WorldWideScience

Sample records for european electricity supply

  1. Vulnerability of US and European electricity supply to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Yearsley, J.R.; Ludwig, F.; Kabat, P.

    2012-01-01

    In the United States and Europe, at present 91% and 78% (ref. 1) of the total electricity is produced by thermoelectric (nuclear and fossil-fuelled) power plants, which directly depend on the availability and temperature of water resources for cooling. During recent warm, dry summers several

  2. Water constraints on European power supply under climate change: impacts on electricity prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Vögele, S.; Rübbelke, D.

    2013-01-01

    Recent warm, dry summers showed the vulnerability of the European power sector to low water availability and high river temperatures. Climate change is likely to impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power

  3. Vulnerability of US and European electricity supply to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Yearsley, John R.; Ludwig, Fulco; Vögele, Stefan; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Kabat, Pavel

    2012-09-01

    In the United States and Europe, at present 91% and 78% (ref. ) of the total electricity is produced by thermoelectric (nuclear and fossil-fuelled) power plants, which directly depend on the availability and temperature of water resources for cooling. During recent warm, dry summers several thermoelectric power plants in Europe and the southeastern United States were forced to reduce production owing to cooling-water scarcity. Here we show that thermoelectric power in Europe and the United States is vulnerable to climate change owing to the combined impacts of lower summer river flows and higher river water temperatures. Using a physically based hydrological and water temperature modelling framework in combination with an electricity production model, we show a summer average decrease in capacity of power plants of 6.3-19% in Europe and 4.4-16% in the United States depending on cooling system type and climate scenario for 2031-2060. In addition, probabilities of extreme (>90%) reductions in thermoelectric power production will on average increase by a factor of three. Considering the increase in future electricity demand, there is a strong need for improved climate adaptation strategies in the thermoelectric power sector to assure futureenergy security.

  4. Water constraints on European power supply under climate change: impacts on electricity prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Vögele, Stefan; Rübbelke, Dirk

    2013-09-01

    Recent warm, dry summers showed the vulnerability of the European power sector to low water availability and high river temperatures. Climate change is likely to impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power production. Here, we show the impacts of climate change and changes in water availability and water temperature on European electricity production and prices. Using simulations of daily river flows and water temperatures under future climate (2031-2060) in power production models, we show declines in both thermoelectric and hydropower generating potential for most parts of Europe, except for the most northern countries. Based on changes in power production potentials, we assess the cost-optimal use of power plants for each European country by taking electricity import and export constraints into account. Higher wholesale prices are projected on a mean annual basis for most European countries (except for Sweden and Norway), with strongest increases for Slovenia (12-15%), Bulgaria (21-23%) and Romania (31-32% for 2031-2060), where limitations in water availability mainly affect power plants with low production costs. Considering the long design life of power plant infrastructures, short-term adaptation strategies are highly recommended to prevent undesired distributional and allocative effects.

  5. MOSES – A modelling tool for the analysis of scenarios of the European electricity supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agert C.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that a transition of the current power supply system in Europe to a system almost entirely based on fluctuating Renewable Energy Sources (RES by mid-century is possible. However, most of these scenarios require a significant amount of back-up power capacities to ensure the security of electricity supply. This would imply high additional investments and operating costs. Hence, alternative options should be investigated first. Here we present a first outlook of our simulation model MOSES which will be able to analyse different target states of the European electricity system in 2050. In this model long-term meteorological data series are used to optimise the capacity mix of RES in Europe. One of the main elements of our tool is a simplified electricity network. In addition, alternative options for reduction of additional back-up power like the expansion of the transmission grid, the use of demand-side management and/or the installation of over-capacities will be implemented. The results will be used to provide scientifically proven recommendations to policy makers for a reliable energy supply system in Europe based on Renewable Energy Sources.

  6. Effect of global warming on willingness to pay for uninterrupted electricity supply in European nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jed; Moeltner, Klaus; Reichl, Johannes; Schmidthaler, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Predicted changes in temperature and other weather events may damage the electricity grid and cause power outages. Understanding the costs of power outages and how these costs change over time with global warming can inform outage-mitigation-investment decisions. Here we show that across 19 EU nations the value of uninterrupted electricity supply is strongly related to local temperatures, and will increase as the climate warms. Bayesian hierarchical modelling of data from a choice experiment and respondent-specific temperature measures reveals estimates of willingness to pay (WTP) to avoid an hour of power outage between €0.32 and €1.86 per household. WTP varies on the basis of season and is heterogeneous between European nations. Winter outages currently cause larger per household welfare losses than summer outages per hour of outage. However, this dynamic will begin to shift under plausible future climates, with summer outages becoming substantially more costly and winter outages becoming slightly less costly on a per-household, per-hour basis.

  7. Quality of Power Supply in European View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenek Hradilek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with comparisons of situation in quality of power supply regulation in some of European countries, which are interested in CEER (Council of European Energy Regulators. Especially we focused our analysis on reliability indices, relationship between supplier and consumer and electric power supply aftereffects. There are discussed differences in each countries and comparison with situation in Czech Republic.

  8. Vulnerability of European and U.S. Electricity Supply to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, M. T.; Yearsley, J. R.; Ludwig, F.; Vögele, S.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Kabat, P.

    2012-12-01

    Thermoelectric (nuclear and fossil fueled) power plants currently produce 78% of all electricity in the Europe and 91% in the United States. These power plants directly depend on the availability and temperature of water resources for cooling. During recent warm, dry summers several thermoelectric power plants in Europe and the southeastern U.S. were forced to reduce production due to cooling water scarcity and environmental restrictions on thermal discharges. Due to climate change, periods with low flows in combination with high water temperatures could increase causing significant reductions in cooling water availability during summer. Here we show that thermoelectric power in Europe and the U.S. is vulnerable to climate change due to the combined impacts of lower summer flows and higher water temperatures. We used a physically-based hydrological and water temperature modeling framework (VIC - RBM) in combination with an electricity production model. Our modeling framework was forced with different climate change scenarios to quantify how climate change will affect daily river flow, water temperature, and subsequently electricity production potential over the next 20-50 years. A total number of 96 existing nuclear and fossil fueled power plants (with different cooling systems) in Europe and the southeastern U.S. were included in our analyses. The results show a summer average decrease in capacity of power plants of 6.3-19% in Europe and 4.4-16% in the U.S. depending on cooling system type and climate scenario for 2031-2060. In addition, probabilities of extreme reductions in thermoelectric power production are projected to increase substantially. Considering the projected decreases in cooling water availability during summer in combination with the long design life of power plant infrastructure, adaptation options should be included in today's planning and strategies to meet the growing electricity demand in the 21st century.

  9. Transmission grid extensions during the build-up of a fully renewable pan-European electricity supply

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Sarah; Andresen, Gorm B; Schramm, Stefan; Greiner, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Spatio-temporal generation patterns for wind and solar photovoltaic power in Europe are used to investigate the future rise in transmission needs with an increasing penetration of these variable renewable energy sources (VRES) on the pan-European electricity system. VRES growth predictions according to the official National Renewable Energy Action Plans of the EU countries are used and extrapolated logistically up to a fully VRES-supplied power system. We find that keeping today's international net transfer capacities (NTCs) fixed over the next forty years reduces the final need for backup energy by 13% when compared to the situation with no NTCs. An overall doubling of today's NTCs will lead to a 26% reduction, and an overall quadrupling to a 33% reduction. The remaining need for backup energy is due to correlations in the generation patterns, and cannot be further reduced by transmission. The main investments in transmission lines are due during the ramp-up of VRES from 15% (as planned for 2020) to 80%. Add...

  10. ENERGY STAR Certified Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment that are...

  11. Nanotechnological solutions for Nigeria's electricity supply problem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper proposes cheap and efficient nano-based photovoltaic cells for electricity generation and supply in Nigeria - a nano photovoltaic cell for every roof. The energy generated from the sun would be stored in inverters or other energy storage facilities like supercapacitors and superconductors during the day and would ...

  12. European approaches to changing patterns of energy consumption and supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepetit, P. [Centre Francais sur les Etats-Unis, 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-07-01

    In the case of the broad debate on the security of energy supply, launched by the european commission on november 2000, this document presents the historical european facts and figures, stress the dramatic changes since 1990 and discussed the policy opinions (nuclear energy, tax policy, further progress in opening market and promoting international trade and investment). (A.L.B.)

  13. Electric Power Supply Chain Management Addressing Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao-Hui; Cong, Ronggang

    2012-01-01

    Supply chain management played a critical role in the electric power industrial chain optimization. The purpose of this paper was to review a sample of the literature relating to supply chain management and its possible applications in electricity power system, especially in the context of climate...... change. The study compared the difference between electric power supply chain management and traditional supply chain management. Furthermore, some possible research topics are addressed. The aim of this paper was to promote the application of supply chain management in the China electricity sector...

  14. More efficient policy of energy and regional electricity supply by the directive 96/92/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 10 december 1996 concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity; Effizientere Energiepolitik und regionale Elektrizitaetsversorgung durch die EU-Elektrizitaetsrichtlinie 1996. Politikfeldanalyse der europaeischen, deutschen und bayerischen Energiepolitik und Elektrizitaetswirtschaft im Zusammenhang mit der Entstehung und Umsetzung der EU-Richtlinie 96 sowie der Veraenderung der Effizienz in der traditionellen Elektrizitaetsversorgung unter supranationalem EU-Einfluss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtner, Franz

    2006-07-01

    The German energy policy and its main addressees, the regional electricity companies (EVU), are going through a critical phase at the beginning of the 21st century. The increasing complexity and inconsistency of energy issues have, in Germany and in other countries, led to decisions which again have produced extensive, but not yet foreseeable developments, as, for example, the liberalisation of the electricity and gas market within the European Union. The first objective of this paper is an empirical analysis of the regional electricity supply industry in Germany and particularly in Bavaria in so far as it is relevant for energy politics, as well as an introduction to the German energy policy up to approximately the time when the Directive 96/92/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 19 December 1996 concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity, was passed. Moreover, findings for the definition of energy efficiency in electricity supply and of the policy analysis are outlined. The second objective of this paper is the analysis and evaluation of the European Union energy policy, in particular of the Directive 96/92/EC, its formation and how it has been put into action by the German and Bavarian electricity supply industry. Energy efficiency of the electricity supply serves as a yardstick, the research method employed is the policy analysis. The main part of this paper, by comparing objectives to effects and by evaluating interviews with energy experts, examines the questions if, in what ways and to what extent the Directive 96/92/EC has led to an increase of energy efficiency in the narrow as well as in the boarder sense, within the EU, Germany and Bavaria. Additionally, three hypotheses are tested: firstly the significance of energy efficiency (in the narrow sense), secondly the alignment of European energy supply, and thirdly the importance of supranational control through EU politics. The results are presented in tabular form, and the

  15. The Electric Car Battery. Sustainability in the Supply Chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinweg, T.

    2011-03-15

    This report aims to provide an initial overview of the supply chain of electric car batteries, and to answer the following research question: What effect does the growing demand for electric vehicles have on the social and environmental conditions throughout the electric car battery supply chain? This report will combine various methodologies to be able to create an overall picture of the electric car battery supply chain, and is targeted towards companies, public servants, opinion makers and the general public interested in the electric car.

  16. Model Design on Emergency Power Supply of Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanliang Zhao; Chengpeng Li; Mingyu Zhao; Shiming Xu; Hui Gao; Le Song

    2017-01-01

    According to the mobile storage characteristic of electric vehicles, an emergency power supply model about the electric vehicles is presented through analyzing its storage characteristic. The model can ensure important consumer loss minimization during power failure or emergency and can make electric vehicles cost minimization about running, scheduling, and vindicating. In view of the random dispersion feature in one area, an emergency power supply scheme using the electric vehicles is design...

  17. Independent regulatory authorities in European electricity market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole Jess; Larsen, Anders; Sørensen, Eva Moll

    2006-01-01

    Liberalisation of the electricity market has taken place in most European countries within the last decade. It is considered a precondition of successful liberalisation to establish so-called independent regulatory authorities. In this article, we compare the status and practice of them in 16...

  18. Nigerian electric power supply quality improvement | Ibe | Scientia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improving the quality of the Nigeria electric power supply means improving voltage, transient and frequency stabilities. Power system voltages are controlled by the reactive power component of the power supply; hence voltage and transient stabilities can be improved by using reactive power compensators to either supply ...

  19. Model Design on Emergency Power Supply of Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanliang Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the mobile storage characteristic of electric vehicles, an emergency power supply model about the electric vehicles is presented through analyzing its storage characteristic. The model can ensure important consumer loss minimization during power failure or emergency and can make electric vehicles cost minimization about running, scheduling, and vindicating. In view of the random dispersion feature in one area, an emergency power supply scheme using the electric vehicles is designed based on the K-means algorithm. The purpose is to improve the electric vehicles initiative gathering ability and reduce the electric vehicles gathering time. The study can reduce the number of other emergency power supply equipment and improve the urban electricity reliability.

  20. Pan-European Management of Electricity Portfolios: Risks and Opportunities of Contract Bundling

    OpenAIRE

    Gampert, Markus; Madlener, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    Today’s European utilities not only focus on electricity supply, but also offer exchange-traded “structured products” or portfolio management for unbundling financial and physical risk positions. Many utilities are only able to provide these services inside of their home markets, but in the globalized economy, the need for a centrally organized pan-European portfolio management has arisen. In this paper, we analyze the problems to be overcome for establishing a European-wide bundling of elect...

  1. A strategic model of European gas supply (GASMOD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holz, Franziska [DIW Berlin, German Institute of Economic Research, Koenigin-Luise-Str. 5, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Hirschhausen, Christian von [DIW Berlin, German Institute of Economic Research, Koenigin-Luise-Str. 5, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Chair of Energy Economics and Public Sector Management, TU Dresden, Department of Business Management and Economics, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Kemfert, Claudia [DIW Berlin, German Institute of Economic Research, Koenigin-Luise-Str. 5, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Humboldt University Berlin, Spandauer Str. 1, D-10178 Berlin (Germany)

    2008-05-15

    This paper presents a model of the European natural gas supply, GASMOD, which is structured as a two-stage-game of successive natural gas exports to Europe (upstream market) and wholesale trade within Europe (downstream market) and which explicitly includes infrastructure capacities. We compare three possible market scenarios: Cournot competition in both markets, perfect competition in both markets, and perfect competition in the downstream with Cournot competition in the upstream market (EU liberalization). We find that Cournot competition in both markets is the most accurate representation of today's European natural gas market, where suppliers at both stages generate a mark-up at the expense of the final customer (double marginalization). Our results yield a diversified supply portfolio with newly emerging (LNG) exporters gaining market shares. Enforcing competition in the European downstream market would lead to lower prices and higher quantities by avoiding the welfare-reducing effects of double marginalization. Binding infrastructure capacity restrictions strongly influence the results, and we identify bottlenecks mainly for intra-European trade relations whereas transport capacity in the upstream market is globally sufficient in the Cournot scenario. (author)

  2. Potential for deserts to supply reliable renewable electric power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labordena, Mercè; Lilliestam, Johan

    2015-04-01

    To avoid dangerous climate change, the electricity systems must be decarbonized by mid-century. The world has sufficient renewable electricity resources for complete power sector decarbonization, but an expansion of renewables poses several challenges for the electricity systems. First, wind and solar PV power are intermittent and supply-controlled, making it difficult to securely integrate this fluctuating generation into the power systems. Consequently, power sources that are both renewable and dispatchable, such as biomass, hydro and concentrating solar power (CSP), are particularly important. Second, renewable power has a low power density and needs vast areas of land, which is problematic both due to cost reasons and due to land-use conflicts, in particular with agriculture. Renewable and dispatchable technologies that can be built in sparsely inhabited regions or on land with low competition with agriculture would therefore be especially valuable; this land-use competition greatly limits the potential for hydro and biomass electricity. Deserts, however, are precisely such low-competition land, and are at the same time the most suited places for CSP generation, but this option would necessitate long transmission lines from remote places in the deserts to the demand centers such as big cities. We therefore study the potential for fleets of CSP plants in the large deserts of the world to produce reliable and reasonable-cost renewable electricity for regions with high and/or rapidly increasing electricity demand and with a desert within or close to its borders. The regions in focus here are the European Union, North Africa and the Middle East, China and Australia. We conduct the analysis in three steps. First, we identify the best solar generation areas in the selected deserts using geographic information systems (GIS), and applying restrictions to minimize impact on biodiversity, soils, human heath, and land-use and land-cover change. Second, we identify

  3. Future conditions for integration of the Baltic Electricity Supply System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The economies of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania developed in close association with the north-west region of the former Soviet Union. This is especially true for energy supply systems and electricity generation and transmission; the Baltic States depend on Russia for much of their primary energy needs, and export power to Russia and Belarus. In restructuring their electricity industries, the Baltic States hope to establish closer relationships and trade with Western Europe. The initial focus has been on changes to the legislative framework, industry restructuring and the establishment of new regulatory institutions. Vertically integrated utilities are in the process of being broken up into a number of separate generation, transmission and distribution companies. This restructuring is a prelude to privatisation. The states aim to establish a common power market among themselves, and hope to integrate this market with neighbouring (Nordic and European) markets. Despite the target set by the Baltic authorities of a common market by 2001, there is little clarity, as yet, on the framework and guidelines for the structure and functioning of the market. This process is supported by other players in the region, and the EU has recently prioritised closer co-operation and harmonisation of power networks in the Baltic Sea region. The Swedish National Energy Administration has identified cooperation on energy and environmental issues in the Baltic Sea region as one of its priorities. Consequently, the Administration commissioned ECON to analyse the conditions for closer linkages between the Baltic and Nordic electricity systems. This report presents the findings of this analysis.

  4. Pan-European management of electricity portfolios: Risks and opportunities of contract bundling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gampert, Markus [Institute for Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior, Faculty of Business and Economics/E.ON Energy Research Center, RWTH Aachen University, Mathieustrasse 6, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Madlener, Reinhard, E-mail: RMadlener@eonerc.rwth-aachen.d [Institute for Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior, Faculty of Business and Economics/E.ON Energy Research Center, RWTH Aachen University, Mathieustrasse 6, 52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Due to the liberalization of energy markets in the European Union, today's European utilities not only focus on electricity supply, but also offer exchange-traded 'structured products' or portfolio management for unbundling financial and physical risk positions. Many utilities are only able to provide these services in their domestic markets. In a globalized economy, the need for a centrally organized pan-European portfolio management has arisen, as it allows a simplified commodity sourcing in combination with an optimized risk management. In this paper, we examine the challenges to be overcome for establishing a European-wide bundling of electricity contracts. For this purpose, a case study based on the business perspective of RWE Supply and Trading in Central and Eastern Europe is carried out. In a first step, we analyze general requirements for a pan-European bundling of electricity contracts. Then, RWE's situation in Europe is examined, based on which we finally propose a concept to meet customer demands in Central and Eastern Europe. - Research highlights: {yields} Analysis of electricity market liberalization in Central and Eastern Europe. {yields} Identification of requirements and problems for pan-European bundling of contracts. {yields} Case study based on RWE Supply and Trading perspective in Central and Eastern Europe. {yields} Model development for pan-European unbundling of financial/physical risk positions.

  5. Analysis and future trends for the Belgian electrical supply reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallee, F.; Lobry, J.; Deblecker, O. [Faculte Polytechnique de Mons, Mons (Belgium)

    2007-07-01

    An analysis of the future trends in the reliability of the electricity supply in Belgium was presented. In an effort to meet the Kyoto obligations to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, the Belgian government is promoting the use of renewable energy in its electricity supply mix. Among its policies, the government plans to end its nuclear program by 2030 and develop natural gas based thermal plants. It is expected that 6 per cent of the electrical production in Belgium will come from wind. However, that energy source is highly variable and the risk of having fluctuating active power at the output of a wind generator could threaten the reliability of the electrical supply. For that reason, this study applied a reliability index to a modified Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS). This study also demonstrated the absolute need in nuclear alternatives and classical supply, such as natural gas based thermal plants, to maintain the reliability of the electricity supply in Belgium. In addition to these changes in the electricity supply mix, projections have indicated an increase in electricity consumption. The main purpose of this study was to point out the impacts of those expected modifications on the reliability indexes of the Belgian electrical network. The proposed results were obtained by MATLAB simulations performed at the RBTS network which was modified to meet Belgian production plans. It was estimated that even with a 1 GW wind potential planned for 2015, an additional 4.5 GW capacity is needed in cogeneration and combined cycle gas units in order to maintain reliability in power supply. 8 refs., 5 tabs., 11 figs.

  6. Procurement Options for New Renewable Electricity Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreycik, C. E.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

    2011-12-01

    State renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies require utilities and load-serving entities (LSEs) to procure renewable energy generation. Utility procurement options may be a function of state policy and regulatory preferences, and in some cases, may be dictated by legislative authority. Utilities and LSEs commonly use competitive solicitations or bilateral contracting to procure renewable energy supply to meet RPS mandates. However, policymakers and regulators in several states are beginning to explore the use of alternatives, namely feed-in tariffs (FITs) and auctions to procure renewable energy supply. This report evaluates four procurement strategies (competitive solicitations, bilateral contracting, FITs, and auctions) against four main criteria: (1) pricing; (2) complexity and efficiency of the procurement process; (3) impacts on developers access to markets; and (4) ability to complement utility decision-making processes. These criteria were chosen because they take into account the perspective of each group of stakeholders: ratepayers, regulators, utilities, investors, and developers.

  7. Reliability Evaluation for Optimizing Electricity Supply in a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ndubuka NWOHU

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The reliability standards for electricity supply in a developing country, like Nigeria, have to be determined on past engineering principles and practice. Because of the high demand of electrical power due to rapid development, industrialization and rural electrification; the economic, social and political climate in which the electric power supply industry now operates should be critically viewed to ensure that the production of electrical power should be augmented and remain uninterrupted. This paper presents an economic framework that can be used to optimize electric power system reliability. Finally the cost models are investigated to take into account the economic analysis of system reliability, which can be periodically updated to improve overall reliability of electric power system.

  8. Deploying Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment: Tiger Teams Offer Project Assistance for Federal Fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-01-02

    To assist federal agencies with the transition to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), FEMP offers technical guidance on electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installations and site-specific planning through partnerships with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s EVSE Tiger Teams.

