WorldWideScience

Sample records for european energy sector

  1. The single European energy market: the electricity supply sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliwell, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    The completion of the Internal Market in the Community by the end of 1992 has become a key objective and the focal point of the revival of the European Community. Within this overall objective, the development of the Single European Energy Market, the Internal Energy market, is a major element. The energy objectives for the Community, adopted in 1986 by the Council of Ministers and relating to targets in the energy sector to be achieved by 1995, contain what are effectively the aims of the Internal Energy Market. This is in a reference to the need for greater integration, free from barriers to trade, of the Internal Energy Market with a view to improving security of supply, reducing costs and improving economic competitiveness. In the light of these aims, the Commission drew up, in 1988, an inventory of potential obstacles to the achievement of the Internal Energy Market. This was accepted by the Council, together with a list of suggested priority areas of work, and has formed the basis of the Commission's efforts to move forward as quickly as possible in the development of the Internal Energy Market, in all branches of the energy sector. The impact on the electricity sector, in particular, is considered here. (author)

  2. The Europeanization of regulation of the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrijsen, S.A.C.M.; Nauta, T.

    2010-01-01

    The main question of this article is how the ongoing Europeanization of regulation relates to the restrictive manner in which the Dutch legislator interprets the principle of legality with respect to the qualification of the independent regulating authorities. To answer this question, research focuses first of all on which demands are imposed by European law on the constitutional position and qualification of the national regulating authorities that implement the energy directives. Anticipating the consequences of the third generation of energy directives for the position of the national authorities, attention is subsequently paid to the question whether any tension exists between European requirements for the regulation of the energy sector and the manner in which the national legislator interprets the principle of legality. [nl

  3. The role of the European Bank in the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, J.

    1993-01-01

    The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development was established in 1991 to assist central and eastern European countries in making the transition from command economies to market economies. The Bank provides loans, equity investments, guarantees, advice, and technical cooperation to qualified applicants through its merchant banking and development banking operations. In the energy sector, the Bank recognizes that the energy resources of eastern Europe are enormous but so are the problems associated with their development. Since its foundation, most of the Bank's energy-related lending has been in the oil and gas sector in Russia and the Baltic countries. The Bank has approved eight projects in that sector with total capital costs of ca US$1.7 billion. Major problem areas to be overcome include uneconomic domestic pricing, high energy intensity and pollution, inadequate legal frameworks, inappropriate tax structures, and institutional complexity. Canadian firms have been actively involed in Bank-financed projects in the Russian oil and gas sector, and two such projects are briefly described. They comprise joint ventures with Russian enterprises or associations and include rehabilitation of Siberian oil fields and drilling new wells in the Komi (Arctic) region. A common feature of these projects is that they were well under way before the Bank got involved, but the Bank brings the benefits of additional financing and providing moral support and expertise which can be useful in overcoming administrative and regulatory difficulties

  4. The role of the European Bank in the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, John

    1994-01-01

    The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development was established in 1991 and is owned by the western industrialized countries, including Canada, and the former communist countries of Europe and Central Asia. Its purpose is to assist the latter to make the transition from command to market economies in a democratic framework. In the energy sector, most of the EBRD's lending has been in the oil and gas sector in Russia, but it is open for business in other sectors and in all countries of operation. Unlike other development banks, the EBRD is prepared to finance nuclear power projects. The bank is also prepared to finance conventional power plants where these would permit the closure of obsolete or unsafe nuclear plants. In the oil and gas sector, most of the EBRD's lending has related to private sector, joint venture projects aimed at oil field rehabilitation and development. The private sector ventures supported by the Bank normally involve joint stock companies owned 50 per cent by western partners and 50 per cent by Russian state oil companies, which are being privatized or are operating according to private sector principles. (author)

  5. The European Community programmes in the sector of wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamantaras, K.; Ferrero, G.L.

    1992-01-01

    The wind technology market has known a considerable evolution over the last decade. From the early eighties - when there were only a few kilowatts of the research prototype wind turbines installed - the total installed capacity within the European Community has reached nowadays more than 765 MW in commercial machines. This expansion has been brought about with the aid of important R and D energy technology programmes run by national governments, and by the Commission of European Communities with its research, development, demonstration and market development programmes, such as the JOULE, demonstration and THERMIE programmes. This paper presents the activities of the Community demonstration and THERMIE programmes in the wind energy sector from 1983 to 1992. Reference is also made to the Community programmes JOULE II and ALTENER. (au)

  6. European Human Resources Observatory for the Nuclear Energy Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flore, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Institute for Energy and Transport provides support to European Union policies and technology innovation to ensure sustainable, safe, secure and efficient energy production, distribution and use and to foster sustainable and efficient transport in Europe. Briefly outlined are the organization, bottom-up approach and top-down approach

  7. A European nuclear sector to face future energy challenges?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legee, F.; Thais, F.

    2010-01-01

    Very early Europe chose the way of nuclear energy to produce electricity but progressively different countries followed different policies and now the nuclear landscape of the European Union is various: some countries are full-fledged, some stopped their program a long ago and others are in a phase-out period. The stakes of the climatic change and a framed strategy of the European Union have led to a renewal of the nuclear option. Great-Britain has already launched a program of new power plants. Poland, Bulgaria, Slovenia and Hungary want to develop nuclear energy to be less dependant on Russian oil and gas exports. In other countries like Germany, Austria, Sweden we can notice a positive change in favour of nuclear power of their public opinion. A recent OECD study shows that nuclear power stays largely competitive in Europe despite rising construction costs. The harmonization of the nuclear safety regulations throughout Europe appears clearly as an objective of the European Union. As for the management of radioactive wastes the European Union favors the disposal in deep geological layers, but as for the options: direct storage or reprocessing, a common European policy is out of reach at the moment. (A.C.)

  8. Innovation in the European energy sector and regulatory responses to it : Guest editorial note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, T.; Butenko, Anna; Heldeweg, Michiel

    2018-01-01

    The European energy sector is an important economic sector that is also traditionally highly regulated. With the increasing tempo in which innovations in technology and markets occur, catalysed inter alia by the energy transition and accompanied by new formats of innovation (disruptive and

  9. Innovation in the European energy sector and regulatory responses to it : Guest editorial note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, Thomas; Butenko, Anna; Heldeweg, Michiel

    2018-01-01

    The European energy sector is an important economic sector that is also traditionally highly regulated. With the increasing tempo in which innovations in technology and markets occur, catalysed inter alia by the energy transition and accompanied by new formats of innovation (disruptive and

  10. Acquits communautaire in quality management in the energy sector -Central and Eastern European Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristikj, Julija

    1997-01-01

    Energy is considered as one of the main infrastructure components, and efficient energy sectors are corner stones for the economic growth of the Central and Eastern European Countries on their way towards gaining EU membership. Therefore, energy is considered as one of the main directions of action within the PHARE Programme with trans-European dimensions. Five years ago started the implementation of the PHARE Multi-country Energy Programme, the efforts of which have been oriented to three main strategic axes: energy policy, energy supply, as well as energy efficiency and environment. (author)

  11. International Rivalry In The Energy Sector: The Eastern European Market Of Atomic Energy In Focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Borovsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the post-bipolar world nuclear power has become one of the areas of competition and rivalry betweenRussiaand the West. The comprehensive analysis of theoretical publications allows us to consider international competition as an abstract, depoliticized contest of states and other international actors (including companies for some limited (mainly economic benefits. International rivalry is more a political process, necessarily involving some rival pairs of states (or groups of states that compete with each other not only to get some benefits, but to expand their territory or power. The competition and rivalry betweenRussiaand the West in the sphere of nuclear power are especially apparent in the Eastern European region where the American, European and Japanese corporations, with the support of the Western foreign ministries and EU institutions, try to achieve two main goals. The first goal is to win the contracts to build new power units, especially in tenders where Rosatom participates. The second goal is to become suppliers of nuclear fuel for multiple Russian- or Soviet-made VVER-type reactors, which are functioning or will be run in a number of countries in the region (Slovakia,CzechRepublic,Hungary,Bulgaria, andUkraine. Such activities can involve high risks. The West’s efforts to curb the dominant position of "Rosatom" inEastern Europeare formally associated with the need to create a "competitive market" of nuclear services in the region and to ensure the European energy security. It is also noteworthy that the expansion of Rosatom (and its predecessors to foreign markets, including Eastern Europe, is actively supported by the Russian state which in the second half of the 1990s – after a failed attempt of following in the footsteps of the West – joined in the rivalry, mostly imposed by the U.S. and their allies. As shown by the analysis,Russiaand the West, primarily theUnited States, are involved in the nuclear power sector to

  12. Institutionalizing cross-border cooperatives on European level in the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulusma, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    The third energy package proposes the establishment of an Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators (ACER) and the establishment of a European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity (ENTSOE) and a European Network of Transmission System Operators for Gas (ENTSOG). This legislative initiative is a response to the need to further liberalise the energy sector and to create one single energy market. The proposals wish to remedy the lack of regulatory oversight for cross border issues and the existence of a regulatory gap on cross-border issues. This article addresses these proposals and places them in a historical context. The proposals indicate that the European legislator to some degree intends to institutionalize cross border cooperation of regulators and of transmission system operators. So far cross-border cooperation mostly has been brought about on a voluntary basis and not on the basis of European law. Also this cooperation takes place on a voluntary basis and largely outside the scope of the European Commission. If the proposals are excepted they will result in new forms of cooperation in the energy sector. The Agency will be a community body with legal personality that, besides having an advisory role, will in some circumstances be able to take binding decisions. Therefore it will entail more than voluntary cooperation and be a step closer to the establishment of a European regulator. With the creation of ENTSOG and ENTSOE cooperation between transmission system operators will for the first time be obligatory and take place on the basis of European legislation. It will therefore be a new phenomenon. Nevertheless, it is not always clear from the proposals what the result in practice will be nor how the new organizations will relate to each other, to the Commission and to the national regulators and transmission system operators. Currently, the main question is whether the proposals will be adopted by the Council and the European

  13. World Energy Scenarios 2050: Impact of the Energy Governance Models to the Future of the European Energy Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisel, E.

    2014-01-01

    World Energy Council has explored the impact of two extreme governance models of energy sector to the global economic and climate developments. Scenario 'Jazz' describes the world, where investments in the energy markets are made by the companies on the purely economic basis. Scenario 'Symphony' describes the world, where decisions about the energy investments are made by the governments. It appears that in case of Scenario 'Jazz' we would reach lower energy prices, but it would also bring along higher and wider consumption of energy, and much higher environmental impact. In case of Scenario 'Symphony' energy prices would be somewhat higher, but environmental and energy efficiency would deliver better results, and there will be more energy-poor people around the world. It can also be observed, that resulting energy mixes of these two scenarios are very different. When Scenario 'Jazz' would leave the share of fossil fuels nearly to the current levels, then Scenario 'Symphony' supports strongly development of Solar and Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Sequestration Technologies. The modelling was also made separately for different regions of the world, the results for Europe can be observed from the report as well. This provides a fruit for thought about the role of the governments in the implementation of the EU 2030 Energy and Climate Strategy. The presentation would describe shortly the methodology of the study, clarifies the assumptions of the scenarios and highlights the main outcomes of the study in for the world and for European energy sector. (author).

  14. Energy - dichotomies within the European Union? Outlook of the Turkish energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilli, B.

    2001-01-01

    Turkey, an alley of the West, and being in the process of rapid integration with the world economy, has started a comprehensive restructuring endeavor in the energy sector. In today's power markets where globalisation and competition plays an increasing role, supply security, economic growth and social targets must be harmonized effectively. Following topics can be considered as basic instruments in this context; restructuring of the power sector (privatization, demonopolization); removal of governmental intervention in the markets; creating a better regional/global cooperation for the deployment of new technologies; enhancing energy efficiency. (author)

  15. The Italian energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The energy sector in Italy, as in Europe and in many other areas of the world, is undergoing rapid and profound changes. The 1986 ratification of the European Single Act was intended to create a European internal market, where circulation of people, capital, goods, and services would reach the highest possible liberalization. In 1988, in the document The Energy Internal Market, the European Union (EU) commission stressed the need for creation of an internal energy market--free of obstacles--to increase security of supply, to reduce costs, and to strengthen the competitiveness of the European economic system. In 1990, the Community Council adopted directives to implement the EU energy sector. This article describes Italy's role as part of the EU energy sector. It covers the following topics: the Italian energy sector; electricity vs gas transportation; project finance; recent developments advance Italian power industry; specifying powerplant components -- Italian stype; buyers' guide to Italian equipment, services

  16. The European renewable energy target for 2030 – An impact assessment of the electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knopf, Brigitte; Nahmmacher, Paul; Schmid, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The European Union set binding targets for the reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) and the share of renewable energy (RE) in final energy consumption by 2020. The European Council agreed to continue with this strategy through to 2030 by setting a RE target of 27% in addition to a GHG reduction target of 40%. We provide a detailed sectoral impact assessment by analyzing the implications for the electricity sector in terms of economic costs and the regional distribution of investments and shares of electricity generated from renewable energy sources (RES-E). According to the Impact Analysis by the European Commission the 27% RE target corresponds to a RES-E share of 49%. Our model-based sensitivity analysis on underlying technological and institutional assumptions shows that the cost-effective RES-E share varies between 43% and 56%. Secondly, we quantify the economic costs of these variants and those which would be incurred with higher shares. The long-term additional costs for higher RES-E shares would be less than 1% of total system costs. The third aspect relates to the regional distribution of EU-wide efforts for upscaling renewables. We point out that delivering high RES-E shares in a cost-effective manner involves considerably different efforts by the Member States. -- Highlights: •A renewable (RES) target of 27% is the cost-effective share for 40% GHG reduction. •For the electricity sector the RES-E share varies between 43% and 56%. •Long-term costs for higher RES-E shares are less than 1% of total system costs. •There are large differences in RES deployment and costs between Member States. •A lack of a governance mechanism makes the EU-wide RES target difficult to achieve

  17. Evaluation of the energy efficiency evolution in the European road freight transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzzenenti, F.; Basosi, R.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate energy efficiency in the European freight transport sector over three decades, according to a variety of indicators, methodologies and databases. The aim is, on the one hand, of determining major drawbacks in energy efficiency metrics, on the other hand, identifying a possible trend in the sector. The present analysis shows that energy efficiency evaluation is generally subject to misinterpretation and distortion with regard to the methods and data source adopted. Two different indicators (energy intensity and fuel economy) were initially taken into account to select the most suitable for evaluating vehicles' efficiency. Fuel economy was then adopted and measured according to two different methodologies (top-down and bottom-up). We then considered all the possible sources of distortion (data sources employed, methods of data detection, speed of detection, power enhancement, size factor) with the aim of accomplishing a sound estimation. Fuel economy was eventually divided with the maximum power available (adjusted fuel economy), to account for the power shift of vehicles, that represents a further efficiency improvement.

  18. Energy policy and European utilities' strategy: Lessons from the liberalisation and privatisation of the energy sector in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haar, Laura N., E-mail: laura.n.haar@mbs.ac.u [University of Manchester, Manchester Business School, Booth Street West, Manchester M15 6PB (United Kingdom); Marinescu, Nicolae, E-mail: marinescu@unitbv.r [Transylvania University of Brasov, Faculty of Economic Sciences, 29 Eroilor Bd, Brasov 500 036 (Romania)

    2011-05-15

    In the context of energy sector reforms pursued by Romanian government since 1990s, we compare and contrast the market outcomes of European utilities' investment with the host government policy objectives. We begin with energy market reform in Romania and review governments' efforts to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) and to gradually withdraw from the distribution and supply segments of electricity market. Subsequently, we illustrate the scope European utilities have had, market policy and design notwithstanding, for consolidating market power through regional dominance. We examine the extent to which these utilities have sought to enhance their positions through horizontal and vertical integration, counter to the EU plans for a competitive market structure. We find that the investments of European incumbents have not been resoundingly successful: although market entrance may have been justified on long-term strategic grounds, in the immediate term, segments acquired through competitive auctions have yielded modest regulated returns. Finally, we discuss the extent to which policy makers have achieved their goals. Although the short-term benefits of a competitive market structure have reached some consumers, a renewed interest in promoting 'national champions' reflect frustration with market mechanisms as a means of ensuring long-term strategic investments in the sector. - Research highlights: {yields} We analyze the European Utilities activities in Romania after market liberalization. {yields} We find government efforts to reform energy sector attracted foreign direct investment. {yields} We find utilities consolidated market power horizontally in Central European region. {yields} The short-term benefits of competitive forces contrast the weak returns by utilities. {yields} To encourage further investment, government should not promote national champions.

  19. Energy policy and European utilities' strategy: Lessons from the liberalisation and privatisation of the energy sector in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haar, Laura N.; Marinescu, Nicolae

    2011-01-01

    In the context of energy sector reforms pursued by Romanian government since 1990s, we compare and contrast the market outcomes of European utilities' investment with the host government policy objectives. We begin with energy market reform in Romania and review governments' efforts to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) and to gradually withdraw from the distribution and supply segments of electricity market. Subsequently, we illustrate the scope European utilities have had, market policy and design notwithstanding, for consolidating market power through regional dominance. We examine the extent to which these utilities have sought to enhance their positions through horizontal and vertical integration, counter to the EU plans for a competitive market structure. We find that the investments of European incumbents have not been resoundingly successful: although market entrance may have been justified on long-term strategic grounds, in the immediate term, segments acquired through competitive auctions have yielded modest regulated returns. Finally, we discuss the extent to which policy makers have achieved their goals. Although the short-term benefits of a competitive market structure have reached some consumers, a renewed interest in promoting 'national champions' reflect frustration with market mechanisms as a means of ensuring long-term strategic investments in the sector. - Research highlights: → We analyze the European Utilities activities in Romania after market liberalization. → We find government efforts to reform energy sector attracted foreign direct investment. → We find utilities consolidated market power horizontally in Central European region. → The short-term benefits of competitive forces contrast the weak returns by utilities. → To encourage further investment, government should not promote national champions.

  20. Planning Energy Sector Development in Croatian Agricultural Sector Following Guidelines of the European Energy Policy 20-20-20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirac, M.; Krajacic, G.; Duic, N.

    2009-01-01

    Energy system planning is among the most important tasks of any society. A stable energy system is a foundation for economic growth, growing living standard and general prosperity of the society. Agriculture represents an important factor in overall Croatian economy; therefore, planning of the agriculture's energy system is a major task. To foresee the trend of consumption and to ensure reasonable economic energy supply in accordance with this trend is a process which should be continuously optimised so that the planned scenario could reflect actual situation. The agriculture, thanks to natural resources, land features and climate advantages represents a major economic sector. This activity has significant impact on food industry, trade, tourism, transport, chemical industry, etc. The relevance of agriculture is also visible in the present number of employees, future potential for employment and foreign trade balance. According to numerous parameters, agricultural activities in Croatia lag behind the EU countries. Great potential can be achieved by implementation of measures for energy intensity reduction and productivity increase.(author).

  1. Renewable energy and CCS in German and European power sector decarbonization scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludig, Sylvie

    2013-11-06

    system costs are lower when transmission and storage are available. Restrictions on transmission expansion induce high amounts of storage since high local shares of solar PV lead to large output variations. In contrast, a highly interconnected European power grid allows for optimized renewable power generation siting in regions with highest potentials, which requires large-scale transmission expansions but limits total power system costs. Results from a detailed study for Germany show that the level of power demand is strongly relevant for the realization of high renewable shares and ambitious decarbonization targets. A broad technology portfolio allows to hedge against the failure to meet efficiency goals for electricity demand. CCS is necessary to reach ambitious government targets if power demand is not sufficiently decreased by efficiency measures, as is offshore wind energy. Even in case of decreasing demand, at least one of both technologies needs to be available. The choice of transmission expansion corridors is strongly influenced by technology availability: in scenarios without offshore wind energy, north-south interconnections, which are crucial in all other scenarios, only play a minor role. The studies in this thesis show that a large-scale decarbonization of the German and European power sectors is achievable through large shares of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation. CCS is not a prerequisite for successful CO{sub 2} emission strategies, but allows reaching mitigation targets at a lower cost. A portfolio of renewable energy integration options is essential to manage temporal and spatial fluctuations; the optimal technology mix is determined by the underlying power system.

  2. Sustainable development outlooks of the Estonian energy sector for convergence with the European Union countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laur, Anton; Tenno, Koidu; Soosaar, Sulev

    2002-01-01

    The article presents an overview of a research conducted in the Estonian Inst. of Economics and the Estonian Energy Research Inst. with the objectives to: analyse the dynamics of the main Estonian energy use indicators over the last 8-10 years with the background of general macroeconomics developments; compare these indicators with the respective energy indicators in the European Union Member States and Candidate Countries; evaluate Estonia's potential to catch up by the energy use efficiency (GDP energy intensity) of the average level of EU countries, modelling our possible development scenarios of GDP and TPES. The research results indicates several positive development tendencies (e.g. reduction of TPES and CO 2 emissions with the background of economic growth) in the Estonian energy sector, as well as convergence with the EU countries in terms of GDP energy intensity. Unfortunately, the model analysis results demonstrate that it takes a lot of time for Estonia to reach the current EU level - even under the most favourable GDP and TPES development conditions, 25-30 years. The primary reason is the very low level of our GDP per capita compared to the EU countries. (author)

  3. Energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Within the framework of assessing the state of the environment in Lebanon, this chapter describes primary energy demand, the electricity generating sector and environmental impacts arising from the energy sector.Apart from hydropower and traditional energy sources, which together represent 1.7% of energy consumption, all energy in Lebanon derives from imported petroleum products and some coal.Tables present the imports of different petroleum products (Gasoil, Kerosene, fuel oil, coal etc...), their use, the energy balance and demand.Energy pricing and pricing policies, formal and informal electricity generations in Lebanon are described emphasized by tables. The main environmental impacts are briefly summarized. Thermal power stations give rise to emissions of Sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), particulates, oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) and CO/CO 2 from combustion of primary fuel informally generated power from both industry and domestic consumption produce particulate materials and emissions of NO x and SO 2 projected emissions of SO 2 from the power sector with the present generating capacity and with the new combined cycle power plants in operation are shown. Other environmental impacts are described. Recommendations for supply and environment policy are presented

  4. Analysis of the renewable energy sector in Spain at the European level comparative; Analisis del sector de las energias renovables en Espana. Estudio comparativo a nivel europeo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, F. J.

    2011-07-01

    The energy sector, in particular renewable energy, represents a strategic sector for the Spanish and European industry. Policy decisions to its regulation or deregulation is critical. Regulatory frameworks mark a way to contrast their effectiveness and efficiency. However, it is necessary to deepen the theoretical foundations as the natural capital or the limits to growth, to place in a framework more accurately. This article presents specific data on the economic, fiscal, labor and environmental conditions to date has involved the promotion of this sector and its international impact. (Author)

  5. Economic analysis of the expected environmental impact of the Single European Market through the transport, waste and energy sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brutscher, S.

    1993-01-01

    Similarly to other studies the present dissertation presupposes that the Single European Market will lead to an increase in transport waste quantities, and energy consumption and consequently to greater environmental pollution. Of central importance here is the concept of ''expletive costs'' introduced in this paper which describes that damage to the natural and human environment which is not compensated. It forms out that the sectors of transport, waste, and energy alone will most probably send the expletive costs of the Single European Market into astronomic dimensions. In view of the interdependencies of these three sectors it seems doubtful whether the economic benefit to be expected from the establishment of the Single European Market can justify the additional environmental damage thus caused. (HP) [de

  6. Renewable energy and greenhouse gas emissions from the waste sectors of European Union member states: a panel data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Hélde Araujo; De Melo Faria, Alexandre Magno; Fuinhas, José Alberto; Marques, António Cardoso

    2017-08-01

    In the last two decades, there has been a rich debate about the environmental degradation that results from exposure to solid urban waste. Growing public concern with environmental issues has led to the implementation of various strategic plans for waste management in several developed countries, especially in the European Union. In this paper, the relationships were assessed between economic growth, renewable energy extraction and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the waste sector. The Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis was analysed for the member states of the European Union, in the presence of electricity generation, landfill and GHG emissions for the period 1995 to 2012. The results revealed that there is no inverted-U-shaped relationship between income and GHG emissions in European Union countries. The renewable fuel extracted from waste contributes to a reduction in GHG, and although the electricity produced also increases emissions somewhat, they would be far greater if the waste-based generation of renewable energy did not take place. The waste sector needs to strengthen its political, economic, institutional and social communication instruments to meet its aims for mitigating the levels of pollutants generated by European economies. To achieve the objectives of the Horizon 2020 programme, currently in force in the countries of the European Union, it will be necessary to increase the share of renewable energy in the energy mix.

  7. The energy sector abroad. Part 12. The Czech Republic. Spider in the European natural gas web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holwerda, B.

    1998-01-01

    The natural gas industry in the Czech Republic is one of the oldest in Europe. In the past, natural gas has played a modest role in the Czech energy supply: coal and town gas from coal and lignite were the major energy sources. However, more and more use is made of natural gas, imported from Russia (Gazprom) and Norway. Besides, the Czech natural gas distribution, transportation and storage system occupies a key position in the Central-European natural gas network

  8. Case study; Paper on the energy efficiency evolution in the European road freight transport sector

    OpenAIRE

    Riccardo Basosi; Franco Ruzzenenti

    2014-01-01

    One of the goals of WP7 is that of analyzing the energy crisis within the global economic crisis and assess to what extent fuel prices can promote the transition towards a more sustainable and efficient energy regime. This paper addresses the European freight transport system, national and cross-boarder, and assesses the evolution of its efficiency and intensity during the period 1998-2011, when oil prices globally increased, up the hike of the 2008. It will also be investigated the rebound e...

  9. How do policies for efficient energy use in the household sector induce energy-efficiency innovation? An evaluation of European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girod, Bastien; Stucki, Tobias; Woerter, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Research on innovation induced by climate-mitigation policy has been focused predominantly on the supply side of the energy system. Despite considerable climate-mitigation potential on the demand side, less attention is given to the innovation effect of policies addressing the household sector. Based on a comprehensive data set, including 550 policy measures over 30 years (1980–2009) and covering 21 European countries, we find—based on econometric estimations—that policies targeting efficient energy use in the household sector significantly increase the number of patented energy-efficiency inventions. A comparison of the different policy types reveals a particularly strong influence from financial subsidies and energy labels. The results indicate that policies supporting early market adoption of energy-efficient technologies are effective in fostering innovation. - Highlights: • We evaluate the impact of energy-efficiency policy on energy-efficiency innovation. • The dataset covers patents and policies for 1980–2009 in 21 European countries. • Household policies show a positive influence on innovation activity (patented inventions). • The influence is most pronounced for financial subsidies and energy labels.

  10. Energy efficiency, carbon emissions, and measures towards their improvement in the food and beverage sector for six European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, Steven; Schmitt, Bastian; Chester-Jones, Mae; Sturm, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Basic and detailed audits of small and medium sized food and beverage enterprises were conducted in six European Union countries to determine product specific energy consumption and measures to reduce energy use and carbon emissions. Collected results showed that the companies’ products had similar specific energy consumption as prior studies, but due to no standard metrics, the range was rather large. Auditors primarily recommended energy savings measures (process optimization and heat recovery), due to their low payback periods. Lower carbon energy sources were also recommended (solar thermal and combined heat/power), but often at higher costs, supported through government incentive programs. Through these measures, energy savings of up to 45% and carbon to 30% (∼30,000 t CO_2 equivalent in the audited companies) were possible, dependent on the type, size of company, and fuel choice. Typically, very small companies and those using coal showed the greatest margin for improvement, though it varied greatly depending on the type of product produced and the installed heating and cooling equipment. Auditors noted significant barriers toward the implementation of measures, e.g. companies found the costs too high, did not know of efficient technologies and their performance, or did not have managerial support to implement efficiency measures. - Highlights: • The Food and Beverage sector in Europe was assessed for carbon reduction potential. • Significant emission reductions can be achieved by energy efficiency and renewables. • The Bakery and Meat branches can reduce energy consumption by 30–40%. • Small and coal burning companies have the greatest potential for emission reduction. • Financial barriers remain the hardest obstacle to realize reduction potential.

  11. Sector Economic Outlook. Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    The energy sector is a key driver of the economic pillar of Vision 2030. As the economy grows, urbanization intensifies and incomes increase, corporate and household demand for energy also rises. To meet this growth in demand for energy, the sector needs to increase investments and diversify into more sources of energy such as geothermal and wind power. It is therefore critical that focus is directed towards development and sustainability of the energy sector to ensure delivery of least cost power that will improve Kenya's competitiveness and achieve the Vision 2030 objective of 10% average annual economic growth.

  12. Speedy changes in energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazlauskas, J.

    1998-01-01

    Status of the reforms in Lithuania's energy sector and preparation of updated Energy Strategy is presented in this article. The new Strategy has been worked out considering the conclusions of different studies as well as the changes that have taken place in Lithuania and restructuring of its energy sector, the guidelines of the European Union. The principal objectives of the country's energy sector consists in reliable and safe energy supply with minimum expenses, increasing efficiency of energy utilisation, introducing principles of market economy within the sector, reducing environmental impacts, preparing Lithuania's energy sector for integration into the EU. In the field of nuclear energy the top priority is to ensure the safety of Ignalina NPP. Ignalina NPP will only be operated if and as long as it is safe. Two most likely scenarios for the future operation of Ignalina NPP are analysed in the draft Strategy. According to scenario 1, reactor 1 and 2 are to be operated half of the design service life, until 2005 and 2010 respectively, i.e. until the gap between the graphite and fuel channels reaches the critical margin. In accordance with the second scenario, the fuel channels are to be replaced as envisaged in the design, after which the reactors may be operated for another 10 - 15 years

  13. The Impact of Energy taxes on Competitiveness and Output: A Panel Regression Study of 56 European Industry Sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Martin K.; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the extent to which energy taxes - via the resulting increase in real energy prices, or in their own right - reduce or enhance industrial competitiveness. From a panel data set covering 56 industry sectors throughout Europe over the period 1990-2003, we estimate how cha...... changes in real energy taxes and real energy prices affect, on the one hand, competitiveness measured in terms unit energy costs and unit wage costs and, on the other hand, economic performance expressed in terms of output (value added)......The focus of this paper is the extent to which energy taxes - via the resulting increase in real energy prices, or in their own right - reduce or enhance industrial competitiveness. From a panel data set covering 56 industry sectors throughout Europe over the period 1990-2003, we estimate how...

  14. Energy sector alliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuade, Owen

    1998-09-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: A changing energy sector; Rationale for the joint venture, merger or acquisition; Mergers, acquisitions and joint ventures by sector; The joint venture process; Key factors for success; Financing the venture; Case studies; The future outlook. (Author)

  15. The CO2 emissions of the European power sector: economic drivers and the climate-energy policies' contribution. Working Paper No. 2014 - 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berghmans, Nicolas; Cheze, Benoit; Alberola, Emilie; Chevallier, Julien

    2014-10-01

    In the frame of the ongoing debate on the 2030 energy and climate policies in the European Union, this article provides the first assessment of the effectiveness of European energy and climate policies on the CO 2 emissions reductions. This ex-post analysis deals with the CO 2 emissions of the electricity sector covered by the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) during its phases I and II (2005-2012). We analyze the contribution of different variables (including climate and energy policies, energy prices, economic activity and technical features of plants) in the evolution of CO 2 emissions from electricity production plants in Europe. The empirical results allow drawing a number of conclusions regarding the causes of the downward trend in the carbon emissions generated by power production covered by the EU ETS between 2005 and 2012. First, we show that the increased use of renewable energy in electricity production has played a dominant role in the fall in CO 2 emissions in the power sector. Second, the analysis confirms that the economic downturn has played a significant role, although not a dominant one. Third, price substitution effects between coal and gas also seem to have affected carbon emissions. Last but not least, we identify that the price of carbon has also pushed down power CO 2 emissions. (authors)

  16. THE FEATURES OF THE ENERGY SECTOR IN ROMANIA, IN CONNECTION WITH THE EUROPEAN UNION’S STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORARU GEORGIANA OANA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At the present moment, energy has become a resource too important to be treated in a superficial manner. Energy is a public good which determines the need for protection and also a commodity on the competitive market of energy. Also energy has become part of the industrial, economic and household lifestyle, which increases standard of living and, last but not least, it is an important pillar for driving the climate change. In this paper I intended to show that Romania even though it can achieve its renewable energy goals, should not react through measures taken carelessly. The market for renewable energy can create competitive distortions in the energy sector if the regulations are not clear or if they are not adapted to the economic environment.

  17. Canada's hydrogen energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, T.B.

    2009-01-01

    Canada produces the most hydrogen per capita of any Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) country. The majority of this hydrogen is produced by steam methane reforming for industrial use (predominantly oil upgrading and fertilizer production). Canada also has a world leading hydrogen and fuel cell sector. This sector is seeking new methods for making hydrogen for its future energy needs. The paper will discuss Canada's hydrogen and fuel cell sector in the context of its capabilities, its demonstration and commercialization activities and its stature on the world stage. (author)

  18. The energy integration in the sectoral policies. Good practices of european towns; L'integration de l'energie dans les politiques sectorielles. Bonnes pratiques de villes europeennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacassagne, S.

    2003-07-01

    Some european towns developed a specific energy and environmental policy, function of many factors. Policies are implemented to favorite the energy consumption and the pollutant emission control. The actions of local collectivities in the domain have been analyzed following three axis: the measure of the energy performance of local collectivities, the territorial energy management tools, the energy integration in sectoral policies. This report takes stock on the third axis analysis. (A.L.B.)

  19. Energy. Sector 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this article is to report the results of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventory for the year 1994. The following GHG are of interest in the energy sector: Carbon dioxide CO 2 , methane CH 4 , nitrous oxide N 2 O, oxides of nitrogen NO x , carbon monoxide CO, sulphur dioxide SO 2 and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs). The inventory has focused on the following GHG related sources: -Electricity generation through the electric utility. -Private generation of electricity -Manufacturing industries and construction -Transport: road, domestic aviation and national navigation -Energy use in the residential sector -Energy use in the commercial/institutional sector -Energy use in the agriculture/forestry/fishing sector The fuel types taken into consideration are:Gasoline, jet Kerosene, Kerosene for household use, gas oil, diesel oil, fuel oil, LPG, lubricating oil, coal, wood and charcoal (solid biomass). Care has been taken to eliminate the fuel used by international marine and aviation bunkers from the national inventory. The amount of GHG released to the atmosphere has been estimated using the IPCC methodology and emission factors .Where national emission factors differed from those of IPCC, the factors are discussed. Complete documentation of compiled information and data sources are attached to this article.Finally both the reference approach and analysis by source categories have been carried out and are reported in this inventory

  20. Renewable energy burden sharing. REBUS. Requirements and expectations of utilities and consumer organisations in the European energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voogt, M.H.; Uyterlinde, M.A.; Skytte, K.; Leonardi, M.; Whiteley, M.H.

    2001-05-01

    Creation of an internal market for renewable electricity will involve a political negotiation process, similar to previous EU greenhouse gas negotiations. The Energy Ministers in the EU have agreed on an overall target of 21.7% of electricity supply from Renewable Energy Sources (RES-E) and a distribution of targets over the individual Member States. The REBUS project aimed at providing insights in the effects of implementing targets for renewable electricity generation at EU Member State level and the impact of introducing burden sharing systems within the EU, such as a Tradable Green Certificate (TGC) system. Member States can participate in such burden sharing systems to reduce the costs of achieving targets for electricity from renewable sources (RES-E), compared to strictly national implementation measures. The project concentrated on the development of the REBUS model, which quantifies the impact of trade (in green certificates, quotas or targets) and the implementation of different rules to setting targets at individual Member State level. In addition, the project has paid special attention to the participation of stakeholders such as utilities, traders, and consumers of electricity. What is their opinion on the target setting, on the design of a trading system and its practical implementation and monitoring aspects? Utilities and consumer organisations in Denmark, Italy, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom have been asked to comment on these issues. This report is a result of a series of interviews with these stakeholders on their reaction to different burden sharing proposals, and on the socio-economic and financial impacts they foresee. The utilities take a critical view of their position in the renewable energy market and possible future international trading scheme. The main conclusions from the interviews are: Generally, target setting and burden sharing are regarded political questions, on which governments should decide; Stakeholders emphasise

  1. The Wave Energy Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2017-01-01

    This Handbook for Ocean Wave Energy aims at providing a guide into the field of ocean wave energy utilization. The handbook offers a concise yet comprehensive overview of the main aspects and disciplines involved in the development of wave energy converters (WECs). The idea for the book has been...... shaped by the development, research, and teaching that we have carried out at the Wave Energy Research Group at Aalborg University over the past decades. It is our belief and experience that it would be useful writing and compiling such a handbook in order to enhance the understanding of the sector...

  2. European Competition Law in the electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiller, P.

    2001-09-01

    The first part gives an overview on the implementation of the Electricity Directive 96/92 in the member states of the European Union and on the still missing preconditions for a single market in the electricity sector. The second part deals with the main elements of the European merger control (market definition, market domination), the decisions in the electricity sector and analyses the impact of the Electricity Directive 96/92 EG on future merger decisions in this sector. The third part examines the role of the articles 81 and 82 EGV to secure competition in the electricity market. (author)

  3. Energy Sector Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arent, D.; Benioff, R.; Mosey, G.; Bird, L.; Brown, J.; Brown, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Aabakken, J.; Parks, K.; Lapsa, M.; Davis, S.; Olszewski, M.; Cox, D.; McElhaney, K.; Hadley, S.; Hostick, D.; Nicholls, A.; McDonald, S.; Holloman, B.

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the results of energy market analysis sponsored by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weatherization and International Program (WIP) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The analysis was conducted by a team of DOE laboratory experts from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with additional input from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The analysis was structured to identify those markets and niches where government can create the biggest impact by informing management decisions in the private and public sectors. The analysis identifies those markets and niches where opportunities exist for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy use.

  4. Public Sector and Europeanization Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucica Matei

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper emphasises the role of the market-type mechanisms within the activity of the organisations from the public sector. The end of the 20th century was defined by the effects of the public sector reform. The public sector is placed within the cultural and political environment of each country and the reforms have aimed to redefine the structures of the state organisations in the economy and the relationships such as market-government, government-bureaucracy, government- citizens, bureaucracy-citizens, civil servants-politicians-citizens. The public sector reform, achieved at the managerial systems, organisational structures and regulations levels is accompanied by specific and structural reforms. Accepting the market-type mechanisms instead of bureaucratic mechanisms, meaning not the simple provision of public services but the creation of some governmental “actors”, functioning completely on commercial bases, supporting the development of the partnerships between the public and private sector, introducing privatisation is achieved in view of creating “the facilitating state”. We discuss about “facilities” such as citizens and society involvement in public businesses, making public administration more citizen-friendly and the state closer to the public need. The citizens’ involvement, as customers in the flow of the public service contributes to creating an organic ensemble characterised by two fundamental dimensions: level and type of influence of the customers and the private-public dichotomy. Synthesising, the relationships and market mechanisms enable to the public sector to get closer to the public needs and to create a modern administration based on efficiency, effectiveness and openness towards change.

  5. The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development in partnership with Lithuania targeting full technical and industrial participation in the development of the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnke, J.

    2000-01-01

    Policy of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) in Lithuanian energy sector is described. Since 1994 EBRD take active part in financing of safety upgrades of Ignalina NPP. When in 1999 political decision was made to shut down unit 1 of Ignalina NPP EBRD is prepared to take part in co-financing of decommissioning of unit 1. A special fund - International Ignalina decommissioning support fund - was established under the auspice of EBRD recently. Developed countries, international organisation will be contributors to this fund and EBRD will be managing this fund

  6. The strategies of European energy operators. Which strategic and capitalistic evolutions for the sector on a medium term?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-11-01

    This article presents the content of a market study which aimed at describing the current regulatory context of energy markets in Europe and the degree of openness to competition, at analysing all figures concerning electricity and natural gas in different countries (production, consumption, balance of trade), at analysing development strategies of electricity providers and gas operators and at assessing their strengths and weaknesses, at comparing financial performance of leader groups and at assessing their financial flexibility, and at anticipating the reconfiguration of the sector on a medium term. Fifteen energy companies or operators have been analysed: Centrica, CEZ, E.ON, EDF, EDP, Enel, ENI, Fortum, Gas Natural, GDF Suez, Iberdrola, RWE, SSE, Vattenfall, Verbund

  7. The use of long term agreements to improve energy efficiency in the industrial sector: Overview of the European experiences and proposal for a common framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertoldi, P.

    1999-01-01

    In the European Union efficiency improvements in the industrial sector are regarded as a key element of Member States' strategies to meet their Kyoto target. Besides the traditional policy instruments, such as fiscal and financial aids, minimum efficiency standards, R and D and technology programs, there is an increasing interest by both public authorities and industry for voluntary approaches to improve industrial energy efficiency. In the European context the term voluntary approach is often used to describe a wide range of industry actions including, inter alia: industry covenants, negotiated agreements, long term agreements, self regulations, codes of conduct, benchmarking and monitoring schemes. These voluntary approaches differ in relation to their form, legal status, provisions and enforceability. The paper provides an up-to-date overview of the present status of the different voluntary approaches for the industrial sector in several Member States (the Netherlands, Sweden, Germany, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, and the United Kingdom). The paper will focus on the particular type of voluntary approach implemented in the Netherlands and commonly called Long Term Agreements (LTA). The paper analyses the opportunities and advantages for creating a common EU framework for the conclusion and implementation of LTAs, based on the successful Dutch model. In doing so, the paper intends also to contribute to the approximation of the LTA's essential elements throughout the Community in order to reduce possible distortions of the internal market and of the competitive position of national industries, thus enlarging the acceptability of this instrument by public authorities and industry. For some industrial sectors, which are quite homogeneous throughout the Community and represent a limited number of companies, the paper analyses the advantages of having European LTAs and recommends their implementation. The paper presents the achievable results at EU level in terms of

  8. Production and competition in the European electric sector. 4. report from the research project 'renewable energy in the community's internal market'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjersgaard, A.

    1997-01-01

    The aim is to elucidate the dynamic interactive pricing, competition and market mechanisms that are valid for the European electric power market. The perspective in the report is to analyse the vertical flow of substance and values of energy, the interaction of the actors, and the economic relations. The first link in the vertical chain is the energy raw materials supplies: the reserves and production of fossil and nuclear fuels and the relation to globalization of electricity production. The next link is the production of electricity: the production technologies used and their positioning, the importance of large trans-national utilities in relation to technological changes. The third link is the market and the changes of the market between production, transmission, distribution and consumption of electricity, and the consequences of these changes. Two horizontal regulating sectional views are analysed: The European Union regulations of the electric power sector and the Danish regulations of power supplies. Finally, production and competition of electric power from renewable energy sources, i.e. wind power, in a future European energy market is put into perspective. (LN) 134 refs

  9. Public Sector and Europeanization Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucica Matei

    2006-02-01

    Accepting the market-type mechanisms instead of bureaucratic mechanisms, meaning not the simple provision of public services but the creation of some governmental “actors”, functioning completely on commercial bases, supporting the development of the partnerships between the public and private sector, introducing privatisation is achieved in view of creating “the facilitating state”. We discuss about “facilities” such as citizens and society involvement in public businesses, making public administration more citizen-friendly and the state closer to the public need. The citizens’ involvement, as customers in the flow of the public service contributes to creating an organic ensemble characterised by two fundamental dimensions: level and type of influence of the customers and the private-public dichotomy. Synthesising, the relationships and market mechanisms enable to the public sector to get closer to the public needs and to create a modern administration based on efficiency, effectiveness and openness towards change.

  10. European Home Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.

    2009-01-01

    An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes......An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes...

  11. European scale climate information services for water use sectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Donnelly, Chantal; Strömbäck, Lena; Capell, René; Ludwig, Fulco

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates a climate information service for pan-European water use sectors that are vulnerable to climate change induced hydrological changes, including risk and safety (disaster preparedness), agriculture, energy (hydropower and cooling water use for thermoelectric power) and

  12. Optimization in the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of the energy transition and the developments in the national and international Energy markets constantly require sound analysis and new answers. The symposium ''optimization in the energy sector'' gives an overview of methods and models that can be practically used for decision support. Storage and electromobility as demand flexibility are important factors for the long-term design of the German and European energy system. But methodological aspects such as the consideration of uncertainties at the conference an important place is given. A key issue is also the short and medium term further development of the electricity market design. Not only broadly but also in detail e.g. the standard benefit and intraday markets there is considerable potential for optimization, which will be discussed in the context of technical presentations. And in view of challenging market environment is also new approaches to portfolio management a great importance for the practice. Therefore we are convinced that the Conference and its results for energy companies, public services and new entrants in the energy industry as well are of interest as for consultants, authorities, associations and energy economic research institutes. [de

  13. How does the European Regional Development Fund finance energy efficiency and renewable investments in housing sector in Bulgaria, Poland and Romania?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-11-01

    The European Union (EU) is leading the global fight against climate change, and has made it a top priority. Its ambitious targets are spelt out in the EU Climate Action and Renewable Energy Package which commits Member States to curb their CO_2 emissions by at least 20% by 2020 through improved energy efficiency and use of renewable energy sources. The housing sector, responsible for 40% of the EU CO_2 emissions, represents a huge potential for energy and emissions savings. The policy at EU level is adopted and the facts are clear - we know in which sectors and how to act to achieve the common objectives. The EU even allocates some funds for EE/RES actions in housing sector, e.g. through the Cohesion policy. Since May 2009, all EU Member States can allocate 4% of their total ERDF allocations to energy efficiency measures in housing, in particular social housing. It would seem that all the conditions are favorable but the reality is different - EE/RES actions are still not the priority of the EU Member States and/or the European funds are rarely used for this type of actions. The case of three EU-12 countries - Bulgaria, Poland and Romania - proves that the Structural Funds available for improvement of housing and particularly social housing sector, are not fully used also for the following reasons: Housing and social housing are not the priorities or national budgets allocated to these sectors are not sufficient to co-finance projects supported by the Structural Funds: - In Romanian operational programs, (social) housing is mentioned very vaguely - eligible measures are not specified in details. - In Bulgaria, the priorities in the operational programs are well identified, however municipalities have difficulties to find even 5% co-financing for their EE/RES projects as national budget is not allocated to this type of measures. Administration of the Structural Funds and criteria of their use are complicated; national governments are lacking human capacities to

  14. Croatian Energy Sector Reform - Results Achieved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nota, R.

    2001-01-01

    During the past ten years, the energy sector has passed through significant changes including fundamental market, economic, legislative and institutional aspects of sector operation. As the main goal of the Republic of Croatia is the integration into the European Union, the energy sector reform ought to be conducted in keeping with the present market development processes of the EU in such a way as to fulfil all safety criteria. In view of the above mentioned, the Croatian Parliament brought a number of laws during its session in July 2001 (''Official Gazette'' 68/01): 1. Energy Law 2. Energy Activities Regulation Law 3. Electricity Market Law 4. Gas Market Law 5. Oil and Oil Derivatives Market Law, which present the commencement of the energy sector reform (www.mingo.hr).(author)

  15. Preparation for the competitive European electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mombauer, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Energy - alongside knowledge, creativity and capital - is one of the fundamental necessities of humankind. Modern life is indeed dependent on energy, especially electricity and natural gas, the grid-connected energies, for its power, heating, cooling and traffic. To ensure security in the supply of energy, world energy hunger must be taken into account. Competition for primary energy resources will increase and the processes for their transformation from raw materials into consumable energy will have to be made more efficient, environmentally friendly and sustainable. Research into new sources of energy has to continue. After the respectable results of the industrial sector to decouple growth and energy consumption in future the transport and building sectors will have to intensify their efforts to reduce energy use intensity

  16. European Energy Law. Report VII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, U.; Roggenkamp, M.M. (eds.)

    2010-04-15

    The European Energy Law Report VII presents in four parts an overview of the most important legal developments in the field of EU and national energy and climate change law as discussed at the 2009 European Energy Law Seminar. The first part examines recent developments in EU climate change regulation. It includes an overview of the revision of the EU Directive governing CO2 emissions trading and a more detailed analysis of the new allocation regime, including the auctioning of emission rights. This is followed by an analysis of the competitiveness of the new EU emissions trading Directive and recent developments in the US regarding emissions trading. The second part focuses on the energy liberalisation process and the Third Energy Package. Following an overview of recent developments in EU competition law and the impact of the Sector Inquiry on the energy sector, this part concentrates particularly on the new Internal Energy Market Directives and most particularly on the legality of the unbundling provisions. Subsequently, the focus is on the role of the TSOs. After an analysis of the need for an increased cooperation of the German TSOs, another chapter discusses the need for more consolidation in the European gas transmission market and the role of regulation therein. Is there a new role for nuclear energy? In order to secure long term energy supply, the focus turns again to nuclear energy. The third part of this report discusses two elements of nuclear liability. First, it analyses the issue of the possible privatisation of the nuclear sector and its impact on long term liability. Although the focus is on the UK nuclear sector, a comparison is made with some other regulatory regimes. Next, the role of nuclear energy is discussed as an instrument to reduce CO2 emissions and, more particularly as a means to reach the 20-20-20 targets. The question is raised whether the international rules on civil liability provide sufficient protection to victims of nuclear

  17. European Union Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdalbero, D.R.; Schmitz, B.; Raldow, W.; Poireau, M.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an extensive state of the art of the energy research conducted at European Union level between 1984 and 2006, i.e. from the first to the sixth European Community Framework Programmes (FP1-FP6) for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration (RTD and D). The FP is the main legal tool and financial instrument of EU RTD and D policy. It sets the objectives, priorities and budgets for a period of several years. It has been complemented over time with a number of policy oriented initiatives and notably with the launch of the European Research Area. FP7 will cover the period 2007-2013 and will have a total budget of more than euros 50 billion. Energy has been a main research area in Europe since the founding Treaties (European Coal and Steel Community, European Atomic Energy Community-Euratom and European Economic Community), and energy RTD and D has always been a substantial part of common EU research. Nevertheless, when inflation and successive European enlargements are taken into account, over time the RTD and D effort in the field of energy has decreased significantly in relative terms. In nominal terms it has remained relatively stable at about euros 500 million per year. For the next years (FP7), it is expected that energy will still represent about 10 % of total EU research effort but with an annual budget of more than euros 800 million per year. This article presents a detailed review of the thematic areas and budget in both European nuclear energy research (fusion and fission) and non-nuclear energy research (energy efficiency/rational use of energy, fossil fuels, CO 2 capture and storage, fuel cells and hydrogen, renewable energy sources, strategic energy research/socio-economy). (authors)

  18. and the Energy Sector

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria's harsh economic situation in 2016 has led major industries to look inwards to resolve supply deficits occasioned ... In the electricity sector, however, the influx of imported electrical .... Engineering Infrastructure in a 2014 address.

  19. Short Summary European Reports on Retail Sector, Motor Vehicle Repair and Sales Sector, Food and Beverages Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (Germany).

    This document is composed of European synthesis reports on retail trade, the agro-food sector, and the motor vehicle sales and repair sector. They are based on the most important findings of the European report and the 12 national reports for each sector. Section 1, "Retail Sector," deals in part 1 with the structure of retailing in the…

  20. Actual questions in Slovak and European nuclear sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, V.

    2010-01-01

    The close cohesion of research and education underlines the development of all research areas and contributes to their sustainability. In the paper, new approaches of European Commission (DG RTD Energy) to nuclear power engineering development (focused on area fission and reactor systems) and applications also for Slovak conditions are discussed in details. Research, education and training increase not only economical factor and technical development, but imply the higher level of safety culture by design or operation of nuclear installations. The paper will be focused on the actual questions in frame of Slovak as well as European nuclear sector.

  1. Structural dynamics of innovation networks funded by the European Union in the context of systemic innovation of the renewable energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Moon Jung; Hwang, Jongwoon

    2016-01-01

    Innovation in the renewable energy (RE) sector relies on the concept of systemic innovation, which requires interaction between two innovation aspects: technology exploration and market exploitation. The European Union (EU) has introduced political instruments for systemic RE innovation by integrating resources from different thematic and geographic areas. However, using these instruments to establish an ecosystem for systemic innovation remains unexplored. This study develops a framework for evaluating the systemic innovation performance of networks through a time-series analysis of network structural properties. Overall, EU-funded innovation networks have not evolved in a systemic direction. First, the network exhibits densely connected local clusters for technology exploration and market exploitation of RE innovation, which are disconnected from each other. Over time, the gap between the two phases has weakened with increasing connectivity, but the local clusters supporting either explorative or exploitative activities have diminished. The existing networking linkages among organizations are considered ineffective because their positions in the network tend to display a mismatch with their innovation patterns. This research presents policy suggestions for optimizing the exploration and exploitation activities in the EU's funding program and their complementarities to establish a systemic innovation environment in the RE sector. - Highlights: •This study evaluates the systemic innovation performance of networks. •A time-series analysis of network structural properties was conducted. •The network shows disconnected local clusters for technology and market innovation. •The local clusters supporting exploration and exploitation have weakened with time. •The networks have not evolved into a systemic direction.

