 2015 Five-Yearly Review. Five-Yearly Review – Follow-up (see Echo No. 257) 2016 – Key points of implementation Several changes were already implemented in 2016: review of the Staff Rules and Regulations in January 2016 for the diversity aspects, and in September 2016 to incorporate the new career structure and the new salary grid with grades; review of the Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 11) on the “Recognition of Merit”; placement in grades and provisional placement in benchmark jobs of all staff members; definition of guidelines for the 2017 MERIT exercise. The Staff Association was extensively involved in the...

  2. Pathophysiology and clinical implications of pulmonary arterial enlargement in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wells JM

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available J Michael Wells, Mark T Dransfield Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama Birmingham and the Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Birmingham, AL, USA Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a complex condition defined by progressive airflow limitation in response to noxious stimuli, inflammation, and vascular changes. COPD exacerbations are critical events in the natural history of the disease, accounting for the majority of disease burden, cost, and mortality. Pulmonary vascular disease is an important risk factor for disease progression and exacerbation risk. Relative pulmonary artery enlargement on computed tomography scan, defined by a pulmonary artery to aortic (PA:A ratio >1, has been evaluated as a marker of pulmonary vascular disease. The PA:A ratio can be measured reliably independent of electrocardiographic gating or the use of contrast, and in healthy patients a PA:A ratio >0.9 is considered to be abnormal. The PA:A ratio has been compared with invasive hemodynamic parameters, primarily mean pulmonary artery pressure in various disease conditions and is more strongly correlated with mean pulmonary artery pressure in obstructive as compared with interstitial lung disease. In patients without known cardiac or pulmonary disease, the PA:A ratio is predictive of mortality, while in COPD, an elevated PA:A ratio is correlated with increased exacerbation risk, outperforming other well established predictors of these events. Future studies should be aimed at determining the stability of the metric over time and evaluating the utility of the PA:A ratio in guiding specific therapies. Keywords: pulmonary artery enlargement, aorta, ratio, pulmonary hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, computed tomography

  3. Ethmoidectomy combined with superior meatus enlargement increases olfactory airflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Kenji; Nomura, Tsutomu; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The relationship between a particular surgical technique in endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) and airflow changes in the post‐operative olfactory region has not been assessed. The present study aimed to compare olfactory airflow after ESS between conventional ethmoidectomy and ethmoidectomy with superior meatus enlargement, using virtual ESS and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Study Design Prospective computational study. Materials and Methods Nasal computed tomography images of four adult subjects were used to generate models of the nasal airway. The original preoperative model was digitally edited as virtual ESS by performing uncinectomy, ethmoidectomy, antrostomy, and frontal sinusotomy. The following two post‐operative models were prepared: conventional ethmoidectomy with normal superior meatus (ESS model) and ethmoidectomy with superior meatus enlargement (ESS‐SM model). The calculated three‐dimensional nasal geometries were confirmed using virtual endoscopy to ensure that they corresponded to the post‐operative anatomy observed in the clinical setting. Steady‐state, laminar, inspiratory airflow was simulated, and the velocity, streamline, and mass flow rate in the olfactory region were compared among the preoperative and two postoperative models. Results The mean velocity in the olfactory region, number of streamlines bound to the olfactory region, and mass flow rate were higher in the ESS‐SM model than in the other models. Conclusion We successfully used an innovative approach involving virtual ESS, virtual endoscopy, and CFD to assess postoperative outcomes after ESS. It is hypothesized that the increased airflow to the olfactory fossa achieved with ESS‐SM may lead to improved olfactory function; however, further studies are required. Level of Evidence NA. PMID:28894833

  4. Acrolein induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and causes airspace enlargement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Kitaguchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given the relative abundance and toxic potential of acrolein in inhaled cigarette smoke, it is surprising how little is known about the pulmonary and systemic effects of acrolein. Here we test the hypothesis whether systemic administration of acrolein could cause endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, and lung cell apoptosis, leading to the enlargement of the alveolar air spaces in rats. METHODS: Acute and chronic effects of intraperitoneally administered acrolein were tested. Mean alveolar airspace area was measured by using light microscopy and imaging system software. TUNEL staining and immunohistochemistry (IHC for active caspase 3 and Western blot analysis for active caspase 3, and caspase 12 were performed to detect apoptosis. The ER-stress related gene expression in the lungs was determined by Quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Acrolein-protein adducts in the lung tissue were detected by IHC. RESULTS: Acute administration of acrolein caused a significant elevation of activated caspase 3, upregulation of VEGF expression and induced ER stress proteins in the lung tissue. The chronic administration of acrolein in rats led to emphysematous lung tissue remodeling. TUNEL staining and IHC for cleaved caspase 3 showed a large number of apoptotic septal cells in the acrolein-treated rat lungs. Chronic acrolein administration cause the endoplasmic reticulum stress response manifested by significant upregulation of ATF4, CHOP and GADd34 expression. In smokers with COPD there was a considerable accumulation of acrolein-protein adducts in the inflammatory, airway and vascular cells. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic administration of acrolein causes endoplasmic reticulum stress response, lung cell apoptosis, and chronic administration leads to the enlargement of the alveolar air spaces and emphysema in rats. The substantial accumulation of acrolein-protein adducts in the lungs of COPD patients suggest a role of acrolein in the pathogenesis of emphysema.

  5. Dual Enlargement of Gold Nanoparticles: From Mechanism to Scanometric Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Cuong; Gontard, Lionel Cervera; Le Ly, Tram Thuy

    2011-01-01

    A mechanism of dual enlargement of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) comprising two steps is described. In the first step, the AuNPs are enlarged by depositing Au atoms on their crystalline faces. In this process, the particles are not only enlarged but they are also observed to multiply: new Au nuclei...... are formed by the budding and division of the enlarged particles. In the second step, a silver enhancement is subsequently performed by the deposition of silver atoms on the enlarged and newly formed AuNPs to generate bimetallic Au@Ag core–shell structures. The dual nanocatalysis greatly enhances...... capturing the target bacteria, gold‐tagged immunoprobes are added to create a signal on a solid substrate. The signal is then amplified by the dual enlargement process, resulting in a strong color intensity that can easily be recognized by the unaided eye, or measured by an inexpensive flatbed scanner...

  6. Rapid Destruction of the Hip Joint Accompanied by an Enlarged Iliopsoas Bursa in a Healthy Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju-Oh

    2014-01-01

    Association between enlarged iliopsoas bursa and hip lesions such as osteoarthritis of the hip or femoral head necrosis is infrequently seen. Enlarged iliopsoas bursa with a rapidly destructive arthropathy is claimed to be seen only in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In this paper, we report a patient with a rapidly destructive arthropathy accompanied by an enlarged iliopsoas bursa that has been misdiagnosed as an infection. PMID:27536579

  7. An Efficient Image Enlargement Method for Image Sensors of Mobile in Embedded Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hua Hua; Xiaomin Yang; Binyu Yan; Kai Zhou; Wei Lu

    2016-01-01

    Main challenges for image enlargement methods in embedded systems come from the requirements of good performance, low computational cost, and low memory usage. This paper proposes an efficient image enlargement method which can meet these requirements in embedded system. Firstly, to improve the performance of enlargement methods, this method extracts different kind of features for different morphologies with different approaches. Then, various dictionaries based on different kind of features ...

  8. The European University Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraio, Cinzia; Bonaccorsi, Andrea; Geuna, Aldo

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a new and systematic characterization of 488 universities, from 11 European countries: Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland and UK. Using micro indicators built on the integrated Aquameth database, we characterize the Euro...

  9. SECURING FRAGILE DEMOCRACIES IN THE BALKANS: THE EUROPEAN DIMENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Pridham

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union faces unprecedented difficulties in its integration of the Western Balkans in terms of the requirements for change by countries in that region wishing to join. In order to meet this challenge, the EU’s political conditionality has moved significantly beyond its demands made on the post-Communist entrants of 2004 and 2007. But its effort to bridge the gap between the ability or political will of Balkan countries to adapt to European modernisation and uncertainties about EU commitment created by “enlargement fatigue” among Member States is vulnerable to weak consensus on both sides. Accordingly, the dynamic behind further enlargement is not comparable with the historic drive that impelled the enlargement of 2004. At the same time, there are strong geopolitical arguments on grounds of stabilising the Balkans for going ahead with integrating the Western half of this region.

  10. Gingival enlargement in different age groups during fixed Orthodontic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Hossam A; Assiri, Hassan Ahmed M; Kandyala, Reena; Togoo, Rafi A; Turakhia, Viral S

    2014-01-01

    Background: During fixed orthodontic therapy, adolescents tend to have higher chances of gingivitis and gingival enlargement (GE) compared to adults. A cross sectional study was undertaken to evaluate the above hypothesis, by assessing GE in patients of different age groups receiving fixed orthodontic therapy. Materials & Methods: Patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were selected by simple random sampling from the King Khalid University College of Dentistry out patient’s clinic of preventive dental sciences division to form the study group. Participant’s were divided into three age groups and GE was graded as 0, 1 and 2 as per the classification of the American Academy of Periodontology. Data were analyzed by using IBM SPSS version 16.0 (Statistical Package for Social Services, Chicago, IL, USA) and descriptive statistics were obtained. Differences in proportions were compared using the Chi-square test and the significance level was set at p ≤ 0.05. Results: 62.3% (n=33) were males and 37.7% (n=20) were females. Group 1 had 21 patients (39.7%); Group 2 had 24 patients (45.3%) and Group 3 had 8 patients (15.1%).The highest frequency (48%) of GE was observed among the Group 1 age group (10-19 years). Differences in frequency of GE according to age groups were found to be statistically significant (p=0.046).Differences in GE according to the frequency of practicing oral hygiene measures were statistically significant (p<0.001). Conclusion: Highest frequency of GE was observed among the adolescents. The patients who practiced oral hygiene measures more than three times daily did not have any GE. On the other hand, those who brushed and flossed only once daily had the highest percentage of grade 2 GE. How to cite the article: Eid HA, Assiri HA, Kandyala R, Togoo RA, Turakhia VS. Gingival enlargement in different age groups during fixed Orthodontic treatment. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):1-4. PMID:24653595

  11. Acute lymphoblasic leukemia with initial manifestation of bilateral parotid gland enlargement, Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghibzade Naghibzadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bilateral parotid gland enlargement is commonly caused by viral, metabolic and autoimmune mechanisms. We present a patient with leukemia whose only clinical sign was bilateral enlargement of parotid gland. Case Report: The patient was a 34-year-old male who was admitted with bilateral painless progressive parotid gland enlargement from 3 months ago. Laboratory investigations revealed leukocytosis, anemia, partial thrombocytopenia and increased sedimentation rate. Definite diagnosis was confirmed by bone marrow biopsy indicating acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Conclusion: Although bilateral parotid gland enlargement is a common manifestation of viral and autoimmune diseases, blood malignancies should also be considered for this condition.    

  12. Adaptation of courses for trans-European tele-learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collis, Betty; Parisi, D.; Ligorio, B.

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses the problems of adapting instructional courses for trans-European tele-learning and for enlarging the range of students and learning modalities in distance learning. Building on previous work on the portability of educational software, the paper examines various dimensions of

  13. Development of an anaesthesia resident curriculum at the European level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Helle Thy

    2013-01-01

    The European Section and Board of Anaesthesiology has recently published new guidelines for specialist education. These guidelines have undergone a major revision towards a competence-based approach. Basically, apart from having to take into account the development of the specialty, with enlarged...

  14. Enlargement of cerebral ventricles as an early indicator of encephalomyelitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Lepore

    Full Text Available Inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system such as multiple sclerosis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis involve an invasion of immune cells that ultimately leads to white matter demyelination, neurodegeneration and development of neurological symptoms. A clinical diagnosis is often made when neurodegenerative processes are already ongoing. In an attempt to seek early indicators of disease, we studied the temporal and spatial distribution of brain modifications in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. In a thorough magnetic resonance imaging study performed with EAE mice, we observed significant enlargement of the ventricles prior to disease clinical manifestation and an increase in free water content within the cerebrospinal fluid as demonstrated by changes in T2 relaxation times. The increase in ventricle size was seen in the lateral, third and fourth ventricles. In some EAE mice the ventricle size started returning to normal values during disease remission. In parallel to this macroscopic phenomenon, we studied the temporal evolution of microscopic lesions commonly observed in the cerebellum also starting prior to disease onset. Our data suggest that changes in ventricle size during the early stages of brain inflammation could be an early indicator of the events preceding neurological disease and warrant further exploration in preclinical and clinical studies.

  15. Detection of eviscerated poultry spleen enlargement by machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yang; Shao, June J.; Skeeles, John K.; Chen, Yud-Ren

    1999-01-01

    The size of a poultry spleen is an indication of whether the bird is wholesomeness or has a virus-related disease. This study explored the possibility of detecting poultry spleen enlargement with a computer imaging system to assist human inspectors in food safety inspections. Images of 45-day-old hybrid turkey internal viscera were taken using fluorescent and UV lighting systems. Image processing algorithms including linear transformation, morphological operations, and statistical analyses were developed to distinguish the spleen from its surroundings and then to detect abnormal spleens. Experimental results demonstrated that the imaging method could effectively distinguish spleens from other organ and intestine. Based on a total sample of 57 birds, the classification rates were 92% from a self-test set, and 95% from an independent test set for the correct detection of normal and abnormal birds. The methodology indicated the feasibility of using automated machine vision systems in the future to inspect internal organs and check the wholesomeness of poultry carcasses.

  16. Familial juvenile autoimmune hypothyroidism, pituitary enlargement, obesity, and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutrakul, Sirimon; Hathout, Eba H; Janner, Donald; Hara, Manami; Donfack, Joseph; Bass, Joseph; Refetoff, Samuel

    2004-04-01

    The proband, a 9-year-old Hispanic female, presented with hair loss, strabismus, and weight gain. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) she was found to have severe primary hypothyroidism and a large pituitary mass. In addition, acanthosis nigricans, obesity, and hyperinsulinism were observed. Findings were similar in three of four siblings. Thyroid peroxidase antibodies were detected in the father and three of four siblings. Although all family members were obese, and hyperinsulinemia with high proinsulin and C-peptide was found in all except one sibling, only the mother and one child had overt type 2 diabetes mellitus. Because of the unusual association of autoimmune thyroid disease, insulin resistance and obesity rather than insulin deficiency, we searched for possible genetic abnormalities. The HLA haplotypes did not cosegregate with autoimmune thyroid disease or insulin resistance. Mutational analysis of known obesity genes was done. Leptin was not deficient, and sequencing of the proband's DNA showed no mutations in the perixisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma, PPAR-gamma(2), PPAR-alpha or melanocortin 4 receptor genes. Maternally inherited diabetes and deafness was ruled out since no mutations were found in mitochondria DNA. Insulin receptor antibodies were not detected. In conclusion, the remarkably high incidence of childhood autoimmune hypothyroidism, pituitary enlargement, insulin resistance and obesity in this family is not linked to known HLA types or known gene defects.

  17. Gingival enlargement in different age groups during fixed Orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Hossam A; Assiri, Hassan Ahmed M; Kandyala, Reena; Togoo, Rafi A; Turakhia, Viral S

    2014-02-01

    During fixed orthodontic therapy, adolescents tend to have higher chances of gingivitis and gingival enlargement (GE) compared to adults. A cross sectional study was undertaken to evaluate the above hypothesis, by assessing GE in patients of different age groups receiving fixed orthodontic therapy. Patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were selected by simple random sampling from the King Khalid University College of Dentistry out patient's clinic of preventive dental sciences division to form the study group. Participant's were divided into three age groups and GE was graded as 0, 1 and 2 as per the classification of the American Academy of Periodontology. Data were analyzed by using IBM SPSS version 16.0 (Statistical Package for Social Services, Chicago, IL, USA) and descriptive statistics were obtained. Differences in proportions were compared using the Chi-square test and the significance level was set at p ≤ 0.05. 62.3% (n=33) were males and 37.7% (n=20) were females. Group 1 had 21 patients (39.7%); Group 2 had 24 patients (45.3%) and Group 3 had 8 patients (15.1%).The highest frequency (48%) of GE was observed among the Group 1 age group (10-19 years). Differences in frequency of GE according to age groups were found to be statistically significant (p=0.046).Differences in GE according to the frequency of practicing oral hygiene measures were statistically significant (pdifferent age groups during fixed Orthodontic treatment. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):1-4.

  18. The Structural Disempowerment of Eastern European Migrant Farm Workers in Norwegian Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, Johan Fredrik; Andrzejewska, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Since the 2004 EU enlargement established one European common labour market, a large number of Eastern Europeans have taken up seasonal employment as hired farm workers in Norwegian agriculture. Much attention in the public has been given to the potential for "social dumping" of these migrating workers, as they are considered prone to…

  19. Nonvisualization of an enlarged spleen on Ga-67 scintigraphy but demonstrated by CT after splenic irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, W.J.; Domstad, P.A.; DeLand, F.H.; Maruyama, Y.

    1985-03-01

    The presence of an enlarged spleen using CT with the absence of splenic visualization in Ga-67 citrate images in a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia and splenomegaly after splenic irradiation was observed. Since Howell-Jolly bodies had not been identified in the peripheral circulation, the finding of splenic nonvisualization was explained by disassociated splenic functions, which are not tightly coupled, and some activities that can be suppressed by irradiation without impairing others. The Ga-67 splenic localization mechanism is probably more sensitive and liable to disruption by irradiation, and was independent of spleen size. Ga-67 scintigraphy and Tc-99m sulfur colloid liver-spleen scintigraphy are two organ function-dependent imaging procedures, while CT provides anatomic information.

  20. AGRICULTURE, THE STRUCTURAL FUNDS AND THE BUDGET AFTER ENLARGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Rollo

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to examine how the legacy of the, often bruising, negotiations at Copenhagen and subsequently over agriculture will affect the political economy of the European Union and specifically the challenges facing the CAP, the Structural Funds in the next decade. The EU Budget for the remainder of the 2000-2006 Framework was fixed by the EU-15 at the Brussels Summit of October 2002 (European Council, 2002b and is very unlikely to change. That is why the first real battle over resources engaging the new members will turn out to be the Financial Framework post 2006. This article will discuss the general context, before examining agriculture policy and structural funds after Copenhagen summit and finally the implications for the next Financial Framework.

  1. Euro area enlargement: dilemmas and strategies after the crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mărginean, S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main challenges for the New Member States after joining the European Union were Euro adoption and dealing with the economic crisis. This paper explores the impact of the economic crisis on the New Member States of European Union, both to the four NMS countries that joined the euro area, and also for the eight countries which intend to do this in the next few years. The paper begins with an overview of the current situation and analyses the economic performance of the 12 NMS of EU based on the Maastricht Treaty criteria. Finally, we are considering an answer he question: is it necessary to reshape the Euro – area entry rules?

  2. The Balkans: Between Economic Crisis And European Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei RĂDULESCU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Balkans region (also known as the „Powder keg of Europe” has always been an European question, a Western question, as underlined by Arnold Toynbee, in 1922. At present, European Union is confronted with the fifth enlargement, also known as the “post-conflict” enlargement – the integration of Balkan states. Bulgaria joined European Union in 2007. Croatia signed the Accession Treaty in 2011 and is expected to become an EU member in 2013. The other countries encounter in different stages of European integration. However, this process presents several challenges and dilemmas, either for European Union, or for the Balkan enclave. The main challenge in the case of this enlargement is to reconcile the nation-state building and the European integration. From the economic point of view, the Balkans region is underdeveloped. Several factors determined this stance of the region: the poor endowment in terms of natural resources, the political situation over the centuries (the military conflicts – impeding the economic development, the cultural factors. At present, the region is confronted with the consequences of the worst economic and financial crisis o global economy since the end of World War II.

  3. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  4. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  5. Body-enlarging effect of royal jelly in a non-holometabolous insect species, Gryllus bimaculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Miyashita

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Honeybee royal jelly is reported to have body-enlarging effects in holometabolous insects such as the honeybee, fly and silkmoth, but its effect in non-holometabolous insect species has not yet been examined. The present study confirmed the body-enlarging effect in silkmoths fed an artificial diet instead of mulberry leaves used in the previous literature. Administration of honeybee royal jelly to silkmoth from early larval stage increased the size of female pupae and adult moths, but not larvae (at the late larval stage or male pupae. We further examined the body-enlarging effect of royal jelly in a non-holometabolous species, the two-spotted cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, which belongs to the evolutionarily primitive group Polyneoptera. Administration of royal jelly to G. bimaculatus from its early nymph stage enlarged both males and females at the mid-nymph and adult stages. In the cricket, the body parts were uniformly enlarged in both males and females; whereas the enlarged female silkmoths had swollen abdomens. Administration of royal jelly increased the number, but not the size, of eggs loaded in the abdomen of silkmoth females. In addition, fat body cells were enlarged by royal jelly in the silkmoth, but not in the cricket. These findings suggest that the body-enlarging effect of royal jelly is common in non-holometabolous species, G. bimaculatus, but it acts in a different manner than in holometabolous species.

  6. Prevalence of enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes in heavy smokers - a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, Johannes; Lorenz, Vivian-Wilma [Allgemeines Krankenhaus Hagen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hagen (Germany); Kirchner, Esther Maria [Staedtisches Klinikum Wedau, Clinic for Medicine, Duisburg (Germany); Goltz, Jan Peter; Kickuth, Ralph [University Hospital of Wuerzburg, Department of Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    To evaluate the frequency of enlarged hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes in heavy smokers (more than 10 pack years) compared with non- smokers. In a prospective study the CT findings of 88 consecutive patients (44 heavy smokers, 44 non- smokers) were analysed. Exclusion criteria were history of thoracic malignancy, sarcoidosis, occupational dust exposure or clinical evidence of pneumonia. Prevalence, size and site of enlarged lymph nodes were assessed by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and correlated with the cigarette consumption and the CT- findings of bronchitis and emphysema. Twenty-three of the 44 heavy smokers (52%) showed enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. Non- smokers showed enlarged lymph nodes in 9% (4/44). The most common site of enlarged lymph nodes was the regional station 7 according to the ATS mapping (subcarinal). The difference between the frequency of enlarged lymph nodes in heavy smokers and non- smokers was significant (chi- square 19.3, p < 0.0001). Airway wall thickening and emphysema were often associated with an increased number of enlarged nodes. The present study demonstrates that enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes may occur in a rather high percentage of heavy smokers, especially in those with a MDCT finding of severe bronchitis. (orig.)

  7. Histological and immunohistochemical features of gingival enlargement in a patient with AML

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonoi, Norihiro; Soga, Yoshihiko; Maeda, Hiroshi; Ichimura, Koichi; Yoshino, Tadashi; Aoyama, Kazutoshi; Fujii, Nobuharu; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Logan, Richard; Raber-Durlacher, Judith; Takashiba, Shogo

    2012-01-01

    Here, we discuss the pathophysiology of leukemia-associated gingival enlargement based on a case of acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AML-M4) with typical gingival enlargement. Uniquely, this patient was well enough to allow full periodontal examination and incisional gingival biopsy to be performed

  8. Restrictive cardiomyopathy in an infant with massive biatrial enlargement and normal ventricular size and pump function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erath, H G; Graham, T P; Smith, C W; Boucek, R J

    1978-01-01

    Restrictive cardiomyopathy in an infant with massive biatrial enlargement and normal ventricular size has been reported only once previously [3]. We now present a 13-month-old patient with severe and progressive congestive heart failure who demonstrated normal ventricular cavity size with biatrial enlargement. Ejection fraction and echocardiographic ventricular function studies were normal.

  9. Carcinoma of prostate in clinically benign enlarged gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ishtiaq Ali; Nasir, Muhammad; Akbar, Muhammad; Khattak, Irfan-ud-Din; Khan, Asif Nawaz; Jan, Attaullah; Asif, Sadia; Zia-ur-Rehman

    2008-01-01

    Carcinoma of the prostate is one of the common tumours of old age in men. This cross sectional study was conducted to detect carcinoma of prostate in clinically benign enlarged gland and to evaluate the efficacy of Digital rectal Examination in detection of prostatic cancer in patients presented at Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar from July 1998 to July 1999. Patients presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms over the age of 50 years were evaluated on English version of International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS), clinically examined and post-voiding residual urine determined on abdominal sonography. The selection criteria were; Severe IPSS, absence of signs of malignancy on Digital Rectal Examination (DRE) and post-voiding residual urine more than 100 ml. Thus a total 100 patients were selected for further study. Four ml blood was taken to assess Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) level pre-operatively. All these patients underwent either transvesical prostatectomy or transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) and enucleated prostatic tissues were sent to histopathology. Eighty-five percent patients had PSA level up to 10 etag/ml. PSA level of 15 (15%) patients were above 10n gm/ml out of which 13 (13%) patients were having PSA in range of 11-12 etag/ml and two (2%) had PSA level between 20-25 etag/ml. Histopathology report of 2% patients turned out as adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Out of 100 patients who were having clinically benign DRE findings, 2 turned out as Carcinoma of the prostate histologically.

  10. Aerodynamic Analysis of Trailing Edge Enlarged Wind Turbine Airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haoran; Shen, Wenzhong; Zhu, Weijun; Yang, Hua; Liu, Chao

    2014-06-01

    The aerodynamic performance of blunt trailing edge airfoils generated from the DU- 91-W2-250, DU-97-W-300 and DU-96-W-350 airfoils by enlarging the thickness of trailing edge symmetrically from the location of maximum thickness to chord to the trailing edge were analyzed by using CFD and RFOIL methods at a chord Reynolds number of 3 × 106. The goal of this study is to analyze the aerodynamic performance of blunt trailing edge airfoils with different thicknesses of trailing edge and maximum thicknesses to chord. The steady results calculated by the fully turbulent k-ω SST, transitional k-ω SST model and RFOIL all show that with the increase of thickness of trailing edge, the linear region of lift is extended and the maximum lift also increases, the increase rate and amount of lift become limited gradually at low angles of attack, while the drag increases dramatically. For thicker airfoils with larger maximum thickness to chord length, the increment of lift is larger than that of relatively thinner airfoils when the thickness of blunt trailing edge is increased from 5% to 10% chord length. But too large lift can cause abrupt stall which is profitless for power output. The transient characteristics of blunt trailing edge airfoils are caused by blunt body vortices at low angles of attack, and by the combined effect of separation and blunt body vortices at large angles of attack. With the increase of thickness of blunt trailing edge, the vibration amplitudes of lift and drag curves increase. The transient calculations over-predict the lift at large angles of attack and drag at all angles of attack than the steady calculations which is likely to be caused by the artificial restriction of the flow in two dimensions.

  11. Enlargement Futures Project: Expert Panel on Technology, Knowledge and Learning. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourova, Elissaveta; Ducatel, Ken; Gavigan, James; Scapolo, Fabiana; Di Pietrogiacomo, Paola

    The next 10 years provide an opportunity for the European Union (EU) to renew the science and technology (S&T) base and build necessary knowledge-society capacities and capabilities in Pre-Accession Countries (PACs). Applied research has faced a major downsize; redressing the balance in the research and development systems is urgently needed.…

  12. High Risk of Dementia in Ventricular Enlargement with Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Related Symptoms1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, Anne M; Kurki, Mitja I; Alafuzoff, Irina; Sutela, Anna; Rummukainen, Jaana; Savolainen, Sakari; Vanninen, Ritva; Jääskeläinen, Juha E; Soininen, Hilkka; Leinonen, Ville

    2016-03-22

    Differential diagnosis of ventricular enlargement with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) related symptoms is challenging. Patients with enlarged ventricles often manifest cognitive deterioration but their long-term outcome is not well known. We aim to evaluate long-term cognitive outcome in patients with enlarged ventricles and clinically suspected NPH. A neurologist and a neurosurgeon clinically evaluated 468 patients with enlarged ventricles and suspected NPH using radiological methods, intraventricular pressure monitoring, and frontal cortical brain biopsy. The neurologist confirmed final diagnoses after a median follow-up interval of 4.8 years. Altogether, 232 patients (50%) with enlarged ventricles did not fulfill the criteria for shunt surgery. The incidence of dementia among patients with enlarged ventricles, and at least one NPH-related symptom with adequate follow-up data (n = 446) was high, varying from 77 (iNPH, shunt responders) to 141/1000 person-years (non-shunted patients with enlarged ventricles). At the end of the follow-up, 59% of all these patients were demented. The demented population comprised 73% of non-shunted patients with enlarged ventricles, 63% of shunted iNPH patients that did not respond to treatment, and 46% of iNPH patients that were initially responsive to shunting. The most common cause of dementia was Alzheimer's disease (n = 94, 36%), followed by vascular dementia (n = 68, 26%). One-half of patients with enlarged ventricles and clinically suspected NPH were not shunted after intraventricular pressure monitoring. Dementia caused by various neurodegenerative diseases was frequently seen in patients with ventricular enlargement. Thus, careful diagnostic evaluation in collaboration with neurologists and neurosurgeons is emphasized.

  13. Correlation between adenoidal nasopharyngeal ratio and symptoms of enlarged adenoids in children with adenoidal hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo Olugbemiga Adedeji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adenoid hypertrophy is one of the most common health problems affecting the paediatric population. This study aims to correlate adenoidal nasopharyngeal ratio (ANR with symptoms of enlarged adenoids in children with enlarged adenoids. Materials and Methods: It was a year, cross-sectional, hospital-based study conducted at Lautech Teaching Hospital, Osogbo. ANR was determined by dividing adenoidal depth with nasopharyngeal depth on the plain lateral radiographs. Results: A total of 90 consecutive children consisting of 61 males and 29 females were included in the study with M:F ratio of 2.1:1. Their ages ranged from 8 months to 11 years. All the patients presented with nasal obstruction, mouth breathing and noisy breathing. Majority (64.5% had severe obstructions with preponderance among children of 3-5 years (39.9%. Linear regression analysis showed significant association between age and ANR (t = 10.447, P < 0.001. There was high significant association (P < 0.05 between presenting symptoms and degree of nasopharyngeal airway obstruction; for snoring (r = 0.251, P = 0.000, sleep apnoea (r = 0.594, P = 0.000, nasal discharge (r = 0.314, P = 0.001, excessive daytime sleepiness (r = 0.219, P = 0.019 and failure to thrive (r = 0.240, P = 0.011. Conclusion: Lateral X-ray of the nasopharynx is an effective tool to evaluate children with suspected adenoid hypertrophy. It correlates well with patients′ symptoms and provides objective measures of adenoid hypertrophy.

  14. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...... critical whiteness studies to emerge, its relation to the U.S. theoretical framework, as well as the particularities of the European context need to be taken into account.. The article makes a call for a multi-layered approach to take over from the identity politics so often employed in the fields of U...

  15. The Treaty of Nice and the Distribution of Votes in the Council – Voting Power Consequences for the EU after the Oncoming Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bela Plechanovová

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The IGC 2000 had the objective to prepare the European Union for the enlargement. The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the Nice solution of the Council's decision-making rules from the perspective of the decision on the number of candidate countries which should join the EU in 2004, as proposed by the Brussels European Council in October 2002 and approved by the Copenhagen European Council last December. The evaluation is based on the comparison of the Nice solution with all the relevant proposals, which were presented to the IGC 2000. The results bring an assessment of the voting power effect of both the Nice rules and the proposals. The reason for this comparison consists in the fact that these proposals represented the spectrum of approaches considered as plausible, during the last IGC and some of them much earlier. Since ten designated candidate countries should be regular participants of the next IGC and since these proposals might be picked up again if the question of decision-making rules in the Council is reopened by the next IGC, the question of respective voting power consequences of the proposals for the EU25 should be answered. The method used for evaluation of voting power consequences of individual solutions is based on the Banzhaf index. The comparison leads to the conclusions that the distribution of voting power in the Council after enlargement to 25 members will be more even in terms of equitable representation of population of the member countries than most of other solutions proposed to the IGC, but is far from optimal as it disadvantages a group of smaller members to a greater degree than it disadvantages the most populous countries. Another conclusion is that the population criterion will not influence the voting power of member states after oncoming enlargement and would not be effective in any other dual weighted majority solution.

  16. The Treaty of Nice and the Distribution of Votes in the Council Voting Power Consequences for the EU after the Oncoming Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bela Plechanovová

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The IGC 2000 had the objective to prepare the European Union for the enlargement. The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the Nice solution of the Council's decision-making rules from the perspective of the decision on the number of candidate countries which should join the EU in 2004, as proposed by the Brussels European Council in October 2002 and approved by the Copenhagen European Council last December. The evaluation is based on the comparison of the Nice solution with all the relevant proposals, which were presented to the IGC 2000. The results bring an assessment of the voting power effect of both the Nice rules and the proposals. The reason for this comparison consists in the fact that these proposals represented the spectrum of approaches considered as plausible, during the last IGC and some of them much earlier. Since ten designated candidate countries should be regular participants of the next IGC and since these proposals might be picked up again if the question of decision-making rules in the Council is reopened by the next IGC, the question of respective voting power consequences of the proposals for the EU25 should be answered. The method used for evaluation of voting power consequences of individual solutions is based on the Banzhaf index. The comparison leads to the conclusions that the distribution of voting power in the Council after enlargement to 25 members will be more even in terms of equitable representation of population of the member countries than most of other solutions proposed to the IGC, but is far from optimal as it disadvantages a group of smaller members to a greater degree than it disadvantages the most populous countries. Another conclusion is that the population criterion will not influence the voting power of member states after oncoming enlargement and would not be effective in any other dual weighted majority solution.

  17. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  18. The Impact of Broccoli II & Tomato II on European patents in conventional breeding, GMO’s and Synthetic Biology:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Nordberg, Ana

    2015-01-01

    On 25 March 2015, the Enlarged Board of Appeal of the European Patent Office (EBA) finally delivered its’ much awaited decisions on the consolidated referrals G2/12 (“Tomato II”) and G2/13 (“Broccoli II”). The EBA affirmed that products, namely plants or parts thereof, obtained by essentially...... biological processes are – unlike individual plant varieties – principally patentable under the European Patent Convention (EPC). This decision leaves considerable leeway for patenting novel and inventive plants and products thereof, which have been produced by “conventional” methods including breeding steps....... The EBA has also clarified that this applies irrespective of if such claims are formulated in a product-by-process format or as a per se product . Moreover, the combined effect of Broccoli & Tomato I & II opens new opportunities for patenting GMOs - provided that all other patent criteria are also met...

  19. European mobility cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick

    2016-01-01

    More targeted European policies promoting green travel patterns require better knowledge on differing mobility cultures across European regions. As a basis for this, we clustered the EU population into eight mobility styles based on Eurobarometer data. The mobility styles - including, for example......-economic resources. In a second step, the 28 EU member countries were clustered into six country clusters based on their representation of mobility styles. The country clusters indicate the existence of considerably different mobility cultures across the EU. Sub-regions can be identified that have highly different...... positions on the path towards sustainable mobility and therefore different requirements towards European platforms and support measures, e.g. for 'Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans'. The country clusters can provide a starting point for future communication and targeting of European efforts in sustainable...

