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Sample records for european energy law

  1. Report of the European Energy Law seminar 2011; Verslag European Energy Law seminar 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holwerda, J.M.; Mueller, H.K. [Groningen Centre of Energy Law, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen RUG, Groningen (Netherlands); Mutsaers, A. [De Brauw Blackstone Westbroek, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    The 24th European Energy Law Seminar was held in Noordwijk aan Zee, Netherlands, 11-12 April 2011. The first day attention was paid to the liberalization of the energy markets, the climate and energy. The second day was dedicated to energy security, the upstream sector and development of energy infrastructure. [Dutch] Op 11 en 12 april 2011 vond te Noordwijk aan Zee wederom het jaarlijkse - 24ste - European Energy Law Seminar plaats. De eerste dag stond in het teken van de liberalisering van de energiemarkten en klimaat- en energie, terwijl de tweede dag gewijd was aan energievoorzieningszekerheid, de upstream sector en ontwikkeling van de energie-infrastructuur.

  2. Network Codes – European Energy Law in the Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Błajszczak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is preparing a series of regulations governing in detail various aspects of grid operation and free-market trade in electricity and gas, the so-called network codes. The paper reviews this process of European energy legislation development. Also discussed are the European Union bodies and major stakeholders in this process, as well as the national law making and enforcing agencies. In the past, law in Poland was created by Polish citizens. After joining the European Union the law in effect is largely created elsewhere by someone else, even if with significant participation of Polish representatives. The law on energy is not only important for producers, distributors and trading companies, but it strongly effects industrial competitiveness and hence the quality of life of the population.

  3. European energy law in Germany; Europaeisiertes Energierecht in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allwardt, C.

    2006-07-01

    The book focuses on deregulation and unbundling of the European electricity market. The structure of the European power supply industry is described, with the focus on Germany. European and German boundary conditions are outlined, and the German Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (Renewables Act) and its amendments is discussed in detail. The author discusses if the mechanism claimed in this Act for funding of renewable energy sources is compatible with European law, especially as regards competition and free trading as well as financial aids. It is found that there should be no doubts on a European level as any obstacles set by the Act are justified by European environmental policy. The case is different on a national scale as the mechanism concerning exceptions form the rule is incompatible with the equality principle laid down in the German constitution. (orig.)

  4. European emission trading, renewable energy law and the law of governmental environmental allowances; Europaeischer Emissionshandel, Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz und das Recht der Umweltbeihilfen. Plaedoyer fuer einen ''more environmental approach'' im EU-Wettbewerbsrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Max

    2016-07-01

    The book on European emission trading, renewable energy law and the law of governmental environmental allowances covers the following issues: The European emission trading system and the European law on competition, the European emission trading system and competitive concerns; The European renewable energy law and the European law on competition, The European renewable energy law and competitive concerns; environmental protection the European competition policy.

  5. European media law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castendyk, O.; Dommering, E.; Scheuer, A.

    2008-01-01

    European Union legislation concerning electronic communications media is firmly established as an essential part of the law in the field in Europe. From relevant provisions of the European Convention of Human Rights and the EC Treaty to numerous directives, the most recent being the Audiovisual

  6. European Corporate Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik; Dorresteijn, Adriaan; Teichmann, Christoph

    This fully updated new edition provides the best-known practical overview of the law regarding companies, business activities, and capital markets in Europe, at both the European Union (EU) and Member State levels. It incorporates analysis of recent developments including the impact of global......; - a company’s freedom to incorporate in a jurisdiction not its own; - competition among the legal forms of different Member States; and - safeguarding of employee involvement in cross-border transactions. With respect to national law, the laws of Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain...... initiatives in such aspects of the corporate environment as regulation of financial institutions and non-financial reporting obligations with a view to sustainability and other social responsibility concerns. The authors, all leading experts in European corporate law, describe current and emerging trends...

  7. International and European atomic legislation. The military and civil use of nuclear energy from the view of international law and European law; Internationales und europaeisches Atomrecht. Die militaerische und friedliche Nutzung der Atomenergie aus Sicht des Voelker- und Europarechts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odendahl, Kerstin (ed.) [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Professur fuer Oeffentliches Recht; Kiel Univ. (Germany). Walther-Schuecking-Inst. fuer Internationales Recht

    2013-07-01

    The book on the international and European atomic legislation covers the following issues: the military and civil use of nuclear energy from the view of international law and European law; the use of nuclear weapons in military conflicts; nuclear disarmament and the implementation of nuclear-free zones; the engagement against nuclear weapon proliferation; nuclear power plants from the view of international laws and the law concerning the respective interests of neighboring states; international cooperation in case of nuclear disasters - lessons learned from Chernobyl and Fukushima; the IAEA as the watchdog over the safety and peaceful use of nuclear energy? European legal requirements for the civil use of nuclear energy: EURATOM and EU norms.

  8. European Law in the Making:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    the legal service of the High Authority from early on promoted a ‘constitutional’ interpretation of European law, but where the member state, as well as most legal experts, still considered European law a subset of international law. How did the Court of Justice of the ECSC manoeuvre between...... on European law in the making.......Traditionally, the Court of Justice of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) has mainly been considered the somewhat dull predecessor to the more famous Court of Justice of the European Communities, which in 1963-64 ‘constitutionalised’ the Treaties of Rome with the seminal judgments of Van...

  9. Towards a European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondius, E.H.

    2000-01-01

    I. Introduction. II. Subject-matter of this paper. III. Constitutionality. IV. Codification. V. Is it Feasible?VI. Howto proceed. VII. New problems: finding the Law. VIII. The Netherlands, Belgium and Germany. IX. Common Law and Civil Law. X. East and west. XI. European Community Law. XII.

  10. Security of energy supply under the laws of the European Union / European Community; Energieversorgungssicherheit im Recht der Europaeischen Union, Europaeischen Gemeinschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proefrock, M.C.

    2007-07-01

    Security of supply is defined as the availability and reliability of energy supply at acceptable prices. By security of energy supply we mean a globally large supply of reliable, affordable, clean energy. By virtue of its nature security of supply in the energy sector primarily requires making provisions for the future through exploration, innovation, research, diversification and investments in technology. Energy politics takes place in a tension field defined by the goals of economic efficiency, sustainability and security of supply. In the past there have been repeated shifts within this triad of goals. The task for a rational energy policy is to reconciliate these goals in a meaningful way. European energy policy is understood to comprise all sovereign measures taken by the European Union in the energy sector, in particular measures that impact on the supply and demand for energy resources. Energy law serves, or should serve, to bring energy policy to realisation and therefore presupposes the existence of the latter. Energy policy means the figuration of an economy's energy sector in such a manner that the present and future demand of the economic region is covered.

  11. INTERNATIONAL AND EUROPEAN LAW PRINCIPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitriţa FLOREA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We live nowadays a posteriori establishment through institutional treaties and a well-built jurisprudence that set up some of the general treaties. The structure of the European Union as well as the particular nature of the community legal order led to the establishment of some general principles, such as the principle of the institutional balance, the principle of solidarity between member states, the principle of primacy, the principle of the immediate and direct effect of the European law. It is certain that the legal order of the community law has its basis in the legal order of the International public law from which it has continuously delineated. The European communities, as subjects of the International public law are obliged to comply with the general International law, its fundamental principles and its bases, leading to some obligations capable to produce effects in the community legal order. The Court Of Justice of the European Union established as principles applicable in the European law the principles of the International public law, especially when it was called to assert regarding the International relationships of the Community as well as those of the 28 member states, confirming in the matter of the applicability of the treaties, the pacta sunt servanda rule, the principle of the good faith, the legitimate faith or the rebus sic standibus exception, all of them belonging to the custom International law.

  12. Principles of European Company Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The article focuses on how much we have in common in Europe within company law and its development, and on the principles which are the determining factors for the activities of European companies. The article shows that what we have in common greatly outweighs what divides us......, and this is presented in the article as the provisional capstone of 400 years of joint European development of company law....

  13. Introductory Guide to European Corporate Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    Introductory Guide to European Corporate Law presents in an easily comprehensible and accessible way the main features and principles that govern European corporate law.......Introductory Guide to European Corporate Law presents in an easily comprehensible and accessible way the main features and principles that govern European corporate law....

  14. Telemedicine and European law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Stefaan

    2003-01-01

    A Directive of the European Union was first published in 2000, which dealt with telemedicine as part of its provisions. This E-Commerce Directive, as it became known, was subjected to further study which revealed some problems relative to the practice of telemedicine. Among the subjects discussed in this paper are those of privacy, data protection, free movement of services, the impact of electronic communication and ethical issues.

  15. Principles of European Contract Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole; Beale, Hugh

    of articles, with a detailed commentary explaining the purpose and operation of each article and its relation to the remainder. Each article also has extensive comparative notes surveying the national laws and other international provisions on the topic. "The Principles of European Contract Law Parts I &......This text provides a comprehensive guide to the principles of European contract law. They have been drawn up by an independent body of experts from each Member State of the EU, under a project supported by the European Commission and many other organizations. The principles are stated in the form......; II" cover the core rules of contract: formation, authority of agents, validity, interpretation, contents, performance, non-performance and remedies. The articles previously published in Part I (1995) are included in a revised and re-ordered form. Throughout Europe there is great interest...

  16. THE INTERFERENCE OF EUROPEAN UNION LAW WITH PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA-MARIANA POPESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Law is an unique legal phenomenon developed in the process of European integration within the framework of the European Communities and the European Union; a result of the implementation of the supranational authority of the European institutions. The European Union law is a specific legal system having independent sources and principles that developed at the border-line of international law and domestic law of the EU’s Member States. The authonomy of the European Union law is affirmed by a case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union.The European Union has its own legal order which is separate from international law and forms an integral part of the legal systems of the Member States. The legal order of the Union is founded on various different sources of law. The different nature of these sources has imposed a hierarchy among them. At the pinnacle of this hierarchy we find primary law, represented by the Treaties and general legal principles, followed by international treaties concluded by the Union and secondary law founded on the Treaties.

  17. Environmental and energy law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Makuch, Karen E; Pereira, Ricardo, Dr

    2012-01-01

    "Environmental & Energy Law attempts to bridge the knowledge gap between legal developments designed to achieve environmental and/or energy-related objectives and the practical, scientific and technical...

  18. European New Legal Realism and International Law:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Jakob v. H.; Madsen, Mikael Rask

    2015-01-01

    these major positions obviously provide interesting insights, none of them manage to make international law intelligible in a broader sense. Instead, it argues for a European New Legal Realist approach to international law accommodating the so-called external and internal dimensions of law in a single more...... and combines them with insights originating from Bourdieusian sociology of law....

  19. European Home Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.

    2009-01-01

    An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes......An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes...

  20. General Issues in International and European Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gentian Zyberi

    2015-01-01

    As a former editor of the predecessor to this journal, namely Merkourios, it gives me great pleasure to write the editorial for the 81st issue of the Utrecht Journal of International and European Law (“UJIEL...

  1. The european union as subjects of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fila R.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available At the international level it is recognized that development and progress of the new and unique international organization – European Union – is one of the appropriate form of the international organization’s integration. Although European Union was establish as international economic organization, it has gradually integrated the various “best practices” ideas from different governmental systems. Encouragement and motives for cooperation of Member states indicate that member states give more competences of government to the international organization’s institutes. Wherewith, it is observed that the economic and political internationalization has led to disappearance of integrity of territory of member states. The above mentioned opinion is not based on research of the European Union as international organization from standpoint of international law, but from standpoint of theory law – could give juridical estimate regarding executive power in European Union and who could define particular source and entity of administrative law of European Union.

  2. European labour law legislation 2012/2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, S.S.M.

    2012-01-01

    This publication brings together the most important European and international regulation in the area of labour law. It includes regulations from, among others, the European Union, the Council of Europe and the International Labour Organisation. The selected regulations are decisive to some extent

  3. Five political ideas of European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the possible implications of leading contemporary theories of political philosophy for some of the main questions that the political institutions of the European Union will have to decide on concerning the future of European contract law. Thus, it explores what a utilitarian,

  4. European and Czech principles of contract law

    OpenAIRE

    Balážová, Júlia

    2008-01-01

    8 Summary European and Czech Principles of Contract Law This thesis is focused on principles of contract law. In the first instance, it explains the theoretical conception of principles of law and adverts to their status in the Czech legal system. The second Chapter of the thesis dissertates about basic principles of the Czech private law starting with the principle of freedom of contract, ends with the principles of good faith and fair dealing. The main part of the thesis deals with the Euro...

  5. How to Enforce European Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    crisis that had evolved in the late 1970s between France and the ECJ, led to a change in the EC’s case law that limited the direct effect of directives to the vertical relation between citizens and the respective member state and excluded any horizontal effect. The story is an example of how the activist...

  6. Developments in international/European health law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbing, Henriette D C Roscam

    2009-03-01

    International (European) organizations have impact on health law. The most recent developments are: a revision of the world Medical's Association Declaration of Helsinki, a proposal for a Directive (European Commission) on standards of quality and safety of human organs intended for transplantation, accompanied by a ten point action plan; a proposal (European Commission) for a Directive on the application of patients' rights in cross-border health care; a proposal (European commission) for a Directive on information to the general public on medicinal products subject to medical prescription.

  7. National And European Law: Problem Of Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M. Mesheriakova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Present article is devoted to one of the main problems for all integration communities –problem of implementation of the integration law norms in the national legal system of member states. Author, on the example of certain member states of the European Union considers mechanism of the European Union law action in it's member states. In the article constitutional norms of the number of member states which set a ratio of the national and European laws are analyzed. According to the principle of competence giving, member states voluntary transfer part of the competence to the European Union. Competences which are transferred to the member states are the competences of the European Union. In the course of research author investigates opinions of scientists and analyze regulations. Author pays separate attention to the question of the European Union creation. For example, author notes that consideration by the Federal Constitutional Court in Karlsruhe of the question of compliance of the Treaty to the Constitution of Germany became neither more nor less a most important milestone on the way of Treaty on the European Union ratification by Germany. In the decision on this matter Court defined a number of reference points for the purpose of possible excise if the European integration elimination out of those limits which are set for the government of Germany by its Constitution. The decision of the Constitutional Court of Germany though meant approval of the Treaty on the European Union in the political sense, it was nevertheless unambiguously directed against broad interpretation and federalist vision of the European integration. It is obvious that states, on the basis of constitutional norms may leave contracts that are burdensome for them. It concerns not only international treaties, but also Treaties of the European Union.

  8. European Union competition law, intellectual property law and standardization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geradin, Damien; Contreras, Jorge L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the efforts of the European Commission to identify and, when necessary, challenge anticompetitive behaviour with respect to standardization and the licensing of standardized technologies, as well as the case-law of the CJEU on the same subject. The paper starts by

  9. Response to the European Commission's consultation on the future of European company law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Böckli, P.; Davies, P.; Ferran, E.; Ferrarini, G.; Garrido, J.; Hopt, K.; Pietrancosta, A.; Pistor, K.; Skog, R.; Soltysinski, S.; Winter, J.; Wymeersch, E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper contains the views of the European Company Law Experts (ECLE) on the future of European company law. The paper accompanies the responses of the European Company Law Experts to the European Commission’s Consultation on the future of European Company Law of spring 2012. In the first part of

  10. European Law: Ending Discrimination against Girls in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendel, Margherita

    1992-01-01

    Examines how the European Convention on Human Rights and its case law could combat sexist education and develop concepts of philosophical convictions, the European Community's duty, and children's rights. Considers feminist strategies for improving girls' education, English and European procedural laws, and difficulties of using English law. (RLC)

  11. Compensatory Measures in European Nature Conservation Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geert Van Hoorick

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Birds and Habitats Directives are the cornerstones of EU nature conservation law, aiming at the conservation of the Natura 2000 network, a network of protected sites under these directives, and the protection of species. The protection regime for these sites and species is not absolute: Member States may, under certain conditions, allow plans or projects that can have an adverse impact on nature. In this case compensatory measures can play an important role in safeguarding the Natura 2000 network and ensuring the survival of the protected species.This contribution analyses whether taking compensatory measures is always obligatory, and discusses the aim and the characteristics of compensatory measures, in relation to other kinds of measures such as mitigation measures, usual nature conservation measures, and former nature development measures, and to the assessment of the adverse impact caused by the plan or project and of the alternative solutions. The questions will be discussed in light of the contents of the legislation, the guidance and practice by the European Commission, (legal doctrine and case law, mainly of the Court of Justice of the European Union.

  12. Public Supervision over Private Relationships : Towards European Supervision Private Law?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherednychenko, O.O.

    2014-01-01

    The rise of public supervision over private relationships in many areas of private law has led to the development of what, in the author’s view, could be called ‘European supervision private law’. This emerging body of law forms part of European regulatory private law and is made up of

  13. Food Safety Law in the European Union. An introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.; Velde, van der M.

    2004-01-01

    “Food Safety Law in the European Union” analyses the substantive and procedural elements of food law, taking the General Food Law as a focus point. In substantive law general principles are treated, as well as the rules on the composition of food, the handling of food, and the communication about

  14. European integration and law: four contributions on the interplay between European integration and European and national law to celebrate the 25th anniversary of Maastricht University's Faculty of Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtin, D.; Smits, J.M.; Klip, A.; McCahery, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    This book offers four stimulating views on European integration and law. Four experts in the fields of European law, private law, criminal law and company law discuss to what extent European integration has affected their respective fields of interest. In addition to this, they offer their views on

  15. A European legal method? On European private law and scientific method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between European private law and scientific method. It argues that a European legal method is a good idea. Not primarily because it will make European private law scholarship look more scientific, but because a debate on the method of a normative science

  16. How to study the history of European law?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    the emerging academic field of European law was deeply involved in legitimating the jurisprudence of the Court of Justice in the 1960s. In the second part of the article, the starting point is to place mainstream legal and political science studies of European law in a historical perspective in order...... of the development of European law. To historians, mainstream legal and political science scholarship rather seems to be part of the research object....... constituted by the Commission’s legal service, transnationally organised pro-European jurists and the European Parliament. When the Court of Justice in the two key judgments, Van Gend en Loos (1963) and Costa V. ENEL (1964), took the decisive steps to transform European law into a semi-federal legal order...

  17. International energy conservation: comparative law and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    Ernest C. Baynard III, in the Foreword to the conference, told of the purpose of the conference - to compare and discuss the policies and laws that highly industrialized nations have used and considered to meet the challenge of energy conservation. The following countries participated in the conference: U.K.; Australia; Federal Republic of Germany; Japan; France; Canada; Sweden; Italy; the Netherlands; and the U.S. The IEA and the Commission of the European Communities also participated. The conference format consisted of ministerial addresses to the conference, interspersed with panel discussions focusing on energy conservation in transportation, industry, agriculture, and utilities; residential, commercial, and industrial buildings; and emergency situations. There was also a panel discussion on the role of government in energy conservation and energy information collection. The panels were composed of participating countries' representatives. (MCW)

  18. The Second Look in European Union Competition Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jakob B; Torp, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Under European Union (EU) law, arbitrators and national courts are obligated to apply, ex officio, EU competition law. Also according to EU law, any failure by an arbitral tribunal to apply such rules, or any erroneous interpretation or application hereof, constitute grounds for setting aside the...

  19. HARMONISATION OF EUROPEAN CONTRACT LAW: SLOWLY BUT SURELY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEMA TOMÁS

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the harmonisation of European Contract Law from a gradual point of view. The main objective is to show the different academic and official steps carried out in this field. The so called Commission on European Contract Law under the leadership of Professor Ole Lando was the starting point in 1982. Some international research teams set up by European scholars and lawyers have been devoted to this aim for two decades. Time and effort have been made in the academic level to get a serious advance on bringing closer contractual national rules. This bottom-up approach met a stronger support in the last years although the European Parliament had “requested” the creation of a European Civil Code already in 1989. The momentous time comes in 2010 with a Green Paper from the European Commission on policy options for progress towards a European Contract Law for consumers and businesses. This Green Paper opened a public consultation period in 2011 and afterwards an expert group was appointed to draft a feasibility study for a future Instrument in European Contract Law. After all, a Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on a Common European Sales Law was adopted in October 2011 arising not few doubts, worries and misgivings from different points of view. This will be not the last step in this process.

  20. The phenomenon of translatability in the Europeanization of the Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkeleda Olldashi

    2013-01-01

    In order to shed further light for our readers, we analyze by emphasizing the significant differences between the civil law and common law system on one side and the legal families that are part of the same legal system, either “Civil” or “Common,” on the other side. The Europeanization of law refers to the communization of the law by EU institutions and to a process that aims at creating a common Europe legal system. In the end, either in medium or long term, the Europeanization is contributing to the so-called non-mandatory or soft harmonization of private law. It is in the best interest of the EU to seek adequate judicial instruments to accommodate the massive numbers of laws deriving from different Civil Law and the Common law systems.

  1. The European Union and National Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Vagn

    1995-01-01

    Beware of Punishment. Annika Snare (ed.) Beware of Punishment. On the Utility and Futility of Criminal Law......Beware of Punishment. Annika Snare (ed.) Beware of Punishment. On the Utility and Futility of Criminal Law...

  2. Contract law as fairness: a Rawlsian perspective on the position of SMEs in European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijnsma, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    European Contract Law is still very much in development. So far, only piecemeal legislation on contract law has been enacted on a European level. Accordingly, many of the questions concerning which rules to decide on are still up for debate. One such debate concerns weaker party protection and more

  3. An Optional Instrument for European Insurance Contract Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep Lakhan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The Principles of European Insurance Contract Law, also referred tousing the acronym PEICL, were published in September 2009. They are the result of ten years of academic work undertaken by the"Restatement of European Insurance Contract Law" Project Group. In the time since its establishment in 1999, the project has been transformed from being a stand-alone project to a part of the CoPECL (Common Principles of European Insurance Contract Law network, drafting a specific part of the Common Frame of Reference. Having continually worked under the guiding principle that "the law of insurance [in Europe] must be one," it now represents a serious option for providing Europe with a single legal framework for insurance contracts. Despite the European Council's proclamations that the Common Frame of Reference will remain a non-binding instrument, the implementation of one or more optional instruments in the future does not appear to beimprobable considering recent developments. The possibility of anoptional instrument has been expressed more than once by the European Commission in its Action Plan and Communication on European Contract Law. Other indications in favour of an optional instrument include the European Parliament's repeated references to the Common Frame of Reference as providing, at the very least, a model for a futureoptional instrument, as well as the EESC's earlier proposal of anoptional instrument as an alternative to standardising insurancecontract law. The preparation by the EESC of another (own-initiative opinion on European contract law is underway, and its presentation is anticipated in 2010. Hence, the optional instrument is evidently the subject of serious political deliberation. Using Article 1:102, the Principles of European Insurance Contract Law represent a prototype for such an instrument.

  4. An Optional Instrument for European Insurance Contract Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Heiss

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The Principles of European Insurance Contract Law, also referred tousing the acronym PEICL, were published in September 2009. They are the result of ten years of academic work undertaken by the"Restatement of European Insurance Contract Law" Project Group. In the time since its establishment in 1999, the project has been transformed from being a stand-alone project to a part of the CoPECL (Common Principles of European Insurance Contract Law network, drafting a specific part of the Common Frame of Reference. Having continually worked under the guiding principle that "the law of insurance [in Europe] must be one," it now represents a serious option for providing Europe with a single legal framework for insurance contracts.Despite the European Council's proclamations that the Common Frame of Reference will remain a non-binding instrument, the implementation of one or more optional instruments in the future does not appear to beimprobable considering recent developments. The possibility of anoptional instrument has been expressed more than once by the European Commission in its Action Plan and Communication on European Contract Law. Other indications in favour of an optional instrument include the European Parliament's repeated references to the Common Frame of Reference as providing, at the very least, a model for a futureoptional instrument, as well as the EESC's earlier proposal of anoptional instrument as an alternative to standardising insurancecontract law. The preparation by the EESC of another (own-initiative opinion on European contract law is underway, and its presentation is anticipated in 2010. Hence, the optional instrument is evidently the subject of serious political deliberation. Using Article 1:102, the Principles of European Insurance Contract Law represent a prototype for such an instrument.

  5. European Criminal Law a! er the Lisbon Treaty, or Europeanization of European law, under the co-responsibility of the Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Riza

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Same as EU Law, that presents a new area of law and that it is still in progress, the EU Criminal Law is developing. The development of EU criminal law, of course, is dictated by the development of European Law itself, or the EU itself. Depending on it, the EU will be a supranational structure, or will undergo changes and become a Federal State, or another unified form. Taking into consideration the importance of this area of law, which is created for cooperation among states to combat organized crime, and especially terrorism, we can have a Criminal Code European and a European code of Criminal Procedure certainly in the near future, namely, a codification of European criminal field. This paper aims to discuss the development of European criminal law, until the Treaty of Lisbon.

  6. 1. European Hydrogen Energy Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-01

    This conference is the first of a series of EHA (European Hydrogen Association) conferences that will take place every two years in Europe with the collaboration of the national European Hydrogen Associations. EHEC 2003 takes place within the context of the debates on long term energy strategies organized by the international authorities and the governments of many countries. Under the patronage of the European Commission and the French government, the conference will aim at providing a comprehensive picture of the research work and demonstrations on hydrogen and fuel cells that the currently being carried out all over the globe. EHEC 2003 will provide an opportunity to define the role that hydrogen will have in tomorrow's energy landscape and, in particular, the benefits with regard to: 1)sustainable development of energy 2)control of climate change 3)development of renewable energy 4)increase demand for ground transport. (O.M.)

  7. EU Law Autonomy Versus European Fundamental Rights Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Louise Halleskov

    2015-01-01

    rights protection. It argues that the concerns for EU law autonomy expressed in the Opinion for the most part are unwarranted and that the Court, through the use of classic constitutionalist language, seeks to position EU law as the superior European fundamental rights regime. The article furthermore...

  8. Diversity and harmonisation. Trends and challenges in European health law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartlev, Mette

    2010-03-01

    European countries share a number of fundamental values and ideas, but when it comes to the organisation of health care sectors and attitudes to basic patients' rights, there are also vast differences. Consequently, at the European level health law has to balance between the aspiration for uniformity and universal respect for fundamental rights on the one hand, and acceptance of national diversity on the other. The aim of the article is to characterise European health law in terms of both divergence and harmonisation, and to explore the tension between these two features in light of current trends and challenges.

  9. European Anti-dumping Law and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Eeckhout

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines recent developments in the European Union's anti-dumping policy, as it is applied towards China. It concentrates on recent court cases involving dumping from China and on the basic non-market economy issue. The author essentially argues that the European Union's policy does not take account sufficiently of China's development towards a market economy, and that there are various legal flaws in the way the policy is applied.

  10. European Union Energy Saving Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Y. Kaveshnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses methods of energy efficiency stimulation in the European Union. The author investigates basic areas of the EU activity; in particular, the author estimates results of implementation of the Energy Star program, new provisions of labeling of energy-using products, measures to increase energy efficiency in buildings. The paper also analyzes the provisions of the Directive 2012/27 that is the first EU document, providing for a comprehensive approach to energy saving at all stages: production, transformation and consumption. Today EU policy includes: 7 a general political and regulatory framework laid down by the European action plan on energy efficiency and Directive 2012/27; 2 national action plans on energy efficiency, which should be in line with indicative targets set at the EU level; 3 special EU documents in key areas of energy efficiency (buildings, energy-consuming equipment etc.; 4 accompanying instruments, such as target funding, information dissemination, support of specialized networks. The paper gives a comprehensive analysis of the key methods of implementation of EU policy in the area of energy saving. The author concludes that EU operates within the framework of the open method of coordination. The system of mandatory/voluntary technical standards has allowed to achieve significant success, but indicative planning and monitoring of national actions are not completely effective. In the long term EU policy in the area of energy efficiency is restrained by member states unwillingness to delegate to the European Union a more detailed powers in this field and to give the EU bodies facilities to execute more strict control. In the short term - in conditions of economic crisis, the EU countries are not ready to invest significant budget funds in projects with long payback period.

  11. Linking Public Administration and Law Studies within European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela V. Cărăuşan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The year 1987 represented for us, scholars, the turning point for the Europeanization of highdegree studies. The European Region Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students (ERASMUS isa European Union student exchange program which has proved its utility in the last two decade. The publicadministration and law studies are two of the fields of studies which have benefited from the ERASMUSProgramme. In this respect we will try to learn the lesson of internationalization from the European contactthrough ERASMUS programme. The ‘win win’ for students is not just in the increase of knowledge in thearea of administrative sciences and law, but also in the share of cultures. The ERASMUS gives students abetter sense of what it means to be a European citizen. In addition, many employers highly value such aperiod abroad, which increases the students’ employability and job prospects.

  12. European Corporate Law, 2nd edition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik; Dorresteijn, Adriaan; Monteiro, Tiago Pereira

    As in the First Edition (1995) of this well-known book, the authors demonstrate that analysis and comparison of national corporate laws on a number of issues yield highly valuable general principles and observations, not least because business organisations, wherever located, tend to show...

  13. Contract law as fairness: a Rawlsian perspective on the position of SMEs in European contract law

    OpenAIRE

    Klijnsma, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    European Contract Law is still very much in development. So far, only piecemeal legislation on contract law has been enacted on a European level. Accordingly, many of the questions concerning which rules to decide on are still up for debate. One such debate concerns weaker party protection and more specifically the position of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Here many normative questions are still left unresolved. This means that a normative framework is called for to make coherent...

  14. Reorganization in US and European Bankruptcy law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    European countries have amended their bankruptcy statutes in the past decades to increase the likelihood of a company's continuation in bankruptcy. Liquidation procedures are ill suited to realize the full value of the company as a going concern. An infusion of new finance raises company valuation

  15. The phenomenon of harmonisation in European medical law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterková, Helena; Císarová, Dagmar; Sovová, Olga; Holcapek, Tomás

    2012-03-01

    As the field of medical law is regarded, since the 1950s two most significant entities recognized by international law have been present in the sphere of Europe: The Council of Europe which members signed to protect fundamental rights and freedoms and the European Union established upon the original European Communities which influence protection of fundamental rights steadily tends to grow especially in the last decades and results in a legally binding Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. Despite the impressive amount of reservations and exceptions to the conventions, the European Convention for Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and particularly the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine are presented as great instruments for influencing national laws. The role of European institutions in coordinating, harmonising or even unifying national laws as far the issue of public health is concerned is much more difficult - on one hand there are the legal binding measures permitted under specific provisions of EU Treaties to define the minimum standard, on the other hand the subsidiary of the Union's action in the area of public health and the doctrine of complementary competence happen to be rather dominant.

  16. On Law and Policy in a European and European Union Patent Court (EEUPC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Clement Salung; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2010-01-01

    generis, transnational court system with exclusive jurisdiction in respect of civil litigation related to the infringement and validity of European patents and EU patent. This paper considers this proposal for the establishment of the EEUPC under two basic observations, namely that substantive law......On 4 December 2009, the European Council unanimously adopted conclusions on an enhanced patent system in Europe, which inter alia intends to establish a new EU patent as well as a new common patent judiciary – the European and European Union Patent Court (EEUPC). The EEUPC will constitute a new sui...... requires legal institutions, which support the purposes and policies underlying the substantive law in question, and that legal institutions affect the law. The first observation leads to a discussion of the requirements which a common judiciary in the European patent system should satisfy and different...

  17. [[Italian 194 Law, Conscientious Objection and the European Disapproval].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Marilisa

    This essay aims at delving into the issues raised by the application of the Law No. 194/1978 in the matter of the voluntary termination of pregnancy, taking into account the constitutional principles, the judgments of the Italian Constitutional Court and the recent decision on the merit of the Collective Complaint No. 87/2012 (International Planned Parenthood Federation European Network v. Italy) adopted by the European Committee of Social Rights.

  18. law, the laws of nature and ecosystem energy services

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Office 2004 Test Drive User

    forest can be regrown in a relatively short time (decades to a century, compared to tens of ..... 80 /214. The IUCN treats only a small subset of biomass-based energy as products of ecosystem provisioning services.65 Biomass energy is important, supplying ... The laws of physics and thermodynamics govern ecosystem.

  19. European Criminal Law a! er the Lisbon Treaty, or Europeanization of European law, under the co-responsibility of the Member States

    OpenAIRE

    Arif Riza; Fatmir Halili

    2016-01-01

    Same as EU Law, that presents a new area of law and that it is still in progress, the EU Criminal Law is developing. The development of EU criminal law, of course, is dictated by the development of European Law itself, or the EU itself. Depending on it, the EU will be a supranational structure, or will undergo changes and become a Federal State, or another unified form. Taking into consideration the importance of this area of law, which is created for cooperation among states to combat organi...

  20. The impact of European Union law on public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, John

    The previous articles on the European Union and health law have looked at the effect of EU law on the practitioner and on the patient. This article considers the impact on public health. This is a broad concept, and the impact of EU law is equally broadly felt. There is a general recognition of the importance of health issues, reflected in Article 152 (1) EC, A high level of human health protection shall be ensured in the definition and implementation of all Community policies and activities. This article focuses particularly on the impact of Article 152 on public health within individual member states.

  1. European Private Law after the Treaty of Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Betlem, G.; Hondius, E.H.

    2001-01-01

    The communitarization of the private law of the Member States has been given a significant impetus by the transfer of EC competence regarding judicial cooperation in civil matters from the third to the first pillar of the European Union. That is to say, under a new title of the EC Treaty, a single

  2. The many advantages of a common European sales law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondius, E.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068302371

    2016-01-01

    Whatever its importance may be, the draft regulation for a common European sales law (CESL) has had one major effect. It has been discussed all over Europe and even outside. The question whether or not an Optional Instrument should be introduced, is hotly debated. Basically, authors have either

  3. Depositaries in European Investment Law : Towards Harmonization in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooghiemstra, Sebastiaan Niels

    2018-01-01

    In practice, the same investment firms and credit institutions are acting as a custodian for discretionary mandates and ‘execution only’1 services under MiFID II/CRD IV, a depositary under the AIFMD/UCITSD V and a depositary/custodian under IORPD II. The European investment laws, i.e. MiFID II, CRD

  4. The principles of European family law: its aims and prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boele-Woelki, K.

    2005-01-01

    The Commission on European Family Law (CEFL) initiated a research project based on transnational collaboration that was generally believed to be impossible to realize in Europe. Never before in legal history, has such a large group of scholars investigated the possibilities for and contributed to

  5. European energy security : Challenges and green opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Heshmati, Almas; Abolhosseini, Shahrouz

    2017-01-01

    This research reviews relevant literature on the current state and effectiveness of developing renewable energy on energy security in general, and on energy security in the European Union in particular. The paper elaborates on primary energy import sources, possible alternatives, and how energy security is affected by the sources of supply. It also gives an analysis of the effects of the Ukrainian crisis, the isolation of Iran on diversification sources, and on European energy security. It ex...

  6. ENERGY POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Pazderníková, Kamila

    2006-01-01

    This work focuses on the reasons and beginnings of creation of European energy policy, the role of environment in this policy and different kinds of energy sources with special focus on the renewable ones. The hot topic of liberalization of European energy policy is also discussed. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)

  7. Health, alcohol and EU law: understanding the impact of European single market law on alcohol policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumberg, Ben; Anderson, Peter

    2008-08-01

    Many professionals in the alcohol field see the role of the the European Court of Justice (ECJ) as negative for health. This review examines ECJ and European Free Trade Association (EFTA) case law in the context of two broader debates: firstly the extension of European Union (EU) law into alcohol policy (the 'juridification' of alcohol policy), and secondly the extent to which alcohol policy is an example of the dominance of 'negative integration' (the removal of trade-distorting policy) over 'positive integration' (the creation of European alcohol policies). A comprehensive review of all ECJ/EFTA Court cases on alcohol, with interpretation aided by a secondary review on alcohol and EU law and the broader health and trade field. From looking at taxation, minimum pricing, advertising and monopoly policies, the extension of the scope of the these courts over alcohol policy is unquestionable. However, the ECJ and EFTA Court have been prepared to prioritize health over trade concerns when considering alcohol policies, providing certain conditions have been met. While a partial juridification of alcohol policy has led to the negative integration of alcohol policies, this effect is not as strong as sometimes thought; EU law is more health friendly than it is perceived to be, and its impact on levels of alcohol-related harm appears low. Nevertheless, lessons emerge for policymakers concerned about the legality of alcohol policies under EU law. More generally, those concerned with alcohol and health should pay close attention to developments in EU law given their importance for public health policy on alcohol.

  8. Medical interpreting and the law in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Mary

    2012-09-01

    In 2011, the Danish government announced that from June that year it would no longer cover the costs of medical interpreters for patients who had been living in Denmark for more than seven years. The Dutch Ministry of Health followed with an even more draconian approach; from 1 January 2012, the cost of translation and interpreting would no longer be covered by the state. These two announcements led to widespread concern about whether or not there is a legal foundation for interpreter provision in healthcare. This article considers United Nations treaties, conventions from the Council of Europe and European Union law. European Union member states have been slow to sign up to international agreements to protect the rights of migrant workers. The European Union itself has only recently moved into the area of discrimination and it is unclear if the Race Directive covers language. As a result, access to interpreters in healthcare, where it exists, is dependent on national anti-discrimination legislation or on positive action taken at national or local level rather than on European or international law.

  9. Conflicts by Convergence and Deep Disagreements in European Constitutional Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scarcello Orlando

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this essay the question of what kind of conflicts are at stake in the context of European pluralism will be considered, with special focus on the shift from “conflicts by divergence” to “conflicts by convergence” and on attempts to conceptualise these issues by means of the concept of “complex antinomy”. It will be argued that this analysis needs some refinement and the concept of “levels of disagreements” will be introduced as an alternative. A specific focus will be maintained on the impact of different interpretive methodologies: in this way it is possible to underline the structure of “deep” and “superficial” disagreements in the context of European law. In order to illustrate this point, some notes on the recent Taricco saga will be developed. Finally, the relevance for European constitutionalism of deep disagreements on interpretive methodologies will be underlined.

  10. Health law and policy in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Scott L; Hervey, Tamara K; Mackenbach, Johan P; McKee, Martin

    2013-03-30

    From its origins as six western European countries coming together to reduce trade barriers, the European Union (EU) has expanded, both geographically and in the scope of its actions, to become an important supranational body whose policies affect almost all aspects of the lives of its citizens. This influence extends to health and health services. The EU's formal responsibilities in health and health services are limited in scope, but, it has substantial indirect influence on them. In this paper, we describe the institutions of the EU, its legislative process, and the nature of European law as it affects free movement of the goods, people, and services that affect health or are necessary to deliver health care. We show how the influence of the EU goes far beyond the activities that are most visible to health professionals, such as research funding and public health programmes, and involves an extensive body of legislation that affects almost every aspect of health and health care.

  11. On Law and Policy in a European and European Union Patent Court (EEUPC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Petersen, Clement Salung

    generis, transnational court system with exclusive jurisdiction in respect of civil litigation related to the infringement and validity of European patents and EU patent. This paper considers this proposal for the establishment of the EEUPC under two basic observations, namely that substantive law...

  12. Aspects of Implementation of European Law in the Legal System of the Republic of Moldova within the European Integration Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie Mamaliga

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The author researches in this paper the political, economic and legal trends, concerning the integration of Moldova into the European Union. The greet The researcher pays attention to the principles of freedom and pluralistic democracy, supremacy of national European law over the law, in the non-discrimination and equality before the law, reflected in the European and national acts, as well as the principles of the market economy.

  13. Calorimeter energy calibration using the energy conservation law

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new calorimeter energy calibration method was developed for the proposed ILC detectors. The method uses the center-of-mass energy of the accelerator as the reference. It has been shown that using the energy conservation law it is possible to make ECAL and HCAL cross calibration to reach a good energy resolution ...

  14. European union mission for the rule of law in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Bejtush Gashi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we have studied the international circumstances that have affected the deployment of the EULEX Mission in Kosovo. The EULEX mission is the European Union Mission for the Rule of Law in Kosovo. Its main goal is to advise, assist and support the Kosovo authorities in issues of the rule of law, especially in the field of police, judiciary and customs performance. Also this mission has the responsibility to develop and further strengthen the independent multi-ethnic justice system in Kosovo, by ensuring that the rule of law institutions are not politically influenced and that they meet the known international standards and best European practices. This mission was foreseen to be deployed to Kosovo, based on the Ahtissari Comprehensive Status Proposal for Kosovo, but due to its non-approval by the UN Security Council, its full implementation was delayed until December 2008. EULEX acts within the framework of Resolution 1244 of the UN Security Council and under a single chain of command in Brussels. EULEX officials have supported Kosovo Police, the Judiciary system and Kosovo Customs, through MMA actions for achieving objectives and goals that are foreseen by the program strategy of EULEX. But in terms of efficiency, EULEX has only achieved modest results. In the northern part of Kosovo, EULEX has failed, as a result of its ambivalent mandate and incoherence of EU Foreign and Security Policy.