  2. East European energy. Romania's energy needs persist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Elliott C.; Denman, Sara B.; Kutnick, Bruce; Schultz, John R.; Foley Hinnen, Patricia; Bylsma, Peter J.

    1992-08-01

    Romania's economic growth and development have been hampered by declining domestic energy production and disrupted fuel imports, creating an energy shortage. Consequently, homes and businesses lack sufficient light and heat, and industrial output has fallen. In order to ensure sufficient energy supplies in the future, Romania is taking steps to decentralize its state-owned energy industries, modernize its outdated facilities and equipment, diversify its fuel sources, and eliminate its inefficient production practices. To accomplish these objectives, Romania needs substantial foreign trade and investment, according to Romanian officials. However, despite government efforts to reform the energy sector and improve the business climate, impediments to U.S. trade with and investment in Romania persist. These barriers include lack of a comprehensive energy strategy, underdeveloped legal and business infrastructures, uncertain economic and political conditions, and the absence of U.S. most-favored-nation trade status. Recent efforts by the Romanian and U.S. governments to overcome the barriers to most-favored-nation status have led to progress in this area. U.S. government and international agencies have initiated a variety of efforts to assist Romania's energy sector. For example, the Agency for International Development (AID) funded an Emergency Energy Program; the U.S. Trade and Development Program is evaluating requests to fund several feasibility studies in the power generation sector; and the Department of Commerce offers energy-related information exchanges and trade missions to Romania. International organizations such as the World Bank and the European Investment Bank have also granted loans for energy sector development projects in Romania

  3. Liberalization of the European gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwark, B.; Finger, M.

    2006-01-01

    Natural gas is the fastest growing fossil fuel worldwide, and by 2030, natural gas will replace coal as the second largest fuel, after oil. In particular, the growing use of natural gas in electricity generation rises the demand and changes the image of gas as substitute for light oil for heating. Due to its complete supply dependency, Switzerland will be affected by the European gas market developments. A new market organization, which requires legal and entrepreneurial decisions in Switzerland, emerges from the liberalization process of the energy markets in the European Union. (author)

  4. Three Target Sectors for a European Investment Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janin, Lionel; Douillard, Pierre

    2014-11-01

    While the president of the European Commission is getting ready to present the 'Juncker package' announced in July 2014, to revive activity in Europe through investment, what are the sectors in which these investments may be concentrated? The overall analysis of investment gaps in the euro zone has confirmed the requirement for a European macro-economic revival effort that involves investment, public or private, undertaken very quickly, even though this diagnosis varies depending on the country. The drivers of a European investment strategy are fiscal, regulatory and financial and are based on the selection of projects for the future. This third 'Note d'analyse' addresses the topic of investment potential in three key sectors: transport, energy and the digital sector, for which the amount of additional investment could reach euro 120 billion per year and thus, over three years, be higher than the forecasts in the Juncker plan. This maximalist amount mainly corresponds to the implementation of an ambitious energy-climate policy. Given current budgetary constraints, carefully selecting the desired investments, for which their social utility must be validated, is imperative: socioeconomic evaluation is the appropriate approach, particularly for taking into account the environmental externalities that now justify significant investments in the ecological transition. (authors)

  5. Sectoral variation in consequences of intra-European labour migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refslund, Bjarke

    2016-01-01

    Intra-European labour migration has divergent labour market consequences across institutional settings and economic sectors. Some sectors experience increasing pressure on industrial relations and labour market segmentation while others do not experience such effects, and it remains unclear how...

  6. Estimation of European Union residential sector space cooling potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubcionis, Mindaugas; Carlsson, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Data on European residential space cooling demands are scarce and often of poor quality. This can be concluded from a review of the Comprehensive Assessments on the energy efficiency potential in the heating and cooling sector performed by European Union Member States under Art. 14 of the Energy Efficiency Directive. This article estimates the potential space cooling demands in the residential sector of the EU and the resulting impact on electricity generation and supply systems using the United States as a proxy. A georeferenced approach was used to establish the potential residential space cooling demand in NUTS-3 regions of EU. The total potential space cooling demand of the EU was estimated to be 292 TW h for the residential sector in an average year. The additional electrical capacity needed was estimated to 79 GW. With proper energy system development strategies, e.g. matching capacity of solar PV with cooling demand, or introduction of district cooling, the stresses on electricity system from increasing cooling demand can be mitigated. The estimated potential of space cooling demand, identified in this paper for all EU Members States, could be used while preparing the next iteration of EU MS Comprehensive Assessments or other energy related studies. - Highlights: • An estimation of EU space cooling demand potential in residential sector is presented. • An estimate of space cooling demand potential is based on using USA data as a proxy. • Significant cooling demand increase can be expected. • Cooling demand increase would lead to increased stress in energy supply systems. • Proper policies and strategies might measurably decrease the impact on energy systems.

  7. Energy sector in transition - technologies and regulatory policies in flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2005-01-01

    Liberalising the energy sector has been followed by a number of new regulatory measures that are argued to maintain a process towards a sustainable energy sector. The article argues based on empirical material from Denmark and other European countries that the EU regulations and especially...... the simple market oriented models do not lead to or secure sustainability....

  8. Does the energy sector call for reform?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granic, Goran; Pesut, Damir; Jandrilovic, Nada; Jelavic, Branka; Zeljko, Mladen

    2007-07-01

    This paper discusses the course of the energy sector reforms in Europe so far, its objectives, achievements, issues, and dilemmas. In particular, long term and security aspects of energy supply of Europe are analyzed. In addition to the legislative changes regarding the open energy market regulation, and primarily the changes concerning electricity and natural gas markets, the past period saw dynamic changes of institutional framework, such as: increasing members of the european Union, increased number of countries aspiring to the EU (candidate countries or potential candidates), and changes in other European countries out of which Russia is the most significant energy producer. The paper analyzes the issue of responsibility between state - regulator - system operator - trader - energy buyer. In Europe, it is more a complex question because the system of responsibility includes the institution of the European Union. Therefore, the relations between EU - state - regulator - system operator - trader - energy buyer are especially important. The paper looks in to the issue of energy company integrations, creation of energy mega-undertakings and their influence on further market development. The question of monopolies now appears in a new form. The conclusions suggest possible measures for institutional influence on energy market development, especially in the network energy systems, which may have a positive impact on system security and stability and markets development and their long term sustainability. (auth)

  9. The ECVET toolkit customization for the nuclear energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceclan, Mihail; Ramos, Cesar Chenel; Estorff, Ulrike von

    2015-01-01

    As part of its support to the introduction of ECVET in the nuclear energy sector, the Institute for Energy and Transport (IET) of the Joint Research Centre (JRC), European Commission (EC), through the ECVET Team of the European Human Resources Observatory for the Nuclear energy sector (EHRO-N), developed in the last six years (2009-2014) a sectorial approach and a road map for ECVET implementation in the nuclear energy sector. In order to observe the road map for the ECVET implementation, the toolkit customization for nuclear energy sector is required. This article describes the outcomes of the toolkit customization, based on ECVET approach, for nuclear qualifications design. The process of the toolkit customization took into account the fact that nuclear qualifications are mostly of higher levels (five and above) of the European Qualifications Framework.

  10. The ECVET toolkit customization for the nuclear energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceclan, Mihail; Ramos, Cesar Chenel; Estorff, Ulrike von [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands). Inst. for Energy and Transport

    2015-04-15

    As part of its support to the introduction of ECVET in the nuclear energy sector, the Institute for Energy and Transport (IET) of the Joint Research Centre (JRC), European Commission (EC), through the ECVET Team of the European Human Resources Observatory for the Nuclear energy sector (EHRO-N), developed in the last six years (2009-2014) a sectorial approach and a road map for ECVET implementation in the nuclear energy sector. In order to observe the road map for the ECVET implementation, the toolkit customization for nuclear energy sector is required. This article describes the outcomes of the toolkit customization, based on ECVET approach, for nuclear qualifications design. The process of the toolkit customization took into account the fact that nuclear qualifications are mostly of higher levels (five and above) of the European Qualifications Framework.

  11. Concessions in energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livada, T.

    1999-01-01

    Commercial use of natural resources is of essential importance for electricity, oil and gas networks and systems. The paper analyses the existing legal framework, i.e. relevant legislation and special regulations, which define requirements and procedures necessary for obtaining concessions in the field of energy, i.e. use of water power, maritime resources (marine area and ports), as well as exploitation of oil, gas and other fossil sources. In order to protect state interests, decisions related to the concessions for commercial use of natural resources, legally defined as of interest for the Republic of Croatia, are made by the highest state institutions. It is stipulated that concessions may generally be granted both to domestic or foreign physical as well as legal entities for a period not exceeding 99 years. Concessions for gas and thermal energy supply and utilities are granted by institutions of local self-government for a maximum period of 30 years. Public bidding usually precedes the granting of concessions. In order to implement the rights defined by the concession agreement, concession owners are obliged to pay the concession fee. The exact amount, stipulated by law, varies according to the type of the natural resource for which the concession is to be granted, the purpose of concession, the scope of activities, the size of the surface involved, the estimated profitability and the assessment of the project's environmental impact. All concession fees are fiscal categories and the major part of these funds contributes towards the state budget revenues. Utility concession fees providing income for cities and municipalities, as designated funds, represent an exception in this respect. The paper does not provide answers to the amount of the annual state budget revenues from concession fees for specific natural resources, and the issue of whether the present concessionaires meet their financial obligations as defined by the concession agreement also remains

  12. Energy conservation in agriculture sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggo, J.N.

    1991-01-01

    The annual production of foodgrains in India rose from 50.8 million tonnes in 1950-51 to 178 million tonnes in 1989-90. One of the factors which led to this impressive growth is the continued increase in input of mechanization and energy in the agricultural sector by way of tractors running on diesel and pumps (for water supply) based on diesel and electricity. Electricity consumption in agricultural sector rose from 833 million kWh in 1960-61 to 47000 million kWh in 1990-91 and is further expected to rise to 81.8 TWH in 1999-2000. Considering the heavy investments required for production and supply of energy, it has become imperative to avoid wasteful use of energy and to use energy more efficiently. This can be done by : (1) Changing the electricity tariff structure from the present horse power related rates to energy consumption related rates. This will induce farmers to avoid waste in energy use. (2) Adopting energy efficiency measures. These measures are : (1) replacement of inefficient foot valves, suction pipes and delivery pipes of the pump sets, (2) increasing power factor of electric motors used for pumps sets, (3) reducing distribution losses over LT lines, and (4) optimizing use of fertilizers. This optimization will indirectly conserve energy by reducing electricity consumption by fertilizer industry. (M.G.B.). 5 refs., 4 tabs

  13. State of the Art on Energy Efficiency in Agriculture, Country data on energy consumption in different agroproduction sectors in the European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de C.L.M.; Buisonje, de F.E.; Ellen, H.H.; Stanghellini, C.; Voort, van der M.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Energy efficiency is the goal of efforts to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services. The general term "energy efficiency", when applied to agriculture, reflects changes in technology, governmental and EC policies – including the Common Agricultural Policy, climate

  14. The European market of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-09-01

    This market study on renewable energies presents: 1 - the different renewable energy industries for power generation: the field of renewable energies (hydropower, wind power, solar energy, geothermal energy and biomass power plants) and their common points, their characteristics, advantages and constraints; 2 - the political and regulatory context with its ambitious goals: main steps of worldwide negotiations, Europe and the management of CO 2 emissions, stiffening of the environmental regulation, the energy/climate package and the efforts to be borne by the different member states; 3 - Economy of the sector and the necessary public support: investment and production costs by industry, wholesale prices and competitiveness of the different power generation means, government's incentives for projects profitability; 4 - dynamics of the European market of renewable energies: energy-mix and evolution of the renewable energies contribution in the world and in the European Union, key-figures by country and by industry (installed capacity, production, turnover, employment); 5 - medium-term development perspectives: 2020 prospect scenarios, evolution of the energy mix, perspectives of development for each industry; 6 - the strengths in presence in the domain of facilities: main manufacturers, market shares, innovations, vertical integration, external growth; 7 - the strengths in presence in the domain of power facilities operation: main European operators, position and ranking, installed capacities, projects portfolio; 8 - medium-term perspectives of reconfiguration: best-positioned operators in a developing market, future of European manufacturers with respect to Asian ones, inevitable concentration in the operation sector. (J.S.)

  15. Sectoral energy demand data: Sources and Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ounali, A.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter of the publication is dealing with Sectoral Energy Demand Data giving details about the Sources and Issues. Some comments are presented on rural energy surveys. Guidelines for the Definition and Desegregation of Sectoral Energy Consumption is given and Data Necessary for Sectoral Energy Demand Analysis is discussed

  16. The European energy sector: lessons to survive in a hostile environment. The Watt's Next Conseil's analysis of 25 European energy operators - July 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heddebaut, Damien; Mons, Ludovic

    2015-07-01

    This publication indicates the economic weight of 25 European energy operators in 2014, their cumulated turnover, growth, EBITDA, net result, financial profitability, investments, debts, stock exchange value, share, and staff. It describes and discusses the current trends (decrease of demand and of gross prices, lesser use of thermal plants) and their financial consequences for the operator situation and strategy. Different aspects are also discussed by considering the different operators or them as a whole: turnover and its evolution (identification of the main penalizing factors), continuous decline of the EBITDA-to-turnover rate, the burden of impairment losses for the result (but with a possible promising future), debt reduction while de-leveraging remains a priority, evolution of investments, and importance of R and D for innovation

  17. Energy Performance of Buildings - The European Approach to Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the European approach to improve sustainability in the building sector, which has a very high potential for considerable reduction of energy consumption in the coming years. By approving the Energy Performance in Buildings Directive the European Union has taken a strong...... leadership role in promoting energy efficiency in buildings in Europe, that will be the most powerful instrument developed to date for the building sector in Europe....

  18. Breaking up monopolistic structures in the Internal Market. Internationalization and globalization in the energy supply sector of the European Union; Vielfalt in der Einheit. Internationalisierung und Globalisierung in der europaeischen Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafhausen, F. [Ministerialrat im Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, Berlin (Germany)

    2001-10-01

    The European Commission and its efforts for breaking up monopolistic structures in the network energy sector of the EU are reviewed. (orig./CB) [German] Internationalisierung und Globalisierung sind Schlagworte, die heute jeder nutzt. In der Regel werden Prozesse, die mit diesen Attributen versehen werden, mit der Vorstellung von einer Vereinheitlichung verbunden und deshalb vielfach auch abgelehnt. Europaeisierung und Internationalisierung charakterisieren auf der europaeischen Ebene nunmehr bereits seit einigen Jahren Entwicklungen auf Maerkten, die in der Vergangenheit traditionell von Monopolen gepraegt waren. Die Europaeische Kommission bemueht sich mit Beharrlichkeit, verkrustete Strukturen in der leitungsgebundenen Energieversorgung aufzubrechen und die Kraefte des Marktes zum Nutzen der Verbraucher einzusetzen. (orig.)

  19. IMPLEMENTATION OF BASEL III IN THE EUROPEAN BANKING SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Sbarcea

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, which is part of a larger research project aimed at the expected impact of Basel III on commercial banks in Romania, I decided to analyse the implementation and transposition of the new international prudential requirements into European regulations, which are of particular interest for the Romanian banking sector. I started this analysis by highlighting the peculiarities of the European banking sector at aggregate level, but also as a cross-country survey, to later highlight the views of European regulations on prudential supervision and differences to international regulations.

  20. World energy and the Venezuelan energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrillo, F

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study of world energy and the Venezuelan energy sector is to provide a comprehensive survey of this basic element essential to life itself and to the progress of humankind. It begins with a brief historical review from the beginning of the twentieth century to the present day and then gives, most importantly, a forecast for the twenty-first century which takes account of past and present trends and looks towards the end of the present century and to the beginning of the future.

  1. The Harmonization of Public Sector Accounting in European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam; Alijarde, Isabel Brusca; Chow, Danny

    accounting standards in Member States. The suitability of IPSAS for the Member States” (European Commission, 2013b). This report takes into account the Public Consultation on the suitability of the IPSAS for EU Member States. The European Commission (2013b, p. 8) considers that IPSASs cannot easily......The European Commission is working on several fronts to achieve the implementation of uniform and comparable accruals-based accounting practices for the European Union Member States and for all the sectors of General Government, that is, Central Government, State Government, Local Government...... and Social Security, considering that at the same time it can help ensure high quality statistics (European Commission, 2013a). In 2012 Eurostat issued a Public Consultation on the suitability of the IPSAS for EU Member States, later publishing the report “Towards implementing harmonised public sector...

  2. Report of the European Energy Law seminar 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holwerda, J.M.; Mueller, H.K.; Mutsaers, A.

    2011-01-01

    The 24th European Energy Law Seminar was held in Noordwijk aan Zee, Netherlands, 11-12 April 2011. The first day attention was paid to the liberalization of the energy markets, the climate and energy. The second day was dedicated to energy security, the upstream sector and development of energy infrastructure. [nl

  3. Embodied energy use in China's industrial sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhu; Geng Yong; Lindner, Soeren; Zhao Hongyan; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Guan Dabo

    2012-01-01

    As the world’s top energy consumer, China is facing a great challenge to solve its energy supply issue. In this paper energy use from all industrial sectors in China’s economy of 2007 was explored by conducting an extended environmental input–output analysis. We compare the energy consumption embodied in the final demand for goods and services from 29 sectors with the energy demand required for the actual production process in each sector. Two different viewpoints for sectoral energy use have been presented: energy use is directly allocated to the producer entity, and energy use is reallocated to sector’s supply chain from consumption perspective. Our results show that considerable amount of energy use is embodied in the supply chain, especially for “Construction” and “Other Service Activities” sectors, which is not detected if energy use is allocated on a production basis. When further dividing embodied energy consumption into direct energy consumption and indirect energy consumption, total indirect energy consumption is much higher than that of total direct energy consumption, accounting for 80.6% of total embodied energy consumption in 2007. Our results provide a more holistic picture on sectoral energy consumption and therefore can help decision-makers make more appropriate policies. - Highlights: ► A hybrid IO-LCA model was employed to analyze China’s energy use at sectoral level. ► A case study on China’s sectoral energy consumption is done. ► Construction and service sectors are actually energy intensive from the supply chain perspectives. ► Upstream and downstream ectoral collaboration along the whole supply chain is necessary. ► Energy conservation policies should be based upon a comprehensive analysis on sectoral energy use.

  4. Energy policies of the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.K.

    1994-09-01

    This report takes stock of what has been achieved and where the European Community is going in terms of energy policy and also looks at the full extent of the Union's energy sector competances. The chapters deal with the European Commission's programme to create an internal energy market through implementing new Directives and by means of an approach through competition. A further two chapters concentrate on environmental policy with respect to emissions control and the greenhouse effect. Two broad policy areas - Community Initiative and trans-European networks - are examined in a consideration of the connections between energy and economic and social cohesion. Security of supply is the fourth and traditional pillar of energy policy to be considered. Three policy areas which do not fit into these first four categories are dealt with in individual chapters. These are: nuclear issues, research and development, and a wider Europe. A concluding chapter suggests that there is an urgent need for a new way of dealing with energy in the European Union which has a myriad of policies affecting energy but no energy policy. The appendices include a document summary for each of the main chapters and a glossary. (UK)

  5. The energy sector in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This article first outlines that Argentina produces an important part of its hydrocarbon consumption and comment various aspects of this production: hydrocarbons are at the heart of the Argentinian energetic model; conventional hydrocarbon reserves are however decreasing; the public operator remains the main actor even though the market is opened to multinational companies. The article then describes the crisis faced by this energetic model: the energy balance is now a burden; the increasing unbalance between production and consumption can be explained by supply-related as well as demand-related factors; authorities must intervene on hydrocarbon prices and subsidize the oil price on the domestic market. It appears that the future for hydrocarbons in Argentina relies on non-conventional hydrocarbons. Bio-fuels, a key sector of the Argentinian economy, are a matter of trade dispute with the EU and the USA. Apart from hydroelectricity (some new projects are planned), renewable energies are very few developed in Argentina. Appendices propose a graph of the distribution of energy consumption among the different sources, a map indicating locations of the main exploited hydrocarbon deposits, a presentation of mechanisms implemented to subsidize hydrocarbon production

  6. Nuclear Energy and European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picamal, B.

    2010-01-01

    The interest shown by the European Institutions in the energy debates, in which the nuclear energy is included as a key component within the energy mix, is obvious. Climate change and energy supply have pushed some countries to publicly express their interest for developing the nuclear energy. These positions are however in contradiction with some others within the European Union which are a lot more critical towards this type of energy and where face-out policies still prevail. Despite the fact that the use of the nuclear energy will remain within the competence of each Member State, the European Union will continue to play a prominent role in the development of an energy strategy based on a low carbon economy. (Author)

  7. Soviet and East European energy databook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    For the USSR, energy data is assembled under the following main headings: energy and the economy; production; engineering; exploration; transport of fuel; refining; consumption by sector; employment; finance; trade; electricity. There are 162 tables. Five tables of data on Eastern Europe as a region cover production of energy, consumption, and exports of crude and oil products. Using similar broad headings as these for the USSR, a further 184 tables give data for the following individual countries: Bulgaria; Czechoslovakia; East Germany; Hungary; Poland; Romania; Yugoslavia. The data has been accumulated from Soviet and East European sources, mainly newspapers, journals, annual yearbooks and private contacts and the chief of these are listed. (UK)

  8. Energy Sector Liberalisation and Privatisation in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlome, J. E.

    2001-01-01

    Due to its geographical situation, Switzerland is important for the transit lines of electricity and gas through the Alps. But Switzerland is not a member of the European Union. Furthermore, Swiss citizens enjoy extended direct-democratic rights. The author presents the story of energy sector liberalisation and privatisation in their three phases: 1. The late nineties: The phase of expectations 2. The phase of legislation: Open electricity market and elements of sustainable development as mitigating factors 3. The new awareness: Public service The Swiss citizens will have to adopt the law installing an open electricity market in June or September 2002. For the case of a (still very possible) rejection of the law, the author presents a no-go-solution and three realistic scenarios.(author)

  9. Nuclear energy: the European way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The dossier published in this issue deals with the present and future situation of nuclear energy in Europe. What could be the trends of the nuclear development in the Europe of tomorrows. That global question is answered by pointing out the different data related to the present state of european nuclear programmes. Such an overview is followed by a serie of articles dealing with definite items: the actions implemented by the European Communities Commission: the electricity market and EDF policy in the field of european electric grids; the trends of nuclear cycle industry and the perfecting of the future european nuclear reactor

  10. LIBERALISATION OF THE ELECTRICITY SECTOR IN THE EUROPEAN UNION: PRESENT STATE AND SOME OPEN QUESTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, A.

    2007-07-01

    The liberalisation of the electricity sector started approximately 10 to 15 years ago, depending on the country. Nonetheless, there is still no general agreement on the liberalisation model this sector should follow, mainly because of the discussion of whether the liberalisation is an end in itself, or a means for -basically- lower energy prices. The complexity of the sector and the resilience of the incumbents' market power have currently placed the liberalisation process at a crossroad. In the EU, entrenched national interests are another obstacle to deal with. In this article, we first give an overview of the different liberalisation processes in the electricity sector and then summarize the pending challenges from an EU perspective. Next, we argue that the EU should focus on conditions aiming at implementing an effective liberalisation process, rather than on a formal liberalisation approach. We show how asymmetries between non-sector regulations in the European states and among companies create an uneven playing field, contrary to the European vision of an internal competitive energy market. We end the article studying the compatibility of the current European regulatory framework with the upcoming challenges in the energy sector. (auth)

  11. European energy survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-12-01

    This economic analysis deals with the energy situation in Europe. The following aspects are presented: the socio-economical convergencies, the improvement of the energy situation, the difference for each countries of the energy balance sheets and the new concept of competition. Tables and statistics support the analysis. (A.L.B.)

  12. European Utility Requirements: European nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komsi, M.; Patrakka, E.

    1997-01-01

    The work procedure and the content of the European Utility Requirements (EUR) concerning the future LWRs is described in the article. European Utility Requirements, produced by utilities in a number of European countries, is a document specifying the details relating to engineered safety, operating performance, reliability and economics of the reactors to be built by manufacturers for the European market

  13. Energy demand analysis in the industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapillone, B.

    1991-01-01

    This Chapter of the publication is dealing with Energy Demand Analysis in the Industrial Sector.Different estimates of energy consumption in Industry taking Thailand as an example is given. Major energy consuming industrial sectors in selected Asian countries are given. Suggestion for the analysis of the energy consumption trends in industry, whether at the overall level or at the sub-sector level (e.g. food) using the conventional approach , through energy/output ratio is given. 4 refs, 7 figs, 13 tabs

  14. Transport Sector Energy 2010; Transportsektorns energianvaendning 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-04-15

    Today, transport accounts for a quarter of Sweden's energy consumption which consists almost exclusively of fossil fuels. But with the increasing demands for reduced emissions of greenhouse gases, the sector's conversion to other fuels or energy sources will have a major impact the next years. This situation is expected to expand the requirements for statistics of energy consumption of the transport sector. The publication is divided into two parts. Chapter 2 describes the official energy statistics for the transport sector and Chapter 3 presents a breakdown of energy use in passenger and freight services for the respective modes.

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions from the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbuthi, P.N.

    1998-01-01

    This study quantifies greenhouse gas emissions from Kenya's energy activities. It is organised in four major sections, namely, an overview of the energy sector; data sources and methodology of analysis; results and recommendations for future climate change mitigation

  16. Exploiting Synergies in European Wind and Hydrogen Sectors: A Cost-benefit Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    SHAW SUZANNE; PETEVES ESTATHIOS

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines an assessment of the perspectives for exploiting synergies between European wind and hydrogen energy sectors, where wind energy conversion to hydrogen is used as a common strategy for reducing network management costs in high wind energy penetration situations, and for production of renewable hydrogen. The attractiveness of this approach, referred to here as a ¿¿wind-hydrogen strategy¿¿, is analysed using a costbenefit approach to evaluate the final impact...

  17. Impact of carbon constraint on the European electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankeviciute, Loreta

    2010-01-01

    Two sets of factors will be decisive for the future evolution of European electricity sector: on the one hand, the necessity of new wave of investments for the renewal and the expansion of production capacities and, on the other hand, the emergency and the reinforcement of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) constraints imposed by European policies and directives. The general idea of thesis is that European Emissions Trading system (ETS) is the instrument that can facilitate the decarbonization of European electricity system. However, the necessary conditions ought to be brought together in the context of liberalisation in terms of risk management, market architecture and setting up of the complementary public policy instruments, in order for the carbon price signal to be effective. The purpose of the thesis is to provide details on these conditions and to examine the potentials scenarios for the evolution of European electricity production mix under the carbon constraint. The introduction of liberalisation in the electricity industry conditions significantly the investment choice. The analysis of theoretical market model allows demonstrating organisational inadequacy for developing an optimal technological mix and for adapting to long-term issues due to the extreme difficulty of interpreting the price signals. Indeed, the logic of a market and a concurrence disadvantages the investments in capital-intensive technologies, even though some of them less polluting like renewable energies, nuclear, hydraulic and thermal technologies integrating carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). In face of numerous uncertainties, the role of long-term risk management becomes therefore crucial. The employment of transaction cost theory allows studying the combinations of vertical arrangements that remain necessary in order to manage the risk and to facilitate the investments (e.g. vertical integration). The introduction of ETS overlaps with the market risks inherent to liberalisation

  18. Multi-sectoral action for child safety-a European study exploring implicated sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtes, Beatrice; Schröder-Bäck, Peter; Förster, Katharina; MacKay, Morag; Vincenten, Joanne; Brand, Helmut

    2017-06-01

    Injury to children in Europe, resulting in both death and disability, constitutes a significant burden on individuals, families and society. Inequalities between high and low-income countries are growing. The World Health Organisation Health 2020 strategy calls for inter-sectoral collaboration to address injury in Europe and advocates the whole of government and whole of society approaches to wicked problems. In this study we explore which sectors (e.g. health, transport, education) are relevant for four domains of child safety (intentional injury, water, road and home safety). We used the organigraph methodology, originally developed to demonstrate how organizations work, to describe the governance of child safety interventions. Members of the European Child Safety Alliance, working in the field of child safety in 24 European countries, drew organigraphs of evidence-based interventions. They included the different actors involved and the processes between them. We analyzed the organigraphs by counting the actors presented and categorizing them into sectors using a pre-defined analysis framework. We received 44 organigraphs from participants in 24 countries. Twenty-seven sectors were identified across the four domains. Nine of the 27 identified sectors were classified as 'core sectors' (education, health, home affairs, justice, media, recreation, research, social/welfare services and consumers). This study reveals the multi-sectoral nature of child safety in practice. It provides information for stakeholders working in child safety to help them implement inter-sectoral child safety interventions taking a whole-of-government and whole-of-society approach to health governance. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  19. European energy supplies; some considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahgat, G.

    2009-01-01

    European leaders are increasing conscious of their heavy dependence on energy supplies from Russia. In an attempt to articulate a strategy to improve energy security and Solidarity Action Plan in november 2008. This essay examines the E U-Russia energy partnership and argues that despite a number of supply-interruptions, of threats of interruptions, the interdependence between Brussels and Moscow is likely to endure, at least the foreseeable future. [it

  20. Environmental issues of Ukrainian energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streimikiene, D.

    2005-01-01

    Ukraine's power sector is the twelfth-largest in the world in terms of installed capacity, with 54 GW and Ukraine still obtains over 50% of its electricity usage from nuclear source. In terms of energy consumption per dollar, Ukraine has one of the highest levels of energy and carbon intensity in the world. The country has very huge energy sector which cause a significant impact on environment

  1. HR in the Canadian renewable energy sector: HRSDC situational analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, B.; Ferguson, T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlines the human resources needs in the Canadian renewable energy sector. Emerging energies sector has many skills needs, some of which need to be developed. Emerging energy sector includes wind, solar photovoltaic (PV) and bio energy

  2. The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and Lithuania in Partnership are Targeting Ignalina NPP Decommissioning Support and Energy Sector Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, V.; Grabia, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Republic of Lithuania and the EBRD have developed very effective working relations since the establishment of the Bank in 1991. The Bank is a major investor in Lithuania and has committed 400.4 million Euro in loans and equity investments for a large number of private and public sector projects. In addition, the EBRD supports Lithuania as manager of special international grant funds

  3. The strategy of European energy utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakey, S.; Kramer, M.; Sauquet, P.; Sire, D.; Venet, D.; Lenoir, J.

    2007-01-01

    After a relatively quiet period, the concentration movement in the energy sector is growing up again. What will be the limit of this dynamics? What will be tomorrow's European energy actors? Will it be a mix of big groups, medium-size and small companies with a specialized activity like today, or only big groups with multi-energy supply and production activities which will directly supply the end-users? What is the provisions foreseen by such groups to ensure the security of supplies? What are the synergies in terms of size and/or multi-energy offers? Five participants and a journalist have debated these questions at this round table. (J.S.)

  4. Consumers satisfaction in the energy sector in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutua, John; Ngui, Dianah; Osiolo, Helen; Aligula, Eric; Gachanja, James

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes consumer satisfaction in the energy sector in Kenya to assess the quality and level of service delivery. By use of the European Consumer Satisfaction Index (ECSI), the paper estimates consumer satisfaction in biomass, petroleum, electricity and renewable energy subsectors. The findings are that consumer satisfaction is highest in the renewable energy sub sector at 74.7% followed by petroleum at 62.8%. The electricity sub sector has the lowest consumer satisfaction of 53.06%. Further, it is found that the image of renewable energy providers is also the highest at 72.5% followed by that of petroleum companies at 63.1%. In the electricity sub sector, perceived value scored the highest at 64.2%. The paper concludes that image of a service provider, loyalty of consumers, consumer expectations, perceived value, perceived quality and the way complains are handled are very important factors that determine consumer satisfaction levels. It is recommended that for monitoring and evaluation purposes in the performance of the energy sector, the Energy RegulatoryCommission(ERC) could use the consumer satisfaction index level to evaluate whether the regulatory policies and their implementation are bearing fruit where a high index would be associated with good performance and vice versa. - Highlights: ► The paper estimates consumer satisfaction in biomass, petroleum, electricity and renewable energy subsectors. ► Consumer satisfaction is highest in the renewable energy sub sector at 74.7%. ► The electricity sub sector has the lowest consumer satisfaction of 53.06%. ► Image of renewable energy providers is also the highest at 72.5%. ► Factors explaining consumer satisfaction are; Image, consumers’ loyalty, expectations, perceived value, and perceived quality.

  5. Liberalising European electricity markets: opportunities and risks for a sustainable power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringel, M.

    2003-01-01

    The process of liberalising European electricity markets, encompassing a wide range of restructuring activities, has mainly been spurred by the attempt to increase the economic efficiency of the whole sector. This process might be used to trigger a development towards a sustainable power sector by increasing the use of renewable energy sources and enhancing energy efficiency on the supply and demand side. However, by taking a closer look at the current trends of the European electricity markets, it becomes obvious that the liberalisation not only implies opportunities but also risks for the creation of a sustainable power sector. Many of these risks are due to market distortions and imperfections caused by the delay in creating a fully functional single European market. Thus, in the short-term, the market liberalisation tends to constitute more risks than opportunities without government actions to prevent these risks. In the long run, though, the efficiency gains of the sector and the appearance of new market factors are likely to bring forth the opportunities of liberalisation and actively foster a transformation towards a sustainable electricity sector. (author)

  6. Modelling energy demand of Croatian industry sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medić, Zlatko Bačelić; Pukšec, Tomislav; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2014-01-01

    Industry represents one of the most interesting sectors when analysing Croatian final energy demand. Croatian industry represents 20% of nation's GDP and employs 25% of total labour force making it a significant subject for the economy. Today, with around 60 PJ of final energy demand...... it is the third most energy intensive sector in Croatia after transport and households. Implementing mechanisms that would lead to improvements in energy efficiency in this sector seems relevant. Through this paper, long-term energy demand projections for Croatian industry will be shown. The central point...... for development of the model will be parameters influencing the industry in Croatia. Energy demand predictions in this paper are based upon bottom-up approach model. IED model produces results which can be compared to Croatian National Energy Strategy. One of the conclusions shown in this paper is significant...

  7. Long Term Outlook of Energy Sector in Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dajic, N.; Mesarovic, M.

    2008-01-01

    Major Serbian energy policy goals set up by the new Energy Law (2004) emerge from the purpose to establish qualitatively new working and development conditions inside the energy production and consumption sectors under the new circumstances in the country and in the region of South Eastern Europe. This is expected to give a new impetus to the economic development of the Republic of Serbia by increasing energy efficiency, intensifying the use of renewable energy sources and reducing harmful emissions from energy production and consumption sectors, as well as to ease integration into regional and European energy markets. The above has also been de?ned by the 'Strategy of Serbian Energy Sector Development by the Year 2015' (adopted by the Serbian Parliament in 2005) and in more details by the 'Programme of the Implementation of the Strategy by the Year 2012' (adopted by the Serbian Government in 2007). Based on these strategic and other documents, which were drawn up with participation of the Serbian WEC MC as well, this paper presents a vision of the Serbian energy sector development during the period up to the year 2030.(author)

  8. The European wind energy programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beurskens, H.J.M.; Lalas, D.

    1993-01-01

    A general review is given of national wind energy programmes in European countries. First, tendencies of the past wind energy programmes are described and linked to the present developments. Not only the separate aspects are reviewed (R+D, wind turbine development, market stimulation, utility involvement, regulatory issues and operational experiences), but also the synergetic aspects of their integration is addressed. The main conclusion is that the integration of R+D, industrial development and market stimulation works. 4 ills., 3 tabs

  9. Analysis of sectoral energy conservation in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Mofleh, Anwar; Taib, Soib; Salah, Wael [School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Mujeebu, M. Abdul [School of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2009-06-15

    The electrical energy consumption in Malaysia has increased sharply in the past few years, and modern energy efficient technologies are desperately needed for the national energy policy. This article presents a comprehensive picture of the current status of energy consumption and various energy conservation options viable for Malaysian environment. A detailed survey is made to assess the consumption pattern and the existing techniques for energy efficiency. Based on the survey, the feasibility of improving the available systems and adopting new programs in different sectors is investigated. The study reveals the fact that the energy conservation policy of the country has been fairly improved in the last ten years. However the country has to pay more attention to this area and make urgent measures to adopt more energy efficient technologies in various sectors. (author)

  10. Analysis of sectoral energy conservation in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mofleh, Anwar; Taib, Soib; Mujeebu, M. Abdul; Salah, Wael

    2009-01-01

    The electrical energy consumption in Malaysia has increased sharply in the past few years, and modern energy efficient technologies are desperately needed for the national energy policy. This article presents a comprehensive picture of the current status of energy consumption and various energy conservation options viable for Malaysian environment. A detailed survey is made to assess the consumption pattern and the existing techniques for energy efficiency. Based on the survey, the feasibility of improving the available systems and adopting new programs in different sectors is investigated. The study reveals the fact that the energy conservation policy of the country has been fairly improved in the last ten years. However the country has to pay more attention to this area and make urgent measures to adopt more energy efficient technologies in various sectors.

  11. Challenges and policies in Indonesia's energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutu, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Fossil fuels are central to Indonesia's energy policy, and its main source of export revenues. However, insufficient investment, the lack of transport infrastructure and an unwieldy regulatory environment are inhibiting the sector from reaching its full potential. Looking ahead, growing environmental concerns combined with sharp falls in coal prices and the on-going shale gas revolution call into question the sustainability of an energy strategy based almost exclusively on fossil fuels. This viewpoint challenges Indonesia's current energy policy and proposes ways to increase its energy efficiency and use of renewables. In particular, its gas sector should be further developed to plug the gap until sufficient renewable energy, especially geothermal, comes on line. Government control over the oil industry via state-owned Pertamina should be gradually reduced. Clarifying, streamlining and publicising simple regulations in energy, especially regarding land rights and on-shore processing, and removing foreign-ownership restrictions will help bring much needed investment. The pressure on the environment of natural resource exploitation should also be addressed by properly defining property rights and regulations regarding forest land, and implementing a positive implicit carbon price. - Highlights: • Indonesia's energy sector faces many regulatory, environmental and infrastructure hurdles. • Indonesia's energy policy can be improved through greater use of renewables, especially geothermal. • The gas sector should be further developed until more renewable energy come on line. • Government control over the oil industry should be reduced to boost investment. • Clarifying and simplifying regulations is key to attracting foreign companies and protecting the environment.

  12. The comparison and coordination of national policies and programmes in the energy research and development sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Inventory of programmes and expenditures in the field of energy research and development, which are financed from the public sector funds of the Member States and of the European Communities (1974-1976)

  13. Energy-only and capacity markets and the economics of the power sector in a simulation of the Northwest European power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hers, Sebastiaan; Redl, Christian; Wijk, Pieter van der; Slot, Thijs

    2013-01-01

    Rising concern with regard to generation adequacy and the ability of energy-only electricity markets to deliver required investments induced debates, regulatory interventions, and consideration of new market mechanisms in several EU member states. Results based on model simulations concerning guaranteed supply safety are presented. (orig.)

  14. Energy-only and capacity markets and the economics of the power sector in a simulation of the Northwest European power market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hers, Sebastiaan; Redl, Christian; Wijk, Pieter van der; Slot, Thijs [DNV KEMA Energy and Sustainability, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2013-11-01

    Rising concern with regard to generation adequacy and the ability of energy-only electricity markets to deliver required investments induced debates, regulatory interventions, and consideration of new market mechanisms in several EU member states. Results based on model simulations concerning guaranteed supply safety are presented. (orig.)

  15. Electricity sector abounds with energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, P.

    2006-01-01

    This short article takes a look at Swiss energy utilities and provides a brief review of the current state of the electricity business in Switzerland. Increasing turnover has lead to increased profits. The situation in five leading utilities is looked at and commented on. The various activities of the utilities are discussed. Apart from providing normal power supply, these range from international power trading and investment through to the generation and sale of renewable forms of energy such as photovoltaics and wind power

  16. Competition within the energy sector and State regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, A.; Jess Olsen, O.

    1995-10-01

    It is presumed that energy markets will be liberalized. Questions discussed are how the Danish electricity and gas sectors are to be re-regulated in order to ensure that this goal is reached in the most satisfactory manner (cheaper energy supply under competitive conditions) and whether there will be a conflict between the goal of liberalization and the environmental goals of clean technology and energy conservation. It is suggested that a compulsory splitting up of the two regional power associations in Denmark should not be necessary. Transmission and distribution must continue to be regulated as these are natural monopolies not compatible with competition. District heating will still be a monopoly and its prices must be closely regulated to prevent soaring. The opening up of the European gas market to competition will threaten Danish energy utilities. The increasing compulsory use of natural gas in cogeneration plants to politically determined high prices is not sustainable under competitive conditions. Energy saving activities should not be affected. Energy surcharges are attractive measures on a liberalized market. The regulation of competition ought to be incorporated explicitly as a restriction in the Ministry of Energy's energy policy regulation. Energy utilities could be excluded from participation in price setting. International regulation of competition will demand a clarification of the separation of regulatory competence between the member states and the European Commission. It will also be necessary to adjust the Danish regulation of the electricity sector to the future Scandinavian system. (AB) 77 refs

  17. Draft European resolution on energy transition within the European Union. Nr 597

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michels, Thierry

    2018-01-01

    After references to European and international directives or agreements, this document aims at drawing up new flexible rules to promote energy transition within the EU. It therefore states the French National Assembly opinion on issues related to the reduction of European greenhouse emissions, the revision of the Carbon Emissions Trading Scheme, rules concerning the sharing of the burden to reduce these emissions in sectors not covered by the ETS, the revision of rules concerning energy efficiency and the energy performance of buildings, the revision of rules concerning renewable energies, the revision of rules in the electric power sector, the governance of the Union of energy, the revision of rules concerning the Agency of the Cooperation of Energy Regulators, the consideration of social impacts of energy transition, the Brexit, and the Paris agreement

  18. The impact of climate change on the European energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowling, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Climate change can affect the economy via many different channels in many different sectors. The POLES global energy model has been modified to widen the coverage of climate change impacts on the European energy system. The impacts considered are changes in heating and cooling demand in the residential and services sector, changes in the efficiency of thermal power plants, and changes in hydro, wind (both on- and off-shore) and solar PV electricity output. Results of the impacts of six scenarios on the European energy system are presented, and the implications for European energy security and energy imports are presented. Main findings include: demand side impacts (heating and cooling in the residential and services sector) are larger than supply side impacts; power generation from fossil-fuel and nuclear sources decreases and renewable energy increases; and impacts are larger in Southern Europe than in Northern Europe. There remain many more climate change impacts on the energy sector that cannot currently be captured due to a variety of issues including: lack of climate data, difficulties translating climate data into energy-system-relevant data, lack of detail in energy system models where climate impacts act. This paper does not attempt to provide an exhaustive analysis of climate change impacts in the energy sector, it is rather another step towards an increasing coverage of possible impacts. - Highlights: • Expanded coverage of climate change impacts on European energy system. • Demand side impacts are larger than supply side impacts. • Power from fossil and nuclear sources decreases, renewable energy increases. • Impacts are larger in Southern Europe than in Northern Europe. • Synergies exist between climate change mitigation and climate change adaptation

  19. A new strategy for the restructuring of Polish energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, R.H.; Tallat, J.

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with strategic planning in the military, the leader (in this case the Minister of Economy) is responsible for setting goals, finding the right people to accomplish these goals (those working in the energy sector), analysing the current situation (state of the energy sector) and evaluating available resources (conventional and renewable energy resources). In terms of economic planning (this term is proper for an economy that sets numerous laws and quotas), the goal is to get the Polish economy out of economic slump, which is the result of seventeen years of improper government practices, into a state of prosperity corresponding to no less than the European average. The only way of accomplishing this goal of high economic growth and catching up with highly-developed countries is to develop local inexpensive energy resources. This study focuses on the potential to develop abundant Polish geothermal resources as well as natural gas based co-generation. (author)

  20. Energy sector developments in Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantin, R.

    1997-01-01

    The current state and future development of the oil, gas and coal sector in Venezuela was discussed. Venezuela has oil reserves of 73 billion barrels, gas reserves of 143 TCF and coal reserves of 6 billion BOE. The country has a refining capacity of 2.9 million barrels per day, a petrochemical capacity of 7.7 million tons per year, and a coal capacity of 4.6 million tons per year. The largest refiners in Venezuela are Shell, Exxon, PDVSA, Mobil, BP, Chevron and Texaco. In 1996 the total oil and derivatives exports for Venezuela were 2.8 million barrels per day. Fifty-eight companies from 14 countries participate in the Venezuelan upstream market. Fifteen operating agreements have been awarded to 27 companies from nine countries. Third round operating agreements have been awarded to 26 companies and profit sharing agreements are in force involving 14 companies. Four vertically integrated projects (Maraven-Conoco, Maraven-Total, Corpoven-Arco-Texaco-Phillips, and Lagoven-Mobil-Veba) are currently underway. The Orimulsion(R) project, the refining system, the natural gas production, marketing and transmission system, associated future projects for the 1997-2006 time frame, and developments in the field of petrochemicals also have been reviewed. 21 figs

  1. Energy. A sector in danger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, L.

    2011-01-01

    Just like the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents slowed down the pace of development of nuclear energy, several countries put their project of construction of new nuclear reactors into question again after the accident of Fukushima, or at least decided a security assessment of their installations. The article comments the reactions of different political actors in France belonging either to the government or to the opposition. The level of this last accident may surely impact the development of nuclear reactors throughout the world, but may not stop it because of energy needs. Safety standards might be reassessed and some countries might choose other energy sources like gas for example. As Areva claims a high safety level for the EPR, a discussion emerges about the compliance of some French installations (Fessenheim, Cadarache) with anti-seismic construction standards

  2. Does the Energy Sector Reform Call for Reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granic, G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the course of the energy sector reforms in Europe so far, its objectives, achievements, issues, and dilemmas. In particular, long term and security aspects of energy supply of Europe are analyzed. In addition to the legislative changes regarding the open energy market regulation, and primarily the changes, concerning electricity and natural gas markets, the past period saw dynamic changes of institutional framework such as: increasing members of the European Union, increased number of countries aspiring to the EU (candidate countries and potential candidates), changes in other European countries out of which Russia is the most significant energy producer. The paper analyzes the issue of responsibility between state - regulator - system operator - trader - energy buyer. In Europe, it is more a complex question because the system of responsibility includes the institution of the European Union. Therefore, the relations between EU - state - regulator - system operator - trader - energy buyer are especially important. The paper looks in to the issue of energy company integrations, creation of energy mega-undertakings and their influence on further market development. The question of monopolies now appears in s new form. The conclusions suggest possible measures for institutional influence on energy market development, especially in the network energy systems, which may have a positive impact on system security and stability and markets development and their long term sustainability.(author)

  3. Competition on European energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lijesen, M.; Speck, S; Mulder, M.

    2003-01-01

    The launch of the Directives on Electricity and Gas in the late 1990s was the starting point for creating common and competitive energy markets in the European Union. The main goal of this process was to increase efficiency of allocation of resources and, hence,enhance consumer welfare. More specifically, increasing competition within the energy markets should lead to a reduction of energy prices and to a convergence of prices among EU member states. Within a year from now, end-users in the Netherlands will be free to choose their own supplier, thus finalising the deregulation of Dutch energy markets. What lessons may be learned from the experience thus far? What are the results of the liberalisation process up to now? How have prices developed,and can these developments be explained? How afraid should we be for the lights to go out in a competitive electricity market?

  4. Transactive Energy Trajectories of the European and Croatian Energy Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toljan, I.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of transactive energy requires harmonized operation of all entities involved in the electrical power system on market-oriented bases. Each country creates independently its direction of the development (trajectory) of its power sector, but within the framework of basic trajectories laid down by the acquits communautaire, some of which are mandatory and some of which are only recommended. Transactive energy uses economic signals or incentives for using all available new technologies in the energy sector, from production to consumption, in a way that is definitely more efficient than the previous one. The trajectories are determined by the implementation policy whose principal characteristic is non-acceptance of delay in making decisions. The benchmarking system has been introduced. After setting the goals for 2020, the acquits communautaire additionally set very ambitious goals for 2030, which will also be reflected on the costs of energy generation, and consequently on the input costs of the European economy. The intention is to reduce CO2 emission from the energy sector by 80 percent until 2050. The development of exploitation of gas deposits and the introduction of new technologies places the USA on the global level in a completely different position than before. Coal is being gradually substituted by gas, which has so far been the dominating energy source for generation of electrical energy. The results of analyses indicate that gas supply in the USA will be three times cheaper than in Europe in the next 100 years. Taking into consideration the intended application of the current drilling technology also in Europe, it is to be expected that a significant change in the European energy policy will occur. There are also forecasts in the Republic of Croatia that might significantly change the picture of the Croatian energy industry. It should be kept in mind that finding new energy sources does not imply abandoning the concept of liberalized market

  5. General overview of the Mexican energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Jacome, D.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of Mexico's energy sector was presented, with particular focus on the natural gas and electricity sectors. Mexico ranks fifth in oil production, eighth in proven oil reserves, and fourteenth in natural gas reserves. In 1998, the energy sector generated 3.3 per cent of Mexico's gross domestic product (GDP), and oil accounted for 7.5 per cent of total exports. National production of natural gas has been forecasted to grow at a rate of 5.2 per cent annually over the next 10 years. This will be largely due to the increased demand for natural gas to produce electricity. The Mexican government has also taken initiatives to restructure the Mexican energy sector with particular focus on increasing the competitiveness of the electric power industry. Electricity demand is also expected to grow at a rate of 6 per cent annually over the next six years. The objectives of energy reform are to promote more investment from all sectors in order to strengthen the development of the electric power industry and to provide a reliable, high quality service at competitive prices. 9 figs

  6. The European energy community is now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andoura, Sami; Buzek, Jerzy; Delors, Jacques; Vitorino, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    On the eve of the European Council on 22 May dealing with energy issues, the Jacques Delors Institute publishes a Tribune calling for the implementation of a positive agenda for the European energy policy and the definition of the concrete bases of a genuine European Energy

  7. Engineering in the energy sector. The single market and the engineering sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Rodrigues, A.

    1993-01-01

    Projects with large infrastructures, particularly those in the field of energy, provide a strong boost to certain industrial sectors in the country. In the case of Spain, the policy of direct management 'by components' of these projects - hydroelectric power plants, petrochemical plants, thermoelectric plants and nuclear power plants - adopted by the electric utility owners has furthered not only the local equipment manufacturing industry but also the engineering sector. At present, with full implementation of the Single Market in sight, it is particularly interesting for Spain to continue building up a powerful engineering sector, increasing its size and usefulness, and extending its traditional areas of action to other technologies, more on the lines of engineering and consulting firms in the USA than in the rest of Europe. The intention is to endow our equipment and construction companies with the skills necessary to enable them to compete with large European conglomerates in their respective sectors. The structure of these conglomerates usually contains engineering capabilities which are not habitual in our industry. Examples are given, showing how this model has been used to compete and win awards for important international projects. A specific analysis has been made of the position of Spanish engineering and industry in nuclear power generation projects in the former Soviet Union and East European countries, in which large investments are expected to be made. (author)

  8. Yukon energy sector assessment 2003 : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishchuk, P.

    2003-10-01

    A study was conducted to better understand energy issues in the Yukon. The study was based on the Yukon Energy Matrix which looks at the Yukon energy sector from the perspective of the capacity to supply various forms of energy, the markets for energy in the Yukon, and energy users. The sources of non-renewable energy in the Yukon range from natural gas, coal and oil. Renewable energy sources are also diverse and include water, biomass, wind, solar and geothermal. The main sources of electricity production in the Yukon are oil, water and wind. The link between energy and climate change has gained much attention in recent years, resulting in effective measures to conserve energy and increase energy efficiency. Coal, gas and oil are imported into the Yukon from markets in southern Alaska despite the fact that Yukon has its own vast quantities of these fossil-based forms of energy. As a result, the price of fossil-fuels consumed in the Yukon is determined in national and international markets. The absence of non-renewable energy production in the Yukon is also reflected in the lack of pipeline and rail infrastructure in the territory. The Yukon's electricity transmission grid is also very fragmented. For the purpose of this paper, energy use was categorized into the residential, commercial, industrial and transportation sectors. 19 refs., 8 tabs., 12 figs

  9. UKRAINIAN FUEL AND ENERGY SECTOR: DISTINCTIVE FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesia Azarenkova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the analysis of Ukrainian fuel and energy sector (FES. The number of risks that threaten the stable supply of energy sources is growing. A high proportion of the energy intensity of developing economies in conjunction with their growing GDP leads to increased competition on world primary energy markets and causes significant fluctuations in energy prices, which negatively affect the global economy. There is also an important issue for world energy - limited use of non-renewable energy resources. Considering the prospects of development of Ukrainian FES, it is important to pay attention to patterns and trends of the global and national power. We have studied the basic trends of Ukrainian FES. It is the most important sector of the economy, and therefore its reform for market economy creation, price liberalization is a very important process. The current task of the energy sector of Ukraine is to be able to consistently produce and use energy to promote economic growth and improve quality of life.