  9. DC Electric Drive with Autonomous Power Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ramanau

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines a circuit of an impulse DC electric drive with one controlled-rectifier that is a thyristor. Regulation of an average voltage value on an engine is carried out by changing frequency of controlling impulses applied to the thyristor. Calculation of commutating capacitance and inductance is given in the paper.

  10. Electric vehicle system for charging and supplying electrical power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gui Jia

    2010-06-08

    A power system that provides power between an energy storage device, an external charging-source/load, an onboard electrical power generator, and a vehicle drive shaft. The power system has at least one energy storage device electrically connected across a dc bus, at least one filter capacitor leg having at least one filter capacitor electrically connected across the dc bus, at least one power inverter/converter electrically connected across the dc bus, and at least one multiphase motor/generator having stator windings electrically connected at one end to form a neutral point and electrically connected on the other end to one of the power inverter/converters. A charging-sourcing selection socket is electrically connected to the neutral points and the external charging-source/load. At least one electronics controller is electrically connected to the charging-sourcing selection socket and at least one power inverter/converter. The switch legs in each of the inverter/converters selected by the charging-source/load socket collectively function as a single switch leg. The motor/generators function as an inductor.

  11. An LCA study of an electricity coal supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to provide methods to find the emission source and estimate the amount of waste gas emissions in the electricity coal supply chain, establish the model of the environmental impact (burden in the electricity coal supply chain, detect the critical factor which causes significant environmental impact, and then identify the key control direction and reduce amount of environmental pollution in the electricity coal supply chain. Design/methodology/approach: In this context, life cycle inventory and life cycle assessment of China’s electricity coal were established in three difference stages: coal mining, coal transportation, and coal burning. Then the outcomes were analyzed with the aim to reduce waste gases emissions’ environmental impact in the electricity coal supply chain from the perspective of sensitivity analysis. Findings: The results and conclusion are as follow: (1 In terms of total waste gas emissions in electricity coal supply chain, CO2 is emitted in the greatest quantity, accounting for 98-99 wt% of the total waste gas emissions. The vast majority of the CO2, greater than 93%, is emitted from the power plant when the coal is combusted. (2 Other than CO2, the main waste gas is CH4, SO2 and so on. CH4 is mainly emitted from Coal Bed Methane (CBM, so the option is to consider capturing some of the CH4 from underground mines for an alternative use. SO2 is mainly emitted from power plant when the coal is combusted. (3 The environmental burden of coal burning subsystem is greatest, followed by the coal mining subsystem, and finally the coal transportation subsystem. Improving the coal-burning efficiency of coal-fired power plant in electricity coal supply chain is the most effective way to reduce the environmental impact of waste gas emissions. (4 Of the three subsystems examined (coal mining, coal transportation, and coal burning, transportation requires the fewest resources and has the lowest waste gas

  12. LNG REGASIFICATION TERMINALS ACCESS CAPACITY ANALYSIS FOR SECURITY OF EUROPEAN NATURAL GAS SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Veselić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing natural gas consumption, declining North Sea gas reserves, increased production costs and the deregulation of European gas and electricity markets have all combined to create new opportunities for LNG in Europe. In these circumstances, LNG represents an opportunity for many European countries to diversify their natural gas supply, while decreasing their dependence on Russian natural gas import at the same time. The largest exporters of LNG to Europe are Qatar, Algeria, Nigeria, Trinidad & Tobago, Egypt and Oman. Spain, Great Britain and France are the largest European importers of LNG. Spain has six LNG regasification terminals, followed by four in Great Britain, three in France, two in Italy and Turkey and finally Greece and Portugal with one terminal each. New LNG regasification terminals are currently under construction in Italy, Spain, Sweden and Netherlands. In addition, more than 30 new LNG terminal projects have been proposed around Europe. Italy plans to construct as many as 10 new regasification terminals, due to the strong orientation of its national energy policy towards LNG. Many European countries are strongly considering participating in the LNG chain for the first time, namely Albania, Cyprus, Ireland, Lithuania, Germany, Poland, Romania, Ukraine and Croatia. This paper focuses on a specific aspect of the LNG supply chain: the import facility (the paper is published in Croatian.

  13. New England electricity supply outlook: Summer 1998 -- and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    New England is in the third summer of a protracted electricity supply shortage that began with the shutdown of a substantial quantity of nuclear generating capacity, particularly the 2,630 megawatts (MW) from the three Millstone units located in Connecticut and owned and operated by Northeast Utilities. This report was prepared in response to a request from Senator Christopher Dodd and Senator Joseph Lieberman, both of Connecticut, that the Department of Energy provide an update of its June 1997 report, New England Electricity Supply Outlook, Summer 1997--and Beyond, which examines measures that might be taken to ease the supply shortage, particularly measured to relieve transmission constraints that restrict the import of electricity into Connecticut. In the interval since the 1997 report, three changes have occurred in the region`s overall electric supply context that are particularly significant: the Millstone 3 nuclear unit (1,150 MW) has been put back into service at full capacity; electricity demand is higher, due primarily to regional economic growth. The region`s projected 1998 peak demand is 22,100 MW, 1,531 MW higher than the region`s 1997 peak; and many new additions to the region`s generating capacity have been announced, with projected completion dates varying between 1999 and 2002. If all of the announced projects were completed--which appears unlikely--the total additions would exceed 25,000 MW. A small number of new transmission projects have also been announced.

  14. Modern Solutions for Automation of Electrical Traction Power Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mihaela Andreica

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents modern solutions for the automation of the electrical traction power supply system used in urban public transport (trams, trolleybuses and subway trains. The monitoring and control of this process uses SCADA distributed architectures, grouped around a central point (dispatcher who controls all field sensors, transmitters and actuators using programmable logical controllers. The presented applications refer to the Bucharest electrical transport infrastructure.

  15. Electric power supply in an offshore oil production platform | Ibe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the provision of electric power using associated natural gas as primary source of energy, in an offshore oil production platform has been carried out. Some of the problems to be contended with include: the effects of impurities contained in the fuel gas supply;variations in the production process characteristics; ...

  16. A Factorial Study of Electricity Supply in Nigeria | Igboanugo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper weighs up a number of variables vitiating electricity supply in Nigeria, and offers increased insight and awareness about their insidiousness. The study employed a survey approach, using the Rensis Likert's attitudinal scale, to generate respondents' data matrix that was analyzed with Principal Component ...

  17. The Management of Electricity Power Supply in Nigeria Problems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper is to examine the problems and prospects of electricity power supply in Delta and Edo States. To achieve this goal, a sample of 120 respondents were interviewed by the researcher and field data collectors. The data presentation tools were tables, simple bar charts, histogram, pie-chart and ...

  18. System assessment of Hypercoal for electricity supply in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron Cottrell; Peter Scaife; Louis Wibberley [CSIRO Energy Technology (Australia)

    2007-07-15

    This report compares the life cycle environmental impacts and economics for electricity supply in Japan using Hypercoal, with generation based on supercritical pulverised coal, liquefied natural gas and Ultra Clean Coal. The Hypercoal is assumed to be direct fired into a combined cycle gas turbine. 16 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Electricity, Gas and Water Supply. Industry Training Monograph No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's electricity, gas, and water supply industry employs only 0.8% of the nation's workers and employment in the industry has declined by nearly 39% in the last decade. This industry is substantially more dependent on the vocational education and training (VET) sector for skilled graduates than is the total Australian labor market. Despite…

  20. Towards Sustainable Food Production. A Scenario Study on the European Pork Supply Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aramyan, L.H.; Hoste, R.; Broek, van den W.H.A.M.; Groot, J.J.; Soethoudt, J.M.; Nguyen, T.L.T.; Hermansen, J.E.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    European pork supply chains, like other agri-food supply chains, currently face numerous challenges such as globalization, emerging markets, changing consumer requirements, and new governmental regulations related to issues such as environmental pollution and food safety. These challenges require

  1. Security of supply in electricity markets: Improving cost efficiency of supplying security and possible welfare gains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Grenaa Jensen, Stine

    2012-01-01

    In liberalised markets the ability to maintain security of electricity supply is questioned because security is characterised as a public good. We discuss if this property can be modified with changing technology. Furthermore, we examine if construction of markets for security can be justified...

  2. Environmental inventories for future electricity supply systems for Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dones, R.; Gantner, U.; Hirschberg, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Doka, G.; Knoepfel, I. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-02-01

    This report provides the analysis of environmental inventories for selected electricity supply systems considered as possible options to meet the expected electricity demand in Switzerland in year 2030. Two possible electricity demand level cases were postulated by VSE, both under the basic assumption of economic growth: a high-growth demand case corresponding to a yearly increase of 2% from year 1995 to year 2010 and 1% from year 2010 to year 2030, and a low-growth demand case corresponding to a yearly increase of 1% from year 1995 to year 2010 and 0.5% from year 2010 to year 2030. The base (i.e. secured) supply in year 2030 will be, according to VSE, totally dominated by hydro with rather minor contributions from combined heat-and-power plants, small gas turbines, incinerators and solar photovoltaic plants. Due to decommissioning of the currently operating nuclear power plants and expiration of long-term electricity import contracts there will eventually occur a gap between the postulated electricity demand and the base supply. VSE provided seven options to cover this gap, defined in terms of mixes with different contributions from gas, coal, nuclear and solar chains; in this context a distinction is also made with respect to shares of domestic and imported electricity. The systems considered represent advanced technologies, regarded as either typical or most suitable for the Swiss conditions. System-specific input to the present analysis has been partially generated based on direct contacts with the industry. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) was used to establish environmental inventories for the systems analysed. The analysis has been performed on three levels:(1) individually for each system considered, (2) comparison of systems, (3) comparison of supply options. Results are also provided for these three levels.

  3. European Electricity Market and EU Members'Energy Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Veselý, Aleš

    2012-01-01

    The main focus of this thesis is to find out what factors have the biggest influence on the price of electricity for household consumers in the European Union in the context of creating the internal electricity market in the EU. By means of the cluster analysis six EU Member States have been selected according to the following criteria: electricity consumption, electricity production, and the price of electricity. As a result of that Belgium, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Malta and Sw...

  4. 46 CFR 63.25-3 - Electric hot water supply boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric hot water supply boilers. 63.25-3 Section 63.25... water supply boilers. (a) Electric hot water supply boilers that have a capacity not greater than 454... section except the periodic testing required by paragraph (j) of this section. Electric hot water supply...

  5. Grappling with Change: The South African Electricity Supply Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galen, P. S.

    1998-11-01

    This paper reviews the debate over the future structure of the South African electricity supply industry (ESI) with focus on the electricity distribution industry (EDI) segment. The importance of both new and old institutions in the ESI in facilitating change is discussed. The perspective is that of an outside observer who spent nearly 2 years following events in the South African ESI. The ESI situation reviewed here is very complex and connected to a myriad of other economic, financial, cultural, social, and political issues.

  6. Energy system analysis of marginal electricity supply in consequential LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Christensen, Per

    2010-01-01

    -runner in the development of future sustainable energy systems in general. A strict distinction is made between, on the one hand, marginal capacities, i.e. the long-term change in power plant capacities, and on the other, marginal supply, i.e. the changes in production given the combination of power plants...... to operate as an integrated part of the total energy system. Consequently, it does not necessarily represent the marginal change in electricity supply, which is likely to involve a mixture of different production technologies. Especially when planning future sustainable energy systems involving combined heat...... and their individual marginal production costs. Detailed energy system analysis (ESA) simulation is used to identify the affected technologies, considering the fact that the marginal technology will change from one hour to another, depending on the size of electricity demand compared to, among others, wind power...

  7. Planning Mechanisms for Regional Electric Power Supply System Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy Anatolyevich Malyshev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Key problems of the regional electric power supply systems are examined. These problems result from a lack of regulated interaction mechanisms for uniting the different entities’ resources aimed at the realization of investment activities. One of the main problems of the power supply industry is physical and moral aging of both generating and networking equipment. In the article, the necessity of management system formation to control the development of power sector has been proved. The deficiencies of the modern investment procedure in power companies are described. The absence of continuity between the regional and local strategic planning documents and investment planning of a power company has been found out. The possibility to develop a new mechanism for attracting investment has been proposed. The regulation of joint activities to implement the development program for the regional power supply industry has been proposed. The management system to develop the Russian power industry has been proposed. The comparative analysis of generating capacity development mechanisms has been carried out, such as capacity supply agreement (CSA, investment support mechanism (ISM, and long-term power market (LPM. The interaction procedure of the planning of the power supply infrastructure development has been described. The mechanism connecting the state sectoral and regional planning and corporate planning of power supply infrastructure development has been proposed. The regional aspects of industrial policy and its legislative support have been considered. To successfully implement the public-private-partnership (PPP projects, it is necessary to create the effective PPP model within the federal and regional legislation framework; to develop the financial model providing the recoverability of investments; to provide a mutually beneficial cooperation between executive bodies and private investors. The possibility to apply the PPP mechanism for regional

  8. Job Satisfaction for Employees: Evidence from Karachi Electric Supply Corporation

    OpenAIRE

    Frukh, Nousjheen; Herani, Gobind M.; Mohammad, Mahmud; Mohammad, Tariq

    2009-01-01

    Research has been conducted in order to critically evaluate and examine the level of employees’ satisfaction as well as the factors of dissatisfaction among the employees of Karachi Electric supply Corporation (KESC). The purpose of this study is also to observe and analyze the factors which create job dissatisfaction especially among the hardworking managers, and to find out the reasons which make them realize that they don not have a clear career path along working with KESC. The primary da...

  9. 46 CFR 111.97-5 - Electric and hydraulic power supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric and hydraulic power supply. 111.97-5 Section... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Power-Operated Watertight Door Systems § 111.97-5 Electric and hydraulic power supply. (a) Each electric motor-driven door operating system must have the same...

  10. Aligning PEV Charging Times with Electricity Supply and Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, Cabell [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-05

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are a growing source of electricity consumption that could either exacerbate supply shortages or smooth electricity demand curves. Extensive research has explored how vehicle-grid integration (VGI) can be optimized by controlling PEV charging timing or providing vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services, such as storing energy in vehicle batteries and returning it to the grid at peak times. While much of this research has modeled charging, implementation in the real world requires a cost-effective solution that accounts for consumer behavior. To function across different contexts, several types of charging administrators and methods of control are necessary to minimize costs in the VGI context.

  11. The study of plate-type electrostatic precipitators electrical supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel N. Popa

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Stricter environmental legislation in many countries is producing standards governing the emission of fine particles to the atmosphere from all sources. The industrial separating particles from process streams have numerous methods with different principles. In electrostatic precipitators is used electrical charge of dust particles.There are many aspects of pollution control in both solid and liquid phase using electrostatic precipitators.The operation of plate-type electrostatic precipitators is closely related to its electrical energization, to obtain high collection efficiency with low electrical energization consumption. The paper analyze the traditional direct current energization, the intermittent energization, the pulse energization and the switched mode at high frequency power supplies of plate-type electrostatic precipitators sections.

  12. Secured electrical supply at least cost: Coal, gas, nuclear, hydro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavor, J. [ENA Ltd., Prague (Czechoslovakia); Stary, O.; Vasicek, J. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    Electric power sector in East Central European countries finds in a difficult period. In the situation of demand stagnation, enormous investments must be realized in a very short time. Today`s decisions in the development strategy will influence the long term future of the industry. The optimal structure of the sources is one of the most important problem to be solved. Paper describes the current structure of the sources in electric power sector in the Czech Republic. The importance of coal, oil and gas, nuclear and hydro in electric power generation is compared. Taking into account the different position in the load coverage, economy of individual sources is evaluated and basic results of discounted cash flow calculations are presented. Information on specific investment programs and projects are included and further trends are estimated.

  13. Sustainable Federal Fleets: Deploying Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps federal agencies reduce petroleum consumption and increase alternative fuel use through its resources for Sustainable Federal Fleets. To assist agencies with the transition to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), FEMP offers technical guidance on electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installations and site-specific planning through partnerships with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) EVSE Tiger Teams.

  14. Supply Chain Management Issues in the European Horsemeat Scandal

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Lingxiao

    2013-01-01

    In early 2013, Europe horsemeat scandal issue has pulled public and media’s attention to the food safety and fraud problem. To find ways to prevent them happen, this dissertation has analyzed and discussed the possible food supply chain improvement plans based on Europe horsemeat scandal. The research has found that the apparent causes of this scandal are food supply chain complexity, imbalanced bargaining power and food price analysis deficiency, and immoderate trust between supply chain mem...

  15. Tracing enteric viruses in the European berry fruit supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunula, Leena; Kaupke, Agnieszka; Vasickova, Petra; Söderberg, Kirsi; Kozyra, Iwona; Lazic, Sava; van der Poel, Wim H M; Bouwknegt, Martijn; Rutjes, Saskia; Willems, Kris A; Moloney, Rita; D'Agostino, Martin; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; von Bonsdorff, Carl-Henrik; Rzeżutka, Artur; Pavlik, Ivo; Petrovic, Tamas; Cook, Nigel

    2013-10-15

    In recent years, numerous foodborne outbreaks due to consumption of berry fruit contaminated by human enteric viruses have been reported. This European multinational study investigated possible contamination routes by monitoring the entire food chain for a panel of human and animal enteric viruses. A total of 785 samples were collected throughout the food production chain of four European countries (Czech Republic, Finland, Poland and Serbia) during two growing seasons. Samples were taken during the production phase, the processing phase, and at point-of-sale. Samples included irrigation water, animal faeces, food handlers' hand swabs, swabs from toilets on farms, from conveyor belts at processing plants, and of raspberries or strawberries at points-of-sale; all were subjected to virus analysis. The samples were analysed by real-time (reverse transcription, RT)-PCR, primarily for human adenoviruses (hAdV) to demonstrate that a route of contamination existed from infected persons to the food supply chain. The analyses also included testing for the presence of selected human (norovirus, NoV GI, NoV GII and hepatitis A virus, HAV), animal (porcine adenovirus, pAdV and bovine polyomavirus, bPyV) and zoonotic (hepatitis E virus, HEV) viruses. At berry production, hAdV was found in 9.5%, 5.8% and 9.1% of samples of irrigation water, food handlers' hands and toilets, respectively. At the processing plants, hAdV was detected in one (2.0%) swab from a food handler's hand. At point-of-sale, the prevalence of hAdV in fresh raspberries, frozen raspberries and fresh strawberries, was 0.7%, 3.2% and 2.0%, respectively. Of the human pathogenic viruses, NoV GII was detected in two (3.6%) water samples at berry production, but no HAV was detected in any of the samples. HEV-contaminated frozen raspberries were found once (2.6%). Animal faecal contamination was evidenced by positive pAdV and bPyV assay results. At berry production, one water sample contained both viruses, and at

  16. Development of Solar Electricity Supply System in India: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar electricity supply system has grown at very rapid pace in India during the last few years. A total of 1047.84 MW of grid connected photovoltaic projects and 160.8 MW of off-grid systems have been commissioned under different policy mechanisms between January 2010 and November 2012. It is observed that solar capacity development has achieved a greater height under state policies (689.81 MW than others. A study is made in this paper of various national and state level schemes, incentives, packages, instruments, and different mechanisms to promote solar photovoltaics and its effectiveness.

  17. Development of Solar Electricity Supply System in India: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Kumar Gupta; Raghubir Singh Anand

    2013-01-01

    Solar electricity supply system has grown at very rapid pace in India during the last few years. A total of 1047.84 MW of grid connected photovoltaic projects and 160.8 MW of off-grid systems have been commissioned under different policy mechanisms between January 2010 and November 2012. It is observed that solar capacity development has achieved a greater height under state policies (689.81 MW) than others. A study is made in this paper of various national and state level schemes, incentives...

  18. Wind energy in a competitive electricity supply environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strbac, G.; Jenkins, N. [Manchester Centre for Electrical Energy, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    In the UK, there has been an increasing interest in the commercial aspects of the impact of wind energy on transmission and distribution networks. In a competitive electricity supply environment, mechanisms for pricing network services are considered to be the main vehicle for evaluating that impact. This article reviews the major pricing strategies based on embedded costs, short and long run marginal costing theory as well as time-of-use pricing, and comments on the influence of each particular strategy on the calculated value of wind energy. Also, prospective tools for evaluating savings in capital and operating network costs due to wind generation, are identified. (author)

  19. Realisable scenarios for a future electricity supply based 100% on renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czisch, G. [Univ. of Kassel, Inst. for Electrical Engineering - Efficient Energy Conversion (Germany); Giebel, G. [Risoe National Lab., DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    In view of the resource and climate problems, it seems obvious that we must transform our energy system into one using only renewable energies. But questions arise how such a system should be structured, which techniques should be used and, of course, how costly it might be. These questions were the focus of a study which investigated the cost optimum of a future renewable electricity supply for Europe and its closer Asian and African neighbourhood. The resulting scenarios are based on a broad data basis of the electricity consumption and for renewable energies. A linear optimisation determines the best system configuration and temporal dispatch of all components. The outcome of the scenarios can be considered as being a scientific breakthrough since it proves that a totally renewable electricity supply is possible even with current technology and at the same time is affordable for our national economies. In the conservative base case scenario, wind power would dominate the production spread over the better wind areas within the whole supply area, connected with the demand centres via HVDC transmission. The transmission system, furthermore, powerfully integrates the existing storage hydropower to provide for backup co-equally assisted by biomass power and supported by solar thermal electricity. The main results of the different scenarios can be summarized as follows: 1) A totally renewable electricity supply for Europe and its neighbourhood is possible and affordable. 2) Electricity import from non-European neighbour countries can be a very valuable and substantial component of a future supply. 3) Smoothing effects by the use of sources at locations in different climate zones improve the security of the supply and reduce the costs. 4) A large-scale co-operation of many different countries opens up for the possibility to combine the goals of development policy and climate politics in a multilateral win-win strategy. To aid implementation, an international extension

  20. 100 years of public electricity supply in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gersdorff, B. von

    1984-05-08

    On May, 8sup(th), 1884, Emil Rathenau founded Germany's first power utility company, the Municipal Electricity Works, Berlin, the predecessor of today's Berlin Power and Light Co. (Bewag). Rathenau had recognised the significance of Thomas Alva Edison's light bulb for a broad application of electricity. Block power plants with machine outputs of 150 PS were at the beginning of their development in 1884. Today, in nuclear power plants with machine outputs of around 1300 MW, the technology of power supply has reached the ''large technology'' prophesied by Rathenau at the start of the century. With today's challenge of environment conservation the power utilities are confronted with new tasks for the future.