  15. [Animal Health Law-- the National Animal Health Act and the European Animal Health Law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bätza, Hans-Joachim; Mettenleiter, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The Animal Health Act that replaces the Animal Disease Act, which is currently in force, creates a regulatory framework in order to not only, as has been the case so far, control animal diseases that had already broken out, but in order to already prevent in advance possible outbreaks of animal diseases by means of preventive measures. The instruments to this effect are described here. At European level, too, the idea of prevention is set to play a greater role in the future, with the draft EU legal instrument on animal health, that has to date only been discussed at Commission level, also contributing to a simplification and easier implementation by the persons subject to law by harmonising the currently fragmented Community law. It remains to be seen when the deliberations in the Council and European Parliament will begin.

  16. EU External Relations Law and the European Neighbourhood Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Vooren, Bart

    -historical context of political Union, this thesis first argues why coherence is an issue at all in EU external relations, and why law is integral to attaining the ever-enigmatic single voice of the European Union. Subsequently, the text examines the role of EU external relations law in attaining a coherent...... neighbourhood policy. It is argued that the innovative nature of the ENP for coherence lies beyond the narrowly defined legal sphere, but stems mostly from its hybrid composition of hard legal, soft legal and non-legal policy instruments. It is concluded that from a purely EU-internal and institutional...... perspective, this approach was reasonably successful in involving different actors towards common objectives in the neighbourhood. However, coherence should be more than rhetorical gloss, and agreeing that a wide range of initiatives should be included in soft legal instruments is no guarantee for coherence...

  17. The European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zupancic, Rok; Pejič, Nina; Grilj, Blaž

    2017-01-01

    This article appraises effectiveness in operational conflict prevention. By focusing on the European Union Rule of Law Mission (EULEX) in Kosovo, it assesses the most extensive civilian Common Security and Defence Policy mission so far. Contrary to prevailing assessments, it posits that EULEX...... different types and levels of effectiveness, considering both means applied and ends achieved. In so doing, the article contributes to the general literature on operational conflict prevention and on the specific case of Kosovo. The empirical analysis is based on fieldwork and semi-structured interviews...... with EU personnel, governmental and non-governmental actors in Kosovo, and independent observers....

  18. National identity and law in the context of European integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Lise; Palsbro, Lene

    2008-01-01

    by the professional elite of lawyers, who readily resort to ideological topoi of national identity and culture to support legal argument. Reporting from a comprehensive study on Danish academic and public debate on European human rights law, this article explores how the legal community of Denmark reacts emotionally......Nationalistic discourse is often associated with the flag waving of popular culture, political views of extremist right-wing parties or the routine rhetoric of ‘us’ versus ‘them’, pervading social life in general. However, nationalistic discourse is to be found even in academic writings...

  19. EU Energy Policy and Future European Energy Markets: Consequences for the Central and East European States

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita M. Balmaceda

    2002-01-01

    This working paper explores the European Union vector in the Central and East European (CEE) energy situation, in particular in terms of the CEE countries' energy relationship with Russia. Attention is paid not only to concrete EU energy policies but also to the larger question of European energy markets. EU policies impact the CEE states' energy relationship with Russia through specific EU requirements vis-à-vis the candidate countries, through the side-effects of other EU policies, through ...

  20. Calorimeter energy calibration using the energy conservation law

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    - posed ILC detectors. The method uses the center-of-mass energy of the accelerator as the reference. It has been shown that using the energy conservation law it is possible to make ECAL and HCAL cross calibration to reach a good energy ...

  1. Energy laws in human travel behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölbl, Robert; Helbing, Dirk

    2003-05-01

    We show that energy concepts can contribute to the understanding of human travel behaviour. First, the average journey times for different modes of transport are inversely proportional to the energy consumption rates measured for the respective human physical activities. Second, when daily travel-time distributions for different modes of transport such as walking, cycling, bus or car travel are appropriately scaled, they turn out to have a universal functional relationship. This corresponds to a canonical-like energy distribution with exceptions for short trips, which can be theoretically explained. Combined, this points to a law of constant average energy consumption for the physical activity of daily travel. Applying these natural laws could help to improve long-term urban and transport planning.

  2. Trends in european bioenergy law: problems, perspectives and risks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Caputo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Research into new forms of energy is a current challenge. This paper aims to inquire into the real advantages of bioenergy and its sustainable development within the European legal framework, while also considering the negative aspects of bioenergy use. The European Union, in fact, is an important supporter of bioenergy and shows that, through good legislative policy, the negative aspects of bioenergy use can be surmounted . In conclusion, bioenergy and sustainable development can still be a plausible solution to feed the planet

  3. RENEWABLE ENERGY STRATEGIES: WHERE EUROPEAN UNION HEADED?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADULESCU IRINA GABRIELA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The states from European Union must take advantage from renewable energy sources in order to revive the economy. Climate change creates new jobs and could reduce energy imports which would stimulate the economy of those states. The European Union should support research in the field, apply more efficient policies in energy, and create economies of scale to get an integrated European energy market in which the main actors can reduce the cost of production of renewable energy. In addition, it is possible to use the comparative advantages of the Member States and not only, like Greece, through solar energy, Southern Mediterranean, through distribution networks interconnections with EU, Russia and Ukraine, through biomass and the North Sea, through wind energy. This paper refers to the evolution and trends of the renewable energy sources and presents some scenarios of it.

  4. Energy costs form European wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milborrow, D. [Windpower Monthly, Knebel (Denmark)

    1995-12-31

    Energy generation costs from European wind farms span a very wide range. Reasons for these variations, include differences in capital and operating costs, wind speeds and differing legislative and regulatory frameworks. This article compares costs, wind speeds and discount rates for British and German windfarms and sets these alongside data from elsewhere in the European Union. In this way it is possible to determine the reasons for differences in energy generation costs. (author)

  5. The concept of the rule of law and the European Court of Human Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lautenbach, G.

    2013-01-01

    This book analyses the concept of the rule of law in the context of international law, through the case law of the European Court of Human Rights. It investigates how the court has defined and interpreted the notion of the rule of law in its jurisprudence. It places this analysis against a

  6. European Energy Security amid Ukrainian Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of overall analysis of the European dependence on Russia for its energy needs (mainly gas and oil this paper tries to argue that economic sanction against Russia will have limited success. It will hurt the region badly, but it has more potential to jeopardize the European energy security aspect – a long cherished goal of the European nations. So, the best means to solve the Ukraine crisis is political and diplomatic tools, not the economic ones.

  7. Renewable Energy in European Regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram

    2012-01-01

    The regional dynamics of energy innovation, in particular the shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy in the EU, is discussed within the framework of neo-Schumpeterian theory. The EU’s 4.2% average annual growth in renewable energy production in the last decade has been accompanied by diverging

  8. The impact of European Union law on Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, John

    This article considers the impact of the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHR), both in its own right since the 1950s, and in conjunction with the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA) when this brought these rights home by incorporating them into the domestic law of the UK thus enabling our judiciary to give effect to them directly. The ECHR and the HRA say very little, if anything, expressly about health or health care, but have been relied on by litigants in a wide range of contexts, including but not limited to, assisted reproduction, abortion, access to treatment, management of health records, end of life issues and the investigation of potentially negligent or criminal conduct by professionals.

  9. Justice and equality in mental health law: the European experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    This is the text of a lecture delivered at the World Conference of the International Academy of Law and Mental Health in Sydney in September 2003 on the occasion of the award to the author of the Prix Philippe Pinel. Its theme is the potential of the European Convention on Human Rights to secure the human rights of people with mental disorders and disabilities, viewed in the context of the legislation on mental health and mental incapacity in England and Wales. Its conclusion is that the Convention is better at protecting them from unwanted or unnecessary treatment and care than it is at securing for them equal access to the treatment and care they want or need. The lecture has been updated to reflect developments in the United Kingdom since 2003.

  10. Dark Energy and the Hubble Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernin, A. D.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Domozhilova, L. M.

    The Big Bang predicted by Friedmann could not be empirically discovered in the 1920th, since global cosmological distances (more than 300-1000 Mpc) were not available for observations at that time. Lemaitre and Hubble studied receding motions of galaxies at local distances of less than 20-30 Mpc and found that the motions followed the (nearly) linear velocity-distance relation, known now as Hubble's law. For decades, the real nature of this phenomenon has remained a mystery, in Sandage's words. After the discovery of dark energy, it was suggested that the dynamics of local expansion flows is dominated by omnipresent dark energy, and it is the dark energy antigravity that is able to introduce the linear velocity-distance relation to the flows. It implies that Hubble's law observed at local distances was in fact the first observational manifestation of dark energy. If this is the case, the commonly accepted criteria of scientific discovery lead to the conclusion: In 1927, Lemaitre discovered dark energy and Hubble confirmed this in 1929.

  11. Information technology law and health systems in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossialos, Elias; Thomson, Sarah; Ter Linden, Annemarie

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to examine the impact of European Union (EU) law relating to information technology (IT) on health systems. The study identifies EU directives relating to IT, analyzes them in terms of their impact on the use of IT in health systems, and outlines their implications for health technology assessment (HTA). Analysis is based on a review of literature identified through relevant databases and Internet searches. Developments in IT have serious implications for EU health systems, presenting policy makers with new challenges. The European Commission has adopted a range of legal measures to protect consumers in the "information society" However, as few of them are health-specific, it is not evident that they have implications for health, health systems, or HTA, and they may not be effective in protecting consumers in the health sector. In light of the growing importance of IT in the health sector, legal and nonlegal measures need to be further developed at EU and international level. Where possible, future initiatives should pay attention to the particular characteristics of health goods and services and health systems. Although definitions of HTA usually recognize the importance of evaluating both the indirect, unintended consequences of health technologies and the legal aspects of their application, it seems that, in practice, HTA often overlooks or underestimates legislative matters. Those involved in HTA should be aware of the legal implications of using IT to provide health goods and services and compile, store, transfer, and disseminate health information electronically.

  12. Contractual liability: In European, comparative and Serbian law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Jožef

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Contractual liability is an important topic of the ongoing reform of the effective Serbian Law on Obligations (2007-2009, which aims to harmonize the national legislation in this field with the laws of the European Union. In this paper the author analyzes the evolution of the traditional European civil codes (the German BGB, French Code civil, the Austrian ABGB the Swiss OR and the Hungarian Civil Code, with due attention to the doctrine and jurisprudence, taking into account the proposed reforms of the effective Serbian Law on Obligations concerning issues of contractual liability, such as the legal consequences of nonperformance, misperformance, default, etc. The author is of the opinion that the notion of the breach of contract doesn't cover all the cases in which contractual liability arises, although it embraces nonperformance, misperformance and default. The notion of contractual liability, namely, covers not only the cases of breach of contract, but the infringement of public policy, good morals and mandatory rules, which all lead to the nullity of the contract. In cases of voidable contracts (that is in case of defects of contractual will, such as mistake, deceit and duress it is questionable whether the scope of contractual liability should be extended to mistake, which is a case of nonconscious discrepancy between contractual will and its expression. It is undisputable that contractual liability arises in case of deceit and duress, to the burden of the party acting in bad faith. The rescission of contract entails a separate complex of legal issues, since it may be justified by the other party's breach of the contract. It can also be onesided, two-sided or by a mutual agreement. Furthermore, specific rules apply to rescission of contract due to changed circumstances. In case of termination of a contract by mutual agreement, the parties usually agree on the extent of liability, that is on the extent of indemnification. Contractual

  13. Report realized on the behalf of the Foreign Affairs Commission on the law project, adopted by the Senate, authorizing the added protocol ratification to the agreement between France, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency relative to the guaranties application in France; Rapport fait au nom de la Commission des Affaires Etrangeres sur le projet de Loi, adopte par le Senat, autorisant la ratification du protocole additionnel a l'accord entre la France, la Communaute europeenne de l'energie atomique et l'Agence internationale de l'energie atomique relatif a l'application de garanties en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    This document presents the analyse of the law project, adopted by the Senate, authorizing the added protocol ratification to the agreement between France, the Atomic Energy European Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency relative to the guaranties application in France. It deals with the nuclear proliferation fight in France and the the program of enhancement of guaranties in the framework of the IAEA. (A.L.B.)

  14. Member States’ liability for judicial error resulting in breaches of European Union Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neamt Valentin Paul

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the remedies available to persons whose European law rights have been infringed by judgments given by national Courts. The paper firsts presents the concept of state liability for judicial errors in relation to European law, as it stems from the case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union, then goes on to show how the European Court of Human Rights may give redress to such aggrieved parties. Finally, it discusses the differences in the possibility of redress given by the two courts and the compatibility between their approaches, finally leading to a discussion on the possible convergence of the two.

  15. THE MANIFESTO ON EUROPEAN CRIMINAL PROCEDURE LAW – FOUNDATION FOR CREATING A COMMON SPACE OF EUROPEAN CRIMINAL JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica PANAINTE

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we propose to analyze the content of the Manifesto on European Criminal Procedure Law of 2013, and how this document can represent a foundation for the legal cooperation of the European states, and also for creating a unique, common space of European criminal justice. Elaborated by the European Criminal Policy Initiative and launched on November 2013, the Manifesto on European Criminal Procedure Law contains the principles and the rules that should be followed by the European penal legislator when gives shape to the laws in the field of Criminal Procedure. This document represents a natural following of the first Manifesto, in the field of substantive criminal law of 2009. The Manifesto concerns mainly the rules and the principles of criminal procedure because, as its authors affirm, this kind of rules have increasingly been shaped lately in European regulations, and also because the regulations in this field must reflect and respect the highest standards of the rule of law, as they must continuously and without exception guarantee the fundamental rights. In this study, we propose to focus upon the legal solutions found out by the authors of the Manifesto in order to attain, during the criminal proceedings, an equilibrium between the interest of the state and even of the Union to realize an effective criminal proceedings, and the individual human rights that are affected, and also an equilibrium between the actual legal order and the traditions of the member states.

  16. The European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen; Hviid, Christian Anker

    This paper investigates the actual energy use for building operation with the calculated energy use according to the Danish implementation of the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD). This is important to various stakeholders in the building industry as the calculated energy ...... calculated energy use. More buildings should be investigated in the same manner before any sound conclusion can be made regarding whether the implementation of EPBD in a wide context leads to truly energy-efficient buildings.......This paper investigates the actual energy use for building operation with the calculated energy use according to the Danish implementation of the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD). This is important to various stakeholders in the building industry as the calculated energy...... performance is used for estimating investment security, operating budgets and for policy making. A case study shows that the actual and calculated energy use is practically the same in an average scenario. In the worst-case uncertainty scenario, the actual energy use is 20 % higher than the corrected...

  17. European Dimension of Legal Education. A comparative study of the Romanian Law Curricula and EU Law Syllabus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brinduşa Camelia Gorea

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose is to provide a detailed view on the European legal education system in Romania.There are few papers on EU legal education policy in Romania. We try to fill this gap in some extend, as apart of a larger research we conducted in the past 3 years. Our sources of evidence were: the Romanianlegislation; a representative number of law curricula and EU law syllabus and a research survey of Romanianstudents, EU law professors and legal practitioners. We found out that the “traditional” Law specialization ismore desired by the potential students than the European Law specialization. Nevertheless, Romanian lawschools have enough discretion to introduce more EU law disciplines. By targeting the weak parts of the EUlegal education system, our study may reveal its benefits to law professors, legal researchers, responsiblefactors within the Romanian law departments and even to the Romanian legislator. This paper provides ashort explanation of the ascension and development of EU legal studies in Romania, an overview of the keyissues in the law curricula and the EU law syllabus and recommendations on the reforming the EU legaleducation in Romania.

  18. The European Courts and the Law of Treaties: The Continuing Story

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, P.J.; Cannizzaro, E.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter presents a critical analysis of the case law of the European Court of Justice and of the General Court relating to the application of the international law of treaties. It covers the some forty cases in which the Courts have referred explicitly to the Vienna Convention on the Law of

  19. TRANSPORT LAW AND THE CERTIFICATION PROCESS IN POLAND AND EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Paweska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Transport law in Poland is defined as a set of regulations governing not only the issues related to transport itself but also as a set of standards governing the organization of transport. The article presents brief characteristics of logistics law and regulations in Poland and European Union as well as industry enforced standards that complement the formal laws

  20. European School of High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    The European School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young experimental and phenomenological physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lecture notes on the Standard Model of electroweak interactions, Monte Carlo generators, relativistic heavy-ion physics, the flavour dynamics and CP violation in the Standard Model, cosmology, and high-energy neutrino astronomy with IceCube.

  1. IEA energy policies review: the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-09-04

    For the first time, the IEA has reviewed the energy policies of the European Union which shape the energy use of almost 500 million citizens in 27 EU member countries. A unique entity governed under complex and almost constantly evolving structures, the EU constitutes a challenge for energy policy makers. Its energy policy has a global impact, not only because of its 16% share of world energy demand, but also because of the EU leadership in addressing climate change. Strong policy drives are underway in the EU to achieve the completion of the internal energy market, increase renewable energy supply, reduce CO2 emissions and make the EU more energy-efficient. Concerns about security of supply have also led to a greater focus on improved energy relations with supplier countries, and new institutional structures are being put in place. How much progress has been made in the field of security, internal market and external energy policies? And in which of these areas has the EU already implemented a fully integrated policy? This publication addresses these questions and also analyses the impact of the most recent major EU policy measures, in particular the Energy and Climate Package of January 2008 and the 3rd Liberalisation Package of September 2007. This book finds that both of these proposals are highly ambitious. But implementing them and reviewing both volume and allocation of energy R and D will be necessary to achieve a sustainable energy future in a fully competitive integrated EU energy market.

  2. Jurisdiction in international law : United States and European perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Ryngaert, Cedric

    2007-01-01

    This study starts with a quote by Professor Meessen: “The function of scholars of international law offers less opportunity for creative thinking [compared to scholars of conflict of laws]: they may compile and analyze state practice, but they cannot replace it with their own concepts.”[1] This study, which primarily looks at the phenomenon of jurisdiction through a (public) international law lens, rejects that limiting claim. While the current state of the international law of jurisdiction ...

  3. law, the laws of nature and ecosystem energy services

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Office 2004 Test Drive User

    Environment, The Netherlands' Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment and. Japan's Ministry of the ... significant environmental problems developed, and nations reacted by tinkering with existing law or by ... This paper will first review the basic concepts of ecosystems and economics, and document the ...

  4. European energy and transport - trends to 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantzos, L.; Capros, P.; Kouvaritakis, N.; Zeka-Paschou, M.

    2003-07-01

    The publication extends the analysis presented in previous editions of the 'Annual energy review'. In addition to a statistical analysis of the past 10 years, this publication gives detailed projections on energy and transport for the current EU and the enlarged Union of 25, for the next three decades. It also addresses wider European and world developments. The projections presented in this outlook to 2030 are built upon an integrated approach encompassing both energy supply and demand and show how the future may develop and which policy-makers will have to act in order to contribute towards sustainable development. 23 refs., 46 figs., 91 tabs., 2 apps.

  5. Private international law in the jurisprudence of European courts - family at focus

    OpenAIRE

    Župan, Mirela (ed.)

    2016-01-01

    The Faculty of Law at the Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), within the framework of the Open Regional Fund for Southeast Europe (ORF) – Legal Reform and South East European Law School Network, organized the 11th Regional Private International Law Conference: “Private International Law in the Jurisprudence of European Courts – Family at Focus” (Osijek, Croatia, 11-12 June 2014) It was the 11th meeting of academics: p...

  6. Education in Sustainable Energy by European Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanescu, Corina; Stefureac, Crina

    2010-05-01

    Our schools have been involved in several European projects having with the primary objective of educating the young generation to find ways for saving energy and for using the renewable energy. Small changes in our behaviour can lead to significant energy savings and a major reduction in emissions. In our presentation we will refer to three of them: - The Comenius 1 project "Energy in the Consumers' Hands" tried to improve the quality of education for democratic citizenship in all participant schools by creating a model of curricula concerning the integrative teaching of democratic citizenship using the topic approaches based on key concept - energy as important element of the community welfare. The students studied on the following topics: • Sources of energy • The clean use of fossil based resources; • The rational use of energyEnergy and the environment - The project "Solar Schools Forum" (SSF) focuses on environmental education in schools, in particular addressing the topics of Renewable Energy (RE) and Energy Efficiency (EE). The youth need to become more aware of energy-related problems, and how they can change their own lifestyles to limit environmental damage caused by the daily use of energy. As the decision-makers of tomorrow we need to empower them to make the right choices. The SSF is aimed at improving knowledge about RE and EE among children and young people, using a fun approach and aimed at generating greater enthusiasm for clean energy. The youth will also be encouraged to help raise awareness and so act as multipliers in their own communities, starting with their families and friends. As a result of this project we involved in developing and implementing an optional course for high school students within the Solar Schools Forum project. The optional course entitled "Sustainable energy and the environment" had a great deal of success, proof of this success being the fact that it is still taught even today, three years after its

  7. Innovating european nature conservation law by introducing ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kistenkas, F.H.

    2014-01-01

    Whereas the importance of the concept of ecosystem services is growing ever stronger in other scientific disciplines, law discourse does not seem to be very aware of it. As this paper advocates, EU nature conservation law would greatly profit from adopting the concept of ecosystem services, thus

  8. Integrating health law and health policy: a European perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legemaate, Johan

    2002-01-01

    Health law is intended to create an environment in which the promotion of health goes hand in hand with the protection of individual rights and the general principles of equality and justice. Over the years, the importance of health law has grown, both at national and international level. As health

  9. Integrating health law and health policy: a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legemaate, Johan

    2002-05-01

    Health law is intended to create an environment in which the promotion of health goes hand in hand with the protection of individual rights and the general principles of equality and justice. Over the years, the importance of health law has grown, both at national and international level. As health and human rights are closely interlinked, it is important to integrate health law and health policy. It is to be expected that, especially in Europe, the impact of health law on health policy-making will increase as a result of several developments, e.g. the internationalization of health care and health policy, the issue of consumer protection and the legalization of society. This requires a strategy to stimulate the fruitful relationship between health policy and health law. The most important components of this strategy are discussed.

  10. The impact of European Union law on the possibilities of European Union Member States to adapt international tax rules to the business models of multinational enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, S.; Kardachaki, A.

    2016-01-01

    European Union (EU) law has played a key role in enforcing the EU BEPS agenda, while also introducing limits to the application thereof. The European Commission (EC) sees a clear link between aggressive tax planning and competition law. Against this background, EU State aid law has been employed to

  11. The One and the Many: Translating Insights from Constitutional Pluralism to European Contract Law Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mak, C.

    2013-01-01

    While freedom of contract has generally been recognized as a leading principle of European contract law, national contract laws as well as EU measures show remarkable differences with respect to the limits they impose on contractual freedom in light of the public interest or common good. Whereas

  12. European Law and the Inapplicability of the ‘Speciality Principle’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jans, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    This article considers to what extent European law invites – or requires – inapplicability of the so called ‘speciality principle’ in Dutch administrative law. I shall be concentrating on the question to what extent an administrative authority considering whether or not to grant a permit is

  13. Spanish Working End of Law Degree in the European Higher Education Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Patricia Dominguez

    2011-01-01

    The working end of Law Degree is called to develop an important role when we consider that the European Higher Education Area is the student manager of his own learning and is considered essential that the student of law, among other skills, to acquire critical thinking skills, investigation techniques, personal development work and use of legal…

  14. Contents and effects of contracts - Lessons to learn from the Common European Sales Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colombi Ciacchi, Aurelia

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a critical analysis of the rules on the contents and effects of contracts included in the proposal for a Common European Sales Law (CESL). The European Commission published this proposal in October 2011 and then withdrew it in December 2014, notwithstanding the support the

  15. European Experience and National Traditions in Russian Family Law

    OpenAIRE

    Nadezhda Tarusina

    2015-01-01

    Twenty years have passed since the new Family Code of the Russian Federation (RF), which has become the key source for family law in Russia, was signed into law. During this period, the Family Code has frequently been criticized by experts on the administrative and judicial practice of civil jurisprudence. Legislators have begun to pay attention to these experts’ assessments of the law to determine what reforms may be necessary. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current problems wit...

  16. European social model and the harmonization of Macedonian labour legislation with the European Union community labour law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalamatiev Todor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The European integration process accompanied by the harmonization of the EU member states' legislation will inevitably lead to the establishment of a European social model which has a 'sui generis' legal nature. European social model forms a part of the common legal heritage of the European countries and it can be defined as a system of values that include democracy and individual rights, free collective bargaining, market economy, equal opportunities for all, and social protection and solidarity. Subject of analysis in this paper are both, the essential components of the European social model such as: the social 'acquis communautaire' and the European industrial relations. The social 'acquis communautaire' is an integral part of the general 'acquis communautaire' and it encompasses the regulations arising from the primary and secondary labour law legislation of the EU, decisions of the European Court of Justice and other legal measures of the European Union with a binding or non-binding legal nature. European industrial relations encompass the key features of the European trade union models as well as the types of social dialogue in different EU member states. This paper pays attention to a profound elaboration of the harmonization of two EU labour law directives with the Macedonian employment legislation. The first Directive (Directive 91/533/EEC of 14 October 1991 on an employers' obligation to inform employees of the conditions applicable to the contract or employment relationship may be classified in the field of individual employment relations, while the second one (Directive 2002/14/EC of 11 March 2002 establishing a general framework for informing and consulting employees in the European Community can be subsumed within the field of collective employment relations. Finally, the authors illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of the Macedonian labour legislation in the process of harmonization with the relevant EU directives

  17. European contract law and the capabilities approach: on distributive responsibility for contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjon Soei Len, L.; Weidtmann, N.; Hölzchen, Y.M.; Hawa, B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that the normative requirements of Nussbaum’s capabilities approach extend to contract law (and private law more broadly). Contract law is part of a society’s basic structure, i.e. the responsibility bearing structure that is to secure and enhance individuals’ basic capabilities.

  18. [Comparison of medical rehabilitation in various European countries and the impact of European law on rehabilitation practice in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittag, Oskar; Welti, Felix

    2017-04-01

    Medical rehabilitation practice differs substantially among European countries. In most countries, rehabilitation is predominantly carried out on an outpatient basis. It is funded by health care, and rehabilitation facilities are not very specialized in terms of specific indications. In contrast, medical rehabilitation in Germany is mostly carried out on an in-patient basis as a contained 3‑week treatment. European law and European policies merely have an indirect impact on rehabilitation practice in Germany. In this article, the advantages and disadvantages of the various forms of rehabilitation services are discussed.

  19. Environmental protection law of the European Community (EU). Source index and content index including the jurisdiction of the European Court of Justice with actual jurisdiction service and special literature according to the individual legal regulations. 34. ed.; Umweltschutzrecht der Europaeischen Union (EU). Fundstellen- und Inhaltsnachweis, einschliesslich der Rechtsprechung des Europaeischen Gerichtshofes - EuGH; mit aktuellem Rechtsprechungsdienst und Spezialliteratur zu den einzelnen Rechtsvorschriften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Bernd

    2009-07-01

    The 34th edition of the source index of the environment law of the European Union contains the documentary evidence of the total jurisdiction of the European Court of Justice (Luxemburg) with respect to the following topics: (a) General infrastructure / integral environment law; (b) Nature protection, landscape protection as well as protection of species; (c) Dangerous materials and preparations; (d) Waste management law; (e) Water legislation; (f) environmental traffic law; (g) law of air pollution control of climate protection; (h) noise control; (i) environmental commercial law; (j) environmental law of energy.

  20. The Second Look in European Union Competition Law: A Scandinavian Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian; Sørensen, Jakob B

    2017-01-01

    Under European Union (EU) law, arbitrators and national courts are obligated to apply, ex officio, EU competition law. Also according to EU law, any failure by an arbitral tribunal to apply such rules, or any erroneous interpretation or application hereof, constitute grounds for setting aside......’ the European arbitration landscape. Even so, we have attempted to include and contribute to a few of the main discussions concerning the landscape in which the decisions were rendered in the introductory section. In the last section, we build on the reasoning of the two Supreme Courts in order to propose...

  1. Distributed Energy Systems in the Built Environment - European Legal Framework on Distributed Energy Systems in the Built Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pront-van Bommel, S.; Bregman, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to outline the stimuli provided by European law for promoting integrated planning of distributed renewable energy installations on the one hand and its limitations thereof on the other hand, also with regard to the role of local governments.

  2. Can philosophy contribute to a change of ethos? (The road from the law of the ethos toward European law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranđelović Jovan T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the character of the changes taking place in contemporary Serbian society. He emphasizes at the same time that contemporary Serbian philosophy is facing these crucial questions as well, which without it cannot be even addressed, let alone solved. The key difference between modern West European and contemporary Serbian societies, seen from the perspective of philosophy, is demonstrated most clearly in the manner of constituting institutions and transforming the modern Serbian society. In the process of building modern institutions philosophy, not just in our country but throughout the Slavic East, has not had the role it played in Europe. Here lies the explanation why natural consciousness and an original ethos, though considerably modified, still remain unadapted and today represent a major obstacle to the establishment of the rule of European law. Without a change in the sense of justice and respect for the law it is impossible to accomplish the transformation of the society in which the law recognized by a democratic state could not be super ordinate to any reason. The crucial role of philosophy in this process is seen by the author not only in establishing modern European institutions and acceptance of the principle of European legislation, but above all in its influence on the transformation of the original ethos and establishment of new criteria on which the reflection, decision making and action of any individual would be based. .

  3. Energy Cultures in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Rosicki, Remigiusz

    2016-01-01

    The main object of the analysis presented in the text was to point to and confirm the existence of special “energy cultures” in the European Union. In order to achieve this aim the use was made of research present in the literature, inter alia, in the publications containing statistical analyses by: (1) A. Pach-Gurgul, (2) P. Tapio and his research team – Banister, J. Luukkanen, J. Vehma i R. Willamo, also in a review, (3) Z. Łucki and W. Misiak. Compared with the invoked research, the timefr...

  4. Harmonisation of European Insolvency Law and the need to tackle two common problems: common pool and anticommons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Weijs, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Insolvency law has finally become a field of law for which harmonisation at a European level is considered both important and feasible. In deciding upon the content of such harmonised rules, there will need to be a common understanding about the goals of insolvency law and, therefore, a European

  5. The European Union and Russian energy politics. External energy relations and interdependency between the European Union and Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akca Prill, Melek

    2012-07-01

    The European Union and Russia Energy Politics aims to analyse the energy relationships, energy foreign policy and energy dialogue between the European Union Member States and the Russian Federation. To understand the recent developments in Russian - European Union energy relations better, the study aims to assert the disciplines and approaches of international relations in the example of Russia and the European Union systems of government. The important question here, whether diversification of energy supplier or energy supply routes is possible. If there is a possibility to diversify the supplier, is this then too costly to build, operate and rely on new pipeline routes? More crucial issue is, whether Russia is a reliable energy supplier in terms of European Energy Security approach. Throughout these assumptions, the role and vision of European Union Member States, the possible energy exporter countries, their policies and contributions are going to be discussed.

  6. Quality health care in the European Union thanks to competition law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaciari, Diego

    2010-01-01

    There are many biases concerning the application of competition law in health care. Quality concerns can however be integrated into competition law analysis. The aim of this paper is to identify the links between the application of competition law in the European Union and the right to quality health care and to point out the problems that arise when integrating quality concerns in competition law analysis. Guidelines must be issued and competition authorities must work together with institutions that have expertise in the field of health care quality measurement in order to integrate these dimensions in competition practice.

  7. Private law and the European constitutionalisation of values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2016-01-01

    According to the CFREU, the EU is founded on the general values such as values of human dignity, freedom, equality and solidarity. In addition, the TEU refers to a more political set of foundational values, ie respect for human dignity, freedom, democracy, equality, the rule of law and respect for

  8. The principle of proportionality and European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauffman, C.; Rutgers, J.; Sirena, P.

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigates the role of the principle of proportionality within contract law, in balancing the rights and obligations of the contracting parties. It illustrates that the principle of proportionality is one of the general principles which govern contractual relations, and as such it is an

  9. European Fundamental Rights, Private Law and Judicial Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colombi Ciacchi, A.L.B.; Micklitz, H.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores how and for which societal governance purposes fundamental rights are applied by national and European courts in cases concerning litigations between private parties. After having analysed how the horizontal effect of national and EU fundamental rights works and which policy

  10. Financing Renewable Energy in the European Energy Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jager, D.; Klessmann, C.; Stricker, E.; Winkel, T.; De Visser, E.; Koper, M. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands); Ragwitz, M.; Held, A. [Fraunhofer ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany); Resch, G.; Busch, S.; Panzer, C. [Energy Economics Group EEG, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Gazzo, A.; Roulleau, T.; Gousseland, P.; Henriet, M.; Bouille, A. [Ernst and Young, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    The Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (RES) sets the overall target to reach 20% renewable energy in gross final energy consumption in 2020. This target is broken down into binding individual Member State targets. Reaching these targets will require a huge mobilization of investments in renewable energies in the coming decade. In order to improve financing and coordination with a view to the achievement of the 20 % target, Article 23 (7) of the Directive requires the Commission to present an analysis and action plan with a view to: (a) The better use of structural funds and framework programmes; (b) The better and increased use of funds from the European Investment Bank and other public finance institutions; (c) Better access to risk capital; (d) The better coordination of Community and national funding and other forms of support; (e) The better coordination in support of renewable energy initiatives whose success depends on action by actors in several Member States. This report presents the results of the title project. The study provides an up to date and thorough assessment of the costs of renewable energy and the support and financing instruments available for renewable energy R and D, demonstration projects and large-scale deployment. This includes details of each Member State's expenditure (via grants, support schemes, loans etc.) and use of Community funds, including loans of the EIB (European Investment Bank) and the EBRD (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development). It also explores the possible instruments for use in the future and constraints in the capital market, which hinder the development of renewable energy. Finally, it develops recommendations for improving financing and support instruments, improving the sector's access to capital, and closing the financing gap for reaching the 2020 targets. The chapters of the report represent separate tasks: (1) Costs of renewable energy

  11. Demonstrations of the Action and Reaction Law and the Energy Conservation Law Using Fine Spherical Plastic Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumaeni, A.; Tanaka, S.; Kobayashi, A.; Lee, Y. I.; Kurniawan, K. H.; Ishii, K.; Kagawa, K.

    2008-01-01

    Equipment for demonstrating Newton's third law and the energy conservation law in mechanics have successfully been constructed utilizing fine spherical plastic beads in place of metal ball bearings. To demonstrate Newton's third law, special magnetized Petri dishes were employed as objects, while to examine the energy conservation law, a…

  12. The European Union's Role in the Development of Global Environmental Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe

    2017-01-01

    This article is focused on the role that the European Union (EU) is playing as a global actor when it is using its 'internal' regulatory power as well as its parallel market power 'externally' to strengthen and to fill out gaps in the global environmental law.......This article is focused on the role that the European Union (EU) is playing as a global actor when it is using its 'internal' regulatory power as well as its parallel market power 'externally' to strengthen and to fill out gaps in the global environmental law....

  13. Uniform interpretation of european patent law with a special view on the creation of a common patent court

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luginbühl, SL

    2009-01-01

    The European Patent Convention (EPC) provides for a common application and examination procedure for European patents. Therefore, European patents are granted on the basis of uniform European law which is applied and interpreted by the EPO, as well as by a great number of national judges and members

  14. The European Law regarding the Impact of Merger on Employees’ Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Felicia Bejan

    2013-01-01

    The regulation of the social implications of transfers of undertakings is a topic that has made its way in the European law with quite enough difficulty, but became in time an increasingly discussed topic. Since the transfer of an undertaking from an employer to another could not be achieved with disregard of its human capital, the European legislator has established a legal framework ensuring the safeguarding of employees' rights in the event of transfers of undertakings. Currently, the main...

  15. Interference and the Law of Energy Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosd, Robert; Minkin, Leonid; Shapovalov, Alexander S.

    2014-01-01

    Introductory physics textbooks consider interference to be a process of redistribution of energy from the wave sources in the surrounding space resulting in constructive and destructive interferences. As one can expect, the total energy flux is conserved. However, one case of apparent non-conservation energy attracts great attention. Imagine that…

  16. CONSIDERATIONS CONCERNING THE REVOCATION OF ADMINISTRATIVE ACTS WHICH ARE CONTRARY TO EUROPEAN UNION LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANTA MATUSESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the process of adopting administrative acts, public authorities are obliged to respect both the national provisions legally superior and European Union law with superior legal force and also the general principles of law, including those imposed by the constant practice of the Court of Justice of the European Union. Implementation and maintenance at the level of the Member States of inconsistent acts with EU law affect the obligation of community loyalty and ensure the full effectiveness of EU law which rests on their failure could result in an action of breaching community obligations. Revocation is the legal transaction that the issuer has withdrawn its own body act on its own initiative or pursuant to the provisions of the superior authority. The disappearance of the illegal administrative act of domestic law doesn’t necessarily involve restoring legality community as for this may be necessary the adoption of a new act. While acknowledging the procedural autonomy of the member states, the European Union law requires that national administrative rules concerning the acts revoking to respect two of its general principles - the principle of legal certainty and legitimate expectations principle, which can cause a number of complications, constraints on public administrations. The present contribution aims at examining the various influences on which the Union right performs towards this matter.

  17. Communal energy law. An outline. 2. ed.; Kommunales Energierecht. Darstellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henneke, Hans-Guenter; Ritgen, Klaus

    2013-08-01

    Ensuring a reliable, reasonably priced, environmentally friendly energy supply area-wide belongs to the most important public services that cities, administrative districts and municipalities are required to provide. In preparation of its second edition the present publication was thoroughly revised to do justice to the numerous legislative changes attending the energy turnaround. It presents the wide array of legal instruments at the disposal of municipalities for fulfilling their important duties in matters relating to the energy supply. It discusses the requirements of communal economic law as well as the constitutional and energy economy related framework conditions governing the energy supply. The concession contract, one of the most important instruments in the area of energy supply, has been given a chapter of its own. In regard to another of its focal topics the publication explains how municipal planning autonomy, especially in the area of land use planning, can help municipalities implement energy policies according to their own ideas. The publication concludes with a discussion of topics concerning municipalities as energy consumers, namely energy-related environmental law, the requirements of the Renewable Energy Heat Law and laws on energy saving.

  18. Energy efficiency and the law: A multidisciplinary approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemien du Plessis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is an energy-intensive country. The inefficient use of, mostly, coal-generated energy is the cause of South Africa's per capita contribution to greenhouse gas emissions, pollution and environmental degradation and negative health impacts. The inefficient use of the country's energy also amounts to the injudicious use of natural resources. Improvements in energy efficiency are an important strategy to stabilise the country's energy crisis. Government responded to this challenge by introducing measures such as policies and legislation to change energy consumption patterns by, amongst others, incentivising the transition to improved energy efficiencies. A central tenet underpinning this review is that the law and energy nexus requires a multidisciplinary approach as well as a multi-pronged adoption of diverse policy instruments to effectively transform the country's energy use patterns. Numerous, innovative instruments are introduced by relevant legislation to encourage the transformation of energy generation and consumption patterns of South Africans. One such innovative instrument is the ISO 50001 energy management standard. It is a voluntary instrument, to plan for, measure and verify energy-efficiency improvements. These improvements may also trigger tax concessions. In this paper, the nature and extent of the various policy instruments and legislation that relate to energy efficiency are explored, while the interactions between the law and the voluntary ISO 50001 standard and between the law and the other academic disciplines are highlighted. The introduction of energy-efficiency measures into law requires a multidisciplinary approach, as lawyers may be challenged to address the scientific and technical elements that characterise these legal measures and instruments. Inputs by several other disciplines such as engineering, mathematics or statistics, accounting, environmental management and auditing may be needed. Law is often

  19. General energy competence in the primary law of the European Union. An analysis of Article 194 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union in the Lisbon version in consideration of the historical development of energy competence; Die allgemeine Energiekompetenz im Primaerrecht der Europaeischen Union. Eine Analyse des Artikels 194 des Vertrags ueber die Arbeitsweise der Europaeischen Union in der Fassung des Vertrags von Lissabon unter Beruecksichtigung der historischen Entwicklung der Energiekompetenz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacklaender, Daniel

    2010-07-01

    With the coming into force of the Lisbon treaty, the internal measures and policies of the European Union were supplemented by the independent title ''Energy''. While the need for supranational management of energy-political task was recognized at an early stage already, the legal instruments for this purpose were lacking. Article 194 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union now provides a legal basis for a comprehensive, interdisciplinary energy policy on a European scale. The author investigates the content of the energy article. He shows that the modification of the treaty has brought about greater competences of the Union, especially in the field of energy supply assurance which is greatly influenced by the new regulations on energy solidarity. The book also discusses problems of competing legislation resulting from interdependences between the energy article on the one hand and competence standards with other goals on the other hand and also attempts to define the specific limits of energy competence. (orig.)