  20. From east to west. Enlargement and migration flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Ferrero

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The end of the Cold produced migratory flows of an economic type in the direction East-West Although the exchange and movement of populations in Europe is nothing new, what was new was the change in the underlying philosophy. The change of paradigm from a world with two opposing poles to one with an hegemonic power, shattered all the schemes that until then were taken for granted. Since the fall of the Berlin wall the issue was no longer to take in political refugies coming from the soviet block, butrather to regulate the flows coming from those countries in more and more numbers. In this paper we try to reconstruct the history of the development of control of the migratory flows coming from Central and Easter Europe towards the European Union before,during and after the enlowgement processes which have taken place in 2004 and 2007.

  1. Eu Enlargement and Migration: Scenarios of Croatian Accession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadim Strielkowski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes possible incidence of pending Croatian EU accession that is to take place on the 1st of July 2013, on the labour migration from Croatia to the European Union. We apply panel data estimators using the data on emigration from 18 EU countries into Germany (which is the EU country with the largest share of ex-Yugoslav and Croatian migrants in order to construct possible scenarios of Croatian migration to the EU.Three scenarios of migration - pessimistic, realistic and optimistic - are drawn and the sensitivity of estimated coefficients on migration from Croatia into Germany during next 25 years is further discussed in detail. We conclude that, similarly to hypothetical Turkish accession, Croatian EU accession is not going to cause massive migration inflows.

  2. A unique case of two sources of right ventricle enlargement in tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Elisa A; Bachuwar, Alok; Ludbrook, Philip A

    2013-01-01

    The most common long-term sequelae of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) are related to acquired late postsurgical pulmonary valve pathology. This is often in the form of pulmonic insufficiency (PI) ultimately leading to right ventricular (RV) enlargement and failure, which may necessitate pulmonary valve replacement. We present a case of severe PI in TOF with an incidental large circumflex to RV fistula and single-vessel coronary artery stenosis in a patient with an enlarged RV. The diagnostic dilemma was to determine whether the RV enlargement was caused by severe PI, shunting from the coronary fistula, or a combination of both.

  3. European visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, (on the right) visited the CMS assembly hall accompanied by Jim Virdee, Deputy Spokesman of CMS (on the left), and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN. The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, visited CERN on Tuesday 31 January. He was welcomed by the Director-General, Robert Aymar, who described the missions and current activities of CERN to him, in particular the realisation of the LHC with its three components: accelerator, detectors, storage and processing of data. The European Commissioner then visited the CMS assembly hall, then the hall for testing the LHC magnets and the ATLAS cavern. During this first visit since his appointment at the end of 2004, Janez Potočnik appeared very interested by the operation of CERN, an example of successful scientific co-operation on a European scale. The many projects (30 on average) that CERN and the European Commission carry out jointly for the benefit of res...

  4. Environmental sustainability in European public healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarini, Andrea; Vagnoni, Emidia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to enlarge the debate concerning the influence of leadership on environmental sustainability implementation in European public healthcare organisations. Design/methodology/approach - This paper is a viewpoint. It is based on preliminary analysis of European standards dedicated to environmental sustainability and their spread across Europe in public healthcare organisations. Viewpoints concerning leadership are then discussed and asserted. Findings - This paper found a limited implementation of standards such as Green Public Procurement criteria, Eco-Management and Audit Scheme and ISO 14001 in public healthcare. Some clues indicate that the lack of implementation is related to leadership and management commitment. Originality/value - For the first time, this paper investigates relationships between leadership and environmental sustainability in European public healthcare opening further avenues of research on the subject.

  5. Meta-analysis of functional outcomes and complications following transurethral procedures for lower urinary tract symptoms resulting from benign prostatic enlargement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahyai, Sascha A; Gilling, Peter; Kaplan, Steven A; Kuntz, Rainer M; Madersbacher, Stephan; Montorsi, Francesco; Speakman, Mark J; Stief, Christian G

    2010-09-01

    There is a continuous decline in the number of transurethral resections of the prostate (TURP) and an increase use of minimally invasive surgical therapy (MIST) for lower urinary tract symptoms resulting from benign prostatic enlargement. Current results from randomised controlled trials (RCT) and methodologically sound prospective studies suggest that some of the proposed procedures have the potential to replace TURP. To determine the contemporary status of TURP and of the currently most commonly applied transurethral MISTs: (1) bipolar TURP, (2) bipolar transurethral vaporisation of the prostate (bipolar TUVP), (3) holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP), and (4) potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) laser vaporisation of the prostate. This meta-analysis was based on a systematic Medline search assessing the period 1997-2009. All RCTs comparing TURP and the most commonly discussed ablative treatments were included. The end points of our analyses were functional outcomes and treatment-related adverse events. Twenty-seven publications involving 23 different RCTs with a total of 2245 patients provided the highest level of evidence available (level 1b) and were fully assessed. Meta-analysis was conducted with SAS v.9.1.3 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA). Forest plots were produced using the R software. Pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated between various operative techniques versus TURP. Functional results between the specific transurethral procedures versus TURP were summarised as differences in means. This meta-analysis demonstrates statistically comparable efficacy and overall morbidity for MISTs versus contemporary TURP. Type, category (minor vs major), and the number of complications (safety profile) vary specifically for each of the different transurethral techniques. We feel that the individual patient's clinical profile should be carefully assessed to identify the most appropriate transurethral technique. (c) 2010 European

  6. Lymph Node Enlargement in Neck Filariasis as a Rare Cause: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rindu Raveendran

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lymphatic filariasis is endemic to tropical countries and is the most common cause of acquired lymphedema in the world. Wuchereria bancrofti is the main etiological agent responsible. While the presentation of filariasis in limbs is common, isolated presentation as a single enlarged lymph node in the neck is very rare. We describe a 48-year-old Indian woman, who presented with a hard lymph node in the neck. There was no other significant lymph node enlargement. The overlying skin was erythematous, and no other findings were present on examination. Ultrasonography of the neck revealed a single enlarged lymph node in the left level 2 region, and fine-needle aspiration cytology showed microfilariae with surrounding inflammatory infiltrate. The patient was started on oral diethylcarbamazine and after 2 weeks of therapy, the lymph node enlargement in the neck subsided and the erythema was relieved.

  7. Nitrogen dioxide regulates organ growth by controlling cell proliferation and enlargement in Arabidopsis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Takahashi, Misa; Furuhashi, Takamasa; Ishikawa, Naoko; Horiguchi, Gorou; Sakamoto, Atsushi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu; Morikawa, Hiromichi

    2014-01-01

    .... Treated plants also showed early flowering. The magnitude of the effects of NO 2 on leaf expansion, cell proliferation and enlargement was greater in developing than in maturing leaves. Leaf areas were 1.3...

  8. Postpartum amenorrhoea-galactorrhoea associated with hyperprolactinaemia and pituitary enlargement in primary hypothyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Kroese; A.F. Grootendorst; L.J. Schelfhout

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe report a 36-year-old woman with primary hypothyroidism revealed by postpartum amenorrhoea-galactorrhoea associated with hyperprolactinaemia and suprasellar pituitary enlargement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). On thyroid hormone replacement therapy all clinical,

  9. A rare initial manifestation of acute lymphocytic leukemia: bilaterally enlarged kidneys and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaran, Yalcin; Sayin, Selim; Erdem, Gokhan; Nevruz, Oral; Ural, Ali Ugur

    2009-01-01

    A case with early presentation of acute lymphocytic leukemia with bilaterally enlarged kidneys and liver is presented. Both hepatic and renal infiltration with leukemic cells is a rare manifestation of acute lymphocytic leukemia.

  10. INDIUM AND ZINC MEDIATED ONE-ATOM CARBOCYCLE ENLARGEMENT IN WATER. (R822668)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractSix-, seven-, eight-membered rings are enlarged by one carbon-atom into seven-, eight- and nine-membered ring derivatives respectively, via indium or zinc mediated reactions in aqueous medium.

  11. Management of amlodipine-induced gingival enlargement: Series of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Amit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival enlargement is one of the side effects associated with certain drugs. Amlodipine, a calcium channel blocker, used as antihypertensive drug has been found associated with gingival hyperplasia. This case series presents diagnosis and management of amlodipine-induced gingival hyperplasia. Amlodipine-induced gingival enlargement was diagnosed and managed by thorough scaling and root planning. Drug substitution and surgical intervention was performed in first two cases. The pathogenesis of gingival enlargement is uncertain and the treatment is still largely limited to the maintenance of an improved level of oral hygiene and surgical removal of the overgrown tissue. Several factors may influence the relationship between the drugs and gingival tissues as discussed by Seymour et al. Meticulous oral hygiene maintenance, switchover to alternative drug, professional scaling and root planning and surgical excision of enlarged gingival tissue may help overcome the effect of these drugs.

  12. NATO Enlargement and the National Agendas of America, Great Britain, France, and Germany

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irving, William

    1997-01-01

    This thesis examines the enlargement of NATO from the collapse of the Warsaw Pact and the Soviet Union, through the formation of the North Atlantic Cooperation Council and the Partnership for Peace...

  13. A CLASSICAL CASE OF PREGNANCY INDUCED GINGIVAL ENLARGEMENT: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Shailendra S; Amit; Amrita; Ankita; Saket

    2014-01-01

    Gingival enlargement is a common clinical problem, sometimes associated with specific conditions. This condition finds a unique place in the literature, because it has been associated with a variety of local and systemic factors. In puberty and pregnancy, gingival enlargement can be due to poor oral hygiene, inadequate nutrition, or systemic variation in hormonal stimulation. This case report presents the clinical, histopathological features as well as the treatment of the inf...

  14. Congenital infiltrating lipomatosis of the face with enlargement of the ipsilateral cerebellar hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Gous

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Congenital infiltrating lipomatosis of the face (CILF is a rare disorder in which overgrowth of fatty tissue with infiltration of underlying structures leads to craniofacial deformities and asymmetry. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis, surgical planning and evaluation of underlying structures. To our knowledge, our case is the first to describe CILF associated with isolated enlargement of a cerebellar hemisphere in the absence of an enlarged ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere (hemimegalencephaly.

  15. Insulation co-ordination and the enlargement law for the GM counter tube

    OpenAIRE

    Dolićanin Edin Ć.; Fetahović Irfan S.; Lazarević Đorđe R.; Kartalović Nenad M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we analyze application of contemporary methods of insulation co-ordination and the enlargement law in designing a GM counting tube. It has been shown that by applying insulation co-ordination methods the counting tube can be optimally dimensioned. The application of the enlargement law was demonstrated in generalizing the results of test obtained by the GM tube to those obtained by the counting tube with m-times greater dimensions. The investi...

  16. The Revenge of Europe: NATO and the Transatlantic Relationship in the Era of the European Union (Walker Paper, Number 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    2003, the EU’s annus horribilis . In Febru- ary simmering inter-European tensions boiled over after most of the candidates for EU enlargement expressed...transcends nationalism. The EU merely moves nationalism to a different locus —a European center rather than a couple dozen state centers. Mercer even

  17. Severe Gingival Enlargement with Coexisting Erosive Lichen Planus in Severe Chronic Periodontitis Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plaque induced gingival enlargement is most commonly seen and when encountered simultaneously with erosive lichen planus poses a challenge to the treating dentist. Prognosis of one condition may influence the prognosis of another condition. The presented case highlights the significance of proper diagnosis and the management of simultaneously occurring gingival lesions. A 49-year-old hypertensive female presented with painful enlarged bleeding and suppurating gums with burning sensation on eating food along with long-term usage of antihypertensive drug amlodipine known for its gingival enlargement effect. All these multiple factors led to diagnostic dilemma. Effective management of the gingival enlargement was done by using electrocautery to rehabilitate the functions and esthetics of the patient. Gingival condition was also complicated by the presence of coexisting lichen planus which was predominantly erosive for which topical corticosteroid, antifungal, and antimicrobial agents were prescribed. Eight-month follow-up did not show recurrence of gingival enlargement. Electrocautery is an effective tool for the gingivectomy in severe inflammatory type of gingival enlargement because of rapid postoperative hemostasis. For the management of erosive lichen planus, long-term use of topical corticosteroids is an effective approach. Maintenance of oral hygiene and regular follow-ups are essential for these conditions.

  18. Relationship between intracranial internal carotid artery calcification and enlarged cerebral perivascular space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Xiao-Xiao [Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Shanghai (China); The First People' s Hospital of Wenling, Department of Neurology, Wenling (China); Li, Ge-Fei; Wu, Yi-Lan; Liu, Yi-Sheng; Zhao, Ying; Shi, Yan-Hui; Zhuang, Mei-Ting; Hou, Tian-Yu; Zhao, Rong; Liu, Feng-Di; Wang, Xue-Mei; Shen, Ying; Cui, Guo-Hong; Su, Jing-Jing; Chen, Wei [Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Shanghai (China); Tang, Xue-Mei; Sun, Ji; Liu, Jian-Ren [Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Clinical Research Center, Shanghai (China)

    2017-06-15

    The association between intracranial internal carotid artery (IICA) calcification and lacunes, white matter hyperintensity (WMH), and cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) has been well researched. However, enlarged cerebral perivascular space (PVS) has not yet been reported to correlate with intracranial internal carotid artery calcification. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between IICA calcification and enlarged PVS. A total of 189 patients with ischemic stroke in the middle cerebral artery territory who presented within 7 days of ictus from 2012 to 2015 were enrolled respectively. All patients were required to have undergone head computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance angiography, or computed tomography angiography. Clinical characteristics were recorded. IICA calcification and enlarged PVS were semi-quantitatively evaluated, and the presence of lacunes, WMH, and CMBs was recorded. Of the 189 patients, 63.5% were male. Mean age of the patients was 68.6 ± 12.2 years. There were 104 patients with IICA calcification. Age, diabetes mellitus, lacunes, and white matter hyperintensity were significantly associated with IICA calcification (P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age, diabetes mellitus, and lacunes were independent predictors of IICA calcification (P < 0.05). A lower risk of IICA calcification was found in patients with a higher enlarged PVS score (P = 0.004). Higher enlarged PVS scores were associated with a lesser degree of IICA calcification. There appears to be a relationship between reduced risk of IICA calcification and enlarged PVS. (orig.)

  19. European Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different

  20. Effects of migration flows on the host country labour market following the 2004 EU enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peković Drinka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of migration flows on unemployment, employment probabilities and native wages. The analysis contains the evaluation of migration effects of labour from Central and Eastern European countries which became European Union member states in 2004, on old member's labour market. Particular emphasis was placed on evidence of the migration flows impact from the new EU member states on the labour market performances in the United Kingdom and Ireland, the countries which did not restrict the access of new member immigrants to their labour markets. The analysis was realized for the period of 2004 to 2008 when the migration inflow was the largest. The empirical literature suggests that the migration effects on unemployment and employment probabilities of natives are very small. The young and low skilled native workers are more affected by migration flows than other groups of workers. Also, most empirical studies show small negative wage effects of immigration. Although the results of public researches and econometric studies have shown the modest potential labour migration flows from new member states and the small potential effects on EU-15 labour market, twelve out of fifteen old member states decided to apply transitional arrangements. The evidence presented in the report of the European Commission pointed out positive EU labour market impact of modest inflow of immigrants from new member states. Sectoral and skill composition of immigrants from new member states suggests their complementary role on EU labour market. The majority of immigrants from new member states are men, aged between 18 and 34, mediumlevel of education. Most immigrants have been employed in service sector, manufacturing and construction. The high employment rate of immigrants from new member states (78% and low unemployment rate (6% in the post-enlargement period have confirmed positive migration impact on EU labour market performances. The unemployment

  1. Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...

  2. Experimental investigation of impingement cooling with turbulators or surface enlarging elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Johan

    2000-02-01

    For the materials in modern gas turbines to sustain, a considerable amount of cooling is required. In cases where large amounts of heat need to be removed, impingement cooling with its high heat transfer coefficients may be the only alternative. In this work the possibilities of enhancing impingement cooling by introducing surface enlarging - turbulence enhancing elements are examined experimentally. A configuration consisting of a staggered array of 45 impingement jets distributed over 10 rows is used for the purpose. A thermo camera is used to measure the temperature distribution on the target plate, giving an opportunity to separately evaluate the Nusselt number enhancement for different areas. Experiments are conducted for five different area enlarging geometries: triangle, wing, cylinder, dashed rib, and angel, all made from aluminium. Comparison between each area enlarged surface and a flat plate is made, with results presented as Nusselt number enhancement factors. The effect of pumping power required is also investigated in order to maximize the cooling efficiency. Parameters varied are Reynolds number and jet to plate distance. Overall Nusselt number enhancement factors show values of 1 to 1.3, the trend being decreasing with increased jet to plane distance and Reynolds number. When taking into account pumping power the enhancement factors drop to 0.4 to 1.2. The best results are achieved with the rib geometry and when not using a too large value of enlarger height over jet to plate distance (h/z). Row wise evaluation of Nusselt number enhancement shows an increased enhancement with row number and thereby crossflow ratio (Gc/Gj). Typical increases in enhancement of 1 to 1.5 with Gc/Gj from 0 to 0.8 are found. The thermo camera pictures reveal that the enhancement is found in three different areas, on the enlarger base area, the area just downstream the enlarger and in diagonal streaks with increased turbulence caused by the enlargers. Tests using an

  3. Hearing loss in patients with enlarged vestibular aqueduct: air-bone gap and audiological Bing test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Tamie; Sato, Eisuke; Sugiura, Makoto; Yoshino, Takahiko; Naganawa, Shinji; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2005-08-01

    The Bing test is based on the principle that occlusion of the external auditory meatus improves the perception of bone-conducted sounds unless there is a conductive hearing impairment. An air-bone gap has been reported in patients with large vestibular aqueduct (LVA) syndrome without apparent middle ear dysfunction. We therefore performed the Bing test on nine patients with this syndrome to evaluate whether it is associated with an air-bone gap or middle ear dysfunction. Bone conduction thresholds did not change significantly during the Bing test in any patient. Because an air-bone gap is observed in patients with abnormal communication between the inner ear and cerebrospinal fluid through the LVA, dehiscent superior canal, or dilated inner ear meatus; we propose that a 'three windows' model (in which the abnormal communication provided by the enlarged endolymphatic duct and sac in LVA acts as the 'third window' for sound conductance) might explain the air-bone gap in such patients.

  4. European energy and transport - trends to 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantzos, L.; Capros, P.; Kouvaritakis, N.; Zeka-Paschou, M.

    2003-07-01

    The publication extends the analysis presented in previous editions of the 'Annual energy review'. In addition to a statistical analysis of the past 10 years, this publication gives detailed projections on energy and transport for the current EU and the enlarged Union of 25, for the next three decades. It also addresses wider European and world developments. The projections presented in this outlook to 2030 are built upon an integrated approach encompassing both energy supply and demand and show how the future may develop and which policy-makers will have to act in order to contribute towards sustainable development. 23 refs., 46 figs., 91 tabs., 2 apps.

  5. Parathyroid enlargement at dialysis initiation in patients with chronic kidney diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Kentaro; Fujii, Hideki; Kono, Keiji; Goto, Shunsuke; Miura, Shuhei; Maeda, Atsuhiro; Takeda, Kazuhito; Nishi, Shinichi

    2013-02-01

    The kidney chiefly maintains homeostasis of water, electrolytes, and other solutions. When kidney function is reduced, mineral metabolism is disrupted. Mineral and bone disorder in patients with chronic kidney disease associates with increased cardiovascular risk and mortality; however, management of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder in predialysis patients remains controversial. This study investigates the association between parathyroid enlargement at dialysis initiation and hyperparathyroidism management in dialysis patients. We enrolled 72 patients at dialysis initiation in this study. Using parathyroid sonography, we categorized patients based on presence (detected group; N = 18) or absence (undetected group; N = 54) of enlarged parathyroid glands and assessed the clinical characteristics and laboratory findings. A literature review of ultrasound evaluations of secondary hyperparathyroidism was conducted. Ultrasonography revealed enlarged parathyroid glands in 18 patients (25%). Serum intact parathyroid hormone levels were high in patients with enlarged parathyroid glands; however, of the 29 patients with intact parathyroid hormone levels parathyroid glands. Eight of the 29 patients with serum phosphorus and calcium levels within the optimal range had enlarged parathyroid glands. Twenty of these 29 patients were followed up at 38 ± 17 months (at least 3 months): enlarged parathyroid glands were detected in 6. During follow-up, serum intact parathyroid hormone levels were significantly higher in the detected group compared with the undetected. In conclusion, enlarged parathyroid glands are frequently detected at dialysis initiation, potentially predicting the persistence of secondary hyperparathyroidism and the need for strict management. © 2012 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2012 International Society for Apheresis.

  6. Developments in European Civil Procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortés, P.; Mańko, R.; Cortés, P.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter is structured as follows. In Section B we explore the legal basis for the creation of European civil procedures and Europeanization of procedural private law in general. In Section C we provide an overview of existing EU instruments on civil procedure, which we propose to divide into

  7. CT screening for lung cancer: Frequency of enlarged adrenal glands identified in baseline and annual repeat rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Minxia; Yip, Rowena; Yankelevitz, David Y; Henschke, Claudia I

    2016-12-01

    To determine the frequency of adrenal enlargement of participants in a CT-screening program for lung cancer and demonstrate the progression during follow-up, separately for baseline and annual repeat rounds. HIPAA-compliant informed consent was obtained in 4,776 participants. The adrenal gland was defined as enlarged if it measured ≥6 mm at its largest diameter. Logistic regression analyses were performed. At baseline, 202 (4 %) of 4,776 participants had adrenal enlargement. Significant factors were age (OR = 1.4, 95 % CI: 1.2-1.7) and current smoker (OR = 1.8, 95 % CI: 1.3-2.4). Follow-up 7-18 months after baseline for 133 cases with adrenal enlargement adrenal enlargement were newly identified, none increased beyond 40 mm on follow-up. Adrenal enlargement was a significant predictor of a subsequent diagnosis of lung cancer (OR = 2.0, 95 % CI: 1.2-3.4). Participants with adrenal enlargement Adrenal enlargement increased with increasing pack-years of smoking. Adrenal enlargement was an independent predictor of a subsequent diagnosis of lung cancer. • Adrenal enlargement was seen in 4 % of participants at baseline screening. • Age and currently smoking were significantly associated with adrenal enlargement. • 0.04 % of participants were newly identified with adrenal enlargement. • Annual follow-up for adrenal enlargement Adrenal enlargement was an independent predictor of a diagnosis of lung cancer.

  8. Morphology and morphometry of the human sublingual glands in mouth floor enlargements of edentulous patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Costa Rodrigues de SA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic mouth floor enlargements may be observed in edentulous patients. These masses, which protrude from the mouth floor, may complicate the fitting of dentures and require surgery. Whether this "entity" may be considered an anatomical variation of the mouth floor or represent specific alterations in the sublingual gland is not known. Objective: The aim of this work is to investigate the morphological and morphometric aspects of the sublingual glands of edentulous patients with mouth floor enlargements and compare the glands of these patients with the sublingual glands of human cadavers. Material and Methods: Microscopic evaluation was performed on human sublingual glands from edentulous patients with mouth floor enlargements (n=20 and edentulous cadavers (n=20. The patients and cadavers were of similar ages. The data were compared using Mann-Whitney U, Fisher's exact and Student's t tests (p0.05. Only the variables "autolysis" and "congested blood vessels" presented statistical difference between groups (p=0.014; p=0.043. The morphometric study revealed that the volume densities of acini, ducts, stroma and adipose tissue were similar between the groups (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: The microscopic characteristics of the sublingual glands in mouth floor enlargements in edentulous patients correspond to characteristics associated with the normal aging process. The glands are not pathological and represent an age-related alteration that occurs with or without the presence of the mouth floor enlargements.

  9. Regional income convergence during the pre-enlargement period of the European Union / Tiiu Paas, Andres Kuusk, Friso Schlitte

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Tiiu, 1949-

    2006-01-01

    Artikli analüüsiobjektiks on tulutasemete ebavõrdsus ja konvergents EL-25 riikides. Regionaalsete tulutasemete analüüsi tulemused annavad tunnistust olulisest regionaalsest ebavõrdsusest nii Euroopa Liidu vanades kui uutes (analüüsitaval perioodil veel kandidaatriikides) liikmesriikides. Tabelid

  10. Can Justice and Fairness Enlarge International Environmental Agreements?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Grüning

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The literature on International Environmental Agreements (IEAs predicts a rather low number of signatories to an IEA. This is in sharp contrast to empirical evidence. As experimental economics provides some evidence for more complex human behavior, extending the theory of IEAs to a broader class of preferences is clearly promising. The present paper shows that where countries’ preferences incorporate justice and fairness there will be a strong incentive for them to choose similar abatement policies within and outside an IEA. Consequently, free-riding at the expense of the signatory states diminishes and participation in an IEA becomes a more successful strategy, so that the size of stable IEAs increases.

  11. Endolymphatic sac enlargement in a girl with a novel mutation for distal renal tubular acidosis and severe deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikki, Rink; Martin, Bitzan; Gus, O'Gorman; Mato, Nagel; Elena, Torban; Paul, Goodyer

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) is caused by mutations of genes encoding subunits of the H(+)-ATPase (ATP6V0A4 and ATP6V1B1) expressed in α-intercalated cells of the distal renal tubule and in the cochlea. We report on a 2-year-old girl with distal RTA and profound speech delay which was initially misdiagnosed as autism. Genetic analysis showed compound heterozygous mutations with one known and one novel mutation of the ATP6V1B1 gene; cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed bilateral enlargement of the endolymphatic sacs of the inner ear. With improved cooperation, audiometric testing showed that hearing loss was most profound on the right, where endolymphatic sac enlargement was greatest, demonstrating a clear link between the degree of deafness and the degree of inner ear abnormality. This case indicates the value of MRI for diagnosis of inner ear involvement in very young children with distal RTA. Although citrate therapy quickly corrects the acidosis and restores growth, early diagnosis of deafness is crucial so that hearing aids can be used to assist acquisition of speech and to provide enough auditory nerve stimulation to assure the affected infants remain candidates for cochlear implantation.

  12. Endolymphatic Sac Enlargement in a Girl with a Novel Mutation for Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis and Severe Deafness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rink Nikki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA is caused by mutations of genes encoding subunits of the H+-ATPase (ATP6V0A4 and ATP6V1B1 expressed in α-intercalated cells of the distal renal tubule and in the cochlea. We report on a 2-year-old girl with distal RTA and profound speech delay which was initially misdiagnosed as autism. Genetic analysis showed compound heterozygous mutations with one known and one novel mutation of the ATP6V1B1 gene; cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed bilateral enlargement of the endolymphatic sacs of the inner ear. With improved cooperation, audiometric testing showed that hearing loss was most profound on the right, where endolymphatic sac enlargement was greatest, demonstrating a clear link between the degree of deafness and the degree of inner ear abnormality. This case indicates the value of MRI for diagnosis of inner ear involvement in very young children with distal RTA. Although citrate therapy quickly corrects the acidosis and restores growth, early diagnosis of deafness is crucial so that hearing aids can be used to assist acquisition of speech and to provide enough auditory nerve stimulation to assure the affected infants remain candidates for cochlear implantation.

  13. The accession of the European Union to the European Convention on Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Callewaert, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Provided for under the Treaty of Lisbon, the accession of the European Union to the European Convention on Human Rights is destined to be a landmark in European legal history because it will finally make it possible for individuals and undertakings to apply to the European Court of Human Rights for review of the acts of European Union institutions, which unquestionably play an increasingly important role in our daily lives. After nearly three years of negotiations, a draft agreement on Europe...

  14. Primary tuberculous gingival enlargement - A rare clinical entity: Case report and brief review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail Majid Jan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a chronic specific granulomatous disease and a major cause of death in developing countries. The clinical presentation of TB lesions of the oral cavity varies widely and can manifest as ulcerations, diffuse inflammatory lesions, granulomas and fissures. Oral lesions generally appear secondary to primary TB infection elsewhere, although primary infection of the oral mucosa by Mycobacterium tuberculosis has also been described. We hereby report a case of primary TB of the gingiva manifesting as gingival enlargement. Diagnosis was based on histopathological examination, complete blood count, X-ray chest and immunological investigations with detection of antibodies against M. tuberculosis. Anti-tuberculous therapy was carried out for over 6 months and was followed by surgical excision of the residual enlargement under local anesthesia. After 1-year follow-up, there was no recurrence of the disease. This case report emphasizes the need for dentists to include TB in the differential diagnosis of various types of gingival enlargements.

  15. Marked enlargement and post-op recurrence of hepatic hemangiomas : two cases report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Woon; Chang, Jay Chun; Cho, Jae Ho; Park, Bok Hwan; Kim, Hong Jin; Kwun, Koing Bo [Yeungnam University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine

    1998-05-01

    Hepatic hemangiomas are the most common benign tumor of the liver, and follow-up radiologic imaging studies have normally shown no interval change in the diameter of the tumor. Among the very few tumors in which such change have been seen, growth has been minimal. However, we experienced some marked enlargement of the tumor follow-up imaging studies. First, the marked enlargement of the tumor followed by resection, and as a result, hepatic hemangioma was confirmed. Second, hepatic hemangioma was confirmed after resection, but recurred. Tumor enlargement seems to be caused by ectasia of blood-filled cystic space or estrogen stimulation, through we found no specific etiology. (author). 10 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Modeling the Effect of Enlarging Seating Room on Passengers' Preference of Taiwan's Domestic Airlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jin-Long; Tsai, Li-Non

    2003-01-01

    This study addresses the need for measuring the effect of enlarging seating room in airplane on passengers' preferences of airline in Taiwan. The results can assist Taiwan's domestic air carriers in better understanding their customers' expectations. Stated choice experiment is used to incorporate passengers' trade-offs in the preferred measurement, and three major attributes are taken into account in the stated choice experiment: (1) type of seat (enlarged or not), (2) price, and (3) brand names of airlines. Furthermore, a binary logit model is used to model the choice behavior of air passengers. The findings show that the type of seat is a major significant variable; price and airline's brand are also significant as well. It concludes that air carriers should put more emphasis on the issue of improving the quality of seat comfort. Keywords: Passengers' preference, Enlarged seating room, Stated choice experiment, Binary logit model.

  17. A Rare Case Report of Amlodipine-Induced Gingival Enlargement and Review of Its Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival enlargement is a common clinical feature of gingival and periodontal diseases. It is an unwanted side effect of certain systemic drugs given for nondental treatment. It is being reported with three main groups of drugs like calcium channel blockers (CCBs, immunosuppressants, and anticonvulsants. Among calcium channel blockers, nifedipine causes gingival hyperplasia in about 10% of patients, whereas the incidence of amlodipine-, a third generation calcium channel blocker, induced gingival hyperplasia is very limited. There are very few reports of amlodipine-induced gingival enlargement at a dose of 5 mg. We report a case of amlodipine-induced gingival enlargement in a 45-year-old hypertensive patient taking amlodipine at a dose of 5 mg.

  18. Improving the Effect and Efficiency of FMD Control by Enlarging Protection or Surveillance Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils; Boklund, Anette

    2015-01-01

    . The stochastic spatial simulation model DTU-DADS was used to simulate the spread of FMD in Denmark. The control strategies were the basic EU and Danish strategy, pre-emptive depopulation, suppressive or protective vaccination, enlarging protection or surveillance zones, and a combination of pre...... impact of a hypothetical FMD outbreak in Denmark based on changes to the economic assumptions of the model, and to investigate whether the control of an FMD epidemic can be improved by combining the enlargement of protection or surveillance zones with pre-emptive depopulation or emergency vaccination......-emptive depopulation or emergency vaccination with enlarged protection or surveillance zones. Herds are detected either based on basic detection through the appearance of clinical signs, or as a result of surveillance in the control zones. The economic analyses consisted of direct costs and export losses. Sensitivity...

  19. Ceftriaxone-associated acute gallbladder enlargement - an unexpected diagnosis in the child with urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemień, Grażyna; Książczyk, Tomasz; Szmigielska, Agnieszka; Bombiński, Przemysław; Roszkowska-Blaim, Maria; Werner, Bożena; Brzewski, Michał

    2015-01-01

    Biliary sludge and/or biliary pseudolithiasis occur in patients treated with ceftriaxone with prevalence of 3-57%. Biliary obstruction can be the cause of the acute gallbladder enlargement. It is a minor complication, that usually does not give clinical symptoms and resolves once the drug is discontinued. The authors present a case of a 5-month old boy treated for the acute pyelonephritis. Routine ultrasound, performed on the 5th day of treatment with ceftriaxone, showed gallbladder enlargement. In the consecutive studies small gallblader sludge was visible. Patient had no symptoms related to the gallbladder enlargement. Ultrasound performed 6 weeks from the drug discontinuation was completely normal. Patients treated with ceftroiaxone should be monitored for biliary sludge and pseudolithiasis.

  20. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization Using Ethanol in a Dialysis Patient for Contracting Enlarged Polycystic Kidneys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rim, Hark; Jung, Gyoo Sik; Jung, Yeon Soon [Kosin University College of Medicine, Gospel Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The mass effect of nephromegaly in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease may cause pain and symptoms by compressing the alimentary tract, lungs, and heart. Conventional therapies exist to contract enlarged polycystic kidneys including surgical and interventional procedures. A surgical nephrectomy is often difficult to perform in dialysis patients due to the associated risks related to surgery. In contrast, renal transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with metallic coils, which is a less invasive interventional procedure, can also be utilized to contract enlarged kidneys in dialysis patients as an effective treatment. However, metallic coils present the possibility of recanalization and cost issues. Thus, we used ethanol instead of coils in renal TAE to resolve these issues. We report a dialysis patient with enlarged polycystic kidneys and poor oral intake due to abdominal distention that was successfully treated by TAE with absolute ethanol

  1. Association between Enlarged Axillary Lymph Nodes and Silicone Breast Implant Ruptures seen on Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klang, Eyal; Amitai, Michal M; Raskin, Stephen; Rozendorn, Noa; Keddel, Nicholas; Pickovsky, Jana; Sklair-Levy, Miri

    2016-12-01

    Silicone breast augmentation is a common cosmetic surgery. Previous case reports demonstrated lymphadenopathy in the presence of implant ruptures. To investigate the association between enlarged axillary lymph nodes and silicone implant ruptures as seen on breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Two groups were derived retrospectively from breast MRI reports in our institution for the period December 2011-May 2014. A search of our hospital records for "silicone" and "lymph node" was performed (group A), and the relationship between the presence of enlarged nodes and ruptures was evaluated. The prevalence of ruptures in the presence of nodes was calculated and the association between MRI imaging features and ruptures evaluated. A search for "silicone" and "implant rupture" was performed (group B) and, as for group A, the relationship between the presence of ruptures and nodes was evaluated and the prevalence of enlarged nodes in the presence of ruptures calculated. Group A comprised 45 women with enlarged nodes. Intracapsular ruptures were associated with nodes (P = 0.005), while extracapsular ruptures showed a trend of association with nodes (P = 0.08). The prevalence of ruptures in the presence of nodes was 31.4%. Nodes associated with ruptures showed a strong silicone signal (P = 0.008) and absent enhancement (P = 0.005). Group B comprised 73 women with ruptures. Enlarged nodes were associated with both intra- and extracapsular ruptures (P guide clinical decisions when either enlarged nodes or ruptures are encountered in patients with silicone implants. The association between silicone lymphadenopathy and implant rupture raises concerns regarding the role of rupture in silicone-induced systemic disease.