  1. Open lean electricity supply communities. A paradigm shift for mass customizing electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsigkas, Alexander [Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Production Engineering and Management, Xanthi (Greece)

    2011-11-15

    The purpose of this paper is to uncover the social, technological and environmental need for the development of Open Lean Electricity Supply Communities (OLESC). It is argued that the development of such communities in the future should focus on increasingly serving markets of one for lean and green electricity. Within these markets electricity service providers will offer the opportunity to their customers to design individual demand load profiles through setting up virtual private networks to fit individual needs. Communities of this kind will enable just-in-time, mass customized, as opposed to just-in-case, mass supplied electricity. Integration of locally available renewable energy sources upon demand will enhance openness and customizability of electricity generated. Mass customizing electricity reduces the environmental impact and lowers electricity needs with respect to mass production due to just-in-time on demand production and elimination of all types of waste. A combination of appropriate distributed energy systems and leading edge information and communication technology to provide customized electricity is necessary. The fundamental components of the required information systems architecture in order to enable OLESC are presented. (orig.)

  2. Technoeconomic assumptions adopted for the development of a long-term electricity supply model for Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinos Taliotis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The generation mix of Cyprus has been dominated by oil products for decades. In order to conform with European Union and international legislation, a transformation of the supply system is called for. Energy system models can facilitate energy planning into the future, but a large volume of data is required to populate such models. The present data article provides information on key modelling assumptions and input data adopted with the aim of representing the electricity supply system of Cyprus in a separate research article. Data in regards to renewable energy technoeconomic characteristics and investment cost projections, fossil fuel price projections, storage technology characteristics and system operation assumptions are described in this article.

  3. LNG REGASIFICATION TERMINALS ACCESS CAPACITY ANALYSIS FOR SECURITY OF EUROPEAN NATURAL GAS SUPPLY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matija Veselić; Daria Karasalihović Sedlar; Lidia Hrnčević

    2011-01-01

    ... opportunities for LNG in Europe. In these circumstances, LNG represents an opportunity for many European countries to diversify their natural gas supply, while decreasing their dependence on Russian natural gas import at the same time...

  4. The Risk of Residential Peak Electricity Demand: A Comparison of Five European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Torriti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The creation of a Europe-wide electricity market combined with the increased intermittency of supply from renewable sources calls for an investigation into the risk of aggregate peak demand. This paper makes use of a risk model to assess differences in time-use data from residential end-users in five different European electricity markets. Drawing on the Multinational Time-Use Survey database, it assesses risk in relation to the probability of electrical appliance use within households for five European countries. Findings highlight in which countries and for which activities the risk of aggregate peak demand is higher and link smart home solutions (automated load control, dynamic pricing and smart appliances to different levels of peak demand risk.

  5. Saving electricity in a hurry. Dealing with temporary shortfalls in electricity supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    2005-07-01

    Blackouts are normally the result of imbalances in electricity supply and demand. A brief blackout is mostly an inconvenience. But persistent shortfalls ? those lasting days, weeks, or months ? can cause economic disruption and danger to human life in our technology-rich societies. Saving Electricity in a Hurry describes some of the recent power shortfalls, from Norway to New Zealand, from Tokyo to Arizona and the policies these regions used to quickly reduce their power consumption. How did the whole country of Sweden cut its power consumption by 4% in only three days? How did California save 14% in only a few months? While the temporary shortfalls in electricity supplies described in this book are relatively rare events, they disproportionately shape future energy policies. Saving Electricity in a Hurry shows that countries can quickly reduce electricity consumption without harming the economy as much as blackouts or unplanned curtailments. The strategies are diverse, unique and often surprisingly cheap. They include mass media campaigns ? where a good joke can save a Megawatt ? improvements in equipment efficiency and quickly adjusting electricity prices. This book explains how California replaced a million traffic signals with energy-saving models, how millions of Tokyo residents raised their thermostat settings, and how New Zealanders took shorter showers, all quickly enough to help avoid imminent blackouts. Finally, it connects these policies to the traditional goal of ?saving electricity slowly?.

  6. Requirements of supply chain management in differentiating European pork chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trienekens, Jacques; Wognum, Nel

    2013-11-01

    This paper summarizes results obtained by research into pork chain management in the EU Integrated Project Q-Porkchains. Changing demands for intrinsic and extrinsic quality attributes of pork products impact the way supply chain management should be organized from the farmer down to the consumer. The paper shows the importance of Quality Management Systems for integrating supply chains and enhancing consumer confidence. The paper also presents innovations in information system integration for aligning information exchange in the supply chain and logistics concepts based on innovative measurement technologies at the slaughterhouse stage. In the final section research challenges towards sustainable pork supply chains satisfying current consumer demands are presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An overview on the supply chain for European organic food market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOVLEAC Lavinia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available European organic food market is very dynamic both due to the consumers’ preferences and requests and due to the supply chain members who focus more and more on satisfying the market needs. Organic food has emerged as an important segment of food retailing in recent years. The supply chain management for organic food was first based on the conventional methods, but the products’ particular characteristics determined some specific changes. This paper aims to evaluate the supply chain challenges on the European and Romanian organic food market, trying to offer some solutions for the sector’ sustainable development.

  8. Description of European policies and issues related to electricity pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Cech, Marel; Janda, Karel

    2016-01-01

    This paper is focused on the description of institutional, technical, economic, legal and other relevant issues of electricity pricing in the European Union connected with the increasing use of renewable energy sources in electricity production and consumption. It provides background information related to the types of energy sources along with the summary of their advantages and disadvantages regarding both the environmental impact and financial costs. Furthermore, it involves fundamental gl...

  9. Requirements of supply chain management in differentiating European pork chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, J.H.; Wognum, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes results obtained by research into pork chain management in the EU Integrated Project Q-Porkchains. Changing demands for intrinsic and extrinsic quality attributes of pork products impact the way supply chain management should be organized from the farmer down to the consumer.

  10. Tracing enteric viruses in the European berry fruit supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maunula, L.; Kaupke, A.; Vasickova, P.; Soderberg, K.; Kozyra, I.; Lazic, S.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Bouwknegt, M.; Rutjes, S.; Willems, K.A.; Moloney, R.; Agostino, D' M.; Husman, A.M.D.; Bonsdorff, C.H.; Rzezutka, A.; Pavlik, I.; Petrovic, T.; Cook, N.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, numerous foodborne outbreaks due to consumption of berry fruit contaminated by human enteric viruses have been reported. This European multinational study investigated possible contamination routes by monitoring the entire food chain for a panel of human and animal enteric viruses.

  11. Electric power supply and demand for the contiguous United States, 1980-1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    A limited review is presented of the outlook for the electric power supply and demand during the period 1980 to 1989. Only the adequacy and reliability aspects of bulk electric power supply in the contiguous US are considered. The economic, financial and environmental aspects of electric power system planning and the distribution of electricity (below the transmission level) are topics of prime importance, but they are outside the scope of this report.

  12. Regulatory review and barriers for the electricity supply system for distributed generation in EU-15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Skytte, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    When distributed electricity supply surpasses a particular level, it can no longer be ignored in planning and operation of the electricity networks. Therefore, improvements of the regulatory framework of the electricity networks are required along with the growth of the electricity supply from...... distributed generation. This paper reviews the current regulation of the grids with respect to distributed generation in EU-15 Member States and compares the different systems. Several barriers are identified....

  13. The electricity sector susceptibility of European countries to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Daniel R.; Olonscheck, Mady; Walther, Carsten; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2014-05-01

    Due to the close relationship between electricity consumption, production and temperature, the electricity systems of countries are particularly susceptible to climate change. Based on a number of quantitative influencing factors, we provide a relative index for 21 European countries. This allows relevant stakeholders to identify the main influencing factors that determine the electricity system susceptibility of their country. The index was determined using 14 influencing factors that include those that increase or decrease susceptibility. This includes information on monthly mean temperature, electricity consumption, import, export and production by energy source for the period 2000-2011. Moreover, we consider the results of nine global climate models regarding future temperature changes as well as data on air conditioner prevalence by country. A quantitative relative ranked index describing the susceptibility of each country's electricity system is provided. In both Luxembourg and Greece, which top the list, the inability to meet electricity demand with inland production as well as a heavy reliance on combustible fuel electricity production explain part of the high relative susceptibility. Summer electricity consumption (another influencing factor) is expected to increase in Greece where current relatively warm temperatures, in the context of the countries included in this study, are expected to increase in the future. Comparatively, Norway was the least susceptible country based on our index. Norway is expected to benefit from rising projected temperatures, which will decrease winter electricity consumption and limit susceptibility. Furthermore, Norway's current electricity production exceeds consumption demand and is largely based on hydro, which also decreases susceptibility. The findings of this study enable policy makers, scientists and energy managers to examine the most important influencing factors that increase susceptibility and focus their adaptation

  14. European oil product supply modelling; Modelisation de l`offre de produits petroliers en Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint-Antonin, V

    1998-12-11

    Over the last few years, trends in European oil product consumption (in terms of level as structure and quality) has important implications of the refining industry. In this context, the purpose of this thesis consists in building a mathematical programming model applied to the European refineries in order to determine oil product supply prices, European refining industry investments and oil product exchanges of the European Union. The first part presents the reason for our choice for a long-term aggregate multi-refineries linear programming model, based on European refineries characteristics and the objectives of our model. Its dual properties are studied in detail and we focus particularly on the European exchange modelling. In the second part, an analysis of the European refining trends leads us to identify parameters and variables of the model that are essential to the aggregate representation of the European oil product supply. The third part is devoted to the use of this model, regarding two scenarios of increasingly stringent specifications for gasoline and diesel oil. Our interest for these products is due to their important share of the European oil product consumption and the not insignificant responsibility of the transport sector for atmospheric pollution. Finally, in order to have the use of an overall picture of the European refining industry, we build a regression model summarizing, though a few equations, the main relations between the major endogenous and exogenous variables o the LP model. Based on pseudo-data, this kind of model provides a simple and robust representation of the oil product supply. But a more specialized analysis of the refining industry operations, turning on a technical assessment of processing units, is reliant on the use of an optimization model such as the model we have built. (author) 102 refs.

  15. Electricity and water supply in Lokoja, Jos and Kaduna, 1900-1939 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the development of electricity and water supply in Northern Nigeria have not received much attention. However, most of the studies dealing with the theme under investigation are those undertaking by some urban historians, engineers, town planners and geographers. Even then, electricity and water supplies are ...

  16. Impacts of Groundwater Constraints on Saudi Arabia’s Low-Carbon Electricity Supply Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Parkinson, S.; Djilali, N.; Krey, V.; Fricko, O.; Johnson, N.; Khan, Z.; Sedraoui, K.; Almasoud, A.H.

    2016-01-01

    Balancing groundwater depletion, socioeconomic development and food security in Saudi Arabia will require policy that promotes expansion of unconventional freshwater supply options, such as wastewater recycling and desalination. As these processes consume more electricity than conventional freshwater supply technologies, Saudi Arabia's electricity system is vulnerable to groundwater conservation policy. This paper examines strategies for adapting to long-term groundwater constraints in Saudi ...

  17. Impacts of Groundwater Constraints on Saudi Arabia's Low-Carbon Electricity Supply Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Simon C; Djilali, Ned; Krey, Volker; Fricko, Oliver; Johnson, Nils; Khan, Zarrar; Sedraoui, Khaled; Almasoud, Abdulrahman H

    2016-02-16

    Balancing groundwater depletion, socioeconomic development and food security in Saudi Arabia will require policy that promotes expansion of unconventional freshwater supply options, such as wastewater recycling and desalination. As these processes consume more electricity than conventional freshwater supply technologies, Saudi Arabia's electricity system is vulnerable to groundwater conservation policy. This paper examines strategies for adapting to long-term groundwater constraints in Saudi Arabia's freshwater and electricity supply sectors with an integrated modeling framework. The approach combines electricity and freshwater supply planning models across provinces to provide an improved representation of coupled infrastructure systems. The tool is applied to study the interaction between policy aimed at a complete phase-out of nonrenewable groundwater extraction and concurrent policy aimed at achieving deep reductions in electricity sector carbon emissions. We find that transitioning away from nonrenewable groundwater use by the year 2050 could increase electricity demand by more than 40% relative to 2010 conditions, and require investments similar to strategies aimed at transitioning away from fossil fuels in the electricity sector. Higher electricity demands under groundwater constraints reduce flexibility of supply side options in the electricity sector to limit carbon emissions, making it more expensive to fulfill climate sustainability objectives. The results of this analysis underscore the importance of integrated long-term planning approaches for Saudi Arabia's electricity and freshwater supply systems.

  18. Local food in European supply chains: reconnection and electronic networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Holt

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Après une présentation du marché des produits locaux/localisés en Grande Bretagne, ainsi qu’une définition du concept en fonction des circuits de distribution courts, de l’agriculture biologique et du commerce équitable, cet article se fonde sur des études de cas, issus de projets de recherche européens, pour identifier des différents types de réseaux concernés par les concept de produit locaux durables. Les habitudes historiques concernant l’achat des produits alimentaires jouent ici un rôle central et l’article observe l’équilibre entre les composants historiques, sociaux et environnementaux des produits locaux/localisés. A partir de ces terrains de recherche et de ces expériences il s’est avéré possible de déterminer différentes compréhensions de « produits locaux » en relation avec le concept de « distance alimentaire/ food miles ». En se référant à six cas donnés, cet article souligne l’importance des systèmes localisés en matière de durabilité alimentaire, et met en valeur le poids des qualités humaines et sociales dans la balance commerciale.After giving an overview of the market for local food in the UK, as well as a definition of the concept in relation to short supply chains, organic agriculture and fair trade, the article draws on cases encountered through EC-funded research and networking to identify different types of network concerned with the concept of sustaining local food. Historical uses of shopping habits play here a central role and the article observes the balance between historical, social and environmental components of local food. From these researches and experiences, it has been possible to demonstrate a range of understandings in relation to the concept of ‘food miles’. With reference to six cases, the article underlines the importance of local food systems within food sustainability, and highlights the weight of human and social qualities in the market balance.

  19. Comparison of domestic olivine and European magnesite for electrically charged thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laster, W.R.; Gay, B.M.; Palmour, H.; Schoenhals, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Electrically charged thermal energy storage (TES) heaters employing high heat capacity ceramic refractories for sensible heat storage have been in use in Europe for several years. With these devices, low cost off-peak electrical energy is stored by heating a storage core composed of ceramic material to approximately 800/sup 0/C. During the peak period, no electrical energy is used as the building heating needs are supplied by extracting the stored energy from the core by forced air circulation. The recent increase in use of off-peak TES units in the U.S. has led to the search for a domestic supply of high heat capacity ceramic refractory material. North Carolina's extensive but underutilized supply of refractory grade olivine has been proposed as a source of storage material for these units. In this paper the suitability of North Carolina olivine for heat storage applications is assessed by comparing its thermal performance with that of European materials. Using the method of ASHRAE Standard 94.2, the thermal performance of two commercially available room-size TES units was determined experimentally with two different storage materials, North Carolina olivine and German magnesite. Comparisons are made and conclusions are drawn.

  20. Price effects of changing quantities supplied at the integrated european fish market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Smit, Jos; Guillen, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses the effect that changes in the quantities supplied from EU fish stocks have on fish prices. As opposed to earlier studies, this one is European- wide, taking international market integration into account. Average own-price flexibilities for fresh captured fish are found...

  1. Development of a European system for identification of emerging mycotoxins in wheat supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Kandhai, M.C.; Brynestad, S.; Dreyer, M.; Borjesson, T.; Martins, M.; Uiterwijk, M.; Morrison, E.; Booij, C.J.H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a research project aimed at the conceptual development of an identification system for emerging mycotoxins in European feed and food supply chains of wheat. Basic requirements for such a system were addressed, including the selection of indicators, locating

  2. Seasonal variation in food supply and breeding success in European Coots Fulica atra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhof, M.W.G.

    1997-01-01

    Chick survival in the European Coot typically shows a convex seasonal pattern. Previous experiments revealed that this pattern is directly linked to hatching date and that food supply within the first ten days after hatching is a causal factor in this relationship. However, the precise mechanism

  3. Wind energy for the electricity supply; Energie eolienne pour la fourniture d'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, J.M

    2009-01-15

    This document deals with the today implementing of the wind energy for the supply of electricity in the electric power distribution network. It is based on the technologies developed to prepare the wind turbines installation, build the turbines of these power plants and plan the non continuous and weakly forecasting supply of the wind electricity with the current operating of the networks. (A.L.B.)

  4. Energy efficiency and performance indicators of European electricity market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin DUGULEANĂ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The electric power system plays a vital role in the development of every country, ensuring the “fuel” which feeds its economic motor. The efficient functioning of this motor is essential for economy. The efficiency and the performances of electric power systems are reflected on the living level of population, through the money spent and the satisfaction level of their needs. The continuity of power distribution process, the good communication between the suppliers and consumers, the promptitude of interventions, the environment protection - all these are aspects characterizing the performance level of power distribution systems. The paper analyzes the evolution of quality indicators of power distribution systems both for countries’ level and for population on European market of electricity.

  5. Wind power and a liberalised North European electricity exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, L.H.; Morthorst, P.E.; Skytte, K. [and others

    1999-03-01

    Conditions for wind power on a liberalised North European electrical power market are addressed in the paper. Results are presented from a recently completed study carried out by Risoe National Laboratory in collaboration with the Danish electric utilities Eltra, Elsam and Elkraft. A main result from the study is, that the market will be able to provide the necessary power regulation, that will be required year 2005 as consequence of the expected wind power capacity extension, according to the Danish energy plan, Energy21. The averege sales price on the market for the wind-generated electricity is less than the average spot market price, due to provision of power regulation to balance the unpredictability of the wind power. This reduction in the market value of wind power has been calculated to 10-20 DKK/MWh of 1.3-2.7 EUR/MWh. (au)

  6. Development of a global electricity supply model and investigation of electricity supply by renewable energies with a focus on energy storage requirements for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troendle, Tobias Wolfgang

    2014-12-12

    Electricity supply at present requires about 38% of the global primary energy demand and it is likely to rise further in the coming decades. Facing major problems, such as limited resources of fuels and an ongoing anthropogenic climate change, a sustainable electricity supply based on renewable energies is absolutely vital. Wind and solar power will play an extensive role in future supplies but require energy storage capacities to meet electricity demand. To investigate the relationship of power plant mix and required energy storage capacity, a computer model based on global weather data has been developed to enable the simulation of electricity supply scenarios by up to ten different power plant types for various regions. The focus of the investigation has been on the energy storage requirements of an electricity supply for Europe by wind and solar power. The minimum required energy storage capacity for a totally weather dependent electricity supply occurs at a ratio of 30% wind and 70% photovoltaic (PV) power plant capacity installed. Thus, the required energy storage capacity rises from a transition of to-day's electricity supply to the afore-mentioned 100% renewable wind and PV scenario exponentially to about 150 TWh (3.8% of the annual electricity demand). The installation of additional excess wind and PV power plant capacity was seen to be an efficient way to reduce the required energy storage. Already 10% excess capacity lead to a reduction by 50% of the required storage capacity. To use different storage technologies in an optimised way in terms of storage capacity and efficiency, the storage tasks can be separated into a daily and a seasonal usage. While the seasonal storage capacity has to be about two orders of magnitude larger than the required capacity of the storage for the daily cycle, the sum of stored energy during one year is almost equal for the long and short time storage. In summary, an electricity supply by wind and PV power was shown to

  7. Security of electricity supply; Versorgungssicherheit in der Elektrizitaetsversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, Christoph [Consentec GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Moser, Albert; Linnemann, Christian [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Forschungsgruppe Netzplanung und Netzbetrieb; Paulus, Moritz; Lindenberger, Dietmar [Koeln Univ. (DE). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst. (EWI)

    2011-05-15

    Security of supply will be one of the decisive factors governing our future energy supply. This confronts the power industry with enormous challenges which result on the one side from changes in supply structure and on the other from the need for further network expansion. A recent expertise commissioned by the German Federal Economy Ministry has analysed the current situation and assessed it on the basis of various possible development scenarios. However the expertise does not yet take account of the possibility of a permanent closure of individual nuclear power plants following the expiry of the current nuclear power plant moratorium.

  8. Advanced simulation of windmills in electric power supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhmatov, Vladislav; Knudsen, Hans; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2000-01-01

    -connected windmills as a part of realistic electrical grid models. That means an arbitrary number of wind farms or single windmills within an arbitrary network configuration. The windmill model may be applied to study of electric power system stability and of power quality as well. It is found that a grid......-connected windmill operates as a low-pass filter, whereby two following observations are made: 1. interaction between the electrical grid and the mechanical systems of grid-connected windmills is given by a low frequency oscillation as the result of disturbances in the electric grid; 2. flicker, which is commonly...