  10. Energy sector in Ecuador: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelaez-Samaniego, M.R.; Garcia-Perez, M.; Cortez, L.A.B.; Oscullo, J.; Olmedo, G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the current energy sector in Ecuador, its present structure, the oil industry, subsidies, and renewable energy, focusing on the evolution and reform of the electricity sector. Currently, 86% of the primary energy originates from nonrenewable sources. In 2005, the gross electricity generation was 15 127 GWh (45.5% hydropower, 43.11% thermal, and 11.39% imported). Ecuador is the fifth largest oil producer in South America but lacks sufficient oil refining capacity. Reserves of natural gas (NG) are small, and most of NG is produced from oil fields without energy recovery. Several projects are underway to increase the utilization of NG and renewable energies to meet Ecuador commitments to the Kyoto Protocol

  11. Dynamics of final sectoral energy demand and aggregate energy intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescaroux, Francois

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a regional and sectoral model of global final energy demand. For the main end-use sectors of consumption (industrial, commercial and public services, residential and road transportation), per-capita demand is expressed as an S-shaped function of per-capita income. Other variables intervene as well, like energy prices, temperatures and technological trends. This model is applied on a panel of 101 countries and 3 aggregates (covering the whole world) and it explains fairly well past variations in sectoral, final consumption since the beginning of the 2000s. Further, the model is used to analyze the dynamics of final energy demand, by sector and in total. The main conclusion concerns the pattern of change for aggregate energy intensity. The simulations performed show that there is no a priori reason for it to exhibit a bell-shape, as reported in the literature. Depending on initial conditions, the weight of basic needs in total consumption and the availability of modern commercial energy resources, various forms might emerge. - Research Highlights: → The residential sector accounts for most of final energy consumption at low income levels. → Its share drops at the benefit of the industrial, services and road transportation sectors in turn. → Sectoral shares' pattern is affected by changes in geographic, sociologic and economic factors. → Final energy intensity may show various shapes and does not exhibit necessarily a bell-shape.

  12. Close to the wind. A European strategy for the (top)sectors in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-08-01

    The formation of a new government in the Netherlands in 2010 caused a change of wind. The government opted for topsectors to boost the competitiveness of the Dutch economy, by designing a comprehensive policy agenda for the top nine sectors, which were identified as Water, Food, Horticulture, High Tech, Life Sciences, Chemistry, Energy, Logistics and the Creative Industry. The two main questions in this request for advice are: (1) What are the visible trends and developments in European research and innovation policy and what impact will they have on the Netherlands?; (2) How can the Netherlands best respond to changing policy context at European level to ensure that European research priorities and Dutch priorities keep matching? The advice of the Council starts with an overview of key developments and trends that are relevant to Dutch and European research and innovation policy. It does so against the background of a number of important challenges such as the economic crisis, globalisation and a paucity of private investment. The new European 'Innovation Union' policy aims to tackle these challenges and to enhance the competitiveness of Europe in relation to emerging economies as those of the BRIC countries. In this context, the EU believes that research and innovation can be used not only as a means of tackling major social challenges but also as a way out of the downward spiral of the economic crisis. New to this European policy is the added emphasis on knowledge utilisation and innovation. This shift may alter the desirable approach of the Netherlands to European policy. The Council then analyses the basic principles for the Dutch position in Europe and sets out the opportunities and threats of various policies under the Innovation Union for the top (and other) sectors. From this analysis, the Council draws conclusions about the relationship between the use of Dutch and European policy to strengthen Dutch and European sectors. Recommendations are (1

  13. Energy sector in conditions of market economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schervashidze, N.

    1993-01-01

    The main dilemma of energy sector in market conditions is: regulation of the monopole producer and/or competition. There is no simple answer and the arguments for and against should be based on the macro economical determination of what kind of market is available for particular energy goods (perfect, monopolistic, oligopolistic, competition of monopolists) and what is the final purpose (improvement in efficiency, service, energy independence, regional development, etc.). Two polar models of economic management in energy sector are distinguished: 1) Free access to transfer net or competition between producers. 2) State regulation of the local monopolist. The experience of Great Britain and US are described as examples of both models. A special attention is paid to pricing methods at regulated monopole. 7 refs. (author)

  14. SI-Ocean Strategic technology agenda for the ocean energy sector: From development to market

    OpenAIRE

    MAGAGNA DAVIDE; TZIMAS Evangelos; HANMER Clare; BADCOCK-BROE Abbie; MACGILLIVRAY Andy; JEFFREY Henry; RAVENTOS Alex

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of the ocean energy sector, identifying the necessary steps that are required in order to facilitate the development and deployment of ocean energy technologies towards the formation of a viable and successful industry. Europe, in particular the Atlantic Arc region, has a vast wave and tidal energy resource, which could supply a significant part of the European electricity demand and play an important role in the future European energy mix. The ...

  15. Oil Prices and the Renewable Energy Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Kyritsis, Evangelos; Serletis, Apostolos

    2017-01-01

    Energy security, climate change, and growing energy demand issues are moving up on the global political agenda, and contribute to the rapid growth of the renewable energy sector. In this paper we investigate the effects of oil price shocks, and also of uncertainty about oil prices, on the stock returns of clean energy and technology companies. In doing so, we use monthly data that span the period from May 1983 to December 2016, and a bivariate structural VAR model that is modified to accommod...

  16. EU Cooperation in the Energy Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goumas, T.

    1998-01-01

    The European Union with 15 Member States at the end of the century and with 6 more countries in the accession phase has set up certain instruments which enhance energy cooperation among them and with third countries. The major dimensions of EU energy policy presented in the White Paper are the external dimension - globalization of markets, the increasing environmental concern, the technology developments and the EU institutional responsibilities. To contribute to these, certain EU initiatives and supporting actions are undertaken through the energy and the broader co-operation programmes like THERMIE, SYNERGY, SAVE, ALTENER, PHARE, etc. The THERMIE programme supports the demonstration application and dissemination of innovative and successful energy technologies. SYNERGY is a programme for energy co-operation with third countries in energy policy and strategy implementation issues. SAVE and ALTENER concentrate on the promotion and enhancement of energy efficiency practices and use of renewable respectively. PHARE is a technical assistance programme addressed to Eastern European Countries which are in the phase of transition to market economy. There are also other initiatives like the Transeuropean Energy Network (TEN) and the activities managed by the financial institutions namely the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) and the European Investment Bank (EIB). All this context of programmes and initiatives is modified from period to period in order to serve the EU energy policies and the developments in the energy markets. The recent agreement which came up from the Kyoto conference has actually influenced the direction of actions towards more intensive amelioration of environmental pollution. (author)

  17. Energy savings in CSFR - building sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, F.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Czechoslovak/Danish project on energy savings in buildings proves that it is possible to save up to 30% of the energy in buildings. 10% can be saved at an investment of 27 bill KCS. The total investment that is needed to save 30% is 140 bill KCS. Further energy savings can be obtained through more energy efficient supply systems. Information dissemination is important for the energy saving programme as are economic incentives. Investments in energy savings should be profitable for the investor, but this is not the case in the Czech and Slovak republics today. Changes are needed. Energy prices are still to low, compared to investment costs. Financial possibilities are not satisfactory for private investors. Price systems are not favourable to investment in energy savings. Training is needed for boiler men and energy consultants. Legislation is essential for the support of the full range of activities in the energy sector. Research and Development activities must back up the development of the sector. Pilot projects can illuminate the savings potential. The production of technical equipment for control and metering and production of insulation materials must be promoted. (AB)

  18. Sectoral Energy, and Labour, Productivity Convergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, P.; De Groot, H.L.F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the development of cross-country differences in energy- and labour productivity. The analysis is performed at a detailed sectoral level for 14 OECD countries, covering the period 1970-1997. A ρ-convergence analysis reveals that the development over time of the cross-country variation in productivity performance differs across sectors as well as across different levels of aggregation. Both patterns of convergence as well as divergence are found. Cross-country variation of productivity levels is typically larger for energy than for labour. A β-convergence analysis provides support for the hypothesis that in most sectors lagging countries tend to catch up with technological leaders, in particular in terms of energy productivity. Moreover, the results show that convergence is conditional, meaning that productivity levels converge to country-specific steady states. Energy prices and wages are shown to positively affect energy- and labour-productivity growth, respectively. We also find evidence for the importance of economies of scale, whereas the investment share, openness and specialization play only a modest role in explaining cross-country variation in energy- and labour-productivity growth

  19. European Energy Law Seminar 2005. Report of NeVER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosterom, A.R.; Boumans, L.

    2005-01-01

    An overview is given of the lectures and presentations at the title seminar, which was held in Noordwijk aan Zee, Netherlands, 30-31 May 2005. The seminar was organized by the Dutch Association for Energy Law (NeVER), the Scandinavian Institute for Maritime Law of the University of Oslo, and the Groningen University. The subjects presented concerned recent developments with regard to the internal (European) energy market, LNG, developments in the North Sea area, supply security and quality in a competitive market, reorganization of the European market for natural gas in the light of the liberalization process and privatization of the energy sector [nl

  20. Exploiting synergies in European wind and hydrogen sectors: A cost-benefit assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Suzanne; Peteves, Estathios

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines an assessment of the perspectives for exploiting synergies between European wind and hydrogen energy sectors, where wind energy conversion to hydrogen is used as a common strategy for reducing network management costs in high wind energy penetration situations, and for production of renewable hydrogen. The attractiveness of this approach, referred to here as a 'wind-hydrogen strategy', is analysed using a cost-benefit approach to evaluate the final impact at the level of the end-consumer when this strategy is implemented. The analysis is conducted for four scenarios, based on different levels of: wind energy penetration in the electricity network area, hydrogen energy price, and environmental taxation on fuels. The effect of technological learning on the outcome is also analysed for the period up to 2050. The results of the analysis indicate that the relative value of the wind energy in the electricity market compared to the hydrogen market is a deciding factor in the attractiveness of the strategy; here the wind energy penetration in the network is a key consideration. Finally, in order to exploit learning effects from linking European wind and hydrogen sectors, action would need to be taken in the short term. (author)

  1. Energy transition in transport sector from energy substitution perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wangmin; Yang, Xiaoguang; Han, Song; Sun, Xiaoyang

    2017-10-01

    Power and heating generation sector and transport sector contribute a highest GHG emissions and even air pollutions. This paper seeks to investigate life cycle costs and emissions in both the power sector and transport sector, and evaluate the cost-emission efficient (costs for one unit GHG emissions) of the substitution between new energy vehicles and conventional gasoline based vehicles under two electricity mix scenarios. In power sector, wind power and PV power will be cost comparative in 2030 forecasted with learning curve method. With high subsidies, new energy cars could be comparative now, but it still has high costs to lower GHG emissions. When the government subsidy policy is reversible, the emission reduction cost for new energy vehicle consumer will be 900/ton. According to the sensitive analysis, the paper suggests that the government implement policies that allocate the cost to the whole life cycle of energy production and consumption related to transport sector energy transition and policies that are in favor of new energy vehicle consumers but not the new energy car producers.

  2. Engineering in the energy sector. The single market and the engineering sector; Ingenieria en el sector energetico. El mercado unico y el sector de ingenieria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Rodrigues, A [Empresarios Agrupados, A.I.E., Madrid (Spain)

    1993-12-15

    Projects with large infrastructures, particularly those in the field of energy, provide a strong boost to certain industrial sectors in the country. In the case of Spain, the policy of direct management 'by components' of these projects - hydroelectric power plants, petrochemical plants, thermoelectric plants and nuclear power plants - adopted by the electric utility owners has furthered not only the local equipment manufacturing industry but also the engineering sector. At present, with full implementation of the Single Market in sight, it is particularly interesting for Spain to continue building up a powerful engineering sector, increasing its size and usefulness, and extending its traditional areas of action to other technologies, more on the lines of engineering and consulting firms in the USA than in the rest of Europe. The intention is to endow our equipment and construction companies with the skills necessary to enable them to compete with large European conglomerates in their respective sectors. The structure of these conglomerates usually contains engineering capabilities which are not habitual in our industry. Examples are given, showing how this model has been used to compete and win awards for important international projects. A specific analysis has been made of the position of Spanish engineering and industry in nuclear power generation projects in the former Soviet Union and East European countries, in which large investments are expected to be made. (author)

  3. Household energy and climate mitigation policies: Investigating energy practices in the housing sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffrin, André; Reibling, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    One central aim of climate change mitigation in the European Union is to reduce energy consumption in the housing sector. In order to ensure effectiveness of policies targeting household energy conservation, it is important to investigate existing energy practices of different social groups. This article describes and explains energy practices in three leading states in environmental politics, technological innovation, and support for renewable energy production: Denmark, Austria, and the United Kingdom. Based on a longitudinal analysis of housing utility costs from the European Community Statistics on Income and Living Conditions we show that income plays a central role in households' energy practices. While high-income households have higher overall energy consumption, low-income groups spend a larger share of their income on utility costs. The variation of energy consumption across income groups is related to household characteristics, characteristics of the dwellings, and cross-national differences in the housing sector. - Highlights: • We explain energy practices in Denmark, Austria, and the United Kingdom. • We show that income plays a central role in households’ energy practices. • High-income households have higher overall energy consumption. • Low-income groups spend a larger share of their income on utility costs. • Consumption depends on the household, dwelling and the housing sector

  4. Financing energy projects at the European Bank for reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unterwurzacher, E.

    1992-01-01

    Investments in the energy sectors of Central and Eastern European countries and in the republics of the former USSR have a pivotal role to play in the economic and political restructuring of the centrally planned economies. The amount of capital required for energy sector investments in the countries of operation clearly exceed the financial possibilities of economies in transition, but they are necessary to underpin economic reform. Moreover they contribute to sector development, help alleviate energy shortages, increase energy securities, realize increased foreign exchange earnings and can reduce the environmental impact of energy production and use. Energy supply of several countries of operation is highly dependent on coal. In general throughout the region, coal is produced and used in a way which pays less attention to the potential negative environmental consequences. Current mining practice often leads to groundwater contamination, power plants are only poorly equipped with abatement technologies, the quality of the coal is often poor, or the efficiency of coal conversion is low, which is primarily a result of the use of outdated technology. Bank operations try to address these issues and to combine in its activities improved economic efficiency of the energy sector with the amelioration of environmental conditions. This paper briefly summarizes the main features of the energy sector of countries of operation and highlights the significant role of the coal industry with regard to energy sector and the environment. The Bank's energy sector strategy is introduced and the instruments that the Bank has chosen for its financial operations are presented. Examples for operations in the energy sector as they are relevant for the coal industries are introduced

  5. Cartel control in the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buedenbender, U.

    1995-01-01

    The current regulatory regime governing the electricity and gas supply industries of the energy sector is characterized by the admissibility of protected sales areas defined by demarcation agreements. However, this economic advantage is counterbalanced by legal provisions providing for specific supervision of the utilities under cartel law. The cartel authority exercises the functions of control of abusive practices, focussing on control of prices and general terms and conditions, cooperation between the utilities and operators owners of power generation plants, the very topical aspects of TPA (third party access to networks), and adherence to the principle of conduct of business of the utilities in line with the conditions of free competition. The book addresses all relevant aspects of cartel control relating to existing law and the overall context of the energy sector. General principles of cartel control in the economic sector at large are compared to specific conditions in the energy sector, revealing the differences in competences of the cartel authority. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Efficiency in the European agricultural sector: environment and resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho, Victor; Madaleno, Mara; Macedo, Pedro; Robaina, Margarita; Marques, Carlos

    2018-04-22

    This article intends to compute agriculture technical efficiency scores of 27 European countries during the period 2005-2012, using both data envelopment analysis (DEA) and stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) with a generalized cross-entropy (GCE) approach, for comparison purposes. Afterwards, by using the scores as dependent variable, we apply quantile regressions using a set of possible influencing variables within the agricultural sector able to explain technical efficiency scores. Results allow us to conclude that although DEA and SFA are quite distinguishable methodologies, and despite attained results are different in terms of technical efficiency scores, both are able to identify analogously the worst and better countries. They also suggest that it is important to include resources productivity and subsidies in determining technical efficiency due to its positive and significant exerted influence.

  7. Rents in the European power sector due to carbon trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, Jan Horst; Cruciani, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) has imposed a price on the allowances for CO 2 emissions of electricity companies. Integrating this allowance price into the price of electricity earns a rent for companies who have received these allowances for free. During Phase I, 2005-2007, rents corresponding to the aggregate value of allocated allowances amounted to roughly EUR 13 billion per year. However, due to the specific price-setting mechanism in electricity markets true rents were considerably higher. This is due to the fact that companies also that have not received any allowances gain additional infra-marginal rents to the extent that their variable costs are below the new market price after inclusion of the allowance price. Producers with low carbon emissions and low marginal costs thus also benefit substantially from carbon pricing. This paper develops a methodology to determine the specific interaction of the imposition of such a CO 2 constraint and the price-setting mechanism in the electricity sector under the assumption of marginal cost pricing in a liberalized European electricity market. The article thus provides an empirical estimate of the true total rents of power producers during Phase I of the EU-ETS (2005-2007). The EU ETS generated in Phase I additional rents in excess of EUR 19 billion per year for electricity producers. These transfers are distributed very unevenly between different electricity producers. In a second step, the paper assesses the impact of switching from free allocation to an auctioning of allowances in 2013. We show that such a switch to auctioning will continue to create additional infra-marginal rents for certain producers and will leave the electricity sector as a whole better off than before the introduction of the EU ETS. (author)

  8. Financing Renewable Energy in the European Energy Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jager, D.; Klessmann, C.; Stricker, E.; Winkel, T.; De Visser, E.; Koper, M. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands); Ragwitz, M.; Held, A. [Fraunhofer ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany); Resch, G.; Busch, S.; Panzer, C. [Energy Economics Group EEG, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Gazzo, A.; Roulleau, T.; Gousseland, P.; Henriet, M.; Bouille, A. [Ernst and Young, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    The Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (RES) sets the overall target to reach 20% renewable energy in gross final energy consumption in 2020. This target is broken down into binding individual Member State targets. Reaching these targets will require a huge mobilization of investments in renewable energies in the coming decade. In order to improve financing and coordination with a view to the achievement of the 20 % target, Article 23 (7) of the Directive requires the Commission to present an analysis and action plan with a view to: (a) The better use of structural funds and framework programmes; (b) The better and increased use of funds from the European Investment Bank and other public finance institutions; (c) Better access to risk capital; (d) The better coordination of Community and national funding and other forms of support; (e) The better coordination in support of renewable energy initiatives whose success depends on action by actors in several Member States. This report presents the results of the title project. The study provides an up to date and thorough assessment of the costs of renewable energy and the support and financing instruments available for renewable energy R and D, demonstration projects and large-scale deployment. This includes details of each Member State's expenditure (via grants, support schemes, loans etc.) and use of Community funds, including loans of the EIB (European Investment Bank) and the EBRD (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development). It also explores the possible instruments for use in the future and constraints in the capital market, which hinder the development of renewable energy. Finally, it develops recommendations for improving financing and support instruments, improving the sector's access to capital, and closing the financing gap for reaching the 2020 targets. The chapters of the report represent separate tasks: (1) Costs of renewable energy

  9. Developing competence based qualification system in the nuclear energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceclan, Mihail

    2016-01-01

    The Institute for Energy and Transport of the Joint Research Centre, European Commission, developed a strategy and road map for ECVET implementation. The JRC road map for European Credit System for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET) implementation has reached the stage of Competence-Based Qualification System development. The Competence-Based Qualification System can help bridge the gap between Human Resources demand and supply in the nuclear market by structuring qualifications in small independent parts. This very specific ECVET feature of a qualification, facilitates the process of competences accumulation and the lifelong learning, mobility and flexible learning pathways. New developments are presented about the Competence-Based Qualification System development for the nuclear energy sector.

  10. Developing competence based qualification system in the nuclear energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceclan, Mihail [European Commission, Petten (Netherlands). Inst. for Energy and Transport

    2016-04-15

    The Institute for Energy and Transport of the Joint Research Centre, European Commission, developed a strategy and road map for ECVET implementation. The JRC road map for European Credit System for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET) implementation has reached the stage of Competence-Based Qualification System development. The Competence-Based Qualification System can help bridge the gap between Human Resources demand and supply in the nuclear market by structuring qualifications in small independent parts. This very specific ECVET feature of a qualification, facilitates the process of competences accumulation and the lifelong learning, mobility and flexible learning pathways. New developments are presented about the Competence-Based Qualification System development for the nuclear energy sector.

  11. Sectorial energy observatory: the concentration of the sector intensifies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The 1998 energy market conjuncture was particularly bad for two main reasons: the collapse of oil prices and the recession of primary energy consumption. This situation occurred while the regulatory framework of markets was becoming overturned because of the forthcoming deregulation of the European power market (February 1999) and of the natural gas market (summer 2000). In this context, the energy actors have concentrated their efforts to the reinforcement of their positions using external growth operations. Apart from the concentration process, the actors of the energy sector have carried on with their strategic initiatives started these last years, internationalization being their main strategic goal. Europe is their favoured zone but they more and more lust after the USA: oil companies are placing their positions downstream of the gas industry file, while gas distributors are moving upstream. The financial performances of energy actors have been greatly lowered with a general decreasing turnover (negative price effect). They have kept some important financial latitude in order to maintain their concentration policy. Their targets will be probably the German, British and Spanish electricity and gas utilities. The electric power sector has been one of the main sectors concerned by external growth operations, but the natural gas industry should encounter a similar evolution since summer 2000. (J.S.)

  12. Energy Sector of India: Past and Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Ibragimova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Strengthening the influence of India in the Asian region and in the world requires for resorting of the modernization experience of this country, including the development of its energy sector. India today is among the top ten countries to generate electricity per capita. At the same time, both traditional sources of energy production coexist in India (using the muscular strength of man and animals with the conditions for the development of modern energy infrastructure through foreign investments. The article attempts to trace the main stages of the formation and development of energy industry in India; the modern state of energy is analyzed and plans for its development are considered. The research is based on a complex of traditional methods and approaches based on the principle of scientific objectivity and systemic method used in research in the framework of international relations and political science. For more than a century of history of the development of energy sector in India significant success has been achieved. Starting with the electrification of large cities and industrial enterprises due to foreign investments in the colonial period, India, after gaining the independence, set the task of developing its own infrastructure, electrifying the countryside and providing the industry with energy resources. The greatest progress in the development of electric power and nuclear energy was made. Indian economic growth will increase India’s energy needs and quadruple the demand for electricity over the next 25 years. For this, India needs to solve the problems of energy efficiency, energy complex management, lack of standards and energy imports, as well as actively introduce alternative energy sources and move to clean electricity (increased use of water resources and solar energy, which can be done through the development of Russian -Indian cooperation.

  13. Assessing the efficiency versus the inefficiency of the energy sectors in formerly centrally planned economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorsatz, D. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    As much the extreme inefficiency of Eastern European energy sectors is emphasized, as little attention their relatively efficient aspects receive. Indeed, a few efficiency indicators show the highest global efficiencies for the formerly centrally planned economies, such as the overall primary to useful energy efficiency. These figures draw the attention to an underestimated feature of former socialist energy sectors and to crucial policy implications: in some respects central planning lead to a more efficient use of energy than the market economy. Consequently, if transitions from the central planning to the market economy are not managed carefully, further reductions in energy efficiency can be expected in some sectors of the economy.

  14. Wood-energy - The sector get worried

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mary, Olivier; Signoret, Stephane; Bohlinger, Philippe; Guilhem, Jean; De Santis, Audrey; Sredojevic, Alexandre; Defaye, Serge; Maindrault, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Wood energy is, today and certainly also tomorrow, one of the most important renewable energies in France. However, the wood-energy sector seems to slow down as hydrocarbon prices stay extremely low. This document presents 8 articles, describing the context and the characteristics of this evolution, plus some examples of developments in France. The themes of the articles are: the activity of the wood-energy sector should be reinforced to meet the objectives of the French energy multi-year plan; The 2035 prospective of the wood yield in the French forest will meet the future demand, however this evaluation does not take into consideration the effects of the climatic change; the conversion to biomass of the 'Fort de l'Est' (near Paris) heating system (equipped with a boiling fluidized bed boiler) has enabled the heat network to beat the 50 pc share of renewable energy; wood-energy professionals use the 'quality' lever to challenge their fossil fuel competitors; the city of Orleans is now equipped with an innovative biomass cogeneration plant; the example of wood waste valorization in a French sawmill; the French ONF (Forest Administration) Wood-Energy actor has just inaugurated its largest biomass dryer, in order to develop the domestic market for wood as a fuel; analysis of the technical and economical feasibility of using wood to generate electric power or replacing electric space heating by heat network

  15. Manufacturing preparations for the European Vacuum Vessel Sector for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Lawrence; Arbogast, Jean François; Bayon, Angel; Bianchi, Aldo; Caixas, Joan; Facca, Aldo; Fachin, Gianbattista; Fernández, José; Giraud, Benoit; Losasso, Marcello; Löwer, Thorsten; Micó, Gonzalo; Pacheco, Jose Miguel; Paoletti, Roberto; Sanguinetti, Gian Paolo; Stamos, Vassilis; Tacconelli, Massimiliano; Trentea, Alexandru; Utin, Yuri

    2012-01-01

    The contract for the seven European Sectors of the ITER Vacuum Vessel, which has very tight tolerances and high density of welding, was placed at the end of 2010 with AMW, a consortium of three companies. The start-up of the engineering, including R and D, design and analysis activities of this large and complex contract, one of the largest placed by F4E, the European Domestic Agency for ITER, is described. The statutory and regulatory requirements of ITER Organization and the French Nuclear Safety regulations have made the design development subject to rigorous controls. AMW was able to make use of the previous extensive R and D and prototype work carried out during the past 9 years, especially in relation to advanced welding and inspection techniques. The paper describes the manufacturing methodology with the focus on controlling distortion with predictions by analysis, avoiding use of welded-on jigs, and making use of low heat input narrow-gap welding with electron beam welding as far as possible and narrow-gap TIG when not. Further R and D and more than ten significant mock-ups are described. All these preparations will help to assure the successful manufacture of this critical path item of ITER.

  16. The European Nuclear Energy Tribunal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchetti, D.

    1977-01-01

    The European Nuclear Energy Tribunal was set up within the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (now the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) on 20th December 1957 under the Convention on Security Control. Seven independent judges are appointed for five years by decision of the Council of the Organisation; if the Tribunal includes no judge of the nationality of a party in a dispute submitted to it, the Government concerned may select an additional judge in that case. The Tribunal is competent in matters of security control, third party liability and activities of one of the Organisation's joint undertakings. At the request of any Government party to the Security Control Convention, to the Eurochemic Convention or to the Paris Convention and Brussels Supplementary Convention it may be convened to resolve any dispute concerning the interpretation or application thereof. While the Tribunal has not yet been called upon to exercise its judgment it is nonetheless an important and necessary instrument for Member States engaged in nuclear activities at international level. (NEA) [fr

  17. CO2 Emission Reduction in Energy Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bole, A.; Sustersic, A.; Voncina, R.

    2013-01-01

    Due to human activities, concentrations of the greenhouse gases increase in the atmosphere much quicker than they naturally would. Today it is clear that climate change is the result of human activities. With the purpose of preventing, reducing and mitigating of climate change, the EU, whose member is also Slovenia, set ambitious goals. In order to keep rise of the global atmosphere temperature below 2 degrees of C, the European Council set an objective of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80 - 95 % by 2050 compared to 1990. It is important that every single individual is included in achieving of these goals. Certainly, the most important role is assumed by individual sectors especially Public Electricity and Heat Production sector as one of the greatest emitters of the greenhouse gases. As a possible solution of radical reduction of the greenhouse gases emission from mentioned sector Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology is implemented. In the article the range of CO 2 reduction possibilities, technology demands and environmental side effects of CCS technology are described. Evaluation of CCS implementation possibilities in Slovenia is also included.(author)

  18. Sustainable development and energy in the european union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, A.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable development represents a core objective of the European Union, being embodied through out its major polices. In the field of energy, the EU objectives, commonly known as ä20-20-20ö initiative, aim at ensuring a competitive, secure and sustainable energy for European households and industries by reducing the emissions of green house gases, an efficient use on energy and increasing the use of renewable energy. The present paper draws a review on the most important aspects of EU energy policy, its measures, results and costs from the perspective of security of supply, competitiveness of price and green house gases emissions. The aim is to highlight the trade offs which are involved in the orientation towards a sustainable path of the energetic sector of the European Union. (authors)

  19. European Climate - Energy Security Nexus. A model based scenario analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criqui, Patrick; Mima, Silvana

    2011-01-01

    In this research, we have provided an overview of the climate-security nexus in the European sector through a model based scenario analysis with POLES model. The analysis underline that under stringent climate policies, Europe take advantage of a double dividend in its capacity to develop a new cleaner energy model and in lower vulnerability to potential shocks on the international energy markets. (authors)

  20. E-commerce in the energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sioshansi, F.P. [Menlo Energy Economics (MEE), Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2000-09-18

    E-commerce and e-business are now part of the lexicon of modern business everywhere. The energy industry is no exception, although it is somewhat of a latecomer to the field, trailing a number of others. This article, which is based on a multi-client study titled 'E-commerce in the Energy Sector', is focused on the business applications of e-commerce in the energy sector, broadly defined to include oil, electricity, and natural gas industries. The study was conducted by Menlo Energy Economics (MEE) in collaboration with Global Business Network (GBN). (orig.) [German] E-commerce und E-business gehoeren heute im Geschaeftsleben zum guten Ton. Obwohl ein Nachzuegler auf diesem Gebiet, macht die Energiewirtschaft hier keine Ausnahme. Der Artikel, der auf einer von Menlo Energy Economics (MEE) und Global Business Network (GBN) durchgefuehrten Studie zum Thema 'E-commerce im Energie-Sektor' beruht, beschreibt die Anwendungsmoeglichkeiten fuer E-commerce im Energie-Sektor worunter hier Oel-, Elektrizitaets- und Erdgaswirtschaft zu verstehen sind. (orig.)

  1. Strategic Environmental Assessment & The Danish Energy Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar

    in its infancy in the Danish energy sector, but SEA is achieving increased attention in the sector. - The change agent research approach used in the project is relevant medium for a critical interdependence between theory and practice that at the same time promotes more sustainable decision-making...... on these cases is crucial for reducing the risk of unintended environmental impacts and for enhancing attention to relevant alternatives prior to decision-making....... strategic decisions are made is a prerequisite for achieving this target, and the thesis therefore explores the strategic decision-making processes of contemporary energy infrastructure developments. The highlights of this thesis are: - A combination of disciplines in a continuum of perspectives...

  2. The contribution of the industry sector to the construction of a European area of safety and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaiss, W.; Parker, G.; Glibert, M.

    2010-01-01

    The European Atomic Forum (FORATOM) is a trade association representing the European nuclear industry. Its main purpose is to promote the use of nuclear energy in Europe by representing the interests of this important and multi-faceted industrial sector. The European nuclear industry recognized that with the deregulation of the electricity market, diversity of national regulations could seriously distort competition. Therefore harmonizing regulatory practices is the best way of ensuring that the industry can evolve within a stable legal framework. In order to pool resources, the licensees launched mid 2005 ENISS (European Nuclear Installation Safety Standard Initiative) under the umbrella of FORATOM. The EU institutions have in recent years acknowledged nuclear energy as a key component of Europe's energy mix. Major European survey shows public acceptance of nuclear energy is on the increase. Support for discussion and debate on nuclear energy has been supported over the past few years by the European Union through the establishment of the European Nuclear Safety Regulators Group (ENSREG) and the European Nuclear Energy Forum (ENEF). FORATOM and ENISS have been a keen supporter and participant of the ENEF process. The European Nuclear Industry considers that the existing arrangements for ensuring nuclear safety in the EU under the guidance of international nuclear organisations, conventions and under the control of the national safety authorities have delivered excellent safety records. However, the industry has a role to play in the further harmonization processes and is therefore willing to contribute to the dialogue with all possible stakeholders. (author)

  3. Planning competitiveness on the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennicke, P.

    1991-01-01

    The book reviews the concept of least cost planning which can be applied in all stages of energy management. It is a system-analytical concept of planning, cost optimisation, and application of investment alternatives in energy supply and energy conversion. In particular, the authors discuss inhowfar the positive results achieved in the USA with cost saving programmes based on least-cost planning can be applied to the situation of the Federal Republic of Germany. It is shown that least-cost planning could make a key contribution to operations scheduling of public utilities, in the establishment and implementation of local and regional energy concepts, and especially in the theory and practice of state supervision of the energy sector. The 14 contributions can be found as separate records in this database. (orig./HP) With 31 figs [de

  4. Water consumption in the energy sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Andreas Dahl; Drews, Martin; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    or biofuels. Hydropower is based on water in rivers or reservoirs. Feedstock production for biofuels may depend on water for irrigation. On the other hand, energy is necessary for pumping of ground- and surface water, for water treatment as well as for transport and distribution of water to end......-users. The waste water is often returned to the environment after energy requiring waste water management.......Energy, water, and food systems are closely interlinked in the Energy-Water-Food Nexus. Water is of paramount importance for the energy sector. Fossil fuels require water for extraction, trans-port and processing. Thermal power plants require water for cooling, whether they use nuclear, fossil...

  5. Challenging issues in the design and manufacturing of the European sectors of the ITER vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dans, Andres; Jucker, P.; Bayon, A.; Arbogast, J.-F.; Caixas, J.; Fernández, J.; Micó, G.; Pacheco, J.; Trentea, A.; Stamos, V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ITER Vacuum Vessel was described with its features and particularities. • Engineering and CAD design of Sector 5 is finish; the work of sectors 3 and 4 is ongoing. • Fabrication Mock Ups almost finished with an important know-how acquired. • Procurement of raw material (plates and forgings) started. • Qualification of welding, NDT and forming close to be finished. - Abstract: Fusion for Energy (F4E), the European Domestic Agency for the ITER project, has to supply seven sectors as part of the European contribution to the project. F4E signed the Procurement Agreement with ITER Organization (IO) in 2009. After a call for tender in 2010, the contract for the manufacturing of seven sectors was placed in October 2010 to a consortium of three Italian companies, Ansaldo, Mangiarotti and Walter Tosto (AMW). The first sector in the manufacturing route is Sector 5 (later will come 4, 3, 2, 9, 8, 7). This paper will cover: the status of the engineering activities, design, procurement and preparation to begin the manufacturing in 2013. Also will be presented the statutory and regulatory requirements of the French Nuclear Safety regulator and the status of the relevant R and D mock-ups to demonstrate manufacturing feasibility control of distortions (using predictions with analysis and algorithms to change in real time the manufacturing route in order to correct such distortions, inspectability and metrology). Another important aspect at this stage of the manufacturing is qualification of activities like welding, Non-destructive Examination and Hot Forming. This paper describes the status of the activities currently in process in order to meet with the challenging design, schedule and high quality requirements of the project

  6. Challenging issues in the design and manufacturing of the European sectors of the ITER vacuum vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dans, Andres, E-mail: andresdans@gmail.com; Jucker, P.; Bayon, A.; Arbogast, J.-F.; Caixas, J.; Fernández, J.; Micó, G.; Pacheco, J.; Trentea, A.; Stamos, V.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • ITER Vacuum Vessel was described with its features and particularities. • Engineering and CAD design of Sector 5 is finish; the work of sectors 3 and 4 is ongoing. • Fabrication Mock Ups almost finished with an important know-how acquired. • Procurement of raw material (plates and forgings) started. • Qualification of welding, NDT and forming close to be finished. - Abstract: Fusion for Energy (F4E), the European Domestic Agency for the ITER project, has to supply seven sectors as part of the European contribution to the project. F4E signed the Procurement Agreement with ITER Organization (IO) in 2009. After a call for tender in 2010, the contract for the manufacturing of seven sectors was placed in October 2010 to a consortium of three Italian companies, Ansaldo, Mangiarotti and Walter Tosto (AMW). The first sector in the manufacturing route is Sector 5 (later will come 4, 3, 2, 9, 8, 7). This paper will cover: the status of the engineering activities, design, procurement and preparation to begin the manufacturing in 2013. Also will be presented the statutory and regulatory requirements of the French Nuclear Safety regulator and the status of the relevant R and D mock-ups to demonstrate manufacturing feasibility control of distortions (using predictions with analysis and algorithms to change in real time the manufacturing route in order to correct such distortions, inspectability and metrology). Another important aspect at this stage of the manufacturing is qualification of activities like welding, Non-destructive Examination and Hot Forming. This paper describes the status of the activities currently in process in order to meet with the challenging design, schedule and high quality requirements of the project.

  7. European wood pellet market integration - A study of the residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Olle; Hillring, Bengt; Vinterbaeck, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The integration of European energy markets is a key goal of EU energy policy, and has also been the focal point of many scientific studies in recent years. International markets for coal, oil, natural gas and electricity have previously been investigated in order to determine the extent of the respective markets. This study enhances this field of research to bioenergy markets. Price series data and time series econometrics are used to determine whether residential sector wood pellet markets of Austria, Germany and Sweden are integrated. The results of the econometric tests show that the German and Austrian markets can be considered to be integrated, whereas the Swedish market is separate from the other two countries. Although increased internationalization of wood pellet markets is likely to contribute to European price convergence and market integration, this process is far from completed. (author)

  8. Energy transition: from national scenarios to European policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    This thesis aims at seeing how an analysis of national scenarios of energy transition may contribute to the elaboration of European energy and climate policies. The author first identifies the characteristics of energy scenarios, and the relationship between a scenario considered as an object on the one hand, and a vision for the long term on the other hand. She proposes an analysis framework which enables a comparative analysis of scenarios in order to identify stakes and challenges for the future European policy. In the second part, the author presents three examples (Germany, United Kingdom and France) and discusses their political context and adopted scenarios. After an overview of existing European energy and climate policies, the results of the analysis are given for two specific sectors: transports and electricity

  9. Opportunities and challenges for a sustainable energy policy in SE Europe: SE European Energy Community Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihajlov, Andjelka

    2010-01-01

    Energy demand continues to increase in turn raising concerns about energy supply. In this paper, the author has tried to systematize the role of the energy sector in South Eastern (SE) Europe in the context of the European energy policy process. This should make the energy sector in SE Europe more visible and open to substantial activities and appropriate funding. This is important to assure its full alignment with the European energy policy process, and in so doing, make it less fragile. According to the SE European Energy Community Treaty, parties to the Treaty are obliged to implement reforms in the energy and environmental sector in accordance with the European Union's respective policy. This paper raises awareness of the environmental requirements that have been set, of renewable energy and its implementation, at the same time pointing out that the response in SE Europe has been at a low level. It is believed that this paper could draw attention to the existing problems and could contribute to the establishment of a common integrated energy market in SE Europe and the EU. (author)

  10. Rhetoric versus reality: Russian threats to European energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldthau, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    European gas demand will rise from presently 540 billion cubic meters (bcm) to around 800 bcm in 2030. As more than 50 percent of overall European imports originate from Russia, fears have been expressed that the Kremlin could use energy resources as a foreign policy tool. A thorough assessment of domestic consumption, production and investment volumes however reveals that Russian supply will have difficulties in matching growing domestic and European demand. Hence, as the author argues, the threat to European gas supply does not lie in geopolitics, but rather in a lack of investment in the Russian upstream sector. Higher domestic Russian gas prices, enhanced energy efficiency and increases in non-Gazprom production would however make it possible for Russia to meet domestic demand and its export commitments for natural gas

  11. Wind energy sector in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    British Columbia (BC) possesses significant wind energy resources, and many wind energy projects are currently in the planning phase or are already under construction. Wind power policies in the province have been designed to ensure the secure and orderly development of the wind power industry. Policies in the province include a 10-year exemption from participation rents for new projects as well as a policy that has established the maximum permissible noise levels for wind farms located near residential properties. BC's wind power development plan forms part of the province's aim to become electricity self-sufficient by 2016 while ensuring that clean or renewable energy generation accounts for at least 90 per cent of total generation. This guide provided an outline of the province's wind energy sector, and provided a listing of selected wind power operators. Details of new wind power projects were also presented. 11 fig.

  12. The national energy monitoring center (OEN) - a new structure for the prognosis of the energy sector development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budulan, P.; Rugina, V.; Izsak, D.; Bogzianu, R.

    2002-01-01

    OEN is a new structure for the permanent assessment of energy performances by means of a complex system of indicators and methodologies, corresponding to the ones existing at the international and European levels. The OEN database contributes to the prognosis of the energy system development enabling a sustainable and competitive utilisation of natural resources. The energy sector prognosis is developed on the basis of energy balances data, energy indicators and potential of the renewable energy sources. The paper presents the actual stage of OEN development and its role in the restructuring and liberalisation of the energy sector. (author)

  13. A new paradigm for the European energy policy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veyrenc, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    As the European Union adopted in 2009 an organisational framework for the energy sector (the third energy package), the author analyses and discusses the progressive evolutions of the European energy policy during the last decades. He first addresses the process of liberalization of electricity and natural gas markets (or network industries) which has been launched by the European Commission from the middle of the 1990's and has been almost achieved. He comments the break created by the emergence of the climate challenge during the 2000's which had an impact on the objectives of the European energy policy, on the environmental policy and on competitiveness. The author then addresses the emergence of concerns related to the security of energy supplies (a coherence challenge for the European policy): definition of the concept of supply security, dilemma of security of supply, discussion of the content of the Lisbon Treaty as a remedy to coherence challenge). The author then discusses these evolutions in terms of new content and continuity, questions the emergence of a European federalism and the lack of great projects

  14. High Energy Colliders and Hidden Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Asaf Jeff

    This thesis explores two dominant frontiers of theoretical physics, high energy colliders and hidden sectors. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is just starting to reach its maximum operational capabilities. However, already with the current data, large classes of models are being put under significant pressure. It is crucial to understand whether the (thus far) null results are a consequence of a lack of solution to the hierarchy problem around the weak scale or requires expanding the search strategy employed at the LHC. It is the duty of the current generation of physicists to design new searches to ensure that no stone is left unturned. To this end, we study the sensitivity of the LHC to the couplings in the Standard Model top sector. We find it can significantly improve the measurements on ZtRtR coupling by a novel search strategy, making use of an implied unitarity violation in such models. Analogously, we show that other couplings in the top sector can also be measured with the same technique. Furthermore, we critically analyze a set of anomalies in the LHC data and how they may appear from consistent UV completions. We also propose a technique to measure lifetimes of new colored particles with non-trivial spin. While the high energy frontier will continue to take data, it is likely the only collider of its kind for the next couple decades. On the other hand, low-energy experiments have a promising future with many new proposed experiments to probe the existence of particles well below the weak scale but with small couplings to the Standard Model. In this work we survey the different possibilities, focusingon the constraints as well as possible new hidden sector dynamics. In particular, we show that vector portals which couple to an anomalous current, e.g., baryon number, are significantly constrained from flavor changing meson decays and rare Z decays. Furthermore, we present a new mechanism for dark matter freezeout which depletes the dark sector through an

  15. Bulgarian energy sector: risks and policies for mitigation of consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manchev, B.; Halev, G.

    2010-01-01

    The presentation gives the general situation in Bulgarian economy and energy sector. The data and information are obtained from Eurostat. Data from the National Energy Operator's plan for development of the energy sector with minimum expenses are used. Three main accents are considered: 1. Assurance of energy balance; 2. Energy security; 3. Fulfillment of the Energy Union responsibilities

  16. French and european opinions about energy questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This paper presents a statistical study of french and european opinions in 1989 about energy questions. The main subjects studied are: qualities of different energy sources (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear energy, renewable energies); perception in public opinion of nuclear industry; energy and environmental effects. 6 figs., 1 tab., 4 appendices

  17. SWOT analyses of the national energy sector for sustainable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovska, N.; Taseska, V.; Pop-Jordanov, J.

    2009-01-01

    A holistic perspective of various energy stakeholders regarding the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOTs) of the energy sector in Macedonia is utilized as baseline to diagnose the current state and to sketch future action lines towards sustainable energy development. The resulting SWOT analyses pointed to the progressive adoption of European Union (EU) standards in energy policy and regulation as the most important achievement in the energy sector. The most important problems the national energy sector faces are scarce domestic resources and unfavorable energy mix, low electricity prices, a high degree of inefficiency in energy production and use, as well as insufficient institutional and human capacities. The formulated portfolio of actions towards enabling sustainable energy development urges the adoption of a comprehensive energy strategy built upon sustainability principles, intensified utilization of the natural gas, economic prices of electricity, structural changes in industry, promotion of energy efficiency and renewables, including Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects, enforcement of EU environmental standards and meeting the environmental requirements, as well as institutional and human capacity building.

  18. The energy sector at a cross roads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The power and gas markets in Europe are changing radically. Increasing competition and comprehensive structural changes affect the conditions for value creation in the energy sector and the development of the Norwegian energy companies, which are mainly publicly owned. At the same time the demand on the owners is increasing, above all when it comes to strategic vigour in connection with necessary structural changes to adapt the companies to the new market conditions. The development of powerful Norwegian energy companies requires that the owners consider changes in the corporate structures, that the companies are partially privatised and at the same time that the goals of the ownership are clarified and the owner competence strengthened

  19. Energy sector during 1993 and 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schervashidze, N.

    1993-01-01

    The author emphasises the most important problem facing Bulgarian energy sector during the transition period to market economy - pricing reform. He discusses the way of forming the price based on 'long-term marginal expenditures' (LTME) for delivering the services. LTME include 'short-term marginal expenditures'(STME), (operational expenditures, energy cost) and additional investments for modernization of existing units. The first step of the pricing reform should be an increase of the prices at least up to the level of STME. Eventually the pricing reform must change the tariff structure responsible for stimulation of energy savings and market principles adapted for domestic realities. An attempt to connect the monopolist economic theory at market conditions with particular price corrections proposed by the Committee of Energetics for 1994 is made. 9 figs. (author)

  20. European energy policy: the green book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    Energy dependence, insecurity of supplies, rise of demand and prices, global warming: these are the characteristics of the energy situation of the 21. century. The new green book of the European Commission about 'a European strategy for a safe, competitive and durable energy' starts from this alarming status and proposes some suggestions for the building up of a new global European energy policy: realization of the European domestic energy markets (a European energy network, a priority interconnection plan for gas networks, a separation of transport and distribution activities for equitable rules, a reinforcement of the competitiveness of the European industry), a joint security of supplies between member states (redefining the EU position about strategic oil and gas reserves), a sustainable, efficient and diversified energy offer, an integrated approach to fight against global warming (improving energy efficiency, development of renewable energy sources, carbon sequestration), encouraging innovation, developing a consistent foreign policy of energy (a clear policy for the security and diversification of energy supplies, energy partnerships between producers, transit countries and other international actors). (J.S.)

  1. Energy sector reform in India : a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aruna, M.; Raj, M.G.

    2008-01-01

    The government of India cannot afford to fund the total investment needed for restructuring the country's electric power sector. As such, India's Electricity Act of 2003 encouraged private participation to implement the required measures for efficient and optimum use of energy resources available in India and to supply quality power at the best cost to consumers. This paper described the present status of India's power sector with respect to generation, transmission and distribution of electricity. India's economy is growing at a faster rate compared to many other developing countries. It is expected that in the next 6 to 7 years additional capacity of 84,000 MW will be needed to meet the projected electricity demand. The Power Finance Corporation Limited (PFC) was established in 1986 in order to generate and provide funds for the power sector, which is in the process of reforms in every element of the electricity value chain. India is facing an energy deficit and peak power deficit of 8 per cent and 12.2 per cent, respectively. The inter-regional power transmission capacity is planned to be increased from 16,500 MW to 37,000 MW by 2012. Thermal and nuclear energy are major sources for electricity production in India. As most of these resources are non renewable, they must be efficiently used. Coal will continue to contribute about 60 per cent of power generation in India. It was concluded that a large capacity national power grid is necessary for inter-regional power transfer, and that Transmission Super Highways are needed for the development of a high capacity National Power Grid. 7 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  2. Sustainability reporting in the energy sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowal Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of the concepts of sustainable development and corporate social responsibility has a great impact on reporting in companies. The increase of their importance has resulted in a need to create a reporting system that would provide information on not only the methods but also the results of implementation of those concepts in companies. Globally, there are many organizations that promote and support companies in the area of integrated reporting. The most popular standard for reporting non-financial data that is used by a number of companies worldwide is the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI Guidelines. The main objective of the GRI is to support the development of sustainable economy in which companies take responsibility for the economic, social, and environmental consequences of their operations, manage that responsibility, and report all their actions. An example of a sector where the concept of sustainable development and its transparent reporting has an impact on the formation of values is the energy sector, which creates value for stakeholders and, together with the financial sector, has the greatest impact on national economies.

  3. Aspects of marginal expenditures in energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojchev, D.; Kynev, K.

    1994-01-01

    Technical and economical problems of marginal analysis methodology, its application procedure in energy sector and marginal expenditures determination are outlined. A comparative characteristics of the application is made for different periods of time. The differences in calculation of the marginal expenditures and prices are discussed. The operational costs, investments and inflation are analyzed. The mechanism of application of this approach in different planing horizon is outlined. The role of the change in the costs in time, the time unit, volume, the scope of application, etc. are determined. The areas of transition from one to other form of marginal expenditures are shown. 4 refs. (orig.)

  4. Energy challenges: European viewpoints and French answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Gjidara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union attempts to improve the European energy market so that it is better coordinated because in a unified Europe it is no longer possible to act in isolation. The production of energy form renewable sources of great proportions demands a mutually linked European energy market if the aims established in the “Energy and Climate” programme and adopted in 2009 are to be achieved. The aim of this paper is to establish how the principles of European Law influence legal norming in energy issues and in the battle against global warming. The development of energy which does not emit carbon dioxide is in accordance with the aims set by the European Union. In that area, this development relies on regions, and not just countries which are not always able to implement defined ambitious aims. Energy continues in the majority of cases to depend on the power of countries and European control is limited. The European Union participates mainly in the co-ordination and support of national policy, within provisions relating to trans-European networks and within environment protection policy. In principle, the measures relating to the choice of each country from the various sources of energy and on the general structure of providing energy have been unanimously accepted. Particular attention has been given to comparing the French legal rules which are applied in the development of renewable sources of energy and the adaptation of the law on renewable sources of energy and laws on environmental protection to urban planning and the importance of supervision with European legal standards of regulation.

  5. Qualification Needs, Approaches and Strategies in the Second-Hand Sector A European Good Practice Report

    OpenAIRE

    Arold, Heike

    2008-01-01

    Against the background of changing consumer behaviour and environmental policies, a growing second-hand sector is expected. In order to ensure quality and professionalism within companies operating in this sector, it is necessary to develop a unified Europe-wide and sector-specific qualification which is geared to real working processes and requirements. This good practice report describes the training and qualification structures in the European second-hand sector. In addition, occupational ...

  6. Renewable energy in the Lithuanian heating sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinaviciute, Inga; Bobinaite, Viktorija; Tarvydas, Dalius; Gatautis, Ramunas

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyses the role of renewable energy sources (RES) in the Lithuanian heating sector and the existing support measures. RES consumption has been continuously growing in Lithuania. During the period of 2000–2009, RES used for heat production in the district heating sector increased more than 4 times. Wood and wood products have been the most widely used RES for heat production (RES-H). The lower prices were one of the main reasons which motivated district heating companies to switch fuel to biomass. At the same time subsidies, soft loans, EU Structural Funds for 2007–2013 and some fiscal measures, which are currently available for RES-H promotion, also have some impact on the increase of RES consumption. However, seeking to achieve a 23% national RES target, additional support measures are essential. A qualitative analysis based on the selected set of criteria and consultation with stakeholders showed that energy policy package for RES promotion in the Lithuanian heating sector could encompass the following measures: tax relieves (differentiated VAT and personal income tax breaks), subsidies, soft loans, standardization, support for research, development and demonstration. These measures are market-oriented and meet cost efficiency and low transaction costs criteria. - Highlights: • Existing support measures are not strongly motivating market players. • In order to meet ambitious 23% targets consistent promotion policy package is required. • The proposed package could consist of 4 instruments: tax related, soft loans, standardization and support for RD and D. • The proposed support measures are market oriented and meets cost efficiency and low transaction costs criteria. • There is no single measure that is fairly suitable to support RES-H

  7. 2nd Annual European Energy and Transport Conference. Building energy and transport infrastructures for tomorrow's Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This is already the second in a series of Annual Energy and Transport Conferences launched last year on the initiative of the Directorate-General for Energy and Transport and dedicated to combining a number of formerly scattered Europe-wide events into a single event with the aim of raising the profile of the two sectors and improving coherence. The theme chosen in 2001 was safety and security. The 2002 conference provided the forum for a debate on Europe's major infrastructure networks. The main targeted objectives are Firstly, practical, in-depth discussion of the future shape of the major trans-European energy and transport networks by 2010-2020 and, secondly, dissemination of the results of European research and technological development (RTD) programmes. The conference also provided a platform to float ideas and present programmes, approaches and results obtained at European or national level in these sectors. (Author)

  8. Contagion effects of the global financial crisis in us and European real economy sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenourgios Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates the contagion effects of the Global Financial Crisis (2007-2009 from the financial sector to the real economy by examining nine sectors of US and developed European region. We provide a regional analysis by testing stock market contagion on the aggregate level and the sector level, on the global level and the domestic/regional level. Results show evidence of global contagion in US and developed European aggregate stock market indices and all US sector indices, implying the limited benefits of portfolio diversification. On the other hand, most of the European regional sectors seem to be immune to the adverse effects of the crisis. Finally, all non-financial sectors of both geographical areas seem to be unaffected by their domestic financial systems. These findings have important implications for policy makers, investors and international organizations.