  2. New predictor of aortic enlargement in uncomplicated type B aortic dissection based on elliptic Fourier analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Ito, Toshiro; Kuroda, Yosuke; Uchiyama, Hiroki; Watanabe, Toshitaka; Yasuda, Naomi; Nakazawa, Junji; Harada, Ryo; Kawaharada, Nobuyoshi

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to re-examine the conventional predictive factors for dissected aortic enlargement, such as the aortic and false lumen diameter and to consider whether the morphological elements of the dissected aorta could be predictors by quantifying the 'shape' of the true lumen based on elliptic Fourier analysis. A total of 80 patients with uncomplicated type B aortic dissection were included. The patients were divided into 'Enlargement group' and 'No Change group.' Between the 2 groups, the mean systolic blood pressure during follow-up, aortic and false lumen maximum diameters, and analysed morphological data were compared using each statistical method. The maximum aortic and false lumen diameters were significantly larger in the Enlargement group than in the No Change group (39.3 vs 35.9 mm; P = 0.0058) (23.5 vs 18.2 mm; P = 0.000095). The principal component 1, which is the data calculated by elliptic Fourier analysis, was significantly lower in the Enlargement group than in the No Change group (0.020 vs - 0.072; P = 0.000049). The mean systolic blood pressure ≥130 mmHg, aortic diameter, false lumen diameter and principal component 1 were included in the Cox proportional hazard model as covariates to determine the significant predictive variable. Principal component 1 demonstrated the only significance with aortic enlargement on multivariate analysis (odds ratio = 0.32; P = 0.048). The analysed and calculated morphological data of the shape of the true lumen can be more effective predictive factors of aortic enlargement of type B dissection than the conventional factors.

  3. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor of the Urinary Bladder with Benign Pelvic Lymph Node Enlargement: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuaki Machioka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs rarely occur in the urinary bladder. It is apparently difficult to distinguish these tumors from other malignant spindle cell proliferations. Herein, we report a case of IMT of the urinary bladder with enlarged pelvic lymph nodes. The definitive pathological diagnosis could not be established by biopsy. Instead, the diagnosis of IMT of the urinary bladder was determined by a positive reaction to anaplastic lymphoma kinase by immunohistochemistry after radical cystectomy. No malignant findings were observed on histopathological evaluations of the enlarged lymph nodes.

  4. Gingival enlargement and mesiodens associated with generalized aggressive periodontitis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Srinivas Sulugodu; Hegde, Manjunath; Prasad, Umesh Chandra

    2012-06-01

    This case report describes the management of an 18-year-old female who presented with generalized aggressive periodontitis, gingival enlargement and a mesiodens. Diagnosis for aggressive periodontitis was determined based on history, clinical findings and radiographic examination. Treatment included oral prophylaxis, extraction of the mesiodens and elimination of infectious microorganisms, using a combination of surgical intervention and antimicrobial therapy with long-term maintenance. Presence of gingival enlargement in cases of aggressive periodontitis may be clinically confusing; hence, the diagnosis should always be based on the patient's history as well as the clinical and radiographic findings.

  5. Pediatric intracranial aneurysms: new and enlarging aneurysms after index aneurysm treatment or observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetts, S W; English, J D; Dowd, C F; Higashida, R T; Scanlon, J T; Halbach, V V

    2011-12-01

    Children with brain aneurysms may be at higher risk than adults to develop new or enlarging aneurysms in a relatively short time. We sought to identify comorbidities and angiographic features in children that predict new aneurysm formation or enlargement of untreated aneurysms. Retrospective analysis of the University of California-San Francisco Pediatric Aneurysm Cohort data base including medical records and imaging studies was performed. Of 83 patients harboring 114 intracranial aneurysms not associated with brain arteriovenous malformations or intracranial arteriovenous fistulas, 9 (8.4%) developed new or enlarging brain aneurysms an average of 4.2 years after initial presentation. Comorbidities that may be related to aneurysm formation were significantly higher in patients who developed new aneurysms (89%) as opposed to patients who did not develop new or enlarging aneurysms (41%; RR, 9.5; 95% CI, 1.9%-48%; P = .0099). Patients with multiple aneurysms at initial presentation were more likely than patients with a single aneurysm at presentation to develop a new or enlarging aneurysm (RR, 6.2; 95% CI, 2.1%-185; P = .0058). Patients who initially presented with at least 1 fusiform aneurysm were more likely to develop a new or enlarging aneurysm than patients who did not present with a fusiform aneurysm (RR, 22; 95% CI, 3.6%-68%; P = .00050). Index aneurysm treatment with parent artery occlusion also was associated with higher risk of new aneurysm formation (RR, 4.2; 95% CI, 1.3%-13%; P = .024). New aneurysms did not necessarily arise near index aneurysms. The only fatality in the series was due to subarachnoid hemorrhage from a new posterior circulation aneurysm arising 20 months after index anterior circulation aneurysm treatment in an immunosuppressed patient. Patients who presented with a fusiform aneurysm had a significantly greater incidence of developing a new aneurysm or enlargement of an index aneurysm than did those who presented with a saccular aneurysm

  6. Book Review: Thomas Risse, A Community of Europeans? Transnational Identities and Public Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Nicholas Romaniuk

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This book represents a multi-faceted and multi-dimensional exploration of Europe as an institutional and social conception. It systematically links understanding of the Europeanization of identities and public spheres with citizenship, nationalism, community and communication, EU (European Union enlargement, institution-building, and European democracy and politicization. As a hallmark of insightful and dynamic scholarship, Risse’s work draws inspiration from a variety of societal levels, including some of the most critical players in European political life today, and highly-praised and well-known political philosophers, and policymakers.

  7. Migrants' motivations to work in the care sector: experiences from England within the context of EU enlargement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Shereen; Stevens, Martin; Manthorpe, Jill

    2013-06-01

    Migrant workers are considered an economic utility, especially for secondary labour markets such as that of long-term care. The dynamics of migrant workers across the globe are governed by interacting macro, state level, and micro, personal level, factors. On the macro level immigration policies, historical and current political and economic links between countries play a crucial part in such dynamics. On an individual level, choices, actions and motivations to migrate and work in certain labour sectors are entangled with and governed by macro level policies. Since 2003, the enlargement of the European Economic Area (EEA) has enabled employers in the UK to freely recruit staff from EEA countries. This article investigates reported individual motivations and the decision making process while accounting for macro factors, specifically ease of labour mobility within the EEA versus a more elaborate process when migrating to work in social care in the UK from outside the EEA. Face to face interviews were conducted with 96 migrant social care and social work staff in six diverse areas of England (2007-2009). The analysis indicates differences in stated motivations to migrate to the UK and to work in the care sector among different groups of migrants, particularly among those from Commonwealth countries, from the EEA, and migrants from other parts of the globe. The findings highlight the importance of taking into account the role of immigration policies and consequently immigration status when investigating the policy framework and delivery of care services for older people.

  8. Policy-making in the European Union

    CERN Document Server

    Pollack, Mark A; Young, Alasadair R

    2015-01-01

    Constantly evolving, and with far-reaching implications, European Union policy-making is of central importance to the politics of the European Union. From defining the processes, institutions and modes through which policy-making operates, the text moves on to situate individual policies within these modes, detail their content, and analyse how they are implemented, navigating policy in all its complexities. The first part of the text examines processes, institutions, and the theoretical and analytical underpinnings of policy-making, while the second part considers a wide range of policy areas, from economics to the environment, and security to the single market. Throughout the text, theoretical approaches sit side by side with the reality of key events in the EU, including enlargement, the ratification of the Lisbon Treaty, and the financial crisis and resulting euro area crisis, exploring what determines how policies are made and implemented. In the final part, the editors consider trends in EU policy-makin...

  9. THE ALLOCATION OF EUROPEAN FUNDS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Monica POP

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we try to analyze the extent to which economic and social cohesion of the enlarged European Union in order to develop a harmonious, balanced and sustainable community has been achieved with the Funds, the European Investment Bank (EIB and other financial instruments and how Romania attracts or not such funds. We analyzed using the statistical data, the absorption and implementation of funds in Romania. Consequently, we present only the results. Conclusions outlined the reducing of the economic, social and territorial disparities which have arisen particularly in regions with developmental delays and in relation to economic and social reorganization. The most important benefits of funding (in general are the growth, the competitive advantage, the employment and improvement of the environment.

  10. Challenges of the European Union Social Market Economy in the Human Resource Management Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Liudmila Lobanova

    2014-01-01

    Peculiarities of European human resource management models are determined by the specifics of EU integration, development and enlargement processes that are centred on implementation of the social model in the development of the social market economy in the European continent under conditions of intensified cohesion processes. The article reveals the impact of the changing environmen and factors determining the transformation of human resource management models on historic evolution of approc...

  11. Symbols and Myths in European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet; Manners, Ian James; Søby, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The study of symbols and myths in European integration is crucial to our understanding of both how the European Union (EU) becomes constituted as a political reality and how the integration process itself occurs. By drawing on the study of symbols and myths from political science, humanities...... and cultural studies to the analysis of European integration, this paper will set out a project to provide a better understanding of how symbolic and substantial processes interact in European society....

  12. Are European fiscal rules that bad? Discretionary fiscal policies in New Member States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fincke, B.; Wolski, M.

    2013-01-01

    There is no clear-cut evidence on how the adoption of the European fiscal standards influences discretionary fiscal policies within the Member States. This study investigates that phenomenon on the example of the 2004 enlargement. The results show that the effects of the adoption of EU fiscal rules

  13. Return of the Balkans: Challenges to European Integration and U.S. Disengagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    web/20090426011014/www.eubusiness.com/news-eu/1229351535.73. 192. Ibid. 193. See Rosa Balfour and Corina Stratulat, “Enlargement to the Balkans: One...Rosa Balfour and Corina Stratulat, “The Democratic Transformation of the Balkans,” Brussels, Belgium: European Policy Center, Issue Paper, No. 66

  14. Social Dialogue and Vocational Training in Europe: Are We Witnessing the Emergence of a European Model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterton, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To explore social dialogue over vocational education and training in Europe, comparing the role of the social partners in different national training systems and different industrial relations contexts. Design/methodology/approach: A survey of European member states (EU15 before enlargement) and two EFTA countries addressed to the…

  15. Attachment in cultural context : Differences in attachment between Eastern and Western Europeans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polek, Elzbieta

    2008-01-01

    Political changes after 1989 and resulting from the European Union enlargement increased emigration from Eastern to Western Europe. In the introductory Chapter 1 the data about migration from the Eastern to Western Europe are presented, as well as the data about cultural, social and economic

  16. No evidence of early head circumference enlargements in children later diagnosed with autism in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinstein, Ilan; Haar, Shlomi; Atsmon, Shir; Schtaerman, Hen

    2017-01-01

    Large controversy exists regarding the potential existence and clinical significance of larger brain volumes in toddlers who later develop autism. Assessing this relationship is important for determining the clinical utility of early head circumference (HC) measures and for assessing the validity of the early overgrowth hypothesis of autism, which suggests that early accelerated brain development may be a hallmark of the disorder. We performed a retrospective comparison of HC, height, and weight measurements between 66 toddlers who were later diagnosed with autism and 66 matched controls. These toddlers represent an unbiased regional sample from a single health service provider in the southern district of Israel. On average, participating toddlers had >8 measurements between birth and the age of two, which enabled us to characterize individual HC, height, and weight development with high precision and fit a negative exponential growth model to the data of each toddler with exceptional accuracy. The analyses revealed that HC sizes and growth rates were not significantly larger in toddlers with autism even when stratifying the autism group based on verbal capabilities at the time of diagnosis. In addition, there were no significant correlations between ADOS scores at the time of diagnosis and HC at any time-point during the first 2 years of life. These negative results add to accumulating evidence, which suggest that brain volume is not necessarily larger in toddlers who develop autism. We believe that conflicting results reported in other studies are due to small sample sizes, use of misleading population norms, changes in the clinical definition of autism over time, and/or inclusion of individuals with syndromic autism. While abnormally large brains may be evident in some individuals with autism and more clearly visible in MRI scans, converging evidence from this and other studies suggests that enlarged HC is not a common etiology of the entire autism population

  17. European environmental stratifications and typologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazeu, G.W,; Metzger, M.J.; Mücher, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    A range of new spatial datasets classifying the European environment has been constructed over the last few years. These datasets share the common objective of dividing European environmental gradients into convenient units, within which objects and variables of interest have relatively homogeneous...... characteristics. The stratifications and typologies can be used as a basis for up-scaling, for stratified random sampling of ecological resources, for the representative selection of sites for studies across the continent and for the provision of frameworks for modeling exercises and reporting at the European...... scale. This paper provides an overview of five recent European stratifications and typologies, constructed for contrasting objectives, and differing in spatial and thematic detail. These datasets are: the Environmental Stratification (EnS), the European Landscape Classification (LANMAP), the Spatial...

  18. CT screening for lung cancer: Frequency of enlarged adrenal glands identified in baseline and annual repeat rounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Minxia [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Capital Medical University, Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Beijing (China); Yip, Rowena; Yankelevitz, David Y.; Henschke, Claudia I. [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-12-15

    To determine the frequency of adrenal enlargement of participants in a CT-screening program for lung cancer and demonstrate the progression during follow-up, separately for baseline and annual repeat rounds. HIPAA-compliant informed consent was obtained in 4,776 participants. The adrenal gland was defined as enlarged if it measured ≥6 mm at its largest diameter. Logistic regression analyses were performed. At baseline, 202 (4 %) of 4,776 participants had adrenal enlargement. Significant factors were age (OR = 1.4, 95 % CI: 1.2-1.7) and current smoker (OR = 1.8, 95 % CI: 1.3-2.4). Follow-up 7-18 months after baseline for 133 cases with adrenal enlargement <40 mm showed it decreased or was stable in 85 (64 %), and increased by <10 mm in 48 (36 %). Five (0.04 %) cases of adrenal enlargement were newly identified, none increased beyond 40 mm on follow-up. Adrenal enlargement was a significant predictor of a subsequent diagnosis of lung cancer (OR = 2.0, 95 % CI: 1.2-3.4). Participants with adrenal enlargement <40 mm identified at baseline and on repeat screening could be reasonably assessed on subsequent annual screening. Adrenal enlargement increased with increasing pack-years of smoking. Adrenal enlargement was an independent predictor of a subsequent diagnosis of lung cancer. (orig.)

  19. Territorial change and national identities in Eastern and Western Europe beyond nationalism: three visions of the European Union and their implications for the linguistic regime of its institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mamadouh, V.D.

    1999-01-01

    Samenvatting: The linguistic diversity in the European Union is generally viewed as an essential component of the European identity, but the linguistic regime of the EU institutions (with eleven official and working languages) is not undisputed. In addition, the upcoming enlargements will complicate

  20. The Road to the European Union: Macroeconomic Policy Challenges for Hungary and Poland. Fulbright-Hayes Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2002 (Hungary and Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Teresita R.

    Prospects for the enlargement of the European Union (EU) became imminent when the EU Commission agreed in 1997 to open formal negotiations with five of the Central and Eastern European countries: (1) the Czech Republic; (2) Hungary; (3) Poland; (4) Slovenia; and (5) Estonia. This research project discusses macroeconomic policy challenges that…

  1. Central and Eastern European Social Policy and European Union Accession: Time for Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi Lendvai

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available European Union enlargement and accession are reflexive of both EU and post-communist social policies. There is a unique “dialogue“ going on, indicative of fundamental aspects of post-communist, post-transitional social policy. It is also a 'mirror' that reflects shortcomings of governance, and often presents a neglected institutional landscape. Therefore, the Europeanisation of social policy is an essential transformation process for post-communist countries whereby a new language and new concepts are introduced, the outlines of new social-policy governance emerge and enter the space in which social policy is formulated and considered.

  2. European Metals Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Vereecken, Jean

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the papers that will be presented at 'EMC '91 '-the European Metals Conference-to be held in Brussels, Belgium, from 15 to 20 September 1991, and organized by Benelux Metallurgie, GDMB (Gesellschaft Deutscher Metallhutten­ und Bergleute) and IMM (the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy). 'EMC '91' is the first of an intended major series organized at the European level with the aim of bringing together all those who are involved with the extraction and processing of non-ferrous metals-European metallurgists and their international colleagues-to provide them with the opportunity to exchange views on the state and evolution of their industry. The programme covers all the different aspects of the metallurgy of non-ferrous metals from mining to fabricated products. Particular attention is being paid to the European non -ferrous industry with respect to changes in demand, the technology used, pressures on the environment and the competitive position of manufacturers. The contributions of the...

  3. Breast enlargement in Malawian males on the standard first-line ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    induced breast enlargement. Testosterone deficiency can occur in HIV infection. Causes of excess oestrogen include β-hCG-producing ... P450 2B6 and other liver enzymes involved in the metabolism of efavirenz, are well-documented in African ...

  4. An Efficient Image Enlargement Method for Image Sensors of Mobile in Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Hua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Main challenges for image enlargement methods in embedded systems come from the requirements of good performance, low computational cost, and low memory usage. This paper proposes an efficient image enlargement method which can meet these requirements in embedded system. Firstly, to improve the performance of enlargement methods, this method extracts different kind of features for different morphologies with different approaches. Then, various dictionaries based on different kind of features are learned, which represent the image in a more efficient manner. Secondly, to accelerate the enlargement speed and reduce the memory usage, this method divides the atoms of each dictionary into several clusters. For each cluster, separate projection matrix is calculated. This method reformulates the problem as a least squares regression. The high-resolution (HR images can be reconstructed based on a few projection matrixes. Numerous experiment results show that this method has advantages such as being efficient and real-time and having less memory cost. These advantages make this method easy to implement in mobile embedded system.

  5. Misdiagnosis of otosclerosis in a patient with enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Távora-Vieira Dayse

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In the present case we report on the mismanagement of a patient misdiagnosed with otosclerosis, who was subsequently found to have enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome bilaterally. This highlights the need to not only be vigilant in pre-operative assessment of otosclerosis but also in post-operative investigations of stapedectomy failures. Case presentation Our patient, a 56-year-old Caucasian Australian woman, lost the hearing in her right ear following a stapedectomy approximately 25 years ago. It is thought that preoperative imaging was not conducted, while an inadequate (unmasked audiogram was used to formulate the initial diagnosis of otosclerosis. The hearing in her left ear deteriorated to the point that a cochlear implant was now being considered for her right ear. Imaging performed as part of our pre-cochlear implant battery revealed bilateral enlarged vestibular aqueducts and thus the decision to proceed with a right cochlear implant was made following discussion with our patient and her family in regard to not only general surgical risks but specifically the remote risk that the surgical drilling required during the procedure could risk a deterioration of the hearing in her left ear because of the enlarged vestibular aqueduct on that side. Conclusions This report illustrates a case of misdiagnosis and mismanagement of bilateral enlarged vestibular aqueduct resulting in profound hearing loss. Fortunately our patient has been successfully implanted with a right cochlear implant with remarkable outcomes.

  6. Quantitative detection of DNA by autocatalytic enlargement of hybridized gold nanoprobes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhan, Zongrui; Cao, Cuong; Sim, Sang Jun

    2010-01-01

    nanoprobes via the surface reduction of AuCl4− to Au0 on their surface in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). On this basis, signal enhancements in the absorbance intensity and kinetic behavior of gold enlargement in the aqueous phase have been well investigated...

  7. The Palm-Heart Diameter: A Prospective Simple Screening Tool for Identifying Heart Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adegbenro Omotuyi John Fakoya

    2017-11-01

    CONCLUSION: This study establishes the correlation between the palm and heart diameters. Since the heart tissue and the upper limb share a similar embryonic origin, being the mesoderm, this study prospects the fact that heart enlargement could be preliminarily identified by measuring the size of the hand.

  8. Progressive Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Atrophy Associated With Enlarging Peripapillary Pit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Ji; Kim, Tae-Woo

    2017-02-01

    To report a case in which progressive retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) atrophy was observed along with enlargement of the peripapillary pit. A 34-year-old male was diagnosed with primary open-angle glaucoma and followed up for 4 years with regular ophthalmic examinations. Both eyes were myopic (-10 D, OD and -10.5 D, OS), and untreated intraocular pressures were 18 mm Hg (OD) and 16 mm Hg (OS). A subtle depression of the superotemporal peripapillary area was deepened and emerged as a peripapillary pit during the follow-up period. With the enlargement of the peripapillary pit, a RNFL defect at the location of pit widened and thinned continuously. The enlargement of the pit was documented by the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography posterior pole scanning. Progressive RNFL atrophy was observed with enlargement of the peripapillary pit. The finding suggests that tensile stress derived from the scleral stretching may have significant influence on the integrity of the RNFL.

  9. Impact of EU Enlargement on Business Environment of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Ján Vravec; Marián Gál; Tomás Sabol

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the impact of EU enlargement on business environment in the Slovak Republic. Integration of Slovakia into EU has significantly influenced operating conditions for small and medium enterprises. Prosperity of small and medium enterprises depends mainly on their ability to adapt themselves to these new conditions.

  10. Spontaneous breast enlargement following liposuction of the abdominal wall : Does a link exist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lei, Berend; Halbesma, Gert-Jan; van Nieuwenhoven, Christianne A.; van Wingerden, Jan J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: A retrospective study was undertaken to determine the specific incidence of breast enlargement following liposuction of the abdomen (alone or in combination with the flanks), and to compare its effect with a control group of patients who had undergone abdominoplasty only and, where

  11. 47 CFR 1.229 - Motions to enlarge, change, or delete issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motions to enlarge, change, or delete issues. 1.229 Section 1.229 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE... substantial public interest importance as to warrant consideration in spite of its untimely filing. (d) Such...

  12. Micro‐CT analyses of apical enlargement and molar root canal complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, M.; Darvann, Tron Andre; Larsen, P.

    2012-01-01

    Markvart M, Darvann TA, Larsen P, Dalstra M, Kreiborg S, Bjørndal L. Micro‐CT analyses of apical enlargement and molar root canal complexity. International Endodontic Journal, 45, 273–281, 2012. Aim To compare the effectiveness of two rotary hybrid instrumentation techniques with focus on apical...

  13. Micro-CT analyses of apical enlargement and molar root canal complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, Merete; Darvann, Tron Andre; Larsen, Per

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effectiveness of two rotary hybrid instrumentation techniques with focus on apical enlargement in molar teeth and to quantify and visualize spatial details of instrumentation efficacy in root canals of different complexity. METHODOLOGY: Maxillary and mandibular molar teeth wer...

  14. Evidence for age-dependent air-space enlargement contributing to loss of lung tissue elastic recoil pressure and increased shear modulus in older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, K; Kumar, H; Tawhai, M H

    2017-07-01

    As a normal part of mature aging, lung tissue undergoes microstructural changes such as alveolar air-space enlargement and redistribution of collagen and elastin away from the alveolar duct. The older lung also experiences an associated decrease in elastic recoil pressure and an increase in specific tissue elastic moduli, but how this relates mechanistically to microstructural remodeling is not well-understood. In this study, we use a structure-based mechanics analysis to elucidate the contributions of age-related air-space enlargement and redistribution of elastin and collagen to loss of lung elastic recoil pressure and increase in tissue elastic moduli. Our results show that age-related geometric changes can result in reduction of elastic recoil pressure and increase in shear and bulk moduli, which is consistent with published experimental data. All elastic moduli were sensitive to the distribution of stiffness (representing elastic fiber density) in the alveolar wall, with homogenous stiffness near the duct and through the septae resulting in a more compliant tissue. The preferential distribution of elastic proteins around the alveolar duct in the healthy young adult lung therefore provides for a more elastic tissue.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We use a structure-based mechanics analysis to correlate air-space enlargement and redistribution of elastin and collagen to age-related changes in the mechanical behavior of lung parenchyma. Our study highlights that both the cause (redistribution of elastin and collagen) and the structural effect (alveolar air-space enlargement) contribute to decline in lung tissue elastic recoil with age; these results are consistent with published data and provide a new avenue for understanding the mechanics of the older lung. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. A defect of peroxisomal membrane protein 38 causes enlargement of peroxisomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Shoji; Nakamori, Chihiro; Fukao, Yoichiro; Araki, Masami; Matsuda, Azusa; Kondo, Maki; Nishimura, Mikio

    2011-12-01

    Peroxisome proliferation occurs through enlargement, elongation and division of pre-existing peroxisomes. In the Arabidopsis apem mutant, apem3, peroxisomes are dramatically enlarged and reduced in number, revealing a defect in peroxisome proliferation. The APEM3 gene was found to encode peroxisomal membrane protein 38 (PMP38). To examine the relative role of PMP38 during proliferation, a double mutant was constructed consisting of apem3 and the peroxisome division mutant, apem1, in which a defect in dynamin-related protein 3A (DRP3A) results in elongation of peroxisomes. In the double mutant, almost all peroxisomes were predominantly enlarged but not elongated. DRP3A is still able to localize at the peroxisomal membrane on enlarged peroxisomes in the apem3 mutants. PMP38 is revealed to be capable of interacting with itself, but not with DRP3A. These results indicate that PMP38 has a role at a different step that requires APEM1/DRP3A. PMP38 is expressed in various tissues throughout the plant, indicating that PMP38 may participate in multiple unidentified functions in these tissues. PMP38 belongs to a mitochondrial carrier family (MCF) protein. However, unlike Arabidopsis nucleotide carrier protein 1 (AtPNC1) and AtPNC2, two other peroxisome-resident MCF proteins that function as adenine nucleotide transporters, PMP38 has no ATP or ADP transport activity. In addition, unlike AtPNC1 and AtPNC2 knock-down plants, apem3 mutants do not exhibit any gross morphological abnormalities. These results demonstrate that APEM3/PMP38 plays a role distinct from that of AtPNC1 and AtPNC2. We discuss possible mechanism of enlargement of peroxisomes in the apem3 mutants.

  16. Improving the Effect and Efficiency of FMD Control by Enlarging Protection or Surveillance Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils; Boklund, Anette

    2015-01-01

    An epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in a FMD-free country with large exports of livestock and livestock products would result in profound economic damage. This could be reduced by rapid and efficient control of the disease spread. The objectives of this study were to estimate the economic impact of a hypothetical FMD outbreak in Denmark based on changes to the economic assumptions of the model, and to investigate whether the control of an FMD epidemic can be improved by combining the enlargement of protection or surveillance zones with pre-emptive depopulation or emergency vaccination. The stochastic spatial simulation model DTU-DADS was used to simulate the spread of FMD in Denmark. The control strategies were the basic EU and Danish strategy, pre-emptive depopulation, suppressive or protective vaccination, enlarging protection or surveillance zones, and a combination of pre-emptive depopulation or emergency vaccination with enlarged protection or surveillance zones. Herds are detected either based on basic detection through the appearance of clinical signs, or as a result of surveillance in the control zones. The economic analyses consisted of direct costs and export losses. Sensitivity analysis was performed on uncertain and potentially influential input parameters. Enlarging the surveillance zones from 10 to 15 km, combined with pre-emptive depopulation over a 1-km radius around detected herds resulted in the lowest total costs. This was still the case even when the different input parameters were changed in the sensitivity analysis. Changing the resources for clinical surveillance did not affect the epidemic consequences. In conclusion, an FMD epidemic in Denmark would have a larger economic impact on the agricultural sector than previously anticipated. Furthermore, the control of a potential FMD outbreak in Denmark may be improved by combining pre-emptive depopulation with an enlarged protection or surveillance zone.

  17. Extensive sonographic ulnar nerve enlargement above the medial epicondyle is a characteristic sign in Hansen's neuropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokesh Bathala

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Earlier studies have shown sonographic enlargement of the ulnar nerve in patients with Hansen's neuropathy. The present study was performed to determine whether sonography or electrophysiological studies can detect the specific site of ulnar nerve pathology in leprosy.Eighteen patients (thirty arms with Hansen's disease and an ulnar neuropathy of whom 66% had borderline tuberculoid (BT, 27% lepromatous leprosy (LL and 7% mid-borderline (BB leprosy were included in the study. Cross-sectional area (CSA of ulnar nerve was measured every two centimeters from wrist to medial epicondyle and from there to axilla. All patients underwent standard motor and sensory nerve conduction studies of the ulnar nerve. Thirty age and sex matched controls underwent similar ulnar nerve CSA measurements and conduction studies.Ulnar nerve was clinically palpable in 19 of the 30 arms of patients. Motor and sensory nerve conduction studies of the ulnar nerve showed a reduced compound motor action potential and sensory nerve action potential amplitude in all patients. Motor Conduction Velocity (MCV in patients were slower in comparison to controls, especially at the elbow and upper arm, but unable to exactly locate the site of the lesion. In comparison to controls the ulnar nerveCSA was larger in the whole arm in patients and quite specific the maximum enlargement was seen between nulnar sulcus and axilla, peaking at four centimeters above the sulcus.A unique sonographic pattern of nerve enlargement is noted in patients with ulnar neuropathy due to Hansen's disease, while this was not the case for the technique used until now, the electrodiagnostic testing. The enlargement starts at ulnar sulcus and is maximum four centimeters above the medial epicondyle and starts reducing further along the tract. This characteristic finding can help especially in diagnosing pure neuritic type of Hansen's disease, in which skin lesions are absent, and alsoto differentiate leprosy from

  18. The European Nuclear Education Network Association - ENEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentile, D. [Institut des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires, CEA - Centre de Saclay, Bat. 395, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2006-07-01

    The temporary network, established through the European 5. Framework Programme project ENEN, was given a more permanent character by the foundation of the European Nuclear Education Network Association, a non-profit-making association according to the French law of 1901, pursuing a pedagogic and scientific aim. Its main objective is the preservation and the further development of higher nuclear education and expertise. This objective is realized through the co-operation between the European universities, involved in education and research in the nuclear engineering field, the nuclear research centres and the nuclear industry. The membership of the ENEN Association now consists of 35 universities members and 6 research centres. The paper briefly describes the history and structure of the ENEN Association and elaborates on the objectives and activities of its five committees during its first two years of operation. Supported by the 5. and 6. Framework Programme of the European Community, the ENEN Association established the delivery of the European Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering certificate. In particular, education and training courses have been developed and offered to materialize the core curricula and optional fields of study in a European exchange structure. Pilot editions of those courses and try-outs of training programmes have been successfully organised with a satisfying interest, attendance and performance by the students and the support of nuclear industries and international organisations. The involvement of ENEN in the 6. EC Framework project EUROTRANS will further enlarge its field of activities into a realm of nuclear disciplines. The ENEN Association further contributes to the management of nuclear knowledge within the European Union as well as on a world-wide level, through contacts with its sister Network ANENT in Asia, and by its participation to activities of the World Nuclear University. (author)

  19. Enlarged Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the valves are damaged by conditions such as rheumatic fever, a heart defect, infections (infectious endocarditis), connective tissue disorders, certain medications or radiation treatments for cancer, your heart may ...

  20. Enlarged Tonsils

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cohort of about 3,000 individuals who were irradiated during childhood for benign head and neck conditions at Michael Reese Hospital was assembled and monitored for the risk of thyroid and other cancers.

  1. NATO Enlargement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volker, Karen

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the history of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and describes the debate over expanding its membership. Includes a discussion of the process for adding NATO members and a copy of the treaty. Suggests several exercises to help students better understand the NATO-expansion debate. (DSK)

  2. Enlarged liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spread of cancer to the liver) Congestive heart failure Glycogen storage disease Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatocellular carcinoma Hereditary fructose intolerance Infectious mononucleosis Leukemia Niemann- ...

  3. Enlarged Adenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family HealthInfants and Toddlers Kids and Teens Pregnancy and ... Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family HealthInfants and Toddlers Kids and Teens Pregnancy and ...

  4. Russia and the Ukrainian Crisis: A Multiperspective Analysis of Russian Behaviour, by Taking into Account NATO’s and the EU’s Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klotz Maximilian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article will explain why Russia annexed Crimea and is destabilizing eastern Ukraine. To do this, three different theoretical approaches on various levels of analysis will be used. It will be examined how far the expansion of NATO, as well as that of the European Union (Theory of Neorealism, was a motive for Russia’s action. NATO’s enlargement is analysed predominantly. In addition, politicalpsychological motivations of the Russian leadership are considered. But it is also analysed whether Russia’s pure power interests have played a role (Theory of Realism. The focus here is on the Russian naval base in Crimea. It is necessary to examine whether preserving its fleet in the Black Sea was a motive for Moscow to annex the Crimean peninsula.

  5. Habermas on European Constitution and European Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Biró-Kaszás

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For the last two decades or so philosophers have been reflecting on a set of practical and political concerns in connection with the new political structural arrangements beyond the nation-state. In this article two essays by Jürgen Habermas shall be examined. An attempt shall be made to tackle Habermas’ philosophical concepts of personal and collective identity as well as the role that a constitution may play in building the post-national constellation. It has been shown that Habermas has normative answers. Firstly, according to him, the fragile balance between the legal order and the particular cultures and traditions of a community has to be protected by the constitutional state. For that reason the political culture has to be “decoupled” from the majority culture. Secondly, the democratically structured attempt to achieve shared meaning has to find the delicate balance between the context-transcending universal normative claims and the claims of particular individual and collective life. Thirdly, it is possible to expand legally mediated civil solidarity trans-nationally, across Europe – we may recognize this development as the emergence of European identity –, since the process of democratic will-formation of citizens may get loose from the structures provided by the state if both shared democratic political cultures as well as a European-wide public sphere exist. The European Constitution may have a catalytic function in materialization of these conditions. It has been shown that in his deliberations Habermas tried to find a reflective equilibrium between the normative and the empirical.

  6. A European Open Science Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    EIROforum IT working group; CERN IT Department

    2015-01-01

    This document outlines the position of EIROforum on a European Open Science Cloud. It explores the essential characteristics of a European Open Science Cloud if it is to address the big data needs of the latest generation of Research Infrastructures. The high‐level architecture and key services as well as the role of standards is described. A governance and financial model together with the roles of the stakeholders, including commercial service providers and downstream business sectors, that...