  9. North–south polarization of European electricity consumption under future warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenz, Leonie; Levermann, Anders; Auffhammer, Maximilian

    2017-01-01

    There is growing empirical evidence that anthropogenic climate change will substantially affect the electric sector. Impacts will stem both from the supply side—through the mitigation of greenhouse gases—and from the demand side—through adaptive responses to a changing environment. Here we provide evidence of a polarization of both peak load and overall electricity consumption under future warming for the world’s third-largest electricity market—the 35 countries of Europe. We statistically estimate country-level dose–response functions between daily peak/total electricity load and ambient temperature for the period 2006–2012. After removing the impact of nontemperature confounders and normalizing the residual load data for each country, we estimate a common dose–response function, which we use to compute national electricity loads for temperatures that lie outside each country’s currently observed temperature range. To this end, we impose end-of-century climate on today’s European economies following three different greenhouse-gas concentration trajectories, ranging from ambitious climate-change mitigation—in line with the Paris agreement—to unabated climate change. We find significant increases in average daily peak load and overall electricity consumption in southern and western Europe (∼3 to ∼7% for Portugal and Spain) and significant decreases in northern Europe (∼−6 to ∼−2% for Sweden and Norway). While the projected effect on European total consumption is nearly zero, the significant polarization and seasonal shifts in peak demand and consumption have important ramifications for the location of costly peak-generating capacity, transmission infrastructure, and the design of energy-efficiency policy and storage capacity. PMID:28847939

  10. North-south polarization of European electricity consumption under future warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenz, Leonie; Levermann, Anders; Auffhammer, Maximilian

    2017-09-19

    There is growing empirical evidence that anthropogenic climate change will substantially affect the electric sector. Impacts will stem both from the supply side-through the mitigation of greenhouse gases-and from the demand side-through adaptive responses to a changing environment. Here we provide evidence of a polarization of both peak load and overall electricity consumption under future warming for the world's third-largest electricity market-the 35 countries of Europe. We statistically estimate country-level dose-response functions between daily peak/total electricity load and ambient temperature for the period 2006-2012. After removing the impact of nontemperature confounders and normalizing the residual load data for each country, we estimate a common dose-response function, which we use to compute national electricity loads for temperatures that lie outside each country's currently observed temperature range. To this end, we impose end-of-century climate on today's European economies following three different greenhouse-gas concentration trajectories, ranging from ambitious climate-change mitigation-in line with the Paris agreement-to unabated climate change. We find significant increases in average daily peak load and overall electricity consumption in southern and western Europe (∼3 to ∼7% for Portugal and Spain) and significant decreases in northern Europe (∼-6 to ∼-2% for Sweden and Norway). While the projected effect on European total consumption is nearly zero, the significant polarization and seasonal shifts in peak demand and consumption have important ramifications for the location of costly peak-generating capacity, transmission infrastructure, and the design of energy-efficiency policy and storage capacity.

  11. Communication from the commission to the council and the European parliament. Final report on the green paper: towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-15

    The Green Paper on the security of energy supply, adopted by the Commission more than a year ago, opened up a debate on energy policy unprecedented in 30 years. In most of the Member States this debate revived discussion on national options in the energy field. Looking ahead to the next twenty to thirty years, the Green Paper drew attention to the structural weaknesses and geopolitical, social and environmental shortcomings of the EU energy supply, notably as regards European commitments in the Kyoto Protocol. The European economy, steadily demanding more and more energy, is essentially based on fossil fuels. The Green Paper offers a clear strategy based on demand management. It has the merit of pointing out that the EU has little room for manoeuvre with regard to energy supply notably due to its low, or in certain cases less competitive (e.g. coal), energy resources. Therefore it is appropriate for the Union to concentrate on guiding and steering demand, unlike the United States which, in the energy plan it announced in May 2001, seeks to meet demand by constantly boosting supply. The Green Paper put 13 questions as a framework for the general debate. The conclusion is that there is virtually unanimous agreement on the strategic axis of demand management: energy consumption must be guided and steered. The conclusions of the Barcelona European Council, stressing in particular the need for better energy efficiency by 2010 and rapid adoption of energy taxation proposals, clearly give political backing to this priority. Without waiting for the debate to end, the Commission made some very well received proposals along these lines, involving actual legislation and not just encouraging words or exchange of good practice, some of which have already been adopted by the Council and the European Parliament. One of these proposals in particular was the Directive on electricity production from renewable sources, adopted in 2001. Another was the proposal for a Directive on

  12. Hybrid renewable energy system application for electricity and heat supply of a residential building

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nakomčić-Smaragdakis Branka B; Dragutinović Nataša G

    2016-01-01

    .... The aim of this paper is to analyze the application of renewable energy sources(RES) for electricity and heat supply of a typical household in Serbia, as well as the cost-effectiveness of the proposed system...

  13. Role of National Support Policy in the large-scale integration of DER into the European electricity market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ten Donkelaar, Michael; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    This report concerns a study of the DER support schemes in the different EU Member States, their effectiveness and if necessary how these might be moulded to become more cost-effective in the future to integrate much larger shares of DER in the European electricity supply system. The report is part...... of a set of reports on DER integration issues and together they present a full and complete report on key issues of policy support, required changes in regulation and other issues that hamper more DER integration in supply....

  14. Solar electricity supply isolines of generation capacity and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Wolf; Grossmann, Iris; Steininger, Karl W

    2015-03-24

    The recent sharp drop in the cost of photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation accompanied by globally rapidly increasing investment in PV plants calls for new planning and management tools for large-scale distributed solar networks. Of major importance are methods to overcome intermittency of solar electricity, i.e., to provide dispatchable electricity at minimal costs. We find that pairs of electricity generation capacity G and storage S that give dispatchable electricity and are minimal with respect to S for a given G exhibit a smooth relationship of mutual substitutability between G and S. These isolines between G and S support the solving of several tasks, including the optimal sizing of generation capacity and storage, optimal siting of solar parks, optimal connections of solar parks across time zones for minimizing intermittency, and management of storage in situations of far below average insolation to provide dispatchable electricity. G-S isolines allow determining the cost-optimal pair (G,S) as a function of the cost ratio of G and S. G-S isolines provide a method for evaluating the effect of geographic spread and time zone coverage on costs of solar electricity.

  15. Green paper. Towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This Green Paper is the response to an observable fact: Europe growing future energy dependence. Its aim is to initiate a debate on the security of energy supply, an issue that is still very much alive. Three main points emerge from the Green Paper: the European Union will become increasingly dependent on external energy sources; enlargement will not change the situation; based on current forecasts, dependence will reach 70 % in 2030; the European Union has very limited scope to influence energy supply conditions (it is essentially on the demand side that the EU can intervene, mainly by promoting energy saving in buildings and the transport sector); at present, the European Union is not in a position to respond to the challenge of climate change and to meet its commitments, notably under the Kyoto Protocol. In these circumstances, the Commission would like the debate on the future strategy to be structured around the following principal questions: 1. Can the European Union accept an increase in its dependence on external energy sources without compromising its security of supply and European competitiveness? 2. Does not Europe increasingly integrated internal market, where decisions taken in one country have an impact on the others, call for a consistent and coordinated policy at Community level? What should such a policy consist of and where should competition rules fit in? 3. Are tax and State aid policies in the energy sector an obstacle to competitiveness in the European Union or not? 4. In the framework of an ongoing dialogue with producer countries, what should supply and investment promotion agreements contain? Given the importance of a partnership with Russia in particular, how can stable quantities, prices and investments be guaranteed? 5. Should more reserves be stockpiled, as already done for oils, and should other energy sources be included, such as gas or coal? Does the risk of physical disruption to energy supplies justify more onerous measures for

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions associated with photovoltaic electricity from crystalline silicon modules under various energy supply options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reich, N.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483453X; Alsema, E.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073416258; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074628526; Turkenburg, W.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073416355; Sinke, W.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071641009

    2011-01-01

    The direct and indirect emissions associated with photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation are evaluated, focussing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar module production. Electricity supply technologies used in the entire PV production chain are found to be

  17. the rule of law approach to regulating electricity supply in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    THE RULE OF LAW APPROACH TO REGULATING. ELECTRICITY SUPPLY IN NIGERIA. Sam Amadi*. ABSTRACT. With the transfer of government shares in 17 electricity generation and distribution companies in November 2013, Nigeria crossed the Rubicon in the privatization process. This process began in earnest in ...

  18. Simulation of switching overvoltages in the mine electric power supply system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanchenko, D. I.; Novozhilov, N. G.

    2017-02-01

    Overvoltages occur in mine power supply systems during switching off consumers with high inductive load, such as transformers, reactors and electrical machines. Overvoltages lead to an increase of insulation degradation rate and may cause electric faults, power outage, fire and explosion of methane and coal dust. This paper is dedicated to simulation of vacuum circuit breaker switching overvoltages in a mine power supply system by means of Simulink MATLAB. The model of the vacuum circuit breaker implements simulation of transient recovery voltage, current chopping and an electric arc. Obtained results were compared to available experimental data.

  19. The Hardware Implementation of Demonstrator Air Independent Electric Supply System Based on Pem Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzeczka G.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the research project whose the main goal was to build a technology demonstrator of an electric supply system based on the PEM fuel cell. The electric supply system is dedicated to operation on a board of a submarine during emergency situations. The underwater conditions influence on a specific architecture of supply subsystems of the PEM fuel cell system. In this case the fuel cell stack is supplied by both clean hydrogen and clean oxygen stored in pressurized tanks. The hydrogen has to be delivered in a closed loop, while the oxygen can be delivered in a closed or an open loop. In the technology demonstrator, the supply of the fuel cell stack by the hydrogen in the closed loop and the oxygen in the open loop with a precise control of its flow were used.

  20. Electricity and energy policy: french specificities and challenges in the european framework; Electricite et politique energetique: specificites francaises et enjeux dans le cadre europeen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-15

    In the today context of the electric power european market deregulation and the increase of the energy prices, the energy policy must change. The increase of the energy prices makes wonder the question of the competitiveness of the french economy: what type of supplies and which technological orientations will allow to reduce the constraints. After a presentation of the today electric power french market and the recently modifications bond to the deregulation, this note aims to describe the evolutions, since the first petroleum crisis, of the place given to the electric power in the energy policy, as the technological choices explaining the today structure he electricity production, characterized by the major part of the nuclear. Then the energy policy in matter of the electric power is discussed in the european context, to present the choices impacts facing the european objectives of energy security, environment and market liberalization. (A.L.B.)

  1. Electric energy supply systems: description of available technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenhauer, J.L.; Rogers, E.A.; King, J.C.; Stegen, G.E.; Dowis, W.J.

    1985-02-01

    When comparing coal transportation with electric transmission as a means of delivering electric power, it is desirable to compare entire energy systems rather than just the transportation/transmission components because the requirements of each option may affect the requirements of other energy system components. PNL's assessment consists of two parts. The first part, which is the subject of this document, is a detailed description of the technical, cost, resource and environmental characteristics of each system component and technologies available for these components. The second part is a computer-based model that PNL has developed to simulate construction and operation of alternative system configurations and to compare the performance of these systems under a variety of economic and technical conditions. This document consists of six chapters and two appendices. A more thorough description of coal-based electric energy systems is presented in the Introduction and Chapter 1. Each of the subsequent chapters describes technologies for five system components: Western coal resources (Chapter 2), coal transportation (Chapter 3), coal gasification and gas transmission (Chapter 4), and electric power transmission (Chapter 6).

  2. Digital combined instrument transformer for automated electric power supply control systems of mining companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolsky, D. V.; Gonenko, T. V.; Khatsevskiy, V. F.

    2017-10-01

    The present paper discusses ways to solve the problem of enhancing operating efficiency of automated electric power supply control systems of mining companies. According to the authors, one of the ways to solve this problem is intellectualization of the electric power supply control system equipment. To enhance efficiency of electric power supply control and electricity metering, it is proposed to use specially designed digital combined instrument current and voltage transformers. This equipment conforms to IEC 61850 international standard and is adapted for integration into the digital substation structure. Tests were performed to check conformity of an experimental prototype of the digital combined instrument current and voltage transformer with IEC 61850 standard. The test results have shown that the considered equipment meets the requirements of the standard.

  3. The impact of electricity supply on economic growth in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, Risako; Hope, Chris [Judge Institute of Management Studies, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1AG (United Kingdom)

    2004-01-01

    Yang (Energy Econ. 22 (2000) 309) has found a bi-directional causal relationship between gross domestic product and electricity consumption in Taiwan, ROC. This study applies Yang's model to examine the impact of electricity supply on economic growth in Sri Lanka. Morimoto and Hope (An extended CBA model of hydro projects in Sri Lanka (2001)) have found that the expected increase in economic output due to increased electricity supply (parameter EO) plays a crucial role in their cost benefit analysis model. This study shows that the application of Yang's regression analysis is one possible approach to estimate a better range for the parameter EO. The estimated figure is that an extra output of Rs. 88000-137000 ($US1120-1740) for every 1 MWh increase in electricity supply.

  4. Electricity supply efficiency and organizational growth and profitability in Lagos, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, Adedeji Tajudeen

    A modern and efficient infrastructure is a basic necessity for economic development and integration into the global economy. The specific problem was the inadequate and unreliable supply of electricity to manufacturing corporations in Lagos, Nigeria. The purpose of the current quantitative correlational research study was to examine if there was a correlation between electricity supply efficiency and organizational growth and profitability in manufacturing corporations in Lagos, Nigeria. The population of the current correlational research study involved 28 out of 34 manufacturing corporations from various industrial sectors in Lagos, Nigeria, that are listed and traded on the Nigerian Stock Exchange. Spearman rho correlations were used to assess the relationships between independent variables of electricity supply efficiency levels and the dependent variables of organizational growth and profitability. The result of the correlational analysis of the data revealed that there was a statistically significant, strong positive correlation between the Average Gross Income (1998-2007) and Average Actual Electricity supply efficiency level (1998-2007), rho = 0.57; p = 0.002. A statistically significant, strong positive correlation was found between the Average Balance Sheet Size (1998-2007) and Average Actual Electricity Supply Efficiency Level (1998-2007), rho = 0.54; p = 0.003. A statistically significant, strong positive correlation between the Average Profit After Tax (1998-2007) and Average Actual Electricity Supply Efficiency Level (1998-2007), rho = 0.60; p = 0.001, was found. No statistically significant correlation between the Average Return on Investment (1998-2007) and Average Actual Electricity supply efficiency level (1998-2007), rho = 0.19; p = 0.33, was discovered.

  5. Analysis of residential, industrial and commercial sector responses to potential electricity supply constraints in the 1990s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Z.J.; Fang, J.M.; Lyke, A.J.; Krudener, J.R.

    1986-09-01

    There is considerable debate over the ability of electric generation capacity to meet the growing needs of the US economy in the 1990s. This study provides new perspective on that debate and examines the possibility of power outages resulting from electricity supply constraints. Previous studies have focused on electricity supply growth, demand growth, and on the linkages between electricity and economic growth. This study assumes the occurrence of electricity supply shortfalls in the 1990s and examines the steps that homeowners, businesses, manufacturers, and other electricity users might take in response to electricity outages.

  6. The study of plate-type electrostatic precipitators electrical supplies

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel N. Popa; Corina Cunţan; Ovidiu Tirian; Dorin Roiban

    2005-01-01

    Stricter environmental legislation in many countries is producing standards governing the emission of fine particles to the atmosphere from all sources. The industrial separating particles from process streams have numerous methods with different principles. In electrostatic precipitators is used electrical charge of dust particles.There are many aspects of pollution control in both solid and liquid phase using electrostatic precipitators.The operation of plate-type electrostatic precipitator...

  7. Reinforcement of the electric interconnection between France and Spain and electrical supply of the TGV Perpignan-Barcelone; Renforcement de l'interconnexion electrique entre la France et l'Espagne et alimentation electrique de la ligne TGV Perpignan-Barcelone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-08-01

    This document presents the progress of the Trans-european project at august 2001. This project, agreed by the European Commission, has been decided to offer a better electric power exchange capacity between France and Spain, resolve the today problem of interconnection bottle-neck and supply the new TGV (high speed train) line between Perpignan and Barcelone. (A.L.B.)

  8. Fulfilling the electricity demand of electric vehicles in the long term future: An evaluation of centralized and decentralized power supply systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330822748; Kuramochi, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304838683; van den Broek, M.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/092946895; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2013-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are currently seen as an option for a more sustainable transportation sector, but it is not yet clear how to supply them with electricity whilst striving for low costs and low CO2 emissions. Renewable sources can supply electricity with low emissions, but their penetration

  9. Transportation and dynamic networks: Models, theory, and applications to supply chains, electric power, and financial networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zugang

    Network systems, including transportation and logistic systems, electric power generation and distribution networks as well as financial networks, provide the critical infrastructure for the functioning of our societies and economies. The understanding of the dynamic behavior of such systems is also crucial to national security and prosperity. The identification of new connections between distinct network systems is the inspiration for the research in this dissertation. In particular, I answer two questions raised by Beckmann, McGuire, and Winsten (1956) and Copeland (1952) over half a century ago, which are, respectively, how are electric power flows related to transportation flows and does money flow like water or electricity? In addition, in this dissertation, I achieve the following: (1) I establish the relationships between transportation networks and three other classes of complex network systems: supply chain networks, electric power generation and transmission networks, and financial networks with intermediation. The establishment of such connections provides novel theoretical insights as well as new pricing mechanisms, and efficient computational methods. (2) I develop new modeling frameworks based on evolutionary variational inequality theory that capture the dynamics of such network systems in terms of the time-varying flows and incurred costs, prices, and, where applicable, profits. This dissertation studies the dynamics of such network systems by addressing both internal competition and/or cooperation, and external changes, such as varying costs and demands. (3) I focus, in depth, on electric power supply chains. By exploiting the relationships between transportation networks and electric power supply chains, I develop a large-scale network model that integrates electric power supply chains and fuel supply markets. The model captures both the economic transactions as well as the physical transmission constraints. The model is then applied to the New

  10. The Eastring gas pipeline in the context of the Central and Eastern European gas supply challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mišík, Matúš; Nosko, Andrej

    2017-11-01

    Ever since the 2009 natural gas crisis, energy security has been a crucial priority for countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Escalating in 2014, the conflict between Ukraine and Russia further fuelled negative expectations about the future development of energy relations for the region predominantly supplied by Russia. As a response to the planned cessation of gas transit through the Brotherhood pipeline, which brings Russian gas to Europe via Ukraine and Slovakia, the Slovak transmission system operator Eustream proposed the Eastring pipeline. This Perspective analyses this proposal and argues that neither the perceived decrease in Slovak energy security nor the loss of economic rent from the international gas transit should be the main policy driver behind such a major infrastructure project. Although marketed as an answer to current Central and Eastern European gas supply security challenges, the Eastring pipeline is actually mainly focused on issues connected to the Slovak gas transit.

  11. Prospects for a European Animal Welfare Label from the German Perspective: Supply Chain Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabell Franz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Federal Government of Germany as well as the European Commission are discussing the establishment of an animal welfare label. This label should enable consumers to make a conscious purchasing decision on animal welfare products. Various studies show that many consumers (in Germany around 20 % prefer products produced under animal friendly conditions. However, the supply of such products is limited. The following study examines the source of this discrepancy by way of an action-based analytical approach and identifies different barriers within the supply chain that prevent the establishment of a market segment for animal welfare products. Although consumer demand will be decisive for long-term success, first of all the stakeholders of the supply chain must be convinced. If the stakeholders are not prepared to participate in an animal welfare program the diffusion phase can take a very long time or even fail. This study presents such supply chain barriers and interprets them in the light of neo-institutionalism.

  12. Ensuring Security of Supply of Natural Gas in the European Union’s Common Energy Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Teofil Postolachi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The problematic of energy policy is nowadays widely disputed in the European Union community. In a global context characterized by highly and raising dependency of the economic activity on the energetic resources, the European authorities had launched a strategy in this sector which regards the problems of access to secure and affordable energy products. The aim of this paper is linked to the natural gas field of the European energetic concerns, and it assumes the high dependency of internal consumption on imports, more than half of the natural gas that is used in the 27 states comes from abroad. Ensuring a higher level of security in the supply is one of the goals that European Union wants to achieve on medium and long term. In these circumstances, actual measurements take into account different type of actions: stabilize relations with existing partner gas exporters (Russia, Algeria, Norway; diversification of transport routes coming from these countries, especially in the idea of trying to avoid transit countries (mainly Ukraine and Belarus; and finally opening discussions and investing in alternative routes which should transport the gas from new suppliers placed in the Caspian Sea or Central Asia region.

  13. Contrasting Electricity Demand with Wind Power Supply: Case Study in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre M. Jánosi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We compare the demand of a large electricity consumer with supply given by wind farms installed at two distant geographic locations. Obviously such situation is rather unrealistic, however our main goal is a quantitative characterization of the intermittency of wind electricity. The consumption pattern consists of marked daily and weekly cycles interrupted by periods of holidays. In contrast, wind electricity production has neither short-time nor seasonal periodicities. We show that wind power integration over a restricted area cannot provide a stable baseload supply, independently of the excess capacity. Further essential result is that the statistics are almost identical for a weekly periodic pattern of consumption and a constant load of the same average value. The length of both adequate supply and shortfall intervals exhibits a scale-free (power-law frequency distribution, possible consequences are shortly discussed.

  14. Research on Double Price Regulations and Peak Shaving Reserve Mechanism in Coal-Electricity Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Peng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The game models were used to study the mechanism of coal-electricity price conflict under conditions of double price regulations of coal and electricity. Based on this, the peak shaving reserve mechanism was designed to probe into the countermeasures against the coal-electricity price conflicts. The study revealed that in the boom seasons of coal demand, the initiatives of the coal enterprises to supply thermal coal and the electricity enterprises to order thermal coal are reduced under conditions of double price regulations. However, under the circumstances of coal price marketization, in the boom seasons of coal demand the thermal coal price may go up obviously, the initiatives of the coal enterprises to supply thermal coal are increased, and meanwhile the initiatives of the power enterprises to order thermal coal are decreased dramatically. The transportation capacity constraint of coal supply leads to the evident decrease of the initiatives of coal enterprises for the thermal coal supply. The mechanism of peak shaving reserve of thermal coal may not only reduce the price of coal market but also increase the enthusiasm of the power enterprises to order more thermal coal and the initiatives of the coal enterprises to supply more thermal coal.

  15. ESB-based Sensor Web integration for the prediction of electric power supply system vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoimenov, Leonid; Bogdanovic, Milos; Bogdanovic-Dinic, Sanja

    2013-08-15

    Electric power supply companies increasingly rely on enterprise IT systems to provide them with a comprehensive view of the state of the distribution network. Within a utility-wide network, enterprise IT systems collect data from various metering devices. Such data can be effectively used for the prediction of power supply network vulnerability. The purpose of this paper is to present the Enterprise Service Bus (ESB)-based Sensor Web integration solution that we have developed with the purpose of enabling prediction of power supply network vulnerability, in terms of a prediction of defect probability for a particular network element. We will give an example of its usage and demonstrate our vulnerability prediction model on data collected from two different power supply companies. The proposed solution is an extension of the GinisSense Sensor Web-based architecture for collecting, processing, analyzing, decision making and alerting based on the data received from heterogeneous data sources. In this case, GinisSense has been upgraded to be capable of operating in an ESB environment and combine Sensor Web and GIS technologies to enable prediction of electric power supply system vulnerability. Aside from electrical values, the proposed solution gathers ambient values from additional sensors installed in the existing power supply network infrastructure. GinisSense aggregates gathered data according to an adapted Omnibus data fusion model and applies decision-making logic on the aggregated data. Detected vulnerabilities are visualized to end-users through means of a specialized Web GIS application.