  9. The foundations for the implementation of ECVET in the nuclear energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceclan, M.; Chenel Ramos, C.

    2014-01-01

    The European Credit System for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET) Recommendation by the European Parliament and the Council, 2009, invites Member States to start progressive ECVET implementation from 2012 onwards, with an evaluation and possible revision foreseen in 2014. As part of its support to the introduction of ECVET in the nuclear energy sector, the Institute for Energy and Transport (IET) of The Joint Research Centre (JRC), European Commission (EC), through the ECVET Team of the European Human Resources Observatory for the Nuclear energy sector (EHRO-N), created in the last four years (2009-2013) the required building blocks to facilitate the design of nuclear qualifications. This article describes the outcomes of these activities, highlighting the first steps to establish a systematic approach for the design of nuclear qualifications. (authors)

  10. Energy Law in the Netherlands. Recent developments in the Dutch energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In de Braekt, M.; Berger, K.; Ouwehand, P.; Reinders, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    European Energy Review 2007 provides an overview of the key developments that have taken place in the energy sector in 30 European jurisdictions during in 2006. Written by law firms in those jurisdictions, the review also includes a summary of each legal and regulatory energy framework. Issues such as industry structure, Third Party Access, the framework applying to use of system both at the transmission and distribution levels, market entry, promotion of renewable generation, nuclear power and cross border interconnection are examined. The jurisdictions covered are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. This record concerns Energy Law The Netherlands.

  11. Energy sector reforms status of Danish energy policy - 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullev, L.

    2000-01-01

    The new millennium brings change and new ways of thinking to the energy sector. Today the sector faces new challenges which it must deal with at a time where increasing market liberalisation and increasing internalisation is creating completely new frameworks for the sector. The Danish tradition of progressive energy policy action plans is the best possible basis on which to build. The target remains set. Energy policy must create the framework for structuring future energy systems so as to ensure that they are sustainable. Over many years there have been numerous initiatives to transfer consumption to cleaner energy sources, which has now led to a steady reduction in CO 2 emissions. The government places great importance on a continuation of this current development, both short term and long term. The adoption of the Electricity Reform in spring 1999 was an important step in the right direction. The government can, with great satisfaction, conclude that an agreement has now been made with most of the Parliament regarding a Gas reform, modernisation of the heat Supply Act and a new Energy Saving Act. In addition to this, the agreement also includes a follow up to the Electricity Reform concerning utilisation of biomass, offshore wind turbines, harmonisation of costs for priority electricity production, private generator's payment to priority electricity and the establishment of a market for electricity based on renewable. (author)

  12. Energy sector reform, energy transitions and the poor in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Gisela

    2008-01-01

    There is little systematic information about the impact of energy sector reform on all sources and methods of energy utilised or potentially utilised by the poor. It is not sufficiently known what fuels the poor use, if a larger range of fuels becomes available and affordable and if barriers to access and consumption are reduced. A detailed assessment is presented for four countries, three in Africa (Botswana, Ghana and Senegal) and for comparison one in Latin America (Honduras), of steps taken to reform the energy sector and their effect on various groups of poor households. The paper analyses the pattern of energy supply to, and use by, poor households and explores the link-or its absence-to energy policy. We investigate what works for the poor and which type of reforms and implementation are effective and lead to a transition to more efficient and clean fuels from which the poor benefit. Energy sector reforms when adjusted to the specific conditions of the poor have a positive impact on access and use of clean, safe and efficient fuels. The poor are using gradually less wood as cooking fuel. Gas and kerosene are made more widely available through market liberalisation and subsidy in the particular case of Senegal. Electricity access and use is generally promoted or subsidised through changes in payment conditions and lifeline tariffs

  13. Energy sector reform, energy transitions and the poor in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Gisela [Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa)

    2008-08-15

    There is little systematic information about the impact of energy sector reform on all sources and methods of energy utilised or potentially utilised by the poor. It is not sufficiently known what fuels the poor use, if a larger range of fuels becomes available and affordable and if barriers to access and consumption are reduced. A detailed assessment is presented for four countries, three in Africa (Botswana, Ghana and Senegal) and for comparison one in Latin America (Honduras), of steps taken to reform the energy sector and their effect on various groups of poor households. The paper analyses the pattern of energy supply to, and use by, poor households and explores the link - or its absence - to energy policy. We investigate what works for the poor and which type of reforms and implementation are effective and lead to a transition to more efficient and clean fuels from which the poor benefit. Energy sector reforms when adjusted to the specific conditions of the poor have a positive impact on access and use of clean, safe and efficient fuels. The poor are using gradually less wood as cooking fuel. Gas and kerosene are made more widely available through market liberalisation and subsidy in the particular case of Senegal. Electricity access and use is generally promoted or subsidised through changes in payment conditions and lifeline tariffs. (author)

  14. RENEWABLE ENERGY STRATEGIES: WHERE EUROPEAN UNION HEADED?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADULESCU IRINA GABRIELA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The states from European Union must take advantage from renewable energy sources in order to revive the economy. Climate change creates new jobs and could reduce energy imports which would stimulate the economy of those states. The European Union should support research in the field, apply more efficient policies in energy, and create economies of scale to get an integrated European energy market in which the main actors can reduce the cost of production of renewable energy. In addition, it is possible to use the comparative advantages of the Member States and not only, like Greece, through solar energy, Southern Mediterranean, through distribution networks interconnections with EU, Russia and Ukraine, through biomass and the North Sea, through wind energy. This paper refers to the evolution and trends of the renewable energy sources and presents some scenarios of it.

  15. Aggregate Energy Consumption and Sectoral Output in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2012-10-27

    Oct 27, 2012 ... 2005); or from economic growth to aggregate energy consumption (Binh,. 2011; Yoo and Kim, ... in order identify sectors of the economy that are energy dependent and also to avoid energy ..... in Indonesia. Energy Policy ...

  16. Tradable CO2 permits in Danish and European energy policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varming, S.; Eriksen, P.B.; Grohnheit, Poul Erik

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the results of the project "Tradable CO2 permits in Danish and European energy policy". The project was financed by a grant from the Danish Energy Research Programme 1998 (Grant 1753/98-0002). The project was conducted in co-operationbetween Elsamprojekt A/S (project manager...... for a tradable CO_2 permit market for the energy sector in the EU. Experience from the tradable SO_2 permit market in the US is taken into consideration as well. Topresent an overview of price estimates of CO_2 and greenhouse gas permits in different models as well as discussing the assumptions leading...... to the different outcomes. Furthermore, the special role of backstop technologies in relation to permit prices isanalysed. To analyse the connection between CO_2 permit prices and technology choice in the energy sector in the medium and longer term (i.e., 2010 and 2020) with a special emphasis on combined heat...

  17. The First Steps Towards Harmonizing Public Sector Accounting for European Union Member States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam; Alijarde, Isabel Brusca

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the process that led the European Commission to the decision to develop European Public Sector Accounting Standards (EPSAS) for harmonizing public sector accounting practices within the European Union. The paper finds that there was limited scope in terms of stakeholder...... participation in the public consultation that served as a basis for the decision. In addition, the decision to adopt EPSAS for EU member states raises questions on the relationship between regional and global governance in the area of public sector accounting....

  18. The European market of renewable energies; Le marche europeen des energies renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2011-09-15

    This market study on renewable energies presents: 1 - the different renewable energy industries for power generation: the field of renewable energies (hydropower, wind power, solar energy, geothermal energy and biomass power plants) and their common points, their characteristics, advantages and constraints; 2 - the political and regulatory context with its ambitious goals: main steps of worldwide negotiations, Europe and the management of CO{sub 2} emissions, stiffening of the environmental regulation, the energy/climate package and the efforts to be borne by the different member states; 3 - Economy of the sector and the necessary public support: investment and production costs by industry, wholesale prices and competitiveness of the different power generation means, government's incentives for projects profitability; 4 - dynamics of the European market of renewable energies: energy-mix and evolution of the renewable energies contribution in the world and in the European Union, key-figures by country and by industry (installed capacity, production, turnover, employment); 5 - medium-term development perspectives: 2020 prospect scenarios, evolution of the energy mix, perspectives of development for each industry; 6 - the strengths in presence in the domain of facilities: main manufacturers, market shares, innovations, vertical integration, external growth; 7 - the strengths in presence in the domain of power facilities operation: main European operators, position and ranking, installed capacities, projects portfolio; 8 - medium-term perspectives of reconfiguration: best-positioned operators in a developing market, future of European manufacturers with respect to Asian ones, inevitable concentration in the operation sector. (J.S.)

  19. The diversity of European energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    If many European Union countries have engaged in a mutation of their energy system, the direction chosen may be different from one country to the other with different specific goals, starting from different initial energy mixes and involving different financial and industrial means. The German 'Energiewende' (the 'energy turn'), the Spanish 'Sostenibilidad Energetica' or the British 'Climate Change Bill' are unique initiatives which, without coordination, can lead to detrimental consequences on the European power system. These policies represent as many experiences to meditate on in order to identify the advantages and drawbacks of these different approaches as well as their respective impact on the European power system and on markets operation

  20. Renewable energy technologies and the European industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiteley, M.; Bess, M.

    2000-01-01

    The European renewable energy industry has the potential to be a world leader. This has been achieved within the European region for specific technologies, through a set of policy activities at a national and regional level, driven primarily by employment, energy self-sufficiency and industrial competitiveness. Using the experience gained in recent years, European industry has the opportunity to continue to expand its horizons on a worldwide level. Through the use of the SAFIRE rational energy model, an assessment has been made of the future penetration of renewable energy within Europe and the effects on these socio-economic factors. In conjunction with these outputs, assessments of the worldwide markets for wind, photovoltaics, solar thermal plant and biomass have been assessed. A case study of the Danish wind industry is used as a prime example of a success story from which the learning opportunities are replicated to other industries, so that the European renewable energy industry can achieve its potential. (orig.)

  1. Modelling the rebound effect with network theory: An insight into the European freight transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzzenenti, Franco; Basosi, Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a two pronged approach to the study of the rebound effect, with the aim of assessing the magnitude of the effect in the European freight transport sector and proposing a new modelling framework based on network theory. The (direct) rebound effect is assessed with: 1) an econometric regression; 2) a model based on network theory and statistical mechanics. According to the econometric model the European road freight transport sector undergone a negative rebound between of −74% between 1998 and 2007 and −146% between 1998 and 2011. The network analysis delivers an estimation of network rebound ranging between −29.37% and −7.25. Overall, these results indicate that energy efficiency in Europe, between 1998 and 2011, succeed in reducing the energy consumptions amid an increasing demand for transports. Results on rebound estimation depend on the decision of using GDP as an exogenous variable, an assumption that leaves questions open about the causality chain between growth and transports. Furthermore, the network analysis highlights a structural change –a migration of production factors offshore, that might partially explain this negative effect. In this view, rebound effect analysis on a local or regional scale is becoming more and more uncertain in a globally interconnected economic context. - Highlights: • An evaluation of direct rebound effect in the freight transports with an econometric model is performed. • A new concept of rebound effect based on network theory is presented and implemented. • A comparative analysis of the two different approaches is developed. • Both models indicate that the there was a negative rebound effect in European freight transports. • Network theory proved to be a promising approach to energy systems and rebound effect modelling.

  2. Accident risks in the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgherr, P.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the accident rate of natural gas installations, which are quoted by the author to be lowest of all fossil fuels. The statistics on accidents and their consequences are looked at for the whole natural gas supply chain. The results of a study commissioned by the Swiss Gas and Water Professionals Association (SVGW) are presented and discussed. Statistics for the European Union and Eastern Europe are looked at and analysed. The study's methodological basis is described and the criteria used for the definition of an accident considered to be 'serious' are listed. The results of comparisons made of various energy chains are presented and discussed. Graphics are presented of frequency of occurrence and seriousness of damage for various forms of energy as well as for maximum possible consequences of accidents. Specific analyses for the natural gas chain are presented

  3. Energy transition in the transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchemin, Bruno; Genest, Sebastien

    2013-01-01

    Within the European framework, France has committed to a 20% reduction of its GHG emission by 2020 compared with 1990, and reaching the 'factor 4' by 2050. The 2005 POPE Act (the French Energy Policy Guidance Act) makes climate change a priority of the energy policy, setting out a 3% yearly reduction of our country's GHG emissions. This means combining energy efficiency and restraint, as is highlighted by the first chapter of the 'energy transition road-map'. Energy is a major component of transport. Designing its transition requires us to question the very organisation of our society: materials and their usage, the means of transport to favour and the infrastructures to implement, costs for competitiveness, the organisation of work and commuting... At a global scale, needs for mobility are increasing, as is the urgent need to deal with environmental problems. There are huge emerging markets for public transport, increasingly efficient and smart cars, information and transmission networks, infrastructures, the organisation of transport... However, France has all the assets to become a world leader in carbon-free transport. Succeeding in this change means organising the service to meet the needs of all, people, businesses, transport operators and industry, starting this transition right away. Policies must clearly define objectives and the means of achieving them through coordinated actions within a long term approach. The ESEC formulates a set of proposals in this direction

  4. Africa's energy sector: energy availability and the underlying financial challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebesa, Motselisi; Ndyeshobola, Ahmed.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a brief overview of energy availability in Africa and the attendant financing concerns in the African energy sector. The paper departs from three key premises: firstly that energy resources in Africa are abundant, but current trends in its consumption and inherent externalities are unsustainable. This abundance is also affected by social and political stability. Secondly, that the majority of Africa's population lacks access to adequate energy services. Poverty issues and effects undermine the urgency of energy and environmental concerns. Thirdly, that Africa's sustainable development calls for more energy supply not less. Future energy requirements and related supply and financing issues are discussed with the time horizon of the year 2020. (author)

  5. Is free knowledge transfer history in the energy sector?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zewald, H.

    2000-01-01

    The European power industry is gradually changing from a government-controlled sector of monopolists to an internationally privatized free sector. Companies that used to cooperate are now competing with one another. The question is: can the international knowledge transfer institutes escape from this competitive climate or will they fall victim to it?

  6. Long term energy demand projections for croatian transport sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puksec, Tomislav; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Duic, Neven

    2011-01-01

    Transport sector in Croatia represents one of the largest consumers of energy today with a share of almost one third of final energy demand. That is why improving energy efficiency and implementing different mechanisms that would lead to energy savings in this sector would be relevant. Through th...

  7. Metrology considerations in a fast emerging new energy sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Pedersen, Troels

    2013-01-01

    The wind energy sector is emerging on the global energy scene as a fast new energy sector. In 2002 the globally installed wind energy capacity passed 32GW, corresponding to 0,4% of worlds electricity supply. The last five years the sector increased in installed capacity by 33% per year. A leading...... and loads, and measurements. Measurement institutes are organized in the MEASNET network and arrange regular conformity testing....

  8. Interacting vacuum energy in the dark sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chimento, L. P. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires and IFIBA, CONICET, Cuidad Universitaria, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina); Carneiro, S. [Instituto de Física, Uníversídade Federal da Bahia, 40210-340, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2015-03-26

    We analyse three cosmological scenarios with interaction in the dark sector, which are particular cases of a general expression for the energy flux from vacuum to matter. In the first case the interaction leads to a transition from an unstable de Sitter phase to a radiation dominated universe, avoiding in this way the initial singularity. In the second case the interaction gives rise to a slow-roll power-law inflation. Finally, the third scenario is a concordance model for the late-time universe, with the vacuum term decaying into cold dark matter. We identify the physics behind these forms of interaction and show that they can be described as particular types of the modified Chaplygin gas.

  9. New green paper on European energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2006-01-01

    On March 8, 2006, EU Commission president Jose Manuel Barroso and Energy Commissioner Andris Piebalgs presented to the public the Green Paper on 'A European Strategy for a Sustainable, Competitive, and Secure Energy', which had been expected for some time. The authors thus underscore the great importance for European development of energy policy. However, the European treaties restrict the competence of the EU in matters of energy policy. The Green Paper is to spark off a broad consultation and discussion process about the potential design of a comprehensive European energy policy. 6 main areas are mentioned in which action needs to be taken: - Energy for growth and employment. - Single energy market and continuity of supply. - Mix of energy resources: sustainable, efficient, divers. - Climate protection. - Innovation in energy technologies. - Coherent foreign policy in matters of energy. 3 key objectives are identified: - Development of renewable and other energy sources also with low CO 2 emissions. - Opening of markets, promotion of investments, energy efficiency. - Continuity of supply. (orig.)

  10. Energy costs form European wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milborrow, D [Windpower Monthly, Knebel (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    Energy generation costs from European wind farms span a very wide range. Reasons for these variations, include differences in capital and operating costs, wind speeds and differing legislative and regulatory frameworks. This article compares costs, wind speeds and discount rates for British and German windfarms and sets these alongside data from elsewhere in the European Union. In this way it is possible to determine the reasons for differences in energy generation costs. (author)

  11. Energy costs form European wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milborrow, D. [Windpower Monthly, Knebel (Denmark)

    1995-12-31

    Energy generation costs from European wind farms span a very wide range. Reasons for these variations, include differences in capital and operating costs, wind speeds and differing legislative and regulatory frameworks. This article compares costs, wind speeds and discount rates for British and German windfarms and sets these alongside data from elsewhere in the European Union. In this way it is possible to determine the reasons for differences in energy generation costs. (author)

  12. Energy costs form European wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milborrow, D.

    1995-01-01

    Energy generation costs from European wind farms span a very wide range. Reasons for these variations, include differences in capital and operating costs, wind speeds and differing legislative and regulatory frameworks. This article compares costs, wind speeds and discount rates for British and German windfarms and sets these alongside data from elsewhere in the European Union. In this way it is possible to determine the reasons for differences in energy generation costs. (author)

  13. Innovation management in renewable energy sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat, V.

    2017-08-01

    As a result of the globalization of knowledge, shortening of the innovation cycle and the aggravation of the price situation, the diffusion of innovation has accelerated. The protection of innovation has become even more important for companies in technologyintensive industries. Legal and actual patent right strategies complement one another, in order to amortize the investment in product development. Climate change is one of today’s truly global challenges, affecting all aspects of socio-economic development in every region of the world. Technology development and its rapid diffusion are considered crucial for tackling the climate change challenge. At the global level, the last decades have seen a continuous expansion of inventive activity in renewable energy technologies. The growth in Renewable Energy (RE) inventions has been much faster than in other technologies, and RE today represents nearly 6% of global invention activity, up from 1.5% in 1990. This paper discusses about global innovation activity in the last five years in the renewable energy sector and describes the Innovation and Technology Management process for supporting managerial decision making.

  14. Open innovation in the European space sector : existing practices, constraints and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Burg, E.; Giannopapa, C.G.; Reymen, I.M.M.J.

    2017-01-01

    To enhance innovative output and societal spillover of the European space sector, the open innovation approach is becoming popular. Yet, open innovation, referring to innovation practices that cross borders of individual firms, faces constraints. To explore these constraints and identify

  15. European CO2 emission trends: A decomposition analysis for water and aviation transport sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreoni, V.; Galmarini, S.

    2012-01-01

    A decomposition analysis is used to investigate the main factors influencing the CO 2 emissions of European transport activities for the period 2001–2008. The decomposition method developed by Sun has been used to investigate the carbon dioxide emissions intensity, the energy intensity, the structural changes and the economy activity growth effects for the water and the aviation transport sectors. The analysis is based on Eurostat data and results are presented for 14 Member States, Norway and EU27. Results indicate that economic growth has been the main factor behind the carbon dioxide emissions increase in EU27 both for water and aviation transport activities. -- Highlights: ► Decomposition analysis is used to investigate factors that influenced the energy-related CO 2 emissions of European transport. ► Economic growth has been the main factor affecting the energy-related CO 2 emissions increases. ► Investigating the CO 2 emissions drivers is the first step to define energy efficiency policies and emission reduction strategies.

  16. Optimal policy for mitigating emissions in the European transport sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Sylvain; Piera, Patrizio; Sennai, Mesfun; Igor, Staritsky; Berien, Elbersen; Tijs, Lammens; Florian, Kraxner

    2017-04-01

    A geographic explicit techno-economic model, BeWhere (www.iiasa.ac.at/bewhere), has been developed at the European scale (Europe 28, the Balkans countries, Turkey, Moldavia and Ukraine) at a 40km grid size, to assess the potential of bioenergy from non-food feedstock. Based on the minimization of the supply chain from feedstock collection to the final energy product distribution, the model identifies the optimal bioenergy production plants in terms of spatial location, technology and capacity. The feedstock of interests are woody biomass (divided into eight types from conifers and non-conifers) and five different crop residuals. For each type of feedstock, one or multiple technologies can be applied for either heat, electricity or biofuel production. The model is run for different policy tools such as carbon cost, biofuel support, or subsidies, and the optimal mix of technologies and biomass needed is optimized to reach a production cost competitive against the actual reference system which is fossil fuel based. From this approach, the optimal mix of policy tools that can be applied country wide in Europe will be identified. The preliminary results show that high carbon tax and biofuel support contribute to the development of large scale biofuel production based on woody biomass plants mainly located in the northern part of Europe. Finally the highest emission reduction is reached with low biofuel support and high carbon tax evenly distributed in Europe.

  17. Proceedings of the European Conferences on the energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergriete, Patrice; Juppe, Alain; Lechevin, Bruno; Delevoye, Jean-Paul; Ben Naceur, Kamel; Lemmet, Sylvie; Marignac, Yves; Berhault, Gilles; Baupin, Denis; Fremont, Jean-Pierre; Roumet, Claire; Ruedinger, Andreas; Rousset, Sophie; Lechevin, Bruno; Castelain, Damien; Monloubou, Philippe; Sauvage, Edouard; Viveret, Patrick; Marland, Peter; Bouchart, Christiane; Vamberg, Henriette; Watteeuw, Filip; Soubeste, Jean-Marc; Geoffroy, Helene; Couet, Emmanuel; Pellerin, Isabelle; Garnier, Nicolas; Frank, Bo; Bjoerkmarker, Aasa Karlsson; Santais, Beatrice; Roger, Christian; Careme, Damien; Aubry, Christine; Dubbeling, Marielle; Fernandes, Jose Sa; Framond, Alain de; Vansintjan, Dirk; Servais, Olivier; Leclercq, Michel; Poize, Noemie; Sefcovic, Maros; Royal, Segolene; Vincent, Isabelle; Gaudin, Thomas; Bailleul, David; Establie d'Argence, Marie-Pierre; Poncet, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    This huge publication contains contributions and sessions of a conference which addressed the following issues: new abilities and professions in the energy sector, perspectives for local and energy policies and for the society after the COP21 and the role of local communities (tools and actions, education, development of cold networks, and so on), a discussion about what happened during the past year with notably the French law for energy transition and a green growth, an overview of the GRHYD demonstrator (the first Power-to-Gas demonstrator in France), how to finance energy transition, how to shift towards a societal transition, sustainable mobility (a city without car made by its inhabitants), urban agriculture as a lever for action for energy transition, the role of citizen in tomorrow's energy, the post-COP21 European, national and local agenda, energy transition and jobs. Workshops and forums related to various aspects related to these issues are also reported

  18. Evaluation of Economic Merger Control Techniques Applied to the European Electricity Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandezande, Leen; Meeus, Leonardo; Delvaux, Bram; Van Calster, Geert; Belmans, Ronnie

    2006-01-01

    With European electricity markets not yet functioning on a competitive basis and consolidation increasing, the European Commission has said it intends to more intensively apply competition law in the electricity sector. Yet economic techniques and theories used in EC merger control fail to take sufficiently into account some specific features of electricity markets. The authors offer suggestions to enhance their reliability and applicability in the electricity sector. (author)

  19. Renewable Energy in European Regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram

    2012-01-01

    The regional dynamics of energy innovation, in particular the shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy in the EU, is discussed within the framework of neo-Schumpeterian theory. The EU’s 4.2% average annual growth in renewable energy production in the last decade has been accompanied by diverging

  20. Financial Integration Through Benchmarks: The European Banking Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. Moerman (Gerard); R.J. Mahieu (Ronald); C.G. Koedijk (Kees)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractEuropean banking regulation has been harmonized to a high degree over the last few decades. Nevertheless, the European banking industry remains fragmented as shown by the relatively high market shares of banks in their home countries. In this paper we concentrate on the integration

  1. Energy supply options for Lithuania: A detailed multi-sector integrated energy demand, supply and environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-09-01

    The Technical Co-operation (TC) project Energy Supply Options for Lithuania: A Detailed Multi-Sector Integrated Energy Demand, Supply and Environmental Analysis (LIT/0/004) was implemented 2001-2002 by a national team with support from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The principal objective of the project was to conduct a comprehensive assessment of Lithuania's future energy supply options taking into consideration the early closure of the Ignalina nuclear power plant (Ignalina NPP). Lithuania, a country in transition to full membership of the European Union, has to comply with the energy acquis (Chapter 14). The 'acquis communautaire' (the body of common rights and obligations which bind all the Member States together) must be adopted by all applicant countries. Implementing the acquis requires not only adequate legislation, well functioning institutions (e.g. a regulatory body as required in the electricity and gas directives) or schedules for restructuring the energy sector but also measures to enhance energy supply security, improvement of energy networks, efficiency improvements throughout the energy system and compliance with European environmental standards. Within the overall context of the transition to EU membership, this study focuses on the future development of the electricity sector and the impacts on energy supply security and environmental performance of a closure of Ignalina NPP by 2009, a pre-condition for accession stipulated by the European Union. The project coincided with the preparation of the new National Energy Strategy for Lithuania and therefore was set up to support the strategy formulation process

  2. estec2007 - 3rd European solar thermal energy conference. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-12-14

    The sessions of the 'estec2007 - 3{sup rd} European Solar Thermal Energy Conference held in Freiburg, Germany have the following titles: The solar thermal sector at a turning point; Cooling and Process Heat, Country reports Europe; Standards and Certification; Country reports outside Europe; Awareness raising and marketing; Domestic hot water and space heating; Domestic hot water and space heating; Quality Assurance and Solar Thermal Energy Service Companies; Collectors and other key technical issues; Policy - Financial incentives; Country Reports; Marketing and Awareness Raising; Quality Assurance Measures/Monistoring; Standards and Certification; Collectors; Domestic Hot Water and Space Heating; Industrial Process Heat; Storage; Solar Cooling. (AKF)

  3. estec2007 - 3rd European solar thermal energy conference. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-12-14

    The sessions of the 'estec2007 - 3{sup rd} European Solar Thermal Energy Conference held in Freiburg, Germany have the following titles: The solar thermal sector at a turning point; Cooling and Process Heat, Country reports Europe; Standards and Certification; Country reports outside Europe; Awareness raising and marketing; Domestic hot water and space heating; Domestic hot water and space heating; Quality Assurance and Solar Thermal Energy Service Companies; Collectors and other key technical issues; Policy - Financial incentives; Country Reports; Marketing and Awareness Raising; Quality Assurance Measures/Monistoring; Standards and Certification; Collectors; Domestic Hot Water and Space Heating; Industrial Process Heat; Storage; Solar Cooling. (AKF)

  4. Training in the Motor Vehicle Repair and Sales Sector. Report for the FORCE Programme. European Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauner, Felix; And Others

    Trends in training for employment in the motor vehicle repair and sales sectors in the 12 European Community (EC) countries were identified through a review of 12 national reports that were prepared by 16 research teams involved in an EC study on continuing training in the motor vehicle sales and repair sector. Special attention was paid to the…

  5. Interest organizations across economic sectors : explaining interest group density in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, Joost; Carroll, Brendan J.; Braun, Caelesta; Chalmers, Adam W.; Destrooper, Tine; Lowery, David; Otjes, Simon; Rasmussen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The number of interest organizations (density) varies across policy domains, political issues and economic sectors. This shapes the nature and outcomes of interest representation. In this contribution, we explain the density of interest organizations per economic sector in the European Union on the

  6. Interest organizations across economic sectors: explaining interest group density in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, Joost; Carroll, Brendan; Braun, Caelesta; Chalmers, Adam; De Strooper, Tine; Lowery, David; Otjes, Simon; Rasmussen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The number of interest organizations (density) varies across policy domains, political issues and economic sectors. This shapes the nature and outcomes of interest representation. In this contribution, we explain the density of interest organizations per economic sector in the European Union on the

  7. African Financial Sectors and the European Debt Crisis : Will Trouble Blow across the Sahara?

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    The exposure of African financial sectors to global risks, including the likely fall-out of the on-going European debt crisis, continues to be limited. African financial sectors have received much recognition for their steady growth performance and resilience during and after the 2008 global financial crisis. Many of the transmission channels for global risks and financial contagion to fin...

  8. Energy policy and development of the energy sector in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazhev, Blagoja.

    1996-01-01

    Energetics is an important precondition for everyday life in the economic activities as well as the social activities on the whole. The main goal of the energy sector is to monitor and support the planned social development. Consequently, the development of the society and the development of energetics must be coordinated as much as possible. If not, with an autarchic development of the energy system, because of its capital characteristic, could mean a substantial erosion of the social accumulation, without an appropriate contribution to the growth of the national income. Because of this, the issue we wish to speak of is constantly current. (author). 1 tab., 6 ills

  9. Energy economy and industrial ecology in the Brazilian cement sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Marina Elisabete Espinho; Schaeffer, Roberto

    1999-01-01

    The article discusses the following issues of the Brazilian cement sector: the Brazilian cement main types specification, cement quantities evolution produced in Brazil from 1987 to 1997, energy conservation in the cement production process with additives, energy economy cost estimates from the utilization of additives, and several technologies energy economy cost used in the industrial sector

  10. European energy policy and Italian national rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    In light of energy market upheavals expected as a result of the up-coming European free trade market, impacts on existing Italian energy legislation, currently hinging on the monopolistic activities of ENEL, (Italian National Electricity Board) are examined. The various aspects dealt with include: legal implications of the integration, under monopolistic and deregulated national energy market scenarios, of new legislation, on the production and distribution of renewable energy sources, with existing energy legislation; the combined effects of strong competition in a new international energy market and energy supply vulnerability due strong dependence on OPEC supplied petroleum; Italian regional economic unbalance due to the possible introduction, in a deregulated European electric power market, of a common carrier system of electric power distribution, that due to Italy's particular geography is expected to be controlled by a firm locatednear the northern border; power pooling legislation and rate structure transparency in a deregulated energy market

  11. The renewable energy sector. A Flemish socio-economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutsebaut, E.; De Decker, M.

    2010-10-01

    This study examines the most important characteristics of the renewable energy sector in Flanders, Belgium, based on interviews held with the sector. The addressed parameters include turnover, employment, Financial ratios, the characteristics of the sector such as Legal form, year of establishment, geographical location, and so on. [nl

  12. Severe Accidents in the Energy Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschberg, S; Spiekerman, G; Dones, R

    1998-11-01

    A comprehensive database on severe accidents, with main emphasis on the ones associated with the energy sector, has been established by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). Fossil energy carriers, nuclear power and hydro power are covered in ENSAD (Energy related Severe Accident Database), and the scope of work includes all stages of the analysed energy chains, i.e. exploration, extraction, transports, processing, storage and waste disposal. The database has been developed using a wide variety of sources. As opposed to the previous studies the ambition of the present work has been, whenever feasible, to cover a relatively broad spectrum of damage categories of interest. This includes apart from fatalities also serious injuries, evacuations, land or water contamination, and economic losses. Currently, ENSAD covers 13,914 accidents, of which 4290 are energy related, and 1943 are considered as severe accidents. Significant effort has been directed towards the examination of the relevance of the worldwide accident records to the Swiss specific conditions, particularly in the context of nuclear and hydro power. For example, a detailed investigation of large dam failures and their consequences was carried out. Generally, while Swiss specific aspects are emphasised, the major part of the collected and analysed data, as well as the insights gained, are considered to be of general interest. In particular, three sets of the aggregated results are provided based on world wide occurrence, on OECD countries, and on non OECD countries, respectively. Significant differences exist between the aggregated, normalised damage rates assessed for the various energy carriers: On the world wide basis, the broader picture obtained by coverage of full energy chains leads to aggregated immediate fatality rates being much higher for the fossil fuels than what one would expect if power plants only were considered. The highest rates apply to LPG, followed by hydro, oil, coal, natural gas and

  13. Severe Accidents in the Energy Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, S.; Spiekerman, G.; Dones, R.

    1998-11-01

    A comprehensive database on severe accidents, with main emphasis on the ones associated with the energy sector, has been established by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). Fossil energy carriers, nuclear power and hydro power are covered in ENSAD (Energy related Severe Accident Database), and the scope of work includes all stages of the analysed energy chains, i.e. exploration, extraction, transports, processing, storage and waste disposal. The database has been developed using a wide variety of sources. As opposed to the previous studies the ambition of the present work has been, whenever feasible, to cover a relatively broad spectrum of damage categories of interest. This includes apart from fatalities also serious injuries, evacuations, land or water contamination, and economic losses. Currently, ENSAD covers 13,914 accidents, of which 4290 are energy related, and 1943 are considered as severe accidents. Significant effort has been directed towards the examination of the relevance of the worldwide accident records to the Swiss specific conditions, particularly in the context of nuclear and hydro power. For example, a detailed investigation of large dam failures and their consequences was carried out. Generally, while Swiss specific aspects are emphasised, the major part of the collected and analysed data, as well as the insights gained, are considered to be of general interest. In particular, three sets of the aggregated results are provided based on world wide occurrence, on OECD countries, and on non OECD countries, respectively. Significant differences exist between the aggregated, normalised damage rates assessed for the various energy carriers: On the world wide basis, the broader picture obtained by coverage of full energy chains leads to aggregated immediate fatality rates being much higher for the fossil fuels than what one would expect if power plants only were considered. The highest rates apply to LPG, followed by hydro, oil, coal, natural gas and

  14. Some THINKing on European energy policy

    OpenAIRE

    GLACHANT, Jean-Michel; MEEUS, Leonardo; RUESTER, Sophia

    2013-01-01

    QM-02-13-166-EN-C QM-02-13-166-EN-N Energy regulation and policy currently belong to the most important and developing areas in the European Union. THINK, the Florence School of Regulation’s think tank was running from June 2010 to May 2013. THINK advised the European Commission (DG Energy) on Energy Policy and presented policy options each semester. This booklet gives an overview of the THINK output published in the second half of the project and focuses on 6 topics: How to Refurbish A...

  15. Biomass energy: progress in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, J. [CPL Scientific Limited, Newbury (United Kingdom)

    1996-05-01

    A brief overview of the progress in the use of biomass energy in the European Union is presented. Wood fuel, support for renewable energy research, liquid biofuel, wastes and residues, and non-food use of crops such as the production of fuels from lignocellulosic materials are examined. (UK)

  16. European energy policy and Italian industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinale, A.; Verdelli, A.

    2008-01-01

    The competitiveness of the Italian industry is very sensitive to the rising costs of energy. The European energy policy, if intended as an additional constraint, could deteriorate the situation. It could be, however, a good opportunity for the Italian industry to become more independent from fossil fuels, through an innovatory project at country level [it

  17. European leadership in the energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trannoy, Alain; Aussilloux, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    President Trump's decision to withdraw from the Paris Agreement has led to a fragmentation in the US effort to see through the energy transition, with some states supporting it and others remaining committed to intensive fossil fuel use. This predicament presents the European Union with a unique opportunity to become the global leader in green energy technologies

  18. Debates of the Vista 2009 Colloquium 'A European emergency: energy policy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabius, Laurent; Ladoucette, Philippe de; Lederer, Pierre; Percebois, Jacques; Ristori, Dominique; ); ROSIER, Philippe; Tran Thiet, Jean-Paul; Chalmin, Philippe

    2009-05-01

    After an introduction speech by the chairman of Vista-Think tank energies, a first debate examined whether energy needs Europe. The interveners discussed the existence of other instruments than competition, the openness to all the market actors, the relationship between the regulatory policy and the possibility of development at a European level. The second debate examined whether Europe needs energy. The interveners describe the development of a European energy sector in a context without any actual European energy policy, how such a policy can emerge, how the various challenges and objectives are addressed

  19. Energy and exergy utilization in transportation sector of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincer, I.; Hussain, M.M.; Al-Zaharnah, I.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the transportation sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the sectoral energy and exergy flows for the years of 1990-2001. Energy and exergy analyses are conducted for its three subsectors, namely road, air and marine, and hence the energy and exergy efficiencies are obtained for comparison. Road subsector appears to be the most efficient one compared to air and marine subsectors. It is found that the energy efficiencies in air and marine subsectors are found to be equal to the corresponding exergy efficiencies due to the values of exergy grade function. A comparison of the overall energy and exergy efficiencies of Saudi Arabian transportation sector with the Turkish transportation sector is also presented for the year 1993 based on the data available. Although the sectoral coverage is not same for both countries, it is still useful to illustrate the situation on how subsectoral energy and exergy efficiencies vary over the years. Turkish transportation sector appears to be a bit more efficient for that particular year. It is believed that the present technique is practical and useful for analyzing sectoral energy and exergy utilization to determine how efficient energy and exergy are used in transportation sector. It is also be helpful to establish standards, based on exergy, to facilitate applications in industry and in other planning processes such as energy planning

  20. European energy market in 1980. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, G; Robinson, C

    1975-01-01

    Three important general influences now affecting energy markets are: (1) exploitation of bargaining power by exporters of raw materials (especially oil); (2) changing attitudes in the developed world towards economic growth; and (3) the unprecedented combination of rapid inflation and serious recession. Fears of energy shortages helped precipitate the world crisis, but there is no energy famine imminent. The rise in energy prices resulted from use of OPEC's quasi-monopoly power rather than from real energy shortages. It is projected that European fuel markets in the next few years will be influenced by: poorer economic growth prospects, the increase in energy prices, oil-saving measures caused by consumers' adjustments over some years to the past huge oil price increases, and attempts by European governments to reduce dependence on OPEC oil. Possible substitutes for OPEC oil are their own various sources of crude oil, European natural gas, and electricity from nuclear fission. EEC's latest energy strategy calls for adequate supplies of cheap energy with minimum damage to the environment. Energy forecasts up to 1980 are given for the nine EEC countries and for Norway and Sweden. Data on energy demand, fuel consumption, and production are summarized. It is felt that, by 1980, Netherlands, United Kingdom, and Norway should be producing more energy than they consume. (MCW)

  1. Nuclear energy and european public opinions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libourne, J.

    2008-01-01

    This document presents four texts related to the crucial question of the attitude towards nuclear energy in the countries of the European Union: the first text comments the results of a European Commission inquiry (2006), and is more especially concerned with a comparison between Germany and France where rather similar public opinions lead to very different political approaches; the second text presents a synthesis of inquiries concerning Germany; the third is a review of the main national studies realized in various european countries; the last text is drawn from a study realized by the Cnrs on the position of the French towards nuclear wastes

  2. An european policy of the energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    This report aims to precise the main dynamics which give structure to the public action in the domain of the energy in Europe. It shows: how the european initiatives which tend to integrate the different national policies, are poorly developed; a new european model of regulation to articulate the liberalization dynamic with the other objectives of national interest; scenari of global integration. (A.L.B.)

  3. ROMANIA’S NEGOTIATIONS WITH EUROPEAN UNION REGARDING AGRICULTURAL SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard IONESCU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of negotiations considering the agricultural and alimentary sectors results, from the one hand from their importance in Romanian economy, from the fact that, on the results of negotiations held with EU officials depends the re-launching capacity of these sectors, of Romanian agro-alimentary market,the amendment of their contribution to general economic increase, durable rural development and population life standard improvement generally and specially to the one in rural medium. But, on the other hand, these negotiations importance is also generated by the fact that the Romania’s agriculture structural problems are hard to solve, the disequilibrium from agricultural sector are bigger compare to the ones of other states and their rectifying is more difficult.

  4. Restructuring and privatization in energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojchev, D.; Pyrvanov, V.

    1994-01-01

    The ways of solving problems of the transition period to market economy are discussed. The current conditions in Bulgarian energy sector are defined taking into account different processes, stages, elements, objects. The criteria of the transition -economical. technological, organizational, social, ecological -and the problems - unemployment, requalification, privatization, contamination - are postulated. The recent experience of Bulgaria and other ex-communist countries in restructuring and privatization of the economy are considered. The scope of suitable approaches, methods, means and rates are outlined. The mechanisms of the tackled processes are analyzed by comparative investigation and management ways for impact on different levels are looked for. The possible consequences of given situation, advantages and shortcomings of different alternatives are formulated. The ways for assessment and selection of compromise solutions are proposed. An overall technology for assessment and application of different ways of transition is discussed. Their tools for business estimation of economic units, the legislative, economic and social aspects of the process are scrutiny observed. Some problems of a real example of application of proposed assessment are discussed. Conclusions about methodology and efficiency of different alternatives are made. 2 refs

  5. The European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen; Hviid, Christian Anker

    This paper investigates the actual energy use for building operation with the calculated energy use according to the Danish implementation of the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD). This is important to various stakeholders in the building industry as the calculated energy...... performance is used for estimating investment security, operating budgets and for policy making. A case study shows that the actual and calculated energy use is practically the same in an average scenario. In the worst-case uncertainty scenario, the actual energy use is 20 % higher than the corrected...

  6. Energy consumption in the transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plouchart, G.

    2004-01-01

    During the 20. century, transport sector demand in the OECD countries boomed. The main drivers for growth were road transport and, more recently, air transport. As emerging countries continue to develop and the world faces the threat of climate change, this sector represents a major long-term challenge

  7. Simulating the Impacts of Climate Extremes Across Sectors: The Case of the 2003 European Heat Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schewe, J.; Zhao, F.; Reyer, C.; Breuer, L.; Coll, M.; Deryng, D.; Eddy, T.; Elliott, J. W.; Francois, L. M.; Friend, A. D.; Gerten, D.; Gosling, S.; Gudmundsson, L.; Huber, V.; Kim, H.; Lotze, H. K.; Orth, R.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Tittensor, D.; Vautard, R.; van Vliet, M. T. H.; Wada, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Increased occurrence of extreme climate or weather events is one of the most damaging consequences of global climate change today and in the future. Estimating the impacts of such extreme events across different human and natural systems is crucial for quantifying overall risks from climate change. Are current models fit for this task? Here we use the 2003 European heat wave and drought (EHW) as a historical analogue for comparable events in the future, and evaluate how accurately its impacts are reproduced by a multi-sectoral "super-ensemble" of state-of-the-art impacts models. Our study combines, for the first time, impacts on agriculture, freshwater resources, terrestrial and marine ecosystems, energy, and human health in a consistent multi-model framework. We identify key impacts of the 2003 EHW reported in the literature and/or recorded in publicly available databases, and examine how closely the models reproduce those impacts, applying the same measure of impact magnitude across different sectors. Preliminary results are mixed: While the EHW's impacts on water resources (streamflow) are reproduced well by most global hydrological models, not all crop and natural vegetation models reproduce the magnitude of impacts on agriculture and ecosystem productivity, respectively, and their performance varies by country or region. A hydropower capacity model matches reported hydropower generation anomalies only in some countries, and estimates of heat-related excess mortality from a set of statistical models are consistent with literature reports only for some of the cities investigated. We present a synthesis of simulated and observed impacts across sectors, and reflect on potential improvements in modeling and analyzing cross-sectoral impacts.

  8. Structure of financing investments in the energy sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowal Barbara

    2017-01-01

    The article shows how the financing structure of the companies from the fuel and energy sector, listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange, has evolved over the years. The authors also estimated the cost of equity. The results were compared with the chosen mining companies in Poland. Companies from the energy sector have lower investment risk than companies from the fuel sector. Looking at the profitability of investments it should be emphasized that the financing by outside capital is more advantageous than equity financing.

  9. Representativeness of the European social partner organisations: Catering sector - Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünell, M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this representativeness study is to identify the respective national and supranational actors (i.e. trade unions and employer organisations) in the field of industrial relations in the contract catering sector in the Netherlands. In order to determine their relative importance in the

  10. Growing like mushrooms? Sectoral evidence from four large European economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castaldi, C.; Sapio, S.

    This paper follows a stream of literature on the empirics of sectoral growth rates, originated by Castaldi and Dosi (Income levels and income growth. Some new cross-country evidence and some interpretative puzzles. LEM Working Paper 2004-18, Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy, 2004)

  11. Growing like mushrooms? Sectoral evidence from four large European economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castaldi, C.; Sapio, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper follows a stream of literature on the empirics of sectoral growth rates, originated by Castaldi and Dosi (Income levels and income growth. Some new cross-country evidence and some interpretative puzzles. LEM Working Paper 2004-18, Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy, 2004)

  12. Environmental damage costs in Iran by the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafie-Pour, Majid; Ardestani, Mojtaba

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the energy supply and demand, this paper assesses the environmental damage from air pollution in Iran using the Extern-E study that has extended over 10 years and is still in progress in the European Union (EU) commission. Damage costs were transferred from Western European practice to the conditions of Iran by scaling according to GDP per capital measured in PPP terms. Using this approach, the total health damage from air pollution in 2001 is assessed at about $7 billion; equivalent to 8.4% of nominal GDP. In the absence of price reform and control policies, it is estimated that damage in Iran will grow to $9 billion by 2019, in the money of 2001. This is equivalent to 10.9% of nominal GDP, i.e. a larger percentage of a larger GDP. Of this total, $8.4 billion comes from the transport sector. The damage cost to the global environment from the flaring of natural gas, assessed on the basis of a carbon price of $10/ton CO 2 and found to be approximately $600 million per year. This is equal to a little less than 1% of current GDP. There are larger costs associated with recovery and use of such gas, but equally there are large potential benefits

  13. European energy: how to avoid the shock?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document reproduces the interventions and discussions between professionals of the energy sector on energy challenges in France and in Europe within the context of a required reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. After an introductive contribution commenting the evolution of the various sources of energy, notably renewable energies, and the expected energy savings after the 'Grenelle de l'Environnement' in France, round tables have been occasion of discussions on different topics: the energy security or the origin of to-morrow hydrocarbons, the right balance for the energy mix, the needs in research and development and its financing, the after-Kyoto perspectives, the concept of acceptability (for example for different energy projects like gas pipelines, or for a carbon tax). A last contribution comments the results of a survey of the perceptions and behaviours of French people with respect to energy conservation

  14. Energy demand analysis in the household, commercial and agriculture sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapillonne, B.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter of the publication is dealing with Energy Demand Analysis in the Household, Commercial and Agricultural Sector. Per Capita total energy consumption in the residential and commercial sector is given and variation among countries are discussed. 12 figs, 1 tab

  15. Version 2.0 of the European Gas Model. Changes and their impact on the German gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmert, David; Petrov, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    In January 2015 ACER, the European Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators, presented an updated version of its target model for the inner-European natural gas market, also referred to as version 2.0 of the Gas Target Model. During 2014 the existing model, originally developed by the Council of European Energy Regulators (CEER) and launched in 2011, had been analysed, revised and updated in preparation of the new version. While it has few surprises to offer, the new Gas Target Model contains specifies and goes into greater detail on many elements of the original model. Some of the new content is highly relevant to the German gas sector, not least the deliberations on the current key issues, which are security of supply and the ability of the gas markets to function.

  16. European Union concerns with its energy dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commeau, N.

    2001-01-01

    European Union (E.U.) produces only half its needs concerning energy. It is expected that by 2030, the energy balance will be 86% for fossil energies, 8% for renewable energies and 6% for nuclear energy. Different scenario show that the dependence of E.U will worsen and reach 70% unless a common strategy is launched to curb the tendency. E.U is elaborating a common policy concerning energy, this policy rests on 4 axis: 1) monitoring the increase of the energy consumption by promoting energy savings in housing and transport, 2) directing the energy demand towards less polluting energy by using taxes, public funding and European regulations as incentive tools, 3) sustaining a constant dialogues with energy exporting countries in order to get a more stable energy market and have a benefiting influence on prices, and 4) developing new routes of importation of energy by for instance contributing to the construction of new oil or gas pipeline networks. (A.C.)

  17. Lobbying in the European union – regulation and public sector economics perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dvořáková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lobbying has become an inseparable companion of the decision-making process and firms but also other social actors (non-governmental organizations, individuals, private and civil sector are forced to reflect this fact, if they want to promote their interests effectively and if they want to avoid regulation that would harm their interests. The paper analyses the regulation of lobbying in European institutions and focuses on two major institutions which are under pressure of the lobbyists, the European Commission and the European Parliament. The paper discusses and presents the both ways of regulation which occur in the European institutions- the concept of self-regulation and the binding Code of Conduct under the Rules of Procedure in the European Parliament.The paper contains also possible economic consequences of lobbying based on the Public Sector Economics perspective and the methodology of the principal-agent relationship.

  18. European integration, energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurmento, L.

    1993-01-01

    Today the creation of the internal market in EC is even reaching the field of energy although there are many difficulties caused by differences between the Member States. The Scandinavian Countries are advancing considerably further in liberating the energy market than the EC-outlines in evidence today. Environmental protection has gained more significance in EC recently. The most important regulations and directives are included in the EEA agreement. The directives are included in the EEA agreement. The implementation of the norms would not demand an increase in the level of environmental protection we have in Finland but it seems to be the target of enforcement to issue more strict limits than those in EC-directives. This kind of development can severely weaken Finland's ability to compete: especially as compliance with the directives is still a significant problem in EC

  19. Report on the de-carbonated energy sector in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    For different de-carbonated energies, this report presents the available technologies, describes the value chain, presents the regulatory and legal European and French frameworks, gives a brief overview of the world, European and French markets, presents the main actors at the international or French level, briefly presents research projects, and skill centres. The report addresses the following energies: bio-fuels, biomass energy, wind energy, sea energy, photovoltaic energy, thermal solar energy, CO 2 capture and storage, geothermal energy, hydrogen and fuel cells, smart grids, energy storage, nuclear energy, hydroelectricity, and the de-carbonated vehicle

  20. Employability and the psychological contract in European ICT sector SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholarios, D.; van der Heijden, B.I.J.M.; van der Schoot, E.; Bozionelos, N.; Epitropaki, O.; Knauth, P.; Marzec, I.; Mikkelsen, A.; van der Heijde, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the employability of information and communication technology (ICT) professionals from the perspective of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The first stage of analysis, based on over 100 interviews with managers of ICT supplier companies in seven European countries

  1. Energy corridors European Union and Neighbouring countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oostvoorn, F.; Hafner, Manfred; Vailati, Ricardo; Wietschel, Martin

    2007-08-01

    The ENCOURAGED (Energy corridor optimisation for European markets of gas, electricity and hydrogen) project has been launched in beginning 2005 to identify and assess the economically optimal energy corridors between European Union (EU) and neighbouring countries. The objectives of the project are to: Assess the economic optimal energy (electricity, gas and hydrogen) corridors and related network infrastructure for connecting the EU with its neighbouring countries and regions; Identify, quantify and evaluate the barriers to and potential benefits of building optimal energy corridors connecting the EU with its neighbours; Propose necessary policy measures to implement the recommended energy corridors with a focus on investment and the geopolitical framework; Organise stakeholder workshops and seminars to discuss the results and findings and reach consensus among scientists, stakeholders and non-governmental organizations and validate project results

  2. Energy conservation in nationalised transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, R C

    1980-01-01

    About 60% of high speed diesel is consumed by the road transport industry. The hike in fuel prices calls for urgent measures to conserve diesel. The paper discusses the various measures undertaken to conserve diesel in the nationalized transport sector.