  7. Evaluation of the overweight/obese child--practical tips for the primary health care provider: recommendations from the Childhood Obesity Task Force of the European Association for the Study of Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer L; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie J; Nowicka, Paulina

    2010-01-01

    Association for the Study of Obesity (EASO). We have attempted to use an evidence-based approach while allowing flexibility for the practicing clinician in domains where evidence is currently lacking and ensuring that treating the obese child involves the entire family as well.......The prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents is on the rise. The majority of overweight or obese children are treated by primary health care providers including paediatricians, family practitioners, dieticians, nurses, and school health services - and not by specialists. The majority...... of obese children have no underlying medical disorder causing their obesity yet a significant proportion might suffer from obesity-related co-morbidities. This text is aimed at providing simple and practical tools for the identification and management of children with or at risk of overweight and obesity...

  8. Chestnut, European (Castanea sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredoira, Elena; Valladares, Silvia; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Development of a system for direct transfer of antifungal candidate genes into European chestnut (Castanea sativa) would provide an alternative approach to conventional breeding for production of chestnut trees that are tolerant to ink disease caused by Phytophthora spp. Overexpression of genes encoding PR proteins (such as thaumatin-like proteins), which display antifungal activity, may represent an important advance in control of the disease. We have used a chestnut thaumatin-like protein gene (CsTL1) isolated from European chestnut cotyledons and have achieved overexpression of the gene in chestnut somatic embryogenic lines used as target material. We have also acclimatized the transgenic plants and grown them on in the greenhouse. Here, we describe the various steps of the process, from the induction of somatic embryogenesis to the production of transgenic plants.

  9. European Corporate Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik; Dorresteijn, Adriaan; Teichmann, Christoph

    This fully updated new edition provides the best-known practical overview of the law regarding companies, business activities, and capital markets in Europe, at both the European Union (EU) and Member State levels. It incorporates analysis of recent developments including the impact of global......; - a company’s freedom to incorporate in a jurisdiction not its own; - competition among the legal forms of different Member States; and - safeguarding of employee involvement in cross-border transactions. With respect to national law, the laws of Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain...... initiatives in such aspects of the corporate environment as regulation of financial institutions and non-financial reporting obligations with a view to sustainability and other social responsibility concerns. The authors, all leading experts in European corporate law, describe current and emerging trends...

  10. Harmonious functional and aesthetic correction of severe localised pregnancy-induced gingival enlargement associated with capillary haemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Shalini; Kumar, Avadhesh; Azmatullah, Mohammed; Gupta, Sanjay; Singh, Rajeev Kumar

    2013-06-16

    Gingival enlargement is a clinical condition that has been widely studied and is directly associated with specific local or systemic conditions. Pregnancy has been presented to increase susceptibility to gingival inflammation. Sex hormones are believed to be a risk factor for periodontitis because of their ability to proliferate specific periodontal microorganisms and affect host immunological response, but it is unclear whether pregnancy gingivitis exposes or proceeds to periodontitis. In this case report, the patient reported with severe localised enlarged gingival mass which initiated when she was pregnant. After parturition, gingival enlargement was persisting and causing functional and aesthetic problem. Enlargement did not resolve even after non-surgical therapy; therefore, surgical excision of the entire enlarged gingival mass was preformed. Histopathological examination revealed capillary haemangioma. No evidence of malignancy was seen. No recurrence was seen even after 2 years of follow-up.

  11. European Union energy policy integration: A case of European Commission policy entrepreneurship and increasing supranationalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, Tomas

    2013-04-01

    Focusing on gas, this article explores the role of the European Commission in the process of European Union energy security policy development, and the extent to which the policy area is becoming increasingly supranational. Situating the article within the literature on agenda-setting and framing, it is argued that a policy window was opened as a result of: enlargement to include more energy import dependent states, a trend of increasing energy imports and prices, and gas supply disruptions. From the mid-2000s, the Commission contributed to a shift in political norms, successfully framing import dependency as a problem requiring an EU-level solution, based on the institution's pre-existing preferences for a diversified energy supply and internal energy market. Whilst Member States retain significant sovereignty, the Commission has achieved since 2006 creeping competencies in the internal, and to a lesser extent external, dimensions of EU energy policy.

  12. Evaluation of Effect of Foraminal Enlargement of Necrotic Teeth on Postoperative Symptoms: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges Silva, Erlange Andrade; Guimarães, Ludmila Silva; Küchler, Erika Calvano; Antunes, Lívia Azeredo A; Antunes, Leonardo Santos

    2017-10-12

    The intentional enlargement of the apical foramen is designed to reduce the microbial load in the apical foramen, or even beyond, to levels more favorable for repair. This study provides a systematic review and meta-analysis to address the PICOS question: in adult patients who undergo endodontic treatment, does foraminal enlargement (FE) cause different postoperative symptoms in comparison with conventional endodontic treatment? The PROSPERO registration number is CRD42017059921 and was conducted following the PRISMA statements. A broad search was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and grey literature for articles published through May 2017. The MeSH terms "Pain," "Hyperemia," "Edema," "Hyperesthesia," "Fistula," "Root canal preparation," "Tooth apex," "Periapical periodontitis," "Dental pulp necrosis," and "Clinical study" were used. The reviewers evaluated the studies for eligibility criteria and performed data abstraction and risk of bias evaluations. A random-effects model was used for the meta-analysis. Five studies qualified for systematic review, and 3 studies were considered for meta-analysis. The results of the meta-analysis showed that postoperative pain is higher in the endodontic treatment with FE, with a statistically significant difference in the first, second, fourth, sixth, and seventh days. Limited data indicated that no significant difference was found in analgesic consumption, flare-up, and swelling between the groups. Postoperative pain was higher in the FE group compared with conventional endodontic therapy in the first days after treatment in teeth with necrosis and apical periodontitis. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Foveated scanning: dynamic monodimensional enlargement of resolved field of view in lenses of scanner systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaherian, Farhang; Rashidian, Bizhan

    2016-09-10

    An inconsistency between the circular symmetric geometry of conventional optical imagers and the geometry of long linear sensors used in today's line-scan cameras results in suboptimal separate design of optics and electronics of scanner systems. Based on the method of foveated optical imaging, a technique named foveated scanning (FS) is proposed in this paper. The FS technique is employed to enlarge the one-dimensional resolved field of view (RFOV) of conventional lenses and permits optimized performance on a line-of-interest in the image plane where the optoelectronic sensor is located. The achieved enlargement of RFOV is verified on a proof-of-concept basic telephoto lens. Both modulation transfer function analysis and the imaging simulation of a standard target have been performed. Results show a twofold increase in RFOV by this technique.

  14. Insulation co-ordination and the enlargement law for the GM counter tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolićanin Edin Ć.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze application of contemporary methods of insulation co-ordination and the enlargement law in designing a GM counting tube. It has been shown that by applying insulation co-ordination methods the counting tube can be optimally dimensioned. The application of the enlargement law was demonstrated in generalizing the results of test obtained by the GM tube to those obtained by the counting tube with m-times greater dimensions. The investigations were conducted both theoretically and by experiment. Using theoretical analysis, we derived the expressions that may be applied if a performance function of a random variable breakdown voltage is known. The experiments were conducted on a GM counter model under well controlled laboratory conditions.

  15. Clinical significance of ventricular enlargement and cortical atrophy in computed tomography of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busse, O.; Agnoli, A.L.; Lippmann, R.; Schuetz, H.J.

    1981-02-01

    The diagnosis of atrophy of the brain based on the visual interpretation of CT findings appears questionable. In 56 patients there was no correlation between the CT findings of enlarged ventricles and sulci and clinical findings of psychoorganic syndromes. Only the group of 60 to 80 year old patients showed a statistically significant correlation between psychoorganic findings and the area of the lateral ventricles - measured planimetrically - and the diameter of the cella medica, but not the group of the 40 to 60 year old. There was no relationship between the number of cortical sulci and psychopathology. The morphological findings of ventricular enlargement and cortical atrophy in CT - even with exact measurements - do not allow any conclusions in regard to psychoorganic findings.

  16. Successful extensive enlargement of a non-committed ventricular septal defect in double outlet right ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Nobuyuki; Aoki, Mitsuru; Fujiwara, Tadashi

    2005-08-01

    We performed an arterial switch operation in a patient with double outlet right ventricle with non-committed ventricular septal defect, and abnormal insertion of the tension apparatus of the tricuspid valve which produced moderate tricuspid regurgitation. This required extensive enlargement of the ventricular septal defect between the attachments of the cords of the tricuspid valve so as to create the interventricular rerouting that made possible the arterial switch operation. Postoperatively, we produced a straight, unobstructed, left ventricular outflow tract, improved the extent of tricuspid regurgitation, and achieved low right atrial pressures. Enlargement of the interventricular communication can set the scene for biventricular repair in this particular subset of patients with both arterial trunks arising from the morphologically right ventricle.

  17. An enlarged postcranial sample confirms Australopithecus afarensis dimorphism was similar to modern humans

    OpenAIRE

    Reno, Philip L.; McCollum, Melanie A.; Meindl, Richard S.; Lovejoy, C. Owen

    2010-01-01

    In a previous study, we introduced the template method as a means of enlarging the Australopithecus afarensis postcranial sample to more accurately estimate its skeletal dimorphism. Results indicated dimorphism to be largely comparable to that of Homo sapiens. Some have since argued that our results were biased by artificial homogeneity in our Au. afarensis sample. Here we report the results from inclusion of 12 additional, newly reported, specimens. The results are consistent with those of o...

  18. Enlarged clitoris in wild polar bears (Ursus maritimus) can be misdiagnosed as pseudohermaphroditism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, C; Leifsson, P S; Dietz, R

    2004-01-01

    A 23-year-old female polar bear (Ursus maritimus) killed in an Inuit hunt in East Greenland on July 9, 1999 had a significantly enlarged clitoris resembling, in size, form and colour, those of previously reported 'pseudohermaphroditic' polar bears from Svalbard. It has been suggested that an enzy...... Greenland polar bear. Furthermore, caution should be exercised in suggesting linkages of such inflammatory abnormalities with correlations to anthropogenic pollutant exposures. Udgivelsesdato: 2005-Jan-20...

  19. An anatomic risk model to screen post endovascular aneurysm repair patients for aneurysm sac enlargement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Png, Chien Yi M; Tadros, Rami O; Beckerman, William E; Han, Daniel K; Tardiff, Melissa L; Torres, Marielle R; Marin, Michael L; Faries, Peter L

    2017-09-01

    Follow-up computed tomography angiography (CTA) scans add considerable postimplantation costs to endovascular aneurysm repairs (EVARs) of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). By building a risk model, we hope to identify patients at low risk for aneurysm sac enlargement to minimize unnecessary CTAs. 895 consecutive patients who underwent EVAR for AAA were reviewed, of which 556 met inclusion criteria. A Probit model was created for aneurysm sac enlargement, with preoperative aneurysm morphology, patient demographics, and operative details as variables. Our final model included 287 patients and had a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 68.9%, and an accuracy of 70.4%. Ninety-nine (35%) of patients were assigned to the high-risk group, whereas 188 (65%) of patients were assigned to the low-risk group. Notably, regarding anatomic variables, our model reported that age, pulmonary comorbidities, aortic neck diameter, iliac artery length, and aneurysms were independent predictors of post-EVAR sac enlargement. With the exception of age, all statistically significant variables were qualitatively supported by prior literature. With regards to secondary outcomes, the high-risk group had significantly higher proportions of AAA-related deaths (5.1% versus 1.1%, P = 0.037) and Type 1 endoleaks (9.1% versus 3.2%, P = 0.033). Our model is a decent predictor of patients at low risk for post AAA EVAR aneurysm sac enlargement and associated complications. With additional validation and refinement, it could be applied to practices to cut down on the overall need for postimplantation CTA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Intramucosal melanotic nevi ? A case report of an unusual gingival enlargement

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    Intramucosal melanotic nevus with multiple polypoid presentations in oral cavity is rare; though single nevus is not uncommon. Nevi are benign proliferations of nevus cells either in the epithelium or in the subepithelial stroma. They are best categorized as hamartomas rather than true neoplasm. We present a case of intramucosal melanotic nevi in a 26-year-old male patient, which clinically resembled hereditary fibrous gingival enlargement.

  1. Analysis of interlobar (between upper and middle lobes) lymph node enlargement on hilar tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, Takao (Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-06-01

    We examined interlobar (between upper and middle lobes) lymph node enlargement by compensating filter hilar tomography in cases of central vein type right upper lobe vein. The control group consisted of 100 randomly selected specimens, in which hilar lymphadenopathy such as malignant lymphoma or sarcoidosis, and displacement of interlobar fissure due to atlectasis or tuberculosis were excluded. Eighty-four of the control cases were central vein type. As a lung cancer group, 18 cases were analyzed. These cases consisted of central vein type, and interlobar lymph node enlargement was noted on operation, in the course of therapy or on enhanced CT study. The right hilum bordered by the upper lobe bronchus (medial to the orfice of B/sup 1/) and segmental bronchus (B/sup 2/ or B/sup 3/) above, central vein lateral and intermedial arterial trunk on the mediastinal side were evaluated. The shadows that obscured the inner margin of the central vein and lower margin of the upper-lobe and segmental bronchi were analyzed. The inner margin of the central vein was visible in 75 cases (89.3%) in the control group, compared to 1 (5.6%) of 18 cases in the lung cancer group. Decreased radioluceny beneath the upper lobe bronchus and segmental bronchus was found in 10 cases (11.9%) in the control, compared to 16 cases (88.9%) in the lung cancer group. In conclusion, obliteration of the inner margin of the central vein and the opacity that decreased the radiolucency extending to the peripheral side of the upper lobe bronchus are strongly suggestive of interlobar lymph node enlargement. Recognition of interlobar lymph node enlargement is useful for the staging of lung cancer and diagnosis of the disease that accompanies systemic hilar lymphadenopathy. (author).

  2. Trepanation and enlarged parietal foramen on skulls from the Loyalty Islands (Melanesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, Sergey V; Sviridov, Alexey A

    2017-06-01

    The goal of this study is a comprehensive examination of openings discovered on two skulls in the collection of skeletal remains from the Loyalty Islands (Melanesia). The skull No. 1524 displayed an evidence of successful trepanation, and the skull No. 7985 revealed openings that were reminiscent of a trepanation, however, we are inclined to believe that in the latter case we are dealing with a rare genetic anomaly - enlarged parietal foramen.

  3. Those Who Knock on Europe’s Door Must Repent? Bilateral Border Disputes and EU Enlargement

    OpenAIRE

    A. Geddes; Taylor, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores a neglected aspect of the wider debate about EU enlargement; namely bilateral disputes between a Member State and an applicant, where the former uses, or threatens to use, its membership to block membership to resolve a dispute. As we show through analysis of three cases - Italy and Slovenia, Slovenia and Croatia, and Greece and Macedonia - the EU’s transformative power does not always flow ‘outwards’ towards the state seeking membership. This raises interestin...

  4. Single-Incision Laparoscopic Splenectomy and Splenic Autotransplantation for an Enlarged Wandering Spleen with Torsion

    OpenAIRE

    Katsura, Shunsaku; Kawamura, Daichi; Harada, Eijiro; Enoki, Tadahiko; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2013-01-01

    A wandering spleen is a rare condition in which the spleen is not located in the left upper quadrant, but instead is found in the lower abdomen or in the pelvic region because of the laxity of the peritoneal attachments. The unusually long pedicle is susceptible to twisting, which can lead to ischemia, and eventually to necrosis. We herein report a case of an enlarged wandering spleen with torsion, successfully treated by single-incision laparoscopic splenectomy and autotransplantation. The t...

  5. The Syndrome of Enlarged Vestibule and Dysplasia of the Lateral Semicircular Canal in Congenital Deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagundoye, S B; Martinson, F D; Fajemisin, A A

    1975-05-01

    A 5-year-old deaf-mute girl was shown on petrous bone tomography to have bilateral enlarged vestibules with assimilation of the lateral semicircular cannals, bilateral absence of the cochlea, aplasia of the left internal auditory canal with only the facial nerve compartment being present, and hypoplasia of the right internal auditory canal. The embryological basis of these inner ear abnormalities is discussed.

  6. Intramucosal melanotic nevi - A case report of an unusual gingival enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Agrawal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intramucosal melanotic nevus with multiple polypoid presentations in oral cavity is rare; though single nevus is not uncommon. Nevi are benign proliferations of nevus cells either in the epithelium or in the subepithelial stroma. They are best categorized as hamartomas rather than true neoplasm. We present a case of intramucosal melanotic nevi in a 26-year-old male patient, which clinically resembled hereditary fibrous gingival enlargement.

  7. Clinical significance of surgery for gastric submucosal tumours with size enlargement during watchful waiting period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yasuhiro; Nakajima, Kiyokazu; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Takiguchi, Shuji; Miyata, Hiroshi; Yamasaki, Makoto; Hirota, Seiichi; Nishida, Toshirou; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro

    2013-08-01

    The true impact of surgery for small, asymptomatic and biopsy-negative gastric submucosal tumours (SMTs) with size enlargement during 'watchful waiting' period has not been fully understood. From 2005 to 2012, 100 patients with gastric SMTs underwent surgery. Twenty-three of them with size enlargement during observation period were enrolled in the retrospective analysis. Data included clinicopathologic findings, genetic findings, operative outcomes and prognoses. All patients (13 males, 10 females), with median age of 54 (41-71), had their lesions detected by routine health check-up (n=21) or incidentally (2). The tumours were 1.8 (0.5-4.0)cm in size at their initial detection, and enlarged up to 3.2 (2.0-7.0)cm at the operation during 63.0 (14.6-233.7) months. As surgical procedure, laparoscopic partial gastrectomy accounted for the majority (78.3%). Histologic examination revealed gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) (21) and schwannoma (2). Although 16 out of 21 GISTs were categorised into 'Very low' (1), and 'Low' (13) risk according to Fletcher's classification, 'Intermediate' (5) and 'High' (2) risk were identified in the series. No recurrences/metastases were noted in 23.2 (0.9-87) months of postoperative follow-up. Our study revealed the existence of high mitotic GISTs in asymptomatic, small gastric SMTs with size enlargement, and laparoscopic surgery was safely applied to majority of those cases. Prompt surgical intervention should therefore be considered for those lesions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative transcriptomics enlarges the toolkit of known developmental genes in mollusks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, A L; Wollesen, T; Kristof, A; Scherholz, M; Redl, E; Todt, C; Bleidorn, C; Wanninger, A

    2016-11-10

    Mollusks display a striking morphological disparity, including, among others, worm-like animals (the aplacophorans), snails and slugs, bivalves, and cephalopods. This phenotypic diversity renders them ideal for studies into animal evolution. Despite being one of the most species-rich phyla, molecular and in silico studies concerning specific key developmental gene families are still scarce, thus hampering deeper insights into the molecular machinery that governs the development and evolution of the various molluscan class-level taxa. Next-generation sequencing was used to retrieve transcriptomes of representatives of seven out of the eight recent class-level taxa of mollusks. Similarity searches, phylogenetic inferences, and a detailed manual curation were used to identify and confirm the orthology of numerous molluscan Hox and ParaHox genes, which resulted in a comprehensive catalog that highlights the evolution of these genes in Mollusca and other metazoans. The identification of a specific molluscan motif in the Hox paralog group 5 and a lophotrochozoan ParaHox motif in the Gsx gene is described. Functional analyses using KEGG and GO tools enabled a detailed description of key developmental genes expressed in important pathways such as Hedgehog, Wnt, and Notch during development of the respective species. The KEGG analysis revealed Wnt8, Wnt11, and Wnt16 as Wnt genes hitherto not reported for mollusks, thereby enlarging the known Wnt complement of the phylum. In addition, novel Hedgehog (Hh)-related genes were identified in the gastropod Lottia cf. kogamogai, demonstrating a more complex gene content in this species than in other mollusks. The use of de novo transcriptome assembly and well-designed in silico protocols proved to be a robust approach for surveying and mining large sequence data in a wide range of non-model mollusks. The data presented herein constitute only a small fraction of the information retrieved from the analysed molluscan transcriptomes

  9. Channel enlargement in semiarid suburbanizing watersheds: A southern California case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, R. J.; Bledsoe, B. P.

    2013-07-01

    Semiarid channels exhibit an extreme sensitivity to upstream urban development, particularly in unconfined valleys with unprotected grades. For example, one of our study streams in southern California has increased its cross-sectional area by nearly 14-fold relative to its pre-developed channel form in a watershed that has been only lightly developed (10.4% imperviousness). Multivariate regression models of cross-sectional channel enlargement at 61 sites were highly dependent on the ratio of post- to pre-urban sediment-transport capacity over cumulative duration simulations of 25 yrs (Lr), which explained nearly 60% of the variance. The proximity of a channel hard point such as bedrock or artificial grade control was also significant, indicating that channel enlargement increased moving upstream from grade control. The enlargement models point to the importance of balancing the post-developed sediment transport to the pre-developed setting over an entire range of flows rather than a single flow in order to reduce the risk of adverse channel responses to hydromodification. The need for controlling a wide range of flows was underscored by logistic-regression analyses that indicated a high risk of instability in systems with Lr > 1, especially for fine-grained systems (i.e., d50 < 16 mm).

  10. Reversible and non-reversible enlargement of cerebral spinal fluid spaces in anorexia nervosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artmann, H.; Grau, H.; Adelmann, M.; Schleiffer, R.

    1985-07-01

    Brain CT studies of 35 patients with anoxia nervosa confirmed the observations of other authors: cerebral dystrophic changes correlate with weight loss and the reversibility of these changes also correlates with the normalization of body weight. Other corroborated facts are: the most numerous and most pronounced enlargements are of the cortical sulci and the interhemispheric fissure, moderate widening affects the ventricles and the rarest and most insignificant changes are those of the cerebellum. The reversibility of the changes showed a parallel to the extent of the changes themselves and to the duration of improvement of the body weight. The reversibility of the enlargement of the cortical sulci and of the distances between the frontal horns of the lateral ventricles was more often significant than that of the abnormal measurements of the cella media. This difference is based on minimal early acquired brain damage which occurs in 60% of our patients. This high incidence of early acquired minimal brain disease in patients with anorexia nervosa is here discussed as a nonspecific predisposing factor. Although there is no exact explanation of the etiology of the reversible enlargement of cerenral spinal fluid (CSF) spaces in anorexia nervosa, the changes resemble those in alcoholics. The mechanisms of brain changes in alcoholism, as shown experimentally, seem to us to throw light on the probable mechanism of reversible dystrophic brain changes in anorexia nervosa.

  11. Kleptochloroplast Enlargement, Karyoklepty and the Distribution of the Cryptomonad Nucleus in Nusuttodinium (= Gymnodinium) aeruginosum (Dinophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuma, Ryo; Horiguchi, Takeo

    2015-05-01

    The unarmoured freshwater dinoflagellate Nusuttodinium (= Gymnodinium) aeruginosum retains a cryptomonad-derived kleptochloroplast and nucleus, the former of which fills the bulk of its cell volume. The paucity of studies following morphological changes to the kleptochloroplast with time make it unclear how the kleptochloroplast enlarges and why the cell ultimately loses the cryptomonad nucleus. We observed, both at the light and electron microscope level, morphological changes to the kleptochloroplast incurred by the enlargement process under culture conditions. The distribution of the cryptomonad nucleus after host cell division was also investigated. The volume of the kleptochloroplast increased more than 20-fold, within 120h of ingestion of the cryptomonad. Host cell division was not preceded by cryptomonad karyokinesis so that only one of the daughter cells inherited a cryptomonad nucleus. The fate of all daughter cells originating from a single cell through five generations was closely monitored, and this observation revealed that the cell that inherited the cryptomonad nucleus consistently possessed the largest kleptochloroplast for that generation. Therefore, this study suggests that some important cryptomonad nucleus division mechanism is lost during ingestion process, and that the cryptomonad nucleus carries important information for the enlargement of the kleptochloroplast. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Enlarged Virchow-Robin Spaces in A Young Man: A Constrained Spherical Deconvolution Tractography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciola, Alberto; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; Costa, Antonio; Naro, Antonino; Milardi, Demetrio; Bruschetta, Daniele

    2017-10-23

    Virchow-Robin spaces are mainly located along the path of the lenticulo-striate arteries in the basal ganglia through the anterior perforate substance, and can be found both in normal subjects, as a rare phenomenon, and in patients with different diseases. We report a case of a healthy young man with unilateral enlarged Virchow-Robin spaces in the left capsule-lenticulostriate area. Aim of this case report is to show the potential of probabilistic Constrained Spherical Deconvolution (CSD) tractography in showing abnormal diffusion tensor imaging and tractography of the anterior thalamic tracts caused by mass effect from adjacent enlarged Virchow-Robin spaces. The study was performed with a 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner (Achieva, Philips Healthcare, Best, Netherlands); equipped with a 32-channel SENSE head coil. Diffusion Weighted Images were analyzed by using CSD, a fast computation method that overcomes major limitations of Diffusion Tensor Imaging allowing reliable estimation of one or more fiber orientations in the presence of intravoxel orientational heterogeneity. Tractography showed increased Fractional Anisotropy and reduced Apparent Diffusion Coefficient values, a displacement and compression of the anterior thalamic projections by part of the enlarged VRS, and a decrease of white matter fibers in the left side in comparison to the right one. We report on a case of a healthy individual with unilateral dilated VRS in the capsulo-lenticulostriatal area, proving the utility of diffusion MRI and tractography in understanding the abnormal neuroanatomy of this particular condition.

  13. Association between gingivitis and anterior gingival enlargement in subjects undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Batistin Zanatta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association among gingival enlargement (GE, periodontal conditions and socio-demographic characteristics in subjects undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. METHODS: A sample of 330 patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment for at least 6 months were examined by a single calibrated examiner for plaque and gingival indexes, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment loss and gingival enlargement. Socio-economic background, orthodontic treatment duration and use of dental floss were assessed by oral interviews. Associations were assessed by means of unadjusted and adjusted Poisson's regression models. RESULTS: The presence of gingival bleeding (RR 1.01; 95% CI 1.00-1.01 and excess resin around brackets (RR 1.02; 95% CI 1.02-1.03 were associated with an increase in GE. No associations were found between socio-demographic characteristics and GE. CONCLUSION: Proximal anterior gingival bleeding and excess resin around brackets are associated with higher levels of anterior gingival enlargement in subjects under orthodontic treatment.

  14. Rationale, design and baseline characteristics of the survival and ventricular enlargement trial. SAVE Investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyé, L A; Pfeffer, M A; Braunwald, E

    1991-11-18

    Heart failure, often associated with ventricular enlargement and recurrent myocardial infarction, is one of the major causes of postinfarction mortality. This observation suggests that measures used to prevent ventricular enlargement may improve postinfarction survival. The Survival and Ventricular Enlargement (SAVE) trial is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with the purpose of evaluating the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition on postinfarction death and ventricular dilation. This multicenter trial had a sample size goal of 2,220 patients between 21 and 79 years of age who had recently sustained a myocardial infarction and who have an ejection fraction determined by radionuclide ventriculogram (RVG-EF) of less than or equal to 40%. In addition to conventional therapy, patients were randomly assigned to captopril or placebo therapy commencing within 3-16 days following their myocardial infarction. A second RVG-EF is performed on all surviving participants at the end of the average 3.5-year treatment and follow-up period. The study has 90% power to detect a 25% improvement in postinfarction mortality or prevention of greater than or equal to 9 unit absolute reduction in radionuclide ejection fraction. Additional end points, design features, and the administrative organization of the trial are described.

  15. Geography of European Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhitin Dmitry V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the role of international migration has increased dramatically in most European countries. The growth in migration has made some authors proclaim the beginning of a second Migration Period that could transform the social and cultural identity of Europe. The article presents an analysis of international migration geography in Europe in the last twenty-five years. The authors identify the main trends in migration, provide migration profiles of European countries, and propose a classification based on the recent changes in the migrant stock. Changes in the migrant stock (total emigration and immigration reflect the level of involvement in international and global processes. They can serve as an indicator of a country’s attractiveness for both foreigners and the country’s citizens. The study shows that European countries are increasingly split into ‘immigrant’ and ‘emigrant’ states. The authors describe spatial patterns of migration. The volume and localisation of migration flows in Europe are affected not only by cultural and historical circumstance, such as a colonial past or a common language. The scale of immigrant influx often does not depend on a donor country’s demographic potential or the level of its socio-economic development. The links between the place of origin and destination are often more complex than it might initially seem. The authors stress the importance of a differentiated immigration policy taking into account ethnic and cultural features of host societies.

  16. Wellbore enlargement investigation: Potential analogs to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant during inadvertent intrusion of the repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boak, D.M.; Dotson, L.; Aguilar, R. [and others

    1997-01-01

    This study involved the evaluation and documentation of cases in which petroleum wellbores were enlarged beyond the nominal hole diameter as a consequence of erosion during exploratory drilling, particularly as a function of gas flow into the wellbore during blowout conditions. A primary objective was to identify analogs to potential wellbore enlargement at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during inadvertent human intrusion. Secondary objectives were to identify drilling scenarios associated with enlargement, determine the physical extent of enlargement, and establish the physical properties of the formation in which the enlargement occurred. No analogs of sufficient quality to establish quantitative limits on wellbore enlargement at the WIPP disposal system were identified. However, some information was obtained regarding the frequency of petroleum well blowouts and the likelihood that such blowouts would bridge downhole, self-limiting the surface release of disposal-system material. Further work would be necessary, however, to determine the conditions under which bridging could occur and the extent to which the bridging might be applicable to WIPP. In addition, data on casing sizes of petroleum boreholes in the WIPP vicinity support the use of a 12-{1/4} inch borehole size in WIPP performance assessment calculations. Finally, although data are limited, there was no evidence of significant wellbore enlargement in any of three blowouts that occur-red in wellbores in the Delaware Basin (South Culebra Bluff Unit No. 1, Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) 6, and WIPP 12).

  17. European initiatives in postgraduate education in gerontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijsselt, René J T; Parkatti, Terttu; Troisi, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes three innovative European initiatives in postgraduate education in gerontology. The first is the European Masters Program in Gerontology (EuMaG), developed as an interdisciplinary joint program, supported and delivered by 22 European universities. Second, the Nordplus initiative to increase mobility of students and staff in the field of gerontology in the European Nordic countries is elaborated. Third, two postgraduate Gerontology and Geriatrics programs offered by the European Centre of Gerontology and Geriatrics, University of Malta are presented. In 1995, the Centre was designated a WHO Collaborating Centre for healthy aging. To provide a context for these initiatives, a short overview is presented of developments in the European Higher Education Area, and the current state and recent developments in gerontology training in Europe is elaborated. The article concludes with discussion of the feasibility and sustainability of European internationalization efforts in education and training in gerontology.

  18. TOWARDS A COMMON ENERGY POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Inotai

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy policy issues have got increasing relevance in the strategic orientation of the European Union (EU in general, and in identifying specific economic policy tasks, in particular. Steadily high energy (oil and gas prices in the last years constitute one factor. However, global political and security issues of growing degree of uncertainty, the level of dependence on imported energy and, not less importantly, the forecasts of growing external dependence of the EU in this field have substantially contributed to the upgrading of the energy question. Finally, the liberalization of the single market, not least in the crucial area of energy supply and the enlargement of the EU by 12 new members, with specific composition of production and not less specific pattern of imports of energy, enhanced the importance of energy in the enlarged EU, with a view to shape and implement a common energy policy.

  19. EUROPEAN AUSTERITY WITHOUT GROWTH? EUROPEAN GROWTH WITHOUT EUROPEAN DEMOCRACY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montani Guido

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The European project is facing a crisis. Citizens no longer understand what the EU is about. Young people and the new ruling class have forgotten the clear message of the European project launched just after the Second World War "No wars ever again among Europeans." The founding fathers of the European Union are mentioned in history textbooks, but today Europe is felt as an irritating bureaucracy. In Europe, peace and economic stability are considered as a natural state, a gift from above. Why keep a useless EU alive? The state of the European Union is swiftly degenerating. In almost all the member states, the anti-European forces are gaining ground. Populism is not a new ideology and is not necessarily European: let's recall Peronism. In today's Europe populism is the new manifestation of nationalism. In Italy the Lega Nord is in Berlusconi's eurosceptic government. In France, the National Front is endangering UMP's hegemony. In Belgium the rows between the Flemish and the Walloons threatens the state's unity. In the Netherlands, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Austria and Finland, populist forces are either in the government or strongly influencing the government. National-populism is different from the nationalism of the past. De Gaulle's nationalism was an ideology founded on the "grandeur" of France's history and on a certain idea of Europe, which was "l'Europe de patrie", a kind of European unity accepting French leadership in world politics. Today national-populism is a form of micro-nationalism: it opposes the European project but without having a serious alternative. This is why populism is dangerous. Its real goal is not only the breaking down of the European Union but also the disintegration of the old nation states into micro-ethnic states, as what happened in former Yugoslavia.

  20. European Studies and Public Engagement: A Conceptual Toolbox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Müllerleile

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Journal of Contemporary European Research User Username Password Remember me Subscribe... Sign up for issue alerts Follow JCER on Twitter Font Size Make font size smaller Make font size default Make font size larger Journal Content Search Search Scope Browse By Issue By Author By Title Information For Readers For Authors For Librarians Journal Help Keywords CFSP Communication ESDP EU EU enlargement EU trade policy Energy, EU, External Policy Europe European Commission European Parliament European Union European integration Europeanisation First Enlargement Germany Liberty Lisbon Treaty Poland Russia Security teaching European studies The UACES Blog The Commission after the 2014 EP... Power shift? The EU’s pivot to Asia 100 Books on Europe to be Remembered For a Global European Studies? EU Member State Building in the... Open Journal Systems Home About Login Register Search Current Archives Announcements UACES Home > Vol 10, No 4 (2014 > Müllerleile European Studies and Public Engagement: A Conceptual Toolbox Andreas Müllerleile Abstract This article examines public engagement strategies for academics working in the field of European Studies. Should academics engage with the public? What are the most effective outreach strategies? And what are the implications for universities and departments? The article argues that engaging with the public should be considered an integral part for academics working on topics that relate to the European Union or European politics. The article has a theoretical and a practical dimension. The first part of the paper deals with the nature of public engagement, explaining why it is an important issue and how it differs from the mainstream understanding of public engagement. The practical part of the paper presents the idea of building an online presence through which academics can engage with the public debate both during periods of low issue salience and high issue salience. The final section includes a toolbox

  1. CROATIAN HONEY MARKET IN EUROPEAN ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Dukić

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This examination is based on comparison of honey production, in countries of European Union, transition countries and The Republic of Croatia. The situation in Croatia is shown with all information about honey production. All data are compared with already managed European countries. In comparison with registrated number of beekeepers and hives, Croatia belongs to transition countries with the smallest number of beekepers and hives. On the other hand, values, such as, number of hives per beekeper and average honey production by hive, classify Croatia ahead of transition countries. There are very few professional beekepers in Croatia, as well as in other transition countries, but not countries of The European Union. Honey production in Croatia has been increasing last seven years and in the last few it increased more than 50%. Export of honey in the last 2 years is half of the complete honey production, which accomplish conditions for export enlargement. At the same time, import of honey is considerable reduced. Conditions for export can be better with production of biological clean honey (eco-honey, since Croatia has great resources for it. Also, cost of Croatian honey on the foreign market, will be considerable higher.