  16. ESB-Based Sensor Web Integration for the Prediction of Electric Power Supply System Vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milos Bogdanovic

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Electric power supply companies increasingly rely on enterprise IT systems to provide them with a comprehensive view of the state of the distribution network. Within a utility-wide network, enterprise IT systems collect data from various metering devices. Such data can be effectively used for the prediction of power supply network vulnerability. The purpose of this paper is to present the Enterprise Service Bus (ESB-based Sensor Web integration solution that we have developed with the purpose of enabling prediction of power supply network vulnerability, in terms of a prediction of defect probability for a particular network element. We will give an example of its usage and demonstrate our vulnerability prediction model on data collected from two different power supply companies. The proposed solution is an extension of the GinisSense Sensor Web-based architecture for collecting, processing, analyzing, decision making and alerting based on the data received from heterogeneous data sources. In this case, GinisSense has been upgraded to be capable of operating in an ESB environment and combine Sensor Web and GIS technologies to enable prediction of electric power supply system vulnerability. Aside from electrical values, the proposed solution gathers ambient values from additional sensors installed in the existing power supply network infrastructure. GinisSense aggregates gathered data according to an adapted Omnibus data fusion model and applies decision-making logic on the aggregated data. Detected vulnerabilities are visualized to end-users through means of a specialized Web GIS application.

  17. Magnetic fields and leukaemia risks in UK electricity supply workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorahan, T

    2014-04-01

    To investigate whether leukaemia risks are related to occupational exposure to low-frequency magnetic fields. Leukaemia risks experienced by 73 051 employees of the former Central Electricity Generating Board of England and Wales were investigated for the period 1973-2010. All employees were hired in the period 1952-82 and were employed for at least 6 months with some employment in the period 1973-82. Detailed calculations had been performed by others to enable an assessment to be made of exposures to magnetic fields. Poisson regression was used to calculate relative risks (rate ratios) of developing leukaemia or leukaemia subtypes for categories of lifetime, distant (lagged) and recent (lugged) exposure. Findings for all leukaemias combined were unexceptional; risks were close to unity for all exposure categories and there was no suggestion of risks increasing with cumulative (or recent or distant) magnetic field exposures. There were no statistically significant dose-response effects shown for acute myeloid leukaemia, chronic myeloid leukaemia or chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. There was a significant positive trend for acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL), but this was based, in the main, on unusually low risks in the lowest exposure category. This study found no convincing evidence to support the hypothesis that exposure to magnetic fields is a risk factor for leukaemia, and the findings are consistent with the hypotheses that both distant and recent magnetic field exposures are not causally related to the generality of leukaemia. The limited positive findings for ALL may well be chance findings.

  18. A New Generation of Electrical Power Supply for Telecom Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhours, Gilles; Asplanato, Remi; Rebuffel, Christophe; Pasquet, Jean-Marie; Bardin, Bertrand; Deplus, Nicolas; Lempereur, Vincent

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the main features of the new power subsystem generation for the Thales Alenia Space (TAS) Spacebus platforms.All its components (Solar Array, Solar Array Drive Mechanism, Power Conditioning Unit and Lithium-Ion batteries) have been upgraded, taking advantage of the latest available technologies. The modularity has been improved to perfectly match the sizing of each unit to the satellite power level requirement. These two improvements lead to optimal mass and cost over the whole power range.In addition, the customer benefits from a fully automatic operation of the subsystem, including redundancy, making the ground station workload negligible, even during eclipse periods. Finally, the capability to support any type of payload has been further improved, in terms of overall power level and operating modes. Payload pulsed operation capability has been especially increased to support all anticipated mission requirements. In parallel to the PCU hardware, a detailed electrical model has also been developed and correlated to analyse the regulation performance in any nominal or degraded mode. An extensive set of tests provides a verification of performances and interfaces, hardware as well as software.This paper will first describe the main requirements considered in this development. Then, the architecture will be detailed, showing how the requirements have been fulfilled. The design of each unit will be shortly presented, and finally the correlation between the regulation analysis model and the EQM measurements will be illustrated.

  19. State-of-the-art of waste wood supply chain in Germany and selected European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Carlos A; Hora, Guido

    2017-12-01

    According to the statistic office of the European Union (Eurostat), Germany is the main producer of waste wood in Europe followed by France, United Kingdom, Italy and Finland. Based on the characteristics of the waste wood, it can be classified in four (4) categories: A I, A II, A III and A IV. This paper focuses in the A I waste wood since is the only category able to be used directly for both material and energy purposes without a previously pre-treatment. Currently, most of this waste wood is used for direct energy production due to the previous government legislation that promoted its use directly in incineration facilities. However, the newest Renewable Energy Act (EEG 2017) may promote the cascade-use of A I waste wood prior to be intended for energy purposes. Nonetheless, the government incentives to the energy sector is not the only bottleneck that the use of A I waste wood as raw material in the wood-based industry has to overcome. The peak availability, collection logistics (collection centers and transportation) and recycling facility location are some of the parameters that must be considered in order to design the "best" supply chain network for A I waste wood. This work presents a detailed description of the effect of the hierarchical strategic decision in the proper design of the waste wood supply chain. Additionally, the global picture of waste wood recycling in different European countries (UK, Italy and Finland) is briefly presented. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Computational Framework for Optimal Carbon Taxes Based on Electric Supply Chain Considering Transmission Constraints and Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chi Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A modeling and computational framework is presented for the determination of optimal carbon taxes that apply to electric power plants in the context of electric power supply chain with consideration of transmission constraints and losses. In order to achieve this goal, a generalized electric power supply chain network equilibrium model is used. Under deregulation, there are several players in electrical market: generation companies, power suppliers, transmission service providers, and consumers. Each player in this model tries to maximize its own profit and competes with others in a noncooperative manner. The Nash equilibrium conditions of these players in this model form a finite-dimensional variational inequality problem (VIP. By solving this VIP via an extragradient method based on an interior point algorithm, the optimal carbon taxes of power plants can be determined. Numerical examples are provided to analyze the results of the presented modeling.

  1. Electricity supply, district heating and supply of natural and gasworks gas 2011; El-, gas- och fjaerrvaermefoersoerjningen 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Decline in electricity use: The final consumption of electricity in the country (excluding losses) amounted in 2011 to 130.6 TWh. It meant a decline of 3.4 percent compared with the year before. The industry's use grew by 0.9 percent to 53.8 TWh. Household use (permanent housing and second homes) declined to 33.7 TWh (-9.6 percent). While other application within the service sector and public administration declined to 43.0 TWh (-3.2 percent). Increase in electricity generation: Electricity generation increased in 2011. Net production increased by 1.8 percent to 147.5 TWh, compared with the previous year. The largest increase observed for wind power, which rose by 74.2 percent to 6.1 TWh. Water power was virtually unchanged (66.7 TWh). The conventional thermal power dropped to 16.8 TWh, a decline of 11.9 percent. Nuclear power increased by 4.3 percent to 58.0 TWh. Power exchanges with foreign countries gave in 2011 a surplus of 7.2 TWh. Reduced heating supplies: Deliveries of heat to the final use declined in 2011. Delivered-na totaled 48.1 TWh, which represents a decrease of 16.1 percent compared with the year before.

  2. Commentary and contributions to green paper (alphabetical sort. Towards a European strategy for the security supply)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document provides the answers formulated by the nuclear industry operators to the thirteen following questions: 1. Can the European Union accept an increase in its dependence on external energy sources without undermining its security of supply and European competitiveness? If this were the case, for which sources of energy would it be appropriate to contemplate a framework policy for imports? In this case, is it appropriate to favour an economic approach, in terms of energy cost, or a geopolitical approach in terms of the risk of disruption? 2. Does not Europe increasingly integrated internal market, where decisions taken in one country have an impact on others, call for a consistent and coordinated policy at Community level? What should such a policy consist of and where should competition rules fit in? 3. Do tax and State aid policies in the energy sector impair competitiveness in the European Union or not? Given the failure of attempts to harmonize indirect taxation, should the whole issue of energy taxation not be re-examined in view, in particular, of the energy and environmental targets? 4. In the framework of an ongoing dialogue with producer countries, what should supply and investment promotion agreements contain? Given the importance of a partnership with Russia in particular, how can stable quantities, prices and investment be guaranteed? 5. Should more reserves be stockpiled and should other energy sources be included, such as gas or coal? Should the Community take on a greater role in stock management and, if so, what should the objectives and modalities be? Does the risk of physical disruption to energy supply justify more onerous measures for access to resources? 6. How can we ensure the development and better operation of energy transport networks in the European Union and neighbouring countries that enable the internal market to function properly and guarantee security of supply? 7. The development of some renewable energy sources calls for

  3. On the Inefficiency of the Merit Order in Forward Electricity Markets with Uncertain Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Juan M.; Pineda, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides insight on the economic inefficiency of the classical merit-order dispatch in electricity markets with uncertain supply. For this, we consider a power system whose operation is driven by a two-stage electricity market, with a forward and a real-time market. We analyze two different clearing mechanisms: a conventional one, whereby the forward and the balancing markets are independently cleared following a merit order, and a stochastic one, whereby both market stages are co-...

  4. Aspirations and expectations : public views on electricity supply in Ontario, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowlands, I.H. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Environment and Resource Studies; Parker, P. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography

    2005-07-01

    A survey of 1,000 people was conducted in Waterloo, Ontario to obtain an idea of public attitudes towards electricity supply issues and environmental issues. Most respondents identified hydropower as the resource most used for generating electricity in Ontario, although nuclear power dominates the province's electricity system. Most respondents expressed their preference for green electricity, particularly solar and wind power, but also felt that the future prospects were better for more traditional resources such as nuclear, hydropower and natural gas. Gender and age helped predict those likely to be more optimistic about green electricity. Perceived consumer effectiveness, liberalism and ecological concern also determined the respondent's choice of future energy source prospects. It was suggested that the broad lessons learned from this study could be applied to other jurisdictions undergoing electricity restructuring. 14 refs., 9 tabs., 1 fig.

  5. Sectoral electricity elasticities in South Africa: Before and after the supply crisis of 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Blignaut

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we estimate the price elasticity of electricity for various industrial sectors of the South African economy from 2002 to 2011. The data used include sectoral electricity consumption data and electricity tariff data, both courtesy of Eskom as well as output data based on national statistics. The most important contribution this paper makes is that it includes the period after the sharp rises in electricity tariffs in 2007/2008 following a period of load-shedding and insecurity in electricity supply. Previous studies have included data only until 2007 and, for the most part, have found statistically insignificant, positive elasticities. However, for the period post-2007, we found statistically significant and negative elasticities for 9 of the 11 sectors considered. Our results show that the majority of industrial sectors have become much more sensitive to changes in the price of electricity following 2007/2008, indicating to policymakers that tariff restructuring might influence consumer behaviour significantly.

  6. North–south polarization of European electricity consumption under future warming

    OpenAIRE

    Wenz, Leonie; Levermann, Anders; Auffhammer, Maximilian

    2017-01-01

    We statistically analyze 2006–2012 high-frequency temperature and electricity load data from 35 European countries to compute climate change impacts on electricity demand until 2100. Extrapolating countries’ load responses to temperature beyond currently experienced climate, we find a future polarization of both peak load and electricity consumption in Europe. Specifically, while total European consumption remains constant under future warming, we project significant increases in the south, d...

  7. Review of existing electricity quality label systems in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    White, Sara; Vrolijk, Christiaan

    2003-01-01

    Green electricity quality labels have been utilised in the European Union since 1990. Of the seventeen European countries analysed here1, at the time of writing nine had no countryspecific quality label, although all electricity tariffs within Europe were able to apply for accreditation under the EUGENE labelling scheme. Germany had several quality labels, each with slightly different criteria. All of the eighteen labels identified in the report applied to electricity from renewable sources. ...

  8. Electricity sector liberalization in the European Union: The political economy of regulatory reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante Durana, Maria Dolores

    This dissertation looks into the reasons that pushed European countries to liberalize their electricity industries. The analysis of the political process leading to that decision in the areas pioneers of regulatory reform in this sector (United Kingdom, Sweden and the European Commission) shows that the liberalization of the European power sectors does not conform to the traditional theoretical explanations for regulatory reform that put interests and industry-specific considerations at the forefront of the explanation. The central argument of this dissertation is that, contrary to what most of the literature assumes and the theories predict, the primary impetus for the reforms in European electricity sectors did not come from industrial or economic worries, but rather from a neo-liberal turn to the ideas shared by European intellectual and political elites. The reform followed a political spill-over process by which the liberalization policy was emulated and introduced as a direct result of the international and sectoral diffusion of the new "efficiency regime" and the belief in the economic superiority of free markets over any form of government intervention. As an idea-driven policy, liberalization was not always coherent with the stated goals and, with means and ends that were not always consistent with each other, the reforms were often hampered and their results ambiguous. Liberalization transformed energy policy priorities in member states by adding the promotion and development of market-based mechanisms to the previous two of ensuring that security of supply, was adequate and of achieving ambitious environmental targets. By adding economic efficiency (and its political corollary, low prices) to its policy goals, governments effectively rendered the realization of the other two goals all the more difficult. As a result, liberalization did not entail the expected government disengagement from the affairs of the industry. On the contrary, it became

  9. Secure and Efficient Electricity Supply. During the Transition to Low Carbon Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    Electricity shortages can paralyse our modern economies. All governments fear rolling black-outs and their economic consequences, especially in economies increasingly based on digital technologies. Over the last two decades, the development of markets for power has produced cost reduction, technological innovation, increased cross border trade and assured a steady supply of electricity. Now, IEA countries face the challenge of maintaining security of electricity supply during the transition to low-carbon economies. Low-carbon policies are pushing electricity markets into novel territories at a time when most of the generation and network capacity will have to be replaced. Most notably, wind and solar generation, now an integral part of electricity markets, can present new operating and investment challenges for generation, networks and the regional integration of electricity markets. In addition, the resilience of power systems facing more frequent natural disasters is also of increasing concern. IEA Ministers mandated the Secretariat to work on the Electricity Security Action Plan (ESAP), expanding to electricity the energy security mission of the IEA. This paper outlines the key conclusions and policy recommendations to ''keep the lights on'' while reducing CO2 emissions and increasing the efficiency.

  10. Analysis of harmonics in the power supply networks of electric welding equipment of alternating voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Василь Ількович Гудим

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Electric arc welding is widely used in construction and engineering for rigid connections of metal elements. Substantial nonlinearity of dynamic voltage-current characteristics of electric arcs in such equipment is a source of distortion in current and voltage sinusoids at the points of other electric receivers parallel joints. The voltage fluctuations from the nominal value result in changing luminous flux of bulbs, while current higher harmonics result in additional losses in electric motors. However, the problem of electric welding equipment influence on power lines wasn’t paid proper attention to. Therefore, this work is to research electric arc equipment influence on power lines in order to find out the values and the spectrum of higher harmonics, and the prevailing amplitudes dynamics of change. In this paper the results of experimental researches of harmonics spectrum in electrical circuits of electric arc welding machine of alternating voltage that it generates during the technological process and the main energy parameters, that influence negatively on the power supply networks of 0,4/0,23 kV. Analyzing the results of the measurements we come to the conclusion that if the load factor is about 35% the power coefficient of the welding machine is 0,46, that is rather low. Such a result is economically disadvantageous since high reactive power results in a significant increase of active power losses in the elements of power supply. That’s why reactive power compensation as well as higher harmonics filtration are necessitated

  11. Decomposing changes in competition in the Dutch electricity market through the Residual Supply Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Machiel; Schoonbeek, Lambert

    2013-01-01

    We propose to assess the influence of a number of events on the degree of competition in the Dutch electricity wholesale market over the period 2006-2011 through a decomposition method based on the Residual Supply Index. We distinguish regulatory market-integration events, firm-level events and

  12. Power supply sharing in the Apollo telescope mount electrical power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, R., Jr.; Kapustka, R.

    1977-01-01

    A modular dc power supply power sharing technique was developed for the Apollo telescope mount electrical power sytem on Skylab. The advantages and disadvantages of various techniques used are reviewed and compared. The new technique design is discussed, and results of its implementation in the power system are reviewed.

  13. Electricity supply and demand scenarios for the Southern African power pool

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Spalding-Fecher, R

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The study presents long-term electricity supply and demand scenarios for the twelve countries in the Southern African Power Pool, based on detailed bottom-up demand analysis for all countries and a set of internally consistent development scenarios...

  14. Report on emergency electrical power supply systems for nuclear fuel cycle and reactor facilities security systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The report includes information that will be useful to those responsible for the planning, design and implementation of emergency electric power systems for physical security and special nuclear materials accountability systems. Basic considerations for establishing the system requirements for emergency electric power for security and accountability operations are presented. Methods of supplying emergency power that are available at present and methods predicted to be available in the future are discussed. The characteristics of capacity, cost, safety, reliability and environmental and physical facility considerations of emergency electric power techniques are presented. The report includes basic considerations for the development of a system concept and the preparation of a detailed system design.

  15. Security of supply and retail competition in the European gas market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abada, Ibrahim, E-mail: ibrahim.abada@polytechnique.edu [IFP Energies nouvelles, 1 et 4 avenue de Bois Preau, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison (France); EDF Research and Development, 1 avenue du General de Gaulle, 92140 Clamart (France); EconomiX-CNRS, University of Paris Ouest (France); Massol, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.massol@ifpen.fr [Center for Economics and Management, IFP School, 228-232 av. Napoleon Bonaparte, 92852 Rueil-Malmaison (France); Department of Economics, City University London, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    In this paper, we analyze the impact of uncertain disruptions in gas supply upon gas retailer contracting behavior and consequent price and welfare implications in a gas market characterized by long-term gas contracts using a static Cournot model. In order to most realistically describe the economical situation, our representation divides the market into two stages: the upstream market that links, by means of long-term contracts, producers in exporting countries (Russia, Algeria, etc.) to local retailers who bring gas to the consuming countries to satisfy local demands in the downstream market. Disruption costs are modeled using short-run demand functions. First we mathematically develop a general model and write the associated KKT conditions, then we propose some case studies, under iso-elasticity assumptions, for the long-short-run inverse-demand curves in order to predict qualitatively and quantitatively the impacts of supply disruptions on Western European gas trade. In the second part, we study in detail the German gas market of the 1980s to explain the supply choices of the German retailer, and we derive interesting conclusions and insights concerning the amounts and prices of natural gas brought to the market. The last part of the paper is dedicated to a study of the Bulgarian gas market, which is greatly dependent on the Russian gas supplies and hence very sensitive to interruption risks. Some interesting conclusions are derived concerning the necessity to economically regulate the market, by means of gas amounts control, if the disruption probability is high enough. - Highlights: > We model retail competition using a Nash-Cournot framework. > Risk-neutral retailers decide their import policy among a set of risky producers. > Case 1: the German gas trade of the 1980s to understand the gas sources' choices. > Case 2: the current Bulgarian gas trade to study the market properties. > Conclusions about the market regulation for welfare optimization reasons.

  16. How to make a European integrated market in small and isolated electricity systems? The case of the Canary Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Yannick [Universite de Paris-Sud 11, Groupe Reseaux Jean-Monnet-ADIS, 27 Avenue Lombart Bureau C 309, 92260 Fontenay aux Roses Cedex (France); Ramos Real, Francisco Javier [Departamento de Analisis Economico e Instituto de Desarrollo Regional, Camino de La Hornera s/n, Campus de Guajara, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 La Laguna. SC de Tenerife (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    This paper presents a geographic dimension not often studied in the dynamics of creating an internal market for electricity within the European Union, namely the case of small European electricity systems like those found on the Greek islands of Cyprus and Crete. Our question, then, is how to achieve a suitable internal market for electricity in small and isolated systems. To address this issue, we identify the main problems to be overcome by introducing a methodology in which the Canary Islands experience is taken as a case study for understanding the challenges in creating an 'EU-like market for electricity'. Our results show that the design of the vertical industrial structure and the figure of the grid operator and its attributes are key features for the proper operation of any electrical system. We also stress the minor roles of other possible options to achieve this EU-compatible market by highlighting first, in the wholesale market, the call-for-tender solution to introduce more generation and the risk of using safety requirements as barriers to entry in these small markets, and second, in the supply activities, the potential problems of an improperly regulated tariff scheme. (author)

  17. Distributed generation in European electricity markets. Current challenges and future opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ropenus, S. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy. Systems Analysis Div., Roskilde (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    This Ph.D. thesis studies the role of distributed generation in European electricity markets. It focuses primarily on the interactions of economics and policy with the aim of contributing to the understanding of how distributed generation is embedded in the present regulatory and market framework, which barriers exist, and which role it may possibly play in the future. To capture the interdisciplinarity of the topic, a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods is applied. Subsequent to the identification of barriers, this thesis turns to the microeconomic perspective on the interplay of vertical structure, regulation and distributed generation. This is done through the application of quantitative methods in the form of partial equilibrium models focusing on the effects induced by the vertical structure of the network operator, either a combined operator or a distribution system operator, in a market with small distributed producers. In areas where the promotion of renewable energy sources and combined heat and power has induced a substantial increase in distributed generation, new challenges in system integration arise. In particular, high levels of generation from intermittent energy sources, such as wind, add to the complexity of network operation and control, which can hardly be tackled with the present 'fit and forget' approach. The conclusion is that distributed generation has great potential to enhance competitiveness, sustainability and security of supply in European electricity markets. A prerequisite is the removal of market and regulatory barriers, taking the interdependencies of vertical structure, support mechanisms and network access into account. In the future, higher penetration levels of distributed generation necessitate changes in the power system and the adoption of new technologies, where hydrogen production by grid connected electrolysis constitutes one example. (LN)

  18. Security of energy supply under the laws of the European Union / European Community; Energieversorgungssicherheit im Recht der Europaeischen Union, Europaeischen Gemeinschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proefrock, M.C.