  20. Taylor Law in Wind Energy Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Calif

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Taylor power law (or temporal fluctuation scaling, is a scaling relationship of the form σ ~  (Pλ where !! is the standard deviation and hPi the mean value of a sample of a time series has been observed for power output data sampled at 5 min and 1 s and from five wind farms and a single wind turbine, located at different places. Furthermore, an analogy with the turbulence field is performed, consequently allowing the establishment of a scaling relationship between the turbulent production IP and the mean value (P.

  1. The Impact of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union on VAT Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgaard, Karina Kim Egholm

    2016-01-01

    The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union became legally binding following its entry into force with the Lisbon Treaty on 1 December 2009, and it has the same legal value as the EU Treaties. Since then, the EU fundamental rights aspect of VAT law has not been subject to much academic...... discussion or particular attention from VAT practitioners. This article contributes to further development of research in the area of EU fundamental rights and VAT law by examining; when the Charter is relevant in VAT law and if so how the Charter manifests itself in EU VAT case law, and what special...... interpretative principles the Charter triggers itself in connection with interpretation of fundamental rights comprised by the Charter. The Charter has proved to play an important—but also diversified—role in both formal and substantive aspects of VAT law, such as national rules on administrative sanctions...

  2. Harmonisation of securities law : custody and transfer of securities in European private law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haentjens, M.

    2007-01-01

    The settlement of a cross-border securities transaction is riskier and eleven times more expensive than the settlement of a purely domestic transaction. This dramatic discrepancy is mainly due to differences in national securities laws. Matthias Haentjens argues that national systems of securities

  3. European Uunion Energy Security and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nodari A. Simonia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the retrospective of relations between Russia, USA and EU in the sphere of energy security, as well as their interaction regarding the current political crisis in the Ukraine. Particular attention is paid to the evolution of the key actors'positions and the development of their relations within the framework of the regulatory regimes established by the most significant agreements in the energy sphere. In conclusion the authors claim that what they say in their article not only does substantially reinforce the arguments set forth by Professor Giuseppe Guarino, who argues about the negative consequences caused by the dictatorship of the Brussels's bureaucracy within the EU, but also inflicts another blow on the Maastricht Treaty and the Treaty of Lisbon in terms of external policy and trade, since the both Treaties were designed to convert the EU in a real competitor of the United States in the then forming multipolar World. The Brussel's bureaucracy, having turned into a dutiful instrument of the US geopolitical strategy, hindered the movement of the EU in that direction, while its dictatorship in energy security aggravates the crisis situation of the EU, almost pushing the EU to the brink of collapse and disintegration. We have lately witnessed an evolving and growing phenomenon of the so called "Euroscepticism". The results of the Europarliament elections in late May, 2014, were a graphic demonstration of the symptoms of this alarming for the EU disease, when the anti-EU parties in the four out 22 EU countries won the elections (France, United Kingdom, Denmark, and Greece Those results, regardless of the panic headlines in mass media and statements like "shocking" or "earthquake" made by some politicians, were not able to significantly affect the nature of the European Parliament, though they can significantly complicate its work. This is so far the first "alarming bell" tolling for the EU.

  4. Standard contract terms regulation in the proposal for a common European sales law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, M.B.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the regulation in standard contract terms in the proposal for a Commono European Sales Law (CESL) is compared with the regulation in the Unfair Terms Directive, the Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR) and the Vienna Sales Convention (CISG). The paper starts with an overview of the

  5. The constitution of a Common Frame of Reference for European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mak, C.

    2008-01-01

    This sectoral report is meant to sketch in broad lines the current views on the so-called ‘constitutionalisation’ of European contract law. To what extent does the application of fundamental rights in the regulation of contractual disputes refer or contribute to an underlying system of values of

  6. The reversal of the burden of proof in the Principles of European Tort Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesen, Ivo

    2010-01-01

    Although it is not one of its main features, the Principles of European Tort Law (PETL) have devoted some attention to the rules regarding the burden of proof in tort cases, especially to the possibility of a reversal of that burden. Since such a reversal of the burden of proof will be highly

  7. Varieties of European Economic Law and Regulation : Liber Amicorum for Hans Micklitz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purnhagen, K.; Rott, P.

    2014-01-01

    This is the first book to comprehensively analyze the work of Hans Micklitz, one of the leading scholars in the field of EU economic law. It brings together analysts, academic friends and critics of Hans Micklitz and results in a unique collection of essays that evaluate his work on European

  8. Compartir buenas prácticas docentes en la European Law Faculties Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Delgado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La European Law Faculties Association (http://elfa-afde.eu celebró la asamblea y la conferencia anual (http://elfa-afde.eu/agm-2014-strasbourg, coorganizada con el Parlamento Europeo, los días 19 a 21 de marzo de este año, en Estrasburgo.

  9. Commercial sales: the Common European Sales Law compared to the Vienna Sales Convention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, M.B.M.; Schelhaas, H.

    2013-01-01

    If the Common European Sales Law (CESL) is adopted, commercial parties will have the opportunity to choose between two international legal instruments for the regulation of their international commercial sales contracts. Whereas CESL is available to both consumer and commercial sales contracts, the

  10. Human rights and reproductive choices in the case-law of Italian and European courts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valongo, Alessia

    2014-04-01

    The major issues regarding human fertilisation and embryology are addressed in a comparative perspective and in the light of relevant rulings of the European Court for Human Rights: the relationship between artificial procreation and parental responsibilities, the legal nature of the unborn child, the human right to reproduce and to have a healthy child. The article focuses on the key data of the latest Italian regulation regarding assisted conception, especially compared with British law. Particular attention is paid to the contribution given by recent European decisions to the protection of new human rights. National and international judgements ensure the right to private life and to health that are not always guaranteed by law. Converging developments in case-law panorama make the right to have children, to responsible procreation, to information about medical treatments, much less disharmonic realities than the Member States legislation suggests.

  11. The right to access health care: health care according to European social security law instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoukens, Paul

    2008-09-01

    In this contribution we will look at how the traditional European social security conventions shape the fundamental right to health care. As to the instruments under investigation we focus upon the regional agreements that have been enacted within the framework of the Council of Europe. More specifically we will discuss how the (Revised) Social Charter and the minimum standard setting instrument (Code) give expression to the right to access to health care. This overview is then complemented by an analysis of recent case law of the European Court of Human Rights. The latter Court is indeed increasingly screening the national social security rules on their compatibility with the fundamental rights, as they are enshrined in the European Convention on Human Rights. Hence we will dwell upon the potential impact of this case law on the right to access health care. In the conclusions we will compare the three instruments regarding their legal interpretation of the right to health care.

  12. Transparency of standard terms under the Unfair Contract Terms Directive and the Proposal for a Common European Sales Law

    OpenAIRE

    Loos, M.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses whether and to what extent the transparency principle is applicable to standard contract terms legislation under European Union law and what the consequences are when the principle, in so far as it is recognized, is breached. To that extent, it focuses first on the Unfair Contract Terms Directive and second on the proposal for a Common European Sales Law.

  13. Financial Consumer Protection in the EU : Towards a Self-Sufficient European Contract Law for Consumer Financial Services?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherednychenko, O.O.

    2014-01-01

    The rapid expansion of European contract law in the field of consumer financial services gives rise to the question to what extent it is self-sufficient. A self-sufficient European contract law presupposes the existence of an EU-made and EU-enforced contract-related legal order which is largely

  14. Law and the Wearing of Religious Symbols: European Bans on the Wearing of Religious Symbols in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Erica

    2011-01-01

    Written in accessible language, Law and the Wearing of Religious Symbols is a comprehensive analysis of a topical subject that is being widely debated across Europe. The book provides an overview of emerging case law from the European Court of Human Rights as well as from national courts and equality bodies in European countries on the wearing of…

  15. Energy Gap Law for Exciton Dynamics in Gold Cluster Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Kyuju; Thanthirige, Viraj Dhanushka; Pyo, Kyunglim; Lee, Dongil; Ramakrishna, Guda

    2017-10-05

    The energy gap law relates the nonradiative decay rate to the energy gap separating the ground and excited states. Here we report that the energy gap law can be applied to exciton dynamics in gold cluster molecules. Size-dependent electrochemical and optical properties were investigated for a series of n-hexanethiolate-protected gold clusters ranging from Au25 to Au333. Voltammetric studies reveal that the highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO-LUMO) gaps of these clusters decrease with increasing cluster size. Combined femtosecond and nanosecond time-resolved transient absorption measurements show that the exciton lifetimes decrease with increasing cluster size. Comparison of the size-dependent exciton lifetimes with the HOMO-LUMO gaps shows that they are linearly correlated, demonstrating the energy gap law for excitons in these gold cluster molecules.

  16. Energy Performance of Buildings - The European Approach to Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the European approach to improve sustainability in the building sector, which has a very high potential for considerable reduction of energy consumption in the coming years. By approving the Energy Performance in Buildings Directive the European Union has taken a strong...

  17. Danish and European plans for wind energy deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Hjuler; Knudsen, Søren; Morthorst, Poul Erik

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we outline European policies directed towards the ambitious target of large-scale use of wind energy in the European electricity supply system, and the scenarios that foresee up to 34% of Europe’s electricity coming from wind by 2030. First, however, we address Danish energy policy...

  18. European approaches to changing patterns of energy consumption and supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepetit, P. [Centre Francais sur les Etats-Unis, 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-07-01

    In the case of the broad debate on the security of energy supply, launched by the european commission on november 2000, this document presents the historical european facts and figures, stress the dramatic changes since 1990 and discussed the policy opinions (nuclear energy, tax policy, further progress in opening market and promoting international trade and investment). (A.L.B.)

  19. General Principles of the WTO and European Community Laws in Building International Competition Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Mo Chung

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The World Trade Organization (WTO established a Working Group on the interaction between trade and competition policy in 1996. By the Doha Ministerial Declaration, it recognized the case for international competition policy framework and agreed that the relevant negotiations take place after the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference. The Working Group is meant to focus on the clarification of: core principles, including transparency, non-discrimination and procedural fairness among others in the period until the Fifth Session. This article attempts to clarify the implications of the core (WTO principles to the would-be international competition laws and practices. It further tries to get lessons from competition law and practices of the European Community. Protection of fundamental rights, proportionality, non-discrimination, transparency, supremacy, subsidiarity and direct effect are the general principles of the European Community law to be discussed in relation to the competition law and policy. It concludes that the general principles of the WTO and EC laws provide guiding principles for the future international competition norms, and makes some preliminary assessment of the present Korean competition law and policy in the light of those principles.

  20. Development of an online tool for public health: the European Public Health Law Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, P

    2011-09-01

    The European Public Health Law Network was established in 2007 as part of the European Union (EU) co-funded Public Health Law Flu project. The aims of the website consisted of designing an interactive network of specialist information and encouraging an exchange of expertise amongst members. The website sought to appeal to academics, public health professionals and lawyers. The Public Health Law Flu project team designed and managed the website. Registered network members were recruited through publicity, advertising and word of mouth. Details of the network were sent to health organizations and universities throughout Europe. Corresponding website links attracted many new visitors. Publications, news, events and a pandemic glossary became popular features on the site. Although the website initially focused only on pandemic diseases it has grown into a multidisciplinary website covering a range of public health law topics. The network contains over 700 publications divided into 28 public health law categories. News, events, front page content, legislation and the francophone section are updated on a regular basis. Since 2007 the website has received over 15,000 views from 156 countries. Newsletter subscribers have risen to 304. There are now 723 followers on the associated Twitter site. The European Public Health Law Network has been a successful and innovative site in the area of public health law. Interest in the site continues to grow. Future funding can contribute to a bigger site with interactive features and pages in a wider variety of languages to attract a wider global audience. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Harmonization of social security law of Serbia with the law of European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Velizar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the author shortly exposes Communitarian social security law and remained tasks of the harmonization of Serbian legislation in this field. Recently some amendments of legislation were made in order to strengthen principles of gender equality and prevent discrimination, to regulate employment of persons with disability, as well as to install supervision in Institutions for occupational retirement. Regarding the compulsory social insurance in Serbia it may be concluded that there exists a high degree of compliance with the EU legislation, with an exception of privileged mode of entitlement for old age and disability pensions for women and partial disability caused by work injury where it is necessary to conclude agreements on social security with 10 EU states members. On the other side, occupational retirement provision is partially incompatible with Communitarian social security law, i.e. with Directive 2003/41/EC in the field of technical provision, as well as with Directive 113/2004/EU regarding the obligation of equation of the life expectancy for both sexes.

  2. Pulsatile blood flow, shear force, energy dissipation and Murray's Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengtsson Hans-Uno

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Murray's Law states that, when a parent blood vessel branches into daughter vessels, the cube of the radius of the parent vessel is equal to the sum of the cubes of the radii of daughter blood vessels. Murray derived this law by defining a cost function that is the sum of the energy cost of the blood in a vessel and the energy cost of pumping blood through the vessel. The cost is minimized when vessel radii are consistent with Murray's Law. This law has also been derived from the hypothesis that the shear force of moving blood on the inner walls of vessels is constant throughout the vascular system. However, this derivation, like Murray's earlier derivation, is based on the assumption of constant blood flow. Methods To determine the implications of the constant shear force hypothesis and to extend Murray's energy cost minimization to the pulsatile arterial system, a model of pulsatile flow in an elastic tube is analyzed. A new and exact solution for flow velocity, blood flow rate and shear force is derived. Results For medium and small arteries with pulsatile flow, Murray's energy minimization leads to Murray's Law. Furthermore, the hypothesis that the maximum shear force during the cycle of pulsatile flow is constant throughout the arterial system implies that Murray's Law is approximately true. The approximation is good for all but the largest vessels (aorta and its major branches of the arterial system. Conclusion A cellular mechanism that senses shear force at the inner wall of a blood vessel and triggers remodeling that increases the circumference of the wall when a shear force threshold is exceeded would result in the observed scaling of vessel radii described by Murray's Law.

  3. European Union energy policy integration: A case of European Commission policy entrepreneurship and increasing supranationalism

    OpenAIRE

    Maltby, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on gas, this article explores the role of the European Commission in the process of European Union energy security policy development, and the extent to which the policy area is becoming increasingly supranational. Situating the article within the literature on agenda-setting and framing, it is argued that a policy window was opened as a result of: enlargement to include more energy import dependent states, a trend of increasing energy imports and prices, and gas supply disruptions. ...

  4. IR. Theory Meets European Union Law. Constitutional Battles, Sovereign Choices & Institutional Contingencies in the Legacy of the European Integration Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Marlene

    From the point of departure of international relations theory it is not an easy task to come to grips with the European integration process. We are faced with a situation where some of the world's oldest and traditionally most sovereignty-loving nations have surrendered essential parts of their p......From the point of departure of international relations theory it is not an easy task to come to grips with the European integration process. We are faced with a situation where some of the world's oldest and traditionally most sovereignty-loving nations have surrendered essential parts...... of their power to a supranational institution. In order to make sense of this the book employs a constructivist framework. Empirically it focuses on the way in which the Community has transformed from a traditional international regime, based on classical international law, to a semi-federal polity where...

  5. ENERGY IMPORT DEPENDENCY AND SEEKING FOR NEW ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES EUROPEAN UNION CASE

    OpenAIRE

    Özkan Nesimioglu, Serife

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, energy poverty and as a result of this energy import dependency and its possible negative results have been examined by taking European Union (EU) into consideration. This analysis has two aims: the first one is questioning the European Unions’ energy security from supply perspective and the second one is investigating the solutions produced by European Union to get away or at least to reduce its energy import dependency. To guarantee its energy supply security at affordable pr...

  6. Rethinking European Competition Law: From a Consumer Welfare to a Capability Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutger Claassen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available European competition law is predominantly focused on maximizing consumer welfare. This overarching purpose (which is supported by economic theory leaves little place for safeguarding non-economic values, such as sustainability. This makes it difficult to allow cooperation between companies to contribute to such non-economic goals. In this article we explore whether it is possible to establish a different normative framework, in which such goals can be taken into account and can be balanced against the economic goal of consumer welfare. To answer this question, we take four steps. First, we discuss current EU competition law and the difficulty of fitting non-economic goals into the dominant interpretation of that law. Second, we propose a different normative framework, based on the capability approach advanced by philosopher Martha Nussbaum and economist Amartya Sen. Third, we argue that there are good principled reasons to incorporate non-economic goals into competition law. Fourth, we apply both the capability approach and the consumer welfare approach to three (illustrative cases in which non-economic goals are at stake. Overall, we argue that the capability framework, although not without difficulties of its own, may provide a more legitimate theory for the interpretation of European competition law.

  7. Foreign clouds in the European sky: how US laws affect the privacy of Europeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primavera De Filippi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a general analysis of how user autonomy in the cloud is increasingly put into jeopardy by the growing comfort and efficiency of the user-interface. Although this issue has not been, thus far, explicitly addressed by the law, it is a fundamental ethical question that should be carefully assessed to guide the future deployment of cloud computing. Different policy decisions might, in fact, significantly affect user’s fundamental rights and online freedoms by shifting the balance from one part or another of the trade-off. This article aims to explore emerging trends in cloud computing technologies and analyse them from an ethical perspective to identify the issues they might raise, and the extent to which current laws and regulations actually take these issues into account.

  8. Renewable energies and European landscapes lessons from Southern European cases

    CERN Document Server

    Frolova, Marina; Nadaï, Alain

    2015-01-01

    This book provides timely, multidisciplinary cross-national comparison of the institutional and social processes through which renewable energy landscapes have emerged in Southern Europe. On the basis of case studies in these countries, it analyzes the way in which and the extent to which the development of renewable energies has affected landscape forms and whether or not it has contributed to a reformulation of landscape practices and values in these countries. Landscape is conceived broadly, as a material, social, political and historical process embedded into the local realm, going beyond

  9. Convergence to the European Energy Policy in European countries: case studies and comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Teixeira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Our paper aims at analyzing how different European countries cope with the European Energy Policy, which proposes a set of measures (free energy market, smart meters, energy certificates to improve energy utilization and management in Europe.Design/methodology/approach – The paper first reports the general vision, regulations and goals set up by Europe to implement the European Energy Policy. Later on, it performs an analysis of how some European countries are coping with the goals, with financial, legal, economical and regulatory measures. Finally, the paper draws a comparison between the countries to present a view on how Europe is responding to the emerging energy emergency of the modern world.Findings – Our analysis on different use cases (countries showed that European countries are converging to a common energy policy, even though some countries appear to be later than others In particular, Southern European countries were slowed down by the world financial and economical crisis. Still, it appears that contingency plans were put into action, and Europe as a whole is proceeding steadily towards the common vision.Research limitations/implications – European countries are applying yet more cuts to financing green technologies, and it is not possible to predict clearly how each country will evolve its support to the European energy policy.Practical implications – Different countries applied the concepts and measures in different ways. The implementation of the European energy policy has to cope with the resulting plethora of regulations, and a company proposing enhancement regarding energy management still has to possess robust knowledge of the single country, before being able to export experience and know-how between European countries.Originality/Value – Even though a few surveys on energy measures in Europe are already part of the state-of-the-art, organic analysis diagonal to the different topics of the European

  10. Learning lessons and making differences: the European Association of Health Law conference 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, Graeme

    2010-06-01

    The second conference of the European Association of Health Law took place in the Royal College of Physicians in Edinburgh, Scotland on 15-16 October 2009. The event was generously sponsored by the British Academy and the AHRC/SCRIPT research centre based in the School of Law at the University of Edinburgh. The meeting was attended by 115 delegates from 26 countries and preceded by a public debate on assisted dying. This report gives an account of these events and the future direction of the work of the Association.

  11. Obesity in Europe: the strategy of the European Union from a public health law perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faeh, Andrea

    2012-03-01

    In 2007 the European Commission published a White Paper on a "Strategy on nutrition, overweight and obesity", proposing measures to impede the current trend towards a steady gain in weight by Union citizens. In this article, these ideas are discussed critically in the light of the competences of the Union and from a public health law perspective, in order to scrutinise the effectiveness of the measures and to identify shortcomings in the White Paper. One focus of this article will be European food legislation, as food is one of the leading causes of people being overweight or obese.

  12. Does European patent law unfairly discriminate against medical devices as compared with pharmaceuticals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterckx, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the question is addressed as to whether European patent law discriminates against medical devices and in favor of pharmaceuticals, and, if so, whether such discrimination is unfair to the medical devices sector. Three forms of discrimination are identified: the availability of Supplementary Protection Certificates for pharmaceuticals; the allowance of first medical indication claims for pharmaceuticals; and the allowance of second and further medical indication claims for pharmaceuticals, now enshrined in the most recent version of the European Patent Convention. The first two forms of discrimination are found to be arguably justifiable, whereas the third is not.

  13. RISKS, REASONS AND RIGHTS: THE EUROPEAN CONVENTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS AND ENGLISH ABORTION LAW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rosamund

    2016-01-01

    Although there is no right to abort in English law but rather abortion is a crime, the lawful grounds for which are instantiated in the Abortion Act 1967 (as amended by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990), the regulation of abortion is sometimes perceived as being fairly ‘liberal’. Accordingly, the idea that aspects of English law could be criticised under the European Convention on Human Rights, with which the UK must comply following the Human Rights Act 1998, may seem unlikely. Indeed, English law is compatible with the consensus amongst contracting states that abortion should be available on maternal health grounds. However, analysis of the UK's negative obligations under Article 8 shows that section 1(1)(a) of the Act is problematic as it operates in the first trimester. Further, given the European Court of Human Rights' emphasis on the reduced margin of appreciation once a state has legalised abortion to some degree and its jurisprudence relating to a state's positive obligations, the analysis shows that, while English law may not be problematic in relation to the lack of guidelines relating to the lawful grounds for abortion, it may well be in relation to the lack of a formal system for the review of any two doctors' decision not to grant a termination. Notwithstanding the morally serious nature of the decision to abort, the analysis overall raises questions about the need for at least some degree of abortion law reform, particularly in relation to the first trimester, towards a more autonomy-focused, though time-limited, rights-based approach. PMID:26546800

  14. RISKS, REASONS AND RIGHTS: THE EUROPEAN CONVENTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS AND ENGLISH ABORTION LAW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rosamund

    2016-01-01

    Although there is no right to abort in English law but rather abortion is a crime, the lawful grounds for which are instantiated in the Abortion Act 1967 (as amended by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990), the regulation of abortion is sometimes perceived as being fairly 'liberal'. Accordingly, the idea that aspects of English law could be criticised under the European Convention on Human Rights, with which the UK must comply following the Human Rights Act 1998, may seem unlikely. Indeed, English law is compatible with the consensus amongst contracting states that abortion should be available on maternal health grounds. However, analysis of the UK's negative obligations under Article 8 shows that section 1(1)(a) of the Act is problematic as it operates in the first trimester. Further, given the European Court of Human Rights' emphasis on the reduced margin of appreciation once a state has legalised abortion to some degree and its jurisprudence relating to a state's positive obligations, the analysis shows that, while English law may not be problematic in relation to the lack of guidelines relating to the lawful grounds for abortion, it may well be in relation to the lack of a formal system for the review of any two doctors' decision not to grant a termination. Notwithstanding the morally serious nature of the decision to abort, the analysis overall raises questions about the need for at least some degree of abortion law reform, particularly in relation to the first trimester, towards a more autonomy-focused, though time-limited, rights-based approach. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. French perspectives in the emerging European Union energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meritet, Sophie [CGEMP, Paris Dauphine University (France)

    2007-10-15

    The debate over a common European energy policy, its necessity and its establishment has been going on for a number of decades. The discussions have been recently brought back into the spotlight by the evolution of energy market fundamentals and the taking into account of environmental protection. In spite of the energy diversity of the European Union (EU), a common vision has always been shared by all over energy development for the future. The achievements of the internal market, the fight against climate change and supply security are the common energy battles that call for a solution in common. This policy remains the responsibility of the States, but decisions vary from one country to the next. To move from a shared vision to a European energy policy, large steps are necessary. The European construction is making evolve the 'typically French vision' of energy policy. France was often characterized as the 'black sheep' in the EU. In the political context of president elections, the energy debate in French is of a high interest. This paper discusses the main issues with the French energy policy in the emerging European energy policy. (author)

  16. Wind energy. Energy technologies in national, European and global perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauge Madsen, P.; Bjerregaard, E.T.D. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2002-10-01

    According to a recent study, global wind generating capacity increased by some 6800 MW in 2001, an annual growth of just over half the corresponding figure for 2000. 2001 was the third consecutive year in which new wind power capacity exceeded new nuclear power capacity, showing the maturity of wind power technology. Total installed wind power worldwide by the end of 2001 was close to 25.000 MW. Germany, Spain and Denmark are the main players, accounting for 56% of the world's capacity increase in 2001 and a total cumulative installed capacity of 14.750 MW, or 59% of the global total. The USA and India are also significant users of wind power; in 2001 the USA added 1700 MW of new installed capacity to become the world's second-largest market for wind power. The report Wind Force 10 outlines a scenario in which wind power provides 10% of the world's electricity by 2020, corresponding to a total installed capacity of 1200 GW. Risoe's System Analysis Department has looked at the possible future costs of electricity produced by wind turbines compared to conventional power. A learning curve analysis of historical data results in a progress ratio of 0,85. This means that for every doubling of the installed capacity, the cost of wind-generated electricity is reduced by 15%. Until recently the main driver for wind power has been a concern for greenhouse gases. Security of energy supply has now become an important issue, however, especially in Europe and the USA. Wind power plants can be erected at short notice and in a modular fashion that allows capacity to be added as required. The European Commission has supported wind power by sponsoring international research co-operation between institutes, universities and equipment manufacturers. The IEA supports worldwide co-operation, and has recently issued a report on the longterm R and D needs of wind energy. Denmark has, mainly financed by the Danish Energy Agency, taken part in the IEA's R and D Wind

  17. Internal Security Cooperation under Functional Expectations: Initial Law Enforcement Europeanization - Case of Finland and Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Loik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Law enforcement cooperation as a central part of the EU internal security policy to combat cross-border organised crime and terrorism needs to be more effective by adopting specific provisions and tools. This paper argues that functional expectations require removal of barriers and construction of a common security area, but sometimes better cooperation in practice does not fit, as Europeanization of law enforcement still lacks understanding of objectives, values and principles for improving international trust, consensus, sincere cooperation and effective national coordination. The level of Europeanization of law enforcement could be evaluated as based on the level of implementation of the EU provisions on police cooperation related to practical enforcement, factors promoting or hindering law enforcement and changes in discursive practices due to EU provisions and professional socialisation processes. Some aspects of observed inertia characterizes the slow process of transition or tendencies for absorption in which resilience meets the necessary degree of flexibility allowing for some mutual learning and cooperation, but the result is expectedly a form of accommodation of needful policy requirements in the lack of substantial change perspective.

  18. International and European law on protected areas and climate change: need for adaptation or implementation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliquet, A

    2014-10-01

    The protection and management of protected areas must be adapted to the effects of climate change. An important question is if the law on protected areas is capable of dealing with the required changes. In general, both international nature conventions and European Union nature conservation law do not contain any specific provisions on climate change and protected areas. Attention has been paid to this link in non-binding decisions and policy documents. In order to adapt the law to increased dynamics from climate change, more flexibility is needed. This flexibility should not be understood as "legal" flexibility, in the sense of the weakening nature conservation provisions. Scientific uncertainties on the effects of climate change might conflict with the need for legal certainties. In order to adapt to the effects of climate change, the two crucial elements are the strengthening of core protected areas and connectivity between the core areas. At the international level, both elements can be found in non-binding documents. International law enables the required adaptation; however, it often lacks concrete obligations. A stronger legal framework can be found at the level of the European Union. The Birds and Habitats Directives contain sufficient tools to deal with the effects of climate change. The Directives have been insufficiently implemented so far. Especially the central goals of reaching a favorable conservation status and connectivity measures need to be addressed much more in the future.

  19. The European Law regarding the Impact of Merger on Employees’ Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Bejan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of the social implications of transfers of undertakings is a topic that has made its way in the European law with quite enough difficulty, but became in time an increasingly discussed topic. Since the transfer of an undertaking from an employer to another could not be achieved with disregard of its human capital, the European legislator has established a legal framework ensuring the safeguarding of employees' rights in the event of transfers of undertakings. Currently, the main legal basis in the field consists of Council Directive 2001/23/EC on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the safeguarding of employees' rights in the event of transfers of undertakings, businesses or parts of undertakings or businesses - the Transfer Directive. The paper aims to achieve a critical analysis of European regulations on the protection of employees' rights in the event of transfer of undertakings as a result of a merger. The scope of the Transfer Directive, the obligation to inform and consult employees in advance and the transfer of rights and obligations arising from the contract of employment as a result of a merger are being approached. In the study, matters on which the current European legal framework requires improvements so that the achieving of its objective be possible beyond interpretation and controversy are highlighted.

  20. Intersectionality and its journeys: from counterhegemonic feminist theories to law of european multilevel democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Caterina La Barbera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Democratization processes imply questioning the discriminatory effects of law and politics, and challenging exclusionary legal categories and political institutions. Intersectionality was born as a tool for critical legal analysis and allowed identifying the multiplicity of interactions generated by social exclusion on the grounds of gender, sexual orientation, race, religion, national origin, (disability and socioeconomic status, shedding light on the complexity of the mechanisms of power and privilege in social relations. In the last twenty-five years, intersectionality gained increasing popularity in the Anglophone academia, but it had uneven diffusion in the different socio-political contexts. The goal of this article is to identify the challenges of using intersectionality in the multilevel context of the European Union. To this end, the first part of this article addresses the conceptual origins of intersectionality, providing a genealogy that connects it with counterhegemonic feminist theories. In the second part, intersectionality is put in the American socio-legal context of the 70s where it originated in connection with the movement of Critical Legal Studies. Finally, considering the challenges involved in transposing into the legal framework of European Union a concept that traveled from another legal system, the third part of the article offers an overview of the recent development of European Union law as an example of the advancements and challenges that the introduction of intersectionality can suppose for democratic societies. The final goal of this study is to contribute to the broader debate on the implementation of intersectionality in the multilevel European democracy.

  1. EUROPEAN AND NATIONAL RULES AS POTENTIAL RED TAPE DRIVERS : AN ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE EUROPEANIZATION OF DUTCH COMPETITION LAW, 1962-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaufmann, Wesley; Van Witteloostuijn, Arjen

    2012-01-01

    We introduce an ecological Europeanization framework that provides the opportunity to determine the actual size of European and national rule stocks as objective measures of potential sources of external red tape drivers. We illustrate our ecological framework with the case of Dutch competition law

  2. Policies and practices for an energy efficient European housing stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The housing stock has a major energy saving potential and is mostly considered to be the sector in which energy efficiency most cost effectively could be achieved. 30% of all energy use is consumed in the housing stock. The European union has formulated targets for a reduction of CO2 emissions to be

  3. Law project adopted by the Senate and authorizing the ratification of the additional protocol to the agreement between France, the European atomic energy community and the international atomic energy agency relative to the application of warranties in France; Projet de loi adopte par le Senat autorisant la ratification du protocole additionnel a l'accord entre la France, la Communaute europeenne de l'energie atomique et l'Agence internationale de l'energie atomique relatif a l'application de garanties en Franc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    This project of law concerns an additional protocol to the agreement of warranties signed on September 22, 1998 between France, the European atomic energy community and the IAEA. This agreement concerns the declaration of all information relative to the R and D activities linked with the fuel cycle and involving the cooperation with a foreign country non endowed with nuclear weapons. These information include the trade and processing of nuclear and non-nuclear materials and equipments devoted to nuclear reactors (pressure vessels, fuel loading/unloading systems, control rods, force and zirconium tubes, primary coolant pumps, deuterium and heavy water, nuclear-grade graphite), to fuel reprocessing plants, to isotope separation plants (gaseous diffusion, laser enrichment, plasma separation, electromagnetic enrichment), to heavy water and deuterium production plants, and to uranium conversion plants. (J.S.)

  4. Community energy systems and the law of public utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Nebraska governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitiled ''Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities--Volume One: An Overview.'' This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  5. Damages in Wrongful Death Cases in the Light of European Human Rights Law: Towards a Rights-Based Approach to the Law of Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianka Rijnhout

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available European human rights law is superior to the national laws of damages. The case law of the European Court of Human Rights now provides a sufficient reason for national lawmakers to rethink their concept of non-pecuniary damage. The fact remains that the ECtHR in its case law finds a breach of a fundamental right and remedies that breach, whereas the national law of damages affords the possibility of awarding compensation for non-pecuniary loss if the aggrieved party is injured. A conflict results: on the European level a rights-based approach is applied, and on the national level a damage/injury-based approach prevails. In this article we advocate a change in the national law of damages in order to ensure that the law of damages remains durable and consistent when confronted with judgments of the ECtHR: we advocate accepting and incorporating a rights-based approach.The clash between European human rights law and the national law of damages is clearly expressed in the different approaches regarding bereavement damage. Under Dutch law a proposal aimed at introducing a legal basis for compensation for this type of loss was rejected a few years ago, whereas the ECtHR, starting from its rights-based approach, has found that compensation for non-pecuniary loss should be available as part of the range of redress mechanisms when a government body has infringed a family member’s right to life. An specific argument in the Dutch discussion, i.e. the moral aversion towards compensating and determining grief and suffering, can be overcome by not making a link with grief and suffering but instead taking one’s legal position as a starting point, e.g. the breach of the right to life. A rights-based approach not only supports the idea that any rights infringed should be remedied, but also implies a moral dismissal.

  6. Energy in the environment and the second law of thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    The relationship between the consumption of energy by technological cultures and the second law of thermodynamics is discussed. The analysis is based on a description of the operation of a mechanical device which consumes energy. It is concluded that the flow of energy in manifold spontaneous conditions, which play a vital role in the operation of any technological process, remove most of the energy flow path from the control of the operator. It is stated that the increased efficiency of a process can benefit the environment only as much as this efficiency enables the total energy input to be reduced for a given level of production and increasing efficiency cannot meet the problems of an increased rate of energy utilization.

  7. Bacterial growth laws reflect the evolutionary importance of energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, Arijit; Dill, Ken A

    2015-01-13

    We are interested in the balance of energy and protein synthesis in bacterial growth. How has evolution optimized this balance? We describe an analytical model that leverages extensive literature data on growth laws to infer the underlying fitness landscape and to draw inferences about what evolution has optimized in Escherichia coli. Is E. coli optimized for growth speed, energy efficiency, or some other property? Experimental data show that at its replication speed limit, E. coli produces about four mass equivalents of nonribosomal proteins for every mass equivalent of ribosomes. This ratio can be explained if the cell's fitness function is the the energy efficiency of cells under fast growth conditions, indicating a tradeoff between the high energy costs of ribosomes under fast growth and the high energy costs of turning over nonribosomal proteins under slow growth. This model gives insight into some of the complex nonlinear relationships between energy utilization and ribosomal and nonribosomal production as a function of cell growth conditions.

  8. ROMAN MARKS TO EUROPEAN LAW OF THE CONTRACTS GOOD – FAITH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIA MOCANU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Beyond its political destinations, Europe is a civilization that each of its constituent parts has contributed its genius, over time. Or Rome, its original matrix, has sent her fundamental right. To what extent can it be another tool for reflection, for mutual understanding, sometimes of harmony, here's what seems to be necessarily raised, albeit briefly, by this favored means of communication and exchange, that it has always been the contract. Since then the issue is explained by the need to have a contractual law in the middle of this community adapted to the needs of this new burning community, in Europe of the beginning of the third millennium. In fact, market opening has led to considerable development of trade between the EU-counties and this is exactly cross-border flow through contracts. In this context we aimed to determine the role that it has one of the most important and current principles of law, that of good - faith in European contract law building.It is known that good - faith is experiencing a very special embodiment in the contract, where it assumes many functions. She is the subject of many studies and analysis and is likely to grow rapidly in national and supranational rights.Although contract law has evolved considerably, the theme is present and justified, under conditions which the Roman foundations remain. European contractual universe and its possible developments do not exclude but require an approach in terms of Roman law. Methodologically, the paper is structured as follows: good - faith in contracts, the birth and evolution of the concept (ancient Rome, Middle Ages, modern and contemporary and contemporary applications - abuse of right, information requirements, hardship principle.

  9. "Vehicular homicide", a new Italian offence: law provisions and comparison with some other European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, E; Pichini, S; Zaami, S; Giorgetti, R; Busardò, F P; Pacifici, R

    2016-07-01

    According to the most recent World Health Organization report, road accidents represent a very serious public health issue, claiming each year more than 1.2 million lives worldwide and being the leading cause of death among young people aged between 15 and 29 years. Up to now, the policies to reduce this issue are different, unbalanced and often inadequate not only in Italy, but also in the other European Countries. Specifically, the Italian Parliament has recently introduced a new law (n. 41 of March 23rd, 2016), making vehicular homicide together with road traffic injuries a criminal offense, both to be punished as a result of negligence. The measure came into force on March 25th, 2016. In this paper, the provisions of the above-reported law have been assessed, taking into account the modifications introduced in the Penal Code by this law and the impact it is having and will have on drivers on a day-to-day basis. Similarities and differences with legislative framework of some other European countries were also examined. Finally, some open questions to be solved are named as an open eye for future considerations.

  10. [Harmonisation of personal injury compensation in the European Union. Application to medical liability case law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hureau, Jacques

    2006-03-01

    Harmonisation of personal injury compensation in the European Union (EU) is crucial. Continuing on from the work begun by the European Federation of Medical Academies, a working party of the XVth Committee of the French National Academy of Medicine has sought to go beyond the restrictive framework of automobile accident compensation in order to address more universal concerns, regardless of the causes and effects of bodily injury. The specific situation of injuries resulting from medical acts was considered, both for its medicolegal complexity and its potential human consequences. After recalling relevant European legislation, the authors consider the different philosophies of medical liability and health care systems in Europe. Methodological convergence is required to achieve harmonisation of personal injury compensation regimes, and especially for the classification of different types of bodily injury, the role of social services, and the establishment of a reference for medical evaluation of injury with built-in compensation levels. The doctrines and concepts of all EU member states (civil law, common law, Nordic medical liability regimes, etc.) are discussed, together with means of facilitating their harmonisation.

  11. Anisotropic ghost dark energy cosmological model with hybrid expansion law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanta, Chandra Rekha; Sarma, Nitin

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we study the anisotropic Bianchi type-VI0 metric filled with dark matter and anisotropic ghost dark energy. We have solved the Einstein's field equations by considering hybrid expansion law (HEL) for the average scale factor. It is found that at later times the universe becomes spatially homogeneous, isotropic and flat. From a state finder diagnosis, it is found that our model is having similar behavior like ɅCDM model at late phase of cosmic time.

  12. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: European Union 2008 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    For the first time, the IEA has reviewed the energy policies of the European Union which shape the energy use of almost 500 million citizens in 27 EU member countries. A unique entity governed under complex and almost constantly evolving structures, the EU constitutes a challenge for energy policy makers. Its energy policy has a global impact, not only because of its 16% share of world energy demand, but also because of the EU leadership in addressing climate change. Strong policy drives are underway in the EU to achieve the completion of the internal energy market, increase renewable energy supply, reduce CO2 emissions and make the EU more energy-efficient. Concerns about security of supply have also led to a greater focus on improved energy relations with supplier countries, and new institutional structures are being put in place. How much progress has been made in the field of security, internal market and external energy policies? And in which of these areas has the EU already implemented a fully integrated policy? IEA Energy Policies Review: The European Union - 2008 addresses these questions and also analyses the impact of the most recent major EU policy measures, in particular the Energy & Climate Package of January 2008 and the 3rd Liberalisation Package of September 2007. This book finds that both of these proposals are highly ambitious. But implementing them and reviewing both volume and allocation of energy R&D will be necessary to achieve a sustainable energy future in a fully competitive integrated EU energy market.

  13. The importance of national laws in the implementation of European legislation of biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprumont, Dominique; Gytis, Andrulionis

    2005-09-01

    The industrialization and internationalization of biomedical research is not without consequences on the regulation of research or, at least, on the interpretation of that regulation. As more research is done at the international level, the pharmaceutical industry and the research community are calling for a harmonized regulation to limit the administrative burden of controlling clinical trials and to fasten the R&D process. The purpose of this paper is to analyse briefly the role of the national laws in that process. Part I will outline the structure and the nature of the international regulation of research in a European perspective. Using the examples of research ethics committees (RECs), informed consent and the question of liability and liability insurance, Part II will analyze the importance of the national laws in the implementation of this international regulation.