  3. Decarbonizing the European electricity sector. Modeling and policy analysis for electricity and CO_2 infrastructure networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oei, Pao-Yu Charly Robin

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation uses three models to analyze different decarbonization strategies for combating global climate change: The cost minimizing mixed-integer model CCTS-Mod examines the economics of Carbon Capture, Transport, and Storage (CCTS) for the electricity and industry sector; the welfare maximizing quadratically constrained model ELMOD focuses on different trajectories for renewable energy sources (RES) and transmission grid expansions; and the equilibrium model ELCO combines the insights of the individual sectors to a combined CCTS and electricity investment and dispatch model. Modeling results show that an investment in CCTS is beneficial for the iron and steel sector once the CO_2 certificate price exceeds 50 Euros/t CO_2. The threshold is 75 Euros/t CO_2 for the cement industry and 100 Euros/t CO_2 for the electricity sector. Additional revenues from using CO_2 for enhanced oil recovery (CO_2-EOR) lead to an earlier adoption of CCTS in the North Sea region. The lack of economies of scale results in increasing CO_2 storage costs of more than 30%, while transport costs even double. Research from the last years, however, indicates that CCTS is unlikely to play an important role in decarbonizing the electricity sector. The identified reasons for this are incumbents' resistance to structural change, wrong technology choices, over-optimistic cost estimates, a premature focus on energy projects instead of industry, and the underestimation of transport and storage issues. Keeping global temperature rise below 2 C therefore implies the phase-out of fossilfueled power plants and, in particular, of CO_2-intensive coal power plants. The low CO_2 price established by the European Emissions Trading Scheme is insufficient to induce a fuel switch in the medium term. Therefore, supplementary national measures are necessary to reduce coal-based power generation; i.a. feed-in tariffs for RES, minimum CO_2 prices, or emissions performance standards. Analyses for Germany show

  4. A comparison of European energy taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteux, S.

    2004-01-01

    Energy and pollution are two closely related topics, and justifiably so, even if the environmental repercussions of energy consumption affect society to varying degrees. Today, there is a revival of interest for 'clean' energy solutions with respect to the traditional, more polluting, energy sources. The boundary between these two energy categories remains difficult to established. Natural gas is a perfect example because it is considered as a clean alternative to hydrocarbons, while its use generates greenhouse gases. Taking into consideration these criteria, together with some others, in particular economical and strategic, each country must establish environmental policies in which energy taxes play a key role. This study examines the taxation of traditional types of energy (automotive fuels, fuel oil, natural gas and electricity) within the European Union. The goal is to provide an overview of environmental taxes applied to energy in Europe, prior to the application of the new directive that sets minimum rates for these energies starting in 2004

  5. European Economic Community/the European energy conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-30

    European Economic Community/the European energy conference (a meeting of the energy ministers of the nine member countries), held at Brussels on 3/27/79, was a continuation of the EEC Council meeting held at Paris on 3/12-13/79. Proposals for measures to be taken by the member countries included support for exploration, especially geophysical prospecting for oil off the east coast of Greenland, at a cost of 3.5 million units of account (UC); modification of the regulations for crude oil distribution among the EEC member countries in case of a supply crisis; a second series of 36 energy-conservation demonstration projects, to cost 15,626,320 UC and be undertaken in 1979-83; and the UK proposal to call for bids on the first series of 17 projects, costing 5,779,000 UC and adopted in Dec. 1978, before discussing the second series. Six of the 36 projects are French; they involve heat pumps and hybrid nuclear-electric vehicles and space-heating systems. A report on the current status of coal projects was given, and problems with fast-breeder reactors were discussed.

  6. The European Energy Charter Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.

    1996-01-01

    The history, purpose, scope and the main topics of the treaty are highlighted. Special attention is paid on problems of trading, competition, transit, technology transfer and access to capital markets; support and protection of investments; resolution of disputes; provisional clauses governing trade with GATT non-member states; structural and institutional provisions concerning the execution and function of the protocol, tasks of the Charter conference and secretariat including their equipment, rules of conduct and financing. The Charter is setting up a framework for co-operation, trade and investment in energy products and services with countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, based on principles of free-markets and non-discrimination

  7. Legal problems of energy supply within the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tettinger, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The report contains two articles; the first one is titled: The Directives on Transit of Gas and Electricity - Considerations regarding the juridical limits of the realisation of the Internal Market in the Energy Sector. It has basic considerations regarding the competences of the EC-legal nature of primary and secondary Community law; it analyzes the network of competences, the legality of the Commission's Proposals concerning the Internal Energy Market and further on the possibilities of legal recourse for enterprises in the Federal Republic of Germany in case the proposal directives are adopted. The second article deals with legal problems of energy supply within the EC-especially under the aspect of British coal mining. It incluses considerations regarding a proposed European Energy Charter, recent developments in EC-law regarding electricity and natural gas, third country imports: dumping, and privatisation. (HSCH)

  8. Natural gas demand in the European household sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, Odd Bjarte; Asche, Frank; Tveteras, Ragnar

    2005-08-01

    This paper analyzes the residential natural gas demand per capita in 12 European countries using a dynamic log linear demand model, which allows for country-specific elasticity estimates in the short- and long-run. The explanatory variables included lagged demand per capita, heating degree days index, real prices of natural gas, light fuel oil, electricity, and real private income per capita. The short-run own-price and income elasticity tend to be very inelastic, but with greater long-run responsiveness. By splitting the data set in two time periods, an increase in the own-price elasticities were detected for the European residential natural gas demand market as a whole. We have provided support for employing a heterogeneous estimator such as the shrinkage estimator. But the empirical results also motivate a further scrutiny of its properties. (Author)

  9. A Sectoral Approach to Training in the Printing Industry and the Hospital Sector. Synthesis Report of a Study in Five European Countries. CEDEFOP Panorama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmerdam, John

    The development of sectoral training systems in two economic sectors--the printing industry and the sector of health care in hospitals--was examined in a study that entailed parallel research projects in five European countries: Belgium, Latvia, The Netherlands, Norway, and the United Kingdom. The study was based on the assumption that the…

  10. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Ia Rue du Can, Stephane; Price, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Integrated assessment models have been used to project both baseline and mitigation greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. Results of these scenarios are typically presented for a number of world regions and end-use sectors, such as industry, transport, and buildings. Analysts interested in particular technologies and policies, however, require more detailed information to understand specific mitigation options in relation to business-as-usual trends. This paper presents sectoral trend for two of the scenarios produced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. Global and regional historical trends in energy use and carbon dioxide emissions over the past 30 years are examined and contrasted with projections over the next 30 years. Macro-activity indicators are analyzed as well as trends in sectoral energy and carbon demand. This paper also describes a methodology to calculate primary energy and carbon dioxide emissions at the sector level, accounting for the full energy and emissions due to sectoral activities. (author)

  11. Renewable and recovery energies for each industry sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitot, Pauline

    2018-01-01

    The French agency of environment and energy management (Ademe) has made available to the industrialists, a study about the proper choice of renewable and recovery energies capable to meet the energy and heat needs of their facilities. This article summarises in a table, sector by sector and for each renewable and recovery energy source, the capability of this energy source to supply part or the overall energy needs of some elementary industrial processes. Indication is given about the capability of an energy source to produce electricity as well

  12. European preparations for the ITER VV sectors manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Lawrence; Arbogast, Jean-Francois; Bayon, Angel; Galvan, Stefano; Giraud, Benoit; Ioki, Kimihiro; Losasso, Marcello; Mico, Gonzalo; Stamos, Vassilis; Trentea, Alexandru; Utin, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    For the benefit of the bidders for the Call-for-Tender for the 7 sectors of the ITER Vacuum Vessel, launched in early 2010, a large amount of relevant technical information was included to ensure a rapid start to successful manufacture programme, without the need for a full-scale prototype, which would cause an unacceptable delay to the ITER schedule. The methodology of the logical structures of the specification and the additional planned mock-ups are described and the results from nearly a decade of R and D and manufacturing studies carried out inside the EU under the auspices of EFDA and F4E are also summarised. The work covers the evolution of novel manufacturing schemes and technologies, including a modular special local machining centre for making holes in the shell of the vessel with weld preparation included. New results from the combined studies by three parties, and using a round-robin trial system on the UT inspection of single-sided welds, including the successful control of the root side are described. A full-scale, partial prototype has demonstrated the successful construction segments using jigs to control the distortion from conventional welding, from the inner shell to the outer shell, and then the joining of the segments to form a part sector. The paper also summarises the results from the prototype segment, manufactured without jigs and using only EB welds. In order to be able to achieve the required as-welded tight tolerances, two specialised computational techniques have been developed, using SYSWELD and ANSYS codes and calibrated with the mock-ups in order to efficiently predict welding distortions. Based on this successful practical and theoretical work, computer models of the complete poloidal segments or sectors, including jigs, were can now generated and used to investigate many welding sequences in order to optimise the construction and achieve all the tolerances.

  13. Local investment in renewable energies - European experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantin, J.; Grepmeier, K.; Larsen, J.; Manolakaki, E.; Smith, M.

    2004-01-01

    This booklet is realized within the framework of the european commission called PREDAC. This document have been conceived by a working group specialized on the local investment into renewable energies thematic. The objectives of this project are: to promote citizen participation in the financing of renewable energies projects in Europe; to make organizations, investor clubs and local government to be aware of this way of implication into renewable energies development; to examine more especially three renewable energy sources: biomass, photovoltaic and wind in Denmark, France, Germany, Greece and United Kingdom. (author)

  14. What energy policy for the European Union?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The energy question is becoming ever more important. Proper management of energy resources is a strategic challenge that will determine our economic development and even the preservation of our way of life. Looking further into the future, failure to grasp energy-related problems could be seriously prejudicial to the future of our planet (global warming). Because of the rise in prices of fossil fuels resulting from the gradual exhaustion of resources and the political instability reigning in the principal production zones, the disputes over gas between Russia and certain former Soviet republics, massive electricity blackouts, etc, public opinion is now particularly sensitive to these new threats and is looking to decision-makers, at both national and European level, to draw up policies capable of responding to these concerns. Over the past two years, European institutions have in fact taken an increasing number of initiatives in the energy field. This work has, in particular, identified the following three major objectives: - combating global warming, which implies the definition of an energy mix compatible with environmental constraints (reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases), - ensuring security of supply, an ever-growing concern, given the growing dependency of EU Member States on imports of energy, and - safeguarding the competitiveness of the European economy. Despite this work, the only tangible achievement in the energy field in Europe, and one that is still incomplete, concerns the liberalisation of the gas and electricity markets. Apart from the fact that this policy is sometimes badly perceived by European populations, being regarded as responsible for the current rise in prices, Europe cannot be satisfied with tackling just this aspect of affairs. In this respect, energy provides an opportunity to re-launch the construction of Europe both internally (drawing up of a joint agreement regarding energy options, R and D programmes, energy saving, etc

  15. The energy sector in Chile: An introductory outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    After an introduction on Chilean energy policy, governmental structure in the energy sector, and foreign investment regulations, descriptions and analyses are provided of the main energy sectors in Chile: petroleum, electric power, natural gas, coal, and non-traditional energy sources. The descriptions include a general overview, government policies, current legislation, incentives and restrictions to energy production, organizations that have a bearing on policy design, and the role of the particular sector in the national economy. The analyses outline the current and possible future state of activity in each sector and provide an indication of areas of interest and business opportunities for Canadian investors. A directory is included of public organizations and other entities related to energy. 12 refs, 1 fig., 9 tabs

  16. Trading in the rain. Rainfall and European power sector emissions. Research note no. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Analysts often say that temperature and rainfall have an impact on the price of CO 2 , as they influence the conditions of electric power supply and demand. Rainfall mainly affects the capacity of hydropower production, the third largest source of electricity in Europe and by far the leading source of renewable energy. The variability of hydroelectric volumes is indeed usually offset by other, higher-emitting sources of electricity, which has repercussions on the European allowances trading market. In 2005, rainfall was unusually low in several European countries: in the Iberian peninsula and in France, drought is believed to have brought about a rise of approximately 15 Mt CO 2 in power sector emissions. In contrast, hydrological conditions were particularly good in the Nordic countries, allowing them to reduce CO 2 emissions in the region as a whole through hydropower-based exports. The additional allowances demand would therefore have been 'only' about 9 Mt CO 2 . To make the interaction with the CO 2 market easier to understand, an indicator of rainfall in Europe must include this compensating phenomenon resulting from the heterogeneity of the climatic conditions and volumes produced in Europe

  17. Exploring the public-private sector wage gap in European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Christofides, Louis N.; Michael, Maria

    2013-01-01

    We estimate the public-private sector pay gap for 27 European countries, using the 2008 EU SILC. The coefficients of conditional (on personal and job characteristics) public sector controls give a first impression on wage differences, while decompositions into explained and unexplained components (also accounting for selectivity) allow for a more complete analysis, which helps to identify possible causes of the gap. Regional patterns exist. Separate subsample decompositions based on age, educ...

  18. Shale gas. Opportunities and challenges for European energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Joode, J.; Plomp, A.J.; Ozdemir, O. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    The outline of the presentation shows the following elements: Introduction (Shale gas revolution in US and the situation in the EU); What could be the impact of potential shale gas developments on the European gas market?; How may shale gas developments affect the role of gas in the transition of the power sector?; and Key messages. The key messages are (1) Prospects for European shale gas widely differ from US case (different reserve potential, different competition, different market dynamics); (2) Shale gas is unlikely to be a game changer in Europe; and (3) Impact of shale gas on energy transition in the medium and long term crucially depends on gas vs. coal prices and the 'penalty' on CO2 emissions.

  19. International and European regulations in the energy law: selected issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, F.

    2010-01-01

    This work deals with four selected legal aspects or issues in the energy sector, which are mainly located in the international, European and at the interface to national law. The first question is 'The status of the investor to the Energy Charter' and addresses issues regarding the investor position and their characteristics according to the Energy Charter Treaty. The second question is 'aspects of energy competence under the Treaty of Lisbon' and deals among others questions with the new energy expertise offense, as well as direct investment. The third issue, titled 'The admissibility of ownership unbundling' illuminates terms of a proposal, which plan a full ownership unbundling of transmission system operators, in more detail. The fourth issue is 'aspects for the implementation of directive 2006/32/EC' and deals with aspects of the implementation of this directive in Austria. This work is making an attempt to shed light on these questions and their issues in more detail by also taking into account the Austrian perspectives. In my view the energy sector is an economically important and politically embossed area that always has a current relevance to daily life and will raise more legal questions in future. (kancsar) [de

  20. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German energy service companies sector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koewener, D.; Schleich, J.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research conducted in the German energy service sector to assess to what extent energy service companies (ESCOs) can help overcome the barriers to energy in the higher education, brewing and mechanical engineering sectors. This report complements the sector for Germany within the BARRIERS project (Sorrell et al., 2000; Schleich/Boede 2000a; Schleich/Boede 2000b; Schleich et al., 2000). The report characterises the German energy service sector, contains a description and analysis of four case studies in the energy service sector, identifies the main barriers and chances for ESCOs in the higher education, brewery and mechanical engineering sectors, and concludes with brief recommendations on how these barriers may be overcome. The results of the study are summarised here under the following headings: Characterising the energy service sector in Germany; - Case studies of energy service companies in Germany; - The role of ESCOs in the case-study sectors; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  1. The energy sector changes the face of the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludrovsky, P.

    2012-01-01

    Energy systems are becoming more and more complicated every day. The growing number of wind and solar power plants is changing the structure of grids in a fundamental way. However, energy production from fossil fuels still remains of the greatest importance within the energy sector. Old and new energy sources must learn to coexist together. (Authors)

  2. Nuclear energy - A label for the financial sector: 'Energy transition and climate'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faudon, Valerie; Jouette, Isabelle; Le Ngoc, Boris

    2015-01-01

    This publication states the opinion of the SFEN (the French Society of Nuclear Energy) about the project proposed by the French Ministry of Ecology for the creation of a label named 'Energy transition and climate' for the financial sector. Such a label aims at mobilising a part of savings for the benefit of energy and ecology transition, and at bringing the French ecological expertise at the European level. In this document, the SFEN expresses its surprise that labels will not be awarded to activities related to the nuclear sector whereas, as it is herein commented and outlined, nuclear energy is a low-carbon energy, and meets environmental and social requirements associated with the label (preservation of air quality, optimisation of the water resource by nuclear plants, strict regulation and controls of releases made by nuclear installations, management of the uranium resource, measures of protection of biodiversity about nuclear sites, exemplary governance and dialogue on environmental and social issues with the public)

  3. TAXATION OF FINANCIAL SECTOR AFTER THE CRISIS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Eugenia-Ramona

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxation of financial sector is an important issue of the actual fiscal policy, especially after the economic crisis impact. By taxing the financial sector, it is intended taxation of financial transactions, and financial activities. European Union supports the taxation of the financial system and makes proposals in this regard. This paper tries to reveal the major aspects concerning the taxation of financial sector, both theoretical and empirical aspects. It will analyze the reasons which justify the application of such taxes, but also difficulties involved in practice. Another major objective of this paper is to examine the role of taxation in the financial sector as important regulatory instrument. This subject is debated in European Commission papers and by many economists. There are underlined the necessity of such tax, the impact and the economic efficiency. Our purpose is to identify if this kind of tax is good for our economy and what can be the impact from budgetary point of view. For finding this answers the paper realize a complex analysis of the types of taxes applied on financial sector in countries which already adopted this kind of taxes, like United Kingdom, Austria, Hungary, Cyprus. We believe that the financial sector should be charged, because was responsible in great measure the economic crisis impact. A potential tax applied to financial sector is considered as an important source of budget revenues. This article tries to explore the possible tax measures for financial sector according to the major principle of public finance –equity and efficiency. Special attention will be given to the need to implement financial sector taxation in Romania. In the years before the crisis banks and entire financial sector in Romania recorded significant profits. For this reason such tax is justified given that this sector is exempt from VAT. Applying such a tax would reduce the budget deficit and on the long term will

  4. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. The European Union aims to achieve a 20% share (with legally binding national targets) of its final energy consumption from RES by 2020, and at least a 27% share (not broken down into nationally binding targets) by 2030. Key instruments at EU level to promote RES include directives, such as the 2009 Renewable Energy Directive. The EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) is also intended to support RES. The European Commission has also adopted state aid guidelines to ensure that support schemes to promote RES at national level are compatible with EU competition law and internal market rules. Further instruments are research, development and innovation funding programmes, such as Horizon2020, the Innovation Fund, and the NER300 programme. RES are also supported through regional development funds as well as through grants and loans for RES projects and related infrastructure from the European Investment Bank (EIB) and the European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI). A recast directive on the promotion of RES in the period 2020- 2030 is to be adopted along with governance rules to ensure that the EU-wide RES target for 2030 is met

  5. Ten years of energy consumption in the tertiary sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabai, Yacine

    2012-11-01

    This document presents and comments data regarding electricity consumption by the tertiary sector over the last ten years in France. It notably outlines its strong increase compared to the other sectors (housing, industry, transport, agriculture). It comments the evolution of the energy mix of the tertiary sector (electricity with 47%, gas with 25% and oil with 19% are prevailing). It briefly comments the evolution of energy efficiency within this sector. It indicates and comments the shares of energy consumption, of high voltage electricity and gas consumption by the different sub-sectors (retail, automobile and motorcycle repair, public administration, health and social activity, real estate, specialised, scientific and technical activities, education, and so on)

  6. IEA energy policies review: the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-09-04

    For the first time, the IEA has reviewed the energy policies of the European Union which shape the energy use of almost 500 million citizens in 27 EU member countries. A unique entity governed under complex and almost constantly evolving structures, the EU constitutes a challenge for energy policy makers. Its energy policy has a global impact, not only because of its 16% share of world energy demand, but also because of the EU leadership in addressing climate change. Strong policy drives are underway in the EU to achieve the completion of the internal energy market, increase renewable energy supply, reduce CO2 emissions and make the EU more energy-efficient. Concerns about security of supply have also led to a greater focus on improved energy relations with supplier countries, and new institutional structures are being put in place. How much progress has been made in the field of security, internal market and external energy policies? And in which of these areas has the EU already implemented a fully integrated policy? This publication addresses these questions and also analyses the impact of the most recent major EU policy measures, in particular the Energy and Climate Package of January 2008 and the 3rd Liberalisation Package of September 2007. This book finds that both of these proposals are highly ambitious. But implementing them and reviewing both volume and allocation of energy R and D will be necessary to achieve a sustainable energy future in a fully competitive integrated EU energy market.

  7. A model for predicting Inactivity in the European Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Themistokles Lazarides

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The paper will addresses the issue of inactivity and will try to detect its causes using econometric models. The Banking sector of Europe has been under transformation or restructuring for almost half a century. Design/methodology/approach – Probit models and descriptive statistics have been used to create a system that predicts inactivity. The data was collected from Bankscope. Findings – The results of the econometric models show that from the six groups of indicators, four have been found to be statistically important (performance, size, ownership, corporate governance. These findings are consistent with the theory. Research limitations/implications – The limitation is that Bankscope does not provide any longitudinal data regarding ownership, management structure and there are some many missing values before 2007 for some of the financial ratios and data. Originality/value – The paper's value and innovation is that it has given a systemic approach to find indicators of inactivity.

  8. Trade Exposure of Energy Intensive Sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korteland, M.H.; Nelissen, D.; De Bruyn, S.M.

    2010-04-01

    In this report we analysed the origin and destinations of trade flows between EU and non-EU countries with respect to eight industrial sectors. In addition we looked at the political pledges made during the Copenhagen negotiations last December. If we combine these two types of insights, we get an idea of the risk of carbon leakage due to EU climate policies. Our analysis shows that the EU often trades with countries that have climate policy in place. As these major trading partners of the EU can be expected to adopt similar stringent climate policies, CO2 might get a price in these markets as well and the risk of carbon leakage is reduced/absent. Trade intensities should be corrected for that. In case the EU will adopt a -30% emission reduction target, trade with Australia, New Zealand, Japan, Switzerland, Brazil and Mexico, need to be excluded from the calculation of trade intensities since those countries will adopt comparable climate policies. The average downward correction on trade intensities is 3%. If the EU eventually decides to adopt a -20% reduction scenario, trade flows with Russia, Canada and the USA should also be excluded. Those countries will then have policies of similar stringency. The average correction on trade intensities is then -8,5%. These findings have direct consequences on the allocation mechanism for some sectors, which will no longer receive free emission rights as they do not qualify as 'exposed' to international competition anymore. These sectors are listed in Table 4 (-30% scenario) and Table 5 (-20% scenario) on page 31. Yet, those sectors that are expected to face large cost increases (>5%) due to EU ETS, will still receive free allocation.

  9. Organization and regulation of energy markets in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, J.

    2002-01-01

    The energy regulation policy and the organization of power matters in the European Union as well as the energy markets are discussed in this Keynote Paper. The Council of European Energy Regulators is introduced. The goal of the European Union regarding energy generation and consumption in the future are analyzed. (R.P.)

  10. Asymmetric regulation measures in the European gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clastres, C.

    2003-01-01

    Like most of the privatized utilities, the gas market needs to be regulated in order for the positive benefits of competition to fully develop. In addition to the issues of eligibility and access, the regulators have had to deal with several other obstacles, and among other things have raised questions concerning the supply of gas. Asymmetric regulation (release gas and market share reduction measures) is one of the possible responses, making it possible to facilitate access to both resources and consumers. The British regulator was the first to introduce this type of regulation during the 1990's. More recently, Spain and Italy have also adopted it. Although we can find a number of similarities in the causes justifying the use of such regulation, the results obtained vary from one country to another. It appears that they are dependent upon a number of variables including: the existence of national production, the structure of the gas market and finally the level of penetration and growth of gas in various business sectors. (authors)

  11. Calculating economy-wide energy intensity decline rate: The role of sectoral output and energy shares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baksi, Soham; Green, Chris

    2007-01-01

    We specify formulas for computing the rate of decline in economy-wide energy intensity by aggregating its two determinants-technical efficiency improvements in the various sectors of the economy, and shifts in economic activity among these sectors. The formulas incorporate the interdependence between sectoral shares, and establish a one-to-one relation between sectoral output and energy shares. This helps to eliminate future energy intensity decline scenarios which involve implausible values of either sectoral share. An illustrative application of the formulas is provided, using within-sector efficiency improvement estimates suggested by Lightfoot-Green and Harvey

  12. Regulatory competences of the EC in the energy sector; Regelungszustaendigkeiten der EG im Bereich Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur, J.F.; Blask, H. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer das Recht der Europaeischen Gemeinschaften und Inst. fuer Energierecht

    2002-09-01

    In the light of necessary amendments of the Internal Electricity Market Directive and the Internal Gas Market Directive, a debate has evolved within the European Community about lawmaking powers for the energy sector. Whereas the Member States refer to the EC Treaty and deny any lawmaking powers of the EC for the energy sector, the EC defends its position that the EC should have and can derive lawmaking competence for energy policy decisions from the EC Treaty. The author reviews the situation from the legal point of view based on existing provisions and gives an outlook on a possible outcome of the ''constitutional convention'' of the EC which is to meet for discussing a revision of the EC Treaty. (orig./CB) [German] In Bezug auf die geplanten Aenderungen der Binnenmarktrichtlinien fuer Elektrizitaet und Gas werden moegliche Kompetenzen der EG im Bereich der Energiepolitik und ihre Grenzen eroertert. In einer Schlussbetrachtung werden die Ergebnisse zusammengefasst und ein kurzer Ausblick auf die Arbeit des 'Verfassungskonvents' der EU und die anstehende Vertragsrevision geworfen, in deren Rahmen die Implikation einer eigenstaendigen Spezialkompetenz im Bereich Energie erneut thematisiert werden koennte. (orig./CB)

  13. Methodology for Modeling Building Energy Performance across the Commercial Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, B.; Long, N.; Torcellini, P.; Judkoff, R.; Crawley, D.; Ryan, J.

    2008-03-01

    This report uses EnergyPlus simulations of each building in the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) to document and demonstrate bottom-up methods of modeling the entire U.S. commercial buildings sector (EIA 2006). The ability to use a whole-building simulation tool to model the entire sector is of interest because the energy models enable us to answer subsequent 'what-if' questions that involve technologies and practices related to energy. This report documents how the whole-building models were generated from the building characteristics in 2003 CBECS and compares the simulation results to the survey data for energy use.

  14. Energy Sector Development for 2010-2050 using Message Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, M.; Muhammed Zulfakar Mohd Zolkaffly; Alawiah Musa; Aisha Raihan Abdul Kadir

    2011-01-01

    Strengthening a country's energy supply security is vital in ensuring a long term electricity supply to fulfil the growing energy demand. With the increase of number and resiliency of energy supply options to create a balance energy mix, Malaysia can overcome the national energy security, environmental and sustainable development issues. Introducing nuclear power would increase the diversity of energy supplies as well as increases the efficient use of natural resources in energy sector. This paper presents the use of IAEA energy planning tool, MESSAGE to analyse, simulate and compare energy mix and nuclear option in Malaysia taking into account the national energy policies. (author)

  15. Inventory of Green House Gas Emissions from the Energy Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbuthi, P.N

    1998-01-01

    The presentation highlighted two features of Kenya's energy sector namely: imported petroleum fuel for modern sector and wood fuel for domestic and informal sectors. The main objectives was to evaluate the amount and type of Green House emitted between 1989 and 1992 from the total national fuel wood consumption, the charcoal production, total charcoal consumption and the generation of possible recommendations on possible options available in the energy sector to mitigate against adverse effects of human induced climate change impacts. Under fossil fuels, the paper looked at emissions resulting from combustion of liquid fossil fuels, burning coal for energy, crude oil refining, storage and handling, whilst under traditional biomass fuels, fuel wood burned from energy, charcoal production and consumption, Nitrous Oxides were targeted

  16. Approaches to state regulation of the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shervashidze, N.; Stojchev, D.

    1995-01-01

    Theory and practice of economical regulation by repaying coefficient and by partial co-ordinated expenses are discussed. The example of England, Ireland, Wales and US are pointed out as showing the features of both approaches being quite interesting for Bulgarian energy sector, facing the introduction of modern economical regulation. The specific character of Bulgarian energy sector is described and some conclusions are drawn concerning appropriate regulating methods. 6 refs. (orig.)

  17. Energy research in the public sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gfeller, J.

    1980-01-01

    The objects of state-sponsored energy research in Switzerland are stated to include specialist training in co-operation with the technical universities, and long term energy technology as well as international liaison. Tables are presented which indicate the trends in sources of funding for research, and the division between various technological areas, including energy conservation (10%), solar energy (10%), bioenergy, geothermal energy and wind power (4.5%), atomic energy (40%), nuclear fusion (20%), electricity (6%) and environmental studies (7%). These ratios are compared with those for other developed countries and it is concluded that the aim must be to approach smoothly the 'post-oil era'. (Auth.)

  18. Four European energy futures. The next 50 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggink, J.J.C.

    2005-05-01

    Scenario analysis articulates our hopes and fears for the future. It should help in understanding the nature of the driving events and forces affecting the future and the uncertainties determining their potential impacts. Two major events would dramatically change the urgency and direction of energy innovation in Europe: the arrival of a global peak in oil production and the failure of global climate change policies. The first part of this essay deals with the plausibility of such driving events. On the basis of a critical look at the arguments of the oil peak doomsayers and the environmental anti-globalists it is concluded that both events are plausible and would have major consequences for energy transitions in Europe. Accordingly, the future course of European energy transitions is described in four contrasting scenarios: FIREWALLED EUROPE - Oil production peaks in the period 2010-2020. No viable post-Kyoto climate change policy emerges. The European energy sector turns back to coal and nuclear in the next 50 years; FOSSIL TRADE - Oil production follows oil demand smoothly in the period 2010-2020. No viable post-Kyoto climate change policy emerges. The European energy sector continues business as usual in the next 50 years; SUSTAINABLE TRADE - Oil production peaks in the period 2010-2020. Post-Kyoto climate policies develop effectively. The European energy sector turns to large-scale trade in renewables in the next 50 years; and FENCELESS EUROPE - Oil production follows oil demand smoothly in the period 2010-2020. Post-Kyoto climate policies develop effectively. The European energy sector diversifies strongly keeping all options open for the next 50 years. The major part of this essay concerns the storylines for these four scenarios at the global level of socio-political landscapes, at the European level of energy regime transitions and at the national level for innovation systems. As the names of the scenarios suggest the-prospects for international trade in

  19. Mitigation technologies and measures in energy sector of Kazakstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilifosova, O.; Danchuk, D.; Temertekov, T. [and others

    1996-12-31

    An important commitment in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change is to conduct mitigation analysis and to communicate climate change measures and policies. In major part reducing CO{sub 2} as well as the other greenhouse gas emissions in Kazakstan, can be a side-product of measures addressed to increasing energy efficiency. Since such measures are very important for the national economy, mitigation strategies in the energy sector of Kazakstan are directly connected with the general national strategy of the energy sector development. This paper outlines the main measures and technologies in energy sector of Kazakstan which can lead to GHG emissions reduction and presents the results of current mitigation assessment. The mitigation analysis is addressed to energy production sector. A baseline and six mitigation scenarios were developed to evaluate the most attractive mitigation options, focusing on specific technologies which have been already included in sustainable energy programs. According to the baseline projection, Kazakstan`s CO{sub 2} emissions will not exceed their 1990 level until 2005. The potential for CO{sub 2} emission reduction is estimated to be about 11 % of the base line emission level by the end of considered period (in 2020). The main mitigation options in the energy production sector in terms of mitigation potential and technical and economical feasibility include rehabilitation of thermal power plants aimed to increasing efficiency, use of nuclear energy and further expansion in the use of hydro energy based on small hydroelectric power plants.

  20. The challenge of a greener European construction sector: Views on technology-driven (eco)innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jofre, Sergio

    , particular emphasis is given to the description and discussion of technology-driven eco-innovation initiatives such us nanotechnologies for a greener construction. Although the scope of this report covers the European construction sector, most data presented is at an EU scale. In this context, particular...

  1. Sexual and gender-based violence in the European asylum and reception sector: a perpetuum mobile?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keygnaert, I.; Dias, S.F.; Degomme, O.; Devillé, W.; Kennedy, P.; Kovats, A.; Meyer, S. de; Vettenburg, N.; Roelens, K.; Temmerman, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants are at risk of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and subsequent ill-health in Europe; yet, European minimum reception standards do not address SGBV. Hence, this paper explores the nature of SGBV occurring in this sector and

  2. Sexual and gender-based violence in the European asylum and reception sector: a perpetuum mobile?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keygnaert, I.; Dias, S.F.; Degomme, O.; Devillé, W.; Kennedy, P.; Kováts, A.; De Meyer, S.; Vettenburg, N.; Roelens, K.; Temmerman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants are at risk of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and subsequent ill-health in Europe; yet, European minimum reception standards do not address SGBV. Hence, this paper explores the nature of SGBV occurring in this sector and

  3. Sexual and gender-based violence in the European asylum and reception sector : A perpetuum mobile?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keygnaert, Ines; Dias, Sonia F.; Degomme, Olivier; Devillé, Walter; Kennedy, Patricia; Kováts, András; De Meyer, Sara; Vettenburg, Nicole; Roelens, Kristien; Temmerman, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants are at risk of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and subsequent ill-health in Europe; yet, European minimum reception standards do not address SGBV. Hence, this paper explores the nature of SGBV occurring in this sector and

  4. Incorporating the catering sector in nutrition policies of WHO European Region: is there a good recipe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachat, Carl; Roberfroid, Dominique; Huybregts, Lieven; Van Camp, John; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2009-03-01

    To review how countries of the WHO European Region address issues related to the catering sector in their nutrition policy plans. Documentary analysis of national nutrition policy documents from the policy database of the WHO Regional Office for Europe by a multidisciplinary research team. Recurring themes were identified and related information extracted in an analysis matrix. Case studies were performed for realistic evaluation. Fifty-three member states of the WHO European Region in September 2007. The catering sector is a formally acknowledged stakeholder in national nutrition policies in about two-thirds of countries of the European region. Strategies developed for the catering sector are directed mainly towards labelling of foods and prepared meals, training of health and catering staff, and advertising. Half of the countries reviewed propose dialogue structures with the catering sector for the implementation of the policy. However, important policy fields remain poorly developed, such as strategies for stimulating and monitoring actual implementation of policies. Others are simply lacking, such as strategies to ensure affordability of healthy out-of-home eating or to enhance accountability of stakeholders. It is also striking that strategies for the private sector are rarely developed. Important policy issues are still embryonic. As evidence is accumulating on the impact of out-of-home eating on the increase of overweight, member states are advised to urgently develop operational frameworks and instruments for participatory planning and evaluation of stakeholders in public health nutrition policy.

  5. AN ANALYSIS OF THE ROMANIAN FISHERY SECTOR IN THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius STANCIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of the fishery sector represents one of the European Union’s priorities due to the positive impact it has on food security and to its potential to ensure nutritious and quality food at an affordable price as compared to other animal-origin resources. The Community policy in the fishery sector focuses on reducing the Community market dependence on imports and on the sustainable development of business in this domain. Romania aligned with the Community policies and, therefore, important funds were allocated to the national fishery sector. The diversified natural resources, the possibility to use friendly technologies, the qualified staff, the tradition in the domain, and the existence of a number of niche markets all represent motivations for the development of the Romanian fishery sector. The present paper proposes an analysis of the Romanian fishery production and of the European financing effects on the specialized companies. Despite the fact that there have been important resources allocated to the sector and there is a slight positive evolution, the absorption of funds was difficult. The results of the investment may be observed after a long period of time, this is why Romania is still dependent on fishery product imports. Aquaculture represents the main segment towards which the European funds were directed, including in our country, thus providing the greatest part of the income and employment in the domain.

  6. European Climate Change Programme. Working Group II. Impacts and Adaptation. Urban Planning and Construction. Sectoral Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-03-01

    Adaptation is a new policy area for the European Climate Change Policy. The Impacts and Adaptation Workgroup has been set up as part of European Climate Change Programme (ECCP II). The main objective of the workgroup is to explore options to improve Europe's resilience to climate change impacts, to encourage the integration of climate change adaptation into other policy areas at the European, national, regional and local level and to define the role of EU-wide policies complementing action by Member States. The aim of this initial programme of work is to identify good practice in the development of adaptation policy and foster learning from different sectoral experiences and explore a possible EU role in adaptation policies. The Commission has led a series of 10 sectoral meetings looking at adaptation issues for different sectors. One of these meetings looked at the impacts on urban planning and infrastructure in particular. This report summarises the state of play in the urban planning sector in relation to adaptation to climate change on the basis of the information gathered at the stakeholder meeting. Some of the other stakeholder meetings, such as the meeting on human health, have a strong connection with the urban planning agenda. Therefore, some actions in the sector report on adaptation and human health relate to urban planning and infrastructure considerations

  7. The role of regulatory council in the energy sector from the aspect of consumers' protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banovac, E.; Pavlovic, D.; Boljesic, K.

    2003-01-01

    The consumers' protection legal base, with few factors of new legislative consumers' protection legislation in European Union, in the Law on Consumers' Protection, and in the set of the Croatian Energy Laws is shown in this paper. Special attention in this paper is paid on five factors of regulatory body's orientation to the consumers' protection field, which energy regulatory body's policy should be included. The model of consumers' protection in the energy sector is shown, with the scheme of Three-component interactive subsystems: basic legislation which is determined consumers' protection policy, planning activities for consumers' protection (short and long time plans), and performing activities for consumers' protection. Furthermore, the approach of consumers' protection in the energy sectors in European Union are described. The paper gives the model of consumers' protection in the Croatian energy sector, and Croatian Energy Regulatory Council' approach to this issue. The table, with the data of specific consumers' protection problems in practice, those the Croatian Energy Regulatory Council as a regulatory body have been settled, is shown.(author)

  8. Energy consumption in the Transport Sector 2008; Transportsektorns energianvaendning 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-03-15

    Transport energy use in Sweden increased by 80% during the period 1970 to 2008. Today, the transport sector is responsible for a quarter of Sweden's energy use. Since the transport sector is almost exclusively using fossil fuels its conversion to other fuels/energy sources will have a major impact in the coming years, with the increasing requirements to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The first chapter reports the official energy statistics for the transport sector. The second chapter presents a breakdown of energy use for freight and passengers for each transport modes. However, it is important to emphasize that the division of personal and freight does not belong to the official energy statistics

  9. Recent developments in European energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, E.

    1981-01-01

    The industrial development in Europe which has created a remarkable prosperity was originally based on the availability of indigenous energy. At a later stage Europe accepted the offer of low cost crude from the world market. Since a few years we have lost our influence to moderately adjust prises to the changing circumstances in the world market for primary energies since - the multinationally operating companies have lost their balancing power and - the direct dialogue between producing and consuming countries has so far not resulted in any success. The use of the flowery expression energy crisis pretends that we are suffering from a lack of available primary energy. But the actual situation is more to the contrary. At the privailing energy price level there is a manifold offer. Considerable efforts, however, are necessary to create the prerequisits for an utilization of the options among different primary energies. Infrastructures have to be changed requiring impulse on the part of the state. There is no reason to assume a limited availability of crude oil and petroleum products for the use in such sectors in which an early substitution would cause an excessive economic burden. Besides lignite only nuclear energy does offer for the time beeing a remarkable contribution for a reduction of the energy bill in Europe. Starting with the power plants of the first generation which are sufficiently tested and via the breeder technology nuclear power production will most probably approach the aime of the utilization of renewable energies at reasonable costs over the long term. (orig.) [de

  10. Major changes ahead for Dutch energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kort, C.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Dutch energy distribution companies are again facing important adaptations to current market forces. The operational activities of the conventional energy distribution companies are split into monopoly tasks and commercial activities. By separation of functions and by further technological developments and market trends quite different types of companies will emerge, such as grid operators, energy-telecommunications-environment concerns and energy sellers. Some companies will focus on grid operation, while others will clearly opt for more commercial enterprising. Just like other private companies energy companies will develop new activities in other markets based on their own corporate strategies. Grid operation may then become only a mirror element or be abandoned altogether. 5 figs

  11. The impact of CO{sub 2} emissions trading on the European transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaageson, Per

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this report is to analyse how a common European scheme for CO{sub 2} emissions trading covering all sectors of society would affect the transport sector. Transport externalities other than CO{sub 2} are assumed to be internalised by kilometer charging. This means road fuels will no longer be subject to taxation. The European Union's commitment under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol can be reached at a marginal abatement cost around 65 Euro per tonne of CO{sub 2} in a case where emissions trading replaces all current taxes on fossil fuels. In a case where emissions trading is supplementary to today's energy and carbon taxes, the current average taxation (45-50 Euro per tonne CO{sub 2}) and the shadow price of the emission permits (33 Euro per tonne) would together give a total marginal abatement cost around 80 Euro per tonne Of CO{sub 2}. Having to buy emission permits would significantly raise the cost of fuel and electricity used in rail, aviation and short sea shipping, as these modes are currently not taxed at all. The resulting long-term (2025) improvement in specific energy efficiency is estimated at around 25 per cent compared to trend for rail and 20 and 40 per cent respectively for aviation and sea transport. A combination of CO{sub 2} emissions trading and km charging would moderately raise the variable cost of driving a gasoline car. The cost of using diesel vehicles would rise considerably in most Member States. Annual mileage per car would therefore decline somewhat. The fuel, however, would become cheaper than today (especially gasoline) and this would reduce the incentive to buy fuel-efficient vehicles. The reform would thus hamper the introduction of new, more efficient, technologies that might be needed for meeting more long-term commitments. Emissions trading would not encourage the introduction of biofuels in road transport. The incremental cost of producing ethanol or RME is much too high and cannot be expected to fall to the

  12. Review of European wind energy programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beurskens, H.J.M.; Lalas, D.

    1993-03-01

    Based on papers from Norway, Sweden, Spain and Denmark, submitted to the ECWEC'93 conference in Travemuende, Germany, and the draft 1992 annual report of the IEA R+D Wind Programme, a general review is given of national wind energy programmes in European countries. First, tendencies of the past wind energy programmes are described and linked to the present developments. Not only the separate aspects are reviewed (R+D, wind turbine development, market stimulation, utility involvement, regulatory issues and operational experiences), but also the synergetic aspects of their integration is addressed. The main conclusion is that the integration of R+D, industrial development and market stimulation works. 3 tabs

  13. ACER: demystifying the European energy supervisor from a consumer perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavrijssen, S.A.C.M.; Bordei, I.

    2012-01-01

    The European energy regulatory triangle, consisting of National Regulatory Authorities (NRAs), the European Commission and the newly established Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators (ACER), has an important role in enhancing cross border trade and wholesale market competition and

  14. Energy efficiency in the industrial sector. Model based analysis of the efficient use of energy in the EU-27 with focus on the industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuder, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    of the industry could be split up into energy intensive subsectors where single production processes dominate the energy consumption, and non-energy intensive subsectors. Ways to reduce the energy consumption in the industrial sector are the use of alternative or improved production or cross cutting technologies and the use of energy saving measures to reduce the demand for useable energy. Based on the analysis within this study, 21 % of the current energy consumption of the industrial sector of the EU and 17 % in Germany could be reduced. Based on the extended understanding of energy efficiency, the model based scenario analysis of the European energy system with the further developed energy system model TIMES PanEU shows that the efficient use of energy at an emission reduction level of 75 % is a slightly increasing primary energy consumption. The primary energy consumption is characterised by a diversified energy carrier and technology mix. Renewable energy sources, nuclear energy and CCS play a key role in the long term. In addition the electricity demand in combination with a strong decarbonisation of the electricity generation is increasing constantly. In the industrial sector the emission reduction is driven by the extended use of electricity, CCS and renewables as well as by the use of improved or alternative process and supply technologies with lower specific energy consumption. Thereby the final energy consumption stays almost on a constant level with increasing importance of electricity and biomass. Both regulatory interventions in the electricity sector and energy saving targets on the primary energy demand lead to higher energy system costs and therewith to a decrease of efficiency based on the extended understanding. The energy demand is reduced stronger than it is efficient and the saving targets lead to the extended use of other resources resulting in totally higher costs. The integrated system analysis in this study points out the interactions

  15. The European Energy Regulators Group and the realization of the internal energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrijssen, S.A.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    The role of the European Energy Regulators Group (ERGEG) in the realization of the internal energy market is discussed. It is concluded that the ERGEG has already achieved significant results in dealing with several complex technical and legal problems that hamper market integration in the energy sector. However, it is a fundamental problem that the ERGEG is neither an EU institution nor a national institution, resulting in a lack of its democratic accountability and in the legal protection against the actions taken by the ERGEG. Therefore, the future success of the ERGEG will depend on the ability of the European legislator to find answers to the question how to ensure that the ERGEG fulfils its tasks in a legitimate way [nl

  16. Optimization in the energy sector; Optimierung in der Energiewirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    The implementation of the energy transition and the developments in the national and international Energy markets constantly require sound analysis and new answers. The symposium ''optimization in the energy sector'' gives an overview of methods and models that can be practically used for decision support. Storage and electromobility as demand flexibility are important factors for the long-term design of the German and European energy system. But methodological aspects such as the consideration of uncertainties at the conference an important place is given. A key issue is also the short and medium term further development of the electricity market design. Not only broadly but also in detail e.g. the standard benefit and intraday markets there is considerable potential for optimization, which will be discussed in the context of technical presentations. And in view of challenging market environment is also new approaches to portfolio management a great importance for the practice. Therefore we are convinced that the Conference and its results for energy companies, public services and new entrants in the energy industry as well are of interest as for consultants, authorities, associations and energy economic research institutes. [German] Die Umsetzung der Energiewende und die Entwicklungen auf den nationalen und internationalen Energiemaerkten erfordern immer wieder fundierte Analysen und neue Antworten. Die Fachtagung ''Optimierung in der Energiewirtschaft'' gibt hier einen Ueberblick ueber Methoden und Modelle, die praxisnah zur Entscheidungsunterstuetzung eingesetzt werden koennen. Speicher und Elektromobilitaet ebenso wie Nachfrageflexibilitaet sind wichtige Faktoren fuer die langfristige Gestaltung des deutschen und europaeischen Energiesystems. Aber auch methodischen Aspekten wie die Beruecksichtigung von Unsicherheiten wird im Rahmen der Tagung ein wichtiger Platz eingeraeumt. Ein zentrales Thema ist zudem die kurz- und

  17. The new energy deal after the Copenhagen conference: the role of the renewable sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodhag, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This Power Point presentation comments the available oil reserves with respect to their cost, outlines that fossil energy shortage does not solve climate problems, outlines the need to act to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, indicates reduction commitments by 2020 made by different countries in Copenhagen, discusses the French case (greenhouse gas emissions per sector), presents the various regulation tools (Kyoto protocol mechanisms, the Quota European directive, white certificates, carbon tax), introduces the various climatic solutions (stabilization wedges), evokes the strategy in the building sector, discusses the energy/climate perspectives, comments the improvement possibilities associated with each energy source, comments the development of wind energy, and discusses the challenge of the development of renewable energies

  18. Education in Sustainable Energy by European Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanescu, Corina; Stefureac, Crina

    2010-05-01

    Our schools have been involved in several European projects having with the primary objective of educating the young generation to find ways for saving energy and for using the renewable energy. Small changes in our behaviour can lead to significant energy savings and a major reduction in emissions. In our presentation we will refer to three of them: - The Comenius 1 project "Energy in the Consumers' Hands" tried to improve the quality of education for democratic citizenship in all participant schools by creating a model of curricula concerning the integrative teaching of democratic citizenship using the topic approaches based on key concept - energy as important element of the community welfare. The students studied on the following topics: • Sources of energy • The clean use of fossil based resources; • The rational use of energyEnergy and the environment - The project "Solar Schools Forum" (SSF) focuses on environmental education in schools, in particular addressing the topics of Renewable Energy (RE) and Energy Efficiency (EE). The youth need to become more aware of energy-related problems, and how they can change their own lifestyles to limit environmental damage caused by the daily use of energy. As the decision-makers of tomorrow we need to empower them to make the right choices. The SSF is aimed at improving knowledge about RE and EE among children and young people, using a fun approach and aimed at generating greater enthusiasm for clean energy. The youth will also be encouraged to help raise awareness and so act as multipliers in their own communities, starting with their families and friends. As a result of this project we involved in developing and implementing an optional course for high school students within the Solar Schools Forum project. The optional course entitled "Sustainable energy and the environment" had a great deal of success, proof of this success being the fact that it is still taught even today, three years after its

  19. Energy and Exergy Analyses of the Danish Industry Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Fabian; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the Danish industry is presented in this paper using the energy and exergy methods. For the 22 most energy-intensive process industries, which represent about 80% of the total primary energy use of the industrial sector, detailed end-use models were created and analysed...... of using electricity and district heat in the industry is shown. The exergy efficiencies for each process industry were found to be in the range of 12% to 56% in 2012. However variations in the efficiencies within the sectors for individual process industries occur, underlining the need for detailed......, by determining the sectors losses and exergy destruction. In addition the importance of applying a system analysis is shown, which corrects the site efficiencies for electricity and district heating use. The use of 22 industries,further highlights differences amongst industries belonging to the same sector....

  20. The future of nuclear energy in the enlarged European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsa, Olivia; Mingiuc, C.; Paraschiva, M.V.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the future of nuclear energy at the European level taking into account the main factors which influence its development among which the most important are: - enlargement of EU to 30 member states with different energy structure; - the increase of energy consumption; - the constant increasing of external dependence for energy which is estimated at 70% in the next 20-30 years; - liberalisation of the energy sources and supply sector; - environmental concerns, including climate change. In the Green Paper, nuclear is grouped together with coal, oil, gas and renewables as 'less than perfect' energy options and together with coal it is classed as an 'undesirable' and referred to as a 'source of energy in doubt ' which is ' tainted by the original sin of dual usage (civil and military) in the fuel cycle'. The final conclusion is 'the future of nuclear energy in Europe is uncertain'. It depends on several factors beyond energy demand; including: a solution to the problems of managing nuclear waste, the economic viability of the new generation of power stations, the safety of reactors in Eastern Europe, in particular applicant countries and policies to combat global warming. The 'essential questions' for nuclear is 'How can the community develop fusion technology and reactors for the future, reinforce nuclear safety and find a solution to the problem of nuclear waste?' There are a number of very important factors that will influence the future of nuclear energy inside the European Union. The first and foremost of these is continuing the safe operation of the existing nuclear facilities. The second is the demand for energy, in particular electricity. The third is the nuclear sector's ability to meet a share of this demand in a competitive way. If the demand materialises, there are likely to be reactors available that can further improve nuclear competitiveness while maintaining its recent excellent safety record. It will be the market that

  1. Restructuring the industry sector - the impact on energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, M.

    1994-01-01

    The structure of the industrial sector is a factor of major importance in analyzing the evolution of energy intensity or in setting-up realistic development scenarios. A positive influence on the energy intensity value is expected for Romania from the process of restructuring the industry sector towards low energy consumption products. In order to reach this target though, suitable end comprehensive strategies have to become operational without delay, promoting energy efficiency and modern technologies at a nation-wide scale. The benefits of such strategies extend from improvement of the security of supply through environmental protection and reduction of unemployment. (Author)

  2. Exploring the Hidden Sector @ Low Energies

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Over the years we have accumulated a large number of indications for physics beyond the standard model. This new physics is often sought-after at high masses and energies. Here collider experiments can bring decisive insights. However, over recent years it has become increasingly clear that new physics can also appear at low energy, but extremely weak coupling. Experiments and observations at this `low energy frontier' therefore provide a powerful tool to gain insight into fundamental physics, which is complementary to accelerators.

  3. Benchmark of European strategies of development of gas production and valorisation sectors. European inventory and synthetic sheets per country - Intermediate report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastide, Guillaume

    2014-10-01

    After a European inventory and a discussion of the evolution of the number of methanization installations, of the evolution of biogas production, and of the situation and main economic levers in European countries, this report proposes sheets of data and analysis for Germany, Italy, Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Sweden. For each of these countries, the document proposes an historical overview and some key figures on various aspects (types and number of installations, biogas production and valorisation, resources and processed quantities, technologies, digestates, costs of installation and financing modes, jobs and enterprises in the sector), a comment of the national strategy (actors, strategy regarding renewable energy, climate protection and waste processing, regulatory and financial incentive measures, regulatory context and administrative management), and perspectives (maximum potential, development perspectives)

  4. Biogas - Energy from the agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Membrez, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Swiss agriculture produces biomass in the form of manure, crop residue or specifically grown biomass energy crops. There are a variety of procedures available to make use of this biomass. The right choice depends on the type of biomass and the energy end-product. For example thermal energy use, power generation or biogenetic fuels require physical, thermo-chemical or biological conversion. The following reports presents an overview of existing technologies, gives details of selected case studies on agricultural biogas production and discusses the importance of agricultural biomass energy use for the attainment of Swiss climate protection targets. (author)

  5. The environment and energy sector in the Czech republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this report is to give Danish investors, consultants, and subcontractors With interest in the Czech environment and energy sector, a basis for evaluating its market opportunities. Furthermore, the report will provide the reader With an overview of potential finance sources for projects within the environment and energy sector. With the prospects of EU membership, the Czech Republic has put a great effort into improving the country's environmental conditions as well as restructuring its energy sector. In particular in the area of the environment, the Czech Republic has experienced considerable progress. However, in several environmental areas, the Czech Republic is still lacking behind other EU countries. The process of meeting the environmental standards of the EU continues to demand large investments, especially within the field of water and waste treatment. In the process of adapting to the requirements of the EU in the field of the environment, the Czech Republic can expect to receive around EUR 615 million in EU funds betaveen 2004 and 2006. The Czech energy sector is the most air-polluting sector in the country and there is a general demand for knove-hove and technology in the field of energy efficiency and udlisation of renewable energy. Renewable energy makes up only 2% of the Czech Republic's total energy production. The goal of the Czech government is to increase the share to 8% before 2010. This report illustrates hove the large investments required in the area of environment and energy combmed with a wide range of national and international financing opportunities open up for significant market opportunities in the Czech Republic for Danish companies specialised within the environment and energy sector. As a foundation of the report there will first be a brief explanation of the inarket conditions in the Czech Republic. Secondly, the report will describe the environmental sector in depth within the areas water, waste, and air, and

  6. An investigation on energy consumption trend in Japan. Transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takayoshi

    2005-08-01

    Although energy consumption in the industry sector has almost been stable, energy consumption in the transportation (passenger and freight) sector has increased much after the oil crisis. The increase of energy consumption in the passenger sector can be attributed to the increase in transportation by private passenger vehicles; while the increase in the freight sector was due to the modal shift to trucks. Among transportation methods, automobiles, i.e. passenger vehicles and trucks, are now dominant in terms of energy consumption and also in terms of amount of transportation. Therefore implementing energy conservation measures relating to automobiles is very important in order to suppress the energy consumption in the transportation sector. This report summarizes the results of investigation on energy conservation measures, especially relevant to automobiles. It was found from the investigation that most promising and effective technologies or measures are promoting market penetration of vehicles satisfying ''top runner standard'', development and employment of hybrid vehicles, and introduction of vehicles with ''idling-stop'' systems. (author)

  7. TAXATION OF ENERGY PRODUCTS AND ELECTRICITY TO THE EUROPEAN UNION LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PĂUNESCU ALBERTO NICOLAE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available U.E established to increase socio-economic stability and security of supply, the Energy Community has set a good example of regional cooperation in which the EU and the South-Eastern European countries can diversify their energy sources. It has created a functioning institutional framework and more legal certainty for investors. Next steps are to enhance market reforms and to boost investments in the energy sector. The final objective is that the regional market should be fully integrated in the European's internal energy market

  8. European moves to a communal energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klijs, K.

    1978-01-01

    The author has endeavoured to discover whether there is talk of a communal energy policy in the EEC and if so how far are the developments, on what foundation is the policy based and what factors are hindering its realisation. It is concluded that as yet there is scarely any talk of a communual energy policy within the activities of the EEC, although the growing dependence on oil imports is seen as a reason to discuss this policy. The main aim of such a policy is to reduce oil imports from 61% of energy sources in 1973 to 30% in 1985, since the oil from Arab lands is seen as a totally unreliable energy source. A very strong development in nuclear energy is seen as a means of reducing oil imports. The failure of a European energy policy cannot be blamed on the different conceptions of the member states. The choice against oil imports and for nuclear energy is general, and each member is initially trying to make the national energy provision safe. (C.F.)