    2007-07-01

    Security of supply is defined as the availability and reliability of energy supply at acceptable prices. By security of energy supply we mean a globally large supply of reliable, affordable, clean energy. By virtue of its nature security of supply in the energy sector primarily requires making provisions for the future through exploration, innovation, research, diversification and investments in technology. Energy politics takes place in a tension field defined by the goals of economic efficiency, sustainability and security of supply. In the past there have been repeated shifts within this triad of goals. The task for a rational energy policy is to reconciliate these goals in a meaningful way. European energy policy is understood to comprise all sovereign measures taken by the European Union in the energy sector, in particular measures that impact on the supply and demand for energy resources. Energy law serves, or should serve, to bring energy policy to realisation and therefore presupposes the existence of the latter. Energy policy means the figuration of an economy's energy sector in such a manner that the present and future demand of the economic region is covered.

  19. Money supply growth and inflation – the monetary policy strategy of the European Central Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svatopluk Kapounek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is to find out whether there is a significant relationship between money supply growth and inflation in the Eurozone. For this reason, the monetary policy strategy of the European Central Bank (ECB has been evaluated. Since the establishment of the ECB in January 1999 to May 2003 the ECB‘s monetary policy strategy consisted of three main elements: a quantitative definition of price stability, a prominent role for money in the assessment of risks to price stability (aggregate M3 as a reference value, and a broadly based assessment of the outlook for price developments. Nevertheless, since May 2003 M3 or any other monetary aggregate has lost its prominent role in the ECB‘s strategy. Therefore the nowadays ECB‘s monetary policy strategy consists of a quantitative definition of the primary objective of price stability and an analytical framework based on two pillars – economic analysis and monetary analysis. These two pillars are used by the ECB‘s Governing Council in the overall assessment of risks to price stability and in monetary policy decisions.The empirical part of this article is based on time series correlation between money supply growth and inflation in selected member countries of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU - Eurozone during the period 1995–2005. The time series are divided into two parts. The first part covers data for selected member countries of the European Union from 1995 till 1998, i.e. before the establishment of the EMU. Whereas the second part includes data for the whole Eurozone since its official start in 1999 to 2005. The time series are adjusted by SARIMA models.

  20. UK electricity `94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    A detailed factual account is presented of the achievements of the UK electricity industry in 1994. The review is divided into sections headed: the UK energy market and electricity`s share; the electricity market; electricity prices; the electric power supply system; quality of service; protection of the environment; manpower and safety trends; business diverisification and the electricity industry in the European Union. Statistical tables are presented on power stations in the UK and key electricity and energy statistics.

  1. Security of the electricity supply. The area of conflict between profitability and environmental compatibility; Sicherheit der Elektrizitaetsversorgung. Das Spannungsfeld von Wirtschaftlichkeit und Umweltvertraeglichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praktiknjo, Aaron

    2013-07-01

    The scope of the book is on the one hand support for the power industry defining investment and sales strategies that intend optimum supply security in the view of the customer and on the other hand the information for energy and environmental politicians demonstrating the conflict of objectives. The following issues are covered: technical and organizational aspects of electricity supply, theoretical background of the security of electricity supply, security of supply for economic sections, security of electricity supply for private households: theoretical microeconomic approach, security of electricity supply for private households: method of defined preferences, security of electricity supply in the context of climate protection and nuclear phase-out.

  2. Study on aerodynamic resistance to electric rail vehicles generated by the power supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan SEBESAN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Improving the traction performance of the electric railway vehicles requires an analysis to reduce their aerodynamic resistance. These vehicles cannot be set in motion without an external power source, which demonstrates that the supply system is a key-element to their operation. The power source is located on the rooftop which basically results in an increase of their aerodynamic resistance. The present study discusses the aerodynamic resistance of the electric railway equipment such as pantographs, automatic circuit breaker, insulators, etc. The analyze is based on the equipment installed on the electric locomotive LE 060 EA of 5100 kW which is operational in Romania, emphasizing the pantographs role in capturing of electricity.

  3. Impacts of recent drought and warm years on water resources and electricity supply worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Sheffield, Justin; Wiberg, David; Wood, Eric F.

    2016-12-01

    Recent droughts and heatwaves showed the vulnerability of the electricity sector to surface water constraints with reduced potentials for thermoelectric power and hydropower generation in different regions. Here we use a global hydrological-electricity modelling framework to quantify the impacts of recent drought and warm years on hydropower and thermoelectric power usable capacity worldwide. Our coupled modelling framework consists of a hydrological model, stream temperature model, hydropower and thermoelectric power models, and was applied with data of a large selection of hydropower and thermoelectric power plants worldwide. Our results show that hydropower utilisation rates were on average reduced by 5.2% and thermoelectric power by 3.8% during the drought years compared to the long-term average for 1981-2010. Statistically significant (p electricity modelling framework has potential for studying the linkages between water and electricity supply under climate variability and change, contributing to the quantification of the ‘water-energy nexus’.

  4. The impact of electricity supply on economic growth in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, R. [Toulouse Business School, Toulouse (France); Hope, C. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    World net electricity consumption is expected to double over the next two decades. With increasing demand, electricity shortages will be prevalent, particularly in developing countries. An adequate and regular power supply would support economic growth in developing countries. Previous studies have demonstrated a strong correlation between electricity use and economic development. Studies have shown that there is a bi-directional causal relationship between gross domestic product and electricity consumption in Taiwan for the period 1954 to 1997. In order to examine the impact of electricity supply on economic growth in Sri Lanka, this paper presented the results of a study that applied Yang's model, using a simple regression analysis. The paper presented the methodology and estimation results. The study incorporated a cost benefit analysis model which assessed the economic, social and environmental impacts of dam projects in Sri Lanka. It was concluded that the application of Yang's regression analysis is one possible approach to estimate a better range for the expected increase in economic output parameter. 14 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  5. A proposal of electrical power supply to Brazilian Amazon remote communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Ana Rosa; Bezerra, Ubiratan Holanda; de Lima Tostes, Maria Emilia; Duarte, Andre Montenegro [Institute of Technology, Federal University of Para (UFPA), Av. Augusto Correa, n.01, Campus Universitario do Guama, Belem-PA (Brazil); da Rocha Filho, Geraldo Narciso [Exact and Natural Sciences Institute, Federal University of Para (UFPA), Av. Augusto Correa, n.01, Campus Universitario do Guama, Belem-PA (Brazil)

    2010-09-15

    This paper focuses on supplying electrical power for remote communities of the Brazilian Amazon using regional biomass, specifically palm oil biomass, as a primary energy source. The use of Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) as fuel, is indicated for isolated communities, where the hydro plants or the installation of transmissions line are impracticable. The use of vegetable oils produced in the communities, is a solution when an adequate infrastructure to extracting the oil is available. Brazil is able to use an enormous diversity of vegetable oils, due to a great variety of plants, and the favorable climatic conditions. Technical, economic, environmental and social aspects are analyzed in order to provide a basis for electrical power supply viability in these communities. A case study is presented focused on a typical Brazilian Amazon community located in the State of Para in order to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed viability strategy. (author)

  6. A Bayesian inference approach to unveil supply curves in electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitridati, Lesia Marie-Jeanne Mariane; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    With increased competition in wholesale electricity markets, the need for new decision-making tools for strategic producers has arisen. Optimal bidding strategies have traditionally been modeled as stochastic profit maximization problems. However, for producers with non-negligible market power......, modeling the interactions with rival participants is fundamental. This can be achieved through equilibrium and hierarchical optimization models. The efficiency of these methods relies on the strategic producer's ability to model rival participants' behavior and supply curve. But a substantial gap remains...... in the literature on modeling this uncertainty. In this study we introduce a Bayesian inference approach to reveal the aggregate supply curve in a day-ahead electricity market. The proposed algorithm relies on Markov Chain Monte Carlo and Sequential Monte Carlo methods. The major appeal of this approach...

  7. Vehicle to Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Smart Grid Communications Interface Research and Testing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Morrow; Dimitri Hochard; Jeff Wishart

    2011-09-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and extended range electric vehicles, are under evaluation by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) and other various stakeholders to better understand their capability and potential petroleum reduction benefits. PEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard hybrid electric vehicles, and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, PEVs may have the ability to eliminate petroleum consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The AVTA is working jointly with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) to assist in the further development of standards necessary for the advancement of PEVs. This report analyzes different methods and available hardware for advanced communications between the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and the PEV; particularly Power Line Devices and their physical layer. Results of this study are not conclusive, but add to the collective knowledge base in this area to help define further testing that will be necessary for the development of the final recommended SAE communications standard. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Applications conduct the AVTA for the United States Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program.

  8. Investigations of the quality of hospital electric power supply and the tolerance of medical electric devices to voltage dips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Eisuke; Itoga, Shuuya; Takano, Kyoko; Kudou, Takato

    2007-06-01

    Medical devices driven by electric power have come to be commonly used in hospitals, and rapid changes of voltage or current can easily cause them to fail. A stable and high quality power supply is indispensable in order to maintain safety in the modern clinical setting. Therefore, we investigated the quality of the power supply in a hospital and determined the tolerance of 13 pieces of medical equipment to voltage dips. The results showed little distortion of the voltage wave. However, we found an approximately 7% momentary voltage dip caused by lightening and other problems, such as 2 to 5% periodic drops in voltage and voltage wave distortions caused by incorrect grounding. In a tolerance test, the settings of some medical devices were changed at the time of automatic reboot after a disturbance. For another device, trend information was initialized.

  9. The economical and environmental performance of miscanthus and switchgrass production and supply chains in a European setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, E.M.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311445217; Lewandowski, I.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse the economical and environmental performance of switchgrass and miscanthus production and supply chains in the European Union (EU25), for the years 2004 and 2030. The environmental performance refers to the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the primary fossil

  10. Analysis of Ecosystem Service Supply, Trade-Offs and Soical-Ecological Interactions in European Wood-Pastures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torralba Viorreta, Mario

    (Östergötland in Sweden, Southern Transylvania in Romania, Llanos de Trujillo in Spain and La Serena in Spain). The thesis provides an understanding of the dynamics and mechanisms interacting in the generation of ecosystem services in European wood-pastures, and the factors that govern this supply. The results...

  11. Integrating renewable energy technologies in the electric supply industry: A risk management approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, T.E. [Pacific Energy Group, Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Regulatory and technical forces are causing electric utilities to move from a natural monopoly to a more competitive environment. Associated with this movement is an increasing concern about how to manage the risks associated with the electric supply business. One approach to managing risks is to purchase financial instruments such as options and futures contracts. Another approach is to own physical assets that have low risk attributes or characteristics. This research evaluates how investments in renewable energy technologies can mitigate risks in the electric supply industry. It identifies risks that are known to be of concern to utilities and other power producers. These risks include uncertainty in fuel prices, demand, environmental regulations, capital cost, supply, and market structure. The research then determines how investments in renewables can mitigate these risks. Methods are developed to calculate the value of renewables in terms of their attributes of fuel costs, environmental costs, lead-time, modularity, availability, initial capital costs, and investment reversibility. Examples illustrate how to apply the methods.

  12. European Short-term Electricity Market Designs under High Penetration of Wind Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaves Avila, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    The EU has ambitious policies for decarbonization of the electricity sector. Due to recent technological developments, wind power already represents a significant share of the generation mix in some European countries. As a result, short-term electricity markets and balancing arrangements must be

  13. Th european market of the electric power; Le marche europeen de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document presents the CRE (commission of the Electric power Control) progress report concerning the first july 2000 to the 30 june 2001. Three main subjects are discussed, illustrated by economic data and graphs: the electric power european market, the french market control and the CRE. A special interest is given to the deregulation of the market and its consequences. (A.L.B.)

  14. Impact of Variable Renewable Energy on European Cross-Border Electricity Transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brancucci Martinez-Anido, C.; De Vries, L.J.; Fulli, G.

    2012-01-01

    The estimated growth of Europe’s electricity demand and the policy goals of mitigating climate change result in an expected increase in variable renewable energy. A high penetration of wind and solar energy will bring several new challenges to the European electricity transmission network. The

  15. The Limits of Europeanization: Regulatory Reforms in the Spanish and Portuguese Telecommunications and Electricity Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordana

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The creation of an EU-level regulatory regimes for telecommunications and electricity was a highly successful political initiative of the European Commission. In promoting market liberalization for telecommunications (a key sector in the creation of the ‘information economy’ and electricity (one of the sectors most resistant to change the European Commission asserted the political importance of European project. Indeed, the two new regimes are commonly cited as successful cases of ‘Europeanization‘. However, this paper argues that the causal link between European initiatives and national policy change is weak. Building on an emerging tradition of cross-sector research of these two sectors, and considering two most-similar European countries, the paper examines commonalities and variations in the regulatory reforms of telecommunications and electricity in Spain and Portugal in the last two decades. It applies a series of comparisons, including a stepwise comparative analysis of two countries (one a reluctant liberalizer, the other an enthusiastic one, of two sectors (a pace-setter and a foot-dragger and of two time periods (before and after the regulatory reforms. We suggest that processes of Europeanization can impinge on the strategic capacities of European member states only to a limited degree. Spain and Portugal were able to shape their sectors according to the preferences of their national policy communities and in a context of a global shift in the way countries both within Europe and outside it defined their interests.

  16. The Limits of Europeanization: Regulatory Reforms in the Spanish and Portuguese Telecommunications and Electricity Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imma Puig

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The creation of an EU-level regulatory regimes for telecommunications and electricity was a highly successful political initiative of the European Commission. In promoting market liberalization for telecommunications (a key sector in the creation of the information economy and electricity (one of the sectors most resistant to change the European Commission asserted the political importance of European project. Indeed, the two new regimes are commonly cited as successful cases of Europeanization. However, this paper argues that the causal link between European initiatives and national policy change is weak. Building on an emerging tradition of cross-sector research of these two sectors, and considering two most-similar European countries, the paper examines commonalities and variations in the regulatory reforms of telecommunications and electricity in Spain and Portugal in the last two decades. It applies a series of comparisons, including a stepwise comparative analysis of two countries (one a reluctant liberalizer, the other an enthusiastic one, of two sectors (a pace-setter and a foot-dragger and of two time periods (before and after the regulatory reforms. We suggest that processes of Europeanization can impinge on the strategic capacities of European member states only to a limited degree. Spain and Portugal were able to shape their sectors according to the preferences of their national policy communities and in a context of a global shift in the way countries both within Europe and outside it defined their interests.

  17. Proposal for the award of two contracts for the supply of electricity

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    This document concerns the award of two contracts for the supply of electricity. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of contracts with: - EDF (FR) for the provision of electricity for an initial period of three years from 1 July 2006 for a total amount not exceeding 69 420 925 euros (108 453 249 Swiss francs), subject to revision; - EOS (CH) for the back-up provision of electricity for an initial period of three years from 1 July 2006 for a total amount not exceeding 3 600 000 Swiss francs, subject to revision. The contracts will include options for two one-year extensions beyond the initial three-year period. The rate of exchange used is that stipulated in the tender.

  18. Energy efficiency and performance indicators of European electricity market

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Constantin Duguleana; Liliana Duguleana

    2015-01-01

    .... The efficient functioning of this motor is essential for economy. The efficiency and the performances of electric power systems are reflected on the living level of population, through the money spent and the satisfaction level of their needs...

  19. Using VIIRS Day/Night Band to Measure Electricity Supply Reliability: Preliminary Results from Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Mann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Unreliable electricity supplies are common in developing countries and impose large socio-economic costs, yet precise information on electricity reliability is typically unavailable. This paper presents preliminary results from a machine-learning approach for using satellite imagery of nighttime lights to develop estimates of electricity reliability for western India at a finer spatial scale. We use data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS onboard the Suomi National Polar Partnership (SNPP satellite together with newly-available data from networked household voltage meters. Our results point to the possibilities of this approach as well as areas for refinement. With currently available training data, we find a limited ability to detect individual outages identified by household-level measurements of electricity voltage. This is likely due to the relatively small number of individual outages observed in our preliminary data. However, we find that the approach can estimate electricity reliability rates for individual locations fairly well, with the predicted versus actual regression yielding an R2 > 0.5. We also find that, despite the after midnight overpass time of the SNPP satellite, the reliability estimates derived are representative of daytime reliability.

  20. Comparative environmental assessment of current and future electricity supply technologies for Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, C.; Dones, R.; Heck, T.; Hirschberg, S

    2007-07-01

    The environmental performance of a portfolio of eighteen technologies for electricity generation including renewable, fossil, and nuclear systems was analyzed for two reference years 2000 and 2030. The assessment covers large centralized and smaller decentralized power plants in Switzerland and few other European countries (for electricity imports). Evolutionary technology development was assumed between today and 2030. Full life cycle inventories were established for all energy chains, using 'ecoinvent' as the background inventory database. The average European electricity mix in 2030 was adapted using a business-as-usual scenario. The environmental assessment was part of a more comprehensive interdisciplinary sustainability evaluation using a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach. Results from this evaluation for the environment area alone are herewith compared using Eco-indicator'99 as representative LCIA method as well as external cost assessment. In general the rankings from different aggregation methodologies converge when considering common indicators. However, putting different emphasis or weight on impact categories and individual indicators introduces variation in the ranking. Superior environmental performance of hydro power is ascertained by all approaches. Nuclear follows hydro as top performer based on Eco-indicator 99 (H, A) and external costs. Fossil systems score worst and biomass shows mostly worse performance than other renewables. (author)

  1. Increasing the reliability of electricity supply of industrial enterprises for the account of application of a quick-running redundant power supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vertugin A.A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main tasks to be performed when organizing the operation of the energy system is to ensure high-quality and uninterrupted power supply to consumers. Dips, interruptions and voltage surges of the electrical network are the most common causes of malfunctions in industrial plants and damage to household equipment, causing significant economic damage to both consumers and electricity suppliers.

  2. Waste biomass toward hydrogen fuel supply chain management for electricity: Malaysia perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Izatul Husna; Ibrahim, Jafni Azhan; Othman, Abdul Aziz

    2016-08-01

    Green energy is becoming an important aspect of every country in the world toward energy security by reducing dependence on fossil fuel import and enhancing better life quality by living in the healthy environment. This conceptual paper is an approach toward determining physical flow's characteristic of waste wood biomass in high scale plantation toward producing gas fuel for electricity using gasification technique. The scope of this study is supply chain management of syngas fuel from wood waste biomass using direct gasification conversion technology. Literature review on energy security, Malaysia's energy mix, Biomass SCM and technology. This paper uses the theoretical framework of a model of transportation (Lumsden, 2006) and the function of the terminal (Hulten, 1997) for research purpose. To incorporate biomass unique properties, Biomass Element Life Cycle Analysis (BELCA) which is a novel technique develop to understand the behaviour of biomass supply. Theoretical framework used to answer the research questions are Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) framework and Sustainable strategy development in supply chain management framework

  3. Hybrid renewable energy system application for electricity and heat supply of a residential building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakomčić-Smaragdakis Branka B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable and distributed energy systems could provide a solution to the burning issue of reliable and clean supply of energy, having in mind current state and future predictions for population growth and fossil fuel scarcity. Hybrid renewable energy systems are novelty in Serbia and warrant further detailed research. The aim of this paper is to analyze the application of renewable energy sources(RES for electricity and heat supply of a typical household in Serbia, as well as the cost-effectiveness of the proposed system. The influence of feed-in tariff change on the value of the investment is analyzed. Small, grid-connected hybrid system (for energy supply of a standard household, consisting of geothermal heat pump for heating/cooling, solar photovoltaic panels and small wind turbine for power supply is analyzed as a case study. System analysis was conducted with the help of RETScreen software. Results of techno-economics analysis have shown that investing in geothermal heat pump and photovoltaic panels is cost-effective, while that is not the case with small wind turbine.

  4. Stability of electric characteristics of solar cells for continuous power supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Nebojša M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the output characteristics of photovoltaic solar cells working in hostile working conditions. Examined cells, produced by different innovative procedures, are available in the market. The goal was to investigate stability of electric characteristics of solar cells, which are used today in photovoltaic solar modules for charging rechargeable batteries which, coupled with batteries, supply various electronic systems such as radio repeaters on mountains tops, airplanes, mobile communication stations and other remote facilities. Charging of rechargeable batteries requires up to 25 % higher voltage compared to nominal output voltage of the battery. This paper presents results of research of solar cells, which also apply to cases in which continuous power supply is required. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 171007

  5. Exponential growth in the electricity supply industry. [Use of polynomial growth for comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasokat, H. (Stadtwerke Duesseldorf A.G. (Germany, F.R.). Teilbereich Planung und Anlagenbau Stromnetz)

    1978-01-01

    Since the first publications of the 'Club of Rome' exponential growth has become suspect. Nevertheless, work is still carried out in the electricity supply industry using exponential growth. Can this branch of the economy take the liberty of ignoring Dennis Meadows' index finger which is raised in protest, and still adopt the percent fetish as before. The author follows up the suspicion that exponential growth cannot be proved. The alternative which is of equal value, viz. polynominal growth, avoids the dizzy, high values of the exponential forecasts and explains at the same time the phenomenon of falling rates of growth.

  6. Exploring the meteorological potential for planning a high performance European electricity super-grid: optimal power capacity distribution among countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Alamillos, Francisco J.; Brayshaw, David J.; Methven, John; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S.; Ruiz-Arias, José A.; Pozo-Vázquez, David

    2017-11-01

    The concept of a European super-grid for electricity presents clear advantages for a reliable and affordable renewable power production (photovoltaics and wind). Based on the mean-variance portfolio optimization analysis, we explore optimal scenarios for the allocation of new renewable capacity at national level in order to provide to energy decision-makers guidance about which regions should be mostly targeted to either maximize total production or reduce its day-to-day variability. The results show that the existing distribution of renewable generation capacity across Europe is far from optimal: i.e. a ‘better’ spatial distribution of resources could have been achieved with either a ~31% increase in mean power supply (for the same level of day-to-day variability) or a ~37.5% reduction in day-to-day variability (for the same level of mean productivity). Careful planning of additional increments in renewable capacity at the European level could, however, act to significantly ameliorate this deficiency. The choice of where to deploy resources depends, however, on the objective being pursued—if the goal is to maximize average output, then new capacity is best allocated in the countries with highest resources, whereas investment in additional capacity in a north/south dipole pattern across Europe would act to most reduce daily variations and thus decrease the day-to-day volatility of renewable power supply.