  14. Public health policy and law for pandemic influenza: a case for European harmonization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Robyn; Conseil, Alexandra

    2012-12-01

    This article provides a critical portrait of the current state of public health policies and laws governing pandemic influenza prevention and control in Europe. It examines the role of and relationship between national public health policy and national communicable disease legislation as tools for the prevention and control of pandemic influenza, the role of Europe in pandemic disease preparedness, and the concept of harmonization across European states, including an overview of supranational initiatives and powers created to enhance harmonization of national pandemic disease policy. Short case studies epitomize important concerns around harmonization in Europe. The article considers opportunities and impediments to further harmonization. Particular attention is paid to the essential role of law as a tool to underpin and implement preparedness policies and to protect individual rights against unjustified state intervention.

  15. European Policies in Mediation as an Alternative in the Courts of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion ŢUŢUIANU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to synthesize the importance of mediation as one of the most used methods regarding the alternative solutions to courts of law. The approach is qualitative and is focused on the increasing trend of mediation in Europe, an evolution of the related European policies and the medium and long-term perspectives of mediation.. For this purpose we used the case study regarding countries such as Italy and Romania, countries that have introduced mandatory mediation before opening a judicial process. The study is important for those involved in the justice act (attorneys, lawyers, magistrates and the novelty of the study dwells in the analysis of mediation in the various European government systems.

  16. Criminal law policy of Latvia in the context of European Union: The treaty of Lisbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilks A.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the content of EU Treaty of Lisbon, which deals with ensurance of freedom, security and justice in the joint European space. The Treaty of Lisbon describes the attempts of the European Union to ensure a high security level to prevent and fight crime, rasism and xenophobia, to develop particular measures of coordination and cooperation between police and judicial authorities and other competent authorities for their further development, as well as for the mutual recognition of judgements in criminal matters. Correspondingly, the implementation of the requirements of the Treaty of Lisbon identifies the need to form an adequate national criminal law policy in our country as well.

  17. European Union energy policy integration: A case of European Commission policy entrepreneurship and increasing supranationalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, Tomas

    2013-04-01

    Focusing on gas, this article explores the role of the European Commission in the process of European Union energy security policy development, and the extent to which the policy area is becoming increasingly supranational. Situating the article within the literature on agenda-setting and framing, it is argued that a policy window was opened as a result of: enlargement to include more energy import dependent states, a trend of increasing energy imports and prices, and gas supply disruptions. From the mid-2000s, the Commission contributed to a shift in political norms, successfully framing import dependency as a problem requiring an EU-level solution, based on the institution's pre-existing preferences for a diversified energy supply and internal energy market. Whilst Member States retain significant sovereignty, the Commission has achieved since 2006 creeping competencies in the internal, and to a lesser extent external, dimensions of EU energy policy.

  18. Wir schaffen es nicht: Emergency Law and the Crisis of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afsah, Ebrahim

    .’ But this façade of ‘business as usual’ increasingly clashes with the reality of European crisis management involving ever more unorthodox policy responses and a surprising disregard for existing legal proscriptions. This presentation examines whether a more forthright reliance on emergency law could have limited...... the damage to the legitimacy of integration and the integrity of the Community legal order. Constitutional emergency provisions seek to provide the organs of the state with the requisite flexibility and competence to speedily and effectively deal with existential threats, while corralling the damage...

  19. The Biomedicine Convention as an object and a stimulus for comparative research in the European Journal of Health Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nys, Herman

    2008-09-01

    The European Association for Health Law has ambitious objectives. Two of them are "to encourage and facilitate co-operation among health lawyers throughout Europe" and "to encourage and support the development of health law in European and international relations". Comparative legal research will be an important means to reach these objectives. In this contribution the author takes a closer look at this Convention as an object but also as a stimulus for comparative research in health law. To this end relevant articles have been analyzed that have been published in this journal from its creation in 1994 until the end of 2007.

  20. Renewable energy utilization in 3 european cities. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    Energy production based on fossil fuels produces CO2, SO2 and NOx, which are harmful to the environment. It is agreed, both nationally and internationally, that it is necessary to considerably reduce the energy consumption. The difference between different European countries politically, financially, culturally, and socially needs to be acknowledged when energy initiatives are considered for implementation on a local as well as an international scale. This was the basis for the initiation of the project `Renewable Energy Utilization in 3 European Cities`. Three very different cities with different problems and thus different interests got together and joined efforts to develop action plans to increase renewable energy use to reduce the burden on the environment from energy consumption in the urban and regional areas. The work has been undertaken by the working group presented in appendix 3. (EG) ALTENER. 25 refs.

  1. Multi-Case Review of the Application of the Precautionary Principle in European Union Law and Case Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Kenisha; Parsons, David J

    2017-03-01

    The precautionary principle was formulated to provide a basis for political action to protect the environment from potentially severe or irreversible harm in circumstances of scientific uncertainty that prevent a full risk or cost-benefit analysis. It underpins environmental law in the European Union and has been extended to include public health and consumer safety. The aim of this study was to examine how the precautionary principle has been interpreted and subsequently applied in practice, whether these applications were consistent, and whether they followed the guidance from the Commission. A review of the literature was used to develop a framework for analysis, based on three attributes: severity of potential harm, standard of evidence (or degree of uncertainty), and nature of the regulatory action. This was used to examine 15 pieces of legislation or judicial decisions. The decision whether or not to apply the precautionary principle appears to be poorly defined, with ambiguities inherent in determining what level of uncertainty and significance of hazard justifies invoking it. The cases reviewed suggest that the Commission's guidance was not followed consistently in forming legislation, although judicial decisions tended to be more consistent and to follow the guidance by requiring plausible evidence of potential hazard in order to invoke precaution. © 2016 The Authors Risk Analysis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Promotion of Renewable Energy Sources in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Menges

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the important goals of European energy policy is to increase the share of renewable energy resources in the energy supply. The instruments used in the member states are not fully compatible with the rules of the European internal market. In a theoretical section, this paper analyses possible different instruments for promoting renewable energy. Some countries use feed in tariffs - using fixed prices to increase incentives for producers to invest into renewable energy, other countries use quantity-based systems like quotas that lead to a premium above the market price. In an institutional analysis we show that on the basis of effectiveness and efficiency considerations for the European Union, in the long-term quantity oriented systems of promotion are preferable if combined with elements of a capacity market. The main reason for this conclusion is that price-based systems cannot give enough incentives for backup capacities necessary to cope with intermittent production of renewable sources. In addition price-based systems violate the basic rules of the open internal European market because feed in tariffs are a considerable barrier for trade of renewable energy products.

  3. LAW, THE LAWS OF NATURE AND ECOSYSTEM ENERGY SERVICES: A CASE OF WILFUL BLINDNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR Hodas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystems services include the collection, concentration, and storage of solar energy as fossil fuels (e.g., coal, petroleum, and natural gas. These concentrated forms of energy were produced by ancient ecosystem services. However, our legal and economic systems fail to recognise the value of the ecosystem service subsidies embedded in fossil fuels. This ecosystem services price subsidy causes overuse and waste of fossil fuels in the free market: fossil fuels are consumed more quickly than they can be replaced by ecosystem services and in far larger quantities than they would be if the price of fossil fuels included the cost of solar energy collection, concentration and manufacturing of raw fossil fuels. Moreover, burning fossil fuels produces enormous environmental, human health and welfare costs and damage. Virtually no legal literature on ecosystem services, sustainable development, or sustainable energy, considers fossil fuels in this context. Without understanding stored energy as an ecosystem service, we cannot reasonably expect to manage our fossil fuel energy resources sustainably. International and domestic energy law and policy systems generally ignore this feature of fossil fuel energy, a blind spot that explains why reducing greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels is fundamentally a political challenge. This paper will use new understandings emerging from the field of complex systems to critique existing legal decision-making models that do not adequately account for energy ecosystem services in policy design, resource allocation and project approvals. The paper proposes a new "least-social-cost" decision-making legal structure that includes ecosystem energy services.

  4. European energy and transport - scenarios on key drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantzos, L.; Capros, P.; Kouvaritakis, N.; Zeka-Paschou, M.

    2004-09-01

    'Scenarios on key drivers' investigates alternative energy futures as distinct from the baseline development that shows the effects of current trends and policies. The key drivers concern either different framework conditions for energy and transport policies, such as higher world energy prices, higher or lower economic growth, or they are about different policy approaches on, for example, energy efficiency, renewables, nuclear energy, modal split in transport and climate change. The analysis covers the European Union of 25 Member States and extends to the year 2030. 79 figs., 90 tabs., 8 apps.

  5. [Impact of synthetic biology on patent law in view of of European jurisprudence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo Alvarez, María Angela

    2014-01-01

    The roots of synthetic biology--the redesign of biological molecules, structures and organisms--can be traced to the research developed by Jacques L. Monod and François Jacob in 1961. This field has undergone significant growth in the past ten years and its emergence has raised the question of whether the patent system is suitable to protect inventions in emergent areas as synthetic biology. The article will analyze the numerous scientific, socio-economic, ethical and legal challenges faced by synthetic biology, introducing the European Patent Law related to biotechnology as the minimum common framework and considering if more changes are needed to adequately protect the inventor rights, while taking into account the arrival of a new research culture, characterized by embracing open-innovation and open-source initiatives. The discussion will review some biotechnological patent law cases and summarize questions as whether isolated molecules of DNA are eligible for patent or the patentability of living matter, under the terms of Directive 98/44/EC. The article will finally consider the impact of synthetic biology on the European patent system.

  6. Application of principles of European law in the Supreme Court of Estonia : [doktoritöö] / Carri Ginter ; juhendaja: Raul Narits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ginter, Carri, 1978-

    2008-01-01

    Kaitses Tartus 01. 07. 2008. a.. - Koosneb artiklitest: Access to courts for branches - some thoughts under Estonian and EC law // European competition law review : ECLR (2004) nr. 11, lk. 708-715 ; Constitutional review and EC law in Estonia // European Law Review (2006) nr. 6, lk. 912-923 ; Effective implementation of the Trade Mark Directive in Estonia // European competition law review : ECLR (2007) nr. 6, lk. 337-345 ; Procedural issues relating to EU law in the Estonian Supreme Court // Juridica International. XII. Tartu, 2007, lk. 67-79

  7. EUROPEAN ENERGY INTERCONNECTION EFFECTS ON THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionescu Mihaela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author wants to exemplify the extent to which economic growth in Romania is influenced by the current power system infrastructure investments in Europe. Electricity transmission infrastructure in Romania is at a turning point. The high level of security of supply, delivery efficiency in a competitive internal market are dependent on significant investment, both within the country and across borders. Since the economic crisis makes investment financing is increasingly difficult, it is necessary that they be targeted as well. The European Union has initiated the “Connecting Europe” through which investments are allocated to European energy network interconnection of energy. The action plan for this strategy will put a greater emphasis on investments that require hundreds of billions of euro in new technologies, infrastructure, improve energy intensity, low carbon energy technologies. Romania's energy challenge will depend on the new interconnection modern and smart, both within the country and other European countries, energy saving practices and technologies. This challenge is particularly important as Romania has recovered severe gaps in the level of economic performance compared to developed countries. Such investment will have a significant impact on transmission costs, especially electricity, while network tariffs will rise slightly. Some costs will be higher due to support programs in renewable energy nationwide.Measures are more economically sustainable to maintain or even reinforce the electricity market, which system can be flexible in order to address any issues of adequacy. These measures include investments in border infrastructure (the higher the network, so it is easier to evenly distribute energy from renewable sources, to measure demand response and energy storage solutions.An integrated European infrastructure will ensure economic growth in countries interconnected and thus Romania. Huge energy potential of

  8. Subsidies in WTO Law and Energy Regulation : Some Implications for Fossil Fuels and Renewable Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marhold, Anna

    2017-01-01

    This contribution discusses WTO subsidies disciplines in the context of the energy sector. After laying out the relevant disciplines, it will discuss the paradox of WTO law with respect to subsidies towards fossil fuels vis-à-vis those towards renewable energy. It is clear that subsidies on clean

  9. Subsidies in WTO Law and Energy Regulation : Some Implications for Fossil Fuels and Renewable Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marhold, Anna

    2018-01-01

    This contribution discusses WTO subsidies disciplines in the context of the energy sector. After laying out the relevant disciplines, it will discuss the paradox of WTO law with respect to subsidies towards fossil fuels vis-à-vis those towards renewable energy. It is clear that subsidies on clean

  10. INSPIRE Harmonisation of existing Energy Performance Certificate datasets: European Union Location Framework Energy Pilot

    OpenAIRE

    MARTIRANO GIACOMO; Pignatelli, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The European Union is giving more and more emphasis to its energy policies, whose strategy and actions are included in the Energy Union Package and the 2030 Framework for Climate and Energy. Buildings in which people live and work are responsible for an important portion of the energy consumption in Europe (approximately 40% of the primary energy consumption) and there are several policies and initiatives that are aiming at improving their energy performance. In particular, the Energy Perf...

  11. The general principles of European Union law - a source of inspiration for the development of a modern administrative law in the Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas SCHMITZ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To attain the quality of public administration that Moldova needs in the 21st century, the upcoming modernization of public administration must include the development of a modern, sophisticated administrative law. The general principles of European Union law, unwritten principles reflecting the common European legal heritage that have been worked out and elaborated in the jurisprudence of the European Court of Justice, present a valuable source of inspiration to meet this challenge. Most principles serve to protect human rights or to implement the rule of law in the Union. The latter group includes the principles of legality, legal certainty and clarity, the protection of legitimate expectations and a couple of specific principles for a fair administrative procedure (in particular the right to be heard, the right of access to one’s file and the obligation of the authority to state reasons. Of particular interest are those principles that focus on ensuring the effectiveness, the „effet utile” of the law - a central concern in a system based on the rule of law.

  12. Energy Choices. A North European Energy Map; Vaegval Energi. Nordeuropeisk Energikarta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenkvist, Stefan; Stenkvist, Maria; Paradis, Hanna

    2008-11-15

    Oil, coal and natural gas dominate the energy consumption in Northern Europe, as well as in the world at large. The energy supply mix varies between the countries of the region. For example, a large proportion of biomass and waste in Finland and Latvia (Norway) and Sweden use a high proportion of hydroelectric power, while Poland has a very high proportion of coal in their energy mix. Energy use per person in Northern Europe is more than twice as high compared with the average global - but lower than the average in the OECD. In Northern Europe, there are three separate networks for energy transfer: natural gas, electricity and heating. The expansion of the natural gas network has been strong since 1970. Gas pipelines today covers large parts of Europe and new pipelines are planned. The electricity grids and their transmission capacity has grown. Electricity began to be transferred between the Nordic countries during the 1960s. Today, the North European countries are linked with a number of high capacity cables. While the networks for district heating has grown, these systems are separate for individual cities. In recent years, the region's net imports of oil rose, as (Norway's oil production has declined since the early 2000s. On the other hand, the North European countries in 2007 became, for the first time, net exporters of natural gas. As the energy systems expand, trade in energy increases - both within the region and with the rest of Europe and the rest of the world. Several new energy projects are planned in Northern Europe for expanded capacity in oil refineries and new pipelines for natural gas and transmission lines for electricity. The energy integration in the region is therefore expected to increase further. In the long term, climate policy will be of greater importance, both for the region's use of primary energy and for the look of the region's future energy map

  13. Theoretical Reflections on the Public-Private Distinction and their Traces in European Union Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Semmelmann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available From its inception, EU law has been organised with (economic integration as its guiding paradigm. A public-private distinction as it is known in many civil law countries has never been a characterising feature of EU law. In the absence of such a divide in EU law, the public and the private sphere interact differently. First, the attempt to strike a balance between the state and the market reflects the struggle for a delineation between public and private power. Second, the evolution of the personal scope of EU internal market law and fundamental rights increasingly involves private parties at both sides. Third, the emergence of European contract law has led to conceptual clashes between the international trade law paradigm and the public-private distinction in the tradition of civil law countries. It will be argued that EU law scholarship and legal practice will have to re-conceptualise the role of the individual and private parties as subjects of the law, bearers of rights and addressees of obligations in order to flesh out what is known as the private law element in many national legal cultures. Desde su creación, la legislación de la Unión Europea (UE se ha organizado en base al paradigma orientador de la integración (económica. La legislación comunitaria nunca se ha caracterizado por una distinción público-privada como la existente en el derecho civil de numerosos países. Ante la ausencia de esta división en la legislación de la UE, la esfera pública y la privada interactúan de forma indiferente. En primer lugar, el intento de lograr un equilibrio entre el Estado y el mercado refleja la lucha por una delimitación entre el poder público y el privado. En segundo lugar, la evolución del alcance privado de la legislación sobre el mercado interno europeo y los derechos fundamentales hace que se impliquen cada vez más poderes privados en ambas partes. En tercer lugar, el surgimiento del derecho contractual europeo ha dado lugar a

  14. Theoretical approach of the main means of appeals in the European procedural law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Oana M

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge and understanding the means of appeals lodged before the courts of the European Union, limited only to the points of law, are very important taking into account the modality to control a judgment delivered by an inferior court exists since ancient times, being governed among others, by the Larin principle: res judicata pro veritate accipitur. In the following we will examine, in general, the judicial control of the judgments and orders delivered by the General Court and by the Civil Service Tribunal, as a specialized tribunal on civil servant issues, but also the sui generis means of appeals and the extraordinary means of reviews of the judgments and orders. We shall mention that all of them are exercised in accordance with the Rules of Procedure of the European courts and the Statute of the Court of Justice of the European Union. Another aspect to be mentioned is that the judjments of the Court of Justice cannot be challenged to another court, as they remain final and irrevocable.

  15. Roadmap towards a competitive European energy market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    With the financial crisis evolving into a severe, global economic recession, there have been growing doubts over whether energy markets can continue to operate efficiently under present conditions or whether the shift to non-market mechanisms would be a better choice. This question remains an ongoing source of debate in the recently liberalised electricity sector. Textbook wisdom says that the market is the most efficient place to allocate financial means for investments. Therefore, during a period of a crisis, it should follow that we actually need more market mechanisms, not fewer, if we want to stimulate investments in an economically efficient way. Regulated electricity prices and nationalistic thinking will not help to solve Europe's electricity challenges with regards to either the generation or the transportation of electricity.

  16. TOWARDS A COMMON ENERGY POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Inotai

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy policy issues have got increasing relevance in the strategic orientation of the European Union (EU in general, and in identifying specific economic policy tasks, in particular. Steadily high energy (oil and gas prices in the last years constitute one factor. However, global political and security issues of growing degree of uncertainty, the level of dependence on imported energy and, not less importantly, the forecasts of growing external dependence of the EU in this field have substantially contributed to the upgrading of the energy question. Finally, the liberalization of the single market, not least in the crucial area of energy supply and the enlargement of the EU by 12 new members, with specific composition of production and not less specific pattern of imports of energy, enhanced the importance of energy in the enlarged EU, with a view to shape and implement a common energy policy.

  17. Energy Law 2008-2009. 4. ed.; Energierecht 2008-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarts, V.P.; De Pree, J.K. (eds.) [De Brauw Blackstone Westbroek, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2008-07-01

    This report addresses the most important and most recent legislation and regulation for electricity and natural gas in the Netherlands. In the area of delegated legislation the replacement of the MEP (Environmental quality of electricity production) by the SDE (Sustainable Energy Incentive Scheme) are the main subjects in this fourth edition. As for European Law the basic documents for current market organization have been included: the second Electricity directive, the second Gas Directive and the basic regulations for electricity and gas. [mk]. [Dutch] Bevat de belangrijkste en meeste recente wet- en regelgeving m.b.t. elektriciteit en aardgas in Nederland. In de sfeer van de gedelegeerde wetgeving heeft vooral de vervanging van de MEP (Milieukwaliteit Elektriciteitsproductie) door de SDE (Stimuleringsregeling Duurzame Energie) haar sporen in deze vierde druk achtergelaten. Van het Europese recht zijn de basisdocumenten voor de huidige marktordening opgenomen: de tweede Elektriciteitsrichtlijn, de tweede Gasrichtlijn en de basisverordeningen voor elektriciteit en voor gas.

  18. A Major Step in the Harmonization of Procedural Law in Europe: The European Small Claims Procedure : Accomplishments, New Features and Some Fundamental Questions of European Harmonization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X.E. Kramer (Xandra)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractEuropean civil procedural law has been in a constant state of flux since the coming into force of the Treaty of Amsterdam in 1999. The introduction of Article 65 EC Treaty was followed by numerous Community instruments in the field of civil procedure, mostly regulations that have direct

  19. Practical experience in post-mortem tissue donation in consideration of the European tissue law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbe, Thomas; Braun, Christian; Wulff, Birgit; Schröder, Ann Sophie; Püschel, Klaus; Bratzke, Hansjürgen; Parzeller, Markus

    2010-03-01

    In consequence of the European guidelines of safety and quality standards for the donation, retrieval, storing and distribution of human tissues and cells the purpose of tissue transplantation was implemented into German legislation in May 2007. The law came into effect on August 1st 2007 considering of the European rules. The Institutes for Legal Medicine of the University of Frankfurt/Main and the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf developed a model for tissue retrieval. The Institute of Legal Medicine (I.f.R.) at the University Medical Center Hamburg cooperates with the German Institute of Cell and Tissue Replacement (Deutsches Institut für Zell--und Gewebeersatz DIZG). Potential post-mortem tissue donors (PMTD) among the deceased are selected by standardized sets of defined criteria. The procedure is guided by the intended exclusion criteria of the tissue regulation draft (German Transplant Law TPG GewV) in accordance with the European Guideline (2006/17/EC). Following the identification of the donor and subsequent removal of tissue, the retrieved samples were sent to the DIZG, a non-profit tissue bank according to the tissue regulation. Here the final processing into transplantable tissue grafts takes place, which then results in the allocation of tissue to hospitals in Germany and other European countries. The Center of Legal Medicine at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Medical Center Frankfurt/Main cooperates since 2000 with Tutogen, a pharmaceutical company. Harvesting of musculoskeletal tissues follows corresponding regulations. To verify the outcome of PMTD at the I.f.R. Hamburg, two-statistic analysis over 12 and 4 months have been implemented. Our results have shown an increasing number of potential appropriate PMTD within the second inquiry interval but a relatively small and unvaryingly rate of successful post-mortem tissue retrievals similar to the first examination period. Thus, the aim of the model developed by the I.f.R. is to

  20. Equipartition of energy and the first law of thermodynamics at the apparent horizon

    OpenAIRE

    Shu, Fu-Wen; Gong, Yungui

    2010-01-01

    We apply the holographic principle and the equipartition law of energy to the apparent horizon of a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe and derive the Friedmann equation describing the dynamics of the universe. We also show that the equipartition law of energy can be interpreted as the first law of thermodynamics at the apparent horizon.

  1. European Physical Society Conference on High Energy Physics 2015

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The European Physical Society Conference on High Energy Physics, organized by the High Energy and Particle Physics Division of the European Physical Society, is a major international conference that reviews biennially since 1971 the state of our knowledge of the fundamental constituents of matter and their interactions. The latest conferences in this series were held in Stockholm, Grenoble, Krakow, Manchester, Lisbon, and Aachen. Jointly organized by the Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, the University of Vienna, the Vienna University of Technology, and the Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, the 23rd edition of this conference took place in Vienna, Austria. Among the topics covered were Accelerators, Astroparticle Physics, Cosmology and Gravitation, Detector R&D; and Data Handling, Education and Outreach, Flavour Physics and Fundamental Symmetries, Heavy Ion Physics, Higgs and New Physics, Neutrino Physics, Non-Perturbative...

  2. Avoiding another directive: the unstable politics of European Union cross-border health care law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Scott L

    2013-10-01

    The European Union’s (EU) 2011 Directive on cross-border patient mobility codifies the right of any EU citizen to travel abroad for treatment and be reimbursed on the same terms as they would be at home. Governments hoped it would end the string of court cases that had reshaped EU health law but this article argues that it is likely to produce yet more judicial challenges. Patient mobility is an attractive idea with unclear definitions and divergent implementation. In many cases, providers, insurers and governments will not communicate and leave the patient with a bill – almost daring the patient to sue, and the courts to make more policy. Governments should try to prevent this by investing in coordination and alternative redress for patients who might otherwise sue.

  3. The origin of the energy-momentum conservation law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubykalo, Andrew E.; Espinoza, Augusto; Kosyakov, B. P.

    2017-09-01

    The interplay between the action-reaction principle and the energy-momentum conservation law is revealed by the examples of the Maxwell-Lorentz and Yang-Mills-Wong theories, and general relativity. These two statements are shown to be equivalent in the sense that both hold or fail together. Their mutual agreement is demonstrated most clearly in the self-interaction problem by taking account of the rearrangement of degrees of freedom appearing in the action of the Maxwell-Lorentz and Yang-Mills-Wong theories. The failure of energy-momentum conservation in general relativity is attributed to the fact that this theory allows solutions having nontrivial topologies. The total energy and momentum of a system with nontrivial topological content prove to be ambiguous, coordinatization-dependent quantities. For example, the energy of a Schwarzschild black hole may take any positive value greater than, or equal to, the mass of the body whose collapse is responsible for forming this black hole. We draw the analogy to the paradoxial Banach-Tarski theorem; the measure becomes a poorly defined concept if initial three-dimensional bounded sets are rearranged in topologically nontrivial ways through the action of free non-Abelian isometry groups.

  4. Energy Relations between the European Union and North Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kilpeläinen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses European Union (EU-North Africa energy relations with a special focus on renewables in North Africa, arguing that the research so far has not taken due account of North African perceptions of EU external energy policy. It is argued that current research on EU-North African relations has not taken sufficient note of the multidimensionality of energy or addressed the inconsistent nature of EU policy making. However, addressing these issues is vital in approaching EU-North Africa energy relations and EU policy towards North Africa in general. The study of perceptions is introduced as one way to develop research further, to give further impetus on understanding how EU-North African energy relations develop and to understand energy relations in their complexity.

  5. Factors Influencing the Capacity of Anticorruption Law Enforcement Bodies in South East European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor ALISTAR

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present a regional perspective regarding the independence of judiciary system, based on the magistrates’ perception. Taking into consideration that the independence of judiciary is a concept which has to be not only guaranteed by constitutional and statutory provisions, but mostly perceived as a functional reality, the present article analyses the factors which influence the capacity to act efficiently of the judicial structures in South East European countries. The article is presenting ones of explanation for low capacity to fight corruption in this region of Europe. The analyse is built on a sociological survey conducted in nine countries from the standpoint of the hierarchical relationships and of the guarantees of operational and professional independence, legislative framework, resources as well as the relationship between justice and the society. The data used in this articles provided by the study “Integrity and resistance to corruption of the law enforcement bodies in South East European countries”. The concluding remarks are based on questionnaires sent out to judges and prosecutors and emphasis cultural, managerial and functional aspects of judicial system, exposed by magistrates themself.

  6. European perspectives on ethics and law in end-of-life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jox, Ralf J; Horn, Ruth J; Huxtable, Richard

    2013-01-01

    End-of-life care practices and attitudes in Europe are highly diverse, which is unsurprising given the variety of cultural and religious patterns across this region. The most marked differences are in the legal and ethical stances towards assisted dying, although there are also variations in limitation of life-sustaining treatment and the authority of advance directives to decline such treatment. Palliative care has made a rapid and impressive development in many European countries over the last decade, and alleviating symptoms at the end of life is permitted, even if the drugs used might (in the rare case) not only relieve suffering but also shorten life. Fueled by the politically led process of European harmonization, future policies and laws on end-of-life care might converge. However, at the base of many ethical conflicts there remain deeply rooted differences about promoting the sanctity of life, eradicating suffering, and respecting patients' autonomous wishes. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Psychiatric commitment: over 50 years of case law from the European Court of Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niveau, G; Materi, J

    2006-10-01

    To extensively review the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) case law concerning psychiatric commitment, and to estimate the role of this supranational jurisprudence in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. Using keywords to search the ECHR computerized database "HUDOC", we reviewed all cases concerning psychiatric commitment registered between September 1953 and December 31, 2004. Four groups were identified: applications declared inadmissible; applications accepted but not judged by the Court; pending cases; and cases judged by the Court. Of the almost 118,000 decisions taken by the ECHR in this time frame, we found 108 situations concerning psychiatric commitment. Forty-one of these applications were considered by the Court to be inadmissible. Twenty-four other cases were considered admissible but not judged by the ECHR. Three admissible cases were still pending at the end of 2004. The ECHR judged 40 cases, and found in 35 of them that one or several rights as guaranteed by the Convention had been violated. The ECHR protects the human rights of persons subjected to involuntary psychiatric commitment by creating supranational law in the following areas: definition of "unsoundness of mind"; conditions of lawfulness of detention; right to a review of detention by a Court; right to information; right to respect for private and family life; and conditions of confinement, which address inhuman and degrading treatment. The respective number of applications submitted to the ECHR did not depend on when the Convention had entered into force in that country. The possibility of an individual to access the ECHR depends on the degree of democracy in his country and on the access to legal assistance through non-governmental organizations or individual intervening parties.

  8. Classes of heirs and the intestate succession rights of the surviving spouse in the European civil law tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şchiopu, S.-D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Roman law heritage is present even today in all legislations which are part of the European civil law system. Since one of the most stable parts of all civil codes is the one concerning the intestate inheritances, in the light of the inheritance rights of the surviving spouse and the classes of heirs, this article attempts to highlight the perpetuation of some characteristics of the intestate succession since the late Roman law till the modern era in France and Germany, without overlooking some aspects of our old legal systems. Our analysis will confirm that some of the principles laid down in Justinian’s legislation survived till nowadays.

  9. Harmonization of domestic legislation in the field of civil law with the European Union law: Securing of claims by means of fiduciary agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajtić Bojan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses fiduciary agreements, which, as a form of contract, that is the means of securing obligation and legal claims, are regulated by provisions of specific laws and codifications in some of the European Union countries. Even the Montenegrin legislator enacted a special law governing these legal matters, however in the Serbian law fiduciary agreements fall into the category of innominate contracts. Fiducia originates in the Roman Law and constitutes the first common form of the pledge law. The Latin term fiducia means 'trust', since these legal matters were, first of all, based on the trust between contractual parties. This paper addresses the institution of 'trust' as it is the Anglo-Saxon counterpart of the fiduciary agreement. Etymologically, 'trust' has the same meaning as the term fiducia - trust. Due to their advantages, fiduciary agreements are not even uncommon in the domestic legal practice, while there are certain, as we have already announced, theoretical, but also practical concerns arguing admissibility of this legal matter. These arguments mainly come down to the thesis (mentioned above that entering into the fiduciary agreement results in violation of the ban on performance of contract lex commissoria in the pledge law. Nevertheless, I provided explanation that differences between contracts of pledge and fiduciary agreements clearly point to the conclusion that fiduciary agreements may not be treated as a pledge, hence they are admissible, that is, they are concluded on the principle of contractual freedom as an imperative norm of the Law on Obligations. Fiduciary agreements (in relation to the realistic means of security offer to the creditor a higher level of security, reduce the period of payment of his claims, also providing practical benefits for the debtor himself. The paper presents the reasons supporting the view that it would be advantageous for the Serbian legislator, in the process of harmonization of the

  10. Yearbook of wind energy law 2014; Jahrbuch Windenergierecht 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, Edmund (ed.) [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Lehrstuhl Staats- und Verwaltungsrecht sowie Verwaltungswissenschaften; Koordinierungsstelle Windenergierecht k:wer, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    In the yearbook 2014, the technical contributions surround mainly the position and shape of the wind energy, small wind turbines, the compatibility of the EEG with higher-ranking law, as well as to the implementation of recent instrumental requirements. In other contributions the central lines of development of the jurisdiction are identified and (legal) political developments, judical decisions and literature are documented. [German] Im Jahrbuch 2014 ranken sich die Fachbeitraege schwerpunktmaessig um die Stellung und Ausformung der Windenergie, um Kleinwindanlagen, um die Vereinbarkeit des EEG mit hoeherrangigem Recht sowie um die Umsetzung neuerer instrumenteller Anforderungen. In weiteren Beitraegen werden die zentralen Entwicklungslinien der Rechtsprechung herausgearbeitet und (rechts-)politische Entwicklungen, Gerichtsentscheidungen und Literatur dokumentiert.

  11. THE RIGHT TO AN INDEPENDENT COURT OF LAW. THEORETICAL ASPECTS. THE EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS CASE-LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRCEA DAMASCHIN

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available International specialized literature approaches the concept of court of law from two perspectives: on the one hand, this concept refers to the court of law, regarded as a key linking element within the unitary judicial system, and, on the other hand, to the panel of judges, regarded as the main subject of the criminal procedure, i.e. thejudges who take part in trying a criminal case. In a criminal case, the court of law plays the most important role and its main attribute is the function of jurisdiction, which represents the sum of powers granted to a magistrate for the administration of justice1. The court of law plays a significant role in the rule of law state; thus, both at national and international level, attempts are made in order to set up a legal framework consisting of norms issued by national lawmakers or by official international institutions or by some magistrate associations or NGOs. All these efforts are meant to underline the significant role that the judiciary plays in a rule of law democratic society. In this study we shall try to analyse the concept of “independent court of law”, as this is presented in the national system of law, in its specific norms that are provided by international normative acts and in the principles deriving from the ECHR case-law.

  12. European integration and the supervision of local and regional authorities
    Experiences in the Netherlands with requirements of European Community law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Hessel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of increasing European integration, local and regional authorities are having to deal with European law more and more intensively. As Member States (read: central government are responsible vis-à-vis the Community for the errors of local and regional authorities, the question arises within Member States whether the central government possesses sufficient supervisory instruments for complying with their obligations under Community law: they must ensure that the errors of local and regional authorities are rectified in time, and national law must provide for sufficient possibilities to do so. Although Community law is neutral towards the internal relations between the various tiers of government within the Member States, this responsibility of the central government may, as a result of European integration, lead to a need for more powerful supervisory instruments in relation to local and regional authorities. In the past five years there has been some debate on this subject within the Netherlands and after a long delay the Dutch cabinet in 2004 decided that the existing supervisory instruments in the decentralized unitary state of the Netherlands should be expanded. The legislation intended to realize this expansion is being prepared. This discussion and its results would seem of interest to other Member States of the Community facing similar problems.

  13. HiPER: The European path to laser energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards Chris

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available While for decades, energy production relying on laser inertial fusion has been a strong motivation for the development in Europe of a few high-energy laser facilities and dedicated scientific programs, the HiPER initiative launched in 2004 fostered an ambitious large-scale coordinated European program toward inertial fusion energy. Anticipating the successful demonstration of fusion ignition and gain at the National Ignition Facility (NIF in the USA, scientists and engineers from across Europe are developing the case for a next generation laser fusion facility, HiPER, to be constructed in Europe. The single-facility build strategy of HiPER (High Power Laser Energy Research Facility aims at first demonstrating some key elements of a fusion reactor in a high rep-rate few-second cycle mode, before addressing energy production on a high rep-rate continuous mode in a second area.

  14. North European Understanding of Zero Energy/Emission Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Nieminen, Jyri

    2010-01-01

    countries are still to adopt a national definition for these types of buildings. This results often in more than one understanding of ZEBs in each country. This study provides a concise source of information on the north European understanding of zero energy/emission buildings. It puts forward a number......The worldwide CO2 emission mitigation efforts, the growing energy resource shortage and the fact that buildings are responsible for a large share of the world’s primary energy use drives research towards new building concepts, in particular Zero Energy/Emission Buildings (ZEBs). Unfortunately...... may observe a correlation between the zero energy/emission building approach adopted by a country and this particular country’s utility grid characteristics. Moreover, it is to be noted that the ZEB concept is not well defined at the national level in northern Europe and that all of the participating...

  15. Transparency of standard terms under the Unfair Contract Terms Directive and the Proposal for a Common European Sales Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, M.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses whether and to what extent the transparency principle is applicable to standard contract terms legislation under European Union law and what the consequences are when the principle, in so far as it is recognized, is breached. To that extent, it focuses first on the Unfair

  16. Subsidiarity and ‘Arguability’: the European Court of Human Rights’ Case Law on Judicial Review in Asylum Cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkerboer, T.P.

    2009-01-01

    The European Court of Human Rights' case law on judicial review in asylum cases is not entirely consistent. However, it can be interpreted as consistent if two presumptions are accepted. First, that, as the Court's role should be subsidiary to that of domestic courts, domestic judicial review should

  17. Democracy and rule of law in the European Union : Essays in honour of Jaap W. de Zwaan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudappel, Flora A.N.J.; Hirsch Ballin, Ernst

    2016-01-01

    The present collection of essays offers the reader a broad range of original perspectives on democracy and the rule of law in the European Union, approaching the existing policy area from new points of view. Leading experts from different countries and backgrounds focus on how democracy and the rule

  18. ENERGY ECONOMICS AND POLICY OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadim Strielkowski

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available European Union adapted the policy of reducing its carbon footprint and embarked on the journey to shift to renewable energy sources in the early 1990s. The whole process started with implementations of binding rules that set up indicative targets for the EU Member States. However, this process had to go hand in hand with high energy costs charged to the consumers. This paper defines various types of renewable sources in the EU and analyses European legislation on renewable energy sources. In addition, it deals with the current situation regarding the energy policies in the European Union and outlines its main criticisms and prospects. The results and conclusions might be of some value for EU main energy providers as well as for the EU partners in the world.

  19. estec2007 - 3rd European solar thermal energy conference. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-12-14

    The sessions of the 'estec2007 - 3{sup rd} European Solar Thermal Energy Conference held in Freiburg, Germany have the following titles: The solar thermal sector at a turning point; Cooling and Process Heat, Country reports Europe; Standards and Certification; Country reports outside Europe; Awareness raising and marketing; Domestic hot water and space heating; Domestic hot water and space heating; Quality Assurance and Solar Thermal Energy Service Companies; Collectors and other key technical issues; Policy - Financial incentives; Country Reports; Marketing and Awareness Raising; Quality Assurance Measures/Monistoring; Standards and Certification; Collectors; Domestic Hot Water and Space Heating; Industrial Process Heat; Storage; Solar Cooling. (AKF)

  20. Cell-Based Veterinary Pharmaceuticals – Basic Legal Parameters Set by the Veterinary Pharmaceutical Law and the Genetic Engineering Law of the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faltus, Timo; Brehm, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Cell-based therapies have been in use in veterinary medicine for years. However, the legal requirement of manufacturing, placing on the market and use of cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals are not as well developed as the respective requirements of chemical pharmaceuticals. Cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals are medicinal products in the sense of the pharmaceutical law of the European Union (EU). For that reason, such medicinal products principally require official approval for their manufacture and an official marketing authorization for their placement on the market before being used by the veterinarian. The manufacture, placing on the market, and use of cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals without manufacturing approval and marketing authorization is permitted only in certain exceptional cases determined by EU and individual Member State law. Violations of this requirement may have consequences for the respective veterinarian under criminal law and under the code of professional conduct in the respective Member State. The regular use of cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals within the scope of a therapeutic emergency as well as the import of such veterinary pharmaceuticals from non-European countries for use in the EU are currently out of the question in the EU because of a lack of legal bases. Here, we review the general legal requirement of manufacturing, placing on the market, and use of cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals within the EU and point out different implementations of EU law within the different Member States. PMID:27965965

  1. Cell-Based Veterinary Pharmaceuticals - Basic Legal Parameters Set by the Veterinary Pharmaceutical Law and the Genetic Engineering Law of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faltus, Timo; Brehm, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Cell-based therapies have been in use in veterinary medicine for years. However, the legal requirement of manufacturing, placing on the market and use of cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals are not as well developed as the respective requirements of chemical pharmaceuticals. Cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals are medicinal products in the sense of the pharmaceutical law of the European Union (EU). For that reason, such medicinal products principally require official approval for their manufacture and an official marketing authorization for their placement on the market before being used by the veterinarian. The manufacture, placing on the market, and use of cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals without manufacturing approval and marketing authorization is permitted only in certain exceptional cases determined by EU and individual Member State law. Violations of this requirement may have consequences for the respective veterinarian under criminal law and under the code of professional conduct in the respective Member State. The regular use of cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals within the scope of a therapeutic emergency as well as the import of such veterinary pharmaceuticals from non-European countries for use in the EU are currently out of the question in the EU because of a lack of legal bases. Here, we review the general legal requirement of manufacturing, placing on the market, and use of cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals within the EU and point out different implementations of EU law within the different Member States.