  9. Danish Sector Guide for Calculation of the Actual Energy Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    , the innovation network for sustainable construction, InnoBYG started work on a Danish sector guide for the calculation of actual energy consumption in relation to upgrading of buildings. The focus was to make a common guide for energy calculations that can be used by consultants performing calculations...... consumption compared with the estimated energy demand by calculation. The paper concludes that the result of an energy calculation should not be given as a single figure but rather as a spread between the best and worst case for the assumed conditions. Finally, a brief update on current actions is given...... related to the sector guide for calculation of actual energy consumption. Keywords – Energy calculations, actual energy consumption, energy perfomance...

  10. Energy and exergy analyses of energy consumptions in the industrial sector in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oladiran, M.T.; Meyer, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    The energy-utilization over a 10-year period (1994-2003) has been analysed for the South African industrial sector, which consumes more primary energy than any other sector of the economy. Four principal sub-sectors, namely iron and steel, chemical and petrochemical, mining and quarrying, and non-ferrous metals/non-metallic minerals were considered in this study. Primary-energy utilization data were used to calculate the weighted mean energy and exergy efficiencies for the sub-sectors and then overall values for the industrial sector were obtained. The results indicate that exergy efficiency is considerably lower than energy efficiency in all the sub-sectors, particularly in mining and quarrying processes, for which the values were approximately 83% and 16%, respectively. The performance of exergy utilization in the industrial sector can be improved by introducing various conservation strategies. Results from this study were compared with those for other countries

  11. Energy and exergy utilizations of the Chinese urban residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanfeng; Li, Yang; Wang, Dengjia; Liu, Jiaping

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The energy and exergy use in China’s urban residential sector between 2002 and 2011 are analyzed. • The primary locations and causes of energy and exergy losses in the CURS are identified. • The large gap between the energy and exergy efficiencies implies great potential for energy saving. • The exergy utilization can be improved by using appropriate technology, management and policy. - Abstract: In this paper, the energy and exergy utilizations in the Chinese urban residential sector (CURS) are analyzed by considering the energy and exergy flows for the years between 2002 and 2011. The energy and exergy efficiencies of this sector are calculated to examine the potential for advancing the ‘true’ energy efficiency and determine the real energy losses. The results demonstrate large differences between the overall energy efficiencies (62.8–70.2%) and the exergy efficiencies (11.0–12.2%) for the years analyzed. The sizable gap between the energy and exergy efficiencies implies a high potential for energy savings in the CURS. Future energy saving strategies should pay more attention to the improvement in exergy efficiencies. Moreover, it is found that direct fuel use constituted the primary exergy losses of the CURS; coal-fired boiler heating systems cause approximately 35% of the total exergy losses. Gas stoves, cogeneration systems, coal stoves and gas water heaters constitute 15.3%, 15%, 5.5% and 4.9% of the total exergy losses, respectively

  12. Energy efficient lighting in the retail sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This Good Practice Guide gives details on how energy efficient lighting can be incorporated in the brief for a lighting consultant or contractor. The advantages of energy efficiency are highlighted, and the lighting of retail stores, the introduction of energy efficiency measures, and the application of good practice are discussed. Case studies of W H Smith, Cambridge, Tesco Stores, Boots plc, the Harvey Centre, Harlow, and the National Westminster Bank plc are presented. A guide for senior executives and specialists in lighting design is also included. (UK)

  13. Sustainable Energy for All and the private sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellanca, Raffaella; Wilson, Emma

    2012-06-15

    The UN's Sustainable Energy for All initiative (SE4ALL) has a strong focus on the private sector to deliver universal energy access, improved efficiency and increased investment in renewable energy. Leading private sector associations have bought into SE4ALL, including the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) and the Global Compact. However, critics argue that SE4ALL is focusing too much on large-scale infrastructure investment and is missing opportunities to stimulate enterprise more locally and to benefit the poorest. The private sector – including large and smaller-scale businesses, both local and international – is keen to get involved in energy access in low-income markets and sees the value of an initiative such as SE4ALL. Yet some feel that SE4ALL is failing to engage all levels of the private sector effectively. To deliver universal energy access, SE4ALL needs to address the lack of finance for enterprises and end users, especially in untested markets; infrastructure and support services for new businesses; local skills, capacity and information about workable models; and favourable policy frameworks. With the right incentives, business can open up low-income markets by providing lifeimproving services to emerging middle class populations who are still excluded from energy access. To reach the poorest SE4ALL can promote private sector partnerships with government and NGOs, encourage corporate responsibility initiatives and support social entrepreneurs.

  14. Sustainable Energy for All and the private sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellanca, Raffaella; Wilson, Emma

    2012-06-15

    The UN's Sustainable Energy for All initiative (SE4ALL) has a strong focus on the private sector to deliver universal energy access, improved efficiency and increased investment in renewable energy. Leading private sector associations have bought into SE4ALL, including the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) and the Global Compact. However, critics argue that SE4ALL is focusing too much on large-scale infrastructure investment and is missing opportunities to stimulate enterprise more locally and to benefit the poorest. The private sector – including large and smaller-scale businesses, both local and international – is keen to get involved in energy access in low-income markets and sees the value of an initiative such as SE4ALL. Yet some feel that SE4ALL is failing to engage all levels of the private sector effectively. To deliver universal energy access, SE4ALL needs to address the lack of finance for enterprises and end users, especially in untested markets; infrastructure and support services for new businesses; local skills, capacity and information about workable models; and favourable policy frameworks. With the right incentives, business can open up low-income markets by providing lifeimproving services to emerging middle class populations who are still excluded from energy access. To reach the poorest SE4ALL can promote private sector partnerships with government and NGOs, encourage corporate responsibility initiatives and support social entrepreneurs.

  15. European Climate Change Programme. Working Group II. Impacts and Adaptation. Water Management. Sectoral Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-03-01

    Adaptation is a new policy area for the European climate change policy. The Impacts and Adaptation Workgroup has been set up as part of European Climate Change Programme (ECCP II). The main objective of the workgroup is to explore options to improve Europe's resilience to Climate Change Impacts, to encourage the integration of climate change adaptation into other policy areas at the European, national and regional level and to define the role of EU-wide policies complementing action by Member States. The aim of this initial programme of work is to identify good practice in the development of adaptation policy and foster learning from different sectoral experiences and explore a possible EU role in adaptation policies. The Commission has led a series of 10 sectoral meetings looking at adaptation issues for different sectors. One of these meetings looked at the impacts on the water cycle and water resources management and prediction of extreme events in particular. This report summarises the state of play in the Water Resources sector in relation to adaptation to climate change on the basis of the information gathered at the stakeholder meeting on 11 April, 2006

  16. Account for sector heterogeneity in China's energy consumption. Sector price indices vs. GDP deflator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Chunbo

    2010-01-01

    A common practice in decomposition analyses is to deflate output indicators to purge the impact of inflation by using a general deflator. This practice fails to account for sector heterogeneity and can be hazardous. Although the general identified patterns are largely correct, the calculated magnitudes can be misleading or even wrongly signed. Instead, it is strongly recommended that sector heterogeneity is accounted for by using individual sector price indices for all relevant sectors instead of one general (GDP) deflator. This paper analyzes this advanced decomposition using Chinese data and compares to the usual method of using only one deflator. It is found that while most differences are only of quantitative quality, some show even a qualitative difference. Furthermore, the rising energy intensity in the early 2000s, which has been discussed by previous studies, vanishes completely. (author)

  17. Research policy in energy sector - falsely programmed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuestenhagen, H.

    1976-01-01

    The author attaches in a well-known form the nuclear energy experts as 'technocrats' and as the true masters over parlament. He speaks of extremist scientists and experts. Facit: Continuous repetition of the same irrelevent talk. (TK) [de

  18. European Energy Charter. ; Status of basic agreement negotiation. Oshu energy kensho; Kihon kyotei kosho no jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ijuin, T. (Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-02-10

    From its title, the European Energy Charter has tended to lead to a misunderstanding that it is an European framework. However, a first expanded European Energy Charter meeting was held where the charter was established as an international framework. An article in the Charter calls for continuing a discussion on a basic agreement to be used as an international treaty and protocols by areas. The Charter text itself that has no legal binding power has been agreed by more than 40 charter participating nations based on the draft prepared by EC. However, no consensus has been reached on the negotiation for the basic agreement that has a legal binding power and the protocols in several important points. The basic agreement is a multi-national treaty specifying basic rules important in leading the former Soviet Union and East European nations to market economy and promoting energy development utilizing the investments from private sectors in the West. This paper describes the investment liberalization and investor protection, consistency with GATT, and its influence to the energy industries when Japan has joined the charter as a member nation.

  19. Improving energy efficiency in the transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S.E.

    1994-12-31

    A primary characteristic of transportation in the United States is its high per capita energy consumption. The average US citizen consumes nearly five times as much energy for transportation as the average Japanese and nearly three times as much as the average citizen of France, Britain, or West Germany. The energy efficiency of US transportation has improved substantially over the past two decades (both absolutely and in comparison to Europe), and US travel volume has grown more slowly than in most of the developed world. However, the United States still consumes more than one-third of the world`s transport energy. Also, 96 percent of US transport energy is in the form of oil products. This is more oil than the United States produces, despite its position as one of the world`s largest oil producers. With current problems and expectation of continued growth in travel and energy use, Congress has increasingly turned to transportation energy conservation - in the form of improvements in the technical efficiency of travel, increases in load factors, reductions in travel demand, shifting to alternative fuels, and shifts to more efficient travel modes - as an important policy goal. For example, the Clean Air Amendments of 1990 incorporate transportation demand management as a critical tool in reducing urban air pollution. Legislation proposed in the 102d Congress sought rigorous new automobile and light truck fuel economy standards. With continued increases in U.S. oil imports, urban traffic congestion, and greenhouse gas emissions, and the failure of many urban areas to meet air quality standards, strong congressional interest in new energy conservation initiates is likely to continue.

  20. Impact of the economic recession on the European power sector's CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Declercq, Bruno; Delarue, Erik; D'haeseleer, William

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of the economic recession on CO 2 emissions in the European power sector, during the years 2008 and 2009. Three main determinants of the power sector's emissions are identified: the demand for electricity, the CO 2 price, and fuel prices. A counterfactual scenario has been set up for each of these, i.e., what these parameters would have been if not affected by the recession. A simulation model of the European power sector is then employed, comparing a historical reference simulation (taking the parameters as actually occurred) with the counterfactual scenarios. The lower electricity demand (due to the recession) is shown to have by far the largest impact, accounting for an emission reduction of about 175 Mton. The lower CO 2 price (due to the recession) resulted in an increase in emissions by about 30 Mton. The impact of fuel prices is more difficult to retrieve; an indicative reduction of about 17 Mton is obtained, mainly as a consequence of the low gas prices in 2009. The simulated combined impact of the parameters results in an emission reduction of about 150 Mton in the European power sector over the years 2008 and 2009 as a consequence of the recession. - Research highlights: → CO 2 emissions are simulated for the European power sector. → Emissions reduced drastically because of the economic recession in 2008 and 2009. → Lower electricity demand had highest impact and accounts for reduction of about 175 Mton. → Impact of different CO 2 and fuel prices on emissions is more limited.

  1. Energy efficiency in the European Union: overview of policies and good practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The world is facing increasing energy prospects and stakes, in terms of energy supply security and safety, environmental impact as well as economic and social costs. In Europe, these fast-growing concerns have led to the adoption of new energy efficiency policies at national and European levels: legislation, regulations, institutional measures, awareness-raising and training campaigns, financial incentives, investment schemes, etc. As in other sectors and at each stage of European development, knowledge and experience feedback drive the Member States towards a growing harmonization of national policies: the most encouraging national measures may be adopted by other countries and even implemented at a European level. The valorization and exchange of best practices therefore contributes to the fulfilment of European commitments on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions reduction. All these schemes are integrally part of a common European energy policy to be applied to energy production, transportation and distribution - the supply side - as well as to all social and economic activities which make up the demand side, and which is the subject of this document. The presentation hereafter provides an overview of energy efficiency policies and programs implemented in the European Union and in the Member States. It shows the diversity of available means of action and strategic choices within the different countries whilst highlighting the most innovative and significant measures. The various tools available are of course used in different ways in each country depending on their characteristics. Economic structure, for example, can explain the differences in the implementation of certain measures as it results in concentrating on the sectors which produce the most greenhouse gases - and which differ from one country to another. Energy balances -energy-producing countries or energy-dependent countries - and political contexts - with more or less liberal governments

  2. Legal Framework of Renewable Energy Sources in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Milto, Yuliya

    2017-01-01

    The thesis analyses the following issues: historical development of energy and renewable energy sources legislation in the European Economic Community (EEC): the role of energy crisis of 1973 – 1974 in development of renewable energy legislation; international cooperation in the field of energy and renewable energy between EEC and third countries and membership of the EEC in international energy organizations dealing with energy; the European Union renewable energy policy and legal fra...

  3. Energy sector pricing: On the role of neglected nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyrtsou, Catherine; Malliaris, Anastasios G.; Serletis, Apostolos

    2009-01-01

    Modern economies have been subjected to a number of shocks during the past several years such as the burst of the Internet bubble, terrorist attacks, corporate scandals, the war in Iraq, the uncertainty about energy prices, and the recent subprime mortgage crisis. In particular, during the last few years, the energy shock has caused concerns for potential stagflation for both the United States and numerous other countries. We perform numerous univariate tests for non-linearity and chaotic structure using price data from the energy sector to resolve whether the sector's fundamentals or exogenous shocks drive these prices.

  4. Energy sector pricing: On the role of neglected nonlinearity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyrtsou, Catherine [University of Macedonia (Greece); Malliaris, Anastasios G. [Loyola University Chicago (United States); Serletis, Apostolos [University of Calgary (Canada)], E-mail: Serletis@ucalgary.ca

    2009-05-15

    Modern economies have been subjected to a number of shocks during the past several years such as the burst of the Internet bubble, terrorist attacks, corporate scandals, the war in Iraq, the uncertainty about energy prices, and the recent subprime mortgage crisis. In particular, during the last few years, the energy shock has caused concerns for potential stagflation for both the United States and numerous other countries. We perform numerous univariate tests for non-linearity and chaotic structure using price data from the energy sector to resolve whether the sector's fundamentals or exogenous shocks drive these prices.

  5. Energy sector pricing. On the role of neglected nonlinearity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyrtsou, Catherine [University of Macedonia (Greece); Malliaris, Anastasios G. [Loyola University Chicago (United States); Serletis, Apostolos [University of Calgary (Canada)

    2009-05-15

    Modern economies have been subjected to a number of shocks during the past several years such as the burst of the Internet bubble, terrorist attacks, corporate scandals, the war in Iraq, the uncertainty about energy prices, and the recent subprime mortgage crisis. In particular, during the last few years, the energy shock has caused concerns for potential stagflation for both the United States and numerous other countries. We perform numerous univariate tests for non-linearity and chaotic structure using price data from the energy sector to resolve whether the sector's fundamentals or exogenous shocks drive these prices. (author)

  6. Financial groups charmed by energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluza, I.; Marcan, P.

    2006-01-01

    The Slovak power industry is no longer the domain of big state-controlled and international companies. Local financial groups that grew up on equity deals, revitalisation of industry, real estate and receivables business have developed an interest in the field as well. They are contemplating the possibility of investing a part of their gains into energy sources. They can see the gap that the closure of the V1 power plant in Jaslovske Bohunice will create in Slovakian's power capacity. Although the new owner of Slovenske elektrarne, Italian Enel, will attend to filling the gap, local market players also sense an opportunity. Apart from the closure of V1 there is also rising energy demand driven by growing industry and growing energy prices. What is more, the state supports renewable energy sources like wind and biomass though subsidies, tax allowances or higher purchase prices. According to standard economic formulas at least, increased competition should exert pressure on prices. However, renewable energy sources are more expensive then traditional ones and new gas or coal driven power plants will certainly not push prices down. The electricity produced by power plants in Jaslovske Bohunice, which is to be closed, is the cheapest we have. So nobody dares to predict with 100-percent certainty what energy prices will look like in two years. Investment director of private equity group Penta, Vladimir Brodnan, says that new investors are not entering the energy business because of guaranteed profit. Utility regulator URSO only sets fixed prices for distribution companies but, on the other hand, the draft amendment to the regulation act indicates that the government would like to change this status. In future the powers of the regulator should also cover the prices of electricity as a commodity. In addition, the possibility of the regulator being able to interfere with the liberalised market concerns investors. (authors)

  7. Energy efficiency in the transport sector in the EU-27: A dynamic dematerialization analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziolkowska, Jadwiga R.; Ziolkowski, Bozydar

    2015-01-01

    Energy use in the European Union's (EU) transport sector amounted to 340 Mtoe in 1999 with the following increasing trend up to 379 Mtoe in 2007 and a decrease from 2008 on, down to 365 Mtoe in 2010. This changing pattern posed several fundamental questions and uncertainties regarding the broader picture of energy efficiency and environmental protection. One of them refers to absolute changes in energy use efficiency in the transport sector over time and the ways of measuring efficiency. Traditional scientific approaches conceptualized to measure efficiency of energy use do not address annual dynamics of changes in the energy use in a given sector per capita. Thus, they are not precise enough for political and methodological purposes as they do not reflect the exact amount of energy consumed in the respective countries and societies. This paper shows a possible solution to this problem and a new perspective on measuring energy efficiency by using the product generational dematerialization (PGD) indicator. The PGD indicator allows for measuring energy efficiency as a dynamic change of consumption and population occurring simultaneously. Thus, it provides an extension to the traditional methodology commonly used for measuring efficiency. To visualize a practical application of this approach, the paper provides an example of evaluating energy efficiency in the transport sector in the EU-27 in 2000–2010. The results of the analysis show a clear materialization tendency in the transport sector (the energy consumption change exceeded the population growth) until 2007 and a reverse tendency (dematerialization) between 2008 and 2010. As energy consumption has a direct impact on environmental quality and exhaustion of natural resources, the paper points out the necessity of extending sustainable resource management policies by new methodologies and providing more efficient solutions for energy consumption in the transport sector. - Highlights: • PGD indicator proves a

  8. Trends and changes in the European energy situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, G.

    1994-01-01

    The conference paper gives a summary of the energy policy in Europe with the focus on trends and changes in the energy situation. Aspects discussed in this paper are energy and society, energy demand, policy issues, the European response, and the European Energy Charter

  9. Public sector energy management: A strategy for catalyzing energy efficiency in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anish Kumar

    To date the public sector role in facilitating the transition to a sustainable energy future has been envisaged mainly from a regulatory perspective. In such a role, the public sector provides the push factors---enforcing regulations and providing incentives---to correct market imperfections that impede energy transitions. An alternative and complementary role of the public sector that is now gaining increasing attention is that of catalyzing energy transitions through public sector energy management initiatives. This dissertation offers a conceptual framework to rationalize such a role for the public sector by combining recent theories of sustainable energy transition and public management. In particular, the framework identifies innovative public management strategies (such as performance contracting and procurement) for effectively implementing sustainable energy projects in government facilities. The dissertation evaluates a model of sustainable public sector energy management for promoting energy efficiency in Malaysia. The public sector in Malaysia can be a major player in leading and catalyzing energy efficiency efforts as it is not only the largest and one of the most influential energy consumers, but it also plays a central role in setting national development strategy. The dissertation makes several recommendations on how a public sector energy management strategy can be implemented in Malaysia. The US Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is used as a practical model. The analysis, however, shows that in applying the FEMP model to the Malaysian context, there are a number of limitations that will have to be taken into consideration to enable a public sector energy management strategy to be effectively implemented. Overall the analysis of this dissertation contributes to a rethinking of the public sector role in sustainable energy development that can strengthen the sector's credibility both in terms of governance and institutional performance. In

  10. Kyoto protocol and Nepal's energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokharel, Shaligram

    2007-01-01

    Nepal has recently ratified Kyoto Protocol, which considers justifiable use of resources to limit or reduce the emission of gases that contribute to green house gas inventory in the atmosphere. Nepal's per capita green gas (GHG) emission from energy use is insignificant. However, it is important for Nepal to adopt environmentally friendly energy options based on local resources like hydropower and biomass. Nepal can benefit from the provisions of clean development mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) or carbon funds being promoted by various organizations in order to obtain funding for new projects that reduce GHG emissions (ER). Funding can be generated through Carbon trading in international market as well. In this paper, the country's current contribution to GHG due to energy consumption is evaluated. Options for promoting more sustainable and environmentally friendly projects have also been discussed

  11. Energy, the UK and the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, N.

    1982-01-01

    The emphasis of effort in European energy policy should be placed on external relations rather than internal regulation. The divergence of the interests of the United States and Europe in energy policy will no longer allow Europe to depend on US initiative. The temporary relaxation of world oil markets has engendered unrealistic complacency. The European Community must develop its important role as a means whereby the member states can formulate common initiatives to press within international institutions. Strong presentation of interests externally has to be complemented by internal adaptation. The Community has at the moment few means of influencing the form and nature of energy investment. This paper proposes a fund of the order of Pound1 bn per annum to be used for the promotion of projects whose intrinsic benefits are not fully translated into commercial advantage and which need political stimulus. Such a Fund might be, but need not necessarily be, financed by a small levy on imported oil. The UK should present more aggressively the considerable benefits which accrue to the Community from UK resources. There is perhaps an opportunity to take a more extrovert view of the relationship between the UK and the continental gas transport systems. (author)

  12. Wind energy in the agricultural sector. Tailwind or head wind?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Knijff, A.

    1999-06-01

    The state of the art in the use of wind energy in the agricultural sector in the Netherlands is given in order to map opportunities. Obstacles to expansion of wind capacity in that sector in the short term are described, as well as the most important developments with respect to wind energy. An estimated 275 wind turbines with a capacity of 50 MW are in use in the Netherlands. This means that the agricultural sector accounts for approximately 14% of the total wind capacity in the Netherlands (363 MW in 1998). Most of the agricultural businesses supply all the electricity generated to the public networks. Only a small number of farmers use some of the generated electricity themselves. The most important obstacles for the agrarian sector are the proposed policies of provinces and municipalities, the limited capacity of the public electricity network, and the lack of clarity regarding the liberalisation of the electricity market. In particular, provincial and municipal policies (solitary wind turbines versus wind farms) will determine the prospects for the future of wind energy in the agrarian sector. Despite possible adversities, there are good prospects for the future for the sector because farmers own land in windy locations. 33 refs

  13. European School of High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    The European School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young experimental physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lectures notes on field theory and the Standard Model, quantum chromodynamics, flavour physics and CP violation, experimental aspects of CP violation in K and B decays, relativistic heavy-ion physics, and the scientific programme of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. These core scientific topics are complemented by a lecture about the physics of ski jumping.

  14. Subsidization in China's Renewable Energy Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup Christensen, Nis

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese government's decision to push for large-scale build up of renewable energy capacity was followed by a range of industrial policies to support this change of track. Most importantly, various forms of subsidies were launched to support both industries and markets. While important new re...

  15. European Energy Integration in East European Countries: Real Necessity to Assure Fair Market prices for Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustin IGNATOV

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to assure energy, and therefore, economic stability of East European States (hereafter EES there should be undertaken visible steps towards deeper energetic integration of the region under the coordination of EU. In such a way there will be considerably strengthened the regional economic security through creating functional mechanisms of solving current and potential energy issues including diversification of supplies and fairer market prices. Moreover, it will be possible to develop and implement more effectively energy infrastructure projects. Deeper and more functional energy integration in EES will create favorable preconditions of fostering the states’ economic development. Also, there will be considerably reduced the macroeconomic risks which could possible occur as a result of the struggle of interests of importing and supplying countries. The current paper is intended to underline the most important weaknesses in terms of energy security of EES and exemplify how efficient these problems could be tackled by cumulating common countries’ efforts in the sector. Also, it highlights the shortcomings of EU energy policy in EES and how these affect the economic prospective of the countries. Finally, it is remarked that EES need a common energy market in order to strengthen their negotiation positions in relation with supplying countries.

  16. European chemistry for growth. Unlocking a competitive, low carbon and energy efficient future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    The long term role of the chemical industry as Europe progresses to an energy efficient and low GHG emission future, and the sector's potential to assist Europe in meeting its decarbonisation targets is investigated. The timeline for deploying existing and new technologies from 2020 to 2050 and their potential impact on energy efficiency and GHG emission levels, as well as the competitive position of the European chemical industry is assessed. Cefic commissioned Ecofys to perform analyses and bring forward key conclusions and recommendations from their independent viewpoint, in close collaboration with the sector. As a strategic orientation for this industry and a high level priority for Cefic's Board, this Roadmap meets the need for the European chemical industry to develop a new, longer term strategic approach to energy and climate policy and contributes to the debate on the post-2020 policy framework. This Roadmap has three main objectives: (1) Provide quantitative and more qualitative evidence on the options available to the European chemical industry to contribute to the EU's long term GHG emissions reduction goals. These options apply to technologies and product development for the sector itself and for other sectors of the EU economy; (2) Based on this evidence, define a long term vision for the European chemical industry within a European Union that progresses to a low GHG emission future by defining a number of plausible scenarios in the context of global market developments; (3) Formulate recommendations externally to policy makers and internally to the European chemical industry based on the scenarios studied. Chapter 2 provides an overview of the European chemical industry, while Chapter 3 describes the current policy landscape for the European chemical industry. Chapter 4 focuses on the European chemical industry as an enabler of energy efficiency and emissions reduction for sectors across the economy. In Chapter 5, the energy efficiency

  17. Qualification Needs, Approaches and Strategies in the Second-Hand Sector. A European Good-Practice Report

    OpenAIRE

    Arold, Heike; Koring, Claudia; Windelband, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Against the background of changing consumer behaviour and environmental policies, a growing second-hand sector is expected. In order to ensure quality and professionalism within companies operating in this sector, it is necessary to develop a unified Europewide and sector-specific qualification which is geared to real working processes and requirements. This good practice report describes the training and qualification structures in the European second-hand sector. In addition, occupational a...

  18. Research planning in the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graenicher, H.

    1977-06-01

    The author considers research planning split into four separate aspects: the character of the research situation; the function of planning stages; the type of research target; and the limit of the application of research planning by planning stages. He then considers the specific problem of energy research and discusses the question of what the state is to do and how to do it with particular attention to the Swiss situation. (G.T.H)

  19. The Japanese energy sector: Current situation, and future paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Kae; Suzuki, Tatsujiro

    2011-01-01

    As the world's third leading economy and a major importer of fuels, the choice of future energy paths and policies that Japan makes in the next few years will have a significant influence on the energy security of the world as a whole, and of the Northeast Asia region in particular. In this article we describe the current status of and recent trends in the Japanese energy sector, including energy demand and supply by fuel and by sector. We then discuss the current energy policy situation in Japan, focusing on policies related to climate change targets, renewable energy development and deployment, liberalization of energy markets, and the evolution of the Japanese nuclear power sector. The final section of the article presents the structure of the Japan LEAP (long-range energy alternatives planning software system) dataset, describes several alternative energy paths for Japan - with an emphasis on alternative paths for nuclear power development and GHG emission abatement - and touches upon key current issues of energy policy facing Japan, as reflected in the modeling inputs and results.

  20. The Japanese energy sector: Current situation, and future paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takase, Kae, E-mail: kae@gdl.jp [Governance Design Laboratory, Inc., 2301 City Tower Bashamichi 5-71 Onoe-cho, Naka-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 231-0015 (Japan); Suzuki, Tatsujiro [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Public Policy, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0081 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    As the world's third leading economy and a major importer of fuels, the choice of future energy paths and policies that Japan makes in the next few years will have a significant influence on the energy security of the world as a whole, and of the Northeast Asia region in particular. In this article we describe the current status of and recent trends in the Japanese energy sector, including energy demand and supply by fuel and by sector. We then discuss the current energy policy situation in Japan, focusing on policies related to climate change targets, renewable energy development and deployment, liberalization of energy markets, and the evolution of the Japanese nuclear power sector. The final section of the article presents the structure of the Japan LEAP (long-range energy alternatives planning software system) dataset, describes several alternative energy paths for Japan - with an emphasis on alternative paths for nuclear power development and GHG emission abatement - and touches upon key current issues of energy policy facing Japan, as reflected in the modeling inputs and results.

  1. Measuring Energy Efficiency in China’s Transport Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Hao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is one of the key factors affecting energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. By focusing on China’s transport sector, this study comprehensively reviews and compares the energy efficiency performance of passenger vehicles, light-duty commercial vehicles, commercial road transport, commercial water transport, aviation transport and railway transport, and identifies the opportunities for further energy efficiency improvements. It is found that railway transport exhibited the greatest improvement in energy efficiency during the past decade, which was mainly driven by progress in its electrification. Passenger vehicles have also experienced considerable energy efficiency improvements, which can be mainly attributed to the establishment of mandatory fuel consumption standards. In contrast, commercial road transport has shown the least improvement, due to insufficient policy implementations. Based on the analysis, it is recommended that, as China’s present policy framework to improve energy efficiency in the transport sector is generally effective, it should be consistently maintained and successively improved. Electrification represents a major opportunity for improvement of energy efficiency in the transport sector. Such potential should be fully tapped for all transport modes. Greater effort should be put into improving the energy efficiency of commercial road transport. The policy instruments utilized to improve the energy efficiency of heavy-duty vehicles should be as intensive and effective as the policy instruments for passenger vehicles.

  2. Energy in Europe: the case of electricity or 'how to be european?'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescoeur, B.; Verger, E.

    2007-01-01

    After a long period of benign neglect, concern has been re-aroused for questions related to energy. European Union has succeeded in opening its gas and electricity markets to free competition. This deregulation process began between 10 and 20 years ago. It was at a time of low electricity prices because Europe was facing a power overproduction due to the important investment made in this sector. Low price policy has made companies to re-organize themselves and the sector in order to stay profitable. Now we are entering a new period in which energy prices keep increasing following the strong energy demand. Europe needs to augment its production of electricity, and firms are now drafting strategies on a continental scale. A major piece of the energy puzzle is still missing: the yet to be designed European energy policy

  3. Investing in the Energy Sector: An Issue of Governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horst Keppler, J.; Schulke, Ch.

    2009-01-01

    Of all economic sectors, energy is among those where the issue of investments is the most urgent. Because of its technological structure and significant fixed costs, the energy sector is by nature heavily capital intensive. With growing demand and increasingly difficult access to resources, the amounts needed become enormous. The International Energy Agency (IEA) estimates in its World Energy Outlook 2008 that total energy investment needs between now and 2030 will stand at $26 trillion, or close to $1 trillion per year. This is just for energy supply. Half of these investments will be needed in the electricity sector (see below for more details on these estimations). Even after putting these figures into perspective in terms of total worldwide investments over the next 25 years, the amount of money is still significant. All types of energy are involved - oil, gas, coal, nuclear and renewables. In addition, all steps in the supply chain are included - exploration, production, transformation and transportation. The stakes are high. Without the necessary investments, security of supply, global economic growth and environmental integrity are put at risk. The most important challenge for the energy sector in the years to come is thus to pave the way for realising timely and appropriate investments. The current economic recession that is threatening to curb global economic growth will not change this fact. Even if global energy demand slows down in the next two or three years, the world will return to its long term growth path. An energy facility lasts between 20 and 60 years. Thus, the structure of energy production in 2050, when the current economic crisis has been forgotten, will be determined now and over the next years. Even if global energy demand remains stable between now and 2050 (which is highly improbable), the replacement of existing facilities that have reached the end of their life-cycle will still require considerable efforts. (authors)

  4. Energy-economy interactions revisited within a comprehensive sectoral model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D. A.; Laitner, J. A.

    2000-07-24

    This paper describes a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model with considerable sector and technology detail, the ``All Modular Industry Growth Assessment'' Model (AMIGA). It is argued that a detailed model is important to capture and understand the several rolls that energy plays within the economy. Fundamental consumer and industrial demands are for the services from energy; hence, energy demand is a derived demand based on the need for heating, cooling mechanical, electrical, and transportation services. Technologies that provide energy-services more efficiently (on a life cycle basis), when adopted, result in increased future output of the economy and higher paths of household consumption. The AMIGA model can examine the effects on energy use and economic output of increases in energy prices (e.g., a carbon charge) and other incentive-based policies or energy-efficiency programs. Energy sectors and sub-sector activities included in the model involve energy extraction conversion and transportation. There are business opportunities to produce energy-efficient goods (i.e., appliances, control systems, buildings, automobiles, clean electricity). These activities are represented in the model by characterizing their likely production processes (e.g., lighter weight motor vehicles). Also, multiple industrial processes can produce the same output but with different technologies and inputs. Secondary recovery, i.e., recycling processes, are examples of these multiple processes. Combined heat and power (CHP) is also represented for energy-intensive industries. Other modules represent residential and commercial building technologies to supply energy services. All sectors of the economy command real resources (capital services and labor).

  5. Phase change materials in energy sector - applications and material requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuta, Marta; Wójcik, Tadeusz M.

    2015-05-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) have been applying in many areas. One of them is energy field. PCMs are interesting for the energy sector because their use enables thermal stabilization and storage of large amount of heat. It is major issue for safety of electronic devices, thermal control of buildings and vehicles, solar power and many others energy domains. This paper contains preliminary results of research on solid-solid phase change materials designed for thermal stabilisation of electronic devices.

  6. Factors affecting labour productivity in the SME sector of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Gołaś

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of labour productivity analysis in micro, small and medium enterprises of EU countries. The analysis was conducted on the basis of European Commission for Enterprise and Industry data from 2008. The results of regression analysis point that the technical equipment of work, the share of value added and value of production in revenues are the most important factors influencing the labour productivity in the SME sector.

  7. Sector review of UK higher education energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, Ian; Ogbonna, Anthony; Altan, Hasim

    2008-01-01

    The UK education and education-related services are said to be one of the fastest-growing export earners in recent years and are known to have had significant impacts at the micro- and macro-levels of the UK. This review looks at energy consumption of this fast growing sector. It concentrates on the energy consumption patterns of the funded higher education institutions in the UK. The findings indicate energy consumption in the sector has been on the increase in the 6 years up to 2006; rising by about 2.7% above the 2001 consumption levels. This increase is, however, not evenly spread across the entire sector. The high energy-consuming institutions appear to be increasing their net consumption, relative to other institutions. Gross internal area, staff and research student full-time equivalent were found to have highest correlation with energy consumption across the sector and may be used as proxy indicators for energy consumption as well as the targets of interventions

  8. Evaluation of European energy behavioural change programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gynther, L.; Mikkonen, I. [Motiva Oy, Urho Kekkosenkatu 4-6 A, 00100 Helsinki (Finland); Smits, A. [NL Agency, Swentiboldstraat 21, 6137 AE Sittard (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    This article is based on the findings of the BEHAVE Project (Evaluation of Energy Behavioural Change Programmes) which was supported by the European Commission under the EU Intelligent Energy-Europe (IEE) Programme. The project started with a review of behavioural theories and their applicability in the development and evaluation of energy-related behavioural change programmes, progressed to a case study analysis and finished with a publication of guidelines for programme developers and policy makers. This paper concentrates on the results of the case study analysis and the recommendations arising from it. In the case study analysis, information was collected on almost 100 cases aiming at behavioural change in energy use from 11 European countries. More detailed information was collected on 41 cases which were subject to meta-analysis to identify success factors and weak points and to gather information on the current evaluation practices in such programmes. The meta-analysis was carried out in five phases: context (pre-planning), planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. Planning and evaluation were recognised as two of the most critical phases. Many of the programmes operated with quite formal plans but were typically not based on scientific theories or evidence. In many cases, there was lack of market segmentation; the goals were not targeted and the programmes tried to offer 'everything to everybody'. A multitude of ex-post evaluation methods for programme impacts were reported ranging from participant surveys, testing and comparison with control groups to top-down method evaluating the impact of several programmes focusing on the same target group. Process evaluation (25 cases) was slightly less common than impact evaluation (29 cases). Evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of the programmes was a rarity, most likely due to difficulties in quantitative impact evaluation.

  9. Financing the energy sector in developing countries: context and overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkerley, Joy.

    1995-01-01

    Traditional 'business as usual' financing methods will no longer be adequate to meet the unprecedented demands for capital to finance energy sector expansion in the developing countries. In recognition, many countries are opening up their power sectors to private investment, initially through the establishment of independent power projects, but in some cases through sector privatization. Project financing has many advantages, but further sectoral reorganization, including tariff reform, will be needed to attract resources on the scale required, especially from domestic investors. In oil and gas, in contrast to power, private capital from the international oil companies has always played a major role in the developing countries. However, sharply increasing investment requirements require a growing role for external finance. There should, in principle, be no shortage of investible funds to finance energy sector expansion in developing countries so long as host countries establish conditions which are attractive to private investors. The augmented role of private finance requires a continuing, if different, role for the public sector in both host countries and official aid agencies. (author)

  10. Marine renewable energy sector early-stage supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Marine renewable energy is an emergent sector in Canada. Although supply chain studies have been performed on the United Kingdom and the United States markets, no study has been conducted yet in Canada. The aim of this study was therefore to perform a supply chain analysis in Canada to assess the maturity, strengths, and weaknesses of the sector and determine where the opportunities lie. The study emphasises that the sector is still at the prototype stage in Canada and that the industry must learn to improve its technology and begin to take on large scale projects. Canada has several strengths in the marine renewable energy sector, mainly in terms of resources and facilities, but there are also weaknesses pertaining to technology development and experience. The study concluded that the development of the sector must be centered on a solid vision; in the near term, technological innovation is needed to reach pre-commercialization while in the long term, the sector should aim for commercial application.

  11. The European Energy Policy: Building New Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonneuve, Cecile

    2014-04-01

    The origins of Europe's severe energy policy problems lie in a failed economic approach, which itself can be partly explained by political and ideological causes. This study seeks to address these political issues. Energy is not an exclusively economic issue, far from it. Since taxation and diplomacy are key aspects, energy is necessarily a political issue that policy-makers must handle. From this point of view, 2014 has to be seen as a political opportunity: it needs to be a year for re-founding a common policy fundamentally, based on two principles. First is the principle of realism, which implies re-situating energy policy in its international environment and putting the issue of costs back into the heart of political decision-making. The second principle is solidarity, in other words the clear restatement that there is a European general interest... which is not the sum of 28 national interests, but also that energy should be viewed as a system, and not as a collection of local policies and interests. Europe's common energy policy must retain its long term goal of ensuring the energy transition, but it must review the path to achieving this. This transition cannot be a technical, economic and geopolitical bet, which is presently the case. It has to be a controlled undertaking, implying governance and instruments. More generally, the transition requires a very different state of mind (Section III), compared to today's technocratic and non-cooperative approach (Section II), which has led to the prevailing state of energy chaos in Europe (Section I)

  12. Energy Consumption Forecasting for University Sector Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuram Pervez Amber

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Reliable energy forecasting helps managers to prepare future budgets for their buildings. Therefore, a simple, easier, less time consuming and reliable forecasting model which could be used for different types of buildings is desired. In this paper, we have presented a forecasting model based on five years of real data sets for one dependent variable (the daily electricity consumption and six explanatory variables (ambient temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, wind speed, weekday index and building type. A single mathematical equation for forecasting daily electricity usage of university buildings has been developed using the Multiple Regression (MR technique. Data of two such buildings, located at the Southwark Campus of London South Bank University in London, have been used for this study. The predicted test results of MR model are examined and judged against real electricity consumption data of both buildings for year 2011. The results demonstrate that out of six explanatory variables, three variables; surrounding temperature, weekday index and building type have significant influence on buildings energy consumption. The results of this model are associated with a Normalized Root Mean Square Error (NRMSE of 12% for the administrative building and 13% for the academic building. Finally, some limitations of this study have also been discussed.

  13. Strengthening the European Union Climate and Energy Package to build a low carbon, competitive and energy secure european union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin, Emmanuel; Spencer, Thomas

    2011-10-11

    Immediate action to strengthen the European Union Climate and Energy Package (EU CEP) is needed to ensure Europe's sustained growth, competitiveness and energy security. Indeed, the current 20% emissions reduction target is too low to reach the European long-term goal of reducing emissions by at least 80% by 2050 at acceptable costs. But the EU CEP is also inefficient to address sustainable potential competitiveness losses and carbon leakages in some carbon intensive industries, and most importantly to boost fully the competitiveness of firms producing low-carbon products and services. Moving to 30% by 2020 could induce significant long-term GDP gains and only marginal GDP short-term costs, increase the competitiveness of European firms producing innovative low-carbon technologies, and reduce both final energy consumption and EU energy dependency. But for these objectives to be met, the contents of policies to reach this 30% target is as important as the target itself. There are three main areas in which the EU CEP needs strengthening: (1) Improvement of the energy efficiency of the existing building stocks, and limitation of the absolute level of energy consumption in the transport sector are needed to reach the 20% energy efficiency target. Binding targets should only be used when absolutely necessary and when helpful. (2) From an economic, environmental and political perspective, setting a stringent European Union Emission Trading System (EU ETS) 2030 cap between -45 and -50% from 2005 levels is probably the most relevant, efficient, and realistic option in the short term. It would increase the predictability of the carbon price signal, and therefore the credibility of the regulator. Banking would ensure that this stringent mid-term target translates into a short-term increase of the carbon price. (3) In some cases, direct public financial support is justified and efficient: to overcome market failures and non-market barriers; to support innovation in low

  14. Strengthening the European Union Climate and Energy Package to build a low carbon, competitive and energy secure european union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, Emmanuel; Spencer, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Immediate action to strengthen the European Union Climate and Energy Package (EU CEP) is needed to ensure Europe's sustained growth, competitiveness and energy security. Indeed, the current 20% emissions reduction target is too low to reach the European long-term goal of reducing emissions by at least 80% by 2050 at acceptable costs. But the EU CEP is also inefficient to address sustainable potential competitiveness losses and carbon leakages in some carbon intensive industries, and most importantly to boost fully the competitiveness of firms producing low-carbon products and services. Moving to 30% by 2020 could induce significant long-term GDP gains and only marginal GDP short-term costs, increase the competitiveness of European firms producing innovative low-carbon technologies, and reduce both final energy consumption and EU energy dependency. But for these objectives to be met, the contents of policies to reach this 30% target is as important as the target itself. There are three main areas in which the EU CEP needs strengthening: (1) Improvement of the energy efficiency of the existing building stocks, and limitation of the absolute level of energy consumption in the transport sector are needed to reach the 20% energy efficiency target. Binding targets should only be used when absolutely necessary and when helpful. (2) From an economic, environmental and political perspective, setting a stringent European Union Emission Trading System (EU ETS) 2030 cap between -45 and -50% from 2005 levels is probably the most relevant, efficient, and realistic option in the short term. It would increase the predictability of the carbon price signal, and therefore the credibility of the regulator. Banking would ensure that this stringent mid-term target translates into a short-term increase of the carbon price. (3) In some cases, direct public financial support is justified and efficient: to overcome market failures and non-market barriers; to support innovation in low

  15. Energy-saving options for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from the Mongolian energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorjpurev, J.; Purevjal, O.; Erdenechimeg, Ch. [and others

    1996-12-31

    The Energy sector is the largest contributor to GHG emission in Mongolia. The Energy sector emits 54 percent of CO2 and 4 percent of methane. All emissions of other greenhouse gases are accounted from energy related activities. The activities in this sector include coal production, fuel combustion, and biomass combustion at the thermal power stations and in private houses (stoves) for heating purposes. This paper presents some important Demand-side options considered for mitigation of CO2 emissions from energy sector such as Energy Conservation in Industrial Sector and in Buildings. Changes in energy policies and programmes in the Mongolian situation that promote more efficient and sustainable practices are presented in the paper. These energy saving measures will not only help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but will also promote economic development and alleviate other environmental problems.

  16. The energy outlook for Russia and the dialogue between the European Union and Russian concerning energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laponche, B.

    2003-01-01

    The discussions concerning energy taking place between the European Union and Russia are aimed at setting up a permanent partnership in the energy sector in order to ensure that the exploitation of Russian energy resources makes it possible to guarantee the economic development of Russia while at the same time supplying sufficient energy exports to the European Union. The outlook for Russia's energy strategy in the years up to 2020 are based on a rate of growth in GDP of 5 % per year, combined with structural changes in economic activities and a vigorous energy efficiency policy, leading to a significant reduction in energy intensity. The low level of growth in demand resulting from this, combined with an increase in production and a reduction in the percentage of natural gas in electricity production guarantees a high level of potential for oil and gas exports in 2020, Compatible with the energy importation requirements of the future European Union and security of supply. The energy outlook for Russia presented by the International Energy Agency (IEA) are based on much lower economic growth figures and on a limited reduction in energy intensity. The percentage accounted for by natural gas in the production of electricity remains high. The IEA assessment is also based on a major increase in the production capacities for hydrocarbons in Russia while at the same time stressing the importance of the financial effort required to achieve this. Like the Russian outlook, it also identifies a major potential for the exportation of oil and natural gas by 2020. The convergence of these two outlooks concerning the future energy exporting capacity of Russia are seriously overshadowed by the fact that they differ greatly concerning their hypotheses and results with regard to domestic consumption and the production of energy. A 'warning scenario' combining the most similar hypotheses from both outlooks demonstrates the uncertain accompanying them. This analysis highlights the

  17. European energy security analysing the EU-Russia energy security regime in terms of interdependence theory

    CERN Document Server

    Esakova, Nataliya

    2012-01-01

    Nataliya Esakova performs an analysis of the interdependencies and the nature of cooperation between energy producing, consuming and transit countries focusing on the gas sector. For the analysis the theoretical framework of the interdependence theory by Robert O. Keohane and Joseph S. Nye and the international regime theory are applied to the recent developments within the gas relationship between the European Union and Russia in the last decade. The objective of the analysis is to determine, whether a fundamental regime change in terms of international regime theory is taking place, and, if so, which regime change explanation model in terms of interdependence theory is likely to apply.

  18. European energy security. Analysing the EU-Russia energy security regime in terms of interdependence theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esakova, Nataliya

    2012-07-01

    Nataliya Esakova performs an analysis of the interdependencies and the nature of cooperation between energy producing, consuming and transit countries focusing on the gas sector. For the analysis the theoretical framework of the interdependence theory by Robert O. Keohane and Joseph S. Nye and the international regime theory are applied to the recent developments within the gas relationship between the European Union and Russia in the last decade. The objective of the analysis is to determine, whether a fundamental regime change in terms of international regime theory is taking place, and, if so, which regime change explanation model in terms of interdependence theory is likely to apply. (orig.)

  19. Power without manpower: Forecasting labour demand for Estonian energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meriküll, Jaanika; Eamets, Raul; Humal, Katrin; Espenberg, Kerly

    2012-01-01

    As energy demand and prices continue to grow, oil shale might help mitigate the energy crisis—it can widely be found all over the world but so far has not been widely used. Estonia is unique in the world for producing a large majority of energy out of oil shale and has been set as an example in numerous papers covering oil shale deposits, technology etc. This paper is the first to analyse oil shale energy related workforce and provides scenario forecasts of the labour demand for the Estonian energy sector in 2010–2020. The contribution of the paper is twofold. First, the paper provides a valuable insight into oil shale energy related workforce, enabling to take into consideration the educational needs in countries where oil shale industry might be set up. Second, methodology-wise, the paper relates labour demand and supply to different scenarios of energy production capacities. The results illustrate problems related to aging of the workforce in energy production. If the existing trends continue in educational attainment in Estonia, there will be a serious shortage of high-skilled engineering and manufacturing specialists. Our method provides a simple yet reliable enough way to check for such problems early enough. - Highlights: ► This paper analyses oil shale energy related workforce and provides scenario forecasts. ► This is the first study to investigate the workforce related to oil shale energy production. ► The main workforce-related problem in the sector is ageing of the workforce. ► Workers immigrating to the sector during the Soviet times are at the retirement age. ► There will be a serious shortage of engineers for energy sector in the near future.

  20. Trends in Data Centre Energy Consumption under the European Code of Conduct for Data Centre Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Avgerinou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is recognised as one of the key challenges humankind is facing. The Information and Communication Technology (ICT sector including data centres generates up to 2% of the global CO2 emissions, a number on par to the aviation sector contribution, and data centres are estimated to have the fastest growing carbon footprint from across the whole ICT sector, mainly due to technological advances such as the cloud computing and the rapid growth of the use of Internet services. There are no recent estimations of the total energy consumption of the European data centre and of their energy efficiency. The aim of this paper is to evaluate, analyse and present the current trends in energy consumption and efficiency in data centres in the European Union using the data submitted by companies participating in the European Code of Conduct for Data Centre Energy Efficiency programme, a voluntary initiative created in 2008 in response to the increasing energy consumption in data centres and the need to reduce the related environmental, economic and energy supply security impacts. The analysis shows that the average Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE of the facilities participating in the programme is declining year after year. This confirms that voluntary approaches could be effective in addressing climate and energy issue.

  1. A review of Ghana’s energy sector national energy statistics and policy framework

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Asumadu-Sarkodie; Phebe Asantewaa Owusu

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a review of Ghana’s energy sector national energy statistics and policy framework is done to create awareness of the strategic planning and energy policies of Ghana’s energy sector that will serve as an informative tool for both local and foreign investors, help in national decision-making for the efficient development and utilization of energy resources. The review of Ghana’s energy sector policy is to answer the question, what has been done so far? And what is the way forward...

  2. Contribution to the european discussion on the energy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revol, H.; Valade, J.

    2001-01-01

    If no change occurs, the European Union will cover in 2020, 70% of its energy need by importation, for 50% today. This situation leads to a discussion on the energy dependence. In this context the European Commission provoked a discussion by publishing a ''green book'' on the european strategy concerning the energy supply. This document presents the point of view of the Senate Energy Study Group. (A.L.B.)

  3. Investment requirements in the energy sector and their financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, R.; Radtke, G.; Stoessel, R.

    1980-01-01

    The authors investigate the investment requirements of the energy economy, especially for the Federal Republic Germany, but also for parts of the world. Possibilities for financing are shown which can be considered as assured, under certain conditions. Included are the investments and the capital requirements for the fossil energy-carriers (coal, brown coal, oil, natural gas), for the electricity economy and for the regenerativ energy sources (e.g. tidal energy, wind, solar radiation). The last chapter deals with financing the necessary investments in the energy sector, considering the financing structure, financial problems of individual branches and the development of the credit volume. (orig.) [de

  4. Investment requirements in the energy sector and their financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, R; Radtke, G; Stoessel, R [Dresdner Bank A.G., Duesseldorf (Germany, F.R.)

    1980-01-01

    The authors investigate the investment requirements of the energy economy, especially for the Federal Republic Germany, but also for parts of the world. Possibilities for financing are shown which can be considered as assured, under certain conditions. Included are the investments and the capital requirements for the fossil energy-carriers (coal, brown coal, oil, natural gas), for the electricity economy and for the regenerativ energy sources (e.g. tidal energy, wind, solar radiation). The last chapter deals with financing the necessary investments in the energy sector, considering the financing structure, financial problems of individual branches and the development of the credit volume.