  7. Combined installation of electric and heat supply for climatic conditions of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaisi, Osama Al; Sidenkov, D. V.

    2017-11-01

    Electricity, heating and cooling are the three main components that make up the energy consumption base in residential, commercial and public buildings around the world. Demand for energy and fuel costs are constantly growing. Combined cooling, heating and power generation or trigeneration can be a promising solution to such a problem, providing an efficient, reliable, flexible, competitive and less harmful alternative to existing heat and cold supply systems. In this paper, scheme of the tri-generation plant on non-aqueous working substances is considered as an installation of a locally centralized electro-heat and cold supply of a typical residential house in a hot climate. The scheme of the combined installation of electro-heat (cold) supply consisted of the vapor power plant and heat pump system on low-boiling working substance for local consumers under the climatic conditions of Iraq is presented. The possibility of using different working substances in the thermodynamic cycles of these units, which will provide better efficiency of such tri-generation systems is shown. The calculations of steam turbine cycles and heat pump part on the selected working substances are conducted. It is proposed to use heat exchangers of plate type as the main exchangers in the combined processing. The developed method of thermal-hydraulic calculation of heat exchangers implemented in MathCad, which allows to evaluate the efficiency of plants of this type using the ε - NTU method. For the selected working substances of the steam part the optimal temperature of heat supply to the steam generator is determined. The results of thermodynamic and technical-economic analysis of the application of various working substances in the “organic” Rankine cycle of the steam turbine unit and the heat pump system of the heat and cold supply system are presented.

  8. Measuring the security of external energy supply in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Coq, Chloe; Paltseva, Elena

    2009-01-01

    The security of energy supply is one of the main objectives of EU energy policy. In this paper, we introduce an index designed to evaluate the short-term risks associated with the external supply of energy to the EU Member States. It combines measures of energy import diversification, political...... risks of the supplying country, risk associated with energy transit, and the economic impact of a supply disruption. We construct separate indexes for three primary energy types, oil, gas and coal, and demonstrate that Member States’ levels of supply risk exposure differ across energies. Most other...

  9. Natural graphite demand and supply - Implications for electric vehicle battery requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Donald W.; Virta, Robert L.; Mahdavi, Mahbood; Sangine, Elizabeth S.; Fortier, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Electric vehicles have been promoted to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lessen U.S. dependence on petroleum for transportation. Growth in U.S. sales of electric vehicles has been hindered by technical difficulties and the high cost of the lithium-ion batteries used to power many electric vehicles (more than 50% of the vehicle cost). Groundbreaking has begun for a lithium-ion battery factory in Nevada that, at capacity, could manufacture enough batteries to power 500,000 electric vehicles of various types and provide economies of scale to reduce the cost of batteries. Currently, primary synthetic graphite derived from petroleum coke is used in the anode of most lithium-ion batteries. An alternate may be the use of natural flake graphite, which would result in estimated graphite cost reductions of more than US$400 per vehicle at 2013 prices. Most natural flake graphite is sourced from China, the world's leading graphite producer. Sourcing natural flake graphite from deposits in North America could reduce raw material transportation costs and, given China's growing internal demand for flake graphite for its industries and ongoing environmental, labor, and mining issues, may ensure a more reliable and environmentally conscious supply of graphite. North America has flake graphite resources, and Canada is currently a producer, but most new mining projects in the United States require more than 10 yr to reach production, and demand could exceed supplies of flake graphite. Natural flake graphite may serve only to supplement synthetic graphite, at least for the short-term outlook.

  10. Merchant electricity transmission expansion: A European case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristiansen, T. [RBS Sempra Commodities, 155 Bishopsgate, London EC2M3TZ (United Kingdom); Rosellon, J. [Centro de Investigacion y Docencia Economicas (CIDE), Division de Economia, Carretera Mexico-Toluca 3655, Lomas de Santa Fe, 01210 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin), Mohrenstrasse 58, 10117, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    We apply a merchant transmission model to the trilateral market coupling (TLC) arrangement among the Netherlands, Belgium and France as an example, and note that it could further be applied to other market splitting or coupling of Europe's different national power markets. In this merchant framework the system operator allocates financial transmission rights (FTRs) to investors in transmission expansion based upon their preferences, and revenue adequacy. The independent system operator (ISO) preserves some proxy FTRs to manage potential negative externalities that may result from expansion projects. This scheme could help European market coupling arrangements attract additional investment. (author)

  11. Congestion management in the European electricity market; Engpassmanagement im Europaeischen Strommarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckmann, Birgit

    2008-11-24

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on an assessment of methods of congestion management employed in Europe with respect to their effectiveness and identify possible reasons for the misallocation of cross-border transmission capacity. For this, generation structures of European countries and the resulting prices and load flows are analysed. Different power plants and bottlenecks in the transmission network currently cause structural price differences due to a low degree of integration of European electricity markets. By means of congestion management, the formation of a uniform electricity market will be created.

  12. ANN-based wavelet analysis for predicting electrical signal from photovoltaic power supply system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellit, A. [Medea Univ., Medea (Algeria). Inst. of Science Engineering, Dept. of Electronics

    2007-07-01

    This study was conducted to predict different electrical signals from a photovoltaic power supply system (PVPS) using an artificial neural networks (ANN) with wavelet analysis. It involved the creation of a database of electrical signals (PV-generator current, voltage, battery current voltage, regulator current and voltage) obtained from an experimental PVPS system installed in the south of Algeria. The potential applications were for sizing and analyzing the performance of PVPS systems; control of maximum power point tracker (MPPT) in order to deliver the maximum energy from the PV-array; prediction of the optimal configuration (PV-array and battery sizing) of PVPS systems; expert configuration of PV-systems; faults diagnosis; supervision; and, control and monitoring. First, based on the wavelet analysis each electrical signal was mapped in several time frequency domains. The PV-system was then divided into 3-subsystems corresponding to ANN-PV generator model, ANN-battery model, and ANN-regulator model. An example of day-by-day prediction for each electrical signal was presented. The results of the proposed approach were in good agreement with experimental results. In addition, the accuracy of the proposed approach was more satisfactory when only ANN was used. It was concluded that this methodology offers the possibility of developing a new expert configuration of PVPS by implementing the soft computing ANN-wavelet program with a digital signal processing (DSP) circuit. 26 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  13. Social Corporate Responsibility regarding Household Consumer Satisfaction with the Electric Power Supply Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Ana Georgescu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the practical manifestation of corporate social responsibility towards consumers is highly important to the socio-economic reality in Romania. The present paper is the result of an investigation carried out in this field and it is distinguished by two aspects. The first aspect is its target audience used for research - household consumers of electricity, who can be called "vulnerable", captive consumers. The second aspect is the specificity of the electricity market. The aim of the research was to study the relationship between corporate social responsibility, instantiated by the quality of services provided by S.C. Electrica S.A. – Electrica Distribution and Supply South Transylvania and the consumers' loyalty towards the company, in case other electricity suppliers emerge. A subsidiary aspect was the generation of a database having an impact on customer retention. We have carried out some quantitative research, based on the survey method, having a sample of 521 household consumers from the Mures County. The study we carried out proves that consumer satisfaction, their degree of satisfaction under different aspects, is a way of gaining their trust on this particular market. Those consumers with a higher degree of trust in the company are more loyal. This will result in reducing migration to another electricity supplier, in the future, when all household consumers become eligible.

  14. Aspirations and expectations: public views on electricity supply in Ontario, Canada. Paper no. IGEC-1-038

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowlands, I.H. [Univ. of Waterloo, Dept. of Environment and Resource Studies, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: irowland@fes.uwaterloo.ca; Parker, P. [Univ. of Waterloo, Dept. of Geography, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: pparker@fes.uwaterloo.ca

    2005-07-01

    It is increasingly being recognised that electricity is a key public policy issue. No longer the domain of monopoly players shielded from public scrutiny, the growing restructuring of electricity supply systems around the world has increased public involvement in electricity decisions. Accordingly, it is becoming more and more important for policy-makers to have a clear understanding of their citizens' priorities regarding electricity supply issues. This paper examines public attitudes in a major Canadian metropolitan area (Waterloo Region) by analysing the results of over 1,000 surveys on a range of energy and environment issues. Regarding the present arrangements for electricity supply in Ontario, most respondents were not able to identify the resource most used (nuclear power), but instead thought that the resource that has the longest history in the province's electricity system (hydropower) dominated the supply system. Regarding future resource options, while respondents clearly expressed their preference for green electricity, particularly the so-called 'new' renewables (solar and wind power), respondents also felt that the prospects for more traditional resources - particularly, nuclear, hydropower and natural gas - remained higher. Further analyses reveal that two demographic factors (gender and age) and three attitudinal factors (perceived consumer effectiveness, liberalism and ecological concern) help predict those likely to be more optimistic and/or enthusiastic about green electricity. While the empirical material in this paper is taken from the Canadian province of Ontario, key conclusions and broader lessons are more widely applicable. Every community undergoing electricity restructuring of any kind is forced to consider public views to a greater extent. Indeed, prospects for greater use of green electricity in electricity supply systems are contingent upon a greater understanding of citizen views of the same. (author)

  15. Transmission Needs In A Fully Renewable Pan-European Electricity System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Rolando A.; Bruun Andresen, Gorm; Becker, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Based on high-resolution weather and electrical load data, the transmission needs for a fully renewable pan-European electricity system are determined. The ideal cross-border transmission capacities turn out to be a factor 10 larger than those of today. A reduction of cross-border transmission ca...... capacities lead to a non-linear increase of balancing needs. A good compromise turns out to be a capacity layout, which is a factor 5 larger than today’s one. On average each country will only be able to import / export 40% of its residual demand / renewable excess generation.......Based on high-resolution weather and electrical load data, the transmission needs for a fully renewable pan-European electricity system are determined. The ideal cross-border transmission capacities turn out to be a factor 10 larger than those of today. A reduction of cross-border transmission...

  16. SAInt – A novel quasi-dynamic model for assessing security of supply in coupled gas and electricity transmission networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pambour, Kwabena Addo; Cakir Erdener, Burcin; Bolado-Lavin, Ricardo; Dijkema, Gerhard P.J.

    2017-01-01

    The integration of renewable energy sources into existing electric power systems is connected with an increased interdependence between natural gas and electricity transmission networks. To analyse this interdependence and its impact on security of supply, we developed a novel quasi-dynamic

  17. Nationalisation to privatisation - the pendulum swings for electricity supply, R and D and NDT. [Nondestructive testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oates, G. (Nuclear Electric plc. (United Kingdom). Strategic Planning Dept.)

    1994-04-01

    The Electricity Supply Industry (ESI) has been as important as any in shaping the development of NDT over many years. It is thus appropriate to consider the significance for NDT of the dramatic changes in the Electricity Supply Industry that have taken place in recent years and are in prospect. What significance for NDT will be the impeding decisions on the future of nuclear power in the UK How will the ESI's changing approach to R and D, stimulated by the new competitive environment, impact on NDT Are the lessons provided by the Industry's history helpful in signalling the likely way forward The main theme of this article is an assessment of the significance of the changes in the ESI and of its future development. A secondary theme is the changing approach to R and D and to the provision of technological support both within the ESI and elsewhere. Within the broad context of these two themes a third aspect is developed - identifying messages for NDT. (Author)

  18. Mathematical model of the standalone electrical supply system with distributed photoelectric generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muravyev Dmitry I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A promising way to increase the technical and economic characteristics of standalone power supply systems is to incorporate renewable energy installations in their structure. Photoelectric generators based on distributed sources are optimal technologies for the use of renewable energy sources in 0.4 kV low-voltage power grid. The most common option is a hybrid system with photoelectric power stations (PES incorporated into the local network of the diesel power station (DPS. Photoelectric stations meet all environmental requirements and can make a significant contribution to the electrification of remote settlements, tourist and agricultural field. This paper deals with stabilization of voltage value and reduction of losses of electric energy depending on the parameters of elements of power supply systems of radial type (0,4 kV with an installed capacity of up to 100 kW. The research has been conducted by simulating the operating modes of hybrid power systems of various configurations. To analyze the joint work of a photoelectric station with a diesel power station, a mathematical model is created in the Simulink (SimPowerSystems application of the MatLab R2016b program. Most of the known works do not show the issues of quality and power losses in the standalone power supply system with photoelectric distributed generation. [5,6,7,9,10].

  19. TAXATION OF ENERGY PRODUCTS AND ELECTRICITY TO THE EUROPEAN UNION LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PĂUNESCU ALBERTO NICOLAE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available U.E established to increase socio-economic stability and security of supply, the Energy Community has set a good example of regional cooperation in which the EU and the South-Eastern European countries can diversify their energy sources. It has created a functioning institutional framework and more legal certainty for investors. Next steps are to enhance market reforms and to boost investments in the energy sector. The final objective is that the regional market should be fully integrated in the European's internal energy market

  20. Economic Analysis in Restructured Electricity Supply Industry (ESI for Malaysian Market Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Before 1980s, the generation, transmission and distribution vertically related sectors have typically been tied together within a utility. It has been either, investor owned and state-regulated or owned by the local municipality. Each sector was thought of as a natural monopoly. During that era, there were two main reasons accelerated for restructuring needs. The first one was to widen up the choices of electricity for customers. And the second one was due to rapid expansion capacity needs in generation, transmission and distribution. In Malaysia, the Malaysian Electricity Supply Industry (MESI has aimed to restructure its current model to become a wholesale market model. In 1992, by introducing the Independent Power Producers (IPPs in the loop, MESI applies Single Buyer model. Single Buyer model is one of the existing models available under the restructuring apart from Pool and Bilateral. This paper evaluates the economic benefits for Malaysia with the current structure from the side of electricity provider. A case study with load variation for three different maximum demands is considered in this paper. The mathematical equation developed by zero Loss of Load Probability is applied to evaluate the economic benefits.

  1. Overview of Food Safety Hazards in the European Dairy Supply Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, Van E.D.; Fels, van der Ine; Marvin, H.J.P.; Bokhorst-van De Veen, Van H.; Nierop Groot, M.

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring of dairy products should preferably focus on the most relevant food safety hazards in the dairy supply chain. For this purpose, the possible presence of microbiological, chemical, and physical hazards as well as trends in the dairy supply chain that may affect their presence were

  2. European technology development for a reliable supply of high quality seed in blue mussel farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamermans, P.; Marissal, E.; Boudry, P.; Beaumont, A.; Galley, T.; Fuentes, J.

    2012-01-01

    From 2005-2007 the EU project BLUE SEED was carried out. The objectives were to secure a reliable supply of blue mussel seed and to develop techniques allowing farmers tomarket bluemussels year round. A problem blue mussel producers face is the unpredictability seed supply. The amounts of wild seed

  3. External CO2 and water supplies for enhancing electrical power generation of air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, So; Fujiki, Itto; Sano, Daisuke; Okabe, Satoshi

    2014-10-07

    Alkalization on the cathode electrode limits the electrical power generation of air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs), and thus external proton supply to the cathode electrode is essential to enhance the electrical power generation. In this study, the effects of external CO2 and water supplies to the cathode electrode on the electrical power generation were investigated, and then the relative contributions of CO2 and water supplies to the total proton consumption were experimentally evaluated. The CO2 supply decreased the cathode pH and consequently increased the power generation. Carbonate dissolution was the main proton source under ambient air conditions, which provides about 67% of total protons consumed for the cathode reaction. It is also critical to adequately control the water content on the cathode electrode of air-cathode MFCs because the carbonate dissolution was highly dependent on water content. On the basis of these experimental results, the power density was increased by 400% (143.0 ± 3.5 mW/m(2) to 575.0 ± 36.0 mW/m(2)) by supplying a humid gas containing 50% CO2 to the cathode chamber. This study demonstrates that the simultaneous CO2 and water supplies to the cathode electrode were effective to increase the electrical power generation of air-cathode MFCs for the first time.

  4. Efficiency of Electricity Utilisation in Households in the Context of European Energy Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kott

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficient use of electricity in every sector of a national economy is becoming increasingly significant. Energy efficiency concerns climate and energy policy, but it is also a significant factor influencing manufacturing costs for enterprises (and thus their profits, as well as socio-economic development. Irrational energy consumption leads to excessive consumption of primary energy sources, problems attributable to environment pollution, and limited competitiveness of national companies in global markets. For an individual consumer, energy efficiency is one of the key methods of reducing the share of electricity costs in the household budget. In recent years, the European Commission has made a lot of effort aimed at reducing electricity consumption in households, by promoting energy-saving lighting, subsidising renewable microgeneration systems, enforcing labelling appliances for their energy consumption and liberalisation of the electricity market, among other things. This paper presents the results of a comparative study on electricity consumption in Polish households in reference to selected European Union member states, in the context of European energy policy.

  5. Swiss hydropower production. Optimisation potentials in European electricity trading; Die Schweizer Wasserkrafterzeugung. Optimierungspotenziale im europaeischen Stromhandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieper, Thomas; Laue, Dirk Simon [RWE Supply and Trading GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Swiss hydropower plays a central role in the formation of electricity prices in Western Europe as well as in cross-border electricity transmission. Although subject to constraints relating to hydrology as well as energy economy, its inherent flexibility makes it possible to make use of the most profitable electricity price differences relative to neighbouring European electricity markets (referred to as location spreads), especially between France and Italy. In times of favourable framework conditions it is also possible to use location spread potentials in relation to Germany. Studies in electricity statistics permit analysis of cross-border transmission schedules and spot price differences as well as identification of behavioural patterns in history and thus of optimisation potentials of Swiss hydropower production.

  6. Optimal Willingness to Supply Wholesale Electricity Under Asymmetric Linearized Marginal Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hudgins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This analysis derives the profit-maximizing willingness to supply functions for single-plant and multi-plant wholesale electricity suppliers that all incur linear marginal costs. The optimal strategy must result in linear residual demand functions in the absence of capacity constraints. This necessarily leads to a linear pricing rule structure that can be used by firm managers to construct their offer curves and to serve as a benchmark to evaluate firm profit-maximizing behavior. The procedure derives the cost functions and the residual demand curves for merged or multi-plant generators, and uses these to construct the individual generator plant offer curves for a multi-plant firm.

  7. Issues in the future supply of electricity to the Northeast. [1985 and 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, P.M.; McCoy, T.H.; Rahman, S.

    1976-06-01

    This assessment of the problems of the electric sector is part of the BNL study on the Energy Future of the Northeast. Topics covered by the issue papers include the potential supply of energy to the Northeast from coal, oil, natural gas, liquefied natural gas, nuclear power, municipal waste, solar energy, and wind power, and the demand for energy in the Northeast from the industrial, transportation, and residential and commercial sectors. This paper compares energy demand projections derived in other parts of the Northeast Energy Perspectives Study to current utility projections; discusses major technical issues in capacity forecasting, including system load factors, outage rates, scale economies, unit sizes, and generation mix planning; discusses major siting constraints faced by each type of generation in the Northeast; and prepares preliminary forecasts of the number and type of new generation facilities necessary by 1985 and 2000, and an analysis of the implications for regional siting policy. (MCW)

  8. The electricity; market, investments and security of supply; La electricidad: Mercado, inversiones y garantia de suministro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabra, N.

    2007-07-01

    In this paper we discuss some of the special features of electricity that should be taken into account when assessing investment incentives, giving special emphasis to the role played by firms strategic behaviour. Furthermore, we assess the potential for some regulatory instruments to induce firms to undertake the efficient investments in the marketplace. In particular, some of the questions that this paper discusses are the following: Is the market alone the best mechanism to induce the right investment levels? How does the public good nature of security of supply interact with the provision of generation capacity? Are there regulatory measures to improve investment choices, reducing both the risk of blackouts as well as inefficient over investment?. (Author). 12 refs.

  9. Low cost stove-top thermoelectric generator for regions with unreliable electricity supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuwayhid, R.Y. [American Univ. of Beirut, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Beirut (Lebanon); Rowe, D.M.; Min, G. [Cardiff Univ., Electronic Engineering Dept., Cardiff (United Kingdom)

    2003-02-01

    During the winter months in regions where constant electric power supply cannot be relied upon, power may be derived parasitically from heating stoves. A proportion of heat from these 20-50 kW wood or diesel-heated stoves may be utilized to drive a thermoelectric generator (TEG) consisting of several commercially available low-cost modules. These are Peltier modules operating in a power generating mode and adapted to the low-flux regime coupled with hot side temperatures of 100-300 deg C. Two commercially available modules are considered. The generator is then theoretically re-evaluated with the Peltier modules re-designed in order to produce maximum power in a simple and cheap manner allowing easy commercial production using existing technology. A current power target is set at 100 W for a minimum domestic use. (Author)

  10. Results from Operational Testing of the Siemens Smart Grid-Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Brion [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the Siemens smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from Siemens for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Siemens smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionality testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.

  11. Funding and organisation of emergency preparedness in telecommunications and electrical power supply systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    #Latin Capital Letter O With Stroke#stby, Eirik; Hagen, Janne Merete; Nystuen, Kjell Olav

    2000-01-15

    A series of two joint projects between the Directorate for Civil Defence and Emergency Planning and FFI have as main objectives to identify critical vulnerabilities in the national Telecommunications and Electrical Power Supply infrastructures. These objectives include to clarify consequences of service outages, and to evaluate various efforts to reduce the vulnerabilities and the consequences. This report presents the results of a study on the following subjects with respect to emergency preparedness within the two sectors: Legislation and organisation, Historical funding, Discussion of future models for funding. The study concludes that fundings for emergency preparedness have been reduced during the last years. This is worrying in relation to the fact that these infrastructures are increasing vulnerable, and are natural targets for incidents in peacetime as well as in war. The funding models ought to be reviewed in accordance to the ongoing transitions in market and technical developments. (author)

  12. Winter electricity supply and seasonal storage deficit in the Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, Pedro; Monay, Blaise; Dujardin, Jérôme; Schaefli, Bettina; Schleiss, Anton

    2017-04-01

    Switzerland. In some cases additional storage would allow mitigating negative impacts of climate change. In one of the tested cases the decrease in inflows is such that the reservoir will not fill up in the future; this reservoir will become a priority location for pumping capacity increase, for short-term or seasonal storage of excess solar/wind energy. Considering that the present average rate of glacier mass loss at the country scale is equivalent to the Grande Dixence reservoir per year (the largest Swiss reservoir, approx. 380 hm3), increasing artificial water storage might become mandatory to maintain the same level of security electricity supply in the future.