  2. Business Analysis Enlargement of Fish Pond of Green Catfish (Mystus Nemurus) in Sungai Paku Village, Sub-District of Kampar Kiri, District of Kampar, Riau Province

    OpenAIRE

    Yulianti, Sari; Yulinda, Eni; Amrifo, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    The research about business analysis enlargement of fish pond of green catfish (Mystus nemurus) was conducted on January, 2016 in Sungai Paku Village, Sub-District of Kampar Kiri, District of Kampar, Riau Province. This study aims to (1) determine the input-output business enlargement of fish pond of green catfish (Mystus nemurus), (2) analyzed the business enlargement of fish pond of green catfish (Mystus nemurus) and (3) the feasibility business of enlargement of fish pond of green catfish ...

  3. 1. European Hydrogen Energy Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-01

    This conference is the first of a series of EHA (European Hydrogen Association) conferences that will take place every two years in Europe with the collaboration of the national European Hydrogen Associations. EHEC 2003 takes place within the context of the debates on long term energy strategies organized by the international authorities and the governments of many countries. Under the patronage of the European Commission and the French government, the conference will aim at providing a comprehensive picture of the research work and demonstrations on hydrogen and fuel cells that the currently being carried out all over the globe. EHEC 2003 will provide an opportunity to define the role that hydrogen will have in tomorrow's energy landscape and, in particular, the benefits with regard to: 1)sustainable development of energy 2)control of climate change 3)development of renewable energy 4)increase demand for ground transport. (O.M.)

  4. Proximal tubular hypertrophy and enlarged glomerular and proximal tubular urinary space in obese subjects with proteinuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tobar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with glomerular hyperfiltration, increased proximal tubular sodium reabsorption, glomerular enlargement and renal hypertrophy. A single experimental study reported an increased glomerular urinary space in obese dogs. Whether proximal tubular volume is increased in obese subjects and whether their glomerular and tubular urinary spaces are enlarged is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether proximal tubules and glomerular and tubular urinary space are enlarged in obese subjects with proteinuria and glomerular hyperfiltration. METHODS: Kidney biopsies from 11 non-diabetic obese with proteinuria and 14 non-diabetic lean patients with a creatinine clearance above 50 ml/min and with mild or no interstitial fibrosis were retrospectively analyzed using morphometric methods. The cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium and lumen, the volume of the glomerular tuft and of Bowman's space and the nuclei number per tubular profile were estimated. RESULTS: Creatinine clearance was higher in the obese than in the lean group (P=0.03. Proteinuria was similarly increased in both groups. Compared to the lean group, the obese group displayed a 104% higher glomerular tuft volume (P=0.001, a 94% higher Bowman's space volume (P=0.003, a 33% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium (P=0.02 and a 54% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular lumen (P=0.01. The nuclei number per proximal tubular profile was similar in both groups, suggesting that the increase in tubular volume is due to hypertrophy and not to hyperplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity-related glomerular hyperfiltration is associated with proximal tubular epithelial hypertrophy and increased glomerular and tubular urinary space volume in subjects with proteinuria. The expanded glomerular and urinary space is probably a direct consequence of glomerular hyperfiltration. These effects may be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity

  5. Perihepatic lymph node enlargement observed at a general health examination: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Hiroaki; Enooku, Kenichiro; Soroida, Yoko; Sato, Mamiko; Hikita, Hiromi; Suzuki, Atsushi; Iwai, Tomomi; Yokota, Hiromitsu; Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Koike, Kazuhiko; Yatomi, Yutaka; Ikeda, Hitoshi

    2013-08-01

    Although perihepatic lymph node enlargement (PLNE) is known as a common finding in chronic liver disease, it can be found occasionally at a general health examination. We aimed to clarify the clinical significance of PLNE in general. Between January 2008 and December 2011, 4234 subjects were enrolled, who underwent a general health examination at the University of Tokyo Hospital. PLNE was observed in 69 (1.6%) subjects, among whom 17 (0.4%) had liver disorders and 13 (0.3%) had malignancy, one of whom had both. No disorders were determined in the remaining 40 subjects (0.9%). Among 17 subjects with liver disorder-associated PLNE, anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody was determined in 11 and serum alanine aminotransferase levels were less than 40 U/L in eight. Among 13 subjects with malignancy-associated PLNE, para-aortic lymph nodes were also enlarged in eight. Among 40 subjects with PLNE of unknown etiology, 27 could be followed up for the mean period of 2.08 years, where no underlying disorders were newly determined with largely unaltered size of PLNE. The incidence of PLNE in the general population may vary with the prevalence of chronic liver disease, especially HCV infection. When PLNE is observed, liver disorders should be first surveyed including HCV infection even with normal serum alanine aminotransferase levels. PLNE with para-aortic lymph node enlargement may be suggestive of a malignant lesion. The incidence of PLNE of unknown etiology may be approximately 1% in the general population, which may be just followed up without further change. © 2012 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  6. Bilateral giant adrenal myelolipomas presenting as an enlarging ventral hernia: Radiologic-pathologic correlation and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeb Crossley, BS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal myelolipomas are fat-containing tumors that are rare, usually small, and unilateral, as well as asymptomatic. They can, however, occur bilaterally and enlarge significantly, resulting in clinical symptoms. A middle-aged male presented with an enlarging ventral hernia that was attributed to giant bilateral adrenal myelolipomas. With a combined measurement of at least 20 × 15 cm, to our knowledge, the size of the masses is one of the largest reported for this particular entity.

  7. A TAP1 null mutation leads to an enlarged olfactory bulb and supernumerary, ectopic olfactory glomeruli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, Ernesto; Cruz, Nicole M.; Ly, Xuan; Welander, Beth A.; Hanson, Kyle; Kronberg, Eugene; Restrepo, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility class I (MHCI) molecules are well known for their immunological role in mediating tissue graft rejection. Recently, these molecules were discovered to be expressed in distinct neuronal subclasses, dispelling the long-held tenet that the uninjured brain is immune-privileged. Here, we show that MHCI molecules are expressed in the main olfactory bulb (MOB) of adult animals. Furthermore, we find that mice with diminished levels of MHCI expression have enlarged MOBs containing an increased number of small, morphologically abnormal and ectopically located P2 glomeruli. These findings suggest that MHCI molecules may play an important role in the proper formation of glomeruli in the bulb. PMID:23697805

  8. Spatial bandwidth enlargement and field enhancement of shear horizontal waves in finite graded piezoelectric layered media

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Yanlong

    2015-09-01

    Shear horizontal (SH) wave propagation in finite graded piezoelectric layered media is investigated by transfer matrix method. Different from the previous studies on SH wave propagation in completely periodic layered media, calculations on band structure and transmission in this paper show that the graded layered media possess very large band gaps. Harmonic wave simulation by finite element method (FEM) confirms that the reason of bandwidth enlargement is that waves within the band gap ranges are spatially enhanced and stopped by the corresponding graded units. The study suggests that the graded structure possesses the property of manipulating elastic waves spatially, which shows potential applications in strengthening energy trapping and harvesting. © 2015.

  9. Engrosamiento peneano: complicación de lipotransferencia Penis enlargement: complication of lipotransfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.G. Conde

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La solicitud de engrosamiento del pene por parte de los pacientes tiene un crecimiento sostenido. El empleo de grasa autóloga como relleno puede causar una deformidad que provoca un menoscabo funcional y estético. Presentamos un caso de complicación que requirió de tratamiento quirúrgico.Penis enlargement is a practice widely requested by the patients. The use of autologous fat transplantation can produce deformity and functional and aesthetic deficiency. The authors present a clinical case of complication and its surgical resolution.

  10. Unusual looping of the internal carotid artery in relation to an enlarged lymph node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak SB

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of variations of internal carotid artery is important to surgeons doing head and neck surgery as well as to radiologists doing imaging and invasive techniques. In the current case, the right internal carotid artery showed a characteristic loop at its beginning. An abnormal, enlarged lymph node was found at the carotid bifurcation, which was projecting into the loop. The left internal carotid artery was normal. The unusual looping of internal carotid artery at its beginning might result in altered blood flow to the brain and may lead to confusions in surgical, imaging and invasive techniques.

  11. [Generalized gingival enlargement--early clinic manifestation in acute leukemia. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogălniceanu, D; Trandafir, Violeta; Trandafir, Daniela; Popescu, Eugenia

    2010-01-01

    Leukemia is a hematological disorder arises from a hematopoietic stem cell characterized by a disordered differentiation and proliferation of neoplastic cells. Rapidly forming generalized gingival hyperplasia is usually the first sign of this disease (especially in acute forms). This case report describes a 54-year-old female who presented rapid gingival enlargement in only three weeks time, heralding the presence of acute monocytic leukemia (AML-FAB M5). The patient was immediately referred for hematologic management, but died five weeks later. Dentists and generalists should always be on guard to observe any oral manifestations that may lead to the early diagnostic of systemic diseases.

  12. Influence of the apical enlargement size on the endotoxin level reduction of dental root canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Cassia Salustiano Marinho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Gram-negative bacteria play an essential role in endodontic infections because they have virulence factors such as endotoxin. Due to its potential cytotoxic activity, special attention has been given to the removal/neutralization of this endotoxin in the root canal system. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the apical enlargement size (AES by using rotary instruments on the endotoxin level reduction of dental root canals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty root canals of the mandibular premolar teeth were used. Escherichia coli endotoxin (055: B55 was inoculated into thirty root canals. Ten teeth served as the negative control group. After the incubation period, the first endotoxin samples were collected from the root canals with a sterile/apyrogenic paper point for the analysis of the endotoxin units (EU/mL present before instrumentation (S1. Specimen instrumentation was performed with the Mtwo® rotary system in the sequence 10/.04, 15/.05, 20/.06, 25/.06, 30/.05, 35/.04 and 40/.04. To monitor the effectiveness of increasing apical enlargement on endotoxin removal, the second endotoxin samples were collected from all the root canals after instrumentation with the following instruments: #25/.06- (S2; #30/.05- (S3; # 35/.04- (S4; and #40/.04- (S5. Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL was used to quantify the levels of endotoxin. The results were statistically compared by using repeated measures of ANOVA with post hoc Tukey testing. RESULTS: Increasing levels of endotoxin removal was achieved by large sized apical enlargement: S2 (AES #25/.06- 89.2%, S3 (AES #30/.05- 95.9%, S4 (AES #35/.04- 97.8% and S5 (AES #40/.04- 98.2%. Substantial reduction of endotoxin content was obtained in S4 and S5 compared to S2 (p<0.05, however, the root canal preparation was not able to eliminate the endotoxin. CONCLUSIONS: Under the conditions of this study, it was concluded that the reduction of endotoxin levels of the dental root canals could be

  13. Use of minocycline as systemic antimicrobial therapy in refractory periodontitis with chronic gingival enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag M Khatri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease is a multifactorial disease having various risk factors, but a dynamic interaction between bacterial products and host response in association with genetic and environmental factors is considered as the primary cause for periodontal tissue destruction in periodontitis. This bacterial-host interaction which is ever-so-present in periodontitis directs us toward utilizing antimicrobial agents along with the routine mechanical debridement. This case report present a case of a female patient with recurrent periodontal infections with gingival enlargement treated with systemic Minocycline in conjunction with the conventional non-surgical approach.

  14. The New Environment of EU Enlargement: The Impact of Economic Crisis on the Western Balkans and their EU Accession Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritsa Panagiotou

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper will explore the impact of the economic crisis on the Western Balkan countries, and how the new, unfavorable international environment is affecting their EU accession prospects. The analysis will be presented in three sections: the first part will examine the effect of the “first wave” of the global economic crisis on the economies of the region, specifically the impact on the region’s macroeconomic indicators, foreign direct investment flows, financial sectors, etc. Part two will analyse the repercussions of the “second wave” of the crisis, namely the Greek sovereign debt crisis, which rapidly spilled over into the entire Eurozone. Part three will build on the issues examined in parts one and two and will discuss the repercussions of both waves of the crisis on the region’s enlargement process and prospects. The paper will also propose that although the EU’s role in Southeast Europe remains crucial (not least as a provider of economic assistance its hitherto undisputable symbolic role as an “anchor” of stability and as a goal to be aspired to may be losing its appeal for some of these countries. This paper will explore the impact of the economic crisis on the Western Balkan countries, and how the new, unfavorable international environment is affecting their EU accession prospects. The analysis will be presented in three sections: the first part will examine the effect of the “first wave” of the global economic crisis on the economies of the region, specifically the impact on the region’s macroeconomic indicators, foreign direct investment flows, financial sectors, etc. Part two will analyse the repercussions of the “second wave” of the crisis, namely the Greek sovereign debt crisis, which rapidly spilled over into the entire Eurozone. Part three will build on the issues examined in parts one and two and will discuss the repercussions of both waves of the crisis on the region’s enlargement process and

  15. Influence of sex hormone levels on gingival enlargement in adolescent patients undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Hosadurga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sex hormones may be a modifying factor in the periodontal disease pathogenesis. Aim: The association between gingival enlargement and sex hormone levels in adolescent patients undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy needs to be determined. Settings and Design: This study was conducted in the Department of Periodontology in association with the Department of Orthodontics, Yenepoya Dental College, Yenepoya University, Mangaluru. Materials and Methods: A pilot study was conducted on 21 adolescent patients between the age group of 13–19 years, who had undergone fixed orthodontic therapy for at least 3 months. Apicocoronally, the gingival enlargement was assessed by the index described by Miller and Damm. Miranda and Brunet index was used to assess gingival overgrowth in the buccal–lingual direction in the interdental papilla. Furthermore, the patients were assigned to two groups - Group 1-GE and Group 2-non-GE. Sex hormones assessed were estradiol and progesterone in females and testosterone in males in both groups. Results: 57.1% of the study population had enlargement of the gingiva. The mean plaque score was 0.59 and 0.56, respectively, in both groups. A statistically significant relationship was found between estradiol and testosterone levels with gingival enlargement. However, a significant relationship was not obtained for progesterone levels with the gingival enlargement. Conclusion: Direct correlation between estradiol, testosterone, and gingival enlargement was seen.

  16. Educating in European Identity?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Enrique Banús

    2007-01-01

    In the last decades, the claim for a "European identity" has been manifested sometimes as a solution for the citizens' distance to the European project, sometimes also as a precondition for a further...

  17. Virtual Models of European Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sanya Gertsen

    2003-01-01

    The study provides a detailed report on the current and possible future use of ICT by European universities for educational and organisational purposes. The report presents: • A general description of the current situation regarding the use of ICT in EU universities in both the educational...

  18. Governance and European Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutay, Acar

    This book provides a critical analysis of the European Union’s approach to ‘governance’, focusing on the way in which civil society is incorporated within the EU decision-making process and arguing that it is not conducive to the democratisation of EU governance.\

  19. A European Drought Reference Database: Design and Online Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stagge, J.H.; Tallaksen, L.M.; Kohn, I.; Stahl, K.; Loon, van A.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the structure and status of the online European Drought Reference (EDR) database. This website provides detailed historical information regarding major historical European drought events. Each drought event is summarized using climatological drought indices, hydrological drought

  20. Formalized classification of European fen vegetation at the alliance level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterka, Tomáš; Hájek, Michal; Jiroušek, Martin; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Aunina, Liene; Bergamini, Ariel; Dítě, Daniel; Felbaba-Klushyna, Ljuba; Graf, Ulrich; Hájková, Petra; Hettenbergerová, Eva; Ivchenko, Tatiana G.; Jansen, Florian; Koroleva, Natalia E.; Lapshina, Elena D.; Lazarević, Predrag M.; Moen, Asbjørn; Napreenko, Maxim G.; Pawlikowski, Paweł; Plesková, Zuzana; Sekulová, Lucia; Smagin, Viktor A.; Tahvanainen, Teemu; Thiele, Annett; Biţǎ-Nicolae, Claudia; Biurrun, Idoia; Brisse, Henry; Ćušterevska, Renata; Bie, De Els; Ewald, Jörg; FitzPatrick, Úna; Font, Xavier; Jandt, Ute; Kącki, Zygmunt; Kuzemko, Anna; Landucci, Flavia; Moeslund, Jesper E.; Pérez-Haase, Aaron; Rašomavičius, Valerijus; Rodwell, John S.; Schaminée, Joop H.J.; Šilc, Urban; Stančić, Zvjezdana; Chytrý, Milan; Schwabe-Kratochwil, Angelika

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Phytosociological classification of fen vegetation (Scheuchzerio palustris-Caricetea fuscae class) differs among European countries. Here we propose a unified vegetation classification of European fens at the alliance level, provide unequivocal assignment rules for individual vegetation plots,

  1. Formalized classification of European fen vegetation at the alliance level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterka, Tomáš; Hájek, Michal; Jiroušek, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Aims Phytosociological classification of fen vegetation (Scheuchzerio palustris-Caricetea fuscae class) differs among European countries. Here we propose a unified vegetation classification of European fens at the alliance level, provide unequivocal assignment rules for individual vegetation plot...

  2. Cryptococcus neoformans Capsular Enlargement and Cellular Gigantism during Galleria mellonella Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodas, Rocío; Casadevall, Arturo; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan Luís; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Zaragoza, Oscar

    2011-01-01

    We have studied infection of Cryptococcus neoformans in the non-vertebrate host Galleria mellonella with particular interest in the morphological response of the yeast. Inoculation of C. neoformans in caterpillars induced a capsule-independent increase in haemocyte density 2 h after infection. C. neoformans manifested a significant increase in capsule size after inoculation into the caterpillar. The magnitude of capsule increase depended on the temperature, being more pronounced at 37°C than at 30°C, which correlated with an increased virulence of the fungus and reduced phagocytosis at 37°C. Capsule enlargement impaired phagocytosis by haemocytes. Incubation of the yeast in G. mellonella extracts also resulted in capsule enlargement, with the polar lipidic fraction having a prominent role in this effect. During infection, the capsule decreased in permeability. A low proportion of the cells (<5%) recovered from caterpillars measured more than 30 µm and were considered giant cells. Giant cells recovered from mice were able to kill the caterpillars in a manner similar to regular cells obtained from in vivo or grown in vitro, establishing their capacity to cause disease. Our results indicate that the morphological transitions exhibited by C. neoformans in mammals also occur in a non-vertebrate host system. The similarities in morphological transitions observed in different animal hosts and in their triggers are consistent with the hypothesis that the cell body and capsular responses represent an adaptation of environmental survival strategies to pathogenesis. PMID:21915338

  3. Endobronchial ultrasound guided transbronchial needle aspiration of enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Triller

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA of enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes is a fairly blind technique. Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS guided TBNA resulted in higher success rate. The needle can be inserted safely into the lymph node. We examined the diagnostic yield of EBUS guided TBNA in clinical circumstances.Patients and methods: Patients with enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes, detected on chest X-ray and/or CT scan, underwent bronchoscopy. The exact location of lymph nodes was established by EBUS. 20 MHz ultrasound probe with a balloon catheter was used.Results: Seventy-five patients aged between 20 and 79 years (median age 55 years, underwent EBUS examination followed by TBNA of the target lymph node. Lymph nodes pathology was correctly diagnosed in 65 (87% of them. In 52 (70% patients the lymph nodes were infiltrated with malignoma, 13 (17% had benign diseases and in 10 (13% patients with non definitive disease the final diagnosis was obtained by surgery or by follow up. No major complication was encountered after EBUS-guided TBNA.Conclusions: Diagnostic yield of EBUS-guided TBNA is high. There were no major complications and the procedure was tolerated well.

  4. [Enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome: report of 3 cases and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, José A; Mello, Carlos Fernando; Marqui, Ana Carla S; Perfeito, Delmer J; Ferreira, Roberto D P; Silva, Rubens H

    2005-01-01

    The Enlarged Vestibular Aqueduct Syndrome is characterized by a widening of the vestibular aqueduct, associated with sensorineural hearing loss, or sometimes with mixed hearing loss, which may be congenital or acquired during childhood. The sensorineural hearing loss may be classified into mild, moderate and severe, associated with sudden periods of improvement or aggravation. The enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct is the most common inner ear anomaly. This syndrome is admitted as a result of a genetic abnormality of the vestibular aqueduct development, previous to the fifth week of gestation. The incidence of this syndrome ranges from 1% to 1.3%, with the possibility of getting up to 7%, depending on the examined population. The aim of this study was to analyze three cases of LVAS seen at the Otorhinolaryngology and Radiology Department of Sao Camilo Hospital - Sao Paulo. Two of these three cases were of brothers, from the same mother but from different fathers. Two were male and one was female and the ages ranged from 9 to 30 years old. The diagnosed method of election was CT, Computerized Tomography of the temporal bones. The procedure for the cases was that of observation, with exception for those of cranial traumatisms, barotraumas and, when necessary, the use of auditive prosthesis.

  5. Positive selection at the ASPM gene coincides with brain size enlargements in cetaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shixia; Chen, Yuan; Cheng, Yuefeng; Yang, Dan; Zhou, Xuming; Xu, Junxiao; Zhou, Kaiya; Yang, Guang

    2012-11-07

    The enlargement of cetacean brain size represents an enigmatic event in mammalian evolution, yet its genetic basis remains poorly explored. One candidate gene associated with brain size evolution is the abnormal spindle-like microcephaly associated (ASPM), as mutations in this gene cause severe reductions in the cortical size of humans. Here, we investigated the ASPM gene in representative cetacean lineages and previously published sequences from other mammals to test whether the expansion of the cetacean brain matched adaptive ASPM evolution patterns. Our analyses yielded significant evidence of positive selection on the ASPM gene during cetacean evolution, especially for the Odontoceti and Delphinoidea lineages. These molecular patterns were associated with two major events of relative brain size enlargement in odontocetes and delphinoids. It is of particular interest to find that positive selection was restricted to cetaceans and primates, two distant lineages both characterized by a massive expansion of brain size. This result is suggestive of convergent molecular evolution, although no site-specific convergence at the amino acid level was found.

  6. Autopsy report of disseminated histoplasmosis: An important differential of adrenal enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Dattaray Kalgutkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 57-year-old diabetic male, presented with altered sensorium since 2 days. He had a history of weight loss, loss of appetite, intermittent low-grade fever of 6 months duration. He had been administered empirical antituberculous therapy some months ago with no alleviation of symptoms. On examination, he was asthenic, normotensive, and anemic with hepatosplenomegaly. Ultra-sonography abdomen revealed bilateral enlarged adrenals with hepatosplenomegaly. Clinically impression was of tuberculosis disseminated malignancy. He expired within 2 days of admission. At autopsy, both the adrenals were markedly enlarged showing extensive areas of necrosis on the cut surface. Histology showed them to be brimming with colonies of yeast-forms of Histoplasma capsulatum. These organisms were also seen in the spleen, lungs and kidneys. The patient had died of septicemia following disseminated histoplasmosis that was, unfortunately, not diagnosed during his life. Histoplasmosis is amenable to treatment with Amphotericin B. Prompt diagnosis and treatment could have helped in salvaging this patient.

  7. Cryptococcus neoformans capsular enlargement and cellular gigantism during Galleria mellonella infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío García-Rodas

    Full Text Available We have studied infection of Cryptococcus neoformans in the non-vertebrate host Galleria mellonella with particular interest in the morphological response of the yeast. Inoculation of C. neoformans in caterpillars induced a capsule-independent increase in haemocyte density 2 h after infection. C. neoformans manifested a significant increase in capsule size after inoculation into the caterpillar. The magnitude of capsule increase depended on the temperature, being more pronounced at 37°C than at 30°C, which correlated with an increased virulence of the fungus and reduced phagocytosis at 37°C. Capsule enlargement impaired phagocytosis by haemocytes. Incubation of the yeast in G. mellonella extracts also resulted in capsule enlargement, with the polar lipidic fraction having a prominent role in this effect. During infection, the capsule decreased in permeability. A low proportion of the cells (<5% recovered from caterpillars measured more than 30 µm and were considered giant cells. Giant cells recovered from mice were able to kill the caterpillars in a manner similar to regular cells obtained from in vivo or grown in vitro, establishing their capacity to cause disease. Our results indicate that the morphological transitions exhibited by C. neoformans in mammals also occur in a non-vertebrate host system. The similarities in morphological transitions observed in different animal hosts and in their triggers are consistent with the hypothesis that the cell body and capsular responses represent an adaptation of environmental survival strategies to pathogenesis.

  8. How do plants enlarge? A balancing act. Workship on plant growth: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, J.S.

    1996-12-31

    There are signals that coordinate the development of various plant parts and thus the rates of enlargement of various plant parts and these were explored during the workshop. The participants tried to systematize their knowledge and identify over-arching concepts that need more investigation. It was generally agreed that the cell wall cannot be viewed as a passive plastic material. Synthesis and deposition take place and cause changes in the molecular architecture of the wall. Questions arise from the fact that the wall is not a constant or uniform structure but undergoes highly organized changes during enlargement while bearing a considerable load. Recent advances in signaling, biochemical analysis and ultrastructure visualization are beginning to relate to the molecular load-bearing and enzymatic activities in the wall. The participants agreed that there probably is enough information to begin developing a comprehensive model that would balance wall effects with the limitation of growth by transport, especially for water, and this could help clarify events occurring at different time scales and places. Beyond that, there seems to be a need to resolve problems of solute transport and wall behavior that are poorly understood in growing regions, leaving many promising areas for future experiments. Understanding each balancing act seems to be just the beginning.

  9. European Values Study 1981-2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijkx, A.R.C.M.; Halman, L.C.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The European Values Study is a large-scale, cross-national, and longitudinal survey research program on basic human values providing insight into the ideas, beliefs, preferences, attitudes, values and opinions of citizens all over Europe. It is a unique research project on how Europeans think about

  10. Training Issues for the European Automotive Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankbaar, B.

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of the results of an investigation carried out for the European Commission. Aims to identify themes and issues in the field of continuing training in the European automotive industry. A large number of interviews were carried out in all the major car manufacturing countries of

  11. Review Article.n European Identity and Turkey’s Quest for the EU Membership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Engin I.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the post-Single European Act period, debates around European identity have intensified, particularly in the context of EU enlargement. The EU’s move to being a supranational political entity in the past two decades has caused serious concerns in some sections of the elite and people across the EU member states. While French and Dutch rejections of the constitutional treaty set an important milestone, Turkey’s quest for the EU membership has complicated to a great extent controversies on European identity. The reviewed books here contribute to efforts to understand the extent to which European identity and Turkey’s bid for the EU membership has entangled. It is more likely to witness debates around both European identity and Turkey’s candidacy for the Union for many years to come; therefore, these books will more likely remain relevant for the academic and policy circles.

  12. Mouse model of enlarged vestibular aqueducts defines temporal requirement of Slc26a4 expression for hearing acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Byung Yoon; Kim, Hyoung-Mi; Ito, Taku; Lee, Kyu-Yup; Li, Xiangming; Monahan, Kelly; Wen, Yaqing; Wilson, Elizabeth; Kurima, Kiyoto; Saunders, Thomas L; Petralia, Ronald S; Wangemann, Philine; Friedman, Thomas B; Griffith, Andrew J

    2011-11-01

    Mutations in human SLC26A4 are a common cause of hearing loss associated with enlarged vestibular aqueducts (EVA). SLC26A4 encodes pendrin, an anion-base exchanger expressed in inner ear epithelial cells that secretes HCO3- into endolymph. Studies of Slc26a4-null mice indicate that pendrin is essential for inner ear development, but have not revealed whether pendrin is specifically necessary for homeostasis. Slc26a4-null mice are profoundly deaf, with severe inner ear malformations and degenerative changes that do not model the less severe human phenotype. Here, we describe studies in which we generated a binary transgenic mouse line in which Slc26a4 expression could be induced with doxycycline. The transgenes were crossed onto the Slc26a4-null background so that all functional pendrin was derived from the transgenes. Varying the temporal expression of Slc26a4 revealed that E16.5 to P2 was the critical interval in which pendrin was required for acquisition of normal hearing. Lack of pendrin during this period led to endolymphatic acidification, loss of the endocochlear potential, and failure to acquire normal hearing. Doxycycline initiation at E18.5 or discontinuation at E17.5 resulted in partial hearing loss approximating the human EVA auditory phenotype. These data collectively provide mechanistic insight into hearing loss caused by SLC26A4 mutations and establish a model for further studies of EVA-associated hearing loss.

  13. SLC26A4 gene copy number variations in Chinese patients with non-syndromic enlarged vestibular aqueduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jiandong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many patients with enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA have either only one allelic mutant of the SLC26A4 gene or lack any detectable mutation. In this study, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA was used to screen for copy number variations (CNVs of SLC26A4 and to reveal the pathogenic mechanisms of non-syndromic EVA (NSEVA. Methods Between January 2003 and March 2010, 923 Chinese patients (481 males, 442 females with NSEVA were recruited. Among these, 68 patients (7.4% were found to carry only one mutant allele of SLC26A4 and 39 patients (4.2% lacked any detectable mutation in SLC26A4; these 107 patients without double mutant alleles were assigned to the patient group. Possible copy number variations in SLC26A4 were detected by SALSA MLPA. Results Using GeneMapper, no significant difference was observed between the groups, as compared with the standard probe provided in the assay. The results of the capillary electrophoresis showed no significant difference between the patients and controls. Conclusion Our results suggest that CNVs and the exon deletion in SLC26A4 are not important factors in NSEVA. However, it would be premature to conclude that CNVs have no role in EVA. Genome-wide studies to explore CNVs within non-coding regions of the SLC26A4 gene and neighboring regions are warranted, to elucidate their roles in NSEVA etiology.

  14. A structured three-dimensional polymer electrolyte with enlarged active reaction zone for Li-O2 batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet-Mercier, Nadège; Wong, Raymond A.; Thomas, Morgan L.; Dutta, Arghya; Yamanaka, Keisuke; Yogi, Chihiro; Ohta, Toshiaki; Byon, Hye Ryung

    2014-11-01

    The application of conventional solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) to lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries has suffered from a limited active reaction zone due to thick SPE and subsequent lack of O2 gas diffusion route in the positive electrode. Here we present a new design for a three-dimensional (3-D) SPE structure, incorporating a carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode, adapted for a gas-based energy storage system. The void spaces in the porous CNT/SPE film allow an increased depth of diffusion of O2 gas, providing an enlarged active reaction zone where Li+ ions, O2 gas, and electrons can interact. Furthermore, the thin SPE layer along the CNT, forming the core/shell nanostructure, aids in the smooth electron transfer when O2 gas approaches the CNT surface. Therefore, the 3-D CNT/SPE electrode structure enhances the capacity in the SPE-based Li-O2 cell. However, intrinsic instability of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) of the SPE matrix to superoxide (O2.-) and high voltage gives rise to severe side reactions, convincing us of the need for development of a more stable electrolyte for use in this CNT/SPE design.

  15. 4th European Turbulence Conference

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    The European Turbulence Conferences have been organized under the auspices of the European Mechanics Committee (Euromech) to provide a forum for discussion and exchange of recent and new results in the field of turbulence. The first conference was organized in Lyon in 1986 with 152 participants. The second and third conferences were held in Berlin (1988) and Stockholm (1990) with 165 and 172 participants respectively. The fourth was organized in Delft from 30 June to 3 July 1992 by the J.M. Burgers Centre. There were 214 participants from 22 countries. This steadily growing number of participants demonstrates both the success and need for this type of conference. The main topics of the Fourth European Turbulence Conference were: Dynamical Systems and Transition; Statistical Physics and Turbulence; Experiments and Novel Experimental Techniques; Particles and Bubbles in Turbulence; Simulation Methods; Coherent Structures; Turbulence Modelling and Compressibility Effects. In addition a special session was held o...

  16. Principles of European Contract Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole; Beale, Hugh

    of articles, with a detailed commentary explaining the purpose and operation of each article and its relation to the remainder. Each article also has extensive comparative notes surveying the national laws and other international provisions on the topic. "The Principles of European Contract Law Parts I &......This text provides a comprehensive guide to the principles of European contract law. They have been drawn up by an independent body of experts from each Member State of the EU, under a project supported by the European Commission and many other organizations. The principles are stated in the form......; II" cover the core rules of contract: formation, authority of agents, validity, interpretation, contents, performance, non-performance and remedies. The articles previously published in Part I (1995) are included in a revised and re-ordered form. Throughout Europe there is great interest...

  17. Constructing a European Governance Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam; Alijarde, Isabel Brusca; Chow, Danny

    . On the basis of that discussion, Eurostat launched another public consultation named; ‘Towards implementing European Public Sector Accounting Standards for EU member states-Public consultation on future EPSAS governance principles and structures’. This paper seeks to provide an in-depth understanding......Financial crisis has emphasized the need for harmonized public sector accounts in Europe. After a public consultation on the suitability of the IPSAS for EU Member States, the European Commission considers that the proper way is the development of European Union Standards adapted to IPSAS (renaming...... of the negotiations and interactions that took place prior to, during and after the issuance of the public consultation on the ‘Suitability of IPSAS’. The focus of this paper is therefore on a systematic analysis of the construction of regional-transnational governance of public sector accounting, using the EPSAS...

  18. European project ISAWARE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Jochen; Smietanski, Guillaume; Kubbat, Wolfgang

    2001-08-01

    As air traffic is increasing, the probability of encountering 'surveillance' alerts during flight is also increasing. In order to ensure safety, new on board systems need to be developed to provide the crew with a better 'situation awareness' (SA) about its external environment and potential hazards. In addition, the means to manage the data generated by these new systems needs to be build up. Despite the tremendous amount of information, crew workload must not increase. This is where the ISAWARE project comes in with the Integrated Situation Awareness System (ISAS) concept. ISAWARE (Increasing Safety through collision Avoidance WARning intEgration) is a project partly funded by the European Community, executed by a well balanced composition of several European aerospace companies (airframers, a helicopter manufacturer, avionics suppliers, airlines), one research laboratory and one university. The overall objective of the ISAWARE project is to conduct research into the potential improvements to flight safety that can be achieved by providing the pilot with complete predictive situation awareness during all phases of the flight. The Integrated Situational Awareness System (ISAS) merges data from different safety systems concerning terrain, traffic, weather and other. The system ensures the alerts consistency, prioritises alerts and anticipates threats along a predicted trajectory earlier than current systems can provide. The second main axis of the research is the development of synthetic vision displays (PFD, ND and HUD) to enhance the Human-Machine Interface (HMI). The key focus of the project is the development of a ground-based demonstrator rig which is interfaced to a dynamic flight simulator. This rig is used for the evaluation of the ISAWARE concept by a representative range of active airline crews.