  2. European Union's renewable energy sources and energy efficiency policy review. The Spanish perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Alegria Mancisidor, Itziar Martinez; Diaz de Basurto Uraga, Pablo; Ruiz de Arbulo Lopez, Patxi [Departamento de Organizacion de Empresas, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (Spain); Martinez de Alegria Mancisidor, Inigo [Departamento de Electronica y Telecomunicaciones, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    The European Union's (EU) energy objectives, legislation and programmes are determinant for the current strategy for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES) and energy efficiency (EE) in Spain, which is becoming a key element for its international competitiveness. Firstly, this article explores the evolution of the EU's energy strategy, focusing on the adopted legislations and programmes to promote RES and EE. It concludes with an analysis of the impact of those measures in Spain. (author)

  3. Can "extreme poverty" protect against refoulement? : Economic refugees in the light of recent case law of the European Court of Human Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flegar, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    “Economic refugees” largely remain outside the international protection regimes of refugee and human rights law. Nevertheless, recent case law of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) opens up limited possibilities for economic refugees to rely on Article 3 of the European Convention on Human

  4. University courses and opportunity for a European Master Program in Marine Renewable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Tetu, Amélie; Frigaard, Peter Bak

    This document presents an overview of the existing European educational programmes in the field of marine renewable energy. It also includes suggestion for a transnational European master program in marine renewable energy.......This document presents an overview of the existing European educational programmes in the field of marine renewable energy. It also includes suggestion for a transnational European master program in marine renewable energy....

  5. Transposition of the new European Union audit regulation into the Croatian national law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Sever Mališ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The audit reform in the EU had as a consequence the adoption of the new regulatory framework. The European Parliament adopted Directive 2014/56/EU amending the Directive 2006/43/EC on statutory audit in the EU and the EU Regulation No. 537/2014 containing requirements that relate specifically to the statutory audit of public interest entities. Each Member State needs to transpose the Directive into its national legislation and also ensure its implementation. Within the framework of transposing the Directive into the national regulation, each Member State had many options that allows them to tailor the provisions of the national law according to their needs and specific aspects of the national audit markets. However, the number of options brings risks that are connected to additional audit procedures and inefficiencies in the process of performing audit with the potential effects on the quality and cost of audits. The aim of this article is to analyse the most important (not used options of the Directive and Regulation according to the Croatian national legislation. In that sense, the article provides information about the definition of statutory audit and the subjects of statutory audit as well as the definition of public interest entities in Croatia. In addition, the audit profession in Croatia is analysed in the context of the “European audit passport”. The results of this research can be a base for future comparisons between Croatia and the other EU Member States. Finally, the implementation of this provisions will answer the question: Does the implementation of different options bring convergence or divergence within the single EU audit services market?

  6. Energy as an issue of word trade law; 'Energie' als Thema des Welthandelsrechts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schorkopf, F. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Oeffentliches Recht

    2007-07-01

    World trade law is a framework of regulations governing the commercial interests of states and state alliances. It consists of a set of norms that were instituted under the auspices of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) in 1995 and are largely shaped on the guiding principles of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) which was drawn up in the post-war era. Over the course of its evolution up to the present the world trade order has been based on the premises of an economic starting situation where every trading nation has an interest in selling its surplus production abroad at favourable terms and under reliable conditions. This commercial interest often meets with the regulatory power of governments wanting to restrict the import of goods for various reasons. On inquiring into the significance of world trade law for energy goods one is confronted with ambiguous and sometimes irritating answers that can only be understood properly if one takes the atypical commercial interests prevailing in the energy sector and the singular status of energy in international relations into account. This paper addresses the subject from a perspective that combines the significance of world trade law for the energy sector with how commercial interests are distributed among trading nations and trading blocks.

  7. Shale gas. Opportunities and challenges for European energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Joode, J.; Plomp, A.J.; Ozdemir, O. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    The outline of the presentation shows the following elements: Introduction (Shale gas revolution in US and the situation in the EU); What could be the impact of potential shale gas developments on the European gas market?; How may shale gas developments affect the role of gas in the transition of the power sector?; and Key messages. The key messages are (1) Prospects for European shale gas widely differ from US case (different reserve potential, different competition, different market dynamics); (2) Shale gas is unlikely to be a game changer in Europe; and (3) Impact of shale gas on energy transition in the medium and long term crucially depends on gas vs. coal prices and the 'penalty' on CO2 emissions.

  8. An european policy of the energy; Une politique europeenne de l'energie?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-15

    This report aims to precise the main dynamics which give structure to the public action in the domain of the energy in Europe. It shows: how the european initiatives which tend to integrate the different national policies, are poorly developed; a new european model of regulation to articulate the liberalization dynamic with the other objectives of national interest; scenari of global integration. (A.L.B.)

  9. Strengthening the European Union Climate and Energy Package to build a low carbon, competitive and energy secure european union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin, Emmanuel; Spencer, Thomas

    2011-10-11

    Immediate action to strengthen the European Union Climate and Energy Package (EU CEP) is needed to ensure Europe's sustained growth, competitiveness and energy security. Indeed, the current 20% emissions reduction target is too low to reach the European long-term goal of reducing emissions by at least 80% by 2050 at acceptable costs. But the EU CEP is also inefficient to address sustainable potential competitiveness losses and carbon leakages in some carbon intensive industries, and most importantly to boost fully the competitiveness of firms producing low-carbon products and services. Moving to 30% by 2020 could induce significant long-term GDP gains and only marginal GDP short-term costs, increase the competitiveness of European firms producing innovative low-carbon technologies, and reduce both final energy consumption and EU energy dependency. But for these objectives to be met, the contents of policies to reach this 30% target is as important as the target itself. There are three main areas in which the EU CEP needs strengthening: (1) Improvement of the energy efficiency of the existing building stocks, and limitation of the absolute level of energy consumption in the transport sector are needed to reach the 20% energy efficiency target. Binding targets should only be used when absolutely necessary and when helpful. (2) From an economic, environmental and political perspective, setting a stringent European Union Emission Trading System (EU ETS) 2030 cap between -45 and -50% from 2005 levels is probably the most relevant, efficient, and realistic option in the short term. It would increase the predictability of the carbon price signal, and therefore the credibility of the regulator. Banking would ensure that this stringent mid-term target translates into a short-term increase of the carbon price. (3) In some cases, direct public financial support is justified and efficient: to overcome market failures and non-market barriers; to support innovation in low

  10. Tradable CO2 permits in Danish and European energy policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varming, S.; Eriksen, P.B.; Grohnheit, Poul Erik

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the results of the project "Tradable CO2 permits in Danish and European energy policy". The project was financed by a grant from the Danish Energy Research Programme 1998 (Grant 1753/98-0002). The project was conducted in co-operationbetween Elsamprojekt A/S (project manager......), Risø National Laboratory, Aarhus School of Business and I/S Eltra. The three major objectives of the project were: To identify and analyse the economical and political issues that are relevant with regard tothe construction of a tradable CO_2 permit market as well as proposing a suitable design...... for a tradable CO_2 permit market for the energy sector in the EU. Experience from the tradable SO_2 permit market in the US is taken into consideration as well. Topresent an overview of price estimates of CO_2 and greenhouse gas permits in different models as well as discussing the assumptions leading...

  11. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, ENERGY AND CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei ROTH

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Through sustainable development the needs of the current generation are fulfilled without jeopardizing the opportunities of future generations. The concept takes into account economic, social and environmental considerations. It has a wide range of applications from natural resources to population growth and biodiversity. One of its most important themes is energy. In this area, sustainable development relates with resource availability and green house gases emissions. Also it takes into account the needs of people without access to energy, and their legitimate quest for development. For the European Union, sustainable development represents an overarching objective. The present article analyzes the concept from a theoretical perspective, contrasting its strong points and weaknesses. It highlights the relation between sustainable development, energetic resources and climate change. The EU policies results in the field of energy are analyzed from the perspective of resources, energetic dependency and climate change efforts.

  12. Skilful seasonal predictions for the European energy industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robin T.; Bett, Philip E.; Thornton, Hazel E.; Scaife, Adam A.

    2017-02-01

    We assess the utility of seasonal forecasts for the energy industry by showing how recently-established predictability of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in winter allows predictability of near-surface wind speed and air temperature and therefore energy supply and demand respectively. Our seasonal prediction system (GloSea5) successfully reproduces the influence of the NAO on European climate, leading to skilful forecasts of wind speed and wind power and hence wind driven energy supply. Temperature is skilfully forecast using the observed temperature-NAO relationship and the NAO forecast. Using the correlation between forecast NAO and observed GB electricity demand, we demonstrate that skilful predictions of winter demand are also achievable on seasonal timescales well in advance of the season. Finally, good reliability of probabilistic forecasts of above/below-average wind speed and temperature is also demonstrated.

  13. Implications and Measurement of Energy Poverty across the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Maxim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy poverty, or the inability of households to afford adequate access to energy services, is an issue that can have a significant effect on the quality of life and even the state of health of individuals and even the overall development of a nation. Since it was first brought into focus more than two decades ago in the UK, this topic has gradually gained the attention of academics and policy makers all across the EU and beyond. The current paper addresses the topic by providing not only a renewed discussion, but also an improved energy poverty indicator (with clear and relevant results at the EU level: the Compound Energy Poverty Indicator (CEPI. Moreover, knowing that the risk of poverty and social exclusion, efficiency of heating systems, total consumption of energy per household and rising energy prices tend to increase the severity of this problem in some countries, CEPI is then included into an econometric model so as to determine some possible factors that tend to put pressure on an already existing issue of energy poverty. The results of this research are expected to be relevant not only for academics (as it offers insights into the structure and severity of this topic within the European Union, but also for national and EU policymakers who are confronted in the field with the problem of sustainable development.

  14. Energy Planning in Selected European Regions - Methods for Evaluating the Potential of Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Sliz-Szkliniarz, Beata

    2013-01-01

    Given their potentially positive impact on climate protection and the preservation of fossil resources, alternative energy sources have become increasingly important for the energy supply over the past years. However, the questions arises what economic and ecological impacts and potential conflicts over land use resources are associated with the promotion of renewable energy production. Using the examples of three selected European Regions in Poland, France and German, the dissertation discus...

  15. An alternative energy scenario for the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, M. [Sustainable Environment Consultants Ltd. (SENCO), Colchester (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    The proposed National Emissions Ceiling directive to control acidification and ozone will mean EU emissions of carbon dioxide will rise by 9%, contradictory to Kyoto commitments. Alternative energy strategies including demand management, energy efficiency and low carbon fuels are explored in this report. In addition to abating greenhouse gas emissions, these strategies can facilitate cheaper and greater abatement of other atmospheric pollutants as compared to 'official' scenarios. The given objective was to produce scenarios in which the total emission of carbon dioxide from the fifteen countries of the European Union is reduced by 15% over the period 1990 to 2010. To this end scenarios, called Carbon 15, have been produced for each of the fifteen EU countries taking into account recent historical data and assumed economic and population growth. It is concluded that the Carbon 15 scenarios are technically feasible. The level of demand management is such that, even though natural gas increases its market share, the total European Union consumption of natural gas does not increase very much. It is argued that the Carbon 15 scenarios are economically feasible in that the end use measures are cost effective as against conventional energy supply, and there is no requirement for a large expansion of the supply of any conventional primary fuel. 20 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Expanding Newton Mechanics with Neutrosophy and Quadstage Method ──New Newton Mechanics Taking Law of Conservation of Energy as Unique Source Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Yuhua

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neutrosophy is a new branch of philosophy, and "Quad-stage" (Four stages is the expansion of Hegel’s triad thesis, antithesis, synthesis of development. Applying Neutrosophy and "Quad-stage" method, the purposes of this paper are expanding Newton Mechanics and making it become New Newton Mechanics (NNW taking law of conservation of energy as unique source law. In this paper the examples show that in some cases other laws may be contradicted with the law of conservation of energy. The original Newton's three laws and the law of gravity, in principle can be derived by the law of conservation of energy. Through the example of free falling body, this paper derives the original Newton's second law by using the law of conservation of energy, and proves that there is not the contradiction between the original law of gravity and the law of conservation of energy; and through the example of a small ball rolls along the inclined plane (belonging to the problem cannot be solved by general relativity that a body is forced to move in flat space, derives improved Newton's second law and improved law of gravity by using law of conservation of energy. Whether or not other conservation laws (such as the law of conservation of momentum and the law of conservation of angular momentum can be utilized, should be tested by law of conservation of energy. When the original Newton's second law is not correct, then the laws of conservation of momentum and angular momentum are no longer correct; therefore the general forms of improved law of conservation of momentum and improved law of conservation of angular momentum are presented. In the cases that law of conservation of energy cannot be used effectively, New Newton Mechanics will not exclude that according to other theories or accurate experiments to derive the laws or formulas to solve some specific problems. For example, with the help of the result of general relativity, the improved Newton's formula of universal

  17. Laws for local energy systems. A review; Lagar foer lokala energisystem. En oeversikt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bylund, S.I. [Bygginfo AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Moe, N.; Bjoerk, J. [Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development (NUTEK), Stockholm (Sweden); Goethe, S.; Froste, H. [Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Solna (Sweden); Larsen, B.; Gyberg, A. [Boverket, Karlskrona (Sweden)

    1996-10-01

    This report gives a popular descriptive orientation of existing laws regarding the establishment of small-scale energy technology, like wind power plants, heat pumps, solar heating and others, and also of more efficient power generation. In the first part of the report 11 different local energy systems are described, together with their environmental impact. The second part gives a review of more than 20 laws. The central content of the laws are described, not the complete text

  18. 2014 European School of High-Energy Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Nick Ellis, on behalf of the Organising Committee

    2014-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, I would like to draw your attention to the 2014 European School of High-Energy Physics. Details can be found here. The School will be held in the Netherlands from 18 June to 1 July 2014. PLEASE NOTE THAT THE DEADLINE FOR APPLICATIONS IS 14 FEBRUARY 2014. The lectures will cover a broad range of HEP topics at a level suitable for students working towards a PhD in experimental particle physics. Note that, as indicated on the website, one or two students from developing countries could be considered for financial support.

  19. 2014 European School of High-Energy Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Nick Ellis, on behalf of the Organising Committee

    2014-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, I would like to draw your attention to the 2014 European School of High-Energy Physics. Details can be found here. The School will be held in the Netherlands from 18 June to 1 July 2014. PLEASE NOTE THAT THE DEADLINE FOR APPLICATIONS HAS BEEN EXTENDED TO 21 FEBRUARY 2014. The lectures will cover a broad range of HEP topics at a level suitable for students working towards a PhD in experimental particle physics. Note that, as indicated on the website, one or two students from developing countries could be considered for financial support.

  20. IS A NEW EUROPEAN UNION ENERGY POLICY NEEDED?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina, PETRUCA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In January 2009, because of a different between Russia and Ukraine, a major natural gas pipeline was closed, this being the worst gas cut-off of the decade. Eighteen countries have been interrupted from gas supplies and countries which had limited reserves and a shortage of alternative supply met a serious energy deficit, in the middle of an especially cold winter. After 22 days, the gas flows to all European countries were back to the normal level. A result of this, and of another similar dispute from 2006, was that the EU has put into question the confidence on the Russian gas supplies. The insecurity has led to a renewal of the political interest in energy security on EU level. The Russian cut-offs have been like a wake-up call to policy makers at a time when the EU faces significant energy security challenges as a result of the emerging world order. More than half of its energy, the EU buys from non-EU sources, while the demand for energy is always higher. In the meantime, the EU production levels of hydrocarbons are decreasing, leading to higher dependency on non-EU sources. Thereby, the energy security became a globally important topic and will raise important challenges for the EU in the future.

  1. CERTAIN ASSESSMENTS RELATED TO THE IMPORTANCE OF EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE EUROPEAN LAW SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca, GHERGHINA; Ana-Maria, GHERGHINA

    2013-01-01

    Being so intensely debated in the contemporary world, the human rights issues is acquiring a well defined contour through the human rights protection systems. The role of these systems is to establish a series of fundamental rights and freedoms, so that they can no longer be violated. The main systems of promotion and protection of human rights are: the Inter-American system of human rights protection, the African system and the European system. Two years before the European Convention on Hum...

  2. The Relationship Between Renewable Energy Production and Energy Imports Among Countries in the European Economic Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unbehaun, Sarah J.

    Most European countries must import fossil fuels due to a lack of domestic supplies but, in the interest of having a secure energy supply that is not susceptible to disruptions, would like to decrease their dependence on imports. It is possible that increasing renewable energy production could achieve this objective, in addition to providing environmental benefits. This analysis examines whether there is a relationship between renewable energy production and non-renewable energy imports, using data on European Union member countries and Norway from 1990-2014. Previous literature on the relationship between renewables and imports is scarce but provides suggestive evidence that production of renewables could lower import dependence, even if it cannot fully substitute for fossil fuels. However, the results of this analysis provide no evidence to support this position. Instead, I find that as renewable energy production increases, fossil fuel imports also increase.

  3. Long-term perspectives of European energy policy - the Energy Roadmap 2050 of the European Union; Langfristperspektiven der europaeischen Energiepolitik. Die Energy Roadmap 2050 der Europaeischen Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthes, Felix C. [Oeko Institut e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Aside from diverse event-related or short or medium-term oriented activities, for the European Union the year 2011 was marked by fundamental work on the long-term perspectives of European energy and climate policy. In the course of the year the European Commission published three so-called roadmaps, all oriented to the time horizon of 2050 and dedicated, amongst other goals, to identifying possible paths of development for the energy markets. This is the first time that a consistent, even if in some points debatable, analysis framework for long-term energy and climate policy in the context of the EU has been presented, and it certainly creates a new basis in qualitative terms.

  4. EuGH: Innocuousness of the nuclear fuel tax according to the European community law; EuGH: Europarechtliche Unbedenklichkeit der Kernbrennstoffsteuer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2015-08-14

    The tax levied on nuclear fuel in Germany does not contravene European law. This was the conclusion of the European Court of Justice (ECJ) on 4 June. The ECJ has now, for the first time, made a clear decision on the admissibility of preliminary ruling proceedings referred to the ECJ and to the domestic constitutional court in parallel: Article 267 TFEU not only entitles the domestic court but even obliges it to submit issues that are decisive for the dispute to the European Court of Justice for interpretation or a decision on the applicability of European law. Such an obligation and the issue of incompatibility with European law did not depend on whether the same provision had been submitted to the domestic court for review or not. After all, even if a provision has been declared unconstitutional under domestic law it will still remain applicable for a certain period of time.

  5. Opportunities in EUcase law for achieving Dutch sustainable energy target. It's up to the Netherlands to seize them

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavrijssen, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper draws on recent case law of the European Court of Justice to examine the opportunities available in European Union law to promote the generating of electricity from renewable sources within the Dutch system for managing congestion in the electricity grid (CMS) and for allocating the costs

  6. Secession within the Union: intersection points of international and European law: collected think pieces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brölmann, C.; Vandamme, T.

    2014-01-01

    An expert meeting organised by ACIL and ACELG on possible Scottish or Catalan secession has resulted in a collection of short think pieces that identify and outline a number of outstanding issues of both public international law and EU law.

  7.   Exhaustion of Rights and Common Principles of European Intellectual Property Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses whether or not Common Principles exist in EU law regarding exhaustion of rights ("first sale"). Traditionally, the law of the EU-countries conceptualized exhaustion in two different ways: Either "Contract" (e.g. UK law) or "Principle of exhaustion" (e.g. German law).  Whereas......, the first model left much to the parties - e.g. to decide on parallel importation - the second is based on precise rules in the IPR legislation. Early on, EU law opted for the exhaustion model. It is pointed out, that this was the logical method to apply in EU law because of the strong policy goals...... of Market Integration. On the basis of case law on the concept of "consent" from the Trade Marks-Directive a Common Principle is then established. According to this, the legal framework for understanding the exhaustion rules is IPR and not national contract law. The Principle would seem to have horizontal...

  8. Market integration of local energy systems: Is local energy management compatible with European regulation for retail competition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eid, C.; Bollinger, L.A.; Koirala, B.P.; Scholten, D.J.; Facchinetti, E.; Lilliestam, J.; Hakvoort, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    The growing penetration of distributed energy resources is opening up opportunities for local energy management (LEM) – the coordination of decentralized energy supply, storage, transport, conversion and consumption within a given geographical area. Because European electricity market liberalization

  9. A New Energy Conservation Law for Time-Harmonic Electromagnetic Fields and Its Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Geyi, Wen

    2016-01-01

    We report a new energy conservation law for time-harmonic electromagnetic fields, which is valid for an arbitrary medium. In contrast to the well-established Poynting theorem for time-harmonic fields, the real part of the new energy conservation law gives an equation for the sum of stored electric and magnetic field energies and the imaginary part involves an equation related to the difference between the dissipated electric and magnetic energies. Universally applicable expressions for both the electric and magnetic field energies have been obtained and demonstrated to be valuable in characterizing the energy storage and transport properties in complex media. For a lossless isotropic and homogeneous medium, the new energy conservation law implies that the stored electromagnetic field energy of a radiating system enclosed by a surface is equal to the total field energy inside the surface subtracted by the energy flowing out of the surface.

  10. Time for a fundamental reform of subsidisation under the Renewable Energy Law. The quota model; Zeit fuer eine grundlegende Reform der EEG-Foerderung. Das Quotenmodell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haucap, Justus [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Duesseldorf Institute for Competition Economics (DICE); Kuehling, Juergen [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Oeffentliches Recht, Immobilienrecht, Infrastrukturrecht und Informationsrecht

    2013-03-15

    The energy turnaround is one of the greatest challenges of the future. Its success hinges on whether the costs of converting the power supply system remain affordable. The existing subsidy model under the German Renewable Energy Law provides no guarantee for this, and it therefore urgently in need of a fundamental revision. A sensible alternative towards establishing an efficient subsidy system in Germany that conforms to its constitution as well as to European law would be to introduce a quota model such as that used with great success in Sweden.

  11. The Ant or the Grasshopper? The Long-term Consequences of Unilateral Divorce Laws on Savings of European Households

    OpenAIRE

    Angelini, Viola; Bertoni, Marco; Stella, Luca; Weiss, Christoph T.

    2016-01-01

    By allowing people to obtain divorce without the consent of their spouse, Unilateral Divorce Laws (UDLs) increase the risk of divorce. Using the staggered introduction of UDLs across European countries, we show that households exposed to UDLs for longer time accumulate more savings. This effect holds for both financial and total wealth and is stronger at higher quantiles of the wealth distribution. Longer exposure to UDLs also increases female labour market participation and financial literac...

  12. Energy intake and sources of energy intake in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocké, M C; Larrañaga, N; Grioni, S; van den Berg, S W; Ferrari, P; Salvini, S; Benetou, V; Linseisen, J; Wirfält, E; Rinaldi, S; Jenab, M; Halkjaer, J; Jakobsen, M U; Niravong, M; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Kaaks, R; Bergmann, M; Moutsiou, E; Trichopoulou, A; Lauria, C; Sacerdote, C; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Peeters, P H M; Hjartåker, A; Parr, C L; Tormo, M J; Sanchez, M J; Manjer, J; Hellstrom, V; Mulligan, A; Spencer, E A; Riboli, E; Bingham, S; Slimani, N

    2009-11-01

    To describe energy intake and its macronutrient and food sources among 27 regions in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 subjects aged 35-74 years were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall. Intakes of macronutrients (g/day) and energy (kcal/day) were estimated using standardized national nutrient databases. Mean intakes were weighted by season and day of the week and were adjusted for age, height and weight, after stratification by gender. Extreme low- and high-energy reporters were identified using Goldberg's cutoff points (ratio of energy intake and estimated basal metabolic rate 2.72), and their effects on macronutrient and energy intakes were studied. Low-energy reporting was more prevalent in women than in men. The exclusion of extreme-energy reporters substantially lowered the EPIC-wide range in mean energy intake from 2196-2877 to 2309-2866 kcal among men. For women, these ranges were 1659-2070 and 1873-2108 kcal. There was no north-south gradient in energy intake or in the prevalence of low-energy reporting. In most centres, cereals and cereal products were the largest contributors to energy intake. The food groups meat, dairy products and fats and oils were also important energy sources. In many centres, the highest mean energy intakes were observed on Saturdays. These data highlight and quantify the variations and similarities in energy intake and sources of energy intake among 10 European countries. The prevalence of low-energy reporting indicates that the study of energy intake is hampered by the problem of underreporting.

  13. Covert Action? Education, Social Policy, and Law in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Explores the legitimacy of the partial control over education matters gained by the European Union since the 1970s, examining in particular the role of the European Court of Justice and the European Commission, in reshaping and altering definitions of legal compensation in the fields of education and training. Discusses implications for democratic…

  14. Nonextensibility of energy in Tsallis' statistics and the zeroth law of thermodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, Congjie; Chen, Jincan

    2005-01-01

    Two important problems existing in Tsallis' statistics are investigated, where one is whether energy is extensive or not, and the other is whether it is necessary to introduce the so-called generalized zeroth law of thermodynamics or not. The results obtained show clearly that like entropy, energy is also nonextensive in Tsallis' statistics, and that the zeroth law of thermodynamics has been implicitly used in Tsallis' statistics since 1988. Moreover, it is expounded that the standard energy ...

  15. Law project on the energy policy direction; Projet de loi d'orientation sur l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffarin, J.P.; Sarkozy, N

    2004-05-01

    The law of the energy direction aims to define, in the first article, the objectives and the directions of the french energy policy and to complete the today dispositions in matter of energy. The first part is devoted to the energy demand control and presents a system of energy saving certificates, the thermal regulation increasing of buildings and a better information of the consumers. The second part promotes the renewable energies development. (A.L.B.)

  16. The reversal of the burden of proof in the Principles of European Tort Law
    A comparison with Dutch tort law and civil procedure rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Giesen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it is not one of its main features, the Principles of European Tort Law (PETL have devoted some attention to the rules regarding the burden of proof in tort cases, especially to the possibility of a reversal of that burden. Since such a reversal of the burden of proof will be highly relevant for the substantive outcome of a tort case, one needs to be able to justify such a reversal on normative grounds. However, that justification is not always advanced clearly enough in the PETL. At the same time the PETL focus largely on the possible exceptions to the general rule on the burden of proof. As a result, the underlying general rule as such has not been codified. This paper analyses the burden of proof rules in the PETL not only from a more technical point of view, but also from the perspective of the possible influence they might have on the substantive outcome of tort cases. To highlight their content, importance and possible inspirational force for a future ‘European tort law’, these Principles are contrasted with their counterparts under Dutch tort law. The aim is to answer the question whether the choices made in the PETL are justifiable and whether the Dutch tort system can – or maybe even should – seek inspiration from these Principles.

  17. Time-varying dependency in European energy markets: an analysis of Nord Pool, European Energy Exchange and Intercontinental Exchange energy commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Veka, Steinar; Lien, Gudbrand; Westgaard, Sjur; Higgs, Helen

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the extent to which the price of Nordic electricity derivatives correlates with European Energy Exchange (EEX) and Intercontinental Exchange (ICE) electricity contracts. We also include their price correlation with ICE gas, Brent crude oil, coal and carbon emission contracts. Using multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity models, we find significant time-varying relationships between all of the energy commodities included in the analy...

  18. Sustainable energy catalogue - for European decision-makers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gram, S.; Jacobsen, Soeren

    2006-10-15

    The Green paper - A European Strategy for Sustainable, Competitive and Secure Energy, 2006 states that Europe has a rising dependency on imported energy reserves, which are concentrated in a few countries. The Rising gas and oil prices along with demands on lower emissions of CO2 adds pressure on the need for a new energy future for Europe. EU has since 1990 planned to become world leader in the renewable energy field. Therefore the EU member states have agreed that by 2010 21% of the consumed electricity and 5,75% of the consumed gasoline and diesel should originate from renewable energy sources. If the EU countries are to reach their goals, a commitment on several levels to develop and install energy from sustainable energy sources is needed. The purpose of this catalogue is to offer planners and decision-makers in EU states an inspirational tool to be used during local or regional transition towards sustainable energy technologies. The catalogue can also be used by everyone else who needs an overview of the sustainable energy technologies and their current development level and future potential, among others educational use is relevant. The catalogue provides an introduction to the following technologies that are already or are estimated to become central to a development with renewable energy in EU: Technologies for wind energy, wave energy, geothermal energy, bioenergy, solar energy, hydropower and fuel cells. The catalogue also includes a section about energy systems, which also includes a part about technologies for efficient use of energy. The catalogue could have included a few other technologies as e.g. heating pumps, but due to the size of the catalogue a priority was necessary. The catalogue does not claim to give all answers or to be complete regarding all details about the individual technologies; even so it offers information, which cannot easily be looked up on the Internet. In the back of the catalogue, under 'References and links' there

  19. Energy industry law in the field of tension between freedom of the market and governmental restrictions; Energiewirtschaftrecht im Spannungsfeld von marktlicher Freiheit und hoheitlichen Einschraenkungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehricke, Ulrich (ed.) [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer das Recht der Europaeischen Union; Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energierecht

    2011-07-01

    The book contains the papers presented at the 39th annual meeting on energy law of the Institute of Energy Law of Cologne University, held on 4 November 2010: Problems of recommunalisation from the view of the communities as illustrated by the example of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg; The development of market definition in the light of the market dynamics of the electricity and gas markets; Legal problems of long-term capacity bookings in the gas infrastructure; Interconnection of the European electricity markets, reality or chimera?; The European energy stock exchange in the point of intersection of energy regulation and bank supervision - current information on the development of the supervision regime for the energy market; Problems of the new energy competence title in Art. 194A EnV; Current rulings of the 3th cartel senate of the Duesseldorf Higher Regional Court on energy law; New lines for environmental protection: Obstacles to the grid integration of renewable energy sources. (orig./RHM)

  20. Law project relative to the energy markets; Projet de loi relatif aux marches energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-09-25

    This document presents the law project relative to the energy markets. It aims to open the french gas market to the competition and defines the gas utilities obligations. The first part presents the main topics of the law: the natural gas distribution access, the natural gas sector regulation, the gas utilities, the natural gas transport and distribution, the underground storage, the control and penalties. The second part details the commission works concerning this law project. (A.L.B.)

  1. 2015 European School of High-Energy Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Dear colleagues, I would like to draw your attention to the 2015 European School of High-Energy Physics. Details can be found at: http://physicschool.web.cern.ch/PhysicSchool/ESHEP/ESHEP2015/default.html The School will be held in Bulgaria from 2-15 September 2015. PLEASE NOTE THAT THE DEADLINE FOR APPLICATIONS IS 8 May 2015. The lectures will cover a broad range of HEP topics at a level suitable for students working towards a PhD in experimental particle physics. Note that, as indicated on the website, one or two students from developing countries may be considered for the award of financial support. Nick Ellis (On behalf of the Organising Committee)

  2. 2015 European School of High-Energy Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Dear colleagues, I would like to draw your attention to the 2015 European School of High-Energy Physics. Details can be found at:    http://physicschool.web.cern.ch/PhysicSchool/ESHEP/ESHEP2015/default.html   The School will be held in Bulgaria from 2-15 September 2015. PLEASE NOTE THAT THE DEADLINE FOR APPLICATIONS IS 8 May 2015 The lectures will cover a broad range of HEP topics at a level suitable for students working towards a PhD in experimental particle physics.  Note that, as indicated on the website, one or two students from developing countries may be considered for the award of financial support.   Nick Ellis (On behalf of the Organising Committee)

  3. Appraisal of the European Commission's Energy Roadmap 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeus, L. [Florence School of Regulation, RSCAS, European University Institute, Florence (Italy)

    2012-04-15

    What is the European energy strategy for 2050? How different is it from the 2020 energy strategy? What are the technology options? What are the policy options? The European Commission provided a first answer to these questions in its Energy Roadmap 2050. This article gives an appraisal of that answer based on the recommendations we made during the preparation of the roadmap.

  4. Towards a European Smart Energy System - ICT innovation goals and considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.N. Claessen (Felix); J.A. La Poutré (Han)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe EU-driven integration of European energy systems and the development of a Smart Energy System involves many key players. The success of a European Smart Energy Systems relies heavily on the development of well-designed ICT solutions in all related sectors. Because such ICT solutions

  5. Fusion for Energy: A new European organization for the development of fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambier, Didier [Fusion for Energy, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3 (TDL-B3), Josep Pla 2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: Didier.gambier@f4e.europa.eu

    2009-06-15

    The European Joint Undertaking for ITER and the Development of Fusion Energy or ('Fusion for Energy' of F4E for short) is a new organisation that has been established with the main objective of providing Europe's contribution to the ITER International Organisation (IO) as its Domestic Agency. Fusion for Energy is also the Implementing Agency for the Broader Approach projects being carried out with Japan and, in the longer term, will prepare a programme for the construction of demonstration fusion reactors (DEMO). The threefold mission of Fusion for Energy is consistent with the fast track strategy for the realisation of fusion energy. This paper aims to provide an overview of the current status of Fusion for Energy and highlight some of the opportunities available for research organisations and industry to participate.

  6. Low Emission Energy Scenarios for the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Mark (Complex Environment Systems Group, Bartlett School of Graduate Studies, Univ. College London (GB))

    2007-12-15

    Energy consumption is a major cause of carbon dioxide emission, and also largely determines the uncontrolled emissions of many other pollutants. In consequence, energy scenarios are key inputs to the projection of pollution emission, and the formulation of strategies to reduce pollution and achieve environmental objectives. Alternative energy strategies including behavioral change, demand management, energy efficiency, and low carbon fuels are explored in this report. In addition to abating greenhouse gas emissions, these strategies can facilitate cheaper and greater abatement of other atmospheric pollutants as compared to higher carbon scenarios. In general, achieving a given air pollution emission target costs less in a low carbon scenario than in a high carbon scenario. This work is aimed at producing policies that exploit the positive synergy between strategies to limit global warming, and strategies for reaching other environmental objectives such as reduced acidification and improved air quality. Low carbon energy scenarios can improve energy security by reducing the consumption if finite fuels and reducing import requirements. The given objective was to produce scenarios in which the total emission of carbon dioxide from the twenty-five countries of the European Union is reduced by at least 30% over the period 1990 to 2020. To this end scenarios have been produced for each of the twenty-five EU countries taking into account recent historical data and assumed economic and population growths taken from other studies, and selections of policies measures. The scenarios show that, as compared to 1990, CO{sub 2} reductions of more than 30% are feasible by 2020, and that larger reductions are possible, especially in the longer term as technologies with long lifetimes such as power stations, are replaced. Data from the energy scenarios were input to the GAINS (Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) model of IIASA (International Institute for

  7. European Non-Discrimination Law : A Comparison of EU Law and the ECHR in the Field of Non-Discrimination and Freedom of Religion in Public Employment with an Emphasis on the Islamic Headscarf Issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speekenbrink, S.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary multicultural issues in Europe raise the question whether the overlap between the non-discrimination regimes of the European Union (EU) and the Council of Europe in the field of public employment may lead to conflicting case law. Would the Court of Justice of the European Union (ECJ)

  8. Power-Law Indices of Time Properties on Energy Zhao-Yang Peng

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) prompt emission. In earlier statistical analysis, GRB pulse width on energy was found to be a power-law function (e.g., Fenimore et al. 1995, Norris et al. 1996, Peng et al. 2006). Zhang & Qin (2008) found that this power-law relationship can be extended to X-ray bands. In addition, Zhang et al.

  9. The Scope of State Aid and Public Service Obligation for Airports and Air Carriers in the Light of European Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Zajac

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Public aid is the kind of advantage granted directly or indirectly for private companies from State resources. The European Commission prerogative to control the transfer of public resources by the public authorities (national or local for the benefit of private undertakings, as a general rule, there is an obligation of notification, as provided for in article 108 (3 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU. It should be noted in the beginning that State aid given to undertakings conducting economic activity is, in principle, incompatible with the European Union’ law, as provided for in article. 107 (1 of the TFEU. There are certain situations that the granting of public funds will not constitute “public aid” within the meaning of article 107 of the TFEU and, therefore, will not violate European rules in this field. One of them are activities related to the exercise of the prerogatives of the public authority (security, safety, customs, air traffic control. The other is related to the exercise of services in general economic interest. This could be an example of public service obligation (PSO. This service can be applied in the light of the provisions of European law on two types of action on air routes, and on airport managing body. The imposition of a PSO to the specified route is the support given by the State to the outermost regions that due to their unfavourable geographical position cannot fully develop economically, and no carrier had not been interested in performing air services to that region due to the lack of cost effectiveness. Some activities at the airport may be considered as activities of general economic interest.

  10. You told me, Right? - Free and Informed Consent in European Patent Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Hellstadius, Åsa

    2017-01-01

    This paper concerns the rule in EU patent law that for patent applications pertaining to human biological material the person from whose body the material is taken must have had the opportunity of expressing free and informed consent (FIC) in accordance with national law. We argue that the patent...

  11. Concurring Regulation in European Forest Law; Forest Certification and the New EU Timber Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kistenkas, F.H.

    2013-01-01

    Newly made EU Timber Regulation (EUTR) may prima facie look like competing regulation and an overlap of the existing forest certification schemes of FSC and PEFC as also EUTR combats illegally harvested timber. The novel EUTR, however, is a public law scheme wheras FSC and PEFC are private law

  12. Polish civil judges as European Union law judges: knowledge, experiences and attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U. Jaremba (Urszula)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe study seeks to provide a better understanding of the way civil judges of lower courts in Poland – a relatively new Member States of the EU - behave in the context of EU law and, moreover, to explain how the national judges adapt to the new legal circumstances created by the law of

  13. Fundamental Rights and Humaneness in European Private Law : The Case of Health Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colombi Ciacchi, Aurelia; McCann, Adam; Ferreira, Nuno; Kostakopoulou, Dora

    2016-01-01

    An institution has a ‘human face’ if it takes the interests core to ‘human flourishing’ seriously. The question arises whether and how these interests find proper consideration in EU private law. The interests core to ‘human flourishing’ relevant for substantive private law include the following

  14. The energy divide: Integrating energy transitions, regional inequalities and poverty trends in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzarovski, Stefan; Tirado Herrero, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Energy poverty can be understood as the inability of a household to secure a socially and materially necessitated level of energy services in the home. While the condition is widespread across Europe, its spatial and social distribution is highly uneven. In this paper, the existence of a geographical energy poverty divide in the European Union (EU) provides a starting point for conceptualizing and exploring the relationship between energy transitions – commonly described as wide-ranging processes of socio-technical change – and existing patterns of regional economic inequality. We have undertaken a comprehensive analysis of spatial and temporal trends in the national-scale patterns of energy poverty, as well as gas and electricity prices. The results of our work indicate that the classic economic development distinction between the core and periphery also holds true in the case of energy poverty, as the incidence of this phenomenon is significantly higher in Southern and Eastern European EU Member States. The paper thus aims to provide the building blocks for a novel theoretical integration of questions of path-dependency, uneven development and material deprivation in existing interpretations of energy transitions. PMID:28690374

  15. The energy divide: Integrating energy transitions, regional inequalities and poverty trends in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzarovski, Stefan; Tirado Herrero, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Energy poverty can be understood as the inability of a household to secure a socially and materially necessitated level of energy services in the home. While the condition is widespread across Europe, its spatial and social distribution is highly uneven. In this paper, the existence of a geographical energy poverty divide in the European Union (EU) provides a starting point for conceptualizing and exploring the relationship between energy transitions - commonly described as wide-ranging processes of socio-technical change - and existing patterns of regional economic inequality. We have undertaken a comprehensive analysis of spatial and temporal trends in the national-scale patterns of energy poverty, as well as gas and electricity prices. The results of our work indicate that the classic economic development distinction between the core and periphery also holds true in the case of energy poverty, as the incidence of this phenomenon is significantly higher in Southern and Eastern European EU Member States. The paper thus aims to provide the building blocks for a novel theoretical integration of questions of path-dependency, uneven development and material deprivation in existing interpretations of energy transitions.

  16. Assisted suicide: Models of legal regulation in selected European countries and the case law of the European Court of Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Claudia; Grosse, Alexandra

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents three different models of the legal regulation of assisted suicide in European countries. First, the current legal regime governing assisted suicide in the Netherlands is described where both euthanasia and assisted suicide have been legalised. This section also includes some empirical data on euthanasia and assisted-suicide practices in the Netherlands, as well as a comparison with the current legal legislation in Belgium and Luxembourg. Next, Switzerland is presented as a country where euthanasia is punishable by law but assisted suicide is legally allowed, provided it is not carried out with selfish motives. This section also focuses on the assisted-suicide-related case law of the Swiss Federal Supreme Court and the European Court of Human Rights. Last, the current legal situation regarding assisted suicide in Austria and Germany is described. While the Austrian Penal Code explicitly prohibits assisted suicide, assistance with suicide is not specifically regulated by the German Penal Code. However, medical doctors are not allowed to assist suicides according to the professional codes of conduct drawn up by the German medical associations under the supervision of the health authorities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. The Case-Law of the Court of Justice of the European Communities Concerning the Law of the World Trade Organization and the Autonomy of the European Community in the Implementation of Its Common Commercial Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Cepillo Galvín

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last years some authors have questioned the autonomy of the European Community when implementing its commercial policy, due to the amount of trade agreements signed by it and especially because of the commitments acquired in the WTO. There is no doubt that the compulsory fulfilment of these commitments is a conditioning factor with regard to the implementation of the Common Commercial Policy, but that doesn’t make the autonomy of the EU disappear in order to put its model of commercial policy into practice. In this respect, it’s necessary to underline the ample discretionary margin in the management of the commercial policy that the Court of Justice of the European Communities recognizes in favour of the EU institutions within the framework of its case-law related to the denial of the direct effect of the WTO agreements, as we analyze in this paper.