  5. Towards a European Energy Technology Policy - The European Strategic Energy Technology Plan (Set-Plan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, A.; Petric, H.; Peteves, E.

    2008-01-01

    The transition to a low carbon economy will take decades and affect the entire economy. There is a timely opportunity for investment in energy infrastructure. However, decisions to invest in technologies that are fully aligned with policy and society priorities do not necessarily come naturally, although it will profoundly affect the level of sustainability of the European energy system for decades to come. Technology development needs to be accelerated and prioritized at the highest level of the European policy agenda. This is the essence of the European Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan). The SET-Plan makes concrete proposals for action to establish an energy technology policy for Europe, with a new mind-set for planning and working together and to foster science for transforming energy technologies to achieve EU energy and climate change goals for 2020, and to contribute to the worldwide transition to a low carbon economy by 2050. This paper gives an overview of the SET-Plan initiative and highlights its latest developments. It emphasises the importance of information in support of decision-making for investing in the development of low carbon technologies and shows the first results of the technology mapping undertaken by the newly established Information System of the SET-Plan (SETIS).(author)

  6. Nuclear energy and opportunity to strengthen the sustainable electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles N, A. G.

    2016-09-01

    The beginning of electricity in Mexico was through the use and exploitation of natural resources; as the demand grew, more generation power plants were required with great capacity and at the same time the fuels used varied, although, oil continued to be the main fuel. At present, due to the effects of climate change, the Conference of the Parties has proposed to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels to give way to clean energy (wind, solar, geothermal, nuclear, etc.), which entails gradually modifying the energy matrix of the electricity sector. The National Development Plan and the National Electricity Sector Development Program, this coordinated by the Energy Secretariat in Mexico, establish policies to promote sustainable development, increasing electricity generation through clean energy sources, including nuclear energy. However, such plans are not accurate in the strategy to be followed to ensure compliance with the increased participation of nuclear energy. This article proposes a nuclear program for the Mexican electricity sector, under the terms of a State policy, aimed at crystallizing a sustainable electricity development 2015-2036; considering that the application to the electricity sector constitutes a representative and justified example of the incorporation of environmental aspects in decision processes for the preservation of the environment. In order to determine the quantity and type of reactors, as well as the number of nuclear power plants and increase of the installed capacity, the general planning scheme of the electric sector was used, taking as reference the modeling criteria of the WASP planning system. Finally, is concluded that the electricity generated by fission of radioactive elements is an opportunity to fulfill the commitments made by Mexico at COP 21 and to meet in an environmentally friendly way the energy requirement that our country needs. (Author)

  7. Energy policy instruments and technical change in the residential building sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beerepoot, W.M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The passing by the European Parliament of the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) in 2003 obliges all European member states to implement energy regulations for buildings based on the concept of energy performance by the year 2009 ultimately. Given the importance of the development of innovations in energy technology, and a transition to a sustainable energy supply system, it is necessary that policy instruments for energy conservation in the building sector stimulate the development and diffusion of innovations. This thesis contributes to knowledge about the content of energy performance policy and concludes that the effect of Dutch energy performance policy in encouraging innovation is limited. Energy efficiency improvements, by energy performance policy, seem to have come from the overall optimisation of all the energy related features of residential buildings. Insulation levels improved, although not spectacular. Efficiencies of heating technology improved, although this seems partly to be a result of the ongoing development that started in the 1980s. The efficiency of fans used for ventilation improved, as did the efficiency of all sorts of auxiliary devices needed in heating technology, as well as the efficiency of heat recovery in balanced ventilation systems. Although energy performance policy seems to have contributed to the optimisation of all energy related features of residential buildings, it did not cause a breakthrough of innovative technology such as solar thermal systems or heat pumps. The study of the innovation system of the Dutch construction industry identifies how the project-based nature of the construction industry is an obstacle to 'learning-rich' collaboration between the various stakeholders. The study contributes to the discussion about the impact of government policy for energy conservation in the building sector, in the context of climate change policy.

  8. Roadmap towards a competitive European energy market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    With the financial crisis evolving into a severe, global economic recession, there have been growing doubts over whether energy markets can continue to operate efficiently under present conditions or whether the shift to non-market mechanisms would be a better choice. This question remains an ongoing source of debate in the recently liberalised electricity sector. Textbook wisdom says that the market is the most efficient place to allocate financial means for investments. Therefore, during a period of a crisis, it should follow that we actually need more market mechanisms, not fewer, if we want to stimulate investments in an economically efficient way. Regulated electricity prices and nationalistic thinking will not help to solve Europe's electricity challenges with regards to either the generation or the transportation of electricity.

  9. Optimising the road to a low carbon competitive energy sector in Europe. An essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dril, A.W.N.

    2011-10-01

    In the strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy the European Commission stressed the urgency of far-reaching changes in energy production, use, and supply. The stated priorities are energy efficiency, integrated markets, energy security, innovation and external actions. In March 2011, an energy efficiency plan was proposed with measures leading to 20% efficiency improvement in 2020. The Commission also launched the Roadmap for a Low Carbon Economy in 2050. In December 2011, the European Commission launched its Energy Roadmap 2050. This paper will evaluate their optimality for the three basic goals: competitive, sustainable and secure. The key question addressed in this essay is: Do current and envisaged EU energy and climate policies allow for optimal introduction of new energy technologies towards a globally competitive, sustainable and secure energy system? The key findings are: (1) To ensure an affordable future energy supply and combat climate change, a global transition of the energy sector is needed. Europe has to make its choices in that global context. This process will take several decades and will be surrounded with many uncertainties; (2) Reinforcing and expanding the European emission trading scheme (ETS) to include other sectors and regions in coming decades is the preferred element in a robust regulatory framework. Stable and higher carbon prices are an essential condition for low carbon investment planning and many other Member State policies. When prices are high and stable the market will seek the most cost efficient mix; (3) Renewables and energy efficiency are important solutions for the long run. Assuming the ETS will be significantly strengthened overall EU targets and policies for renewable and efficiency beyond 2020 have to fit within the ETS framework; (4) If renewable energy and energy efficiency targets for separate MS and sectors are set, they need to be flexible in order to avoid suboptimal economic outcomes. After 2020 a

  10. Priority mitigation measures in non-energy sector in Kazakstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizina, S.V.; Pilifosova, O.V.; Gossen, E.F.

    1996-12-31

    Fulfilling the Commitments on UN FCCC through the U.S. Country Studies Program, Kazakstan has developed the national GHG Inventory, vulnerability and adaptation assessment and estimated the possibility of mitigation measures in certain sectors. Next step is developing National Climate Change Action Plan. That process includes such major steps as setting priorities in mitigation measures and technologies, their comprehensive evaluation, preparation implementation strategies, developing the procedure of incorporation of the National Action Plan into other development plans and programs. This paper presents programs and measures that can reduce GHG emissions in non-energy sector. Measures in land-use change and forestry, agriculture and coal mining are considered. Current situation in non-energy sector of Kazakstan is discussed. The amount of GHG emissions reduction and cost analysis presented in this paper was developed with the use of IPCC recommendations.

  11. The energy sector in Israel: The renewable energies place

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    The energy production, in Israel, is not sufficient to satisfy the country needs, that is perpetually growing. Today 96% of the energy consumption is imported, essentially with petroleum and coal. To reduce this energy dependence, the government encourages the scientific researches and innovations in the field of clean and renewable energies. The paper presents political and economical aspects of the management and the exploitation of the following energy resources, developed in Israel: fossil fuels with oil shales; solar energy; biomass; wind energy; geothermal energy and hydraulic energy. (A.L.B.)

  12. Energy Efficiency Tracking in Thai Manufacturing Sector by Decomposition Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongsapai Wongkot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of energy saving and changes in energy intensities in Thai manufacturing sector by Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index decomposition technique. This method includes three effects consists of the energy intensity effect, the structural effect and the effect of the economic growth on the energy consumption in Thailand by using the 25-year annual data from 1990 to 2014, carried out in four phases; (i before National Energy Conservation law, (ii during the effect of the law, (iii Transition period of the law from first to second version, and (iv during the effect of the law (No.2. We found that the most effective intensity effect is in the third phase due to the effect of the implementation of new energy efficient equipment from the second phase by enforcement of the law, especially in non-metallic sector, while the first phase illustrates the lowest intensity effect due to the energy conservation law had not been occurred. However, due to the highest economic growth of the country and change from agricultural to industrial development direction, the first phase presents the most effective structural effect, then this effect continuously decreased by time. We also conclude that the energy conservation law have direct effect to energy efficiency of the country however, strictly individual regulation which have target to enforce to energy intensive industries is still required for sustainable energy efficiency improvement.

  13. Economy, environment and energy: an application to the construction sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amarilla, Beatriz Cecilia

    1992-01-01

    This paper aims to study the relationships between energy, environment, economy and the construction sector. An economical evaluation of environmental benefits is presented, discussing different aspects about the environment and the impacts from the constructions. 10 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Building Resilience in Nigeria's Energy Sector for Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resilience is the capacity of a system to absorb disturbance and reorganize while undergoing change so as to still retain essentially the same function, structure, identity, and feedbacks. Incidentally, Nigeria's energy sector is the heart beat of the nation. This paper therefore analyses resilience building efforts in Nigeria's ...

  15. Forecasting long-term energy demand of Croatian transport sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukšec, Tomislav; Krajačić, Goran; Lulić, Zoran

    2013-01-01

    predictions for the Croatian transport sector are presented. Special emphasis is given to different influencing mechanisms, both legal and financial. The energy demand predictions presented in this paper are based on an end-use simulation model developed and tested with Croatia as a case study. The model...

  16. Industrial Sector Energy Efficiency Modeling (ISEEM) Framework Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karali, Nihan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Xu, Tengfang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-12-12

    The goal of this study is to develop a new bottom-up industry sector energy-modeling framework with an agenda of addressing least cost regional and global carbon reduction strategies, improving the capabilities and limitations of the existing models that allows trading across regions and countries as an alternative.

  17. Link between intermittent electrical energy sources and district heating sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo

    2016-01-01

    Energy has always been one of the key challenges in planning of societies' development worldwide. The COP conference in Paris in December 2015 has shown unprecedented mutual understanding of harmful consequences climate change can cause. Integrating power and heating sectors in an efficient way...

  18. Energy and Exergy Analysis of the Danish Industry Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Fabian; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian

    2015-01-01

    % to 56% in 2012. Industries with high-temperature processes, such as the cement and metal production sectors, present the highest exergy efficiencies but the lowest energy ones. The opposite conclusion is drawn for the food, paper and chemical industries. The exergy losses, which indicate the potential......A detailed analysis of the Danish industry is presented in this paper using the energy, exergy and embodied exergy methods. The 22 most energy-intensive process industries, which represent about 80% of the total primary energy use of the industry, were modelled and analysed in details for the years...... is not seen with the embodied exergy efficiency, which remains at around 29% for the Danish industry. This analysis shows that there are still large potentials to recover waste heat in most Danish industrial sectors and thus to increase their efficiencies....

  19. Energy-WEB. Greenhouse sector in a sustainable regional energy network. Starting paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Liere, J.; Van Wunnik, A.W.M.; Van der Burgt, M.J.; Van Oosten, H.J.

    2004-08-01

    The horticulture sector can make use of surplus heat, produced within the greenhouses, and supply the heat to several energy consuming parties (other greenhouse businesses, buildings, etc.). Thus, a local or regional web of suppliers and consumers starts. This report is a starting memo which should inspire the debate on a sustainable energy supply for the greenhouse sector in the Netherlands [nl

  20. Government regulation as an impetus for innovation: Evidence from energy performance regulation in the Dutch residential building sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beerepoot, Milou; Beerepoot, Niels

    2007-01-01

    The recent implementation of energy performance policy as a way to tackle energy consumption in the building sector in Europe draws attention to the effect it has on the development and diffusion of energy-saving innovations. According to innovation system literature, government regulation through norms and standards is one of the factors stimulating innovation. This paper concentrates on the role of stricter government regulation as an incentive to innovation in the Dutch residential building sector. Innovation in this sector is predominantly a process of applying incremental modifications to comply with new and stricter government regulations and standards. Energy performance policy in its current shape will therefore not contribute to the diffusion of really new innovation in energy techniques for residential buildings in the Netherlands. If diffusion of really new innovation is an explicit aim of energy performance policy then the European wide introduction of this scheme needs reconsideration

  1. The OEEC European Nuclear Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-07-15

    The European Nuclear Energy Agency (ENEA) was set up in December 1957 as part of the OEEC to develop nuclear collaboration in Western Europe. The promotion of joint undertakings is one of the most important functions of ENEA, and why one of the first committees of the Agency to be set up was its Top Level Group on Co-operation in the Reactor Field. International collaboration in joint undertakings enables resources in effort, equipment and money to be pooled for the maximum benefit of the countries participating, and is the only way whereby a sufficiently wide range of research possibilities can be covered in a reasonable time. Examples fro such projects are: 1) Halden project - a joint three-year project to exploit the boiling heavy water reactor built by the Norwegian Institute for Atom energy at Halden; 2) Dragon Project - to investigate the possibilities of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors centered on the construction and operation, by an international team, of an experimental 20 MWt high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (Dragon) at the UK Atomic Energy Establishment at Winfrith; 3) Eurochemic - with a principle objective to construct an experimental plant for the treatment of used uranium fuel from reactors in the participating countries; 4) Nuclear Shops. In addition to promoting joint undertakings, a function of ENEA is to encourage scientific and technical collaboration between national research organizations. Co-operation has been facilitated in the areas od nuclear data, food irradiation, environment radioactivity, training, information and nuclear legislation.

  2. The OEEC European Nuclear Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1961-01-01

    The European Nuclear Energy Agency (ENEA) was set up in December 1957 as part of the OEEC to develop nuclear collaboration in Western Europe. The promotion of joint undertakings is one of the most important functions of ENEA, and why one of the first committees of the Agency to be set up was its Top Level Group on Co-operation in the Reactor Field. International collaboration in joint undertakings enables resources in effort, equipment and money to be pooled for the maximum benefit of the countries participating, and is the only way whereby a sufficiently wide range of research possibilities can be covered in a reasonable time. Examples fro such projects are: 1) Halden project - a joint three-year project to exploit the boiling heavy water reactor built by the Norwegian Institute for Atom energy at Halden; 2) Dragon Project - to investigate the possibilities of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors centered on the construction and operation, by an international team, of an experimental 20 MWt high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (Dragon) at the UK Atomic Energy Establishment at Winfrith; 3) Eurochemic - with a principle objective to construct an experimental plant for the treatment of used uranium fuel from reactors in the participating countries; 4) Nuclear Shops. In addition to promoting joint undertakings, a function of ENEA is to encourage scientific and technical collaboration between national research organizations. Co-operation has been facilitated in the areas od nuclear data, food irradiation, environment radioactivity, training, information and nuclear legislation

  3. Macroeconomic and sectoral effects of energy taxation in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppl, A.; Kratena, K.; Pichl, C.; Schebeck, F.; Wueger, M.; Schleicher, S.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of energy taxation on the Austrian economy are analyzed. Simulations are carried out with a linked input output macromodel. The macroeconomic effects of an energy tax on economic growth, employment, the rate of inflation (change in the consumer price index), the budget deficit and the current account will be explained, as well as the sectoral impact on differenT industries. 7 tabs., 7 refs

  4. Cogeneration – development and prospect in Polish energy sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matuszewska Dominika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Next 10-15 years are crucial for condition of Polish energy sector in light of challenges arising mainly from increasing demand for electric energy, need of reducing greenhouse gases emissions and shutdowns of old units. In this situation cogeneration can be one of the most rational way to meet those circumstances. This paper analyzes present development of cogeneration in Poland and its prospect for future.

  5. Overcoming the energy efficiency gap in India's household sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, B.S.

    2003-01-01

    Energy efficiency generates substantial financial savings while simultaneously improving environmental quality. Despite these benefits, developing countries like India are missing out on energy efficiency opportunities and instead concentrating on increased energy production. This paper identifies the efficient technologies in the household sector in India, and details their benefits to the consumer as well as to the society. It identifies the barriers that prevent the government from achieving its energy efficiency goals, analyses programs that addresses these barriers, and explores the creation of an institutional mechanism

  6. Hydrogen energy for the transportation sector in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zong Qiangmao

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier for providing a clean, reliable and affordable energy supply. This paper provides a blueprint for the hydrogen energy in the transportation sector in the future of China. This paper is divided into three parts. The first part answers this question: why is China interested in hydrogen energy? The second part describes the possibility of a hydrogen fuel cell engine and a hydrogen internal-combustion engine in the transportation in China in the near future. The final part describes the production of hydrogen in China. (author)

  7. Assessment of terrorist threats to the Canadian energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shull, A. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Norman Paterson School of International Affairs]|[Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Faculty of Law

    2006-03-15

    A critical terrorist threat assessment of Canadian energy systems was presented, as well as an analysis of integrated continental systems. Recent responses to heightened threat levels on the part of the Canadian government have ranged from information sharing to emergency preparedness and disaster mitigation strategies. This paper examined threats that the energy sector has traditionally encountered and argued that response capabilities do not match current threats posed by terrorism. The potential of a terrorist attack on the Canadian energy infrastructure is significant and has been referred to as a possible target by terrorist organizations. Actions taken by the Canadian government in response to heightened threat levels were examined. A review of energy industry security measures included outlines of: the natural gas industry, the electric sector, and nuclear reactors and waste. It was noted that not all elements of the critical energy infrastructure share the same level of risk. Recommendations included increased information sharing between government agencies and the private sector; resiliency standards in densely populated areas; and insulating the energy grid against a cascading blackout through the use of DC rather than AC lines. 59 refs.

  8. Assessment of terrorist threats to the Canadian energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shull, A.

    2006-01-01

    A critical terrorist threat assessment of Canadian energy systems was presented, as well as an analysis of integrated continental systems. Recent responses to heightened threat levels on the part of the Canadian government have ranged from information sharing to emergency preparedness and disaster mitigation strategies. This paper examined threats that the energy sector has traditionally encountered and argued that response capabilities do not match current threats posed by terrorism. The potential of a terrorist attack on the Canadian energy infrastructure is significant and has been referred to as a possible target by terrorist organizations. Actions taken by the Canadian government in response to heightened threat levels were examined. A review of energy industry security measures included outlines of: the natural gas industry, the electric sector, and nuclear reactors and waste. It was noted that not all elements of the critical energy infrastructure share the same level of risk. Recommendations included increased information sharing between government agencies and the private sector; resiliency standards in densely populated areas; and insulating the energy grid against a cascading blackout through the use of DC rather than AC lines. 59 refs

  9. The reform of the European energy tax directive: Exploring potential economic impacts in the EU27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocchi, Paola; Serrano, Mònica; Roca, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the effect that the Energy Tax Directive reform proposed in 2011 would have, if implemented, on the level of prices in the different sectors of the 27 countries of the European Union. We apply a multiregional and multisectoral model of trade flows that takes into account all the intersectoral and intercountry interdependences in the production processes. Using the World Input–Output Database we perform two different simulations. The first one considers the tax changes proposed by the reform; the second one shows the impact the reform would have entailed if it were applied also to sectors belonging to the European Trade System. The main finding of the first simulation shows that the new energy tax regime would have had a low economic cost in terms of impact on prices (less than 1% in all the countries). So, the concerns about competitiveness do not find empirical support in our results, suggesting the need for further analyses to find out the reasons that caused the failure of a reform that was an important step to introduce a taxation explicitly linked to CO 2 emissions. The second simulation, however, leads to strongly different results, pointing out the relevance of maintaining significant economic incentives to reduce carbon emissions for the European Trade System sectors, by improving the emission market performance or by applying carbon taxation also to these sectors. - Highlights: • We analyze the reform of the European energy tax proposed in 2011, rejected in 2012. • We simulate what potential economic effect this reform would have if implemented. • We find that this reform would have weak effects on prices in all 27 EU countries. • We study the effect of the reform if applied to European emission market sectors. • In this second scenario, the economic impacts would have been much stronger

  10. Appraisal of the European Commission's Energy Roadmap 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeus, L.

    2012-01-01

    What is the European energy strategy for 2050? How different is it from the 2020 energy strategy? What are the technology options? What are the policy options? The European Commission provided a first answer to these questions in its Energy Roadmap 2050. This article gives an appraisal of that answer based on the recommendations we made during the preparation of the roadmap.

  11. Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size and Expectations for Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles; Fuller, Merrian C.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Peters, Jane S.; McRae, Marjorie; Albers, Nathaniel; Lutzenhiser, Susan; Spahic, Mersiha

    2010-03-22

    The energy efficiency services sector (EESS) is poised to become an increasingly important part of the U.S. economy. Climate change and energy supply concerns, volatile and increasing energy prices, and a desire for greater energy independence have led many state and national leaders to support an increasingly prominent role for energy efficiency in U.S. energy policy. The national economic recession has also helped to boost the visibility of energy efficiency, as part of a strategy to support economic recovery. We expect investment in energy efficiency to increase dramatically both in the near-term and through 2020 and beyond. This increase will come both from public support, such as the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) and significant increases in utility ratepayer funds directed toward efficiency, and also from increased private spending due to codes and standards, increasing energy prices, and voluntary standards for industry. Given the growing attention on energy efficiency, there is a concern among policy makers, program administrators, and others that there is an insufficiently trained workforce in place to meet the energy efficiency goals being put in place by local, state, and federal policy. To understand the likelihood of a potential workforce gap and appropriate response strategies, one needs to understand the size, composition, and potential for growth of the EESS. We use a bottom-up approach based upon almost 300 interviews with program administrators, education and training providers, and a variety of EESS employers and trade associations; communications with over 50 sector experts; as well as an extensive literature review. We attempt to provide insight into key aspects of the EESS by describing the current job composition, the current workforce size, our projections for sector growth through 2020, and key issues that may limit this growth.

  12. Structure of financing investments in the energy sector

    OpenAIRE

    Kowal Barbara; Ranosz Robert; Sobczyk Wiktoria

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the issues of financing investments in the fuel and energy sector. The manner of financing business activities of every company depends on the decisions made by the management board, which need to take into consideration the effective striving for optimal level of the capital cost. The capital raised by the companies from the aforesaid sector may be in the form of equity or outside capital. This study depicts such sources of capital as bank loans a...

  13. Danish energy-sector exports. Products and consulting services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolter, H.C.

    2000-06-01

    Danish Energy Agency has previously carried out studies of Danish energy-sector exports. The latest results were published in the report, Energisektorens eksport. Produkter og raadgivning. Danish Energy Agency, September 1998. The present survey is an update of the earlier studies, and includes 1998 exports. As previously, the study, carried out in cooperation with the Confederation of Danish Industries and the Danish Council of Consulting Architects and Engineers, is based on questionnaires sent to relevant companies. In addition, information has been obtained from companies that do not belong to these organisations. On the basis of the answers received, 58 Danish companies exported products to a value of approximately DKK 16,000 million, and 22 consulting firms exported consulting services to a value of approximately DKK 370 million. These exports of approximately DKK 16.5 billion accounted for 5% of all Danish exports in 1998. In comparison with 1996, energy-sector exports have risen by more than 40% in a period in which Danish exports in general have risen by an average of 8%. Energy sector exports provide employment for more than 18,000 persons in Denmark - approximately 17,500 employees in companies that export products, and approximately 600 persons in consulting firms. To this must be added a presumably significantly larger number of persons employed by sub-suppliers to the above companies computed by value, 80% of the exports come from relatively few companies, i.e. 13 companies with products, and five offering consulting services. Energy-sector exports fall within the following product areas: 1) Wind turbines (25%). 2) District heating and combined heat and power (CHP) (21%). 3) Energy savings and control (20%). 4) Oil and natural gas (13%). 5) Electricity plants and power supply (13%). 6) Other (8%). 67% of the exports go to Western Europe, 18% to Asia, 7% to Eastern and Central Europe, and 8% to other parts of the world. (EHS)

  14. Energy consumptions per sector; Les consommations d'energie par secteur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document presents the energy consumption data of France per energy type and sector of use in the form of tables and graphics for the last decade and sometimes before: 1 - residential and tertiary sector: energy consumption per energy source, energy consumption per use (coal, heavy and domestic fuels, natural gas, LPG (butane, propane), electricity), comparison of the share of each energy source between 1973 and 2003, 20 years of space heating data in main dwellings (1982-2002), district heating networks from 1987 to 1997; 2 - transportation sector: fuel consumption of individual cars in France (1990-2003, 1990-2002, 1990-2001, 1987-1999), some indicators about the energy consumption in transports in France (2000-2001); 3 - industry sector: consumption of fuel substitutes in the cement industry in 2001, importance and limitations. (J.S.)

  15. A look at the European domestic and foreign energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesourne, J.

    2008-01-01

    After having defined the main characteristics of energy considered as a good (a private good, a product of first necessity, a redistributed product, a strategic good), the author presents the actors of the European energy policy: European authorities, member state governments, firms (operators and big consumers), and households. He presents the European domestic energy policy which comprises three main themes: the creation of a domestic market, the taking of government commitments for 2020 into account, and the emission trading scheme. He identifies and comments the three main objectives of the European foreign energy policy: supply security, struggle against climate change, and support to the less developed countries

  16. Why is energy use rising in the freight sector?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mintz, M.; Vyas, A.D.

    1991-01-01

    Trends in transportation sector energy use and carbon dioxide emissions are analyzed with an emphasis on three freight modes -- rail, truck, and marine. A recent set of energy use projections is presented and freight mode energy characteristics are discussed. Transportation sector energy use, which nearly doubled between 1960 and 1985, is projected to grow more slowly during the period 1985 endash 2010. Most of the growth is projected to come from non-personal modes (freight and commercial air). Trends in freight mode energy intensities are discussed and a variety of factors behind these trends are analyzed. Rail and marine modes improved their energy intensities during sudden fuel price rises of the 1970s. Though there is room for further technological improvement, long power plant life cycles preclude rapid penetration of new technologies. Thus, energy intensities in these modes are more likely to improve through operational changes. Because of relatively stable fuel prices, the energy share of truck operating expenses is likely to remain low. Coupled with increasing labor costs, this portends only modest improvements in truck energy efficiency over the next two decades

  17. Serbian oil sector: A new energy policy regulatory framework and development strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karovic Maricic, Vesna; Danilovic, Dusan; Lekovic, Branko

    2012-01-01

    Serbia has established a great part of new legislative and institutional framework as a basis for all energy sub-sectors' development in compliance with EU energy acquis. Main objectives of Serbian energy policy outlined in the new Energy Law are focused to increasing the energy supply security, energy efficiency, competitiveness of the energy market, use of renewable energy sources and environmental protection. Further steps of Serbia toward full EU membership concerning the new energy policy regulatory framework involve implementing and enforcing legislation. Besides considering the issue of Serbian energy policy and degree of its framework's alignment with the EU acquis, this paper provides an overview of new development strategies in the oil sector. The aim of Gazprom neft, a majority owner of the Petroleum industry of Serbia, is to increase crude oil production to 3 million tonnes, refining and sales volume of petroleum products to 5 million tonnes by 2020. Strategic development projects in crude oil and petroleum products transportation are: petroleum product pipeline construction in Serbia and Pan-European oil pipeline. The basic prerequisites for oil supply security, regarding the future high dependency of Serbian economy on imported oil, are establishment of the emergency oil stocks and diversification of supply sources. - Highlight: ► New energy policy regulatory framework significantly complied with EU acquis. ► Full EU membership requires implementing and enforcing new energy legislation. ► NIS-Gazpromneft has defined ambitious oil sector's development programmes to 2020. ► Supply security requires mandatory oil stocks and supply source diversification.

  18. Global warming combat policies in energy sector of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimi, N.; Karbassi, A. R.; Abbaspour, M.

    2002-01-01

    Among the efforts to slow the potential for climate change are measures to reduce emissions of CO 2 from energy use, and promote long-term storage of carbon in forests and soils. Important environmental changes due to climate change and global warming pose potentially significant risks to humans, social systems, and natural world. Many uncertainties remain regarding precise timing,magnitude, and regional patterns of climate change and the extent to which mankind and nature can adapt to any changes. Estimating technical / economical / environmental potentials for reducing CO 2 emission in energy sector and preventing of global warming is one of the main activities, which have been performed for the first time in Iran. By use of 26 factors, model on global warming combat policies in energy sector of Iran in long-medium and short term determine decreasing amount of CO 2 emission. The results and also method of providing this model will be described in this paper

  19. Energy - an overview of issues in power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, Y.S.; Anil Kumar, B.

    1998-01-01

    Economic growth is critically dependent on energy which is a key input in all forms of products. With the ecological and environmental concerns for sustainable use of energy, much emphasis is being laid on demand side management, energy efficiency and conservation and alternative sources of energy. This is being witnessed in the long term trends of energy - gross domestic product (GDP) elasticity, which has declined due to changing technology especially for the industrial sector whose share is comparatively reducing in the overall energy consumption. This paper examines mainly the issues involved in meeting the growing demand for electricity, most important form of energy. These issues have been classified as Technical, Financial, Institutional, Policy, Political and International. Each issue is not mutually exclusive of the other and therefore calls for an integrated and holistic approach while addressing them. (author)

  20. Energy markets and European Integration: The World Energy Council role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.

    2002-01-01

    Energy market reform brings many benefits. Central and East Europe's challenge is to establish such markets when, at list in the case of electricity, the established market economies are still wrestling with how to apply competitive principles to this market. Design challenges include the natural monopoly elements within the electricity supply chain and the fact that it is, in practical terms, as essential social service. There is no one single model suitable to all markets at all stages of development. At the same time, there is a need for sustainable energy pricing, which means prices should cover all costs, with transparent and time-limited subsidies bringing the afford ability gap. Cross-border integration extends the benefits available from market reform by overcoming constraints at the national level and by broadening the geographical limits of a market. The World Energy Council works with its Central and East European members to analyse, understand and meet these challenges. (author)

  1. The European energy community, it is for now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andoura, S.; Buzek, J.; Delors, J.; Vitorino, A.

    2013-01-01

    Given that the European Council (on 22. May) mentioned the stakes involved for a common European energy policy, and that France's president has juts made another call to set up a European energy community, it is time to properly identify the main challenges that have to be met for such a project. The energy transition, that requires a deep change in our ways of producing, transporting and using energy, could be the basis of this new common policy. This new policy may follow 3 axis: first achieving the integration of a common energy market that will simulate the competitiveness of the European energy operators, secondly the security of supply implies a diversification of energy sources that could be reached through a stronger European solidarity, and thirdly a better cooperation between states for coordinating the construction of new infrastructures

  2. Energy efficiency and restructuring of the Brazilian power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Martino Jannuzzi, Gilberto [State University of Campinas, Sao Paulo, (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    Since the early nineties Brazil has initiated a program of reforms in its electric sector which includes utility privatization, de-verticalization. The main objectives were to promote a market-oriented energy industry attractive to private investments. This has led to the loss of sponsorship for the public-interest programs formerly undertaken by the state utilities. In particular, of significant concern are the programs for promotion of energy efficiency, renewable energy technologies, rural electrification and environmental protection. In the midst of the privatization effort, the National Agency for Electrical Energy ANEEL was created (end of 1997). One of the tasks of the regulatory agency is to provide funds and incentives to energy conservation. In this paper we review the role of ANEEL in promoting energy efficiency investments in the context of a market-oriented sector, its limitations and prospects. [Spanish] Desde principios de los anos noventa Brasil ha iniciado un programa de reformas en su sector electrico que incluye la privatizacion del servicio electrico y la desverticalizacion. Los objetivos principales eran promover una industria de la energia orientada comercialmente de la energia electrica, atractiva a las inversiones privadas. Esto ha conducido a la perdida de patrocinio de los programas de interes publico emprendidos antes por las empresas electricas del estado. En particular, de preocupacion significativa estan los programas para la promocion del rendimiento energetico, de las tecnologias de la energia renovable, de la Electrificacion rural y de la proteccion del medio ambiente. En medio del esfuerzo de la privatizacion, la agencia nacional para la energia electrica ANEEL fue creada (finales de 1997). Una de las tareas de la agencia reguladora es proporcionar fondos e incentivos a la conservacion de energia. En este trabajo repasamos el papel de ANEEL en promover inversiones del rendimiento energetico en el contexto de un sector orientado

  3. The market of natural gas for the power plant sector under the obligation of CO{sub 2} reduction. A model supported analysis of the European energy market; Der Erdgasmarkt fuer den Kraftwerkssektor unter CO{sub 2}-Minderungsverpflichtungen. Eine modellgestuetzte Analyse des europaeischen Energiemarktes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlwitz, Holger

    2007-02-12

    The contribution under consideration describes the development of a certificate market model for natural gas, electricity and carbon dioxide for the analysis of the significance of the natural gas market for power stations under the obligation of the reduction of carbon dioxide. The author of this contribution develops the integrated PERSEUS EEM model. Thus, strategic questions in the European energy sector can be analyzed quantitatively by means of the multi periodical linear optimization. Russia, Algeria and Norway dominate in the offer of natural gas in Europe. The use of gas-fired power stations is the most important strategy for the reduction of the emissions of carbon dioxide. The comparison of the generation of current from natural gas for the scenario EuETS with the scenario NoETS shows a higher generation of electricity from natural gas in the scenario EuETS. Within the time period of consideration, France, Great Britain, Poland and Czech Republic are the largest supplier of CO{sub 2} emission trading in the scenario EuETS. With this model, substantial fundamental connections of the markets for natural gas, electricity and CO{sub 2} certificate could be analyzed simultaneously for the first time.

  4. The energy sector abroad. Part 5. Norwegian energy sector large exporter of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gelder, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Some facts about the Norwegian natural gas and oil industry are presented. In 1995 the industries took 12.5% of GNP and no less than 47.6% of export revenues. The use of natural gas in Norway is low. In 1996 Norway exported 37.9 billion m 3 of natural gas. It is planned to double that volume within the next 10 years. Therefore, a strategic alliance between two major foreign competitors (Gasunie in the Netherlands and Gazprom in the Russian Federation) was not met with enthusiasm. The three most important companies in the Norwegian oil and gas industry are Statoil, Norsk Hydro, and Saga Petroleum. Overall turnover of the sector in 1994 was 40.6 billion Dutch guilders. Some 17,500 people are directly employed by the sector. 5 ills., 5 tabs

  5. Potential of energy savings in the hotel sector in Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Yahya [Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Mustafa, Mairna [Department of Sustainable Tourism, Queen Rania' s Institute of Tourism and Heritage, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Al-Mashaqbah, Shireen [International Office, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Mashal, Kholoud [Department of Land Management and Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Mohsen, Mousa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan)

    2008-11-15

    This paper presents some insights into Jordan's energy consumption in the tourist accommodation sector. The results of a recent survey on environmental performance in the tourist accommodation sector in Jordan were used to evaluate energy conservation in hotels. A survey was designed and distributed to hotels' managers and departments' supervisors in order to understand the environmental performance in the tourist accommodation sector in Jordan during the period 10-17 August 2006. Also some field visits were conducted to fully understand hotels interaction regarding the environment, in addition to help interpreting the results of the survey. The study is limited to all classified hotels in Jordan. It was found that lighting hotels' main building and outside areas, and air conditioning consume more electricity compared to other departments. The results show that few classified hotels already installed energy saving equipments, though, it was noticed that managers of one star hotels were not really willing to make such changes in their hotels, on the other hand, other classified hotels (2-5 star hotels) have shown a high willingness to make changes in their hotels to reduce the consumption of different types of energy. Hotel's classification played a significant role in explaining variations in most of the results, particularly when it comes to long-term investments to reduce energy consumption by using energy efficient appliances. Five and four star hotels were the most hotels willing to use energy efficient appliances to reduce energy consumption. The study suggested some strategies to help reduce the negative impacts of high energy consumption in hotels. These strategies include better insulation, and enhanced insulation for the hot water reticulation system. Moreover, enhancing and increasing the level of awareness among all hoteliers through a directed and well-designed campaign. Also offer interest free loans; and activate precise

  6. Potential of energy savings in the hotel sector in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Yahya; Mustafa, Mairna; Al-Mashaqbah, Shireen; Mashal, Kholoud; Mohsen, Mousa

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents some insights into Jordan's energy consumption in the tourist accommodation sector. The results of a recent survey on environmental performance in the tourist accommodation sector in Jordan were used to evaluate energy conservation in hotels. A survey was designed and distributed to hotels' managers and departments' supervisors in order to understand the environmental performance in the tourist accommodation sector in Jordan during the period 10-17 August 2006. Also some field visits were conducted to fully understand hotels interaction regarding the environment, in addition to help interpreting the results of the survey. The study is limited to all classified hotels in Jordan. It was found that lighting hotels' main building and outside areas, and air conditioning consume more electricity compared to other departments. The results show that few classified hotels already installed energy saving equipments, though, it was noticed that managers of one star hotels were not really willing to make such changes in their hotels, on the other hand, other classified hotels (2-5 star hotels) have shown a high willingness to make changes in their hotels to reduce the consumption of different types of energy. Hotel's classification played a significant role in explaining variations in most of the results, particularly when it comes to long-term investments to reduce energy consumption by using energy efficient appliances. Five and four star hotels were the most hotels willing to use energy efficient appliances to reduce energy consumption. The study suggested some strategies to help reduce the negative impacts of high energy consumption in hotels. These strategies include better insulation, and enhanced insulation for the hot water reticulation system. Moreover, enhancing and increasing the level of awareness among all hoteliers through a directed and well-designed campaign. Also offer interest free loans; and activate precise standards and specifications

  7. Measuring the efficiency of energy-intensive industries across European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makridou, Georgia; Andriosopoulos, Kostas; Doumpos, Michael; Zopounidis, Constantin

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the energy efficiency trends of five energy-intensive industries in 23 European Union (EU) countries over the period 2000–2009. In particular, the performance of the construction, electricity, manufacturing, mining and quarrying, and transport sectors is examined. The analysis is based on Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) combined with the Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI), which allows for distinctions between efficiency and technology changes over time. At the second stage of the analysis, cross-classified multilevel modelling is applied to analyse the main drivers behind efficiency performance using a number of sector and country characteristics. Based on DEA results, an overall improvement in efficiency is observed in all sectors over the period. The decomposition of the MPI indicates that technology change is primarily responsible for the improvements achieved in most sectors. The results obtained by the cross-classified model show, among other things, that the high electricity prices, energy taxes, and market share of the largest generator in the electricity market have a negative effect on industrial energy efficiency. - Highlights: • Analysis of energy efficiency and trends of industrial sectors in EU. • Combination of non-parametric frontier models and multilevel explanatory analysis. • Examination of the drivers of energy efficiency. • Industrial energy efficiency performance is mainly driven by technological improvement.

  8. Renewable energy and energy efficiency in liberalized European electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlgemuth, Norbert

    2000-01-01

    Given the projected growth in global energy demand, renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) play a crucial role in the attainment of the environmental dimension of sustainable development. Policy mechanisms to promote RE and EE have been justified on the rationale of market failure, which prevents price signals alone from being sufficient to induce consumers to implement the socially optimal level. The paper shows driving forces for increasing competition in the electricity supply industry and discusses the implication of electricity industry liberalisation on RE/EE activities. Policies of the European Commission to promote RE/EE are presented, including a more detailed description of the experience made in the United Kingdom. Conclusions are that the new market structure may be too short sighted to stimulate RE and EE activities and that the design of policies should be compatible with the new market-orientated structure of the electricity industry. If implemented properly, and compatible with the competitive market organisation, electricity supply liberalisation could pave the way for 'sustainable electricity' in the European Union. (Author)

  9. Microinstallations Based on Renewable Energy Sources in the Construction Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzak, Lucjan

    2017-10-01

    The focus of this paper is on the status and prognoses of the use of microinstallations based on renewable energy sources to supply heat and power. The technologies that have been important in Europe and Poland for microgeneration of electricity include photovoltaic systems, micro wind turbines and co-generation systems. Solar collectors, heat pumps and biomass have also been used to generate heat. Microinstallations for renewable energy sources represent the initial point and the foundation for the development of micro networks, intelligent networks and the whole prosumer energy sector.

  10. Cultural Economy. The economic impact of the cultural sector from a European perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Colombo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Culture is playing an increasingly important role in the economic development of industrialised countries. Thus, the management of large cultural events and the relationship between cultural management and cultural policies will be key elements in the development of the so-called cultural economy. This article looks at the concept of cultural economy, in terms of the appearance of the idea and the different European methodological positions. The case of the Berlin International Film Festival is taken as an example to show the importance of cultural management with regard to economic development of the sector. This case study also allows for the analysis of the increasingly complex forms of cultural management adopted, as well as their effects on the regulation of the cultural market and their links to other basic economic sectors in urban development.

  11. European Uunion Energy Security and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nodari A. Simonia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the retrospective of relations between Russia, USA and EU in the sphere of energy security, as well as their interaction regarding the current political crisis in the Ukraine. Particular attention is paid to the evolution of the key actors'positions and the development of their relations within the framework of the regulatory regimes established by the most significant agreements in the energy sphere. In conclusion the authors claim that what they say in their article not only does substantially reinforce the arguments set forth by Professor Giuseppe Guarino, who argues about the negative consequences caused by the dictatorship of the Brussels's bureaucracy within the EU, but also inflicts another blow on the Maastricht Treaty and the Treaty of Lisbon in terms of external policy and trade, since the both Treaties were designed to convert the EU in a real competitor of the United States in the then forming multipolar World. The Brussel's bureaucracy, having turned into a dutiful instrument of the US geopolitical strategy, hindered the movement of the EU in that direction, while its dictatorship in energy security aggravates the crisis situation of the EU, almost pushing the EU to the brink of collapse and disintegration. We have lately witnessed an evolving and growing phenomenon of the so called "Euroscepticism". The results of the Europarliament elections in late May, 2014, were a graphic demonstration of the symptoms of this alarming for the EU disease, when the anti-EU parties in the four out 22 EU countries won the elections (France, United Kingdom, Denmark, and Greece Those results, regardless of the panic headlines in mass media and statements like "shocking" or "earthquake" made by some politicians, were not able to significantly affect the nature of the European Parliament, though they can significantly complicate its work. This is so far the first "alarming bell" tolling for the EU.

  12. Public contracts in the Dutch energy sector. A strategic investigation with regard to normalisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Feen, E.J.; Maas, P.J.J.

    1995-01-01

    A number of strategic investigations is carried out to determine if and to what extent normalization of public contracts can support the position of the Dutch businesses and industry in the European market. The strategic investigation in this report is limited to clusters within the Dutch energy utilities' sector concerning the production, transportation and distribution of electricity and heat, and the distribution of natural gas in the Netherlands. The results of this report can support those companies that will acquire orders via public contracts in the future; companies that wish to continue existing relations with tender services, if they will change to public contracts; and tender services that will have to put their orders via public contracts.Relevant European guidelines and accompanying procedures are outlined. The economic interest of the total Dutch energy sector and the different energy clusters in the Netherlands is discussed. Also attention is paid to the process of normalization, the role of standards and other technical documents regarding the guidelines Public Contracts. An inventory of available standards and conceptual standards is given for each energy cluster. Finally, an indication is given of the actual compliance of the guidelines. 5 figs., 4 tabs., 16 appendices

  13. Energy Policy and Long Term Energy Demand in Croatian Households Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puksec, T.; Duic, N.

    2011-01-01

    Households sector in Croatia represents one of the largest consumers of energy today with around 75,75PJ, which is almost 29% of Croatia's final energy demand. Considering this consumption, implementing different mechanisms that would lead to improvements in energy efficiency in this sector seems relevant. In order to plan future energy systems it is important to know future possibilities and needs regarding energy demand for different sectors. Through this paper long term energy demand projections for Croatian households sector will be shown with a special emphasis on different mechanisms, both financial, legal but also technological that will influence future energy demand scenarios. It is important to see how these mechanisms influence, positive or negative, on future energy demand and which mechanism would be most influential. Energy demand predictions in this paper are based upon bottom-up approach model which combines and process large number of input data. The Model will be compared to Croatian national Energy Strategy and certain difference will be presented. One of the major conclusions shown in this paper is significant possibilities for energy efficiency improvements and lower energy demand in the future, based on careful and rational energy planning. Different financial, legal and technological mechanisms can lead to significant savings in the households sector which also leads to lesser greenhouse gas emissions and lower Croatian dependence on foreign fossil fuels. (author)

  14. N.6 report realized for the economical Affairs Commission on the law project, adopted by the National Assembly after urgency declaration, relative to the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poniatowski, L.

    2006-10-01

    This law project concerns the organization of the french energy sector and the definition of the public utilities. After a presentation of the juridical environment of the european energy sector, the author shows, in the framework of the world energy situation, that the evolution of the juridical aspects of Gaz de France answers a real necessity. He then presents the initial law project dispositions, the modifications of the National Assembly and the amendment of the commission. (A.L.B.)

  15. Norway in a liberalized European energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, Finn Roar; Golombek, Rolf; Rosendahl, Knut Einar; Kittelsen, Sverre A.C.

    2000-01-01

    The authors study the short-term effects of a comprehensive liberalization of the gas and power markets in Europe. The analysis is based on a statically applied general equilibrium model which gives an overall and consistent treatment of the energy markets in Europe. The model preserves the structural features in the production, transport and consumption of gas and electricity in Europe, as well as the new competitive situation arising from the liberalization. It is found that the liberalization leads to a strong fall in the price of electricity. The fall in price reflects increased competition and that idle capacity in the power sector is used to increase the production of electricity. In comparison with the real observations in 1996 (the basis year of the model) the price to the end-user is cut in half. The liberalization also leads to a fall in the price of gas. The price fall reflects in part increased competition, in part the fact that falling prise of electricity reduces the demand for gas. However, the price reduction (in per cent) is not as great as for electricity. The model is also used to study the effects in Norway of increased gas production when the gas is either used in increased gas power production in Norway, or is exported. The main conclusion is that (1) the total emission of carbon dioxide goes down in Western Europe, (2) the reduction is greatest if the gas is burned as gas power in Norway

  16. Renewable energy stocks and risk : (systematic risk factors in the renewable energy sector)

    OpenAIRE

    Strømme, Janne

    2016-01-01

    The renewable energy sector is an industry that expects tremendously growth in years to come. This opens interesting investment opportunities for investors and poses challenges for government and legislators as to how to best support the change to a low-carbon emission energy mix. In this study, we have explored the risk and returns characteristics for stocks, focusing on macroeconomic systematic risk. The stock returns from renewable energy sector was regressed on the macroeconomic variables...

  17. Potentials for energy savings and long term energy demand of Croatian households sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pukšec, Tomislav; Vad Mathiesen, Brian; Duić, Neven

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Long term energy demand of Croatian households sector has been modelled. ► Developed model can describe the whole households sector. ► Main modes include heating, cooling, electrical appliances, cooking and hot water. ► Different scenarios regarding future energy demand are presented and discussed. -- Abstract: Households represent one of the most interesting sectors, when analyzing Croatia’s energy balance. It makes up one of the largest energy consumers with around 75 PJ per year, which is almost 29% of Croatia’s final energy demand. Considering this consumption, implementing various mechanisms, which would lead to improvements in energy efficiency of this sector, seems relevant. In order to plan future energy systems, important would be to know future possibilities and needs regarding energy demand of different sectors. Through this paper, long term energy demand projections of Croatian households sector will be shown. Focus of the paper will be on various mechanisms influencing future energy demand scenarios. Important would be to quantify this influence, whether positive or negative, and see which mechanisms would be the most significant. Energy demand projections in this paper are based upon bottom-up approach model which combines and processes a large number of input data. The model will be compared to Croatian National Energy Strategy and certain differences and conclusions will be presented. One of the major conclusions shown in this paper is significant possibilities for energy efficiency improvements and lower energy demand in the future, based on careful and rational energy planning. Different financial, legal and technological mechanisms can lead to significant savings in the households sector which leads to lower GHG emissions and lower Croatian dependence on foreign fossil fuels.

  18. Efficient integration of renewable energy into future energy systems. Development of European energy infrastructures in the period 2030 to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, Carolin; Uhlig, Jeanette; Zoch, Immo (eds.)

    2011-10-15

    In consideration of strategic climate mitigation, energy security and economic competitiveness goals, the EU passed the Directive 2009/28/EC, including a binding target of 20 per cent renewable energy consumption in the EU by 2020. This target is comprehensive and includes energy generation, transport, heating and cooling sectors. In 2008, renewable energy consumption in the EU was about 10 per cent. So meeting the 20 per cent renewable energy objective will require massive changes in energy production, transmission and consumption in the EU. Furthermore, it is obvious that the development of the energy system will not stop in 2020, but that it will continue towards 2050 and beyond. Over the past century, the European electricity system was developed in line with a national utilit y perspective which heavily emphasised large, centralised conventional power production. Investment decisions for new energy infrastructure and technology were typically made at the national level. In the future, much more energy production will be based on local or regional renewable energy sources (RES). Many consumers may also become energy producers feeding into the infrastructures. Transnational energy transfers will gain in importance. These changes will require very different electricity and gas infrastructures and decision-making processes from today. Lack of infrastructure capacity is already a barrier for the further deployment of RES-based energy production in some regions in Europe. (orig.)

  19. On the Pricing of Step-Up Bonds in the European Telecom Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, David; Mortensen, Allan

    This paper investigates the pricing of step-up bonds, i.e. corporatebonds with provisions stating that the coupon payments increase as thecredit rating level of the issuer declines. To assess the risk-neutral ratingtransition probabilities necessary to price these bonds, we introduce...... a newcalibration method within the reduced-form rating-based model of Jarrow,Lando, and Turnbull (1997). We also treat split ratings and adjust forrating outlook. Step-up bonds have been issued in large amounts in theEuropean telecom sector, and we find that, through most of the sample,step-up bonds issued...

  20. The Creation of an Energy Security Society as a Way to Decrease Securitization Levels between the European Union and Russia in Energy Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Khrushcheva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The energy trade between the European Union and Russia is securitized due to a combination of factors. First, there are securitizing agents within the European Union. Second, the domestic consolidation of the energy sector under governmental control, the Gazprom monopoly on transportation networks linking Central Asian gas with European markets and the state imposed-limits on foreign direct investment may also raise concerns in the European Union. Finally, Russia is also securitizing the energy sphere by claiming that the EU is trying to impose its values on Russia (for example through the Energy Charter Treaty, which contradicts Russian interests. This article combines securitization theory and the English School of thought and argues that the creation of an Energy Security Society could help de-securitize energy trade between the European Union and Russia.

  1. Towards a European Energy Community: A Policy Proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andoura, Sami; Hancher, Leigh; Van Der Woude, Marc

    2010-01-01

    The think tank Notre Europe published its report on the future of European energy policy in April 2010 entitled 'Towards a European Energy Community: A policy proposal'. Initiated by Jacques Delors, this report is the harvest of the work of the Task Force of high-level European experts established by Notre Europe to study the feasibility of a European Energy Community. The report was elaborated by Marc van der Woude and Leigh Hancher as co-chairs and Sami Andoura as Rapporteur. The report gives an overview and assessment of the policies developed at European level so far and examines whether the existing European energy policy is capable of pursuing its three key objectives of 'affordable access to energy'; 'sustainable development' of energy production, transport, and consumption; and 'security-of-supply' in a consistent and credible manner. Relying on the conclusions that the existing European energy policy is suboptimal, the report puts forward a policy proposal for a genuine 'European Energy Community'. It explains why and what type of action is required to develop such Energy Community, identifying both the substantial elements which it should ideally cover and the legal and institutional policy instruments at the EU's disposal for developing it. The report finally examines how this model could be best achieved and develops several recommendations to that effect

  2. DPRK energy sector development priorities: Options and preferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hippel, David von; Hayes, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The goal of international negotiations with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), when they begin again, will be to convince the DPRK to give up its nuclear weapons and the capabilities to produce them. The DPRK's energy sector is a key to resolution of the issue. Thus offering a well-considered, well-structured package of energy sector assistance options will be key to the sustainable success of the negotiations. This article briefly reviews some of the key options for DPRK energy assistance ranging from human capacity-building in fields like energy efficiency, renewable energy, and energy markets, to assistance with rebuilding key electricity and coal mining infrastructure, to integrated pilot energy/electricity grid/economic development projects on the county level, to light-water nuclear reactors. It then reviews preferences for DPRK assistance options as offered by North Koreans, and a summary of the likely points of view of the key DPRK actors that will be involved in negotiations.

  3. Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Education and Training Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles A.; Peters, Jane S.; Albers, Nathaniel; Stuart, Elizabeth; Fuller, Merrian C.