  19. Failure of fluid absorption in the endolymphatic sac initiates cochlear enlargement that leads to deafness in mice lacking pendrin expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung-Mi Kim

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Mutations of SLC26A4 are among the most prevalent causes of hereditary deafness. Deafness in the corresponding mouse model, Slc26a4(-/-, results from an abnormally enlarged cochlear lumen. The goal of this study was to determine whether the cochlear enlargement originates with defective cochlear fluid transport or with a malfunction of fluid transport in the connected compartments, which are the vestibular labyrinth and the endolymphatic sac. Embryonic inner ears from Slc26a4(+/- and Slc26a4(-/- mice were examined by confocal microscopy ex vivo or after 2 days of organ culture. Culture allowed observations of intact, ligated or partially resected inner ears. Cochlear lumen formation was found to begin at the base of the cochlea between embryonic day (E 13.5 and 14.5. Enlargement was immediately evident in Slc26a4(-/- compared to Slc26a4(+/- mice. In Slc26a4(+/- and Slc26a4(-/- mice, separation of the cochlea from the vestibular labyrinth by ligation at E14.5 resulted in a reduced cochlear lumen. Resection of the endolymphatic sacs at E14.5 led to an enlarged cochlear lumen in Slc26a4(+/- mice but caused no further enlargement of the already enlarged cochlear lumen in Slc26a4(-/- mice. Ligation or resection performed later, at E17.5, did not alter the cochlea lumen. In conclusion, the data suggest that cochlear lumen formation is initiated by fluid secretion in the vestibular labyrinth and temporarily controlled by fluid absorption in the endolymphatic sac. Failure of fluid absorption in the endolymphatic sac due to lack of Slc26a4 expression appears to initiate cochlear enlargement in mice, and possibly humans, lacking functional Slc26a4 expression.

  20. REASSESSING EUROPEAN UNION LIMITS: WHAT ROLE FOR THE NEW REGIONAL PARTNERSHIPS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Berbec

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As every enlargement brings new neighbours to the European Union, the European Neighbourhood Policy is facing new challenges regarding its policy towards the countries in its proximity. Although the ENP does not offer perspectives for accession, nor does it preclude it, new forms of cooperation between the EU and its neighbours are taken into consideration as an alternative to full membership. This essay will analyze how the latest enlargements have brought new opportunities and challenges to the EU in relation to its new neighbours, the role of the "Eastern Partnership" and the "Union for Mediterranean" initiatives in fostering cooperation with the contiguous countries and whether these community projects, together with the ENP, can have a contribution to the understanding of what the EU limits are.

  1. Europeanization and transnational states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsson, Bengt; Lægreid, Per; Pedersen, Ove K.

    This work investigates what happens to an organized political unit when it becomes part of a larger entity and, in particular, how increased European integration and the tentative moves towards a transnational state will affect the European Union's nation state. Europeanization and the transforma......This work investigates what happens to an organized political unit when it becomes part of a larger entity and, in particular, how increased European integration and the tentative moves towards a transnational state will affect the European Union's nation state. Europeanization...... in central government agencies. It concludes that the consequences of Europeanization can be described as the growth of a transnational administration where identities as well as loyalties are created in processes that transcend the borders of states....

  2. The effect of relative distance enlargement on visual acuity in the visually impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolffsohn, James S; Eperjesi, Frank

    2005-03-01

    Prescribing magnification is typically based on distance or near visual acuity. This presumes a constant minimum angle of visual resolution with working distance and therefore enlargement of an object moved to a shorter working distance (relative distance enlargement). This study examines this premise in a visually impaired population. Distance letter visual acuity was measured prospectively for 380 low vision patients (distance visual acuity between 0.3 and 2.1 logMAR) over the age of 57 years, along with near word visual acuity at an appropriate distance for near lens additions from +4 D to +20 D. Demographic information, the disease causing low vision, contrast sensitivity, visual field and psychological status were also recorded. Distance letter acuity was significantly related to (r = 0.84) but on average 0.1 +/- 0.2 logMAR better (1 +/- 2 lines on a logMAR chart) than near word acuity at 25 cm with a +4 D lens addition. In 39.8 per cent of patients, near word acuity was more than 0.1 logMAR worse than distance letter acuity. In 11.0 per cent of subjects, near visual acuity was more than 0.1 logMAR better than distance letter acuity. The group with near word acuity worse than distance letter acuity also had lower contrast sensitivity. The group with near word acuity better than distance letter acuity was less likely to have age-related macular degeneration. Smaller print size could be read by reducing working distance (achieved by using higher near lens additions) in 86.1 per cent, although not by as much as predicted by geometric progression in 14.5 per cent. Although distance letter and near word acuity are highly related, they are on average 1 logMAR line different and this varies significantly between individuals. Near word acuity did not increase linearly with relative distance enlargement in approximately one in seven visually impaired, suggesting that the measurement of visual resolution over a range of working distances will assist appropriate

  3. DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS OF ENLARGED CELLS DERIVED FROM GROUPER SLEEPY DISEASE IRIDOVIRUS (GSDIV INFECTED HUMPBACK GROUPER Cromileptes altivelis

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    Indah Mastuti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Characteristic of Megalocytivirus infection has been known to produce formation of inclusion body bearing cells (IBCs on internals organs of fish predominantly on spleen and kidney. Megalocytivirus that infected grouper is known as Grouper Sleepy Disease Iridovirus (GSDIV. This study was conducted to answer the effect of entry sites of GSDIV on distribution of enlarged cells formed on the internal organs of humpback grouper Cromileptes altivelis. Enlarged cells were observed histologically under the light microscope on spleen, head kidney, trunk kidney, liver, gill, heart, stomach, intestine, muscle and brain. Entry sites were designated to intramuscularly injection, intraperitoneally injection, dipped gill and inoculum added feed. Enlarged cells were formed on spleen, head kidney, trunk kidney, liver, gill, heart, stomach, muscle, except on intestine and brain. All the entry sites resulted in formation of enlarged cells on spleen, head kidney, trunk kidney, liver, heart. Spleen and head kidney were the most frequent observed organ. These results suggested that distribution of enlarged cells were not affected by the entry site of GSDIV.

  4. Orbital T-Cell Lymphoma with Discrete Enlargements of All Extraocular Muscles Bilaterally in Patient with Moon Face Countenance

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    Hideaki Kawakami

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report our findings in a case of orbital T-cell lymphoma in which all of the extraocular muscles (EOMs were bilaterally and discretely enlarged and the patient had a moon face countenance. Case. A 59-year-old woman presented with visual disturbances in her left eye, hyperemia in both eyes, and a moon face countenance. Examinations showed limited upward gaze in the right eye, blepharoptosis, hypertropia, and limited downward and rightward gaze in the left eye. Slit-lamp examination showed only chemosis and hyperemia of both eyes. Magnetic resonance imaging with contrast revealed discrete enlargements of the muscle bellies in all EOMs without abnormalities of the orbital fat in both eyes. Blood examinations excluded thyroid- and IgG4-related ophthalmopathy, and EOM biopsy revealed peripheral T-cell lymphoma. After beginning aggressive chemotherapy, the enlarged EOMs, limited eye motility, and moon face countenance improved. Unfortunately, the patient died of sepsis during the chemotherapy. Conclusions. A lymphoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of eyes with enlarged EOMs. Because lymphomas can lead to death, it is important for clinicians to consider lymphomas in eyes with enlarged EOMs.

  5. Romanian Tourism as a Part of the European Union: Changes and Adaptations

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea Marin-Pantelescu

    2017-01-01

    The demand and the supply for tourism increased tremendous during the last ten years as a result of enlargement of leisure and free time availability, a growth in paid tourists packages, an increase in bought holidays using dedicated websites, the development of transportation, and in particular the air transport and the expansion of inclusive tours offered by tour operators. After the transition to a modern economy and started with the integration into the European Union, Romanian tourism...

  6. Assessment of Root Canal Enlargement Using Mtwo and BioRace Rotary Files

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    Enzo Cumbo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate root canal enlargement following mechanical shaping using 2 nickel titanium rotary systems. Material and Methods. Forty single-rooted teeth were immersed in resin and sectioned perpendicular to the long axis at 4, 8, and 12 mm from the apex. Digital capture of sections was performed before and after canal instrumentation using Mtwo and BioRace instruments. The area increase of endodontic space was calculated by subtraction. Results. The use of both instruments has allowed the removal of great amounts of dentin from the canal walls, even when the endodontic morphology is characterized by awkwardness to reach recesses. Conclusions. Both procedures seem to be valid and no differences were found between Mtwo and BioRaCe considering the amount of dentin removed at different distances from the apex.

  7. Enlarged test catalysts during the hydrogenation of 1,4-butynediol to 1,4-butanediol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaksyntay Kairbekov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The highly effective catalyzer for butynediol-1;4 hydrogenation was designed and synthesized. Enlarged tests showed that the selectivity on butanediol-1.4 at the hydrogenation of butynediol-1.4 on the alloyed catalyst SKN-39H during 320 h was 84.6 %; that on 18 % higher than for  industrial MNH. The yield of product on the catalyst SKN-39 increases slowly from 3.1 to 7.3 % when on a catalyst MNH – 7.1 to 11.7 % from the initial content of butynediol-1;4. At the hydrogenation of  butynediol on catalyst SKN-39H process efficiency increases in 1.5-2 times and product purity on 2-3 % is higher in comparing with the industrial catalyst MNH. 

  8. Enlarged laminectomy and lateral mass screw fixation for multilevel cervical degenerative myelopathy associated with kyphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Zhang, Peng; Shen, Yong; Zhang, Ying-ze; Ding, Wen-yuan; Ren, Long-xi

    2014-01-01

    Either an anterior approach or a posterior approach, which aims to decompress the spinal cord and restore the sagittal alignment, has been adopted to treat multilevel cervical degenerative myelopathy (CDM) associated with kyphosis. However, there is controversy on the optimal surgical strategy for the treatment of multilevel CDM with kyphotic deformity because of the complications of each surgical approach. The purpose of this study was to investigate the surgical efficacy of enlarged laminectomy (removing the inside edge of facet joints and decompressing the nerve foramina) and lateral mass screw fixation for the treatment of multilevel CDM associated with kyphosis. A retrospective radiographic and clinical study to access the efficacy of enlarged laminectomy with lateral mass screw fixation in the treatment of multilevel CDM related to kyphosis. A total of 43 patients (28 men and 15 women; average age, 59.6 years) with multilevel CDM correlated to kyphosis were obtained in the study. All radiological data were recorded on computer-based measurement from preoperative or postoperative X-ray, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography. All neurological parameters were accessed in each patient. Analysis consisted of: Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score, recovery rate, curvature index (CI), the expansion degree and drift-back distance of the spinal cord, axial symptom severity, and C5 root palsy. The recovery rate based on the JOA score was calculated for each patient. Cervical CI as well as the expansion degree and drift-back distance of the spinal cord was measured using MRI. Axial symptom severity was quantified by a visual analog scale (VAS). Statistical analysis was performed using paired t test with significance set at p<.05. Enlarged laminectomy was performed over a mean of 3.97 levels (range, 3-5 levels). Follow-up information was obtained at a mean of 2.8 years (range, 1.5-5 years) after surgery. Analysis of the final follow-up data

  9. Transurethral resection of prostate in benign prostatic enlargement with underactive bladder: A retrospective outcome analysis

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    Ashok Kumar Sokhal

    2017-01-01

    Results: The mean follow-up period was 22.4 ± 6.2 months. Mean prostate volume was 42.8 ± 6.4 ml and mean serum prostate-specific antigen was 2.3 ± 1.8 ng/ml. The International Prostate Symptom Score changed from 24.6 ± 4.2 preoperatively to 10.8 ± 5.8 postoperatively which was found statistically significant. Quality of life (QOL score changed from 4.8 ± 1.2 to 2.6 ± 0.4. Twenty-two patients out of 174 remained on a per-urethral catheter or clean intermittent catheterization due to voiding failure after TURP beyond 1 month. Conclusions: TURP should be considered a viable treatment option in men with enlarged prostate with underactive detrusor who had poor response to medical treatment. Preoperative counseling and postoperative follow-up are crucial in the management of such patients.

  10. Single-incision laparoscopic splenectomy and splenic autotransplantation for an enlarged wandering spleen with torsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsura, Shunsaku; Kawamura, Daichi; Harada, Eijiro; Enoki, Tadahiko; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2014-06-01

    A wandering spleen is a rare condition in which the spleen is not located in the left upper quadrant, but instead is found in the lower abdomen or in the pelvic region because of the laxity of the peritoneal attachments. The unusually long pedicle is susceptible to twisting, which can lead to ischemia, and eventually to necrosis. We herein report a case of an enlarged wandering spleen with torsion, successfully treated by single-incision laparoscopic splenectomy and autotransplantation. The transplanted splenic tissues could be identified on a spleen scintigram obtained 3 months after the surgery. Howell-Jolly bodies were not observed in blood specimens. This procedure is able to prevent an overwhelming postsplenectomy infection, and leads to satisfactory cosmetic results.

  11. Primary intraoral granulocytic sarcoma: A rare case presenting as generalized gingival enlargement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dineshkumar, Thayalan; Suresh, Vemuri; Ramya, Ramadas; Rajkumar, Krishnan

    2016-01-01

    Granulocytic sarcoma (GS) is an extremely rare condition involving infiltration of myeloblasts or immature myeloid cells in an extramedullary site. It is also known as chloroma, myeloid sarcoma or extramedullary myeloid tumor. It usually occurs concomitantly with acute myelogenous leukemia or with the onset of blastic phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia. On rare occasions, it evolves even before the onset of leukemias, and when it precedes leukemias without any overt signs, it is referred to as the primary type. Although GSs can involve any body part, localization in the oral cavity is extremely rare. The recognition of this rare primary entity is important because early aggressive chemotherapy can cause regression of the tumor and improve survival. Here, we report a rare case of GS in a nonleukemic 62-year-old female who presented with generalized gingival enlargement involving both maxilla and mandible.

  12. Multifocal Tumorous Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia Presenting as Asymmetric Bilateral Breast Enlargement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, I; Perez Fernandez, C M; Günzel, S; Schoenegg, W

    2015-02-01

    PASH is a benign proliferation of stromal myofibroblasts that affects mostly premenopausal women and typically shows estrogen and progesterone receptor expression, allowing speculation regarding a hormonal cause. It usually presents as an incidental finding on a mammogram or as a palpable mass. We present a case of diffuse asymmetrical massive breast enlargement in a premenopausal woman with history of previous multiple PASH excisions for recurrent lesions, caused by multifocal tumorous PASH virtually replacing the breast parenchyma. Immunohistochemistry examination showed no hormone receptor expression. Despite its benign nature, such presentation of PASH is managed with bilateral mastectomy and immediate reconstruction with expanders for cosmetic and comfort reasons, while tumor excision or expectant management is deemed to lead to recurrence and progression. Although a hormonal origin is speculated based on hormone expression studies and typical patient profile, this case showed 0 % estrogen/progesterone expression in the final histology specimen.

  13. The European Trauma Course (ETC) and the team approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lott, Carsten; Araujo, Rui; Cassar, Mary Rose

    2009-01-01

    The European Trauma Course (ETC) was officially launched during the international conference of the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) in 2008. The ETC was developed on behalf of ESTES (European Society of Trauma and Emergency Surgery), EuSEM (European Society of Emergency Medicine), the ESA...... other trauma courses, are a strong focus on team training and a novel modular design that is adaptable to the differing regional European requirements. This article describes the lessons learnt during the European Trauma Course development and provides an outline of the planned future development....

  14. Role of homoeopathic medicines in prostate enlargement: A retrospective observational study

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    Girish Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prostatic enlargement (prostatomegaly is a common condition in aging men which can be progressive and lead to acute urinary retention and ultimately need for surgery. Although clinical evidence of disease occurs less commonly, symptoms of prostatic obstruction are also age related and if untreated affect quality of life. Patients with huge prostatic enlargement mostly undergo surgical intervention. Objective: To assess the usefulness of homoeopathic medicines in patients with huge prostatomegaly, a clinical study was conducted at Gaurang Clinic and Centre for Homoeopathic Research, Lucknow, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 116 patients have been shortlisted with prostate weight above 50 g, out of which 61 were found fit for the study. The medicines have been selected on the basis of principles of Homoeopathy. Prostate weight and postvoid residual urine (PVRU on ultrasonography were assessed before and after treatment. Results: After comparing pre- and post-treatment results, the difference in mean values of prostate weight and PVRU were 67.47 ± 2.78-60.15 ± 3.62 (P < 0.001 and 91.61 ± 11.91-65.94 ± 9.01 (P = 0.009, respectively, which were found statistically significant. Lycopodium (n = 21, Pulsatilla (n = 7, and Nux vomica (n = 3 were found to be most useful medicines. Conclusion: Results obtained from the study are encouraging with findings that almost 64% of patients reduced their prostatic weight significantly. However, such study with inclusion of more parameters is needed for further validation of the role of homoeopathic medicines.

  15. Serial cardiac MRIs in adult Fontan patients detect progressive hepatic enlargement and congestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Matthew J; Hecht, Elizabeth; Ginns, Jonathan; Benton, Joshua; Prince, Martin; Rosenbaum, Marlon S

    2017-03-01

    The progression of hepatic disease in adult Fontan patients is not well understood. They reviewed the experience with serial cardiac MRIs (CMR) in adult Fontan patients to determine if hepatic anatomic markers of prolonged Fontan exposure were present and if clinical predictors of progressive hepatic congestion could be identified. A retrospective cohort study of all adult Fontan patients who had undergone at least two CMRs was performed. Hepatic dimensions, inferior vena cava (IVC) size, right hepatic vein (RHV) size and spleen diameter were determined from images acquired at the time of clinically guided CMR. Two radiologists with expertise in hepatic imaging graded congestion and liver size independently using post-gadolinium contrast sequences. Twenty-seven patients met inclusion criteria. Over a mean time of 5.1 years between CMRs, there was a significant increase in mean lateral-medial hepatic dimension (P = .005), mean RHV diameter (P = .004), and mean splenic diameter (P = .001). Serial post-gadolinium imaging was available in 25/27 (93%) patients of which 15/27 (55%) showed evidence of progressive hepatic congestion across serial studies. Progressive hepatic congestion was associated with single ventricle ejection fraction (SVEF) less than 50% (P = .008), and larger indexed end-diastolic (EDVI) and end-systolic volume (ESVI). RHV diameter was the only anatomic variable significantly correlated with time from Fontan completion (P = .004). Serial CMRs detected progressive liver and hepatic vein enlargement in our cohort of adult Fontan patients over a mean time of 5.2 years. Progressive hepatic congestion occurs in a significant number of adult Fontan patients and may be associated with ventricular enlargement and decreased ventricular function by CMR. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and oxygen-sensing performance of a rhenium complex having an enlarged sensing area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xiao-yong, E-mail: dreamxxy01@163.com [Center for Functional Materials of Pingxiang, Pingxiang 337055 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Deng, Ai-ping; Xiang, Yun [Center for Functional Materials of Pingxiang, Pingxiang 337055 (China)

    2015-04-15

    In this paper, we reported a Re(I) complex Re(CO){sub 3}(IPD-Et)Br having an enlarged conjugation chain for oxygen sensing purpose, where IPD-Et=4-(1-ethyl-1 H-imidazo [4,5-f][1,10] phenanthrolin-2-yl)-N,N-diphenylaniline. Its conjugation chain was composed of triphenylamine group and imidazole group. In addition, an alkyl chain was connected with this N–N ligand to breach π–π attraction between ligand planes. It was assumed that above two factors could improve oxygen sensing sensitivity. Theoretical calculation and analysis firstly confirmed this hypothesis. Then photophysical measurement on Re(CO){sub 3}(IPD-Et)Br suggested that its emission was a lon-lived one peaking at 545 nm and thus vulnerable to molecular O{sub 2}. Composite systems were constructed for oxygen sensing, using Re(CO){sub 3}(IPD-Et)Br as probe and mesoporous silicate MCM-41 as supporting matrix, respectively. Linear Stern–Volmer curves, short response time of ~13 s and high sensitivity of 3.99 were finally obtained. - Highlights: • A Re(I) complex with enlarged but limited conjugation chain for oxygen sensing. • An alkyl chain was connected onto this N–N ligand to breach π–π attraction. • Complex emission peaking at 545 nm owned a long-lived emissive center. • Composite sensing systems were constructed for oxygen sensing. • Linear Stern–Volmer plots, short response time and high sensitivity were obtained.

  17. Enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) related with recurrent benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzari, Leonardo

    2008-01-01

    The vestibular aqueduct is a bony canal related to the bony labyrinth of the inner ear and represents the non-sensory components of the endolymph-filled, closed, membranous labyrinth. The association of congenital sensorineural hearing loss with a large or enlarged vestibular aqueduct is well known as the large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS). The enlarged VA (EVA) comprises abnormalities not only in the structure of the inner ear, but also in the physiology of the auditory and vestibular systems. The clinical picture of this clinical entity is variable [Yetiser S, Kertment M, Ozkaptan Y. Vestibular disturbance in patients with Large Vestibular Aqueduct Syndrome (LVAS). Acta Otolaryngol (StochK) 1999;119: 641-646]. Signs and symptoms of the auditory impairment are more commonly described in the literature: hearing loss ranges from mild to profound, arising from fluctuating to stepwise progressive or sudden. Vestibular disturbances, ranging from mild imbalance to episodic vertigo, are rarely described in the literature. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a labyrinthine disorder with a typical behavior: intense crises of rotational vertigo induced by postural changes of the head, with short duration and usually good responsiveness to rehabilitative maneuvers. These maneuvers are effective in about 80% of patients with BPPV. BPPV often recurs. About 1/3 of patients have a recurrence in the first year after treatment, and by five years, about half of all patients have a recurrence. Vestibular aqueduct has been demonstrated by conventional tomography and computed tomography (CT), however, CT scans cannot show the membranous labyrinth itself. On MR images it is not the vestibular aqueduct that is visualized but its contents, the endolymphatic duct and sac, and can show the abnormalities of the fluid spaces related to the membranous labyrinth. It is proposed that recurrent benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is related with volumetric abnormalities

  18. Parotid enlargement due to adenovirus infection in patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Irma Seixas Duarte

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a case of adenovirus- induced enlargement of the parotid gland involving a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Physical examination revealed good general condition, no fever and bilateral enlargement of the parotid region, which was of increased consistency and slightly tender to palpation. Histological examination of the parotid gland demonstrated a slight periductal lymphomononuclear inflammatory infiltrate with the presence of focal points of necrosis. Tests to determine the presence of fungi and alcohol-acid resistent bacilli were negative. Immunohistochemistry for cytomegalovirus, heipes simplex, HIV p24 antigen and adenovirus showed positivity only for adenovirus in the epithelial nuclei of numerous gland ducts. Tins is the third case of this type reported in the literature, indicating the importance of including adenovirus in the differential diagnosis of this condition.Os autores relatam um caso de aumento da glândula parótida ocasionado por adenovirus, em paciente infectado pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana. Ao exame físico, este se apresentava em bom estado geral, afebril e com aumento bilateral de parõtidas, de consistência aumentada e discretamente dolorosas ã palpação. O exame histológico da parótida demonstrou discreto infiltrado inflamatório linfomononuclear periductal com presença de focos de necrose, as pesquisas para fungos e bacilos ãlcool ãcido resistentes foram negativas. A técnica de imuno-histoquímica para citomegalovírus, beipes simples, antígeno p24 do HIVe adenovirus, somente evidenciou posítividade para o último. Este é o terceiro caso descrito na literatura, destacando a importância de incluir o adenovíms, no diagnóstico diferencial, deste acometimento.

  19. Decompression of enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes due to mycobacterium tuberculosis causing severe airway obstruction in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goussard, Pierre; Gie, Robert P; Janson, Jacques T; le Roux, Pieter; Kling, Sharon; Andronikou, Savvas; Roussouw, Gawie J

    2015-04-01

    Large airway compression by enlarged tuberculosis (TB) lymph nodes results in life-threatening airway obstruction in a small proportion of children. The indications, safety, and efficacy of TB lymph node decompression are inadequately described. This study aims to describe the indications and efficacy of TB lymph node decompression in children with severe airway compression and investigate variables influencing outcome. A prospective cohort of children (aged 3 months to 13 years) with life-threatening airway obstruction resulting from TB lymph node compression of the large airways were enrolled. The site and degree of airway obstruction were assessed by bronchoscopy and chest computed tomography scan. Of the 250 children enrolled, 34% (n = 86) required transthoracic lymph node decompression, 29% as an urgent procedure and 71% (n = 63) after failing 1 month of antituberculosis treatment that included glucosteroids. Compression (less than 75%) of the bronchus intermedius (odds ratio 2.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.29 to 4.02) and left main bronchus (odds ratio 3.34, 95% confidence interval: 1.73 to 6.83) were the best predictors for lymph node decompression. Human immunodeficiency virus status, drug resistance, and malnutrition were not associated with decompression. Few complications (self-limiting, 8%) or treatment failures (2%) resulted from the decompression. There were no deaths. In one third of children with TB, severe airway obstruction caused by enlarged lymph nodes requires decompression. Transthoracic decompression can be safely performed with low complication, failure, and fatality rates. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Compensatory enlargement of Ossabaw miniature swine coronary arteries in diffuse atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny S. Choy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies in human and non-human primates have confirmed the compensatory enlargement or positive remodeling (Glagov phenomenon of coronary vessels in the presence of focal stenosis. To our knowledge, this is the first study to document arterial enlargement in a metabolic syndrome animal model with diffuse coronary artery disease (DCAD in the absence of severe focal stenosis. Two different groups of Ossabaw miniature pigs were fed a high fat atherogenic diet for 4 months (Group I and 12 months (Group II, respectively. Group I (6 pigs underwent contrast enhanced computed tomographic angiography (CCTA and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS at baseline and after 4 months of high fat diet, whereas Group II (7 pigs underwent only IVUS at 12 months of high fat diet. IVUS measurements of the left anterior descending (LAD, left circumflex (LCX and right coronary (RCA arteries in Group I showed an average increase in their lumen cross-sectional areas (CSA of 25.8%, 11.4%, and 43.4%, respectively, as compared to baseline. The lumen CSA values of LAD in Group II were found to be between the baseline and 4 month values in Group I. IVUS and CCTA measurements showed a similar trend and positive correlation. Fractional flow reserve (FFR was 0.91 ± 0.07 at baseline and 0.93 ± 0.05 at 4 months with only 2.2%, 1.6% and 1% stenosis in the LAD, LCX and RCA, respectively. The relation between percent stenosis and lumen CSA shows a classical Glagov phenomenon in this animal model of DCAD.

  1. Variations in the cochlear implant experience in children with enlarged vestibular aqueduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, Cedric; Zwolan, Teresa; Huq, Farhan; Phillips, Amanda; Parmar, Hemant; Ibrahim, Mohannad; Thorne, Marc; Telian, Steven

    2015-09-01

    To describe the clinical experience and characterize the outcomes of cochlear implantation (CI) in children with isolated enlarged vestibular aqueduct (IEVA) as compared to children with enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) associated with other bony labyrinth abnormalities. Single, tertiary care, institutional retrospective review over 2 decades. The clinical course and outcomes of 55 children with EVA undergoing CI between 1991 and 2013 were reviewed. Test measures included open and closed set speech perception tests, and various speech and language measures. In 18 children (32.7%), IEVA was the only defect present. In 33 children (60%), EVA occurred concomitantly with incomplete partition type 2 (IP 2) bilaterally, and three children with incomplete partition type 1 bilaterally. Ninety-two percent (51 of 55) occurred bilaterally and had matching bony defects. Mean age of CI was 73.4 months. A statistically significant defect-related and linguistic-status pattern was noted, impacting the timing of implantation: IEVA = 112.8 months, IP 2 = 58.4 months (P < .001), prelingual deafness = 53.8 months, postlingual deafness = 110.8 months (P < .001). Controlling for implant age and hearing loss severity, IEVA children demonstrated superior performance on speech perception tests (8.2 to 20.3 point differences), though statistical significance was inconsistent (P = .01-.40. Performance was also superior in speech and language tests, though statistical significance was never reached (2.9-13.9 point differences; P = .14-.69). Children with hearing loss secondary to EVA respond meaningfully to cochlear implantation. However, the severity of temporal bone anomalies in these children has clinical relevance. 4. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Follow-up study of macrocephalic children with enlargement of the subarachnoid space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. D. Gherpelli

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen macrocephalic children with enlargement of the subarachnoid space (ESAS, with or without mild ventricular dilatation, were followed prospectively to a mean age of 56 months. All were born at term, with uneventful neonatal period and negative tests for congenital infections. There were 17 boys and 1 girl and the mean follow-up period was 46 months (8-58 months. The initial neurologic evaluation, between ages of 2 to 33 months, disclosed abnormalities in 2 cases. At the follow-up one was still abnormal and the other had a normal neurological examination. Another child, who had a normal neurological examination at the age of 5 months, at the age of 7 years and 7 months had an IQ of 77. Thus the abnormality rate at follow-up was 11%. The OFC returned to the normal range in 45% of the children at the follow-up period. There were no cases of intracranial hypertension. One infant had subdural taps performed at the age of 13 months that disclosed a fluid with the same characteristics as the CSF. All the children had a CT-scan performed at the beginning of the study that revealed a large subarachnoid space; in 77% it was associated with mild ventricular dilatation. Eleven had CT-scans repeated, during the study period, which showed resolution of the process in 3 cases, improvement in 2, and unchanged in 6. We conclude that enlargement of the subarachnoid space in macrocephalic children is often a benign entity. ESAS and macrocephaly will still be present in the majority of children in the long-term follow-up.

  3. Evaluation of breast enlargement in young males and factors associated with gynecomastia and pseudogynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, M; Sahin, M; Bolu, E; Gok, D E; Taslipinar, A; Tapan, S; Torun, D; Uckaya, G; Kutlu, M

    2010-12-01

    Gynecomastia is defined as a palpable enlargement of the mammary gland in males that is distinguishable from lipomastia. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of different causes of breast enlargement in young males referred to our tertiary center, and evaluation of the factors associated with gynaecomastia. One hundred thirty-five male recruits aged 20-30 years were enrolled in the study. A control group comprising 32 age-matched healthy individuals aged 20-25 years was also studied. Idiopathic gynecomastia (IG) was diagnosed in 31 of 135 patients (23%) and Klinefelter' syndrome (KS) was diagnosed in 70 cases (52%). Patients with KS had significantly higher body mass index (BMI) and waist and hip circumference waist/hip ratio than the control group. FSH, LH and SHBG were significantly higher and DHEAS, free testosterone (fT) and total testosterone (tT) were lower in patients with KS than the control group. Anthropometric measurements revealed significant increase in body weight and BMI in patients with IG compared with healthy controls. FSH and LH levels were significantly higher in the patients with IG. Patients with pseudogynecomastia alone were not obese and hypogonadism was observed in 35.1% of patients. We concluded that gynaecomastia in young adult males is mostly because of KS or idiopathic in origin. IG seems to be the result of androgen resistance and in part increased aromatization because of increased adiposity. Symptoms or findings for hypogonadism must be evaluated carefully in patients with pseudogynecomastia. We also suggest that the presence of both gynecomastia and azoospermia necessitate further karyotypic analyses for KS.

  4. Cell and nuclear enlargement of SW480 cells induced by a plant lignan, arctigenin: evaluation of cellular DNA content using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyungsu; Lee, Hee Ju; Yoo, Ji-Hye; Jho, Eun Hye; Kim, Chul Young; Kim, Minkyun; Nho, Chu Won

    2011-08-01

    Arctigenin is a natural plant lignan previously shown to induce G(2)/M arrest in SW480 human colon cancer cells as well as AGS human gastric cancer cells, suggesting its use as a possible cancer chemopreventive agent. Changes in cell and nuclear size often correlate with the functionality of cancer-treating agents. Here, we report that arctigenin induces cell and nuclear enlargement of SW480 cells. Arctigenin clearly induced the formation of giant nuclear shapes in SW480, as demonstrated by fluorescence microscopic observation and quantitative determination of nuclear size. Cell and nuclear size were further assessed by flow cytometric analysis of light scattering and fluorescence pulse width after propidium iodide staining. FSC-H and FL2-W values (parameters referring to cell and nuclear size, respectively) significantly increased after arctigenin treatment; the mean values of FSC-H and FL2-W in arctigenin-treated SW480 cells were 572.6 and 275.1, respectively, whereas those of control cells were 482.0 and 220.7, respectively. Our approach may provide insights into the mechanism behind phytochemical-induced cell and nuclear enlargement as well as functional studies on cancer-treating agents.

  5. Collaborators await European approval of LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Sweet, William N

    1994-01-01

    Physicists are awaiting the authorization of the proposed $2.5 billion European LHC. Germany, France, the UK and Switzerland are still arguing on how much extra contributions host countries should provide for the proton-proton collider's construction.

  6. Dimension, Egalitarianism and Decisiveness of European Voting Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Carreras

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of three major aspects has been carried out that may apply to any of the successive voting systems used for the European Union Council of Ministers, from the first one established in the Treaty of Rome in 1958 to the current one established in Lisbon. We mainly consider the voting systems designed for the enlarged European Union adopted in the Athens summit, held in April 2003 but this analysis can be applied to any other system. First, it is shown that the dimension of these voting systems does not, in general, reduce. Next, the egalitarian effects of superposing two or three weighted majority games (often by introducing additional consensus are considered. Finally, the decisiveness of these voting systems is evaluated and compared. (original abstract

  7. Management of phenytoin-induced gingival enlargement in a patient with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Sarvesh Urolagin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiphospholipid antibody (APLA syndrome is a noninflammatory autoimmune disease, with innumerable clinical manifestations ranging from recurrent thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity to valvular lesions, transverse myelitis, thrombocytopenia, and hemolytic anemia. APLAs in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS are well-known risk factors for cerebrovascular accidents. Stroke is the most common manifestation of APS in the central nervous system. Gingival enlargement is a known side effect of phenytoin which is an antiepileptic drug. This can have a significant effect on the quality of life as well as increasing the oral bacterial load by generating plaque retention sites. The management of gingival overgrowth seems to be directed at controlling gingival inflammation through a good oral hygiene regimen. Thus, this case report aims to describe the conservative management of phenytoin-induced gingival enlargement combined with inflammatory enlargement in a patient with APLA syndrome.

  8. Frequent occurrences of an enlarged submandibular gland following interstitial irradiation therapy in patients with cancer of the tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriguchi, Shinji; Takeda, Masamune; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Okuyama, Takeo; Horiuchi, Junichi

    1988-12-01

    A submandibular gland enlargement produces complications in the diagnosis of a nodal metastasis during the follow-up period in patients who have been given interstitial irradiation therapy for their oral cancers. Thus, a retrospective study has been made of the records of such affected patients, to accumulate knowledge regarding the frequency, the time of appearance, and the symptoms leading to the gland enlargement. Among 155 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue, 73 cases were selected for this study by the following criteria: (1) the patients were free of metastatic adenopathy, (2) they had been interstitially irradiated, and, (3) they were followed-up without surgical treatment for more than 6 months after the radiotherapy. Gland enlargement was found to have developed in 70% of the studied patients, that is, in 49 of the 73 cases within 9 months after radiotherapy.