  18. Numerical simulation for different densities multi-phase fluids with an energy law preserving method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Jiang, Y. Y.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we present a numerical investigation for simulating fluid-fluid interface of isothermal multi-phase fluids with a phase field model. Unlike the previous work, we use continuous finite element method to compute the governing equations and get a discrete energy law equation with a special designed scheme which is almost the same as the continuous energy law. We deal with the stability in pressure by using a penalty formulation to rewrite the continuity condition. The accuracy of calculation is examined by numerical simulation of coalescence of two kissing bubbles. And the accuracy of the discrete energy law is validated as the error in the energy law of numerical examples falls below discrete level is preserved at each time step.

  19. N.6 report realized for the economical Affairs Commission on the law project, adopted by the National Assembly after urgency declaration, relative to the energy sector; N.6 rapport fait au nom de la commission des Affaires economiques sur le projet de loi, adopte par l'Assemblee Nationale apres declaration d'urgence, relatif au secteur de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poniatowski, L

    2006-10-15

    This law project concerns the organization of the french energy sector and the definition of the public utilities. After a presentation of the juridical environment of the european energy sector, the author shows, in the framework of the world energy situation, that the evolution of the juridical aspects of Gaz de France answers a real necessity. He then presents the initial law project dispositions, the modifications of the National Assembly and the amendment of the commission. (A.L.B.)

  20. Energy: actions for the public. Good european practices; Energie: actions vers le grand public. Bonnes pratiques europeennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    Many actions and programs are implemented in european towns relative to the energy control and the environmental quality in urban areas. They are often different in function of political, environmental, historical or cultural factors. The knowledge and the dissemination of these european experiences appear as an asset for the french energy policy. In this framework, the actions of the people awareness are fundamental. This document presents the subject approach and the obtained results for eight experiences of european towns. (A.L.B.)

  1. Europol’s Cybercrime Centre (EC3), its Agreements with Third Parties and the Growing Role of Law Enforcement on the European Security Scene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendius, Trine Thygesen

    2015-01-01

    The European Cyber Crime Centre, EC3, established under the umbrella of Europol, started operations on January 1 2013. It is to act as the focal point in the fight against cybercrime in the European Union. Using a “shared, cross-community approach” the EC3 is concluding partnerships with member...... states, European agencies, international partners and the private sector. This article describes the coming about of EC3 and its efforts to address cybercrime. Furthermore, the article is an attempt to assess the growing role of the European law enforcement community on the European security scene...

  2. From European to Eurasian energy security: Russia needs and energy Perestroika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel K. Baev

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Political attention in Europe and the US to the problem of energy security has significantly diminished, and there is more to this shift that just the impact of financial crisis in the EU and the effect of the ‘shale gas revolution’. In the middle of the past decade, some fundamental decisions were made in the European Commission regarding the liberalization and diversification of the energy supplies, but the economic underpinning of these decisions has vastly changed. The whole set of energy directive is now pointing in the wrong direction, but rethinking of past mistakes is lagging, so the energy policy is left in its bureaucratic ‘box’. Russia is set to remain locked in the European gas market but is very slow in adapting to the changes in it. Both Russia and the EU remain in denial that the time for their energy-geopolitical games is over as the nexus of energy flows is fast shifting to Asia-Pacific.

  3. Prospects for European Company Law after the Judgment of the European Court of Justice in Centros Ltd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2000-01-01

    This contribution analysis the implication of the judgment in Centros Ltd, whereby a company can be incorporated in one state and used for activities in other Member States of the EU. The consequence is that businesses can chose to incorporate in the state of their own choice and Member State may...... as a result start to compete to attract incorporations of companies (the Delaware Syndrome). This may call for further harmonization of company laws in the EU.......This contribution analysis the implication of the judgment in Centros Ltd, whereby a company can be incorporated in one state and used for activities in other Member States of the EU. The consequence is that businesses can chose to incorporate in the state of their own choice and Member State may...

  4. Transactional Sex: Supply and Demand Among European Men Who have Sex with Men (MSM) in the Context of Local Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Rigmor C.; Schmidt, Axel J.; Weatherburn, Peter; The EMIS Network

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: Transactional sex (TS) is generally defined as the trading of sex for material goods. Cast within the broader context of prostitution laws, we examined variations in the sociodemographic profile of men who have sex with men engaging in TS by payment direction (buying/selling). Methods: The data were collected as part of the 38-country European Men who have sex with men Internet Survey project, conducted in 2010. Results: About 12% of respondents reported engaging in TS in the past year. TS was associated with laws, age, education, employment, and residence. Conclusions: The striking sociodemographic differences in TS by payment direction suggest a power differential and a leading role of socioeconomic factors in TS. PMID:26430474

  5. Criminalization of stalking in Italy: one of the last among the current European member states' anti-stalking laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fazio, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates the state of knowledge on stalking in Italy from the first scientific review published in 2001 to the recent anti-stalking law, which became effective in February 2009, introducing a new article in the existing Italian Penal Code. In recent years the interest in stalking has increased progressively, such that it is now possible to find official data on the prevalence of the phenomenon in Italy. At the same time, European research activity has moved from the recognition of the phenomenon to analysis of pathways for a victim's assessment of stalking risk and enactment of legal regulation. The new law is described and analyzed. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The European Union - a ‘Sui Generis’ International Diplomatic Actor: Challenges Posed to the International Diplomatic Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Laura Boşilcă

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It has often been argued that the European Union has a sui generis status by being less than a nation-state, but more than an international organization, which is also reflected in its conduct of diplomatic relations with third states and international organizations. Since its inception, the European Union has managed to set a wide bi- and multilateral diplomatic network – which is subject to the provisions of the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations (VCDR. This paper’s purpose is to analyze some of the main challenges posed to the international diplomatic law by the EU’s emergence on the diplomatic scene, in the light of the significant transformations brought by the Lisbon Treaty.

  7. ‘Homosexual Propaganda’ Laws in the Russian Federation: Are They in Violation of the European Convention on Human Rights?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines recently enacted legislation in the Russian Federation designed to regulate so-called ‘homosexual propaganda.’ Through an analysis of the extant jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights (Eur. Ct. H.R. in respect of discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation, the article considers the extent to which the existence and enforcement of ‘homosexual propaganda’ laws can be said to violate rights and freedoms guaranteed by the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR. The article demonstrates weaknesses in current Eur. Ct. H.R.’s jurisprudence – specifically in relation to Arts. 10, 11 and 14 of the ECHR – and argues that it requires significant evolution to better protect sexual minorities in Russia and elsewhere.

  8. Is there still a place for gene patents in Australia? Implications of recent United States and European case law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Alexandra; Nicol, Dianne

    2011-12-01

    This article considers the ramifications of recent United States and European litigation relating to patents claiming rights to genes associated with hereditary forms of breast cancer (the so-called BRCA genes) for recently commenced Australian litigation relating to the same subject matter. The article is contextualised with brief summaries of the relevant patent law, the science of genetics, the history of the BRCA genes and an overview of the activities of the patent holder. The analysis of first instance and appeal decisions on the validity of the United States BRCA patents shows the final outcome is still highly uncertain in that jurisdiction, while the European litigation provides little assistance in predicting the outcome of the Australian action. This article concludes that the outcome of the Australian litigation is an issue that cannot be determined with any certainty due to the lack of specific, relevant precedents both in Australia and in other jurisdictions.

  9. Do transfer pricing laws limit international income shifting? Evidence from European multinationals

    OpenAIRE

    Lohse, Theresa; Riedel, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    In recent years several countries have augmented their national tax laws by transfer pricing legislations which intend to limit the leeway of multinational fi rms to exploit international corporate tax rate diverences and relocate profit to low-tax affiliates by distorting intra-firm transfer prices. The aim of this paper is to empirically investigate whether these laws are instrumental in restricting shifting behaviour. To do so, we exploit unique information on the scope and evolution of na...

  10. The Adoption of European Standards in the Sphere of Economic Law and (Anticipated Cultural Change in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Milenković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Serbian society has undergone significant changes over the last ten years. The transformation of the legal system has taken place mostly through the process of European integrations and harmonization of legislation with the EU legal order. The primary focus of the paper is on the study of (anticiapted cultural change which is brought about by changes in economic law. By studying changing attitudes to business operation, the paper seeks to answer the questions of whether we can learn something about cultural change by analyzing economic law and whether we are witnessing the transformation of Serbian citizens into "European citizens", consumers, businessmen, farmers, bureaucrats or politicians. Some of these changes are already in evidence, and it can be said that considerable progress has already been made. Nevertheless, in most areas reforms have yet to be enacted, and therefore this transformation along with its outcome and results can only be anticipated. Following an overview of the Stabilization and Association Process, the signing of the Stabilization and Association Agreement (SAA, and the process of harmonization of legislation and monitored reforms, the paper goes on to analyze whether and to what extent the following have taken place: 1 the opening up of the Serbian economy to foreign competition (primarily European, 2 the implementation of reforms and the introduction of competition rights and government subsidy control, 3 changes in rural Serbia as part of the process of preparation for accession to the EU. It can be concluded that European integrations and the adoption of a series of different standards represent an instrumental framework for significant cultural change in Serbian society. The change will be fundamental and will take long to bring about. For this reason it can only be partially anticipated what its effects will be and whether and to what extent changes will be accopmlished in each of the areas mentioned.

  11. Coulomb and Nuclear Breakup at Low Energies: Scaling Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein M. S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on a recent work on the low-energy behavior of the breakup cross section in so far as it has important role in the fusion of weakly bound and halo nuclei at near-barrier energies. We assess the way the nuclear component of this cross section scales with the target mass. In complete accord with previous finding at higher energies we verify that the low energy behavior of the breakup cross section for a given projectile and relative center of mass energy with respect to the Coulomb barrier height scales as the cubic root of the mass number of the target. Surprisingly we find that the Coulomb component of the breakup cross section at these low energies also obeys scaling, but with a linear dependence on the target charge. Our findings are important when planning for experiments involving these exotic nuclei.

  12. Report on the green paper on energy. Four years of European initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    In December 2000, the European Commission adopted a Green Paper on European Union energy policy. This brochure takes stock of the action undertaken in the following areas over the last four years:managing demand, diversifying internal energy sources,developing the internal energy market and the security of external supply. It presents: the Green Paper stakes, the progress made, the four political challenges, managing demand, diversifying European sources, the streamlined internal energy market, controlling external supply, future prospects for the Union, legislative developments and ten possibilities for economical energy use. (A.L.B.)

  13. European Energy Security: Wrestling the Russian Bear for Caspian Natural Gas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Winchester, Robert F

    2007-01-01

    Natural gas, and its accessibility, is a growing component of national security. In its March 2006 Green Paper on Energy Security, the European Commission committed itself to promoting energy source diversification...

  14. Proceedings of conference on geothermal energy and the law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, C.D.

    1975-01-01

    Work group reports are presented for the following problem areas: legal and other institutional barriers complicating efforts at the earliest stages of geothermal development; the perspective of potential investors and the connection with specific uncertainties in the legal environment; preserving the interests of the government, the public generally, and the private geothermal lessors; the various water law conflicts, including potential conflicts between users of water in geothermal production and users of water for other purposes; jurisdictional conflict and overlapping administration; and problems of utilities and dependent users. (MHR)

  15. Community energy systems and the law of public utilities. Volume 20. Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Louisiana governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities--Volume One: An overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One--An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enchance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  16. European project HOPE (Health Optimization Protocol for Energy-efficient Buildings)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluyssen, P.M.; Cox, C.W.J.; Maroni, M.; Boschi, N.; Raw, G.; Roulet, C.A.; Foradini, F.

    2003-01-01

    In January 2002, a new European project named HOPE (Health Optimization Protocol for Energy-efficient Buildings) started with 14 participants from nine European countries. The final goal of the project is to provide the means to increase the number of energy-efficient buildings, i.e. buildings that

  17. The Development of International Law in the Field of Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Mulyana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy plays a pivotal role in ensuring economic growth, social equity and live-able environment. In this regard, the non-renewable or conventional source of energy such as oil, gas and coal continue to supply the energy demand throughout the world. Nevertheless, as the awareness of the international society towards the protection and preservation of the global environment is rapidly growing, the utilization of energy resources has been gradually shifted from the non-renewable to renewable ones. Observing the international developments in the field of energy, further international legal instruments is required to be able to regulate renewable energy activities undertaken by the countries today. Although there have been a number of rules in international law, but until recently, most of these regulations is still not legally binding. Moreover, to achieve world order that uses renewable energy, international law also had to resolve some fundamental issues, namely the issue of state sovereignty and energy security.

  18. Students Reinventing the General Law of Energy Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logman, P S W M

    2014-01-01

    In current education students have difficulty in applying and adapting their conceptions of energy to various situations. This may be due to the fact that the concept of energy is taught as an indisputable fact. Because the new Dutch curriculum for the exact sciences advises a context-based approach

  19. European energy policy: the green book; Politique energetique europeenne: le livre vert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2006-03-15

    Energy dependence, insecurity of supplies, rise of demand and prices, global warming: these are the characteristics of the energy situation of the 21. century. The new green book of the European Commission about 'a European strategy for a safe, competitive and durable energy' starts from this alarming status and proposes some suggestions for the building up of a new global European energy policy: realization of the European domestic energy markets (a European energy network, a priority interconnection plan for gas networks, a separation of transport and distribution activities for equitable rules, a reinforcement of the competitiveness of the European industry), a joint security of supplies between member states (redefining the EU position about strategic oil and gas reserves), a sustainable, efficient and diversified energy offer, an integrated approach to fight against global warming (improving energy efficiency, development of renewable energy sources, carbon sequestration), encouraging innovation, developing a consistent foreign policy of energy (a clear policy for the security and diversification of energy supplies, energy partnerships between producers, transit countries and other international actors). (J.S.)

  20. Efficient integration of renewable energy into future energy systems. Development of European energy infrastructures in the period 2030 to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, Carolin; Uhlig, Jeanette; Zoch, Immo (eds.)

    2011-10-15

    In consideration of strategic climate mitigation, energy security and economic competitiveness goals, the EU passed the Directive 2009/28/EC, including a binding target of 20 per cent renewable energy consumption in the EU by 2020. This target is comprehensive and includes energy generation, transport, heating and cooling sectors. In 2008, renewable energy consumption in the EU was about 10 per cent. So meeting the 20 per cent renewable energy objective will require massive changes in energy production, transmission and consumption in the EU. Furthermore, it is obvious that the development of the energy system will not stop in 2020, but that it will continue towards 2050 and beyond. Over the past century, the European electricity system was developed in line with a national utilit y perspective which heavily emphasised large, centralised conventional power production. Investment decisions for new energy infrastructure and technology were typically made at the national level. In the future, much more energy production will be based on local or regional renewable energy sources (RES). Many consumers may also become energy producers feeding into the infrastructures. Transnational energy transfers will gain in importance. These changes will require very different electricity and gas infrastructures and decision-making processes from today. Lack of infrastructure capacity is already a barrier for the further deployment of RES-based energy production in some regions in Europe. (orig.)

  1. Towards a European renewable-based energy system enabled by smart grid: status and prospects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob; Wu, Qiuwei

    2011-01-01

    Renewable energy plays an important role in the future energy framework of the European Union. The European Union will reach a 20% share of renewable energy in total energy consumption and increase energy efficiency by 20% by 2020. Smart grids will be the backbone of the future electricity network...... for integrating the high penetration of renewable energy resources. The plans and status of renewable energy resources development and energy policy in Europe are introduced in this paper. The development of smart grid technologies in the European Union is also discussed. The role of Denmark, one of the leading...... countries for developing renewable energy technologies and using renewable energy resources has been emphasized in this paper. ©2011 State Grid Electric Power Research Institute Press....

  2. Law, the Laws of Nature and Ecosystem Energy Services: A Case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This ecosystem services price subsidy causes overuse and waste of fossil fuels in the free market: fossil fuels are consumed more quickly than they can be replaced by ecosystem services and in far larger quantities than they would be if the price of fossil fuels included the cost of solar energy collection, concentration and ...

  3. Yearbook of wind energy law 2015; Jahrbuch Windenergierecht 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, Edmund (ed.) [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Lehrstuhl Staats- und Verwaltungsrecht sowie Verwaltungswissenschaften; Koordinierungsstelle Windenergierecht k:wer, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    In the yearbook 2015, the technical papers are dealing with the distance recommendations of the State Working Group of Bird Conservation Observatories, with aesthetics as a public interest in the planning and authorization regime for wind turbines, the prospect of the citizen and community participation law in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, the conflict between wind turbines and weather radars and with the higher court jurisdiction for feed management. [German] Im Jahrbuch 2015 beschaeftigen sich die Fachbeitraege mit den Abstandsempfehlungen der Laenderarbeitsgemeinschaft der Vogelschutzwarten, mit Aesthetik als oeffentlichem Belang im Planungs- und Genehmigungsregime fuer Windenergieanlagen, dem Entwurf zum Buerger- und Gemeindenbeteiligungsgesetz Mecklenburg-Vorpommerns, dem Konflikt zwischen Windenergieanlagen und Wetterradaren und mit der obergerichtlichen Rechtsprechung zum Einspeisemanagement.

  4. [Attempt to exclude invasive cardiology services in Poland--rationing, national sovereignty and European Union law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gericke, Christian A; Busse, Reinhard; Sakowska, Izabela; Kuszewski, Krzysztof; Maciag, Agnieszka

    2006-01-01

    One of the guiding principles of health policy in many European countries is equitable access to health care services. One of the life saving procedures is percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) performed after coronary angiography. Introducing payment for these procedures would limit access for low-income patients. Fortunately, despite political debate, invasive cardiology develops well in Poland. It is important to notice that within the European Union Polish citizens would be able to receive this treatment in other member states and, according to a European Court of Justice ruling, the costs would have to be reimbursed by the National Health Fund. The wider implication is that the 10 new EU member states now have to realise that health care is no longer a matter of national sovereignty - a fact legislators and health care managers in the 15 member states of the pre-accession EU are still struggling with.

  5. [The use of nanotechnology in medicinal products in the light of European Union law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurewicz, Margin

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of EU regulations in relation to nanotechnology, according to the European Commission's Communication "Regulatory aspects of nanomaterials", is to allow the public to use innovative applications of nanotechnology while ensuring a high level of safety, health care and environmental protection. This article characterizes and comments on EU legislation in respect of medicinal products containing nanomaterials. Medicinal products manufactured using nanotechnology are subject to the optional centralized authorization procedure by the European Commission authorizations for the placing on the market throughout the EU; advanced therapy medicinal products containing nanomaterials are covered by the mandatory centralized procedure. Evaluation of medicines in centralized authorization mode for the marketing of medicinal products, including those containing nanomaterials, is carried out by the Committee on Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) subject to the European Medicines Agency (EMA).

  6. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-four. Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description of the laws and programs of the State of Michigan governing the regulation of public energy facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  7. Age determination of unaccompanied asylum seeking minors in the European Union: a health law perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbing, Henriette D C Roscam

    2011-01-01

    In the European Union, unaccompanied asylum seekers below 18 years of age are entitled to specific treatment. Age assessment practices to verify the age-statement by the asylum seeker differ between EU Member States. Medical methods in use raise questions about accuracy, reliability and safety. The medical, legal and ethical acceptability of invasive methods (notably X-rays) in particular is controversial. Human rights are at stake. The lack of common practices results in different levels of protection (discrimination). The absence ofstandardisation is an obstacle for the functioning of the Common European Asylum System. EU Best Practice Guidelines should remedy the situation; such guidelines should reflect the best interest of the child.

  8. An EU law perspective on the role of legal authorities in the field of renewable energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Marjan; Schomerus, Thomas; Peeters, Marjan; Schomerus, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This chapter maps and analyses the specific position of regional authorities in view of EU climate and energy law. It specifically focuses on the role taken by such authorities in the light of the transition towards a society increasingly employing renewable energy. Section 2 discusses the potential

  9. The nuclear energy: law and fear; Le nucleaire: droit et peur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezghani, A. [Tunis Univ. (Tunisia). Faculte des Sciences

    1996-10-01

    This document mentions the feeling of fear which goes along the idea of nuclear energy, as well as ethics and law. Technological aspects, political choices and financial matters are responsible for the nuclear energy development. Then it is shown that the consequences of this development is the continuous feeling of fear and risk which goes with every nuclear activities. (TEC).

  10. The amendment of the Renewable Energy Law (EEG); Die Novelle des Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetzes (EEG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menze, Julian [Erdgas Muenster GmbH, Muenster (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The Act for the reformation of the legal framework for the support of the power generation from renewable energy sources mainly consists of an amendment to the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) and becomes effective on 1st January, 2012. The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the most important new features of the EEG and gives an overview of the EEG 2012.

  11. Subsidy regulation in WTO Law : Some implications for fossil fuels and renewable energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marhold, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This contribution discusses WTO subsidies disciplines in the context of the energy sector. After laying out the relevant disciplines, it will discuss the paradox of WTO law with respect to subsidies towards fossil fuels vis-à-vis those towards renewable energy. It is clear that subsidies on clean

  12. Security of Energy Supply in the New Europe: A Role for the European Atomic Energy Community in the European Union’s Neighbourhood Policy?

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Pamela M.

    2008-01-01

    External energy relations are essential components of both the European Union’s search for an overall energy strategy, an Energy Policy for Europe (EPE) and the development of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP). In this article questions are posed about the role for the use of nuclear technology as the means of meeting some of the objectives of both areas of policy. As both the EPE and the ENP are dependent on the negotiation of international agreements with third parties for their effec...

  13. Some Aspects of International Children Abduction - Theoretical and Practical Approach from the Perspective of the European Law and Judicial Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lupşan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Everyday life revealed even in the media by presenting cases of international abduction of minors, on the one hand, and on the other hand, the existence of cases increasingly complex from the national/ EU practice, to which we should add the insufficient analysis in the doctrine of the topic in representing some evidence to support the elaboration of this paper. Through its international and / or European regulations (Hague Convention of 25 October 1980 on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, which is supplemented by Regulation (EC no. 2201/2003 of 27 November 2003 concerning jurisdiction, the recognition and enforcement of judgments in matrimonial matters and in matters of parental responsibility, (prevailing the latter and national ones (Law no. 63/2014 amending and supplementing Law no. 369/2004 on the application of the Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction which Romania adhered to by the Law no. 100/199, the legislator sought to ensure the prompt return of children abducted in the Member State of origin, the objective being the same: discouraging underage child abduction by a parent or by third parties, usually relatives and, in case of committing an act of international abduction of minors, ensuring the best interests of the child through the cooperation of the competent authorities in the field. The structure includes sections that address theoretical issues (e.g. the notion of international abduction of minors, regulations, procedure for solving the request, the competent authorities and practical aspects, without neglecting the interpretation given by the Court of Justice of the European Union of some texts from the Regulation.

  14. Overriding Mandatory Rules as a Vehicle for Weaker Party Protection in European Private International Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. van Bochove (Laura)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The Rome I Regulation on the law applicable to contractual obligations contains several provisions aimed explicitly at the protection of ‘weaker’ contracting parties, such as consumers and employees. However, in addition to this, the interests of weaker parties are

  15. The Increasing (Ab)use of Commitments in European Antitrust Law: Stockholm Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Grassani

    2013-01-01

    The real issue is whether the 50-year-old EU system is well equipped to run antitrust law in an environment which, now more than ever, calls for equality of arms between enforcing agencies and defendants. Stefano Grassani (Pavia e Ansaldo)

  16. Paradigm shift in European intellectual property law? From Microsoft to Linux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guibault, L.

    2006-01-01

    The author Lucie Guibault analyzes the phenomenon of "open source" software and its impact on copyright and patent law. These software are freely distributed on the Internet and their modification and redistribution are encouraged. However, selling or commercializing such software is highly

  17. Translational reprocessing of spent fuel elements in the light of European Community law. Grenzueberschreitende atomare Wiederaufarbeitung im Lichte des europaeischen Gemeinschaftsrechts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheuing, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    Objections are being raised against the current reprocessing of fuel elements from German nuclear power plants in France and Great Britain on the grounds that, measured by German protection requirements, it cannot be regarded as 'inncuous utilization' of radioactive waste material; this brings a momentous intervention of the German authorities against the operators of German nuclear power plants into consideration. Yet would not such a 'national solo attempt' conflict with European Community law . This question is illuminated in its different aspects. First the issue is examined from the point of view of radiation protection law under the Euratom Treaty and of the aim of the EC to establish the single market. Subsequent focal points are an inquiry into compatibility with the freedom of merchandise traffic and commercial services as provided by European Community law. The outcome is that European Community law does not oppose the German authorities intervencing. Rather such self-discipline practised by member states for the benefit of the European environment is admissible so long as the other EC member states do not establish equally stringent standards on their own accord or European Community law itself does not provide protection on a high level. (orig.).

  18. Sexual Orientation Discrimination in the European Union : National Laws and the Employment Equality Directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaldijk, C.; Bonini-Baraldi, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Since 2003 the Employment Equality Directive (2000/78/EC) requires Member States of the European Union to prohibit sexual orientation discrimination in the field of employment. This book assesses to what degree the Directive’s requirements have been met by the twenty-seven Member States. The authors

  19. DIVERSITY AND INTEGRATION OF EUROPEAN COMMUNITY BUSINESS LAW IN THE CONTEXT OF BUSINESS ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Filip GRZEGORCZYK

    2009-01-01

    In the future, European Union is to become a single economic zone. Achieving this goal requires creating good and unified legal grounds for business, which presently are lacking. This paper describes the main problems with conducting business across-borders, evaluates current EC business legislation and formulates some de lege ferenda ideas.

  20. French Jardé's law and European regulation on drug trials: Harmonization and implementation of new rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deplanque, Dominique; Sénéchal-Cohen, Sophie; Lemaire, François

    2017-02-01

    Jardé's law, concerning research studies in humans, was enacted in March 2012 but did not come into force until November 2016. This delay is largely explained by the adoption of a European regulation on clinical trials on medicinal products that will probably not be applicable until October 2018. In addition to covering the respective areas of the French and European legislation, the round table provided an opportunity to discuss the principal measures that will apply to future research, particularly those concerning the operational procedures of the ethics committees and the national committee for research in humans, as well as measures relating to the management of serious adverse effects, more specifically in phase I studies in subjects not presenting with any disorder. This round table also enabled the formulation of recommendations to better anticipate the practical difficulties that the regulatory changes might engender. Finally, we highlight the numerous challenges in terms of training that these important regulatory changes impose and the absolute necessity to best adapt the restrictions to those that are planned in numerous other European countries so that France remains competitive in terms of clinical research and so that French patients may continue to benefit rapidly from the most innovative treatments. Copyright © 2017 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. How is a Judicial Decision Made in Parental Religious Disputes? An analysis of determining factors in Dutch and European Court of Human Rights case law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jet Tigchelaar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades courts have been confronted with a variety of cases concerning the effects of the religious views and practices of parents on their children. In the Netherlands, family law courts, for example, have had to decide on the choice between secular or religious schooling, on religious rituals like circumcision and baptism, and on the exposure of children to (non-religious practices, when dealing with the contact arrangements. The case law of the European Court of Human Rights shows that family law courts in several other European countries have also had to rule on the impact of parents’ religious practices on their children in the context of parental rights, such as custody and contact rights. In this contribution we investigate the factors used by Dutch judges to assess the best interests of the child in cases on religious disputes between parents. Furthermore, we analyse whether the Dutch case law concerning this topic is in conformity with the case law of the European Court of Human Rights. Therefore, we present which types of factors can be found and in which way these factors are assessed in the case law of the European Court of Human Rights.

  2. European energy security. Analysing the EU-Russia energy security regime in terms of interdependence theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esakova, Nataliya

    2012-07-01

    Nataliya Esakova performs an analysis of the interdependencies and the nature of cooperation between energy producing, consuming and transit countries focusing on the gas sector. For the analysis the theoretical framework of the interdependence theory by Robert O. Keohane and Joseph S. Nye and the international regime theory are applied to the recent developments within the gas relationship between the European Union and Russia in the last decade. The objective of the analysis is to determine, whether a fundamental regime change in terms of international regime theory is taking place, and, if so, which regime change explanation model in terms of interdependence theory is likely to apply. (orig.)

  3. European energy security analysing the EU-Russia energy security regime in terms of interdependence theory

    CERN Document Server

    Esakova, Nataliya

    2012-01-01

    Nataliya Esakova performs an analysis of the interdependencies and the nature of cooperation between energy producing, consuming and transit countries focusing on the gas sector. For the analysis the theoretical framework of the interdependence theory by Robert O. Keohane and Joseph S. Nye and the international regime theory are applied to the recent developments within the gas relationship between the European Union and Russia in the last decade. The objective of the analysis is to determine, whether a fundamental regime change in terms of international regime theory is taking place, and, if so, which regime change explanation model in terms of interdependence theory is likely to apply.

  4. Distributed SUSY breaking: dark energy, Newton's law and the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, C. P.; van Nierop, L.; Williams, M.

    2014-07-01

    We identify the underlying symmetry mechanism that suppresses the low-energy effective 4D cosmological constant within some 6D supergravity models, generically leading to results suppressed by powers of the KK scale, m {/K K 2}, relative to the much larger size, m 4, associated with mass- m particles localized in these models on codimension-2 branes. These models are examples for which the local conditions for unbroken supersymmetry can be satisfied locally everywhere within the extra dimensions, but are obstructed only by global conditions like flux quantization or by the mutual inconsistency of the boundary conditions required at the various branes. Consequently quantities (like vacuum energies) forbidden by supersymmetry cannot become nonzero until wavelengths of order the KK scale are integrated out, since only such long wavelength modes can see the entire space and so `know' that supersymmetry has broken. We verify these arguments by extending earlier rugby-ball calculations of one-loop vacuum energies within these models to more general pairs of branes within two warped extra dimensions. For the Standard Model confined to one of two otherwise identical branes, the predicted effective 4D vacuum energy density is of order ρ vac ⋍ C( mM g /4 πM p )4 = C(5 .6 × 10-5 eV)4, where M g ≳ 10 TeV (corresponding to extra-dimensional size r ≲ 1 μm) and M p = 2 .44 × 1018 GeV are the 6D and 4D rationalized Planck scales, and m is the heaviest brane-localized particle. (For numerical purposes we take m to be the top-quark mass and take M g as small as possible, consistent with energy-loss bounds from supernovae.) C is a constant depending on the details of the bulk spectrum, which could easily be of order 500 for each of hundreds of fields in the bulk. The value C ˜ 6 × 106 would give the observed Dark Energy density.

  5. Nuclear Energy and European Union; Energia nuclear y la Union Europea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picamal, B.

    2010-07-01

    The interest shown by the European Institutions in the energy debates, in which the nuclear energy is included as a key component within the energy mix, is obvious. Climate change and energy supply have pushed some countries to publicly express their interest for developing the nuclear energy. These positions are however in contradiction with some others within the European Union which are a lot more critical towards this type of energy and where face-out policies still prevail. Despite the fact that the use of the nuclear energy will remain within the competence of each Member State, the European Union will continue to play a prominent role in the development of an energy strategy based on a low carbon economy. (Author)

  6. Gene and genetic diagnostic method patent claims: a comparison under current European and US patent law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huys, Isabelle; Van Overwalle, Geertrui; Matthijs, Gert

    2011-10-01

    The paper focuses on the fundamental debate that is going on in Europe and the United States about whether genes and genetic diagnostic methods are to be regarded as inventions or subject matter eligible for patent protection, or whether they are discoveries or principles of nature and thus excluded from patentability. The study further explores some possible scenarios of American influences on European patent applications with respect to genetic diagnostic methods. Our analysis points out that patent eligibility for genes and genetic diagnostic methods, as discussed in the United States in the Association of Molecular Pathology versus US Patent and Trademark Office decision, is based on a different reasoning compared with the European Patent Convention.

  7. Clinical research with children: the European legal framework and its implementation in French and Italian law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altavilla, Annagrazia

    2008-07-01

    According to the International Convention of the Rights of the Child, an improvement of the protection of the rights of children in Europe should be accomplished by inserting the principle of best interests and evolving capacities in the legal framework related to paediatric clinical research. In this article, an overview is given of the European legal framework governing clinical research on minors in a comparative approach. The lack of coordination between different International and European ethical/ legal statements and its impact on national legislations is evaluated by analyzing provisions that have been foreseen in Italy and in France as a result of the ratification/implementation process. A presentation of the perspectives of paediatric research in Europe is provided.

  8. Research, Education and Innovation Bundling Forces towards a Sustainable European Energy Future

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    New technologies and applied innovation in the field of sustainable energy are needed in order to achieve a competitive and climate neutral Europe. As one of the first three Knowledge and Innovation Communities (KIC) of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT), KIC InnoEnergy invests in innovation projects and new educational programmes and provides business creation service with the purpose of delivering the disruptive technologies and innovations that Europe requires to meet this ambitious goal. Its stakeholders are top European players in the industry, research institutes, universities and business schools. Six regionally bundled European hubs – Barcelona/Lisbon, Grenoble, Eindhoven, Karlsruhe, Stockholm and Krakow - lead one thematic field each in sustainable energy. The thematic fields addressed range from Intelligent “Energy-efficient Residential Buildings and Cities” over “Energy from Chemical Fuels”, “Renewable Energies”, “Clean Coal Technologies” to “European Smar...

  9. Bounded energy exchange as an alternative to the third law of thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidrich, Matthias, E-mail: Heidrich_Matthias@web.de

    2016-10-15

    This paper introduces a postulate explicitly forbidding the extraction of an infinite amount of energy from a thermodynamic system. It also introduces the assumption that no measuring equipment is capable of detecting arbitrarily small energy exchanges. The Kelvin formulation of the second law is reinterpreted accordingly. Then statements related to both the unattainability version and the entropic version of the third law are derived. The value of any common thermodynamic potential of a one-component system at absolute zero of temperature is ascertained if some assumptions with regard to the state space can be made. The point of view is the phenomenological, macroscopic and non-statistical one of classical thermodynamics.

  10. Report to Congress on Server and Data Center Energy Efficiency: Public Law 109-431

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alliance to Save Energy; ICF Incorporated; ERG Incorporated; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Brown, Richard E; Brown, Richard; Masanet, Eric; Nordman, Bruce; Tschudi, Bill; Shehabi, Arman; Stanley, John; Koomey, Jonathan; Sartor, Dale; Chan, Peter; Loper, Joe; Capana, Steve; Hedman, Bruce; Duff, Rebecca; Haines, Evan; Sass, Danielle; Fanara, Andrew

    2007-08-02

    This report was prepared in response to the request from Congress stated in Public Law 109-431 (H.R. 5646),"An Act to Study and Promote the Use of Energy Efficient Computer Servers in the United States." This report assesses current trends in energy use and energy costs of data centers and servers in the U.S. (especially Federal government facilities) and outlines existing and emerging opportunities for improved energy efficiency. It also makes recommendations for pursuing these energy-efficiency opportunities broadly across the country through the use of information and incentive-based programs.

  11. Report to Congress on Server and Data Center Energy Efficiency: Public Law 109-431: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alliance to Save Energy; ICF Incorporated; ERG Incorporated; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Brown, Richard E; Brown, Richard; Masanet, Eric; Nordman, Bruce; Tschudi, Bill; Shehabi, Arman; Stanley, John; Koomey, Jonathan; Sartor, Dale; Chan, Peter; Loper, Joe; Capana, Steve; Hedman, Bruce; Duff, Rebecca; Haines, Evan; Sass, Danielle; Fanara, Andrew

    2007-08-02

    This report is the appendices to a companion report, prepared in response to the request from Congress stated in Public Law 109-431 (H.R. 5646),"An Act to Study and Promote the Use of Energy Efficient Computer Servers in the United States." This report assesses current trends in energy use and energy costs of data centers and servers in the U.S. (especially Federal government facilities) and outlines existing and emerging opportunities for improved energy efficiency. It also makes recommendations for pursuing these energy-efficiency opportunities broadly across the country through the use of information and incentive-based programs.

  12. Problems of the Renewable Energy Law of 2014 with respect to constitutional and EU law; Verfassungs- und unionsrechtliche Probleme des EEG 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekardt, Felix [Forschungsstelle Nachhaltigkeit und Klimapolitik, Leipzig (Germany); Rostock Univ. (Germany). Oeffentliches Recht und Rechtsphilosophie

    2014-08-15

    The 2014 amendment to the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) which is currently in the process of enactment aims to limit the scope of what has been one of the most successful climate protection instruments in the history of German law. In essence this instrument has established an obligation of acceptance of and remuneration for electricity generated from renewable resources. The present article analyses the most important regulatory objects of the 2014 EEG for their compatibility with German constitutional law as well as primary and secondary EU law.

  13. Robust scaling laws for energy confinement time, including radiated fraction, in Tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murari, A.; Peluso, E.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, the limitations of scalings in power-law form that are obtained from traditional log regression have become increasingly evident in many fields of research. Given the wide gap in operational space between present-day and next-generation devices, robustness of the obtained models in guaranteeing reasonable extrapolability is a major issue. In this paper, a new technique, called symbolic regression, is reviewed, refined, and applied to the ITPA database for extracting scaling laws of the energy-confinement time at different radiated fraction levels. The main advantage of this new methodology is its ability to determine the most appropriate mathematical form of the scaling laws to model the available databases without the restriction of their having to be power laws. In a completely new development, this technique is combined with the concept of geodesic distance on Gaussian manifolds so as to take into account the error bars in the measurements and provide more reliable models. Robust scaling laws, including radiated fractions as regressor, have been found; they are not in power-law form, and are significantly better than the traditional scalings. These scaling laws, including radiated fractions, extrapolate quite differently to ITER, and therefore they require serious consideration. On the other hand, given the limitations of the existing databases, dedicated experimental investigations will have to be carried out to fully understand the impact of radiated fractions on the confinement in metallic machines and in the next generation of devices.

  14. Managing Marine Litter: Exploring the Evolving Role of International and European Law in Confronting a Persistent Environmental Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Trouwborst

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available  The contamination of the world's oceans by human garbage, especially plastics, ranks among those environmental problems whose resolution appears remote, despite the considerable public attention paid to the 'Great Garbage Patch' in the Pacific, 'plastic soup', and the like. This 'marine litter' (or 'marine debris' problem is characterized by diffuse sources and an array of adverse environmental impacts, including entanglement of and ingestion by albatrosses, fulmars, turtles, seals and a variety of other marine wildlife. This article explores the evolving role of international law in the efforts to manage marine litter, including recent developments involving the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR Convention and the European Union's Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD.

  15. Managing Marine Litter: Exploring the Evolving Role of International and European Law in Confronting a Persistent Environmental Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Trouwborst

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of the world's oceans by human garbage, especially plastics, ranks among those environmental problems whose resolution appears remote, despite the considerable public attention paid to the 'Great Garbage Patch' in the Pacific, 'plastic soup', and the like. This 'marine litter' (or 'marine debris' problem is characterized by diffuse sources and an array of adverse environmental impacts, including entanglement of and ingestion by albatrosses, fulmars, turtles, seals and a variety of other marine wildlife. This article explores the evolving role of international law in the efforts to manage marine litter, including recent developments involving the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR Convention and the European Union's Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD.

  16. Stereotypes and Prejudices as Cause for Discriminatory Practices - Review of the Case-law of the European Court of Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Poposka, Zaneta

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the stereotypes and prejudices against a certain social group as limiting factors for the individual choices of people belonging to the respective group, which consequently lead do discrimination, stigmatization, hate speech and eventually to bias-motivated violence. The analysis is conducted on the basis of the case law of the European Court of Human Rights. In this context, the analysis of the case law and the findings of the Court are given special place with regar...

  17. Energy Evolution Characteristics and Distribution Laws of Rock Materials under Triaxial Cyclic Loading and Unloading Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingwei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the influence of confining pressure on the energy evolution characteristics of loaded rocks, triaxial cyclic loading-unloading experiments on sandstones were carried out under 6 kinds of confining pressures using the axial loading and circumferential deforming control modes. Total energy density, elastic energy density, and dissipated energy density absorbed by rock specimens under different confining pressures were obtained. The confining pressure effect of the evolution process and distribution law in energy accumulation and dissipation was analyzed. Energy conversion mechanism from rock deformation to failure was revealed, and energy conversion equations in different stress-strain stages were established. The method of representing the rock energy accumulation, dissipation, and release behaviors by energy storage limit density, maximum dissipated energy density, and residual elastic energy density was established. The rock showed that, with the increase of confining pressure, the characteristic energy density of rock increased in the power exponent form, and the energy storage limit density increased faster than the maximum dissipated energy density. The greater the confining pressure was, the greater the proportion of elastic energy before peak was. It is indicated that the confining pressure increased the energy inputting intensity, improved the energy accumulating efficiency, and inhibited the energy releasing degree.