    2010-03-19

    This report provides a baseline assessment of the current state of energy efficiency-related education and training programs and analyzes training and education needs to support expected growth in the energy efficiency services workforce. In the last year, there has been a significant increase in funding for 'green job' training and workforce development (including energy efficiency), through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Key segments of the energy efficiency services sector (EESS) have experienced significant growth during the past several years, and this growth is projected to continue and accelerate over the next decade. In a companion study (Goldman et al. 2009), our research team estimated that the EESS will increase two- to four-fold by 2020, to 220,000 person-years of employment (PYE) (low-growth scenario) or up to 380,000 PYE (high-growth scenario), which may represent as many as 1.3 million individuals. In assessing energy efficiency workforce education and training needs, we focus on energy-efficiency services-related jobs that are required to improve the efficiency of residential and nonresidential buildings. Figure ES-1 shows the market value chain for the EESS, sub-sectors included in this study, as well as the types of market players and specific occupations. Our assessment does not include the manufacturing, wholesale, and retail distribution subsectors, or energy efficiency-focused operations and maintenance performed by facility managers.

  4. Territorial energy planning tools. Good practices of european towns; Les outils de planification energetique territoriale. Bonne pratiques de villes europeennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacassagne, S.; Schilken, P.

    2003-07-01

    Some european towns developed a specific energy and environmental policy, function of many factors. Policies are implemented to favorite the energy consumption and the pollutant emission control. The actions of local collectivities in the domain have been analyzed following three axis: the measure of the energy performance of local collectivities, the territorial energy management tools, the energy integration in sectoral policies. This report takes stock on the second axis analysis. (A.L.B.)

  5. Security of energy supply under the laws of the European Union / European Community; Energieversorgungssicherheit im Recht der Europaeischen Union, Europaeischen Gemeinschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proefrock, M.C.

    2007-07-01

    Security of supply is defined as the availability and reliability of energy supply at acceptable prices. By security of energy supply we mean a globally large supply of reliable, affordable, clean energy. By virtue of its nature security of supply in the energy sector primarily requires making provisions for the future through exploration, innovation, research, diversification and investments in technology. Energy politics takes place in a tension field defined by the goals of economic efficiency, sustainability and security of supply. In the past there have been repeated shifts within this triad of goals. The task for a rational energy policy is to reconciliate these goals in a meaningful way. European energy policy is understood to comprise all sovereign measures taken by the European Union in the energy sector, in particular measures that impact on the supply and demand for energy resources. Energy law serves, or should serve, to bring energy policy to realisation and therefore presupposes the existence of the latter. Energy policy means the figuration of an economy's energy sector in such a manner that the present and future demand of the economic region is covered.

  6. Analysis of energy development sustainability: The example of the lithuanian district heating sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kveselis, Vaclovas; Dzenajavičienė, Eugenija Farida; Masaitis, Sigitas

    2017-01-01

    Today, sustainable energy development is one of key issues on European development agenda. The article describes one of sustainable energy development promoting tool - the eco-labelling scheme for district heating and cooling systems elaborated within the framework of Intelligent Energy for Europe program project “Ecoheat4cities” and partially funded by European Agency for Competitiveness and Innovation. The scheme is based on measured energy and environmental performance data of the district heating and cooling system and considers primary non-renewable energy usage together with the share of renewable energy and carbon dioxide emissions calculated using life-cycle analysis methodology. The “power bonus” approach is used for performance indicators of the heat generated in cogeneration installations. An analysis of a number of Lithuanian district heating companies using elaborated labelling criteria shows positive trends towards fulfilling Lithuania's energy policy goals. The labelling scheme gives opportunity for policy makers and urban planners to compare different heat supply options and decide upon exploiting district heating advantages and benefits for reaching EU energy and environment policy goals. - Highlights: • Overview of Lithuania's district heating sector was performed via main sustainability criteria. • Developing to greener and more efficient state was disclosed via analysis of three years activity results. • Green labelling may help district heating companies to maintain existing and attract new potential consumers.

  7. Sustainability and Energy Efficiency in the Automotive Sector

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Since this year there can be no doubt that "sustainability" has become the top issue in the automotive sector. Volkswagen's CEO Prof. Dr. Martin Winterkorn attacked incumbents like BMW Group (so far the "most sustainable car manufacturer" for the 8th consecutive year) or Toyota (producer of the famous "Prius") head-on by boldly stating to become "the most profitable and most sustainable car manufacturer worldwide by 2018" . This announcement clearly shows that "sustainability" and "profitability" no longer are considered as conflicting targets. On the contrary, to Prof. Dr. Winterkorn : "climate protection is a driver for economic growth". To prime discussions, the plenary talk will give a brief overview of the entire range of energy efficiency in the automotive sector: based on the multiple drivers behind energy efficiency, practical examples are presented along the entire life-cycle of cars (R&D, production, usage and recycling). These "cases" include big automobile producers as well as their respectiv...

  8. Price regulation in the Spanish energy sectors: who benefits?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arocena, Pablo; Contin, Ignacio; Huerta, Emilio

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses the distribution of benefits between firms and consumers due to the price regulation of the Spanish energy sectors (electricity, oil fuels and gas) during the decade 1987-1997. To that effect, we compare the actual evolution of energy prices with alternate benchmarks in order to assess the potential existence of a pro-industry or a pro-consumer bias in the pricing policies followed by the regulator. Our results show a pro-industry-biased regulatory context, where consumers benefited very little from price control. The successive price adjustments over time allowed the companies to keep all the productivity gains and cost reductions and to increase their profitability rates relative to those achieved in the manufacturing sector. (Author)

  9. Energy sector developments in Central America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, J.

    1997-01-01

    Energy sector developments in Central America and the Caribbean were discussed. Central America is composed of six small countries whose total population is 32 million. The Caribbean population is 20.5 million. Central America is generally poor in hydrocarbon reserves but the geological prospects in several of the countries are encouraging. The oil and petroleum products supply and demand picture, the main characteristics of the hydrocarbon market, structure of the oil industry, hydrocarbon market reforms, pricing issues and recent trend towards reforms in the electric power industry in Central America were discussed. An overview of the Inter-American Development Bank's (IDB) effort to provide technical assistance and loans to strengthen the energy sector development in Central America and the Caribbean was also given. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 23 figs

  10. Energy sector methane recovery and use: the importance of policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Kerr; Michelle Hershman

    2009-08-15

    To raise awareness about appropriate policy options to advance methane recovery and use in the energy sector, the IEA has conducted a series of analyses and studies over the past few years. This report continues IEA efforts by providing policy makers with examples and best practices in methane mitigation policy design and implementation. This report offers an overview of four types of methane mitigation projects that have the strongest links to the energy sector: oil and gas methane recovery and reduction of leaks and losses; coal mine methane; landfill methane; and manure methane recovery and use. It identifies successful policies that have been used to advance these important projects. This information is intended to guide policy makers as they search for low-cost, near-term solutions to climate change. 38 refs., 10 figs., 1 app.

  11. Price regulation in the Spanish energy sectors: who benefits?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arocena, Pablo; Contin, Ignacio; Huerta, Emilio [Departamento de Gestion de Empresas, Universidad Publica de Navarra, Campus de Arrosadia. 31006, Pamplona (Spain); [Canterbury Business School, University of Kent Canterbury (United Kingdom)

    2002-08-01

    This paper analyses the distribution of benefits between firms and consumers due to the price regulation of the Spanish energy sectors (electricity, oil fuels and gas) during the decade 1987-1997. To that effect, we compare the actual evolution of energy prices with alternate benchmarks in order to assess the potential existence of a pro-industry or a pro-consumer bias in the pricing policies followed by the regulator. Our results show a pro-industry-biased regulatory context, where consumers benefited very little from price control. The successive price adjustments over time allowed the companies to keep all the productivity gains and cost reductions and to increase their profitability rates relative to those achieved in the manufacturing sector. (Author)

  12. The security of energy supply. The European Commission's Green Paper stimulates debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The growing dependence of the European Union (EU) on external supplies of energy is the central focus of a ''Green Paper'' issued in late November 2000 by the Commission of the European Communities in Brussels. Entitled ''Towards a European Strategy for the Security of Energy Supply'', the Green Paper is intended to stimulate debate on the EU's energy policies and strategies. European member States are ''interdependent'', the Green Paper states, ''both because of climate change issues and the creation of the internal energy market. Any energy policy decision taken by a Member State will inevitably have repercussions on the functioning of the market in other Member States. Energy policy has assumed a new, Community dimension.'' Three main points emerge from the Green Paper: The EU will become increasingly dependent on external energy sources; its enlargement will not change this situation. Based on current forecasts, energy dependence will reach 70% by the year 2030. - The EU has very limited scope to influence energy supply conditions; it is essentially on the demand side that the EU can intervene, mainly by promoting energy saving in buildings and the transport sector. - The EU presently is not in a position to respond to the challenge of climate change and to meet its commitments, notably under the Kyoto Protocol. Featured here is the Executive Summary of the Green Paper

  13. Reforming Mexico’s Energy Sector to Enhance Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    requirement to reform Mexico’s energy sector. Subsequent analysis demonstrates government ownership of Petroleos Mexico (Pemex) is the fundamental...ownership of Petroleos Mexico (Pemex) is the fundamental destabilizing flaw in regulatory policy, by tracing various problems back to this root cause... Petroleos Mexico (Pemex) is the second largest company in Latin America and the seventh largest producer of oil in the world.1 The government of

  14. Climate and energy targets of the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolwijk, H.; Veenendaal, P.

    2007-01-01

    Attention is paid to two important parts of the targets for climate and energy which were determined by the European Council in March 2007 for the year 2020: (1) the impact of the emission reduction target and the correlations with the sustainable development targets; and (2) the obstacles for the European Union on the way to thar 20% renewable energy target [nl

  15. 20-20-20: the target of European energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clo, R.; Verde, S.

    2007-01-01

    The last Spring European Council set ambitious targets in its new EU energy policy. Reaching these objectives is far from going without saying and without hidden dangers, if the EU aims at these targets uncritically, national and European energy systems will be exposed to additional risks and problems. Hence, the critical issues must be born in mind negotiating national targets in Brussels [it

  16. European approaches to changing patterns of energy consumption and supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepetit, P. [Centre Francais sur les Etats-Unis, 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-07-01

    In the case of the broad debate on the security of energy supply, launched by the european commission on november 2000, this document presents the historical european facts and figures, stress the dramatic changes since 1990 and discussed the policy opinions (nuclear energy, tax policy, further progress in opening market and promoting international trade and investment). (A.L.B.)

  17. European approaches to changing patterns of energy consumption and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetit, P.

    2001-01-01

    In the case of the broad debate on the security of energy supply, launched by the european commission on november 2000, this document presents the historical european facts and figures, stress the dramatic changes since 1990 and discussed the policy opinions (nuclear energy, tax policy, further progress in opening market and promoting international trade and investment). (A.L.B.)

  18. Impact of renewables deployment on the CO2 price and the CO2 emissions in the European electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Bergh, Kenneth; Delarue, Erik; D'haeseleer, William

    2013-01-01

    As of 2005, electricity generators in Europe operate under the European Union Emission Trading System (EU ETS). At the same time, European Member States have launched support mechanisms to stimulate the deployment of renewable electricity sources (RES-E). RES-E injections displace CO 2 emissions within the sectors operating under the EU ETS and they reduce the demand for European Union Allowances (EUAs), thereby reducing the EUA price. This paper presents the results of an ex post analysis to quantify the impact of RES-E deployment on the EUA price and CO 2 emissions in the Western and Southern European electricity sector during the period from 2007 to 2010, following from an operational partial equilibrium model of the electricity sector. This study shows that the CO 2 displacement from the electricity sector to other ETS sectors due to RES-E deployment can be up to more than 10% of historical CO 2 emissions in the electricity sector. The EUA price decrease caused by RES-E deployment turns out to be likely significant. - Author-Highlights: • We assessed the impact of renewables deployment in the period 2007–2010. • Impact on CO 2 emissions in the electricity sector and the CO 2 price is considered. • CO 2 emissions decreased by up to 10% of historical emissions. • CO 2 price decrease due to renewables turns out to be likely significant

  19. ORC waste heat recovery in European energy intensive industries: Energy and GHG savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, F.; Bianchi, M.; Branchini, L.; De Pascale, A.; Peretto, A.; Baresi, M.; Fermi, A.; Rossetti, N.; Vescovo, R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A methodology to estimate ORC industrial heat recovery potential is defined. • Heat recovery applications for different industrial processes are shown. • Cement, steel, glass and oil and gas applications are considered in EU27. • Savings in electricity costs and greenhouse gases are quantified. - Abstract: Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is a technology with important opportunities in heat recovery from energy intensive industrial processes. This paper represents the first comprehensive estimate of ORC units that can be installed in cement, steel, glass and oil and gas industries in the 27 countries of the European Union based on an accurate methodology related to real plants in operation or under construction. An evaluation of energy savings, depending on the number of operating hours per year and of the consequent decrease in CO 2 emission and electricity expenditure, is also provided. The study, carried out in the framework of an European research project on heat recovery in energy intensive industries, found that, in the most convenient considered scenario, up to about 20,000 GW h of thermal energy per year can be recovered and 7.6 M ton of CO 2 can be saved by the application of ORC technology to the investigated and most promising industrial sectors

  20. Energy in transition: From the iron curtain to the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urge-Vorsatz, Diana; Miladinova, Gergana; Paizs, Laszlo

    2006-01-01

    The fall of communism left some of the most polluting and wasteful energy sectors of the World in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). After 15 years of restructuring, eight of these countries have joined the European Union (EU), closing an era of economic transitions. What progress has been made in these countries in the field of energy from the perspective of sustainability? Has the transition agenda been completed, or do any of the socialist energy sector legacies prevail? The purpose of this paper is to review the period of economic transition in the energy sector, focusing on sustainability, in three selected CEE countries, and to use Russia as a comparison. First, the paper argues that at the core of the unsustainability of energy sectors at the end of the communist era were among the highest energy intensities in the world. Then, we identify the legacies of the centrally planned economy that contributed to these high-energy intensities. We outline a policy agenda for the transitions which addresses the identified legacies. Next, we look at the energy landscape at the end of the restructuring, and review the developments in energy intensities during the period of economic transitions. We conclude that, while energy and economic restructuring is very important to bring down the high-energy intensities of former communist countries, a sizeable gap remains in intensity levels between CEE countries and the old EU states. Therefore, economic and energy system reforms alone will not close the gap, and targeted policies and measures are needed to improve energy efficiency levels. Beyond a more serious governmental commitment, a concerted effort is needed from regulators, corporations, utilities, consumer organisations and the civil sector to catalyse the remaining progress to be made in combating the socialist legacy in the field of energy efficiency

  1. Energy in transition: from the iron curtain to the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urge-Vorsatz, D.; Miladinova, G. [Central European University, Budapest (Hungary). Center for Poicy Studies; Paizs, L. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Institute of Economics

    2006-10-15

    The fall of communism left some of the most polluting and wasteful energy sectors of the World in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). After 15 years of restructuring, eight of these countries have joined the European Union (EU), closing an era of economic transitions. What progress has been made in these countries in the field of energy from the perspective of sustainability? Has the transition agenda been completed, or do any of the socialist energy sector legacies prevail? The purpose of this paper is to review the period of economic transition in the energy sector, focusing on sustainability, in three selected CEE countries, and to use Russia as a comparison. First, the paper argues that at the core of the unsustainability of energy sectors at the end of the communist era were among the highest energy intensities in the world. Then, we identify the legacies of the centrally planned economy that contributed to these high-energy intensities. We outline a policy agenda for the transitions which addresses the identified legacies. Next, we look at the energy landscape at the end of the restructuring, and review the developments in energy intensities during the period of economic transitions. We conclude that, while energy and economic restructuring is very important to bring down the high-energy intensities of former communist countries, a sizeable gap remains in intensity levels between CEE countries and the old EU states. Therefore, economic and energy system reforms alone will not close the gap, and targeted policies and measures are needed to improve energy efficiency levels. Beyond a more serious governmental commitment, a concerted effort is needed from regulators, corporations, utilities, consumer organisations and the civil sector to catalyse the remaining progress to be made in combating the socialist legacy in the field of energy efficiency. (author)

  2. ImSET: Impact of Sector Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, Joseph M.; Scott, Michael J.; Schultz, Robert W.

    2005-07-19

    This version of the Impact of Sector Energy Technologies (ImSET) model represents the ''next generation'' of the previously developed Visual Basic model (ImBUILD 2.0) that was developed in 2003 to estimate the macroeconomic impacts of energy-efficient technology in buildings. More specifically, a special-purpose version of the 1997 benchmark national Input-Output (I-O) model was designed specifically to estimate the national employment and income effects of the deployment of Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) -developed energy-saving technologies. In comparison with the previous versions of the model, this version allows for more complete and automated analysis of the essential features of energy efficiency investments in buildings, industry, transportation, and the electric power sectors. This version also incorporates improvements in the treatment of operations and maintenance costs, and improves the treatment of financing of investment options. ImSET is also easier to use than extant macroeconomic simulation models and incorporates information developed by each of the EERE offices as part of the requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act.

  3. Vietnam's energy sector: A review of current energy policies and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tien Minh Do; Sharma, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of market-oriented economy in 1986, Vietnam has made noticeable socio-economic progress. In this progress, the energy sector has played a vital role. This role is likely to deepen in the years to come as Vietnam strives to achieve even higher levels in economic progress. Such deepening in the role of energy, this paper argues, will heighten concerns about the security of energy supply, and economic, environmental, social and political consequences. In order to address these issues, Vietnam has over the last decade, developed a suite of energy policies. A deeper review of these policies suggests that they are typified by economic-growth orientation, exclusive focus on a single-sector or single issue, and largely neglect the significance of cross-sectoral and cross-thematic issues arising from the interdependencies between energy, economy, and the polity at large. The existing energy policy settings are, therefore, unlikely to be able to provide a satisfactory redress to the challenges noted above. This paper provides an overview of the current energy policies with a view to identify areas where further policy effort is needed in order to facilitate a sustainable development of the Vietnamese energy sector. - Highlights: → Identifying challenges faced by the Vietnamese energy sector. → Analyzing limitations of the existing energy policy settings (policies, strategies and institutions) in addressing these challenges. → Developing recommendations on improving the existing energy policy settings to provide a satisfactory redress for the challenges noted above.

  4. Vietnam's energy sector: A review of current energy policies and strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tien Minh Do, E-mail: tmdo@eng.uts.edu.au [Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST), 1 Dai Co Viet Street, Hai Ba Trung District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Sharma, Deepak [University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), Broadway, Ultimo, NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    Since the introduction of market-oriented economy in 1986, Vietnam has made noticeable socio-economic progress. In this progress, the energy sector has played a vital role. This role is likely to deepen in the years to come as Vietnam strives to achieve even higher levels in economic progress. Such deepening in the role of energy, this paper argues, will heighten concerns about the security of energy supply, and economic, environmental, social and political consequences. In order to address these issues, Vietnam has over the last decade, developed a suite of energy policies. A deeper review of these policies suggests that they are typified by economic-growth orientation, exclusive focus on a single-sector or single issue, and largely neglect the significance of cross-sectoral and cross-thematic issues arising from the interdependencies between energy, economy, and the polity at large. The existing energy policy settings are, therefore, unlikely to be able to provide a satisfactory redress to the challenges noted above. This paper provides an overview of the current energy policies with a view to identify areas where further policy effort is needed in order to facilitate a sustainable development of the Vietnamese energy sector. - Highlights: > Identifying challenges faced by the Vietnamese energy sector. > Analyzing limitations of the existing energy policy settings (policies, strategies and institutions) in addressing these challenges. > Developing recommendations on improving the existing energy policy settings to provide a satisfactory redress for the challenges noted above.

  5. End use energy consumption data base: transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooker, J.N.; Rose, A.B.; Greene, D.L.

    1980-02-01

    The transportation fuel and energy use estimates developed a Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the End Use Energy Consumption Data Base are documented. The total data base contains estimates of energy use in the United States broken down into many categories within all sectors of the economy: agriculture, mining, construction, manufacturing, commerce, the household, electric utilities, and transportation. The transportation data provided by ORNL generally cover each of the 10 years from 1967 through 1976 (occasionally 1977 and 1978), with omissions in some models. The estimtes are broken down by mode of transport, fuel, region and State, sector of the economy providing transportation, and by the use to which it is put, and, in the case of automobile and bus travel, by the income of the traveler. Fuel types include natural gas, motor and aviation gasoline, residual and diesel oil, liuqefied propane, liquefied butane, and naphtha- and kerosene-type jet engine fuels. Electricity use is also estimated. The mode, fuel, sector, and use categories themselves subsume one, two, or three levels of subcategories, resulting in a very detailed categorization and definitive accounting.

  6. Determinants of energy sector performance in Iraq, 2003 to 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiedemann, K.H.

    2007-01-01

    Iraq's energy sector was rehabilitated from 2003 to 2005. The focus of rehabilitation was on restoring Iraq's electricity and oil infrastructure to pre-war production levels; delivering electricity and refined fuels for domestic consumption; and delivering electricity and oil security. This paper provided an analysis of the impact of Coalition efforts and insurgent activities on energy sector performance using time-series models. The paper presented a simple three-equation model consisting of an insurgent attack equation, an investment equation, and production function. The paper also discussed the phases of the insurgency in Iraq, with particular reference to the beginning of the insurgency; initial bombing campaign; escalation of the insurgency; and intra-Iraqi conflict. Key energy sector indicators and regression results were also presented for oil production; diesel production; gasoline production; oil exports; and production and consumption of electricity. It was concluded that expenditures by the United States on oil infrastructure appear to have been relatively efficiently spent. 16 refs., 9 tabs

  7. Protecting ICS Systems Within the Energy Sector from Cyber Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Shaquille

    Advance persistent threat (APT) groups are continuing to attack the energy sector through cyberspace, which poses a risk to our society, national security, and economy. Industrial control systems (ICSs) are not designed to handle cyber-attacks, which is why asset owners need to implement the correct proactive and reactive measures to mitigate the risk to their ICS environments. The Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) responded to 290 incidents for fiscal year 2016, where 59 of those incidents came from the Energy Sector. APT groups know how vulnerable energy sector ICS systems are and the destruction they can cause when they go offline such as loss of production, loss of life, and economic impact. Defending against APT groups requires more than just passive controls such as firewalls and antivirus solutions. Asset owners should implement a combination of best practices and active defense in their environment to defend against APT groups. Cyber-attacks against critical infrastructure will become more complex and harder to detect and respond to with traditional security controls. The purpose of this paper was to provide asset owners with the correct security controls and methodologies to help defend against APT groups.

  8. Nuclear power and sustainable energy supply for Europe. European Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilden, W.

    2005-01-01

    The right energy mix is decisive. The European Commission feels that nuclear power can make an important contribution towards sustainable energy supply in Europe. Nuclear power should keep its place in the European energy mix. One important aspect in this regard is improved public acceptance through communication, transparency, and confidence building. High safety standards and a credible approach to the safe long-term management of radioactive waste are major components of this sustainable energy source. (orig./GL)

  9. Liberalisation and Privatisation of the Energy Sector in the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepnalkovski, N.

    2001-01-01

    The paper comments the changes of the legislation in the energy field in the Republic of Macedonia in function of the liberalisation and harmonisation to the European regulations. Also in accordance to these changes in the legislation exist the actual interests for concrete energy projects, which could be constructed in the near future on the concession model, as a part of the new investment cycle in the future period in the energy field of our country. At the end of the paper the initial processes for the transformation of the energy sector in the Republic of Macedonia are stated and the activities for the privatisation of the public enterprise E lektrostopanstvo na Makedonija . (author)

  10. Role of embodied energy in the European manufacturing industry: Application to short-term impacts of a carbon tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordigoni, Mathieu; Hita, Alain; Le Blanc, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Role of energy in the manufacturing industry is a major concern for energy and environmental policy design. Issues like energy prices, security of supply and carbon mitigation are often connected to the industry and its competitiveness. This paper examines the role and consequences of embodied energy in the European industry. To this end, a multi-regional input–output analysis including 59 industrial sectors for all European Union countries and 17 more aggregated industries for other regions of the World is developed. Other segments of the economy are not included. This base is combined with energy consumption, carbon emission as well as bilateral trade data for every sector in all included countries. Our main result is that embodied energy in manufactured products' imports represents a significant aspect of the energy situation in European industries, with quantities close to the direct energy consumption. These flows can further be broken down for detailed analysis at the sector level thanks to the number of distinct industries included. Results demonstrate that an important part of embodied energy inside European products is not concerned with domestic energy price changes. In addition, a European-wide carbon tax would induce an unbalanced burden on industries and countries. - Highlights: ► We calculate embodied energy and carbon flows in the European and World industry. ► A multi-regional input–output analysis is used with a detailed nomenclature. ► National industries' energy prices dependence is a domestic issue. ► With a European carbon tax energy-intensive industries would be penalised. ► Such a tax may also induce competition distortion among EU countries.

  11. End-use energy analysis in the Malaysian industrial sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidur, R.; Masjuki, H.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Rahim, N.A.; Mekhilef, S.; Ping, H.W. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Jamaluddin, M.F. [Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB), Head Office, Bangsar, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2009-02-15

    The industrial sector is the second largest consumer of energy in Malaysia. In this energy audit, the most important parameters that have been collected are as follows: power rating and operation time of energy-consuming equipments/machineries; fossil fuel and other sources of energy use; production figure; peak and off-peak tariff usage behavior and power factor. These data were then analyzed to investigate the breakdown of end-use equipments/machineries energy use, the peak and off-peak usage behavior, power factor trend and specific energy use. The results of the energy audit showed that the highest electrical energy-using equipment was an electric motor followed by pumps and air compressors. The specific energy use has been estimated and compared with four Indonesian industries and it was found that three Malaysian industries were more efficient than the Indonesian counterpart. The study also found that about 64% electrical energy was used in peak hours by the industries and the average power factor ranged from 0.88 to 0.92. The study also estimated energy and bill savings using highly efficient electrical motors along with the payback period. (author)

  12. Priority for import capacity. The fear of the European Union for a free European energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    2002-01-01

    Brussels (the seat of the European Union in Belgium) is worried about the performance of the liberalized European energy market. The natural gas and electricity networks are suffering from chronic congestion. Some areas are largely or even entirely cut off from the European energy infrastructure. Those problems must be addressed to realize the internal market. A package of reforms has been put forward by the European Commission the end of 2001 and 12 priority projects are identified and briefly discussed in this article [nl

  13. Influence of Atlantic SST anomalies on the atmospheric circulation in the Atlantic-European sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kestenare

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of observational data suggest that Sea Surface Temperature (SST anomalies in the Atlantic Ocean have a significant influence on the atmospheric circulation in the Atlantic-European sector in early winter and in spring. After reviewing this work and showing that the spring signal is part of a global air-sea interaction, we analyze for comparison an ensemble of simulations with the ECHAM4 atmospheric general circulation model in T42 resolution forced by the observed distribution of SST and sea ice, and a simulation with the ECHAM4/OPA8 coupled model in T30 resolution. In the two cases, a significant influence of the Atlantic on the atmosphere is detected in the Atlantic-European sector. In the forced mode, ECHAM4 responds to SST anomalies from early spring to late summer, and also in early winter. The forcing involves SST anomalies not only in the tropical Atlantic, but also in the whole tropical band, suggesting a strong ENSO influence. The modeled signal resembles that seen in the observations in spring, but not in early winter. In the coupled mode, the Atlantic SST only has a significant influence on the atmosphere in summer. Although the SST anomaly is confined to the Atlantic, the summer signal shows some similarity with that seen in the forced simulations. However, there is no counterpart in the observations.

  14. Water Use in the US Electric Power Sector: Energy Systems ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation reviews the water demands of long-range electricity scenarios. It addresses questions such as: What are the aggregate water requirements of the U.S. electric power sector? How could water requirements evolve under different long-range regional generation mixes? It also looks at research addressing the electricity generation water demand from a life cycle perspective, such as water use for the fuel cycle (natural gas, coal, uranium, etc.) and water use for the materials/equipment/manufacturing of new power plants. The presentation is part of panel session on the Water-Energy Nexus at the World Energy Engineering Congress

  15. Integrated transportation and energy sector CO2 emission control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Münster, Ebbe

    2006-01-01

    is the use of biofuel (ethanol) and synthetic fuel (methanol) for internal combustion cars. An increase in the fraction of electricity delivered by fluctuating sources like wind power will lead to excess electricity production and the two aforementioned scenarios have a substantial effect on the decrease...... and power production (CHP), while the transport sector can assist the energy system in integrating a higher degree of intermittent energy and CHP. Two scenarios for partial conversion of the transport fleet have been considered. One is battery cars combined with hydrogen fuel cell cars, while the other...

  16. Energy transition of a sector in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opstelten, I.J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Weterings, R. [TNO, Delft (Netherlands); Versteeg, F.A. [FORGOOD, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-09-15

    To realize the energy transition in the building sector, three types of obstacles have to be overcome: technology-related, process-related and integration of technology and process. To this end an innovation / implementation program has been set up. The intrinsic driver of the program is the realization of increasingly more ambitious energy concepts in three successive waves, allowing for the different actors to learn from the previous wave, to prepare for the next wave and to scale up these type of projects both in terms of quantity and quality. The establishment process of the program identified a key success factor for the transition process itself: the role of the individual.

  17. Energy Transition of a Sector in The Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opstelten, I.J. [Energy in the Built Environment, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Weterings, R. [TNO Innovation and Environment, Delft (Netherlands); Versteeg, F.A. [FORGOOD, Hilversum (Netherlands)

    2010-09-15

    To realize the energy transition in the building sector, three types of obstacles have to be overcome: technology-related, process-related and integration of technology and process. To this end an innovation-implementation program has been constructed. The intrinsic driver of the program is the realization of increasingly more ambitious energy concepts in three successive waves, allowing for the different actors to learn from the previous wave, to prepare for the next wave and to scale up these type of projects both in terms of quantity and quality. The establishment process of the program identified a key success factor for the transition process itself: the role of the individual.

  18. Phase Two European Energy Policy Project. European energy and climate policy - Time for something new

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    During 2014, European energy and climate change policy has moved centre stage. The annexation of Crimea and the destabilization of Eastern Ukraine have raised tensions with Russia to levels not seen since the Cold War. The EU has responded with an energy security plan, and sanctions. Developments elsewhere have further complicated matters. In the Middle East, the rapid advances of ISIS (now called the Islamic State), the internal conflicts in Libya, the war in Gaza, and the continuing negotiations with Iran on nuclear matters suggest that early optimism about the 'Arab Spring' was at best misplaced, and chronic instability has returned. In the US, the energy revolution continues to change the geopolitics of oil and gas, with the early skepticism about the scale of the changes and the shift towards North American energy independence giving way to recognition that the changes are permanent and profound - for both global energy markets and Europe. The full implications of the end of the commodity super-cycle are both profound for European energy policy and very poorly understood. Commodity prices have tumbled, with oil prices falling below $80 a barrel. On climate change, there is almost certainly not going to be a continuation of the Kyoto style international framework after the Paris conference in December 2015. Chinese emissions per head have now exceeded those of the Europeans, and it is at last being recognized that the climate change problem is one in which China, not the EU, is centre stage. China has announced that it does not intend to cap its carbon emissions until after 2030, by which time they may peak anyway - from a very much higher base after another decade and a half of increases. The Paris conference will see a series of 'pledges' and 'commitments' very much on the pattern of the Copenhagen Accord, not the credible, enforceable legally binding measures that had been proposed at the Durban Conference of the Parties in 2011

  19. Potentials for energy savings and long term energy demands for Croatian households sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukšec, Tomislav; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Duic, Neven

    2011-01-01

    demand in the future, based on careful and rational energy planning. Different financial, legal and technological mechanisms can lead to significant savings in the households sector which also leads to lesser greenhouse gas emissions and lower Croatian dependence on foreign fossil fuels....... relevant. In order to plan future energy systems it is important to know future possibilities and needs regarding energy demand for different sectors. Through this paper long term energy demand projections for Croatian households sector will be shown with a special emphasis on different mechanisms, both...... financial, legal but also technological that will influence future energy demand scenarios. It is important to see how these mechanisms influence, positive or negative, on future energy demand and which mechanism would be most influential. Energy demand predictions in this paper are based upon bottom...

  20. Potentials for energy savings and long term energy demands for Croatian households sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukšec, Tomislav; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Duic, Neven

    2013-01-01

    demand in the future, based on careful and rational energy planning. Different financial, legal and technological mechanisms can lead to significant savings in the households sector which also leads to lesser greenhouse gas emissions and lower Croatian dependence on foreign fossil fuels....... relevant. In order to plan future energy systems it is important to know future possibilities and needs regarding energy demand for different sectors. Through this paper long term energy demand projections for Croatian households sector will be shown with a special emphasis on different mechanisms, both...... financial, legal but also technological that will influence future energy demand scenarios. It is important to see how these mechanisms influence, positive or negative, on future energy demand and which mechanism would be most influential. Energy demand predictions in this paper are based upon bottom...

  1. Converting Energy Subsidies to Investments: Scaling-Up Deep Energy Retrofit in Residential Sector of Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denysenko, Artur

    After collapse of the Soviet Union, Ukraine inherited vast and inefficient infrastructure. Combination of historical lack of transparency, decades without reforms, chronical underinvestment and harmful cross-subsidization resulted in accumulation of energy problems, which possess significant threat to economic prosperity and national security. High energy intensity leads to excessive use of energy and heavy reliance on energy import to meet domestic demand. Energy import, in turn, results in high account balance deficit and heavy burden on the state finances. A residential sector, which accounts for one third of energy consumption and is the highest consumer of natural gas, is particularly challenging to reform. This thesis explores energy consumption of the residential sector of Ukraine. Using energy decomposition method, recent changes in energy use is analyzed. Energy intensity of space heating in the residential sector of Ukraine is compared with selected EU member states with similar climates. Energy efficiency potential is evaluated for whole residential sector in general and for multistory apartment buildings connected to the district heating in particular. Specifically, investments in thermal modernization of multistory residential buildings will result in almost 45TWh, or 3.81 Mtoe, of annual savings. Required investments for deep energy retrofit of multistory buildings is estimated as much as $19 billion in 2015 prices. Experience of energy subsidy reforms as well as lessons from energy retrofit policy from selected countries is analyzed. Policy recommendations to turn energy subsidies into investments in deep energy retrofit of residential sector of Ukraine are suggested. Regional dimension of existing energy subsidies and capital subsidies required for energy retrofit is presented.

  2. Project management techniques used in the European Vacuum Vessel sectors procurement for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losasso, Marcello, E-mail: marcello.losasso@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Barcelona (Spain); Ortiz de Zuniga, Maria; Jones, Lawrence; Bayon, Angel; Arbogast, Jean-Francois; Caixas, Joan; Fernandez, Jose; Galvan, Stefano; Jover, Teresa [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Barcelona (Spain); Ioki, Kimihiro [ITER Organisation, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Lewczanin, Michal; Mico, Gonzalo; Pacheco, Jose Miguel [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Barcelona (Spain); Preble, Joseph [ITER Organisation, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Stamos, Vassilis; Trentea, Alexandru [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer File name contains the directory tree structure with a string of three-letter acronyms, thereby enabling parent directory location when confronted with orphan files. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The management of the procurement procedure was carried out in an efficient and timely manner, achieving precisely the contract placement date foreseen at the start of the process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The contract start-up has been effectively implemented and a flexible project management system has been put in place for an efficient monitoring of the contract. - Abstract: The contract for the seven European Sectors of the ITER Vacuum Vessel (VV) was placed at the end of 2010 with a consortium of three Italian companies. The task of placing and the initial take-off of this large and complex contract, one of the largest placed by F4E, the European Domestic Agency for ITER, is described. A stringent quality controlled system with a bespoke Vacuum Vessel Project Lifecycle Management system to control the information flow, based on ENOVIA SmarTeam, was developed to handle the storage and approval of Documentation including links to the F4E Vacuum Vessel system and ITER International Organization System interfaces. The VV Sector design and manufacturing schedule is based on Primavera software, which is cost loaded thus allowing F4E to carry out performance measurement with respect to its payments and commitments. This schedule is then integrated into the overall Vacuum Vessel schedule, which includes ancillary activities such as instruments, preliminary design and analysis. The VV Sector Risk Management included three separate risk analyses from F4E and the bidders, utilizing two different methodologies. These efforts will lead to an efficient and effective implementation of this contract, vital to the success of the ITER machine, since the Vacuum Vessel is the biggest single work package of Europe's contribution to ITER and

  3. Environmental regulation and competitiveness: Empirical evidence on the Porter Hypothesis from European manufacturing sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubashkina, Yana; Galeotti, Marzio; Verdolini, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the “weak” and “strong” versions of Porter Hypothesis (PH) focusing on the manufacturing sectors of 17 European countries between 1997 and 2009. The hypothesis that well-crafted and well-enforced regulation would benefit both the environment and the firm was originally proposed by Porter (1991) and Porter and van der Linde (1995). To date, the literature has analyzed the impact of environmental regulation on innovation and on productivity mostly in separate analyses and focusing on the USA. The few existing contributions on Europe study the effect of environmental regulation either on green innovation or on performance indicators such as exports. We instead look at overall innovation and productivity impacts. First, focusing on overall innovative activity allows us to account for potential opportunity costs of induced innovations. Second, productivity impacts are arguably the most relevant indicators for the “strong” PH. As a proxy of environmental policy stringency we use pollution abatement and control expenditures (PACE), one of the few sectoral level indicators available. We remedy upon its main drawback, namely potential endogeneity, by adopting an instrumental variable estimation approach. We find evidence of a positive impact of environmental regulation on the output of innovation activity, as proxied by patents, thus providing support in favor of the “weak” PH. This result is in line with most of the literature. On the other front, we find no evidence in favor of the “strong” PH, as productivity appears to be unaffected by the degree of pollution control and abatement efforts. -- Highlights: •Weak and strong Porter Hypothesis. •Panel of manufacturing sectors of 17 European countries between 1997 and 2009. •Look at overall innovation and productivity impacts. •Pollution abatement & control expenditures proxy of environmental policy stringency. •Account for potential endogeneity of PACE by adopting

  4. Energy efficiency programs and policies in the industrial sector in industrialized countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst

    2004-06-01

    About 37% of the primary energy consumed both in the U.S. and globally is used by the industrial sector. A variety of energy efficiency policies and programs have been implemented throughout the world in an effort to improve the energy efficiency of this sector. This report provides an overview of these policies and programs in twelve industrialized nations and the European Union (EU). We focus on energy efficiency products and services that are available to industrial consumers, such as reports, guidebooks, case studies, fact sheets, profiles, tools, demonstrations, roadmaps and benchmarking. We also focus on the mechanisms to communicate the availability and features of these products and services and to disseminate them to the industrial consumers who can use them. Communication channels include customer information centers and websites, conferences and trade shows, workshops and other training mechanisms, financial assistance programs, negotiated agreements, newsletters, publicity, assessments, tax and subsidy schemes and working groups. In total, over 30 types of industrial sector energy efficiency products, services and delivery channels have been identified in the countries studied. Overall, we found that the United States has a large variety of programs and offers industry a number of supporting programs for improving industrial energy efficiency. However, there are some products and services found in other industrialized countries that are not currently used in the U.S., including benchmarking programs, demonstration of commercialized technologies and provision of energy awareness promotion materials to companies. Delivery mechanisms found in other industrialized countries that are not employed in the U.S. include negotiated agreements, public disclosure and national-level tax abatement for energy-efficient technologies.

  5. Proceedings of the Tenth forum: Croatian Energy Day: Energy sector liberalisation and privatisation in transition-economy and EU countries: experiences and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Political and economic changes in Europe provided an impetus for the creation of an open energy market with an increasing number of participants, while the new energy sale and purchase system enabled everybody engaged (from producers to operators and consumers) to take over an active part. In the launching of these processes some documents played a decisive role: European Energy Treaty, European Union's Directives on Electricity and Gas Market Liberalisation of the Member Countries. Energy sector liberalisation was in most of the countries carried out in two steps, i.e. first the restructuring took place and than privatisation followed. Restructuring covers the change of organisation and economic relations with the aim of increasing efficiency and cost reduction, and privatisation is the process that ought to enable the creation of a market and competition. Market and competition creation is carried out by means of structural changes, i.e. by business and ownership unbundling (energy generation, transport/transmission and distribution). Energy market strengthening depends on energy efficiency, programmes, utilisation of renewable energy sources, co-generation share in the production of electric and thermal energy, etc. All of these activities are followed by adequate legislative framework as well as by defining a regulatory body to supervise the behaviour of the participants. The primary energy sector's reform concept in the Republic of Croatia was a clear political goal that Croatia become a member of the European Union and that the energy market be congruent to the EU market

  6. Point Climat no. 17 'The role of the forestry sector in reducing European emissions: the European Commission starts with a tally'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellassen, Valentin; Deheza, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: On March 12 2012, after two years of consultations and reviews, the European Commission published a decision proposal regarding the inclusion of the land use and forestry sector in European climate policy. The aim of this proposal is to impose accounting rules that are consistent with the decisions of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and to harmonise them between Member States. Meanwhile, the issue of economic incentives aimed at guaranteeing the sector's contribution to climate mitigation is postponed until a later date

  7. Globalization of the energy sector: Environmental challenges and options for future actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benavides, Pablo

    1998-12-01

    This publication relates to environmental challenges of the energy sector and options for future action. Following themes are discussed: Globalisation of the energy sector; environmental challenges; the challenge of climate change; options for future action

  8. Modelling energy demand in the buildings sector within the EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O Broin, Eoin

    2012-11-01

    In the on-going effort within the EU to tackle greenhouse gas emissions and secure future energy supplies, the buildings sector is often referred to as offering a large potential for energy savings. The aim of this thesis is to produce scenarios that highlight the parameters that affect the energy demands and thus potentials for savings of the building sector. Top-down and bottom-up approaches to modelling energy demand in EU buildings are applied in this thesis. The top-down approach uses econometrics to establish the historical contribution of various parameters to energy demands for space and water heating in the residential sectors of four EU countries. The bottom-up approach models the explicit impact of trends in energy efficiency improvement on total energy demand in the EU buildings stock. The two approaches are implemented independently, i.e., the results from the top-down studies do not feed into those from the bottom-up studies or vice versa. The explanatory variables used in the top-down approach are: energy prices; heating degree days, as a proxy for outdoor climate; a linear time trend, as a proxy for technology development; and the lag of energy demand, as a proxy for inertia in the system. In this case, inertia refers to the time it takes to replace space and water heating systems in reaction to price changes. The analysis gives long-term price elasticities of demand as follows: for France, -0.17; for Italy, -0.35; for Sweden, -0.27; and for the UK, -0.35. These results reveal that the price elasticity of demand for space and water heating is inelastic in each of these cases. Nonetheless, scenarios created for the period up to 2050 using these elasticities and an annual price increase of 3 % show that demand can be reduced by more than 1 % per year in France and Sweden and by less than 1 % per year in Italy and the UK. In the bottom-up modelling, varying rates for conversion efficiencies, heating standards for new buildings, end-use efficiency, and

  9. Health sector solidarity: a core European value but with broadly varying content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltman, Richard B

    2015-01-01

    Although the concept of solidarity sits at the center of many European health sector debates, the specific groups eligible for coverage, the financing arrangements, and the range of services and benefits that, together, compose the operational content of solidarity have all changed considerably over time. In prior economic periods, solidarity covered considerably fewer services or groups of the population than it does today. As economic and political circumstances changed, the content of solidarity changed with them. Recent examples of these shifts are illustrated through a discussion of health reforms in Netherlands, Germany and also Israel (although not in Europe, the Israeli health system is similar in structure to European social health insurance systems). This article suggests that changed economic circumstances in Europe since the onset of the 2008 financial crisis may lead to re-configuring the scope and content of services covered by solidarity in many European health systems. A key issue for policymakers will be protecting vulnerable populations as this re-design occurs.

  10. Market Barriers to Increased Efficiency in the European On-road Freight Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarnink, S.; Faber, J.; Den Boer, E.

    2012-10-15

    There are numerous technical and operational measures available to improve the fuel efficiency of truck fleets, but many of these measures are currently not universally implemented. Even cost-effective measures (i.e., measures which can be implemented with net fuel savings that outweigh the initial technology costs and potentially at a net profit) are often not adopted. The main barrier is the lack of information on the fuel savings of individual technical measures for trucks and especially trailers. While many transport companies and all original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) are aware that certain technologies exist, few respondents believe that these technologies are cost-effective. As a result of this belief, the supply of fuel-saving technologies from OEMs is limited. This report aims to better understand the reasons for the limited adoption of cost-effective fuel-saving technologies and to inform the policy-making process in the European Union and abroad, and specifically to provide input to the European Commission's strategy for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from HDVs. The primary goal of the study is to identify the barriers to the implementation of technologies that improve fuel efficiency in the European road freight transport sector. For this report, the existence and importance of barriers were analyzed through surveys of and interviews with transport companies, OEMs, shippers and logistics service providers.

  11. New interactions in the dark sector mediated by dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookfield, Anthony W.; Bruck, Carsten van de; Hall, Lisa M. H.

    2008-01-01

    Cosmological observations have revealed the existence of a dark matter sector, which is commonly assumed to be made up of one particle species only. However, this sector might be more complicated than we currently believe: there might be more than one dark matter species (for example, two components of cold dark matter or a mixture of hot and cold dark matter) and there may be new interactions between these particles. In this paper we study the possibility of multiple dark matter species and interactions mediated by a dark energy field. We study both the background and the perturbation evolution in these scenarios. We find that the background evolution of a system of multiple dark matter particles (with constant couplings) mimics a single fluid with a time-varying coupling parameter. However, this is no longer true on the perturbative level. We study the case of attractive and repulsive forces as well as a mixture of cold and hot dark matter particles

  12. Susceptibility of SCADA systems and the energy sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goike, Lindsay

    The research in this paper focused on analyzing SCADA systems in the energy sector for susceptibility to cyber attacks, in furtherance of providing suggestions to mitigate current and future cyber attacks. The research will be addressing the questions: how are SCADA systems susceptible to cyber attacks, and what are the suggested ways to mitigate both current and future cyber attacks. The five main categories of security vulnerabilities facing current SCADA systems were found to be: connectivity to the Internet, failure to plan, interdependency of sectors, numerous different types of threats, and outdated software. Some of the recommendations mentioned to mitigate current and future risks were: virtual private networks, risk assessments, increased physical security, updating of software, and firewalls.

  13. Energy data sourcebook for the US residential sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, T.P.; Koomey, J.G.; Sanchez, M. [and others

    1997-09-01

    Analysts assessing policies and programs to improve energy efficiency in the residential sector require disparate input data from a variety of sources. This sourcebook, which updates a previous report, compiles these input data into a single location. The data provided include information on end-use unit energy consumption (UEC) values of appliances and equipment efficiency; historical and current appliance and equipment market shares; appliances and equipment efficiency and sales trends; appliance and equipment efficiency standards; cost vs. efficiency data for appliances and equipment; product lifetime estimates; thermal shell characteristics of buildings; heating and cooling loads; shell measure cost data for new and retrofit buildings; baseline housing stocks; forecasts of housing starts; and forecasts of energy prices and other economic drivers. This report is the essential sourcebook for policy analysts interested in residential sector energy use. The report can be downloaded from the Web at http://enduse.lbl. gov/Projects/RED.html. Future updates to the report, errata, and related links, will also be posted at this address.

  14. Decarbonizing the European electricity sector. Modeling and policy analysis for electricity and CO{sub 2} infrastructure networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oei, Pao-Yu Charly Robin

    2016-03-03

    This dissertation uses three models to analyze different decarbonization strategies for combating global climate change: The cost minimizing mixed-integer model CCTS-Mod examines the economics of Carbon Capture, Transport, and Storage (CCTS) for the electricity and industry sector; the welfare maximizing quadratically constrained model ELMOD focuses on different trajectories for renewable energy sources (RES) and transmission grid expansions; and the equilibrium model ELCO combines the insights of the individual sectors to a combined CCTS and electricity investment and dispatch model. Modeling results show that an investment in CCTS is beneficial for the iron and steel sector once the CO{sub 2} certificate price exceeds 50 Euros/t CO{sub 2}. The threshold is 75 Euros/t CO{sub 2} for the cement industry and 100 Euros/t CO{sub 2} for the electricity sector. Additional revenues from using CO{sub 2} for enhanced oil recovery (CO{sub 2}-EOR) lead to an earlier adoption of CCTS in the North Sea region. The lack of economies of scale results in increasing CO{sub 2} storage costs of more than 30%, while transport costs even double. Research from the last years, however, indicates that CCTS is unlikely to play an important role in decarbonizing the electricity sector. The identified reasons for this are incumbents' resistance to structural change, wrong technology choices, over-optimistic cost estimates, a premature focus on energy projects instead of industry, and the underestimation of transport and storage issues. Keeping global temperature rise below 2 C therefore implies the phase-out of fossilfueled power plants and, in particular, of CO{sub 2}-intensive coal power plants. The low CO{sub 2} price established by the European Emissions Trading Scheme is insufficient to induce a fuel switch in the medium term. Therefore, supplementary national measures are necessary to reduce coal-based power generation; i.a. feed-in tariffs for RES, minimum CO{sub 2} prices, or

  15. The future of energy in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles, C.

    1997-01-01

    Two of the three European Union founding treaties have a marked energy nature but, however, at the present time, the EU lacks a Common Energy Policy, Starting with this paradox, the European Parliament Member Robles Piquer uses this article, which reproduces the lecture he gave at the CSN, to proffer his view of the future of energy which the EU will have and that which it should have, in this opinion. (Author)

  16. Energy priorities and options for the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audland, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    The paper discusses the energy priorities and options for the European Community. Reasons for the recent improvement in the efficiency of energy use are briefly discussed, as well as the outlook for 1990, priorities for the future, solid fuels. natural gas, electricity and nuclear energy. Energy policy considerations in the United Kingdom are also mentioned. (U.K.)

  17. Energy Efficiency Labeling According to the Energy Legislative of the European Union and the Republic of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raguzin, I.; Krstulovic, V.

    2001-01-01

    In the majority of developed countries, minimal standards for energy efficiency are an indispensable part of national energy policies, aiming to reduce the consumption of energy and emissions of waste. The successful integration of the Republic of Croatia into the European Union will certainly be influenced by accepting of the European norms and energy efficiency standards. The Croatian Parliament has billed a set of five acts that represent reform laws for the energy sector. As the EU membership is Croatian national objective, those acts are simultaneously adjusting Croatian legislation to European regulatory acts for that area. The Energy law provides energy efficiency labeling for producers and retailers. The paper describes, beside the EU directives for energy efficiency labeling of products, the basic approach of the Republic of Croatia to the definition of implementation regulations for labeling. Regarded are also basics of concept and practical experience of ''Energy Star'' initiative in the USA, the objective of which is to, being a support on local and federal level, facilitate the decision-making for the purchase of energy efficient products and services.(author)

  18. Mergers and acquisitions in the European electricity sector. Cases and patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codognet, M.K.; Glachant, J.M.; Leveque, F.; Plagnet, M.A.

    2002-08-01

    This report surveys 96 mergers and acquisitions of electric power companies in the European Union from January 1998 to August 2002. Cases are described in part 1 and patterns in part 2. The companies in concern are: E.ON (Germany), Powergen (UK), RWE (Germany), National Power (UK), Innogy (UK), Electricite de France (EdF), Edison (Italy), EnBW (Germany), Electricidade de Portugal (EdP), Suez (France), Endesa (Spain), Enel (Italy), Vattenfall (Sweden), Bewag (Germany), Hafslund ASA (Norway), FORTUM (Finland), STATKRAFT (Norway), British Energy (UK), Scottish and Southern Energy (UK), National Grid Transco (UK), Centrica (UK), Sydvest Energi (Denmark), Essent (Netherlands) and Nuon (Netherlands). (J.S.)

  19. Results of the Spanish Nuclear Sector in the “Analysis of the Potential Development of Energy Technologies in Spain”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco, R.; León, P.T.

    2015-07-01

    On June 30, 2011, driven by the Minister of Science and Technology Cristina Garmendia, the ALINNE Alliance (Alliance for Energy Research and Innovation) was established. ALINNE is a non-profit initiative created to unite and coordinate efforts among all actors in the value chain of R & D in energy, allowing to respond to the main policy challenges that the R&D have in the field of the energy sector, Contributing to the definition of a work patterns nationwide and European positioning. The founder members of ALINNE are composed of eleven representatives of the private sector who are the presidents of the nine Spanish companies with active participation in the field of R&D and leading theIBEX 35 at the time, two SMEs, and nine representatives of the public sector. The CIEMAT currently holds the secretariat of the Alliance. (Author)

  20. Results of the Spanish Nuclear Sector in the “Analysis of the Potential Development of Energy Technologies in Spain”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasco, R.; León, P.T.

    2015-01-01

    On June 30, 2011, driven by the Minister of Science and Technology Cristina Garmendia, the ALINNE Alliance (Alliance for Energy Research and Innovation) was established. ALINNE is a non-profit initiative created to unite and coordinate efforts among all actors in the value chain of R & D in energy, allowing to respond to the main policy challenges that the R&D have in the field of the energy sector, Contributing to the definition of a work patterns nationwide and European positioning. The founder members of ALINNE are composed of eleven representatives of the private sector who are the presidents of the nine Spanish companies with active participation in the field of R&D and leading theIBEX 35 at the time, two SMEs, and nine representatives of the public sector. The CIEMAT currently holds the secretariat of the Alliance. (Author)