  9. Great Escapes from the Past. Memory and Identity in European Transnational Television News

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Widholm

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last couple of decades, Europe has undergone fundamental political transformations that have challenged old stereotypes about the ‘essence’ of the European identity. This article analyses televisual narratives of the 2004 enlargement of the European Union, turning the analytical spotlight on two of Europe’s largest news broadcasters: BBC World and Euronews. The article focuses on how Europe is remembered in the news, but also how references to the past are used to explain what Europe is today and what it might look like in the future.

  10. Bronchial compression by an enlarged left atrium in infants; a cause of hypovascularity of the left lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corr, L.; Hallidie-Smith, K.A.; McCarthy, P.A.; Lavender, J.P.

    1988-09-01

    In three infants seen recently at our institution we noted signs of compression of the left main bronchus associated with enlarged left atria. None of our cases demonstrated the more usual signs of hyperinflation which are a hyperlucent lung field, depressed hemidiaphragm and mediastinal shift away from the affected side. In addition, hypoperfusion of the left lung was noted in each case. We believe that bronchial compression due to an enlarged left atrium, with consequent hypoxic vasoconstriction is a clinically significant entity, which is not well described and may be unappreciated in infants in whom the typical signs of hyperinflation are absent.

  11. The European Location Framework - from National to European

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauknerova, E.; Sidlichovsky, P.; Urbanas, S.; Med, M.

    2016-06-01

    The European Location Framework (ELF) means a technical infrastructure which will deliver authoritative, interoperable geospatial reference data from all over Europe for analysing and understanding information connected to places and features. The ELF has been developed and set up through the ELF Project, which has been realized by a consortium of partners (public, private and academic organisations) since March 2013. Their number increased from thirty to forty in the year 2016, together with a project extension from 36 to 44 months. The project is co-funded by the European Commission's Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme (CIP) and will end in October 2016. In broad terms, the ELF Project will deliver a unique gateway to the authoritative reference geospatial information for Europe (harmonised pan-European maps, geographic and land information) sourced from the National Mapping and Cadastral Authorities (NMCAs) around Europe and including transparent licensing. This will be provided as an online ELF web service that will deliver an up-to-date topographic base map and also as view & download services for access to the ELF datasets. To develop and build up the ELF, NMCAs are accompanied and collaborate with several research & academia institutes, a standardisation body, system integrators, software developers and application providers. The harmonisation is in progress developing and triggering a number of geo-tools like edge-matching, generalisation, transformation and others. ELF will provide also some centralised tools like Geo Locator for searching location based on geographical names, addresses and administrative units, and GeoProduct Finder for discovering the available web-services and licensing them. ELF combines national reference geo-information through the ELF platform. ELF web services will be offered to users and application developers through open source (OSKARI) and proprietary (ArcGIS Online) cloud platforms. Recently, 29 NMCAs plus the

  12. Outlook for the development of European forest resources; a study prepared for the European Forest Sector Outlook Study (EFSOS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelhaas, M.J.; Brusselen, van J.; Pussinen, A.; Pesonen, E.; Schuck, A.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Sasse, V.

    2006-01-01

    This Outlook for the Development of European Forest Resources provides the methodologies, data, scenarios, and results of the outlook on the European forest resources from 2000 to 2040. The aim of this forest resource study was to analyse the impacts on the European forest resources under the level

  13. A more coherent European wide legal language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola Heutger

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I would like to elaborate on the interaction between law and language. The use of the different (legal languages of the European Union Member States is one of the most practical and most difficult problems in the process of European integration. The linguistic matters are directly contacting all legal issues. In February 2003 the Commission launched an Action Plan on a more coherent European Contract Law. With this Action Plan a sector specific approach of legal and linguistic harmonization will start. On of the official aims will be the preparation of a common frame of reference, providing a pan-European terminology and rules. This contribution will reflect the need of a better and more coherent legal language use on a European Union level and describe a more concept-based approach of linguistic legal integration.

  14. An introduction to European intergovernmental organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Cogen, Marc

    2015-01-01

    An Introduction to European Intergovernmental Organizations provides an up-to-date and accessible reference to European intergovernmental organizations other than the European Union. The EU is so dominant that people often overlook the multitude of older and newer, smaller and larger intergovernmental organizations rooted in the history of contemporary Europe which continue to help shape its future. The specialized character of these organizations adds value to cooperation in Europe as a whole, creates permanent channels of communication regardless of EU membership and allows the possibility for non-European involvement through organizations such as the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and NATO. It also allows sub regional groups of states, such as the Nordic countries or the Benelux countries to exist and express their own identity via their own organizations. This book looks at the history of Non-EU organizations, their decision-making characteristics, membership policies, legal powers actio...

  15. The European NEO Coordination Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perozzi, E.; Borgia, B.; Micheli, M.

    An operational approach to NEO (Near-Earth Object) hazard monitoring has been developed at European level within the framework of the Space Situational Awareness Program (SSA) of the European Space Agency (ESA). Through federating European assets and profiting of the expertise developed in European Universities and Research Centers, it has been possible to start the deployment of the so-called SSA NEO Segment. This initiative aims to provide a significant contribution to the worldwide effort to the discovery, follow-up and characterization of the near-Earth object population. A major achievement has been the inauguration in May 2013 of the ESA NEO Coordination Centre located at ESRIN (Frascati, Italy). The goal of the NEOCC Precursor Service operations is twofold: to make available updated information on the NEO population and the associated hazard and to contribute to optimize the NEO observational efforts. This is done by maintaining and improving a Web Portal publicly available at http://neo.ssa.esa.int and by performing follow-up observations through a network of collaborating telescopes and facilities. An overview of the SSA-NEO System and a summary of the first two years of NEOCC operations is presented.

  16. European global navigation satellite launches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    The European Space Agency launched its first Galileo satellite on 28 December 2005.When fully deployed, the Galileo system will provide a European global navigation alternative to the U.S. global positioning system (GPS) and the Russian global navigation satellite system (Glonass).The Galileo system will consist of 30 satellites (27 operational plus three active spare satellites) that are scheduled to be launched and fully operational by the end of 2008.The system will provide real-time positioning within one meter of accuracy and be fully inter-operable with the U.S. and Russian systems. However, unlike GPS and Glonass, Galileo will be under civilian rather than military control.

  17. Social and Economic Wellbeing in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin: Building an Enlarged Human Development Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig-Martinez, Ernest

    2013-01-01

    This paper calculates a human Wellbeing Composite Index (WCI) for 42 countries, belonging to the European Economic Space, North Africa and the Middle East, as an alternative to the shortcomings of other well-known measures of socio-economic development (i.e. Gross Domestic Product per head and Human Development Index). To attain this goal,…

  18. Comparison of the accuracies of multi-frequency electronic apex locators in teeth with enlarged apical foramina: ex vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mügem Aslı Ekici

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of a newly developed multi-frequency electronic apex locator iPex II with three different multi-frequency electronic apex locators in teeth with different sizes of apical foramina. Materials and Method: Twenty-six extracted mandibular premolars were used in this study. The teeth were decoronated, and the root canals were coronally flared. Actual working length was determined by inserting a #15 K-file until the tip was visualized just within apical foramen. Actual working length was established 0.5 mm short of the distance between the rubber stopper and the file tip. Using Protaper F1, F2 and F3 files (Dentsply Maillefer, over-instrumentation 1 mm beyond the apical foramen was done. The teeth were embedded in teflon molds with alginate exposing the coronal 5 mm. Electronic working length measurements were done by using Raypex 5 (VDW, Raypex 6 (VDW, iPex (NSK Inc. and iPex II (NSK Inc. electronic apex locators. Differences between the electronic and actual working lengths were calculated. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used for the statistical analysis of the accuracies of the electronic apex locators (α=0.05. Results: Inter-group comparisons revealed that there was no statistically significant difference between the accuracies of the different electronic apex locators (p>0.05. Intra-group comparisons also revealed that there was no statistically significant difference between different apical foramen sizes (p>0.05. Conclusion: iPex II and the other electronic apex locators provided similar endodontic working length measurements in teeth with enlarged apical foramina. All electronic apex locators tested in this study were found clinically acceptable for working length determination.

  19. Multiple, thin-walled cysts are one of the HRCT features of airspace enlargement with fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yasutaka, E-mail: yasuyasu@omiya.jichi.ac.jp [Division of Diagnostic Pathology, Saitama Prefectural Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center, 1696 Itai, Kumagaya City, Saitama 360-0105 (Japan); Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Clinical Department of Internal Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Saitama Medical Center, Amanuma-cho, Omiya City, Saitama 330-8503 (Japan); Kawabata, Yoshinori [Division of Diagnostic Pathology, Saitama Prefectural Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center, 1696 Itai, Kumagaya City, Saitama 360-0105 (Japan); Kanauchi, Tetsu [Department of Radiology, Saitama Prefectural Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center, 1696 Itai, Kumagaya City, Saitama 360-0105 (Japan); Hoshi, Eishin [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Saitama Prefectural Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center, 1696 Itai, Kumagaya City, Saitama 360-0105 (Japan); Kurashima, Kazuyoshi [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Saitama Prefectural Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center, 1696 Itai, Kumagaya City, Saitama 360-0105 (Japan); Koyama, Shinichiro [Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Clinical Department of Internal Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Saitama Medical Center, Amanuma-cho, Omiya City, Saitama 330-8503 (Japan); Colby, Thomas V. [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, Scottsdale, AZ 85259 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of airspace enlargement with fibrosis (AEF), recently identified as a smoking related change. • Investigation was in 35 smokers. • They underwent lobectomy for lung cancer with pathological confirmation of AEF. • Multiple, thin-walled cysts are one of the HRCT features of AEF. - Abstract: Purpose: Airspace enlargement with fibrosis (AEF) has been identified pathologically as a smoking related change. We sought to identify the HRCT findings of AEF and search for distinguishing features from honeycombing. Materials and methods: 50 patients (47 males; mean age 69) were evaluated. All had undergone lobectomy for lung cancer and had confirmed AEF and/or usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) by pathological evaluation. HRCT findings were first evaluated preresection for resected lobes, and then correlated with the subsequent pathological findings in the resection specimens. Three groups were devised: one with AEF alone to determine the HRCT findings of AEF, a second with AEF and UIP and third with UIP alone. HRCT features of AEF and honeycombing were compared. Results: There were 11 patients (10 male; mean age 69) with AEF alone, 24 patients (22 male; mean age 69) with AEF and UIP, and 15 patients (15 male; mean age 68) with UIP alone. The HRCT on the AEF alone showed subpleural (but not abutting the pleura) multiple thin-walled cysts (MTWCs) in 7 and reticular opacities in 3. The HRCT in AEF and UIP showed MTWCs in 10, reticular opacities in 17; and honeycombing in 5. Among these 35 patients with the pathological finding of AEF (with or without UIP), 17 showed MTWCs. The maximum cyst wall thickness of MTWCs (mean 0.81 mm) was significantly thinner than that of honeycombing (mean 1.56 mm). MTWCs did not locate in lung base and was distant from the pleura. HRCT findings correlated with gross findings on both cysts and honeycombing. No MTWCs were seen in the 15 patients with UIP, 8 of 15 had

  20. Fidelity analysis of mechanically aided copying/enlarging of Jan van Eyck's Portrait of Niccolo Albergati

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, David G.; Duarte, Marco

    2007-01-01

    The contemporary artist David Hockney has hypothesized that some early Renaissance painters secretly projected optical images onto their supports (canvas, paper, oak panel, ...), directly traced these projections, and then filled in the tracings with paint[1]. Hockney has presented somewhat impressionistic image evidence for this claim, but he and thin-film physicist Charles Falco also point to perspective anomalies, to the fidelity of passages in certain paintings, and to historical documents in search of support for this direct tracing claim[2]. Key visual evidence adduced in support of this tracing claim is a pair of portraits by Jan van Eyck of Cardinal Niccolo Albergati - a small informal silverpoint study of 1431 and a slightly larger formal work in oil on panel of 1432. The contours in these two works bear striking resemblance in shape (after being appropriately scaled) and there are at least two "relative shifts" - passages that co-align well after a spatial shift of one of the images [2]. This evidence has led the theory's proponents to claim that van Eyck copied the silverpoint by means of an optical projector, or epidiascope, the relative shifts due to him accidentally bumping the setup during the copying. Previous tests of the tracing theory for these works considered four candidate methods van Eyck might have used to copied and enlarged the image in the silverpoint study: unaided ("by eye"), mechanical, grid, and the optical projection method itself [3]. Based on the full evidence, including the recent discovery of tiny pinprick holes in the silverpoint, reenactments, material culture and optical knowledge in the early 15th century, the mechanical method was judged most plausible and optical method the least plausible[3]. However, this earlier work did not adequately test whether a trained artist could "re-enact" the copying by mechanical methods: "Although we have not explicitly verified that high fidelities can be achieved through the use of a

  1. Bilateral subacute lacrimal gland enlargement mimicking dacryoadenitis in a 7-year-old boy: a rare adverse effect of valproic acid (sodium valproate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Christopher; Godoy, Flavia; Driessche, Koen Vanden

    2017-06-01

    A healthy 7-year-old boy presented with bilateral symmetrical lacrimal gland enlargement; a week later salivary gland enlargement was also noted. Clinical investigations suggested no diagnosis, and surgical biopsy was considered. Valproic acid (sodium valproate), which he was taking for absence seizures, has been reported to cause salivary gland swelling in adults. Suspecting that a similar mechanism could be causal, the drug was discontinued. Complete resolution of the lacrimal and salivary gland enlargement rapidly ensued. This is the first report of lacrimal gland enlargement caused by valproic acid. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. THE EUROPEAN BUSINESS CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignat Ion

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The construction of European Monetary Union has raised several questions about the existence of a common business cycle, a European one. The lack of cyclical synchronization would complicate the monetary and fiscal policies in the Union, being a negative

  3. European Home Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.

    2009-01-01

    An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes......An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes...

  4. European Industry, 1700 - 1870

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broadberry, Stephen; Fremdling, Rainer; Solar, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of the development of European industry between 1700 and 1870, drawing in particular on the recent literature that has emerged following the formation of the European Historical Economics Society in 1991. The approach thus makes use of economic analysis and quantitative

  5. The European Programme Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Anne; Bergman, E.; Ehlers, S.

    The publication is a result of a cooperation between organisations in six European countries with the aim to develop a common European education for programme managers. It contains of a description of the different elements of the education together with a number of case-studies from the counties...

  6. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2003-01-01

    The theme adressed by this paper is the opportunities for European Works Councils (EWCs) of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme adressed by this paper is the opportunities for European Works Councils (EWCs) of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  7. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2004-01-01

    The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  8. Introduction: European climate leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurzel, R.K.W.; Liefferink, J.D.; Connelly, J.

    2017-01-01

    There is no shortage of would-be leaders in EU climate change politics. The EU institutions (e.g. European Council, Council of the EU, Commission and the European Parliament (EP)), member states and societal actors have all, though to varying degrees and at different time periods, tried to offer

  9. Europeanization : A Poststructuralist Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuman-Stanivukovic, Senka

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation begins from the hypothesis that the direction and extent of Europeanization depends on domestic perception of the European Union and its norms. Accordingly, it was my empirical ambition to study how competing articulations of the EU and its norms constructed debates in EU member

  10. European media law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castendyk, O.; Dommering, E.; Scheuer, A.

    2008-01-01

    European Union legislation concerning electronic communications media is firmly established as an essential part of the law in the field in Europe. From relevant provisions of the European Convention of Human Rights and the EC Treaty to numerous directives, the most recent being the Audiovisual

  11. An enlarged parietal foramen in the late archaic Xujiayao 11 neurocranium from Northern China, and rare anomalies among Pleistocene Homo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Jie Wu

    Full Text Available We report here a neurocranial abnormality previously undescribed in Pleistocene human fossils, an enlarged parietal foramen (EPF in the early Late Pleistocene Xujiayao 11 parietal bones from the Xujiayao (Houjiayao site, northern China. Xujiayao 11 is a pair of partial posteromedial parietal bones from an adult. It exhibits thick cranial vault bones, arachnoid granulations, a deviated posterior sagittal suture, and a unilateral (right parietal lacuna with a posteriorly-directed and enlarged endocranial vascular sulcus. Differential diagnosis indicates that the perforation is a congenital defect, an enlarged parietal foramen, commonly associated with cerebral venous and cranial vault anomalies. It was not lethal given the individual's age-at-death, but it may have been associated with secondary neurological deficiencies. The fossil constitutes the oldest evidence in human evolution of this very rare condition (a single enlarged parietal foramen. In combination with developmental and degenerative abnormalities in other Pleistocene human remains, it suggests demographic and survival patterns among Pleistocene Homo that led to an elevated frequency of conditions unknown or rare among recent humans.

  12. Rapid destruction of the hip joint associated with enlarged iliopsoas bursa in a patient with refractory rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Taro; Tachihara, Akitoshi; Koyama, Tairo; Iwakawa, Kayo; Sakane, Manabu; Nakamura, Hiroshi

    2008-08-01

    A case of refractory rheumatoid arthritis with a rapid destruction of the hip joint and an enlarged iliopsoas bursa is presented. Rapidly destructive coxarthrosis, chondrocalcinosis, suppurative arthritis, and pigmented villonodular synovitis were the differential diagnoses. Radiological examination showed that rheumatoid arthritis was most likely diagnosis. The patient was treated with total hip arthroplasty and etanercept, with good results.

  13. The Impact of Globalization and Technology on Teaching Business Communication: Reframing and Enlarging World View, Methods, and Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Priscilla

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the current paradigm shift in the use of technology in the classroom, which is occurring because of technology explosion in society, impact of globalization, necessary reframing, and enlarging of the world view, methods, and content to make business communication classes relevant. The question is whether the classroom should…

  14. The Opening of Borders and Scientific Mobility: The Impact of EU Enlargement on the Movement of Early Career Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guth, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    This paper, based on extensive empirical work with Polish and Bulgarian scientists in Germany and the UK, examines the impact of the EU enlargement including the free movement of persons provisions on the mobility of scientists from Eastern to Western Europe. It focuses on early career researchers and particularly PhD candidates and begins by…

  15. What is the Role of Parental Leave policies in shaping Work and Care in the Enlarged EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the article is to examine the role of parental leave in shaping a mother's choice between work and care in the enlarged EU. A central question is how parental leave schemes affect mothers' employment and the occupational consequences for mothers who spend time on full-time caring...

  16. Nontumorous enlargement of the internal auditory canal. A risk factor for sensorineural hearing loss? A high resolution CT-study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stimmer, H.; Rummeny, E.J. [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Niedermeyer, H.P. [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). ENT-Clinic; Kehl, V. [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). Inst. for Medical Statistics and Epidemiology

    2015-06-15

    First aim of the study was to define normal shape and diameter of the internal auditory canal (IAC). In the second part the clinical relevance of IAC-enlargement was analyzed, considering also lesions of the subtle structures at the fundus of the internal auditory canal. 440 high resolution CT-scans of the temporal bone were used for retrospective analysis of the internal auditory canal and its fundus region. The mean value of the IAC diameter in axial and coronal plane was determined. In 20 of 440 patients IAC enlargement was found. In the group with pronounced enlargement (3fold SD) nearly all patients suffered from hearing impairment. In some of them we found structural abnormalities near the IAC fundus in the CSF/perilymph border zone. A new CT-based definition of normal shape and diameter of the internal auditory canal is presented. There is some evidence that a pathologic transmission of CSF-pressure in case of IAC-enlargement and/or abnormal fistulous communications could play an important role in the pathophysiology of hearing loss.

  17. Enlarged NT (≥3.5 mm) in the first trimester - Not all chromosome aberrations can be detected by NIPT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Srebniak (Malgorzata); M. De Wit (Meike); K.E.M. Diderich (Karin); L.C. Govaerts (Lutgarde); M. Joosten (Marieke); M.F.C.M. Knapen (Maarten); M.J. Bos (Marnix J.); G.A.G. Looye-Bruinsma (Gerda); M. Koningen (Mieke); A. Go (Attie); R-J.H. Galjaard (Robert-Jan); A.R.M. van Opstal (Diane)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ Since non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in maternal blood became available, we evaluated which chromosome aberrations found in our cohort of fetuses with an enlarged NT in the first trimester of pregnancy (tested with SNP microarray) could be detected by NIPT as

  18. Enlargement of the ampullary gland and seminal vesicle, but not the prostate in int-2/Fgf-3 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donjacour, A A; Thomson, A A; Cunha, G R

    1998-03-01

    Expression of the int2/Fgf-3 gene occurs during normal embryonic development and is associated with mammary cancer in mice. Overexpression of this gene under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat (MMTV-LTR) in males was reported to result in prostatic enlargement. In this report male Fgf-3-overexpressing mice were shown to have enlarged ampullary glands, seminal vesicles, and ductus deferens; there was extensive epithelial hyperplasia in the ampullary glands and seminal vesicles. The prostates of these animals were of normal size and histology. The transgene was expressed in all of the enlarged organs, which are derived exclusively from the Wolffian duct. Male secondary sex organs derived from the urogenital sinus, e.g., the ventral prostate, coagulating gland, and bulbourethral glands, were normal and did not express the MMTV-LTR-driven Fgf-3 transgene. A dorsolateral prostate was also morphologically normal but did express the transgene. This study underscores the importance of careful organ identification in transgenic models in which gross organ enlargement or distortion occurs. It also highlights the heterogeneity of the response to Fgf-3 among the secondary sex organs and even within the prostate itself.

  19. Secondary ion mass spectrometric signal enhancement of phosphatidylcholine dioleoyl on enlarged nanoparticles surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulin, A. [N.N. Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, RAS, Kosigin str. 4, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Mochalova, M. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Institutskii per. 9, Dolgoprudny, Moscow 141700 (Russian Federation); Denisov, N. [Institute of Problem of Chemical Physics, RAS, Semenov av. 1, Chernogolovka, 142432 (Russian Federation); Nadtochenko, V., E-mail: nadtochenko@gmail.com [N.N. Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, RAS, Kosigin str. 4, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Institutskii per. 9, Dolgoprudny, Moscow 141700 (Russian Federation); Institute of Problem of Chemical Physics, RAS, Semenov av. 1, Chernogolovka, 142432 (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • TOF-SIMS mass-spectra of DOPC lipid on enlarged nanoparticles surface were studied. • Metallic, semiconductor, dielectric and hybrid nanoparticles were examined. • Effect of nanoparticles on mass-spectral peaks intensity was investigated. • The highest signal enhancement of 42 times was found for hybrid core–shell Au/SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. - Abstract: A silicon wafer surface coverage of nanoparticles (NPs) can enhance the L-α-phosphatidylcholine dioleoyl (DOPC) signal intensity in time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). A ToF-SIMS mass spectrometer was used with a pulsed primary beam of focused 30 keV Bi{sub 3}{sup +} ions. The signal enhancing effect has been studied for metallic (Ag, Au, Pb), semiconductor (TiO{sub 2}), dielectric (SiO{sub 2}) and hybrid (Au/TiO{sub 2}NPs, core–shell Au/SiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles. Ag NPs can attenuate secondary ions signal, whereas all other studied NPs show the signal enhancement. The emission of DOPC lipid secondary ions immobilized on core–shell Au/SiO{sub 2}NPs was enhanced up to 42 times. This technique is a simple preparatory method enabling an overall increase in molecular lipid ions.

  20. 'The End of the Beginning' of Eastern Enlargement – Luxembourg Summit and Agenda-setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lykke Friis

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available The core argument of this article is that pre-negotiation matters. Policy problems are not just ‘out there’, but socially constructed. In order to comprehend the outcome of any negotiation it is therefore not sufficient just to look at the ‘give and take’ at the actual bargaining table, but also at the ‘negotiation to negotiate’. Furthermore, the article argues that pre-negotiation carves out a role for agenda-setting, seeing that governments often enter this phase with un-fixed preferences. These central points of the article are summed up in a theoretical framework, which stands out as a critique of liberal intergovernmentalism. On the basis of this framework the article sets out to analyse the pre-negotiation phase of eastern enlargement, the Luxembourg Summit. Its key conclusion is that the majority of the governments entered this ‘game’ searching for their preferences and that this enabled both the Commission and two smaller states to influence the outcome by setting the agenda in a specific way.

  1. Vascular wall flow-induced forces in a progressively enlarged aneurysm model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neofytou, Panagiotis; Tsangaris, Sokrates; Kyriakidis, Michalis

    2008-12-01

    The current study is focused on the numerical investigation of the flow field induced by the unsteady flow in the vicinity of an abdominal aortic aneurysm model. The computational fluid dynamics code used is based on the finite volume method, and it has already been used in various bioflow studies. For modelling the rheological behaviour of blood, the Quemada non-Newtonian model is employed, which is suitable for simulating the two-phase character of blood namely a suspension of blood cells in plasma. For examining its non-Newtonian effects a comparison with a corresponding Newtonian flow is carried out. Furthermore, the investigation is focused on the distribution of the flow-induced forces on the interior wall of the aneurysm and in order to study the development of the distribution with the gradual enlargement of the aneurysm, three different degrees of aneurysm-growth have been assumed. Finally and for examining the effect of the distribution on the aneurysm growth, a comparison is made between the pressure and wall shear-stress distributions at the wall for each growth-degree.

  2. Patch-clamp technique to characterize ion channels in enlarged individual endolysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Chang; Cang, Chunlei; Fenske, Stefanie; Butz, Elisabeth; Chao, Yu-Kai; Biel, Martin; Ren, Dejian; Wahl-Schott, Christian; Grimm, Christian

    2017-08-01

    According to proteomics analyses, more than 70 different ion channels and transporters are harbored in membranes of intracellular compartments such as endosomes and lysosomes. Malfunctioning of these channels has been implicated in human diseases such as lysosomal storage disorders, neurodegenerative diseases and metabolic pathologies, as well as in the progression of certain infectious diseases. As a consequence, these channels have engendered very high interest as future drug targets. Detailed electrophysiological characterization of intracellular ion channels is lacking, mainly because standard methods to analyze plasma membrane ion channels, such as the patch-clamp technique, are not readily applicable to intracellular organelles. Here we present a protocol detailing how to implement a manual patch-clamp technique for endolysosomal compartments. In contrast to the alternatively used planar endolysosomal patch-clamp technique, this method is a visually controlled, direct patch-clamp technique similar to conventional patch-clamping. The protocol assumes basic knowledge and experience with patch-clamp methods. Implementation of the method requires up to 1 week, and material preparation takes ∼2-4 d. An individual experiment (i.e., measurement of channel currents across the endolysosomal membrane), including control experiments, can be completed within 1 h. This excludes the time for endolysosome enlargement, which takes between 1 and 48 h, depending on the approach and cell type used. Data analysis requires an additional hour.

  3. Enlarged temporal integration window in schizophrenia indicated by the double-flash illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haß, Katharina; Sinke, Christopher; Reese, Tanya; Roy, Mandy; Wiswede, Daniel; Dillo, Wolfgang; Oranje, Bob; Szycik, Gregor R

    2017-03-01

    In the present study we were interested in the processing of audio-visual integration in schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. The amount of sound-induced double-flash illusions served as an indicator of audio-visual integration. We expected an altered integration as well as a different window of temporal integration for patients. Fifteen schizophrenia patients and 15 healthy volunteers matched for age and gender were included in this study. We used stimuli with eight different temporal delays (stimulus onset asynchronys (SOAs) 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 200 and 300 ms) to induce a double-flash illusion. Group differences and the widths of temporal integration windows were calculated on percentages of reported double-flash illusions. Patients showed significantly more illusions (ca. 36-44% vs. 9-16% in control subjects) for SOAs 150-300. The temporal integration window for control participants went from SOAs 25 to 200 whereas for patients integration was found across all included temporal delays. We found no significant relationship between the amount of illusions and either illness severity, chlorpromazine equivalent doses or duration of illness in patients. Our results are interpreted in favour of an enlarged temporal integration window for audio-visual stimuli in schizophrenia patients, which is consistent with previous research.

  4. Cochlear implantation in patients with enlarged vestibular aqueduct. A case series with literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarós, Pedro; Fokouo, Jean Valentin F; Clarós, Andrés

    2017-05-01

    To report our institutional experience of the management of patients with enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) and compare it to the literature. We carried out a retrospective review of patients' records from 1993 to 2015. The age, sex, associated malformations, relevant past medical history, genetic screening results, possible surgical incident, implant model and duration of follow- up, outcome in terms of Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP scores), and integration or resuming mainstream school or work were recorded. We had 11 patients (six boys and five girls) with EVA who underwent cochlear implant surgery in our center during the 22-year study period, out of a total of 827 implanted (1.3%). The mean age at surgery was 8.9 years ranging from 0.6 to 35 years. EVA was bilateral in 10 cases, isolated anatomical finding in seven cases, and associated with other malformations in four. Cochlear implantation was bilateral in five cases and unilateral in six. The mean follow- up duration was 48.3 months (range: 3-120). No postoperative complication was observed and all the patients could regain a serviceable hearing, attending normal school and working normally. EVA is frequently observed in the deaf population without an identifiable cause. The hearing loss is usually progressive and may result in cochlear implantation which has proved its efficiency in rehabilitating EVA patients.

  5. Photodynamic therapy of choroidal neovascularization with enlargement of the spot size to include the feeding complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Georgalas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ilias Georgalas, Alexandros A Rouvas, Dimitrios A Karagiannis, Athanasios I Kotsolis, Ioannis D LadasDepartment of Ophthalmology, Medical School of Athens University, Athens, GreeceAbstract: This is a case report of a 83-year-old man with choroidal neovascularization (CNV, due to age-related macular degeneration (AMD in his right eye. Digital fluorescein (FA and indocyanine green angiography (ICG were performed, which disclosed predominantly classic subfoveal CNV and a dilated and tortuous feeding complex. The visual acuity was 20/800. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF treatment was suggested, however, the patient was not keen to receive an intraocular injection. Modified photodynamic therapy (PDT with spot size enlarged, to include not only the CNV lesion but the feeding complex as well, was performed. Ten days after one session of PDT, ICG showed absence of leakage from the CNV and complete occlusion of the feeding complex. The visual acuity gradually improved to 20/100 and remained stable during the following 23 months. No evidence of CNV leakage was seen in the FA and ICG during the follow up period. Adjustment of the PDT spot size to include the detectable by ICG feeding complex might be an additional option in order to close the subfoveal CNV and might be considered as an alternative to intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF in selected cases where anti-VEGF treatment is not available.Keywords: age-related macular degeneration, choroidal neovascularization, photodynamic treatment, feeder vessel

  6. Enlargement of the pancreas in non-alcoholic cirrhosis: a computed tomography and pathological investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muranaka, Toru [Dept. of Radiology, National Fukuoka Central Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Kato, Akira [Dept. of Radiology, National Fukuoka Central Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Matsuura, Yasuo [Dept. of Radiology, National Fukuoka Central Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Hanada, Kiyohiko [Dept. of Radiology, National Fukuoka Central Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Nakano, Itsuro [Dept. of Internal Medicine, National Fukuoka Central Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Yoshida, Takahisa [Dept. of Pathology, National Fukuoka Central Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Toda, Takeji [Dept. of Internal Medicine, National Fukuoka Central Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Oshiumi, Yoshihiko [Dept. of Radiology, National Fukuoka Central Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1992-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of hepatic dysfunction on pancreatic morphology, the antero-posterior width of the pancreas was measured by CT in 50 non-alcoholic cirrhotic patients without pancreatic disease and 221 age- and sex-matched normal controls. In addition, we reviewed the histology of the pancreas from 13 autopsies of the cirrhotics and 13 controls. The mean width of the pancreatic head in the cirrhotics was 2.94{+-}0.34 cm (mean {+-} SD), which was significantly larger than that in the controls (2.17{+-}0.32 cm) (P<0.001). The width of the pancreatic body in the cirrhotics was also significantly greater than in the controls (1.95{+-}0.24 cm versus 1.50{+-}0.30 cm) (P < 0.001). Histological investigation revealed that lipomatosis and fibrosis increased with age in the controls, while they were seldom observed in the cirrhotics. And enlargement of acinar cells or of the islets of Langerhans was often seen in the cirrhotics. These data suggested that advanced liver dysfunction provoked pancreatic growth, probably through a trophic effect. (orig.)

  7. Retinoschisis and macular detachment associated with acquired enlarged optic disc cup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno-López M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available María Moreno-López, Julio José González-López, Elena Jarrín, Josefina BertrandOphthalmology Department, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, SpainAbstract: We describe a case of maculopathy consisting of macular retinoschisis and serous macular detachment occurring in a patient with an acquired enlarged optic disc cup, similar to the maculopathy observed in congenital optic nerve abnormalities, mainly optic nerve pits and colobomas, without vitreomacular traction nor angiographic leak. Pars plana vitrectomy with argon laser endophotocoagulation and gas tamponade was found to be useful. Traction from membranes covering deep optic disc cups may create small retinal dehiscences, as described in congenital optic nerve abnormalities, which will enable the liquefied vitreous to pass, leading to retinoschisis with or without associated neurosensory detachment. Vitrectomy, photocoagulation, and gas tamponade may be a useful therapy for this entity.Keywords: glaucoma, macular detachment, macular surgery, optic disc, retinoschisis

  8. Dietary restriction during development enlarges intestinal and hypodermal lipid droplets in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Palgunow

    Full Text Available Dietary restriction (DR extends lifespan in man species and modulates evolutionary conserved signalling and metabolic pathways. Most of these studies were done in adult animals. Here we investigated fat phenotypes of C. elegans larvae and adults which were exposed to DR during development. This approach was named "developmental-DR" (dDR. Moderate as well as stringent dDR increased the triglyceride to protein ratio in L4 larvae and adult worms. This alteration was accompanied by a marked expansion of intestinal and hypodermal lipid droplets. In comparison to ad libitum condition, the relative proportion of fat stored in large lipid droplets (>50 µm(3 was increased by a factor of about 5 to 6 in larvae exposed to dDR. Microarray-based expression profiling identified several dDR-regulated genes of lipolysis and lipogenesis which may contribute to the observed fat phenotypes. In conclusion, dDR increases the triglyceride to protein ratio, enlarges lipid droplets and alters the expression of genes functioning in lipid metabolism in C. elegans. These changes might be an effective adaptation to conserve fat stores in animals subjected to limiting food supply during development.

  9. Lower Temperature Cultures Enlarge the Effects of Vitreoscilla Hemoglobin Expression on Recombinant Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chang Fu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An heterologous expression of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb for improving cell growth and recombinant protein production has been successfully demonstrated in various hosts, including Pichia pastoris. Lower temperature cultures can enhance target protein production in some studies of P. pastoris. In this study, the strategy of combining heterologous VHb expression and lower temperature cultures in P. pastoris showed that final cell density and viability of VHb+ strain at 23 °C were higher than that at 30 °C. In addition, the effects of VHb expression on recombinant β-galactosidase production and oxygen uptake rate were also higher at 23 °C than at 30 °C. Consequently, lower temperature cultures can enlarge VHb effectiveness on cell performance of P. pastoris. This is because VHb activity obtained at 23 °C cultures was twofold higher than that at 30 °C cultures, due to a different heme production. This strategy makes P. pastoris an excellent expression host particularly suitable for increasing the yields of the low-stability and aggregation-prone recombinant proteins.