  18. Case - Case-Law - Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadl, Urska

    2013-01-01

    Reasoning of the Court of Justice of the European Union – Constr uction of arguments in the case-law of the Court – Citation technique – The use of formulas to transform case-law into ‘law’ – ‘Formulaic style’ – European citizenship as a fundamental status – Ruiz Zambrano – Reasoning from consequ...

  19. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY IN REPUBLIC OF CROATIA DUE TO PROMOTION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY IN EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Golub, Miroslav; Kurevija, Tomislav

    2007-01-01

    According to European Strategy for sustainable, competitive and secure energy, which guidelines are described in two documents: ‘’Green Paper: a European Strategy for Sustainable, Competitive and Secure Energy’’ and ‘’White Paper: Energy for the Future: Renewable Sources of Energy’’, it is predicted that share of renewable energy resources in total energy balance will raise from present 6% up to 15% until 2015. Croatia, as candidate country for EU admittance, with growing dependency upon impo...

  20. Energy efficiency in the European water industry. A compendium of best practices and case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frijns, J. [Watercycle Research Institute KWR, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Uijterlinde, C. [Foundation for Applied Water Research STOWA, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2010-02-15

    This European report on best practices of energy efficiency in the water industry showcases 23 energy efficiency initiatives which were collected as case studies from European water utilities. The 25 case studies presented in this report will be submitted to UKWIR and Black and Veatch, for potential inclusion in the Global Water Research Coalition (GWRC) global compendium of best practice case studies. The aim of the GWRC-compendium is to identify the promising developments and future opportunities to help deliver incremental improvements in energy efficiency through optimisation of existing assets and operations. But also more substantial improvements in energy efficiency from the adoption of novel (but proven at full scale) technologies. The European report describes case studies from: Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Norway, Spain and Switzerland. Black and Veatch has gathered furthermore information on 47 cases from the UK. These are reported separately and are not included in this European overview.

  1. Perspectives and Problems of Harmonizing Energy Legislation of Ukraine with the European Union Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyrivna Komelina Olha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Essence, features and components of the energy market was investigated in the article. Regulatory support of energy efficiency and energy saving in the European Union and Ukraine was analyzed. Ukraine obligations due to the harmonization of the energy legislation with the EU standards were defined. Problems in the housing and communal services (HCS as one of the largest consumers of energy resources were revealed.

  2. Calculation of the yearly energy performance of heating systems based on the European Building Energy Directive and related CEN Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.; de Carli, Michele

    2011-01-01

    According to the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) all new European buildings (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) must since 2006 have an energy declaration based on the calculated energy performance of the building, including heating, ventilating, cooling and lighting...... systems. This energy declaration must refer to the primary energy or CO2 emissions. The European Organization for Standardization (CEN) has prepared a series of standards for energy performance calculations for buildings and systems. This paper presents related standards for heating systems. The relevant......–20% of the building energy demand. The additional loss depends on the type of heat emitter, type of control, pump and boiler. Keywords: Heating systems; CEN standards; Energy performance; Calculation methods...

  3. Senate works: law project on the energy policy (first reading); Travaux du Senat: projet de loi d'orientation sur l'energie (premiere lecture)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This synthesis of the Senate works on the law project on the energy policy, comments each article of the law text. It concerns: the energy demand control, the renewable energies, the equilibrium and the quality of the transport and distribution networks of electric power, taxation and financial incentives. (A.L.B.)

  4. Conscientious objection to sexual and reproductive health services: international human rights standards and European law and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampas, Christina; Andión-Ibañez, Ximena

    2012-06-01

    The practice of conscientious objection often arises in the area of individuals refusing to fulfil compulsory military service requirements and is based on the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion as protected by national, international and regional human rights law. The practice of conscientious objection also arises in the field of health care, when individual health care providers or institutions refuse to provide certain health services based on religious, moral or philosophical objections. The use of conscientious objection by health care providers to reproductive health care services, including abortion, contraceptive prescriptions, and prenatal tests, among other services is a growing phenomena throughout Europe. However, despite recent progress from the European Court of Human Rights on this issue (RR v. Poland, 2011), countries and international and regional bodies generally have failed to comprehensively and effectively regulate this practice, denying many women reproductive health care services they are legally entitled to receive. The Italian Ministry of Health reported that in 2008 nearly 70% of gynaecologists in Italy refuse to perform abortions on moral grounds. It found that between 2003 and 2007 the number of gynaecologists invoking conscientious objection in their refusal to perform an abortion rose from 58.7 percent to 69.2 percent. Italy is not alone in Europe, for example, the practice is prevalent in Poland, Slovakia, and is growing in the United Kingdom. This article outlines the international and regional human rights obligations and medical standards on this issue, and highlights some of the main gaps in these standards. It illustrates how European countries regulate or fail to regulate conscientious objection and how these regulations are working in practice, including examples of jurisprudence from national level courts and cases before the European Court of Human Rights. Finally, the article will provide recommendations

  5. Reproductive medicine and the law: egg donation in Germany, Spain and other European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo Casabona, Carlos María; Paslack, Rainer; Simon, Jörgen W

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the key legal issues raised by Reproductive Medicine practiced in Europe, with special attention to the rules prevailing in countries such as Germany and Spain. Thus, the paper involves a detailed study of the regulation in force in those countries, comparing their solutions with the rules adopted in other EU countries. It also highlights the high risk of com-modification in oocyte donation. In light of this, the differences between the laws of EU countries -some of them, very restrictive with prohibitions or requirements for recipient women and others more permissive with the use of reproductive technologies- can lead to a "reproductive tourism" between countries, as indeed is happening nowadays.

  6. Archimedes' Law and Potential Energy: Modelling and Simulation with a Spreadsheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A. Alberto

    1998-01-01

    Addresses some basic aspects of Archimedes' law. Focus is on potential energy relationships so as to elucidate some common misunderstandings and to facilitate making bridges with other physical topics. A spreadsheet model is used as a simulation tool. (Author/NB)

  7. DNA and Law Enforcement in the European Union: Tools and Human Rights Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Soleto Muñoz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its first successful use in criminal investigations in the 1980s, DNA has become a widely used and valuable tool to identify offenders and to acquit innocent persons. For a more beneficial use of the DNA-related data possessed, the Council of the European Union adopted Council Decisions 2008/615 and 2008/616 establishing a mechanism for a direct automated search in national EU Member States’ DNA databases. The article reveals the complications associated with the regulation on the use of DNA for criminal investigations as it is regulated by both EU and national legislation which results in a great deal of variations. It also analyses possible violations of and limitations to human rights when collecting DNA samples, as well as their analysis, use and storage.

  8. On the reform of the Polish energy law. The 'Energy - Threepack'; Zur Reform des polnischen Energierechts. Das 'Energie-Dreipack'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowitzsch, Jens; Goebel, Katarzyna [Europa-Univ. Viadrina, Frankfurt an der Oder (Germany). Kelso-Stiftungprofessur fuer Rechtsvergleichung, Osteuropaeisches Wirtschaftsrecht und Europaeische Rechtspolitik

    2013-02-15

    Due to the strategic importance, the energy industry in Poland was excluded from the privatisation up to the year 1996. In 1996, the deregulation and privatisation of the energy industry in Poland was induced by the outline plan of the implementation of the fundamentals of the energy policy up to the year 2020 as well as by the de-monopolization and privatisation of the electric energy. In October, 2012, the Polish Ministry of Economy finished the draft of a correspondent energy legislation consisting of three single laws - the so-called energy threepack. The authors of the contribution under consideration characterize the development lines of the Polish energy industry and review on the expected new regulations of the energy law.

  9. European Union energy handbook; Petit memento energetique de l'Union Europeenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    While providing graphs and data tables, this document presents and comments key figures about energy in the European Union. The first part gives an overview of the general energy accounting, outlines its traps, gives the main demographic and economic indicators for each of the 27 members, defines and describes the energy production and consumption indicators, and gives an energy appraisal for the European Union. Then, it more specifically deals with final energy consumption in the European Union (per energy source, per sector), with primary energy production and consumption per source (oil products, natural gas, coal, biomass, uranium), with electricity production and consumption, with heat production and consumption. After this overview on energy production and consumption, a set of sheets deals with greenhouse gases and nuclear wastes (climate change and greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide emissions, methane emissions, nitrogen oxide emissions, industrial gas emissions, nuclear wastes). The last part deals with the European policies in terms of energy and climate, of energy efficiency, of renewable energies, and of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

  10. European Energy Security and Nord Stream: A Case Study of the Nord Stream Pipeline, Its Opportunities and Risks for Europe, and Its Impact on European Energy Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    2010, 5.75% of all petrol -driven cars will run on bio- fuels. This target will not be achieved. 119 Ibid., 22–23. 120 Belkin, The European Union’s...ENERGY SECURITY .................................................................................. 10 1. Electricity and Transportation...OPPORTUNITIES VS . RISKS: IMPACTS ON EUROPE ...................... 96 VI. CONCLUSION

  11. TAXATION OF ENERGY PRODUCTS AND ELECTRICITY TO THE EUROPEAN UNION LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PĂUNESCU ALBERTO NICOLAE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available U.E established to increase socio-economic stability and security of supply, the Energy Community has set a good example of regional cooperation in which the EU and the South-Eastern European countries can diversify their energy sources. It has created a functioning institutional framework and more legal certainty for investors. Next steps are to enhance market reforms and to boost investments in the energy sector. The final objective is that the regional market should be fully integrated in the European's internal energy market

  12. Travelling energy systems: knowledge transfer for energy efficiency and conservation from European to Australian building projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glad, Wiktoria (Tema Technology and Social Change, Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden); Inst. for Sustainable Futures, Univ. of Technology, Sydney (Australia))

    2009-07-01

    Energy efficiency and conservation in the Australian built environment have not yet been implemented to any great extent. Despite favourable prerequisites, such as vast windswept unpopulated areas suitable for wind power and many hours of direct sunlight in most populated areas, electricity is mainly generated by burning brown coal and buildings are poorly equipped for hot summers and cool winters. Australia urgently needs to convert to alternative energy sources and implement energy efficiency measures, since its carbon dioxide emissions per capita are among the highest in the world. In a recent major redevelopment in Sydney, the Carlton and United Brewery (CUB) site knowledge of energy efficiency and conservation measures used in European buildings was transferred and implemented in local designs and infrastructure. This knowledge came mainly from urban planning and developments in London, but also from high-profile architectural firms based in Paris and Germany. The arrival of this knowledge in Australia led to phases when the knowledge was translated and enacted in local spaces and the constituent ideas were transformed into action. The present research is based on ten months of ethnographic fieldwork in which the planning and design of the CUB site was observed. The results of the study identify barriers to and opportunities for energy system knowledge transfer between different cultures and local spaces. Substantial time must be spent overcoming cultural barriers, so the involved parties can start talking the same language. This is not only true for stakeholders operating in different continents, but for stakeholders operating in different local arenas in the same country.

  13. European resource assessment for geothermal energy and CO2 storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, J.D. van; Neele, F.

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal Energy and CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS) are both considered major contributors to the global energy transition. Their success critically depends on subsurface resource quality, which in turn depends on specific subsurface parameters. For CCS and Geothermal Energy these in some respect

  14. Mission Impossible? 100% Renewable Energy Society: The European Story - Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Europe and particularly Denmark has very ambitious renewable energy commitments for the coming decades. In this presentation the 2020 energy targets of Europe and the 2050 objectives are presented and discussed. This is followed by a detailed presentation and discussion of the 2050 Energy Strategy...

  15. Provision of financial services, violation of public law conduct of business rules, and private law norm settinga Dutch, German, and European perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, Marnix

    2014-01-01

    Legal uncertainty exists with regards to the relationship between a violation of public law conduct of business rules and private law norm setting. In the area of financial services this uncertainty has led to the question whether private law duties of care can deviate from the norms pursuant to

  16. Proposal of law relative to the creation of the Energie de France group; Proposition de loi relative a la creation du Groupe Energie de France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    This proposal of law concerns the fusion of the two French historical electric and gas utilities: Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF). This proposition of fusion is motivated by the recent mutations of the gas and electric sectors: markets liberalization, separation between the energy production, transport, and commercialization activities, convergence and increasing integration of European markets, limitation of monopolies activity etc.. The solution proposed in this document is to create a group named 'Energie de France' made of a public head company with daughter companies for the management of power and gas distribution networks, for the management of gas and power transportation networks, for the production and commercialization of electricity, and for the supply and commercialization of gas. This convergence is justified by the multi-energy offer of both EdF and GdF companies and by the other fusions between electric and gas operators observed in the rest of Europe (EON and Ruhrgas for instance). It would also warrant the perenniality of the public utility of energy distribution and the status of the personnel. (J.S.)

  17. European Electricity Market and EU Members'Energy Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Veselý, Aleš

    2012-01-01

    The main focus of this thesis is to find out what factors have the biggest influence on the price of electricity for household consumers in the European Union in the context of creating the internal electricity market in the EU. By means of the cluster analysis six EU Member States have been selected according to the following criteria: electricity consumption, electricity production, and the price of electricity. As a result of that Belgium, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Malta and Sw...

  18. Impacts of environmental and utility siting laws on community energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senew, M J; Shimamoto, G T; Seymour, D A; Santini, D J

    1978-02-01

    Community Energy Systems provide an interesting energy conservative alternative to the traditional trend of large, central, grid-connected power plant design. The small community energy system (generally smaller than 100 MW), provides for waste heat utilization and utility cogeneration significantly reducing a community's total energy demand. Developers of Community Energy Systems, unfortunately, are faced with a complex of environmental and siting regulations, most of which are aimed at regulating the development and design of large power-generating facilities. Aside from discouraging development of a potentially more economic and environmentally sound approach to power generation, air-pollution regulations discriminate against these smaller systems. Compliance with the many Federal, state and local regulations often make small energy systems uneconomical. This project studies the emissions associated with Community Energy Systems and reviews the Federal, state, and local laws that regulate their design.

  19. Peter Van Elsuwege and Roman Petrov, eds. Legislative Approximation and Application of EU Law in the Eastern Neighbourhood of the European Union: Towards a Common Regulatory Space?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriy Tyushka

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Peter Van Elsuwege and Roman Petrov, eds. Legislative Approximation and Application of EU Law in the Eastern Neighbourhood of the European Union: Towards a Common Regulatory Space? London and New York: Routledge, 2014. xxx, 268 pp. Notes on Contributors. Preface by Marc Maresceau. Foreward by Kostiantyn Yelisieiev. Illustrations. Informative table and list. Index. $145.00, cloth.

  20. Judicial Review of Eurozone Law: The Adjudication of Postnational Norms in EU Courts, Plural. A Casestudy of the European Stability Mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahey, E.; Bardutsky, S

    2013-01-01

    The European Stability Mechanism (ESM) is the latest in a series of EU financial crisis legal resolution measures through binding EU law. Various aspects of Euro-zone decision-making take place in the margins of the EU Treaties or are not strictly provided for (Snyder, 2010). The legal form of the

  1. European laws on compulsory commitment to care of persons suffering from substance use disorders or misuse problems- a comparative review from a human and civil rights perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelsson, Magnus; Nordlöf, Kerstin; Gerdner, Arne

    2015-08-28

    Laws on compulsory commitment to care (CCC) in mental health, social and criminal legislation for adult persons with alcohol and/or drug dependence or misuse problems are constructed to address different scenarios related to substance use disorders. This study examines how such CCC laws in European states vary in terms of legal rights, formal orders of decision and criteria for involuntary admission, and assesses whether three legal frameworks (criminal, mental and social law) equally well ensure human and civil rights. Thirty-nine laws, from 38 countries, were analysed. Respondents replied in web-based questionnaires concerning a) legal rights afforded the persons with substance use problems during commitment proceedings, b) sources of formal application, c) instances for decision on admission, and d) whether or not 36 different criteria could function as grounds for decisions on CCC according to the law in question. Analysis of a-c were conducted in bivariate cross-tabulations. The 36 criteria for admission were sorted in criteria groups based on principal component analysis (PCA). To investigate whether legal rights, decision-making authorities or legal criteria may discriminate between types of law on CCC, discriminant analyses (DA) were conducted. There are few differences between the three types of law on CCC concerning legal rights afforded the individual. However, proper safeguards of the rights against unlawful detention seem still to be lacking in some CCC laws, regardless type of law. Courts are the decision-making body in 80 % of the laws, but this varies clearly between law types. Criteria for CCC also differ between types of law, i.e. concerning who should be treated: dependent offenders, persons with substance use problems with acting out or aggressive behaviors, or other vulnerable persons with alcohol or drug problems. The study raises questions concerning whether various European CCC laws in relation to substance use disorder or misuse problems

  2. International Rivalry In The Energy Sector: The Eastern European Market Of Atomic Energy In Focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Borovsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the post-bipolar world nuclear power has become one of the areas of competition and rivalry betweenRussiaand the West. The comprehensive analysis of theoretical publications allows us to consider international competition as an abstract, depoliticized contest of states and other international actors (including companies for some limited (mainly economic benefits. International rivalry is more a political process, necessarily involving some rival pairs of states (or groups of states that compete with each other not only to get some benefits, but to expand their territory or power. The competition and rivalry betweenRussiaand the West in the sphere of nuclear power are especially apparent in the Eastern European region where the American, European and Japanese corporations, with the support of the Western foreign ministries and EU institutions, try to achieve two main goals. The first goal is to win the contracts to build new power units, especially in tenders where Rosatom participates. The second goal is to become suppliers of nuclear fuel for multiple Russian- or Soviet-made VVER-type reactors, which are functioning or will be run in a number of countries in the region (Slovakia,CzechRepublic,Hungary,Bulgaria, andUkraine. Such activities can involve high risks. The West’s efforts to curb the dominant position of "Rosatom" inEastern Europeare formally associated with the need to create a "competitive market" of nuclear services in the region and to ensure the European energy security. It is also noteworthy that the expansion of Rosatom (and its predecessors to foreign markets, including Eastern Europe, is actively supported by the Russian state which in the second half of the 1990s – after a failed attempt of following in the footsteps of the West – joined in the rivalry, mostly imposed by the U.S. and their allies. As shown by the analysis,Russiaand the West, primarily theUnited States, are involved in the nuclear power sector to

  3. Balancing security and liberty within the European human rights framework. A critical reading of the Court’s case law in the light of surveillance and criminal law enforcement strategies after 9/11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J.A. de Hert

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Literature concerning human rights protection by the European Court on Human Rights after 9/11 is very often coloured by optimism. Some authors hold that judicial control by the European Court on national anti-terrorism measures is very strict, especially compared to U.S. judicial review. Others suggest the existence of a strict privacy test developed by the European Court as a bulwark again anti-terrorism measures that give too much discretion to law enforcement authorities. In this paper we discuss the ‘classical’ European framework with regard to ‘hard’ anti-terrorism measures and the privacy framework that is relevant for new, ‘softer’ anti-terrorism measures. it is argued that this optimistic reading of the European human rights framework in the area of security especially with regard to the latter is flawed and based on a misunderstanding of the case law of the European Court. This analysis leaves little room for optimism about judicial review of the legislator in Europe and urges for an attitude of self-restraint.

  4. Transformation of Polish Energy Policy in the Context of Changes in European Union Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Szczerbowski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of the Polish energy system in the context of the changes taking place in the energy systems of other European Union Member States. Power system development plans in selected European countries were analysed, as well as their impact on the development of the national energy system. To be effective, an energy policy must affect the investment decisions of business entities. Poland is at the time when it should create the optimal energy mix concept and consistently strive for its implementation. This paper aims to show the real direction of growth in the electricity generation assets in Poland, as well as to indicate the possible impact of trends in the policies of European Union Member States on the electricity market in Poland.

  5. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Fourteen. Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Idaho governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  6. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-eight. Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Virginia governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  7. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-one. Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Maine governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  8. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Eighteen. Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Kansas governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  9. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty-three. New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of New Mexico governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  10. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Eight. Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Colorado governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  11. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Fifty-two. Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Wyoming governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  12. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-two. Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Maryland governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  13. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twelve. Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description of the laws and programs of the State of Georgia governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  14. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty-six. North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of North Dakota governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  15. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-three. Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Massachusetts governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  16. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-seven. Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Missouri governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  17. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Three. Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Alabama governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  18. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-seven. Vermont

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Vermont governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  19. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Nineteen. Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Kentucky governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  20. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Seven. California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of California governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  1. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Fifty. West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of West Virginia governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  2. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty-one. New Hampshire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of New Hampshire governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One. An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  3. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty-nine. Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Oregon governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  4. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty-two. New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of New Jersey governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  5. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-five. Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Texas governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  6. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-eight. Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Montana governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  7. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Fifty-one. Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Wisconsin governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  8. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-nine. Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Washington governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  9. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Sixteen. Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Indiana governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  10. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-three. South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of South Dakota governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  11. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-five. Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Minnesota governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  12. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Fifteen. Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Illinois governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  13. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-one. Rhode Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Rhode Island governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  14. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Six. Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Arkansas governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  15. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Eleven. Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Florida governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  16. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-six. Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Utah governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilites, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  17. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Five. Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Arizona governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  18. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirteen. Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Hawaii governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  19. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-two. South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of South Carolina governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  20. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Nine. Connecticut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description of the laws and programs of the State of Connecticut governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  1. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-four. Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Tennessee governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  2. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty. Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Nevada governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  3. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Thirty-seven. Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Ohio governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  4. Community energy systems and the law of public utilities. Volume thirty-four. New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of New York governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  5. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Two. Federal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the Federal government governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  6. Impacts of Renewable Energy on European Farmers. Creating benefits for farmers and society

    OpenAIRE

    Pedroli, G.B.M.; Langeveld, H.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents results of the project Impacts of Renewable Energy on European Farmers. It focuses on the (potential) role that on-farm generation of Renewable Energy in the EU-27 may play both in realisation of national and EU environmental targets as in (re)vitalising agriculture and rural economy in different regions of the Union. Renewable Energy (RE) in this respect includes the energy generated on farms by using wind, PV, solar thermal, hydro, geothermal or biomass resources.

  7. Non-Standard Workers: The South African Context, International Law and Regulation by The European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ES Fourie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The current labour market has many forms of employment relations that differ from full-time employment. "Atypical," "non-standard," or even "marginal" are terms used to describe these new workers and include, amongst others, part-time work, contract work, self-employment, temporary, fixed-term, seasonal, casual, piece-rate work, employees supplied by employment agencies, home workers and those employed in the informal economy. These workers are often paid for results rather than time. Their vulnerability is linked in many instances to the absence of an employment relationship or the existence of a flimsy one. Most of these workers are unskilled or work in sectors with limited trade union organisation and limited coverage by collective bargaining, leaving them vulnerable to exploitation. They should, in theory, have the protection of current South African labour legislation, but in practice the unusual circumstances of their employment render the enforcement of their rights problematic. The majority of non-standard workers in South Africa are those previously disadvantaged by the apartheid regime, compromising women and unskilled black workers. The exclusion of these workers from labour legislation can be seen as discrimination, which is prohibited by almost all labour legislation in South Africa. This contribution illustrates how the concept of indirect discrimination can be an important tool used to provide labour protection to these workers. The purpose of this article is to explore the scope of the extension of labour rights to non-standard workers in the context of South African labour laws and the international framework.

  8. Energy efficiency in the European Union 1990-2000. Save-Odyssee project on energy efficiency indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The European Odyssee project on energy efficiency indicators was initiated in 1990. It benefits from the combined support of the SAVE programme of the European Commission, of Ademe and of 15 national Efficiency Agencies within the European network of energy efficiency agencies. The objective of the project is to develop and maintain indicators that enable to review progress in energy efficiency and CO{sub 2} emissions abatement, by sector, end-use, etc.. for each country and the EU as a whole. This report presents an assessment of energy efficiency progress in the European Union as a whole over the period 1990-2000. This evaluation is based on the indicators produced from the ODYSSEE database. This evaluation completes the assessments made by each country that are published separately in national reports. The report starts with an assessment of the overall energy efficiency trends in the EU. Then the trends are reviewed by sector, at different levels of aggregation, using the ODYSSEE indicators. A first annex presents the recent developments (2000-2001) in energy efficiency, CO{sub 2} and price policies in the EU countries and Norway. A second annex compiles selected graphs with the appropriate comments to summarize the energy efficiency trends, globally and by sector.

  9. Environmental law. Umweltrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloepfer, M. (Trier Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Umwelt- und Technikrecht)

    1989-01-01

    This comprehensive reference book on environmental law and practice also is a valuable textbook for students specializing in the field. The entire law on pollution control and environmental protection is presented in an intelligent system, covering the latest developments in the Federal and Land legislation, public environmental law, and the related provisions in the fields of civil law and criminal law. The national survey is rounded up by information concerning the international environmental law, environmental law of the European Communities, and of other foreign countries as e.g. Austria and Switzerland. The author also reviews conditions in neighbouring fields such as technology and labour law, environmental economy, environmental policy. Special attention is given to current topics, as e.g. relating to genetic engineering, disused landfills or industrial sites, soil protection, transport of hazardous goods, liability for damage to forests, atomic energy law, and radiation protection law. The latest publishing dates of literature and court decisions considered in the book are in the first months of 1989. (RST).

  10. Nuclear energy: liability for damage to the environment according to the National Environmental Law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiras, Sergio Alves; Couto, Roberto Toscano [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    Liability for damage of the environment is the kind of subject which arouses heated debates in the nuclear energy field among the jurists. Brazil lacks a specific environmental law upon which settlement on questions of nuclear damage could be based. In spite of such lackness, considerable progress has been achieved with the obligatory elaboration of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), the constitutional rules establishing competence and responsibilities on this matter, and some scattered laws. The objective of this work is to focus the responsibility of the Union that exercised the monopoly of nuclear activities, its agents and the team of experts which elaborate the EIA as well as the damage to the environment from a nuclear accident. This study is based on the legal definitions of nuclear reactor, radioactive waste and product, radioisotope, among others. It also focuses some proposed amendments of the law regulating both the civil and criminal liabilities for nuclear damage. (author). 7 refs.

  11. Policies for improving energy efficiency in the European housing stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sunikka, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    According to EC forecasts, if energy efficiency could be increased 1% annually until 2010, two-thirds of the potential energy saving in the EU could be achieved. This would comply with 40% of the EU's Kyoto obligation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 8% on the 1990 level by 2010-12, by cutting

  12. European conferences. Integration of renewable energies in buildings; Conferences europeennes. Integration des energies renouvelables dans le batiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bal, J.L. [ADEME, Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, 75 - Paris (France); Letz, T. [Asder, 73 - Saint Alban Leysse (France); Tuille, F. [Observ' er, 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    2001-07-01

    This document comprises 2 parts. First part is a detailed program of the exhibition with a press dossier which presents the different topics discussed during conferences and round tables, the market of renewable energies, and a list of agencies and companies involved in renewable energies development and products. The second part is the abstracts of the lectures presented during the European conferences on the integration of renewable energies in buildings (solar-thermal and photovoltaic systems, wood fuel and biomass). (J.S.)

  13. Energy key performance indicators : a european benchmark and assessment of meaningful indicators for the use of energy in large corporations

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrichs, Katja

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to identify and analyze energy key performance indicators among large European companies. Energy usage has become a very meaningful topic for both internal management as well as external stakeholders of a company. A review of current literature suggests that while environmental indicators in general have found broad attention and plenty of theories concerning good and meaningful indicators are published, no study investigating actually applied energy indicators ...

  14. European national strategies to move towards very low energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    of official subsidies or via private investment organisations. Another possibility is lower taxes for low energy buildings or the introduction of CO2 taxes. Furthermore mandatory certification schemes are expected to promote very low energy buildings by introduction of grades restricted to buildings with very....... A strategy for improved energy efficiency of existing buildings is a necessity if the energy consumption is to be reduced significantly over a limited period of time. The life time of buildings ranges from 50 to 100 years and improvement of the existing building stock will thus have much higher impact than...... is an effective instrument to achieve highly energy efficient buildings, as well as a valuable tool and guideline for the construction sector....

  15. Amsterdam as a Sustainable European Metropolis : Integration of Water, Energy and Material Flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Hoek, J.P.; Struker, A.; Danschutter, J.E.M.

    2013-01-01

    Amsterdam has the ambition to develop as a competitive and sustainable European metropolis. The flows of energy, water and resources within the urban environment have a large potential to contribute to this ambition. The overall mass balances of phosphate, food, water, energy and material imports in

  16. Impacts of Renewable Energy on European Farmers. Creating benefits for farmers and society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedroli, G.B.M.; Langeveld, H.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents results of the project Impacts of Renewable Energy on European Farmers. It focuses on the (potential) role that on-farm generation of Renewable Energy in the EU-27 may play both in realisation of national and EU environmental targets as in (re)vitalising agriculture and rural

  17. Innovation capabilities and challenges for energy smartdevelopment in medium sized European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindhult, Erik; Campillo, J.; Dahlquist, E.; Read, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Transition towards becoming Energy smart city integrating different areas of energy production, distribution and use in a community requires a spectrum of capabilities. The paper reports on findings from the EU planning project PLEEC, involving six medium sized European cities. The purpose of the

  18. Impact of Variable Renewable Energy on European Cross-Border Electricity Transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brancucci Martinez-Anido, C.; De Vries, L.J.; Fulli, G.

    2012-01-01

    The estimated growth of Europe’s electricity demand and the policy goals of mitigating climate change result in an expected increase in variable renewable energy. A high penetration of wind and solar energy will bring several new challenges to the European electricity transmission network. The

  19. The Second Law of Economics Energy, Entropy, and the Origins of Wealth

    CERN Document Server

    Kümmel, Reiner

    2011-01-01

    Nothing happens in the world without energy conversion and entropy production.  These fundamental natural laws are familiar to most of us when applied to the evolution of stars, biological processes, or the working of an internal combustion engine, but what about industrial economies and wealth production, or their constant companion, pollution?  Does economics conform to the First and the Second  Law of Thermodynamics?  In this important book, Reiner Kümmel takes us on a fascinating tour of these laws and their influence on natural, technological, and social evolution.  Analyzing economic growth in Germany, Japan, and the United States in light of technological constraints on capital, labor, and energy, Professor Kümmel upends conventional economic wisdom by showing that the  productive power of energy far outweighs its small share of costs, while for labor just the opposite is true.  Wealth creation by energy conversion is accompanied and limited by polluting emissions that are coupled to entropy p...

  20. Law without Law

    OpenAIRE

    Sidharth, B. G.

    2007-01-01

    We consider a model for spacetime in which there is an ubiquitous background Dark Energy which is the Zero Point Field. This is further modeled in terms of a Weiner process that leads to a Random or Brownian characterization. Nevertheless we are able to recover meaningful physics, very much in the spirit of Wheeler's Law without Law, that is laws emerging from an underpinning of lawlessness.

  1. Aspects of labour law in the unbundling of the German energy industry; Arbeitsrechtliche Aspekte der Entflechtung in der deutschen Energiewirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaluza, Anna-Lena

    2012-07-01

    The present dissertation examines the consequences in terms of labour law of the implementation of unbundling legislation in fully vertically integrated energy supply companies. It systematically goes through all aspects of labour law, offers scientifically founded solutions to practical issues currently arising in this area and identifies legally conforming models of procedure. In its core the thesis provides a concise elaboration of labour law issues that arise from legal and operational unbundling in the energy sector. It also examines the conformity of practised procedures with labour law and identifies legally conceivable models of procedure. It juxtaposes the special labour law stipulations applicable in the energy sector against general labour law regulations with a view to arriving at legally viable solutions to issues arising in practice. The focus of the inquiry is on the impact of unbundling legislation in the energy sector on general labour law regulations. The dissertation elaborates models of procedure for an optimal implementation of the relevant energy law regulations in practice. This requires taking due account of employee interests on the one hand, such as the safeguarding of collective labour law standards, and the interests of employers and companies on the other, particularly those relating to the optimisation of corporate structure on the occasion of restructuring measures.

  2. Strengthening the European Union Climate and Energy Package. To build a low carbon, competitive and energy secure European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin, E.; Spencer, Th.

    2011-07-01

    As the EU's climate and energy goals defined in its Climate and Energy Package (CEP) are to protect the climate, to protect EU economic competitiveness, and to protect EU energy security, the authors first define these notions (time consistency, competitiveness, energy security) and stress the importance of strengthening the CEP, notably by fostering low carbon technology investment and low carbon products and services innovation. They discuss several policy recommendations for the development of a low carbon, competitive and energy secure EU. These recommendations are notably based on the strengthening of current instruments and on the implementation of new tools to reach the 20% energy efficiency target, on an increase stringency and predictability of the EU ETS, and on the use of direct public financial support to facilitate the transition towards a EU low carbon economy

  3. IS A NEW EUROPEAN UNION ENERGY POLICY NEEDED?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irina, PETRUCA

    2013-01-01

    .... Eighteen countries have been interrupted from gas supplies and countries which had limited reserves and a shortage of alternative supply met a serious energy deficit, in the middle of an especially cold winter...

  4. "European Energy Union? Caught Between Securitisation and Riskification"

    OpenAIRE

    Maltby, Tomas Frederick Rushcliffe; Judge, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Fears about the security of supplies have been central to debates about the development of an integrated EU energy policy over the past decade, leading to claims that energy has been ‘securitised’. Previous analyses have found, however, that although shared security concerns are frequently used as justification for further integration, they can also serve as a rationale for Member States to resist sharing sovereignty. Transcending this apparent paradox would require not just agreement about w...

  5. Energy efficiency and performance indicators of European electricity market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin DUGULEANĂ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The electric power system plays a vital role in the development of every country, ensuring the “fuel” which feeds its economic motor. The efficient functioning of this motor is essential for economy. The efficiency and the performances of electric power systems are reflected on the living level of population, through the money spent and the satisfaction level of their needs. The continuity of power distribution process, the good communication between the suppliers and consumers, the promptitude of interventions, the environment protection - all these are aspects characterizing the performance level of power distribution systems. The paper analyzes the evolution of quality indicators of power distribution systems both for countries’ level and for population on European market of electricity.

  6. Evaluation of the European status towards the achievement of nearly zero energy buildings (nZEBs)

    OpenAIRE

    D'AGOSTINO DELIA; BERTOLDI PAOLO

    2014-01-01

    The European strategy aimed at the 2020 goals is mainly focused on the implementation of the nearly zero energy buildings (nZEBs) as the building target from 2018 afterwards. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview on the current European status of nZEBs categories, definitions, and calculation methodologies. Many open issues are presented and discussed to contribute to the clarification and the establishment of agreed definitions. The paper reports the progress towards the imp...

  7. Health, Well-Being and Energy Poverty in Europe: A Comparative Study of 32 European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Harriet; Snell, Carolyn; Bouzarovski, Stefan

    2017-05-31

    Despite growing pan-European interest in and awareness of the wide-ranging health and well-being impacts of energy poverty-which is characterised by an inability to secure adequate levels of energy services in the home-the knowledge base is largely British-centric and dominated by single-country studies. In response, this paper investigates the relationship between energy poverty, health and well-being across 32 European countries, using 2012 data from the European Quality of Life Survey. We find an uneven concentration of energy poverty, poor health, and poor well-being across Europe, with Eastern and Central Europe worst affected. At the intersection of energy poverty and health, there is a higher incidence of poor health (both physical and mental) amongst the energy poor populations of most countries, compared to non-energy poor households. Interestingly, we find the largest disparities in health and well-being levels between energy poor and non-energy poor households occur within relatively equal societies, such as Sweden and Slovenia. As well as the unique challenges brought about by rapidly changing energy landscapes in these countries, we also suggest the relative deprivation theory and processes of social comparison hold some value in explaining these findings.

  8. Health, Well-Being and Energy Poverty in Europe: A Comparative Study of 32 European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Harriet; Snell, Carolyn; Bouzarovski, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Despite growing pan-European interest in and awareness of the wide-ranging health and well-being impacts of energy poverty—which is characterised by an inability to secure adequate levels of energy services in the home—the knowledge base is largely British-centric and dominated by single-country studies. In response, this paper investigates the relationship between energy poverty, health and well-being across 32 European countries, using 2012 data from the European Quality of Life Survey. We find an uneven concentration of energy poverty, poor health, and poor well-being across Europe, with Eastern and Central Europe worst affected. At the intersection of energy poverty and health, there is a higher incidence of poor health (both physical and mental) amongst the energy poor populations of most countries, compared to non-energy poor households. Interestingly, we find the largest disparities in health and well-being levels between energy poor and non-energy poor households occur within relatively equal societies, such as Sweden and Slovenia. As well as the unique challenges brought about by rapidly changing energy landscapes in these countries, we also suggest the relative deprivation theory and processes of social comparison hold some value in explaining these findings. PMID:28561767

  9. Health, Well-Being and Energy Poverty in Europe: A Comparative Study of 32 European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Thomson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite growing pan-European interest in and awareness of the wide-ranging health and well-being impacts of energy poverty—which is characterised by an inability to secure adequate levels of energy services in the home—the knowledge base is largely British-centric and dominated by single-country studies. In response, this paper investigates the relationship between energy poverty, health and well-being across 32 European countries, using 2012 data from the European Quality of Life Survey. We find an uneven concentration of energy poverty, poor health, and poor well-being across Europe, with Eastern and Central Europe worst affected. At the intersection of energy poverty and health, there is a higher incidence of poor health (both physical and mental amongst the energy poor populations of most countries, compared to non-energy poor households. Interestingly, we find the largest disparities in health and well-being levels between energy poor and non-energy poor households occur within relatively equal societies, such as Sweden and Slovenia. As well as the unique challenges brought about by rapidly changing energy landscapes in these countries, we also suggest the relative deprivation theory and processes of social comparison hold some value in explaining these findings.

  10. Proceedings of the nuclear Inter Jura`93. Nuclear energy and sustainable development: the role of law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The importance of the law for the future of the nuclear energy within the context of the sustainable development is discussed in this Nuclear Inter Jura - Rio`93, which contains the individual papers, reports of working groups and a proposal of standards of good behavior for the civilian nuclear industry. This congress is divided in five sections: licensing and decommissioning; nuclear liability cover; international nuclear trade; radiological protection and radioactive waste management.

  11. Laboratory constraints on chameleon dark energy and power-law fields

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen, Jason H.; Upadhye, Amol; Baumbaugh, Al; Chou, Aaron S.; Mazur, Peter O.; Tomlin, Ray; Weltman, Amanda; Wester, William

    2010-01-01

    We report results from the GammeV Chameleon Afterglow Search---a search for chameleon particles created via photon/chameleon oscillations within a magnetic field. This experiment is sensitive to a wide class of chameleon power-law models and dark energy models not previously explored. These results exclude five orders of magnitude in the coupling of chameleons to photons covering a range of four orders of magnitude in chameleon effective mass and, for individual chameleon models, exclude betw...

  12. Geothermal energy and the law. I. The Federal Lands Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, C.D.; McNamara, J.

    1975-09-30

    A broad range of problems in the legal and institutional environment which hampers the development of the geothermal industry is discussed. The topics include: the development of geothermal energy; pre-leasing procedures--public vs. private assessment; exploratory permits and related strategies; the rate of geothermal leasing-past and future; compensation strategies; lessee qualifications; lands available for leasing; noncompensatory lease terms; ongoing leasehold and production requirements; problems of ''secondary'' geothermal uses; and water law conflicts. (LBS)

  13. Interactions of Delta Shock Waves for Zero-Pressure Gas Dynamics with Energy Conservation Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the interactions of delta shock waves and vacuum states for the system of conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy in zero-pressure gas dynamics. The Riemann problems with initial data of three piecewise constant states are solved case by case, and four different configurations of Riemann solutions are constructed. Furthermore, the numerical simulations completely coinciding with theoretical analysis are shown.