  10. Theoretical Background and Methodology of Senior Preschoolers’ Enlargement of the Vocabulary by Means of Phraseological Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mysan Inna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of preschoolers’ development of speech by means of phraseological units. It reveals their importance for children’s mental development, in particular emphasises that the most striking verges of the child’s language are reflected in its means of expression, that is, in phraseology. They make the language varied, expressive, emotional, vivid, figurative, deepen its ethno-cultural identity; offered are the results of the analysis of children’s speech on listening and use of phraseological units in oral speech. By taking into account the data on specific features of perception, understanding and use of phraseological units in the statements of children are represented the methods of work on phraseology in kindergarten based on the following assumptions: on timely and methodically correct implementation of work on phraseological units will depend speech and mental development of the preschool children because at this age, they begin to comprehend figurative meanings of words and master the process of meanings changing. In addition, at this age period, the child’s vocabulary is sufficiently formed to acquire the wealth and national characteristics of the native language, as well as expressive and aesthetic functions that perform phraseological units. Methodic contains and reveals its components such as: principles, goals, objectives, contents, methods, organisational forms and means of enlarging the vocabulary (impressive and expressive with phraseological expressions.

  11. Enlargement of Traffic Information Coverage Area Using Selective Imputation of Floating Car Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Masatoshi; Hiruta, Tomoaki; Fushiki, Takumi; Yokota, Takayoshi

    This paper discusses a real-time imputation method for sparse floating car data (FCD.) Floating cars are effective way to collect traffic information; however, because of the limitation of the number of floating cars, there is a large amount of missing data with FCD. In an effort to address this problem, we previously proposed a new imputation method based on feature space projection. The method consists of three major processes: (i) determination of a feature space from past FCD history; (ii) feature space projection of current FCD; and (iii) estimation of missing data performed by inverse projection from the feature space. Since estimation is achieved on each feature space axis that represents the spatial correlated component of FCD, it performs an accurate imputation and enlarges information coverage area. However, correlation difference among multiple road-links sometimes causes a trade-off problem between the accuracy and the coverage. Therefore, we developed an additional function in order to filter the road-links that have low correlation with the others. The function uses spectral factorization as filtering index, which is suitable to evaluate the correlation on the multidimensional feature space. Combination use of the imputation method and the filtering function decreases maximum estimation error-rate from 0.39 to 0.24, keeping 60% coverage area against sparse FCD of 15% observations.

  12. CHALLENGES OF THE PATH TOWARDS AN ENLARGED EUROPE: SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE - INEQUALITY AND SOCIAL EXCLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Oneasca

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available “Challenges of the path towards an enlarged Europe: South Eastern Europe” is a series of articles dedicated to support the improvement of the national strategies for mitigating poverty and promoting social inclusion. It aims to make a better use of existing theories and studies, as well as of the national experiences and to support the co-operation on these topics between the transition countries in the region. This paper opens the series of articles, introducing the inequality and social exclusion problem. An overview of the issue is presented and the challenge of the path towards EU integration is analysed with a strong political focus. The main assistance programmes are identified and the challenge termed: regional learning process on a common social inclusion strategy. Sharing the transition and accession experiences in the region helps countries to strengthen the strategic dimension of their policies. It is a political project that takes into account the density of the developed strategic frameworks and the diversity of social economic trends and traditions in the region. It also considers the proximity of the EU and the transition and accession experience of its member states in the region. General policy guidance and some practical rules of the thumb shed some light on policy recommendations.

  13. Channel erosion in a rapidly urbanizing region of Tijuana, Mexico: Enlargement downstream of channel hardpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Kristine; Biggs, Trent; Langendoen, Eddy; Castillo, Carlos; Gudiño, Napoleon; Yuan, Yongping; Liden, Douglas

    2016-04-01

    Urban-induced erosion in Tijuana, Mexico, has led to excessive sediment deposition in the Tijuana Estuary in the United States. Urban areas in developing countries, in contrast to developed countries, are characterized by much lower proportions of vegetation and impervious surfaces due to limited access to urban services such as road paving and landscaping, and larger proportions of exposed soils. In developing countries, traditional watershed scale variables such as impervious surfaces may not be good predictors of channel enlargement. In this research, we surveyed the stream channel network of an erodible tributary of the Tijuana River Watershed, Los Laureles Canyon, at 125 locations, including repeat surveys from 2008. Structure from Motion (SfM) and 3D photo-reconstruction techniques were used to create digital terrain models of stream reaches upstream and downstream of channel hardpoints. Channels are unstable downstream of hardpoints, with incision up to 2 meters and widening up to 12 meters. Coordinated channelization is essential to avoid piece-meal approaches that lead to channel degradation. Watershed impervious area is not a good predictor of channel erosion due to the overriding importance of hardpoints and likely to the high sediment supply from the unpaved roads which prevents channel erosion throughout the stream network.

  14. Analysis of diet optimization models for enabling conditions for hypertrophic muscle enlargement in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Matijević

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study mathematical models were created and used in diet optimization for an athlete – recreational bodybuilder for pretournament period. The main aim was to determine weekly menus that can enable conditions for the hypertrophic muscle enlargement and to reduce the fat mass in a body. Each daily offer was planned to contain six to seven meals but with respect to several user’s personal demands. Optimal carbohydrates, fat and protein ratio in diet for enabling hypertrophy, recommended in literature, was found to be 43:30:27 and was chosen as the target in this research. Variables included in models were presented dishes and constraints, observed values of the offers; price, mass of consumed food, energy, water and content of different nutrients. The general idea was to create the models and to compare different programs in solving a problem. LINDO and MS Excel were recognized as widely spread and were chosen for model testing and examination. Both programs were suggested weekly menus that were acceptable to the user and were met all recommendations and demands. Weekly menus were analysed and compared. Sensitivity tests from both programs were used to detect possible critical points in the menu. Used programs produced slightly different results but still with very high correlation between proposed weekly intakes (R2=0.99856, p<0.05 so both can be successfully used in the pretournament period of bodybuilding and recommended for this complex task.

  15. Lower temperature cultures enlarge the effects of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin expression on recombinant Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jyh-Ming; Wang, Shin-Yao; Fu, Wei-Chang

    2012-10-15

    An heterologous expression of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb) for improving cell growth and recombinant protein production has been successfully demonstrated in various hosts, including Pichia pastoris. Lower temperature cultures can enhance target protein production in some studies of P. pastoris. In this study, the strategy of combining heterologous VHb expression and lower temperature cultures in P. pastoris showed that final cell density and viability of VHb+ strain at 23 °C were higher than that at 30 °C. In addition, the effects of VHb expression on recombinant β-galactosidase production and oxygen uptake rate were also higher at 23 °C than at 30 °C. Consequently, lower temperature cultures can enlarge VHb effectiveness on cell performance of P. pastoris. This is because VHb activity obtained at 23 °C cultures was twofold higher than that at 30 °C cultures, due to a different heme production. This strategy makes P. pastoris an excellent expression host particularly suitable for increasing the yields of the low-stability and aggregation-prone recombinant proteins.

  16. CREB Regulates Experience-Dependent Spine Formation and Enlargement in Mouse Barrel Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabella Pignataro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experience modifies synaptic connectivity through processes that involve dendritic spine rearrangements in neuronal circuits. Although cAMP response element binding protein (CREB has a key function in spines changes, its role in activity-dependent rearrangements in brain regions of rodents interacting with the surrounding environment has received little attention so far. Here we studied the effects of vibrissae trimming, a widely used model of sensory deprivation-induced cortical plasticity, on processes associated with dendritic spine rearrangements in the barrel cortex of a transgenic mouse model of CREB downregulation (mCREB mice. We found that sensory deprivation through prolonged whisker trimming leads to an increased number of thin spines in the layer V of related barrel cortex (Contra in wild type but not mCREB mice. In the barrel field controlling spared whiskers (Ipsi, the same trimming protocol results in a CREB-dependent enlargement of dendritic spines. Last, we demonstrated that CREB regulates structural rearrangements of synapses that associate with dynamic changes of dendritic spines. Our findings suggest that CREB plays a key role in dendritic spine dynamics and synaptic circuits rearrangements that account for new brain connectivity in response to changes in the environment.

  17. Does debulking of enlarged positive lymph nodes improve survival in different gynaecological cancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somashekhar, S P

    2015-08-01

    Lymph-node-positive gynaecological cancers remain a pharmacotherapeutic challenge, and patients with lymph-node-positive gynaecological cancers have poor survival. The purpose of this review is to determine whether a survival advantage arises from surgical debulking of enlarged positive lymph nodes in different types of gynaecological cancers. Information from studies published on the survival benefits from debulking lymph nodes in gynaecological cancers was investigated. Pertaining to therapeutic lymphadenectomy, survival benefit can be analysed in two ways, direct survival benefit following therapeutic lymphadenectomy of bulky positive metastatic lymph nodes and indirect survival benefit, which results after a sequela of systematic lymphadenectomy, proper, accurate staging of disease and stage migration and tailor-made adjuvant treatment. The direct hypothesis of therapeutic lymphadenectomy and survival benefit has been prospected in cervical cancers and vulval cancers and in post-chemotherapy residual paraarotic nodal mass in germ cell ovarian cancer. The indirect survival benefit of therapeutic paraarotic lymphadenectomy in high-risk endometrial cancers and advanced epithelial ovarian cancers needs to be tested in randomized controlled trials. More randomized controlled trials are required to investigate this research question. Further, indirect benefit due to tailor-made adjuvant treatment, secondary to accurate staging achieved as a sequela of systematic lymphadenectomy, needs to be analysed in future trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. INFORMATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS CONCERNING THE ENLARGED G8 SUMMIT MEETING AT EVIAN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Despite the difficulties that CERN might encounter, the Organization will pursue its activities for the duration of the G8 Summit Meeting. The Management and Division leaders will take the necessary steps to ensure the proper functioning of the Organization, while taking account of the aforementioned difficulties. The Swiss and French authorities have informed CERN of the following general security and traffic arrangements associated with the enlarged G8 summit: a) Road traffic Between 22 May and 6 June traffic on certain roads in the Canton of Geneva (notably on the left bank) and in neighbouring France (mainly Haute-Savoie) will be disrupted and, in some cases, roads closed. As far as border crossings between 22 May and 4 June are concerned, the frontier posts will be divided into three categories (see map): - posts closed to all traffic (diversion signs will be in place), - posts open at certain times, - posts open at all times. N.B. : the road from Prévessin to Mategnin will be closed and traffic div...

  19. Risk of extrathyroid tumors following radiation treatment in infancy for thymic enlargement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildreth, N.G.; Shore, R.E.; Hempelmann, L.M.; Rosenstein, M.

    1985-06-01

    Two thousand eight hundred and fifty-six individuals who received X-ray treatments in infancy for an enlarged thymus gland and their 5053 nonirradiated siblings have been followed prospectively since 1953 to evaluate the risk of radiation-induced neoplastic disease. Based on the cumulative experience of five surveys of this cohort, the irradiated group has a statistically significant increased risk for both benign and malignant extrathyroid tumors, the age-adjusted relative risks being 2.0 and 2.2, respectively. Benign tumors of the bone, nervous system, salivary gland, skin, and breast (females only) and malignant tumors of the skin and breast (females only) account for the excess incidence of extrathyroid tumors among the thymic-irradiated individuals. Although a radiation-induced excess of extrathyroid tumors was suggested in an earlier survey of this cohort, small numbers restricted attribution of this excess to specific sites. The implications of these findings are discussed. Thyroid tumors are addressed in a separate paper.

  20. Left Atrial Enlargement in Young High-Level Endurance Athletes – Another Sign of Athlete’s Heart?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Król Wojciech

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Enlargement of the left atrium is perceived as a part of athlete’s heart syndrome, despite the lack of evidence. So far, left atrial size has not been assessed in the context of exercise capacity. The hypothesis of the present study was that LA enlargement in athletes was physiological and fitness-related condition. In addition, we tried to assess the feasibility and normal values of left atrial strain parameters and their relationship with other signs of athlete’s heart. The study group consisted of 114 international-level rowers (17.5 ± 1.5 years old; 46.5% women. All participants underwent a cardio-pulmonary exercise test and resting transthoracic echocardiography. Beside standard echocardiographic measurements, two dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography was used to assess average peak atrial longitudinal strain, peak atrial contraction strain and early left atrial diastolic longitudinal strain. Mild, moderate and severe left atrial enlargement was present in 27.2°%, 11.4% and 4.4% athletes, respectively. There were no significant differences between subgroups with different range of left atrial enlargement in any of echocardiographic parameters of the left ventricle diastolic function, filling pressure or hypertrophy. A significant correlation was found between the left atrial volume index and maximal aerobic capacity (R > 0.3; p < 0.001. Left atrial strain parameters were independent of atrial size, left ventricle hypertrophy and left ventricle filling pressure. Decreased peak atrial longitudinal strain was observed in 4 individuals (3.5%. We concluded that LA enlargement was common in healthy, young athletes participating in endurance sport disciplines with a high level of static exertion and was strictly correlated with exercise capacity, therefore, could be perceived as another sign of athlete’s heart.

  1. Tax Shift by Economic Functions and Its Effect on Economic Growth in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Szarowská

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to examine effects of tax shift on economic growth and provide a direct empirical evidence in the European Union (EU. It is used the Eurostat’s definition to categorize tax burden by economic functions and implicit tax rates of consumption, labour and capital are investigated. First, paper summarizes main development of tax shift in a whole EU till 2014 and followed empirical analysis is based on annual panel data of 22 EU Member States in years 1995–2012 (time span is divided into a pre-crisis and a post-crisis period. Explanatory variables are not examined in individual regressions, but the study uses Generalized Method of Moments applied on dynamic panel data and estimations are based on Arellan-Bond estimator (1991. Results confirm positive and statistically significant impact of consumption taxes and weaker but negative effect of labour taxation on economic growth. In a post-crisis period, findings report raising labour taxes as the strongest and the only significant variable. It suggests that harmful effect of labour taxation is enlarging in a time of unfavorable economic conditions. A tax shift on capital taxation has negative but often statistically insignificant impact on economic growth.

  2. Increasing the effective aperture of a detector and enlarging the receiving field of view in a 3D imaging lidar system through hexagonal prism beam splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Xiaobao; Wang, Xiaoyi; Cui, Tianxiang; Wang, Chunhui; Li, Yunxi; Li, Hailong; Wang, Qi

    2016-07-11

    The detector in a highly accurate and high-definition scanning 3D imaging lidar system requires high frequency bandwidth and sufficient photosensitive area. To solve the problem of small photosensitive area of an existing indium gallium arsenide detector with a certain frequency bandwidth, this study proposes a method for increasing the receiving field of view (FOV) and enlarging the effective photosensitive aperture of such detector through hexagonal prism beam splitting. The principle and construction of hexagonal prism beam splitting is also discussed in this research. Accordingly, a receiving optical system with two hexagonal prisms is provided and the splitting beam effect of the simulation experiment is analyzed. Using this novel method, the receiving optical system's FOV can be improved effectively up to ±5°, and the effective photosensitive aperture of the detector is increased from 0.5 mm to 1.5 mm.

  3. How much room is left for European gas incumbents?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwark, Bastian

    2007-07-01

    In the context of the liberalization of the European natural gas market former monopolists face a challenge to react to market opening by realigning their strategies. Three major groups of companies can be identified that are capable to influence the European gas market significantly each with a distinctive competitive advantage. They consist of the historical gas incumbents, the power incumbents moving into gas as well as the integrated oil and gas producers moving downwards the supply chain by enlarging their supply division. The aim of the paper is to identify the strategic opportunities of the aforementioned three groups and to asses their success. The analysis is done by means of 22 selected companies that are highly active in the EU gas market. An assessment of their market data and comparisons between the three groups will be done. The firms will be matched according to the potential strategic groups and an outlook given in terms of the development of competition in the European gas market. The results sustain the assumption that the playing field for European gas incumbents is going to decrease as both electricity incumbents and integrated oil and gas producers have significant competitive advantages in their potential moves. (auth)

  4. The European XFEL Project

    CERN Document Server

    Trunk, U

    2008-01-01

    The European XFEL project is a 4th generation photon source to be built in Hamburg. Electron bunches, accelerated to 17.5GeV by the XFEL linac, are distributed to three long SASE undulators. There photon pulses with full lateral coherence and wavelengths between 0.1nm and 4.9nm (12.4 keV and 0.8 keV) are generated for three beamlines. It will deliver around 1012photons within each 100 fs pulse, reaching a peak brilliance of 1033photonss−1mm−2mrad−2(0.1%BW)−1. Thus it will offer unprecedented possibilities in photon science research including nano-object imaging and studies (e.g. by coherent X-ray scattering) and ultra fast dynamic analysis of plasma and chemical reactions (e.g. by X-ray photo correlation spectroscopy). The detector requirements for such studies are extremely challenging: position sensitive area detectors have to provide a dynamic range of ≥ 104, with single-photon sensitivity, while withstanding radiation doses up to 1GGy (TID). Furthermore the detectors have to record data from tra...

  5. Benchmarking & European Sustainable Transport Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    2003-01-01

    to support Sustainable European Transport Policies. The key message is that transport benchmarking has not yet been developed to cope with the challenges of this task. Rather than backing down completely, the paper suggests some critical conditions for applying and adopting benchmarking for this purpose. One...... way forward is to ensure a higher level of environmental integration in transport policy benchmarking. To this effect the paper will discuss the possible role of the socalled Transport and Environment Reporting Mechanism developed by the European Environment Agency. The paper provides an independent......, Benchmarking is one of the management tools that have recently been introduced in the transport sector. It is rapidly being applied to a wide range of transport operations, services and policies. This paper is a contribution to the discussion of the role of benchmarking in the future efforts...

  6. Update of European bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2015-01-01

    , the principles of autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability are proposed as the most important ethical principles for respect for the human person in biomedical and biotechnological development. This approach to bioethics and biolaw is presented here in a short updated version that integrates the earlier......This paper presents an update of the research on European bioethics undertaken by the author together with Professor Peter Kemp since the 1990s, on Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. In this European approach to basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw...... research in a presentation of the present understanding of the basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw....

  7. Democratic Citizenship: European referents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María PUIG GUTIÉRREZ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Let’s sense beforehand in this article a tour concerning the educational European policies that favors the development of a democratic citizenship. The aim that we chase is to understand the way in which nowadays it is being interpreted and stimulated the Citizenship education from European Union. for it we offer a conceptual delimiting of «Citizenship education» and later, we show an analysis of the principal documents and materials elaborated principally by the Council of Europe that mark the way followed by European Union as for education for Democratic Citizenship (EDC.

  8. European Accreditation of Public Health Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Otok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Agency for Accreditation in Public Health Education (APHEA was launched in 2011. This followed nearly two decades of efforts in a variety of programmes supported by international donor agencies, and others that provided experience and field testing of peer review systems for schools of public health in Europe. The Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER Public Health Education European Review (PEER project, devised with the aid of WHO EURO in the early 1990s and later by the Open Society Institute (OSI within the framework of a joint ASPHER-OSI Program from 2000-2005, helped to develop a cadre of expertise on the process of international peer review and standards that are compatible with a full accreditation process.The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the background, criteria and current pilot phase of European accreditation for the Master of Public Health degree and equivalent study programmes. Undergoing the accreditation process will help longstanding and new schools review their programmes to meet new European accreditation system standards and provide students, graduates and potential employers with confidence in the future acceptability of their credentials. The new accreditation agency was established by a consortium of European public health organisations and represents a new phase for development of standards and quality of education systems in Europe to face the challenges of workforce development for a “New Public Health” era in the 21st century.

  9. How Europe Matters. Different Mechanisms of Europeanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Lehmkuhl

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available While much has been written about the European Union (EU, most of the scholarly work is concerned with the developments at the European level. It is only recently, that we observe increasing attempts to address this research deficit. Notwithstanding a growing number of studies explicitly concerned with the Europeanization of domestic institutions, we still lack consistent and systematic concepts to account for the varying patterns of institutional adjustment across countries and policy sectors. In order to arrive at a more general understanding of the domestic impact of European policy-making, this paper provides a more comprehensive explanatory framework. We distinguish three types of European policy-making, namely positive integration, negative integration, and what might be called "framing" integration, which are characterized by distinctive mechanisms of Europeanization, and hence require distinctive approaches in order to explain their domestic impact. We argue that it is the specific mechanism, rather than the nominal category of the policy area that is the most important factor to be taken into account when investigating the domestic impact of varying European policies.

  10. European Non Destructive Examination Forum (ENDEF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deffrennes, M. [EC, DG XVII, Nuclear Energy, Brussels (Belgium); Engl, G. [Siemens AG Energieerzeugung KWU, Erlangen (Germany); Estorff, U. von [EC, JRC/IAM, Petten (Netherlands)

    1998-11-01

    ENDEF, an initiative of the European Commission, DG XVII (Energy) was well supported by the European industrial institutions working in assistance with nuclear industrial organisations in the CEEC`s (Central and Eastern European Countries) and NIS`s (New Independent States). This Forum provides effectively a platform for open discussion between representatives of industrial actors active in the NDE (Non Destructive Examination)/ISI (In Service Inspection) field with the purpose to establish a co-operation pattern between qualified representatives of the EU (European Union) industry to offer a better co-ordinated and well defined assistance to the CEEC`s and NIS in the field of NDE/ISI, and to lay the ground for further industrial co-operation. ENDEF developed a strategy to follow for the establishment of co-operation projects. This strategy is now used to understand the extent of past or present assistance projects and to identify the areas where more co-operation is needed. ENDEF encourages the creation in the NIS`s and CEEC`s of similar forums in order to increase the co-operation and co-ordination. ENDEF is also working in perfect agreement with the European Network ENIQ, piloted by the European plant operators. This identity of views lead to the leadership by the ENDEF co-ordinator of the ENIQ Task 3 involving Applications of the European Methodology for ISI qualification in the CEEC`s and NIS`s and presently fully integrated in ENDEF. (orig.)

  11. Unilateral Versus Bilateral Prostatic Arterial Embolization for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Patients with Prostate Enlargement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilhim, Tiago, E-mail: tiagobilhim@hotmail.com [Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Departamento Universitario de Anatomia, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas (FCM) (Portugal); Pisco, Joao; Rio Tinto, Hugo; Fernandes, Lucia [Interventional Radiology, Saint Louis Hospital (Portugal); Campos Pinheiro, Luis [Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Departamento Universitario de Urologia, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas (FCM) (Portugal); Duarte, Marisa; Pereira, Jose A. [Interventional Radiology, Saint Louis Hospital (Portugal); Oliveira, Antonio G. [Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Biostatistics Department, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas (FCM) (Portugal); O' Neill, Joao [Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Departamento Universitario de Anatomia, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas (FCM) (Portugal)

    2013-04-15

    This study was designed to compare baseline data and clinical outcome between patients with prostate enlargement/benign prostatic hyperplasia (PE/BPH) who underwent unilateral and bilateral prostatic arterial embolization (PAE) for the relief of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This single-center, ambispective cohort study compared 122 consecutive patients (mean age 66.7 years) with unilateral versus bilateral PAE from March 2009 to December 2011. Selective PAE was performed with 100- and 200-{mu}m nonspherical polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles by a unilateral femoral approach. Bilateral PAE was performed in 103 (84.4 %) patients (group A). The remaining 19 (15.6 %) patients underwent unilateral PAE (group B). Mean follow-up time was 6.7 months in group A and 7.3 months in group B. Mean prostate volume, PSA, International prostate symptom score/quality of life (IPSS/QoL) and post-void residual volume (PVR) reduction, and peak flow rate (Qmax) improvement were 19.4 mL, 1.68 ng/mL, 11.8/2.0 points, 32.9 mL, and 3.9 mL/s in group A and 11.5 mL, 1.98 ng/mL, 8.9/1.4 points, 53.8 mL, and 4.58 mL/s in group B. Poor clinical outcome was observed in 24.3 % of patients from group A and 47.4 % from group B (p = 0.04). PAE is a safe and effective technique that can induce 48 % improvement in the IPSS score and a prostate volume reduction of 19 %, with good clinical outcome in up to 75 % of treated patients. Bilateral PAE seems to lead to better clinical results; however, up to 50 % of patients after unilateral PAE may have a good clinical outcome.

  12. Left atrial enlargement increases the risk of major adverse cardiac events independent of coronary vasodilator capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Angela S. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); National Heart Centre Singapore, Singapore (Singapore); Murthy, Venkatesh L.; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Gayed, Peter; Bruyere, John; Di Carli, Marcelo F. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Wu, Justina [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, and the Noninvasive Cardiovascular Imaging Program, Departments of Medicine (Cardiology) and Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Dorbala, Sharmila [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and the Division of Cardiology, Noninvasive Cardiovascular Imaging Section, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Longstanding uncontrolled atherogenic risk factors may contribute to left atrial (LA) hypertension, LA enlargement (LAE) and coronary vascular dysfunction. Together they may better identify risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that chronic LA hypertension as assessed by LAE modifies the relationship between coronary vascular function and MACE. In 508 unselected subjects with a normal clinical {sup 82}Rb PET/CT, ejection fraction ≥40 %, no prior coronary artery disease, valve disease or atrial fibrillation, LAE was determined based on LA volumes estimated from the hybrid perfusion and CT transmission scan images and indexed to body surface area. Absolute myocardial blood flow and global coronary flow reserve (CFR) were calculated. Subjects were systematically followed-up for the primary end-point - MACE - a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, hospitalization for heart failure, stroke, coronary artery disease progression or revascularization. During a median follow-up of 862 days, 65 of the subjects experienced a composite event. Compared with subjects with normal LA size, subjects with LAE showed significantly lower CFR (2.25 ± 0.83 vs. 1.95 ± 0.80, p = 0.01). LAE independently and incrementally predicted MACE even after accounting for clinical risk factors, medication use, stress left ventricular ejection fraction, stress left ventricular end-diastolic volume index and CFR (chi-squared statistic increased from 30.9 to 48.3; p = 0.001). Among subjects with normal CFR, those with LAE had significantly worse event-free survival (risk adjusted HR 5.4, 95 % CI 2.3 - 12.8, p < 0.0001). LAE and reduced CFR are related but distinct cardiovascular adaptations to atherogenic risk factors. LAE is a risk marker for MACE independent of clinical factors and left ventricular volumes; individuals with LAE may be at risk of MACE despite normal coronary vascular function. (orig.)

  13. Brain Atrophy Correlates with Severe Enlarged Perivascular Spaces in Basal Ganglia among Lacunar Stroke Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Zhang

    Full Text Available Enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS correlate with cognitive impairment and incident dementia. However, etiologies for severe basal ganglia EPVS (BG-EPVS are still unclear. Our aim was to investigate the independent risk factors for severe BG-EPVS in patients with acute lacunar stroke.We prospectively identified patients with lacunar stroke (diameter on DWI ≤ 20mm from Jan 2011 to May 2015. Patients with severe BG-EPVS were identified on T2 weighted MRI. Age (± 1 year and sex matched controls were also recruited in the same population (two controls for one case. Vascular risk factors, clinical data, EPVS in centrum semiovale (rated 0 to 4, white matter hyperintensities (WMH (by Fazekas scale, brain atrophy (rated 0 to 6 were compared between two groups. Logistic regression was performed to determine independent risk factors for severe BG-EPVS.During study period, 89 patients with severe BG-EPVS and 178 matched controls were included. Vascular risk factors did not differ between two groups. Patients with severe BG-EPVS had lower level of HbA1c and diastolic BP at admission, but presented with larger infarct size, more severe WMH (including total WMH, periventricular WMH and deep WMH and brain atrophy. In logistic regression, brain atrophy (OR = 1.40; 95%CI 1.13, 1.73 and deep WMH (OR = 1.88; 95%CI 1.24, 2.83 were independent risk factors for severe BG-EPVS.Brain atrophy and deep WMH are independent risk factors for severe BG-EPVS, supporting the hypothesis that brain atrophy may be associated with the development of EPVS in basal ganglia.

  14. Glutathione Depletion Accelerates Cigarette Smoke-Induced Inflammation and Airspace Enlargement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Neal S; Min, Elysia; Huang, Jie; Chu, Hong Wei; Good, Jim; Martin, Richard J; Day, Brian J

    2015-10-01

    The study objective was to assess age-related changes in glutathione (GSH) adaptive response to cigarette smoke (CS) exposure. Older cigarette smokers show a decline (67%) in lung epithelial lining fluid (ELF) GSH and a 1.8-fold decreased GSH adaptive response to cigarette smoking with a concomitant elevation (47%) of exhaled nitric oxide compared with younger smokers. In order to isolate the changes in tissue GSH from other age-related effects, pharmacological inhibition of the rate limiting step in GSH synthesis was employed to examine the lung's response to CS exposure in young mice. The γ-glutamylcysteine ligase inhibitor L-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO) was administered in the drinking water (20 mM) to decrease by half the in vivo GSH levels to those found in aged mice and humans. Mice were then exposed to CS (3 h/day) for 5 or 15 days. Biochemical analysis of the ELF and lung tissue revealed an inhibition of the CS-induced GSH adaptive response by BSO with a concurrent increase in mixed protein-GSH disulfides indicating increased cysteine oxidation. The prevention of the GSH adaptive response led to an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines present in the lung. Airspace enlargement is a hallmark of lung emphysema and was observed in mice treated with BSO and exposed to CS for as little as 15 days, whereas these types of changes normally take up to 6 months in this model. BSO treatment potentiated both lung elastase and matrix metalloproteinase activity in the CS group. These data suggest that age-related decline in the GSH adaptive response can markedly accelerate many of the factors thought to drive CS-induced emphysema. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The relationship between ambulatory blood pressure variability and enlarged perivascular spaces: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuna; Qin, Wei; Yang, Lei; Fan, Huimin; Li, Yue; Yin, Jiangmei; Hu, Wenli

    2017-08-21

    Recent studies reported that 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure variability (ABPV) was associated with lacunar infarction and white matter hyperintensities (WMH). However, the relationship between ABPV and enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS) has not been investigated. Thus, our study aimed to investigate whether ABPV is associated with EPVS by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). We conducted this study as a cross-sectional study. The study was based on patients who presented for physical examinations in our hospital from May 2013 to June 2016. Patients with both brain MRI scans and 24-hour ABPM were included and patients with acute stroke, a history of severe stroke and some other severe diseases were excluded. A total of 573 Chinese patients were prospectively enrolled in this study. EPVS in basal ganglia (BG) and white matter (WM) were identified on MRI and classified into three categories by the severity. WMH were scored by the Fazekas scale. Coefficient of variation (CV) and SD were considered as metrics of ABPV. Spearman correlation analysis and ordinal logistic regression analysis were used to assess the relationship between ABPV and EPVS. There were statistical differences among the subgroups stratified by the severity of EPVS in BG in the following ABPV metrics: SD and CV of systolic blood pressure (SBP), CV of diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in 24 hours, daytime and nighttime and SD of DBP in nighttime. The above ABPV metrics were positively associated with the degree of EPVS. The association was unchanged after adjusting for confounders. Spearman correlation analysis showed ABPV was not related to the degree of EPVS in the WM. ABPV was independently associated with EPVS in BG after controlling for blood pressure, but not in the WM. Pathogenesis of EPVS in BG and WM might be different. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted

  16. Asymmetrically enlarged parietal foramina in a rare case of Goldenhar syndrome with a possible etiopathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kzayer, Lika'a Fasih Y; Sarsam, Shamil Naji; Alhur, Nagham Younus; Liu, Tingting; Nakazawa, Yozo

    2018-01-05

    Goldenhar´s syndrome (GS) also known as oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) is a relatively rare condition. GS is of multifactorial etiology that includes environmental and/or genetic factors, in addition to teratogens that disturb the blastogenesis. A 5-year-old girl from Saudi Arabia, was a member of dizygotic twins conceived by assisted reproductive technology (ART), and born with features of GS. She had asymmetrical face, cleft lip and palate, right microphthalmia and microtia. Radiological imaging showed right maxillary and mandibular bone hypoplasia, asymmetrically enlarged parietal foramina, a persistent midline occipital foramen, abnormal bone arising from occipital bone, extending along tentorium cerebelli, and a lipoma at the right tentorium cerebelli. A rudimentary right eye with dermoid cyst and pseudotumor as well as bilateral atresia of external auditory canals were present. Karyotyping was normal. ART and the risk of manipulation of ovum/embryo, was shown to be associated with multiple gestation and an increased risk of major birth defects. Given that our patient was from Eastern-province close to the South of Iraq, where Gulf wars took place and the reported incidence of birth defects, including orofacial malformation, jumped there to about seven-folds, after war, thus, environmental contamination, and the possible teratogenic effect of depleted uranium could not be excluded. In conclusion, our case of GS, disclosed a rare radiological finding in calvarial anatomy, and asserted that, careful clinical evaluation is recommended in cases of GS. ART fertilization risk along with the possible parental environmental exposure were regarded as the potential cooperators of multifactorial etiology in our case.

  17. CERN welcomes European science

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    On 3 and 4 October CERN will host a special workshop for Marie Curie fellows. This programme is a key plank in the EU's strategy for creating a European research area.     With thousands of scientists from all over the continent working together, CERN is already an exemplary European science showcase. On 3 and 4 October, the Laboratory will contribute further to unifying all European science by hosting a special workshop for EU-funded Marie Curie fellows. This scheme gives young researchers from around the continent the mobility to go to wherever Europe's best facilities in their chosen field happen to be. The event that will take place at CERN, entitled 'Special workshop of Marie Curie Fellows on research and training in physics and technology', organised together with the European Commission, is a continuation of a series of workshops with the aim, among others, of promoting young researchers, supporting their training and mobility, and facilitating the interdisciplinary dissemination of knowledge. Dur...

  18. European Economic Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, James A.

    1971-01-01

    Recounts the history and problems of European Economic Integration from the first post World War II organization, the OEEC, to the EEC (Common Market) and the EFTA. Suggestions for further reading are included. (JB)

  19. European Molecular Biology Laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    On 10 May an Agreement was signed at CERN setting up a new European Laboratory. It will be concerned with research in molecularbiology and will be located at Heidelberg in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  20. European Cyber Security Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Bendiek, Annegret

    2012-01-01

    The gradually developing European cyber security policy tries to establish minimum standards in all EU member states with regard to prevention, resilience and international cooperation. It aims to foster national security without compromising democratic principles or unduly limiting individual liberties. However, it is hard to find a balance between these goals, and the EU’s measures thus inevitably raise questions about the democratic implications of European cyber security policy. Are the i...