  14. European chemistry for growth. Unlocking a competitive, low carbon and energy efficient future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    The long term role of the chemical industry as Europe progresses to an energy efficient and low GHG emission future, and the sector's potential to assist Europe in meeting its decarbonisation targets is investigated. The timeline for deploying existing and new technologies from 2020 to 2050 and their potential impact on energy efficiency and GHG emission levels, as well as the competitive position of the European chemical industry is assessed. Cefic commissioned Ecofys to perform analyses and bring forward key conclusions and recommendations from their independent viewpoint, in close collaboration with the sector. As a strategic orientation for this industry and a high level priority for Cefic's Board, this Roadmap meets the need for the European chemical industry to develop a new, longer term strategic approach to energy and climate policy and contributes to the debate on the post-2020 policy framework. This Roadmap has three main objectives: (1) Provide quantitative and more qualitative evidence on the options available to the European chemical industry to contribute to the EU's long term GHG emissions reduction goals. These options apply to technologies and product development for the sector itself and for other sectors of the EU economy; (2) Based on this evidence, define a long term vision for the European chemical industry within a European Union that progresses to a low GHG emission future by defining a number of plausible scenarios in the context of global market developments; (3) Formulate recommendations externally to policy makers and internally to the European chemical industry based on the scenarios studied. Chapter 2 provides an overview of the European chemical industry, while Chapter 3 describes the current policy landscape for the European chemical industry. Chapter 4 focuses on the European chemical industry as an enabler of energy efficiency and emissions reduction for sectors across the economy. In Chapter 5, the energy efficiency

  15. Study on Laws, Regulations and Standards on Energy Efficiency, Energy Conserving and Emission Reduction of Industrial Boilers in EU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren; Zhao, Yuejin; Chen, Haihong; Liang, Xiuying; Yang, Ming

    2017-12-01

    Industrial boilers are widely applied in such fields as factory power, building heating, and people’s lives; China is the world’s largest producer and user of industrial boilers, with very high annual energy consumption; clear requirements have been put forward by China on the energy efficiency since the “11th Five-year Plan” with the hope to save energy and reduce emission by means of energy efficiency standards and regulations on the supervision and control of various special equipment. So far, the energy efficiency of industrial boilers in China has been improved significantly but there is still a gap with the EU states. This paper analyzes the policies of energy efficiency, implementation models and methods of supervision and implementation at the EU level from laws, regulations, directives as well as standards; the paper also puts forward suggestions of energy conserving and emission reduction on the improvement of energy conserving capacity of industrial boilers in China through studying the legislations and measures of the developed countries in energy conserving of boilers.

  16. The evolution of administrative law in Albania and the impact of the decisions of the European Court of Justice in the Albanian legal reforms in administrative justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika MEÇA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The selection of the thesis was generally motivated by the lack of legal treatise focused in the arguments of Administrative Court importance in Albanian Judicial system as a new judicial structure, whose role would be to check the legality of decisions of the state administration with the aim to guarantee effective protection of human rights and legitimate interests of private persons through a regular, conform, fast and reasonable judicial process. The aim of this study is to describe the institutional steps taken from Albanian Government in administrative justice evolution, enormous differences between the administrative law before and after 1990, and the impact of European Court of Justice case law and EU law in the Albanian legal reforms in administrative justice. By analyzing the development of the administrative law in Albania is highlighted that the factors which influenced the transformation processes of this branch of law are the level of political culture, the heritage of the paste and the European Union , which has long been engaged in direct support for the modernization of public administration in Albania . In conclusion studying and analyzing the recent reform undertaken in the establishment of administrative court in Albania is necessary to make an evaluation of the impact of this reform in amending the legal framework for administrative procedures and adoption of a new Code of Administrative Procedure.

  17. [The implementation of European directives into national law, demonstrated by the example of the EC Tissues and Cells Directive 2004/23/EC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Auer, Friedger

    2008-07-01

    For the most part, the law of the European Community (EC) is specified in directives. This also applies to the field of medicinal products, medical devices, blood and tissue preparations. As a rule, the provisions stipulated in the EC directives shall not enter into force before they have been implemented into national law in the Member States of the European Union (EU). The implementation is mandatory and makes Community Law binding in the EU Member States. Directive 2004/23/EC on setting standards of quality and safety for the donation, procurement, testing, processing, preservation, storage and distribution of human tissues and cells (EC Tissues and Cells Directive) was finally implemented into German law when the Tissues Act of 20 July 2007 entered into force. Due to the special features of this directive, the national legislators may stipulate stricter provisions, thus exceeding the minimum standards specified in this EC directive. The national legislators are free to choose the legal instrument for the legally binding transposition of EC law. In Germany, the requirements set forth in the EC Tissues and Cells Directive have been implemented within the national legal framework, especially by virtue of the Medicinal Products Act, the Transplantation Act and the Transfusion Act.

  18. Cost and benefit of renewable energy in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram

    2013-01-01

    An assessment is made as to whether renewable energy use for electricity generation in the EU was beneficial throughout the cycle of high and low oil prices. Costs and benefits are calculated with the EU statistics for the period of low oil prices 1998–2002 and high oil prices 2003–2009. The share

  19. Trends in Data Centre Energy Consumption under the European Code of Conduct for Data Centre Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Avgerinou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is recognised as one of the key challenges humankind is facing. The Information and Communication Technology (ICT sector including data centres generates up to 2% of the global CO2 emissions, a number on par to the aviation sector contribution, and data centres are estimated to have the fastest growing carbon footprint from across the whole ICT sector, mainly due to technological advances such as the cloud computing and the rapid growth of the use of Internet services. There are no recent estimations of the total energy consumption of the European data centre and of their energy efficiency. The aim of this paper is to evaluate, analyse and present the current trends in energy consumption and efficiency in data centres in the European Union using the data submitted by companies participating in the European Code of Conduct for Data Centre Energy Efficiency programme, a voluntary initiative created in 2008 in response to the increasing energy consumption in data centres and the need to reduce the related environmental, economic and energy supply security impacts. The analysis shows that the average Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE of the facilities participating in the programme is declining year after year. This confirms that voluntary approaches could be effective in addressing climate and energy issue.

  20. Changing interpretations of Shari’a, ‘Urf and Qanun. An anthropologically grounded overview of Islamic encounters with the postenlightenment premises of European Family Law

    OpenAIRE

    Ballard, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Prepared for a conference on current developments in Islamic Family Law, this paper takes the opportunity to compare and contrast the meaning of ‘law’ in general, and ‘family law’ in particular in the classical Shari’a tradition with the premises which currently underpin contemporary forms of post-enlightment European Family Law. Having done so, it goes on to explore the way in which the institutions of the Shari’a have been comprehensively remoulded (if not yet entirely wholly eliminated) in...

  1. European Union energy policy for sustainable development Nonlinear distribution proposed for EUs 20-20-20 energy goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolon Becerra, A.; Lastra Bravo, X.; Pinedo Contreras, F. J.; Fernandez Montero, S.

    2011-07-01

    There is worldwide concern for the high consumption of energy from fossil fuels, the limited fossil fuel resources, the climate change and global warming and their possible long-term consequences and the population growth. Even more when energy is the main intermediate good necessary for economic growth and development in any country. This usually translates into better quality of life, and thereby, higher primary energy consumption in all sectors, transport, industry, services, household, etc. In this context, the European Union (EU) seeks to reach a balance between sustainable development, competitiveness and secure supply. The current EU energy policy is based on three interrelated pillars or basic goals: the promotion of energy efficiency, the application of greenhouse gas mitigation policies and the increase of share of energy from renewable energy sources. In this paper, a methodology for nonlinear distribution of dynamic targets is proposed and applied to EU energy policy goals. (Author)

  2. The share of renewable energy in the EU. Country Profiles. Overview of Renewable Energy Sources in the Enlarged European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The promotion of renewable energy has an important role to play in addressing the growing dependence on energy imports in Europe and in tackling climate change. Since 1997, the Union has been working towards the ambitious target of a 12% share of renewable energy in gross inland consumption by 2010. In 1997, the share of renewable energy was 5.4%; by 2001 it had reached 6%. This Staff Working Document gives an overview of the different situations of renewable energy sources in the European Union. It includes part of the formal report that the Commission is required to make under Article 3 of Directive 2001/77/EC on electricity from renewable energy sources, and it completes the overall picture with information at a country level on the heat produced from renewable energies and biofuels in the transport sector. This Staff Working Document complements the Communication on 'The share of Renewable Energy sources in the EU'. Data is based on different sources. Firstly, on the reports from Member States on national progress in achieving the targets on electricity from renewable energy sources. Secondly, on a study launched by the Commission on the evolution of renewable energy sources. And thirdly, on a variety of sources like the European Barometer of renewable energies, data from the industry, etc. With the enlargement of the European Union, the new Member States are required to adopt the RES-E Directive (renewable energy sources for electricity) by 1 May 2004. In the accession treaty, national indicative targets are set and the overall renewable electricity target for the enlarged Union will therefore be 21% of gross electricity consumption by 2010. The Commission has the legal obligation to report on the degree of achievement of new Member States' targets by 2006. Although it is too early to assess RES-policy in the new Member States due to very recently adopted regulations, this document also includes national information on the States now joining the

  3. Tenancy Law Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Report on Danish Tenancy Law. Contribution to a research project co-financed by the Grotius Programme for Judicial Co-Operation in Civil Matters. http://www.iue.it/LAW/ResearchTeaching/EuropeanPrivateLaw/Projects.shtml......Report on Danish Tenancy Law. Contribution to a research project co-financed by the Grotius Programme for Judicial Co-Operation in Civil Matters. http://www.iue.it/LAW/ResearchTeaching/EuropeanPrivateLaw/Projects.shtml...

  4. The power of science economic research and European decision-making : the case of energy and environment policies

    CERN Document Server

    Rossetti di Valdalbero, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    This book highlights the interaction between science and politics and between research in economics and European Union policy-making. It focuses on the use of Quantitative tools, Top-down and Bottom-up models in up-stream European decision-making process through five EU policy case studies: energy taxation, climate change, energy efficiency, renewable energy, and internalisation of external costs.

  5. The Tensions between Internal and External Multilateralism in the Case Law of the Court of Justice of the European Union Concerning International Agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cebulak, Pola

    2016-01-01

    the framework of EU external relations (Council of the European Union 2003; European Commission 2006 and 2014). This commitment might seem natural, the EU being a multilateral organization itself. However, this intuition that the EU – as an internally multilateral actor – should also display more commitment...... to multilateralism externally appears problematic. This chapter examines the articulation between this internal and external multilateralism of the EU in the case-law of the Court of Justice of the EU (CJEU). It asks the question whether the main tool of legal interpretation deployed by the Court – teleological...... interpretation – is inherently biased towards the internal or external perspective....

  6. Local investment in renewable energies - European experiences; Investissement local dans les energies renouvelables - recueil d'experiences europeennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quantin, J.; Grepmeier, K.; Larsen, J.; Manolakaki, E.; Smith, M

    2004-01-01

    This booklet is realized within the framework of the european commission called PREDAC. This document have been conceived by a working group specialized on the local investment into renewable energies thematic. The objectives of this project are: to promote citizen participation in the financing of renewable energies projects in Europe; to make organizations, investor clubs and local government to be aware of this way of implication into renewable energies development; to examine more especially three renewable energy sources: biomass, photovoltaic and wind in Denmark, France, Germany, Greece and United Kingdom. (author)

  7. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY IN REPUBLIC OF CROATIA DUE TO PROMOTION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Golub

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available According to European Strategy for sustainable, competitive and secure energy, which guidelines are described in two documents: ‘’Green Paper: a European Strategy for Sustainable, Competitive and Secure Energy’’ and ‘’White Paper: Energy for the Future: Renewable Sources of Energy’’, it is predicted that share of renewable energy resources in total energy balance will raise from present 6% up to 15% until 2015. Croatia, as candidate country for EU admittance, with growing dependency upon imported energy because of continuous depletion of own energy resources, prior oil and gas, needs to follow EU strategic aims to achieve diversification of energy sources and implement and promote renewable energy resources. This paper presents strategy of geothermal resources development in Republic of Croatia for the period of 2007-2030 in cascade and cogeneration principle of energy utilization. These projections of geothermal energy development are part of comprehensive Strategy of Mineral Resources Development which is made by Faculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum Engineering for Ministry of Economy, Labour and Entrepreneurship.

  8. European School of High-Energy Physics, Beatenberg, Switzerland, 26 August - 8 September 2001

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The 2001 European School of High-Energy Physics (formerly the CERN-JINR School of Physics) will be organized jointly by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna, Russia, together with the University of Bern. The basic aim of the School is to teach various aspects of high-energy physics, but especially theoretical physics, to young experimental physicists, mainly from the Member States of CERN and of JINR. The Schools of Physics are designed to give a survey of up-to-date information, rather than to be a training course.

  9. Biomass for energy in the European Union - a review of bioenergy resource assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bentsen Niclas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reviews recent literature on bioenergy potentials in conjunction with available biomass conversion technologies. The geographical scope is the European Union, which has set a course for long term development of its energy supply from the current dependence on fossil resources to a dominance of renewable resources. A cornerstone in European energy policies and strategies is biomass and bioenergy. The annual demand for biomass for energy is estimated to increase from the current level of 5.7 EJ to 10.0 EJ in 2020. Assessments of bioenergy potentials vary substantially due to methodological inconsistency and assumptions applied by individual authors. Forest biomass, agricultural residues and energy crops constitute the three major sources of biomass for energy, with the latter probably developing into the most important source over the 21st century. Land use and the changes thereof is a key issue in sustainable bioenergy production as land availability is an ultimately limiting factor.

  10. Law Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Tolstopiatenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At the origin of the International Law Department were such eminent scientists, diplomats and teachers as V.N. Durdenevsky, S.B. Krylov and F.I. Kozhevnikov. International law studies in USSR and Russia during the second half of the XX century was largely shaped by the lawyers of MGIMO. They had a large influence on the education in the international law in the whole USSR, and since 1990s in Russia and other CIS countries. The prominence of the research of MGIMO international lawyers was due to the close connections with the international practice, involving international negotiations in the United Nations and other international fora, diplomatic conferences and international scientific conferences. This experience is represented in the MGIMO handbooks on international law, which are still in demand. The Faculty of International Law at MGIMO consists of seven departments: Department of International Law, Department of Private International and Comparative Law; Department of European Law; Department of Comparative Constitutional Law; Department of Administrative and Financial Law; Department of Criminal Law, Department Criminal Procedure and Criminalistics. Many Russian lawyers famous at home and abroad work at the Faculty, contributing to domestic and international law studies. In 1947 the Academy of Sciences of the USSR published "International Law" textbook which was the first textbook on the subject in USSR. S.B. Krylov and V.N. Durdenevsky were the authors and editors of the textbook. First generations of MGIMO students studied international law according to this textbook. All subsequent books on international law, published in the USSR, were based on the approach to the teaching of international law, developed in the textbook by S.B. Krylov and V.N. Durdenevsky. The first textbook of international law with the stamp of MGIMO, edited by F.I. Kozhevnikov, was published in 1964. This textbook later went through five editions in 1966, 1972

  11. Customs duty in a period of change in tax law and safety law. Experience with the new legislation on energy taxes (Energiesteuergesetz). Proceedings; Zoll im Wandel vom Abgaben- und Sicherheitsrecht? Erfahrungen mit dem neuen Energiesteuergesetz. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henke, R.; Gellert, L. (eds.) [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster (Germany). Europaeisches Forum fuer Aussenwirtschaft, Verbrauchsteuern und Zoll e.V.

    2007-07-01

    This is the proceedings volume of the 19th European Conference on Customs Legislation of the European Forum for External Trade, Excise Taxes and Customs Duty e.V., which was held in Hamburg on June 20/21, 2007 on the subject of customs duties in the period of transition from tax law to safety law. Experts from industry and administration presented their experience with the new legislation.

  12. Efficiency of Electricity Utilisation in Households in the Context of European Energy Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kott

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficient use of electricity in every sector of a national economy is becoming increasingly significant. Energy efficiency concerns climate and energy policy, but it is also a significant factor influencing manufacturing costs for enterprises (and thus their profits, as well as socio-economic development. Irrational energy consumption leads to excessive consumption of primary energy sources, problems attributable to environment pollution, and limited competitiveness of national companies in global markets. For an individual consumer, energy efficiency is one of the key methods of reducing the share of electricity costs in the household budget. In recent years, the European Commission has made a lot of effort aimed at reducing electricity consumption in households, by promoting energy-saving lighting, subsidising renewable microgeneration systems, enforcing labelling appliances for their energy consumption and liberalisation of the electricity market, among other things. This paper presents the results of a comparative study on electricity consumption in Polish households in reference to selected European Union member states, in the context of European energy policy.

  13. What energy policy for the European Union?; Quelle politique de l'energie pour l'Union europeenne?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The energy question is becoming ever more important. Proper management of energy resources is a strategic challenge that will determine our economic development and even the preservation of our way of life. Looking further into the future, failure to grasp energy-related problems could be seriously prejudicial to the future of our planet (global warming). Because of the rise in prices of fossil fuels resulting from the gradual exhaustion of resources and the political instability reigning in the principal production zones, the disputes over gas between Russia and certain former Soviet republics, massive electricity blackouts, etc, public opinion is now particularly sensitive to these new threats and is looking to decision-makers, at both national and European level, to draw up policies capable of responding to these concerns. Over the past two years, European institutions have in fact taken an increasing number of initiatives in the energy field. This work has, in particular, identified the following three major objectives: - combating global warming, which implies the definition of an energy mix compatible with environmental constraints (reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases), - ensuring security of supply, an ever-growing concern, given the growing dependency of EU Member States on imports of energy, and - safeguarding the competitiveness of the European economy. Despite this work, the only tangible achievement in the energy field in Europe, and one that is still incomplete, concerns the liberalisation of the gas and electricity markets. Apart from the fact that this policy is sometimes badly perceived by European populations, being regarded as responsible for the current rise in prices, Europe cannot be satisfied with tackling just this aspect of affairs. In this respect, energy provides an opportunity to re-launch the construction of Europe both internally (drawing up of a joint agreement regarding energy options, R and D programmes, energy saving, etc

  14. THE DILEMMA BETWEEN LEGITIMATE AND FUNCTIONAL LAW IN THE EUROPEAN UNION : How the Greeks and a Financial Crisis Undermine the European Regulatory State

    OpenAIRE

    Mckeighen, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Many scholars have advanced theories concerning the so-called democracy deficit in the European Union. The global financial crisis and the sovereign debt crisis in Europe has given a new perspective on how to view these theories, particularly the argument proffered by Giandomenico Majone that the European Union should be judged as a regulatory state. The two crises in Europe have cast doubt on the ability of the European Union as a regulatory state to legitimately engage in functional rule ...

  15. The Influence of European Law Concerning Gender Discrimination in Romanian Labor Market: Some Aspects of Women’s Migration in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela GOUDENHOOFT

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Discrimination in employment is one of the problems that have not lost its actuality and discrimination of women, as a species of this principle is a problem that has interesting aspects in Romania. This paper proposes a series of conceptual approach, an attempt to define discrimination against women in employment, a content analysis, including issues of harassment and discrimination. An important part involves the attempt to highlight the sources of discrimination, as well as underlining the paradox that this category of people is not a minority. We want to underline the equality principle reflected by international law, European law, and Romanian legislation and several problems related to gender specificity on the labor market. We have analyzed the international legal framework, the European one (with the multitude of EU directives and the Romanian legislation on this area and I drew a number of conclusions on a few misconceptions of Romanian collective mind, regarded as sources of discrimination.

  16. The future of small hydropower within the European union. An environmental policy study based on the European Water framework directive and the renewable energy directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pabbruwee, Kees

    2006-01-01

    Small hydropower facilities according to European Union (EU) standards have an installed capacity of less than 10 MW. The Renewable Energy Directive has set targets for installed capacity and electricity produced by small hydropower facilities to be reach

  17. IMPLEMENTATION OF ENERGY LAW OF HYBRID POWER STATION FOR SOCIAL WELFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Widowati

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the Implementation of Energy Law of Hybrid Power Station for Social Welfare in Pantai Baru. The problem formulations are the management and utilization of hybrid power station in Pantai Baru and implementation of energy law of hybrid power station for social welfare in the fields of economy and information in Pantai Baru. Based on data analysis it is concluded that the management of hybrid power station in Pantai Baru is performed collaboratively between government and the society. The existence of hybrid power station in pantai baru has positive impacts in economy and information. Penelitian ini meneliti Pelaksanaan Hukum Energi Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Hibrid untuk Kesejahteraan Rakyat di Bidang Ekonomi dan Informasi di Pantai Baru. Masalah yang diteliti adalah bentuk pengelolaan dan pemanfaatan pembangkit listrik tenaga hibrid di Pantai Baru dan pelaksanaan hukum energi pembangkit listrik tenaga hibrid untuk kesejahteraan rakyat di bidang ekonomi dan informasi di Pantai Baru. Berdasarkan analisis data dapat disimpulkan bahwa pengelolaan pembangkit listrik tenaga hibrid yang ada di pantai baru dilakukan secara kolaboratif, antara pemerintah dengan masyarakat. Kehadiran pembangkit listrik tenaga hibrid yang ada di pantai baru telah memberikan dampak positif di bidang ekonomi dan informasi.

  18. Identifying a Human Right to Access Sustainable Energy Services in International Human Rights Law (SDG 7)? (LRN Law and Sustainability Conference)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselman, Marlies

    2017-01-01

    This paper assessed whether a right to sustainable energy services access can be found in international human rights law, possibly in support of achieving UN Sustainable Development Goal 7. According to SDG 7.1, States are expected to strive for the implementation of "universal access to modern,

  19. Making solar laws work. A study of state solar energy incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roessner, J.D.

    1980-11-01

    The results of a research investigation of solar financial and research, demonstration, and development R D and D) incentive programs in 18 states are summarized. The investigation focuses upon implementation - the organization and administrative processes required to convert a law into a viable program. Eleven financial and 12 RD and D programs were investigated. Results indicate that four conditions are common to successful implementation of both types of incentive programs: the opportunity to use solar energy as a heating source; characteristics of the agency selected to complement the law; involvement of outside groups in program implementation; and the specificity of guidance given to those responsible for implementation. Other conditions specific to the implementation of each type of program are discussed as well as the implications of these findings for state and federal policy makers.

  20. Making solar laws work: a study of state solar energy incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roessner, J.D.

    1980-11-01

    The results of a research investigation of solar financial and research, demonstration, and development (RD and D) incentive programs in 18 states are summarized. The investigation focuses upon implementation - the organization and administrative processes required to convert a law into a viable program. Eleven financial and 12 RD and D programs were investigated. Results indicate that four conditions are common to successful implementation of both types of incentive programs: the opportunity to use solar energy as a heating source; characteristics of the agency selected to complement the law; involvement of outside groups in program implementation; and the specificity of guidance given to those responsible for implementation. Other conditions specific to the implementation of each type of program are discussed as well as the implications of these findings for state and federal policy makers.

  1. Report made on behalf of the commission of economical affairs, of environment and territory about the project of energy trend law (no. 1586); Rapport fait au nom de la Commission des affaires economiques, de l'environnement et du territoire sur le projet de loi (no. 1586), d'orientation sur l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poignant, S.

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this report is to present to the French deputies the comments made by the commission of economic affairs, environment and territory about the project of energy trend law. This law aims at defining in its first article the goals and trends of the French energy policy, and then at completing the existing energy dispositions in order to more efficiently implement these trends. The goals of the French energy plan are: the guarantee of supplies security, the environment protection, the warranty of energy prices competitiveness, and the energy access to the whole French people. These goals imply to keep up the nuclear option with the construction of the European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) and to develop the renewable energies. The first title of the law is devoted to the mastery of energy demand and foresee the implementation of a system of energy saving certificates, the reinforcement of the thermal building codes law, and a better information of consumers. The second title aims at promoting the development of renewable energy sources. Finally, the third title aims at better warranting the equilibrium of power networks and the quality of power supplies. The first part of the document reports on the general discussions about the law project while the second part makes a detailed analysis of each article with the proposals of modifications made by the commission. (J.S.)

  2. INTERGEO - Central/East European Collaboration Network on direct application of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovski, K. [Central/East European Collaboration Network on Direct Application of Geothermal Energy, Bitola (Yugoslavia); Arpasi, M. [International Geothermal Association - European Branch, Budapest (Hungary)

    1997-12-01

    A proposal for organisation of a Network to be known as INTERGEO is presented, which should extend and reinforce the cooperation for the development of the direct application of geothermal energy between the developed EC countries and the ones of the so called Central/East European region. Unter the term `developed countries` for this particular energy source utilisation mainly Italy, France and Germany should be understood. The Central/East European region consists the following countries: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Belarus, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lituania, Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Roumania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Turkey, Ukraine and Yugoslavia. The idea itself, the need and possibilities for organisation, possible plan of action and expected benefits for the EC and Central/East European countries are elaborated in order to come to the conclusions for the proposal justifiableness and feasibility for realisation. (orig.)

  3. Climate and energy targets of the European Union; De klimaat- en energiedoelstellingen van de EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolwijk, H.; Veenendaal, P. [Centraal Planbureau CPB, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2007-05-04

    Attention is paid to two important parts of the targets for climate and energy which were determined by the European Council in March 2007 for the year 2020: (1) the impact of the emission reduction target and the correlations with the sustainable development targets; and (2) the obstacles for the European Union on the way to thar 20% renewable energy target. [Dutch] Aandacht wordt besteed aan twee belangrijke onderdelen van de doelstellingen voor klimaat en energie die maart 2007 door de Europese Raad zijn vastgesteld voor 2020: (1) de betekenis van de emissiereductiedoelstelling en de wisselwerking met de duurzaamheidsdoelstellingen; en (2) de obstakels die de EU zal tegenkomen op de weg naar 20% hernieuwbare energie.

  4. The European Strategic Energy Technology (SET-Plan); PLan estrategico Europeo de Tecnologia energetica (Plan EETE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberali, R.

    2010-07-01

    Rafael Liberal i was appointed Director for Energy within the Directorate-General Research of the European Commission in October 2006. He is in charge of the implementation of the Non-Nuclear Energy priority of the 7th Framework Programme, as well as the definition of political priorities and coordination with Member States and research/industrial stake holders in the field of non-nuclear energy technologies, including the definition and implementation of the Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan). (Author)

  5. Energy policy responses to the climate change challenge: The consistency of European CHP, renewables and energy efficiency policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grohnheit, P.E.

    1999-09-01

    This report is Volume 14 of individual reports of the Shared Analysis Project prepared for the European Commission, Directorate General for Energy. The three major objectives of the project were: to design a common framework of energy analysis that aimed to involve all Member States and the experts of industrial research groups (the shared approach to energy analysis); To analyse generic EU-wide issues important for energy policy and for future energy demand and production, putting particular emphasis on world energy market trends, strategic energy policy responses to the Kyoto process, and evaluation of response strategies to increasing energy import dependence and to climate change activities; to carry out quantitative analyses of energy trends and scenarios as an input for discussion. The present volume considers three main issues concerning energy policy responses to the climate change challenge: the penetration of CHP and renewables according to official objectives, focusing on infrastructure and institutions rather than technology; the consistency of promotion of CHP, renewables and energy savings at the same time; consumers' choices and priorities in a liberalised market. The volume describes examples of policies in several Member States for these technologies with emphasis on CHP for both large-scale and small-scale district heating systems. The penetration of CHP technologies is analysed quantitatively using a traditional optimisation model approach for stylised regions with heat markets suitable for CHP and facing a competitive European market for electricity. The Joint Final Report of the project, titled 'Economic Foundations for Energy Policy' is published as a Special Issue of Energy in Europe, December 1999. All reports are available on the Internet, www.shared-analysis.fhg.de/ The project started in January 1998, involving about 100 months of scientific labour. The project consortium consisted of nine member institutes co-ordinated by

  6. Energy method for multi-dimensional balance laws with non-local dissipation

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Renjun

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with a class of multi-dimensional balance laws with a non-local dissipative source which arise as simplified models for the hydrodynamics of radiating gases. At first we introduce the energy method in the setting of smooth perturbations and study the stability of constants states. Precisely, we use Fourier space analysis to quantify the energy dissipation rate and recover the optimal time-decay estimates for perturbed solutions via an interpolation inequality in Fourier space. As application, the developed energy method is used to prove stability of smooth planar waves in all dimensions n2, and also to show existence and stability of time-periodic solutions in the presence of the time-periodic source. Optimal rates of convergence of solutions towards the planar waves or time-periodic states are also shown provided initially L1-perturbations. © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. U.S. Laws and Regulations for Renewable Energy Grid Interconnections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Geller, Nina [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Rapidly declining costs of wind and solar energy technologies, increasing concerns about the environmental and climate change impacts of fossil fuels, and sustained investment in renewable energy projects all point to a not-so-distant future in which renewable energy plays a pivotal role in the electric power system of the 21st century. In light of public pressures and market factors that hasten the transition towards a low-carbon system, power system planners and regulators are preparing to integrate higher levels of variable renewable generation into the grid. Updating the regulations that govern generator interconnections and operations is crucial to ensure system reliability while creating an enabling environment for renewable energy development. This report presents a chronological review of energy laws and regulations concerning grid interconnection procedures in the United States, highlighting the consequences of policies for renewable energy interconnections. Where appropriate, this report places interconnection policies and their impacts on renewable energy within the broader context of power market reform.

  8. Strategies for the south european energy sector for the next 40 years

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador López, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of an energy systems model for the southern countries of Europe. More precisely, for three main actors of the South of the European Union: Spain, Italy and Portugal. The three of them are currently facing economic difficulties due to the world financial crisis. To satisfy their energy demand at the less cost-effective price and following the EU policies in terms of greenhouse emissions requires a deep analysis of the current situation and an accurate forec...

  9. Energy Conservation Law in Industrial Architecture: An Approach through Geometric Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Bravo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 1892, the electrical engineering scientific community has been seeking a power theory for interpreting the power flow within electric networks under non-sinusoidal conditions. Although many power theories have been proposed regarding non-sinusoidal operation, an adequate solution is yet to be found. Using the framework based on complex algebra in non-sinusoidal circuit analysis (frequency domain, the verification of the energy conservation law is only possible in sinusoidal situations. In this case, reactive energy turns out to be proportional to the energy difference between the average electric and magnetic energies stored in the loads and its cancellation is mathematically trivial. However, in industrial architecture, apparent power definition of electric loads (non-sinusoidal conditions is inconsistent with the energy conservation law. Up until now, in the classical complex algebra approach, this goal is only valid in the case of purely resistive loads. Thus, in this paper, a new circuit analysis approach using geometric algebra is used to develop the most general proof of energy conservation in industrial building loads. In terms of geometric objects, this powerful tool calculates the voltage, current, and apparent power in electrical systems in non-sinusoidal, linear/nonlinear situations. In contrast to the traditional method developed by Steinmetz, the suggested powerful tool extends the concept of phasor to multivector-phasors and is performed in a new Generalized Complex Geometric Algebra structure (CGn, where Gn is the Clifford algebra in n-dimensional real space and C is the complex vector space. To conclude, a numerical example illustrates the clear advantages of the approach suggested in this paper.

  10. The impact of the crisis on the energy demand and energy intensity in Central and Eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila HUGYECZ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our paper is to analyze the impact of the recent crisis on the oil and electricity demand and the energy intensity of different Central and Eastern European countries, namely the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. Furthermore, we would like to reveal whether there is a lag in the adjustment of energy consumption. In analyzing energy intensity, we use motor gasoline, diesel oil and electricity consumption data and ignore coal and natural gas data. By so doing, we avoid failures arising from changing coal/gas consumption due to changing weather conditions. Our results show that the crisis did impact energy consumption and reveal that the improvement of energy intensity halted in 2009, implying that the economic players did not immediately adjust their energy consumption according to their economic activity. The gasoline and diesel intensity, however, deteriorated (increased only in the Czech Republic and in Hungary. In Slovakia and Poland there were no significant changes.

  11. Rigorous RG Algorithms and Area Laws for Low Energy Eigenstates in 1D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arad, Itai; Landau, Zeph; Vazirani, Umesh; Vidick, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    One of the central challenges in the study of quantum many-body systems is the complexity of simulating them on a classical computer. A recent advance (Landau et al. in Nat Phys, 2015) gave a polynomial time algorithm to compute a succinct classical description for unique ground states of gapped 1D quantum systems. Despite this progress many questions remained unsolved, including whether there exist efficient algorithms when the ground space is degenerate (and of polynomial dimension in the system size), or for the polynomially many lowest energy states, or even whether such states admit succinct classical descriptions or area laws. In this paper we give a new algorithm, based on a rigorously justified RG type transformation, for finding low energy states for 1D Hamiltonians acting on a chain of n particles. In the process we resolve some of the aforementioned open questions, including giving a polynomial time algorithm for poly( n) degenerate ground spaces and an n O(log n) algorithm for the poly( n) lowest energy states (under a mild density condition). For these classes of systems the existence of a succinct classical description and area laws were not rigorously proved before this work. The algorithms are natural and efficient, and for the case of finding unique ground states for frustration-free Hamiltonians the running time is {\\tilde{O}(nM(n))} , where M( n) is the time required to multiply two n × n matrices.

  12. Effects of Energy Beverage Consumption on Pistol Aiming Steadiness in Law Enforcement Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Taylor P; Jacobson, Bert H; Sellers, John H; Estrada, Carlos A

    2017-09-01

    Monaghan, TP, Jacobson, BH, Sellers, JH, and Estrada, CA. Effects of energy beverage consumption on pistol aiming steadiness in law enforcement officers. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2557-2561, 2017-The popularity of energy drinks (EDs)/shots (ESs) has grown steadily over the years resulting in billions of dollars of sales annually. Energy drink marketing focuses on the improved performance and alertness and a reduction in fatigue. Although caffeine comprises one of the ingredients, it is not fully known how the combination of the many remaining active ingredients affects physical performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a commercially available ES on pistol aiming steadiness. Subjects (N = 10) consisted of accredited police officers in the Midwest. A randomized, blinded, crossover design was used to evaluate the pistol aiming steadiness after the consumption of an ES or placebo. Pistol aiming steadiness was measured using a hole/stylus steadiness tester and laser attached to a training pistol before and 30 minutes after ES or placebo consumption. Analysis revealed that the ES significantly (p ≤ 0.05) impaired pistol steadiness, whereas the placebo yielded no significant difference in aiming steadiness. Based on these results, it was concluded that the consumption of an ES could compromise aiming accuracy and shot placement, thereby jeopardizing the health and welfare of law enforcement personnel.

  13. Wind Energy Potential and Power Law Indexes Assessment for Selected Near-Coastal Sites in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliashim Albani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the wind energy potential by analysing a certain amount of gathered 10-min measured data at four stations located at coastal sites in Malaysia, i.e., Kudat, Mersing, Kijal, and Langkawi. The wind data are collected from a total of four new wind measurement masts with sensors mounted at various heights on the tower. The measured data have enabled the establishment of wind resource maps and the power law indexes (PLIs analysis. In addition, the dependence of PLI upon surface temperature and terrain types is studied, as they are associated to the form of exponential fits. Moreover, the accuracy of exponential fits is assessed by comparing the results with the 1/7 law via the capacity factor (CF discrepancies. In order to do so, the wind turbine with a hub-height similar to the maximum height of the measured data at each site is selected to simulate energy production. Accordingly, the discrepancy of CF based on the extrapolated data by employing 1/7 laws and exponential fits, in spite of being computed using measured data, is determined as well. Furthermore, the large discrepancy of the wind data and the CF, which has been determined with the application of 1/7, is compared to the exponential fits. This is because; discrepancy in estimation of vertical wind speed could lead to inaccurate CF computation. Meanwhile, from the energy potential analysis based on the computed CF, only Kudat and Mersing display a promising potential to develop a medium capacity of wind turbine power, while the other sites may be suitable for wind turbines at a small scale.

  14. Green paper. Towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This Green Paper is the response to an observable fact: Europe growing future energy dependence. Its aim is to initiate a debate on the security of energy supply, an issue that is still very much alive. Three main points emerge from the Green Paper: the European Union will become increasingly dependent on external energy sources; enlargement will not change the situation; based on current forecasts, dependence will reach 70 % in 2030; the European Union has very limited scope to influence energy supply conditions (it is essentially on the demand side that the EU can intervene, mainly by promoting energy saving in buildings and the transport sector); at present, the European Union is not in a position to respond to the challenge of climate change and to meet its commitments, notably under the Kyoto Protocol. In these circumstances, the Commission would like the debate on the future strategy to be structured around the following principal questions: 1. Can the European Union accept an increase in its dependence on external energy sources without compromising its security of supply and European competitiveness? 2. Does not Europe increasingly integrated internal market, where decisions taken in one country have an impact on the others, call for a consistent and coordinated policy at Community level? What should such a policy consist of and where should competition rules fit in? 3. Are tax and State aid policies in the energy sector an obstacle to competitiveness in the European Union or not? 4. In the framework of an ongoing dialogue with producer countries, what should supply and investment promotion agreements contain? Given the importance of a partnership with Russia in particular, how can stable quantities, prices and investments be guaranteed? 5. Should more reserves be stockpiled, as already done for oils, and should other energy sources be included, such as gas or coal? Does the risk of physical disruption to energy supplies justify more onerous measures for

  15. Priority for import capacity. The fear of the European Union for a free European energy market; Voorrang aan importcapaciteit. Brussel vreest werking vrije Europese markt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roggen, M. (ed.)

    2002-05-01

    Brussels (the seat of the European Union in Belgium) is worried about the performance of the liberalized European energy market. The natural gas and electricity networks are suffering from chronic congestion. Some areas are largely or even entirely cut off from the European energy infrastructure. Those problems must be addressed to realize the internal market. A package of reforms has been put forward by the European Commission the end of 2001 and 12 priority projects are identified and briefly discussed in this article. [Dutch] Brussel vreest dat een vrije Europese markt niet goed zal werken als grensoverschrijdende knelpunten met de transportcapaciteit voor aardgas en elektriciteit niet opgelost worden en geisoleerde landen geen adequate toegang krijgen met het buitenland. Eind 2001 heeft de Europese Commissie een pakket maatreglen voor de energie-infrastructuur voorgesteld. Twaalf projecten van Europees belang krijgen prioriteit.

  16. The European Union and the Energy. Its repercussion in Spain; La Union Europea y la Energia. Su repercusion en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, J.

    2008-07-01

    This work focuses on the European dimension of energy. In particular, it examines the role that has corresponded so far to energy in the building of Europe and investigates the difficulties and obstacles to the existence of a genuine pan-European energy policy. Finally, it examines the influence that the entry into the EU in 1986 has taken on the Spanish energy policies. (Author)

  17. ENERGY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE PRESENT CHALLENGES TO THE EUROPEAN COMMON SECURITY AND DEFENCE POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel ANDRUSEAC

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Common Security and Defence Policy is a part of the European Union’s Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP and establishes the policy framework for the institutional structures and military instruments which have to deal with the security challenges in Europe’s geopolitical neighborhood. The article aims to identify and analyze the role of energy as one of the present challenges to the European Common Security and Defence Policy in the context of the recent events in the world economy.

  18. Energy consumption and CO2 emissions of the European glass industry

    OpenAIRE

    SCHMITZ ANDREAS; KAMINSKI Jacek; SCALET Bianca Maria; SORIA RAMIREZ Antonio

    2010-01-01

    An in-depth analysis of the energy consumption and CO2 emissions of the European glass industry is presented. The analysis is based on data of the EU ETS for the period 2005¿2007 (Phase I). The scope of this study comprises the European glass industry as a whole and its seven subsectors. The analysis is based on an assignment of the glass installations (ca. 450) within the EU ETS to the corresponding subsectors and an adequate matching of the respective production volumes. A result is the ass...

  19. EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN PERSPECTIVES ON THE CHOICE OF LAW REGARDING CROSS-BORDER INSOLVENCIES OF MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS – SUGGESTIONS FOR SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Weideman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An increase in economic globalisation and international trade has amounted to an increase in the number of multinational enterprises that have debt, own assets and conduct business in various jurisdictions around the world. This, coupled with the recent worldwide economic recession, has inevitably caused the increased occurrence of multinational financial default, also known as cross-border insolvency (CBI. The legal response to this trend has, inter alia, produced two important international instruments that were designed to address key issues associated with CBI. Firstly, the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL adopted the UNCITRAL Model Law on Cross-Border Insolvency (the Model Law in 1997, which has been adopted by nineteen countries including the United States of America and South Africa. Secondly, the European Union (EU adopted the European Council Regulation on Insolvency Proceedings (EC Regulation in 2000. Both the EC Regulation and Chapter 15 adopt a “modified universalist” approach towards CBI matters. Europe and the United States of America are currently the world leaders in the area of CBI and the CBI legislation adopted and applied in these jurisdictions seems to be effective. As South Africa’s Cross-Border Insolvency Act is not yet effective, there is no local policy guidance available to insolvency practitioners with regard to the application of the Model Law. At the basis of this article is the view that an analysis of the European and American approaches to CBI matters will provide South African practitioners with valuable insight, knowledge and lessons that could be used to understand and apply the principles adopted and applied in terms of the EC Regulation and Chapter 15, specifically the COMI concept, the “establishment” concept in the case of integrated multinational enterprises and related aspects.

  20. Faith in public debate: an inquiry into the relationship between freedom of expression and hate speech pertaining to religion and race in France, the Netherlands and European and international law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, E.H.

    2014-01-01

    ‘Faith in public debate’ forms an inquiry into the relationship between freedom of expression and hate speech pertaining to religion and race in France, the Netherlands and European and international law.