  13. Reliability Indicators of Urban Electric Network Schemes for Supply of Second and Third Category Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Korotkevich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers two schemes of the urban distributive electric network for supply of the second and third category consumers for whom indicators of reliability have been determined.As for a network scheme of the 2nd category it has been determined that while installing low-oil and vacuum switches at a distributive point the most remote transformer substation has the highest non-availability  factor which is higher of the corresponding non-availability  factor of the nearest transformer substation by 1,21–1,23 fold  accordingly.As for a network scheme of the 3rd category consumers it has been obtained the data that reliability of consumers receiving supply from bus-bars of transformer substations with 0,38 kW voltage changes  significantly (by 1,2–1,9-fold while changing a breakpoint of the network with 10 kW voltage.

  14. A new algorithm to compute conjectured supply function equilibrium in electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Cristian A.; Villar, Jose; Campos, Fco Alberto [Institute for Research in Technology, Technical School of Engineering, Comillas Pontifical University, Madrid 28015 (Spain); Rodriguez, M. Angel [Endesa, 28042 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    Several types of market equilibria approaches, such as Cournot, Conjectural Variation (CVE), Supply Function (SFE) or Conjectured Supply Function (CSFE) have been used to model electricity markets for the medium and long term. Among them, CSFE has been proposed as a generalization of the classic Cournot. It computes the equilibrium considering the reaction of the competitors against changes in their strategy, combining several characteristics of both CVE and SFE. Unlike linear SFE approaches, strategies are linearized only at the equilibrium point, using their first-order Taylor approximation. But to solve CSFE, the slope or the intercept of the linear approximations must be given, which has been proved to be very restrictive. This paper proposes a new algorithm to compute CSFE. Unlike previous approaches, the main contribution is that the competitors' strategies for each generator are initially unknown (both slope and intercept) and endogenously computed by this new iterative algorithm. To show the applicability of the proposed approach, it has been applied to several case examples where its qualitative behavior has been analyzed in detail. (author)

  15. Multifunctional backup electricity supply for NPP auxiliary needs based on combined-cycle power plant with hydrogen overheating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.E. Yurin

    2016-12-01

    The proposed system allows ensuring supply of electricity for covering auxiliary needs of the NPP during more than 72h. Use of the steam turbine plant included in the composition of the combined cycle gas turbine unit is possible for covering auxiliary needs of the NPP in case of failure of gas turbine plants. Steam turbine can be operated due to the generation of additional steam during incineration of hydrogen in oxygen. With appropriate modernization the system allows using decay heat released in the nuclear reactor core. It was established that the proposed option of combining NPP with combined cycle gas turbine unit in combination with hydrogen generating complex allows enhancing reliability of supply of electricity for covering auxiliary needs of the NPP in emergency conditions accompanied with loss of electric power supply.

  16. Danube Soya – Improving European GM-free soya supply for food and feed

    OpenAIRE

    Krön Matthias; Bittner Ursula

    2015-01-01

    The Danube Soya Association is an international, voluntary, non-profit, non-governmental association promoting sustainable and GMO**-free soya production along the Danube River Basin – from Switzerland to the Black Sea. Founded in 2012 the association counts today more than 200 members from the whole value chain and civil society in 16 European countries. The members share the vision of a protein transition towards more European...

  17. Time-varying convergence in European electricity spot markets and their association with carbon and fuel prices

    OpenAIRE

    MENEZES, L. de M.; Houllier, M.; Tamvakis, M.

    2016-01-01

    Long-run dynamics of electricity prices are expected to reflect fuel price developments, since fuels generally account for a large share in the cost of generation. As an integrated European market for electricity develops, wholesale electricity prices should be converging as a result of market coupling and increased interconnectivity. Electricity mixes are also changing, spurred by a drive to significantly in-crease the share of renewables. Consequently, the electricity wholesale price dynami...

  18. Forecasting day ahead electricity spot prices: The impact of the EXAA to other European electricity markets

    OpenAIRE

    Ziel, Florian; Steinert, Rick; Husmann, Sven

    2015-01-01

    In our paper we analyze the relationship between the day-ahead electricity price of the Energy Exchange Austria (EXAA) and other day-ahead electricity prices in Europe. We focus on markets, which settle their prices after the EXAA, which enables traders to include the EXAA price into their calculations. For each market we employ econometric models to incorporate the EXAA price and compare them with their counterparts without the price of the Austrian exchange. By employing a forecasting study...

  19. Electric vehicle (EV) storage supply chain risk and the energy market: A micro and macroeconomic risk management approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Susanna D.

    As a cost effective storage technology for renewable energy sources, Electric Vehicles can be integrated into energy grids. Integration must be optimized to ascertain that renewable energy is available through storage when demand exists so that cost of electricity is minimized. Optimization models can address economic risks associated with the EV supply chain- particularly the volatility in availability and cost of critical materials used in the manufacturing of EV motors and batteries. Supply chain risk can reflect itself in a shortage of storage, which can increase the price of electricity. We propose a micro-and macroeconomic framework for managing supply chain risk through utilization of a cost optimization model in combination with risk management strategies at the microeconomic and macroeconomic level. The study demonstrates how risk from the EVs vehicle critical material supply chain affects manufacturers, smart grid performance, and energy markets qualitatively and quantitatively. Our results illustrate how risk in the EV supply chain affects EV availability and the cost of ancillary services, and how EV critical material supply chain risk can be mitigated through managerial strategies and policy.

  20. We Need to Talk... Developing Communicating Power Supplies to Monitor & Control Miscellaneous Electric Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Andrew; Lanzisera, Steven; Liao, Anna; Meier, Alan

    2014-08-11

    Plug loads represent 30percent of total electricity use in residential buildings. Significant energy savings would result from an accurate understanding of which miscellaneous electric devices are using energy, at what time, and in what quantity. Commercially available plug load monitoring and control solutions replace or limit the attached device's native controls - forcing the user to adapt to a separate set of controls associated with the monitoring and control hardware. A better solution is integration of these capabilities at the power supply level. In this paper, we demonstrate a method achieving this integration. Our solution allows unobtrusive power monitoring and control while retaining native device control features. Further, our prototype enables intelligent behaviors by allowing devices to respond to the state of one another automatically. The CPS enables energy savings while demonstrating an added level of functionality to the user. If CPS technology became widespread in devices, a combination of automated and human interactive solutions would enable high levels of energy savings in buildings.

  1. The destabilization of the French electricity supply industry nascent competition in an open environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finon, D

    2001-06-01

    In February 2000 France, compelled by the 1996 European Directive 96/92, undertook a minimal reform of the organisation of its electricity industry, while preserving the boundaries of the incumbent company. The aim of this paper is to analyse the conditions of destabilization of the industrial organisation of the French ESI, by identifying the economic factors of endogenous and exogenous erosion. Firstly, after setting out the main elements of the French reform, which is aimed at making the electricity market contestable, the effectiveness of the ''contestability'' of the French power market is discussed. Secondly in order to test the stability of the new institutional arrangements, an institutional prospect is developed, on the basis of economic factors of instability and resistance, to produce two contrasting scenarios: one in which the particularly French model is retained (limited contestability market scenario); another in which there is movement towards a de-integrated competitive model (contamination by competition scenario). Thirdly the author concludes on the basis of recent elements, that the future would be a mix of these two trajectories which will come within in the progressive integration of the national markets in continental Europe. (A.L.B.)

  2. Transient Processes in Electric Power Supply System for Oil Terminal with Own Gas-Turbine Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Hаshimov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains results of the investigations concerning influence of symmetrical and non-symmetrical short circuits at main power network on electric power supply system of a huge oil terminal which is powered by own gas-turbine power station. Calculations have been made in accordance with the IEC and IEEЕ requirements. Estimations for voltage level and distribution of short circuit current in the electric power supply system of the Sangachal oil terminal being operated in parallel with the AzerEnerji grid are presented in the paper

  3. Towards a future with large penetration of distributed generation: Is the current regulation of electricity distribution ready? Regulatory recommendations under a European perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cossent, Rafael [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, C/ Quintana 21, 28008 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: Rafael.Cossent@iit.upcomillas.es; Gomez, Tomas; Frias, Pablo [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, C/ Quintana 21, 28008 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-03-15

    The European Energy Policy promotes renewable energy sources and energy efficiency as means to mitigate environmental impact, increase security of supply and ensure economic competitiveness. As a result, the penetration levels of distributed generation (DG) in electricity networks are bound to increase. Distribution networks and distribution system operators (DSOs) will be especially affected by growing levels of DG. This paper reviews the current regulation of distribution in the European Union Member States, focusing on those aspects that might hinder the future integration of DG. Several regulatory issues that may hinder a successful integration of DG have been identified. Recommendations to improve the current situation are proposed. Regarding economic signals sent to DG, connection charges and cost-reflective use-of-system charges together with incentives to provide ancillary services are the key aspects. Concerning DSOs regulation, unbundling from generation and supply according to the European Electricity Directive, incentives for optimal planning and network operation considering DG, including energy losses and quality of service, and innovation schemes to migrate to active networks are the most relevant topics.

  4. Towards a future with large penetration of distributed generation. Is the current regulation of electricity distribution ready? Regulatory recommendations under a European perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cossent, Rafael; Gomez, Tomas; Frias, Pablo [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, C/ Quintana 21, 28008 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-03-15

    The European Energy Policy promotes renewable energy sources and energy efficiency as means to mitigate environmental impact, increase security of supply and ensure economic competitiveness. As a result, the penetration levels of distributed generation (DG) in electricity networks are bound to increase. Distribution networks and distribution system operators (DSOs) will be especially affected by growing levels of DG. This paper reviews the current regulation of distribution in the European Union Member States, focusing on those aspects that might hinder the future integration of DG. Several regulatory issues that may hinder a successful integration of DG have been identified. Recommendations to improve the current situation are proposed. Regarding economic signals sent to DG, connection charges and cost-reflective use-of-system charges together with incentives to provide ancillary services are the key aspects. Concerning DSOs regulation, unbundling from generation and supply according to the European Electricity Directive, incentives for optimal planning and network operation considering DG, including energy losses and quality of service, and innovation schemes to migrate to active networks are the most relevant topics. (author)

  5. Potential Impact of the National Plan for Future Electric Power Supply on Air Quality in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, C.; Hong, J.

    2014-12-01

    Korean Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE) announced the national plan for Korea's future electric power supply (2013 - 2027) in 2013. According to the plan, the national demand for electricity will be increased by 60% compared to that of 2010 and primary energy sources for electric generation will still lean on the fossil fuels such as petroleum, LNG, and coal, which would be a potential threat to air quality of Korea. This study focused on two subjects: (1) How the spatial distribution of the primary air pollutant's emissions (i.e., NOx, SOx, CO, PM) will be changed and (2) How the primary emission changes will influence on the national ambient air quality including ozone in 2027. We used GEOS-Chem model simulation with modification of Korean emissions inventory (Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS)) to simulate the current and future air quality in Korea. The national total emissions of CO, NOx, SOx, PM in year 2027 will be increased by 3%, 8%, 13%, 2%, respectively compared to 2010 and there are additional concern that the future location of the power plants will be closer to the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), where there are approximately 20 million population vulnerable to the potentially worsened air quality. While there are slight increase of concentration of CO, NOx, SOx, and PM in 2027, the O3 concentration is expected to be similar to the level of 2010. Those results may imply the characteristics of air pollution in East Asia such as potentially severe O3 titration and poorer O3/CO or O3/NOx ratio. Furthermore, we will discuss on the impact of transboundary pollution transport from China in the future, which is one of the large factors to control the air quality of Korea.

  6. Electric power supply in the 21st century. Proceedings. 2. rev. ed.; Stromversorgung des 21. Jahrhunderts. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The proceedings include contributions to the following topics: The role of energy in the future society; efficiency enhancement by electric power; electromobility and power industry - future prospects of energy suppliers; better place - marketing model for electromobility; electric heating systems - techniques, efficiency and potentials; energy saving by smart metering; development of the electricity demand in Germany until 2050; energy supply concepts in the frame of IEKP; future of fossil duels in electricity generation; future of nuclear power in Europe; power-heat cogeneration for local heat and long-distance heat; micro CHP and virtual power plants; renewable energy - new challenges for transport and storage; possible development of the power generation system until 2050; electricity and electricity industry - how to improve the image? energy and climate policy consulting - experiences and expectations.

  7. Cannabis Supply and Demand Reduction: Evidence from the ESPAD Study of Adolescents in 31 European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Steriu, Andreea; Kokkevi, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Most national drug policies target both the supply side and the demand side of illicit drug use. Although such policies are intended to affect individual choices, they by definition operate on a national level and cannot be evaluated solely on the basis of individual-level differences. This study aims to evaluate the impact of country-level…

  8. Energy supply structures and strategies for the reduction of emissions in selected Central and Eastern European countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jattke, A.; Haasis, H.-D.; Oder, C.; Russ, P.; Rentz, O. (University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany). Institute for Industrial Production)

    1993-01-01

    This article sets out to analyse strategies for the reduction of SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] emissions applied by a selection of Central and Eastern European countries, together with the impact of these strategies upon national energy supply structure. Hungary, Lithuania and the European sector of Russia are used as representative examples of the wide variety of energy industry structures and future developments in Eastern Europe. Current energy supply, transformation and consumer demand conditions in the various economic sectors (industry, transport, the domestic sector, etc.) have been used as a basis for the establishment of the national cost of emission reduction strategies, together with preferred national structure for emission reduction measures. Calculated cost functions are based upon a technical and economic assessment of available energy transformation and emission reduction technologies. The potential of various options for emission reduction, such as the substitution of fuels or technologies, secondary emission reduction techniques and energy conservation measures have also been quantified. This process has been used as a means of identifying and assessing the interdependence of strategies for the reduction of various atmospheric pollutants. The EFOM-ENV Energy/Emission Model has been used as a methodological tool. 15 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  9. European gas markets and Russian LNG. Prospects for the development of European gas markets and model simulations of possible new LNG supplies from year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldegard, Tom [Foundation for Research in Economics and Business Administration, Bergen (Norway)

    1996-07-01

    The study aims at clarifying the framework for possible LNG exports from Northern Russia and focuses on the European natural gas markets. The first stage provides general background information on the market structure and related topics. In the second stage this information is used to develop a formal market model and subject it to simulations with various assumptions of the future gas supply. The model is described and results from simulations are given. In the first stage facts from the history of the European natural gas market are outlined. Underlying conditions for the development of natural gas markets in Europe are addressed. The EU has been promoting trade liberalisation in the energy sector but most counties resist freer gas trade across the boarders. New infrastructure development for natural gas are either underway or planned. Some important projects are mentioned. Gas in a global perspective is discussed. The cost structure of the LNG chain is mentioned and an overview of existing LNG export capacities world-wide and major reception terminals in Europe and the USA is given. The second stage employs a scenario analysis to evaluate the economic effects of hypothetical LNG deliveries from Northern Russia. The model is developed for the analysis of West European natural gas markets and designed to allow users to create a structural system of interconnected producers and market regions. Basic assumptions for the evolution of natural gas markets till 2005 is developed and base case scenarios calculated for the years 2000 and 2005 and used as a point of reference for the alternative scenarios considered. According to the analysis the introduction of a new LNG supplier in the European gas market will inflict a substantial loss upon all the existing producers. The primary keys to this result are the assumptions made for gas demand and supply capacity. The LNG alternative will hardly be approved for purely economic reasons as long as the Russians maintain

  10. Development and Evaluation of Control System for Microgrid Supplying Heat and Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Yasuhiro; Koshio, Masanobu; Nakamura, Shizuka

    Photovoltaic (PV) and Wind Turbine (WT) generation systems are expected to offer solutions to reduce green house gases and become more widely used in the future. However, the chief technical drawback of using these kinds of weather-dependent generators is the difficulty of forecasting their output, which can have negative impacts on commercial grids if a large number of them are introduced. Thus, this problem may hinder the wider application of PV and WT generation systems. The Regional Power Grid with Renewable Energy Resources Project was launched to seek a solution to this problem. The scope of the project is to develop, operate, and evaluate a Dispersed Renewable Energy Supply System with the ability to adapt the total energy output in response to changes in weather and demand. Such a system would reduce the impact that PV and WT generation systems have on commercial grids and allow the interconnection of more Dispersed Energy Resources (DER). In other words, the main objective of this project is to demonstrate an integrated energy management system, or a type of microgrid [1], as a new way of introducing DERs. The system has been in operation since October 2005 and will continue operation until March 2008. Through the project period, the data on power quality, system efficiency, operation cost, and environmental burden will be gathered and a cost-benefit analysis of the system will be undertaken. In this paper, firstly we introduce the concept of microgrid for reducing negative impact of natural energy, and secondly illustrate the structure of electric and thermal supply control system for Microgrid, especially for the Hachinohe demonstration project. The control system consists of four stages; weekly operation planning, economic dispatching control, tie-line control and local frequency control. And finally demonstration results and evaluation results are shown.

  11. Electrical Power Supply to Offshore Oil Installations by High Voltage Direct Current Transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myhre, Joergen Chr.

    2001-07-01

    This study was initiated to investigate if it could be feasible to supply offshore oil installations in the North Sea with electrical power from land. A prestudy of alternative converter topologies indicated that the most promising solution would be to investigate a conventional system with reduced synchronous compensator rating. The study starts with a summary of the state of power supply to offshore installations today, and a short review of classical HVDC transmission. It goes on to analyse how a passive network without sources influences the inverter. The transmission, with its current controlled rectifier and large inductance, is simulated as a current source. Under these circumstances the analysis shows that the network frequency has to adapt in order to keep the active and reactive power balance until the controllers are able to react. The concept of firing angle for a thyristor is limited in a system with variable frequency, the actual control parameter is the firing delay time. Sensitivity analysis showed some astonishing consequences. The frequency rises both by an increase in the active and in the reactive load. The voltage falls by an increase in the active load, but rises by an increase in the inductive load. Two different control principles for the system of inverter, synchronous compensator and load are defined. The first takes the reference for the firing delay time from the fundamental voltage at the point of common coupling. The second takes the reference for the firing delay time from the simulated EMF of the synchronous compensator. Of these, the second is the more stable and should be chosen as the basis for a possible control system. Two simulation tools are applied. The first is a quasi-phasor model running on Matlab with Simulink. The other is a time domain model in KREAN. The time domain model is primarily used for the verification of the quasi-phasor model, and shows that quasi-phasors is still a valuable tool for making a quick analysis

  12. Formulation of advanced consumables management models: Executive summary. [modeling spacecraft environmental control, life support, and electric power supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, J. K.; Torian, J. G.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of studies conducted to establish the requirements for advanced subsystem analytical tools is presented. Modifications are defined for updating current computer programs used to analyze environmental control, life support, and electric power supply systems so that consumables for future advanced spacecraft may be managed.

  13. The Impact of Strong Climate Change on Inter-state Balancing in a Fully-renewable Simplified European Electricity System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohland, Jan; Witthaut, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    Electricity systems with a high penetration of renewables are strongly affected by weather patterns. Due to the variability of the climate system, a substantial fraction of energy supply needs to be provided by dispatchable power plants even if the consumption is on average balanced by renewables (e.g. Rodriguez et al. [2014]). In an interconnected system like the European electricity grid, benefits can arise from balancing generation mismatches spatially as long as overproduction in one region coincides with lack of generation in another region. These benefits might change as the climate changes and we thus investigate alterations of correlations between wind timeseries and Backup energy requirements. Our analysis is based on a five member model-ensemble from the EUROCORDEX initiative and we focus on onshore wind energy. We use the highest temporal (3h) and spatial (0.11°) resolution available to capture the intermittent and spatially diverse nature of renewable generation. In view of inter-model spread and other uncertainties, we use the strong climate change scenario rcp8.5 in order to obtain a high signal-to-noise ratio. We argue that rcp8.5 is best suited to reveal interesting interactions between climate change and renewable electricity system despite the fact that is in contradiction to the UNFCCC temperature goals (e.g. Schleussner et al. [2016]). We report spatially inhomogeneous alterations of correlations. In particular, we find increasing correlations between central and northern European states and decreasing correlations at the south-western and south-eastern margins of Europe. This hints to a lowering of balancing potentials within central and northern Europe due to climate change. A possible explanation might be associated to polar amplification and increasing frequencies of blocking events (Coumou [2015]). Moreover, we compute wind energy generation using a single-turbine model and a semi-random deployment procedure as developed in Monforti et al

  14. Design Considerations for the Electrical Power Supply of Future Civil Aircraft with Active High-Lift Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-K. Mueller

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Active high-lift systems of future civil aircraft allow noise reduction and the use of shorter runways. Powering high-lift systems electrically have a strong impact on the design requirements for the electrical power supply of the aircraft. The active high-lift system of the reference aircraft design considered in this paper consists of a flexible leading-edge device together with a combination of boundary-layer suction and Coanda-jet blowing. Electrically driven compressors distributed along the aircraft wings provide the required mass flow of pressurized air. Their additional loads significantly increase the electric power demand during take-off and landing, which is commonly provided by electric generators attached to the aircraft engines. The focus of the present study is a feasibility assessment of alternative electric power supply concepts to unburden or eliminate the generator coupled to the aircraft engine. For this purpose, two different concepts using either fuel cells or batteries are outlined and evaluated in terms of weight, efficiency, and technology availability. The most promising, but least developed alternative to the engine-powered electric generator is the usage of fuel cells. The advantages are high power density and short refueling time, compared to the battery storage concept.

  15. Green corridors and their possible impact on the European supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.; Holte, Even Ambros

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to present the concept of green corridors and analyse their possible impact on the supply chain. The basis of this material is work conducted in the context of the EU SuperGreen project and therefore the geographical setting of the chapter is Europe. The general...... is reviewed to investigate the relationship between green corridors and the recently introduced concept of TEN-T core network corridors in order to derive implications for corridor governance....

  16. EUROCMOSHF: demonstration of a fully European supply chain for space image sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moor, P.; De Munck, K.; Haspeslagh, L.; Guerrieri, S.; Van Olmen, J.; Meynants, G.; Beeckman, G.; Vanwichelen, K.; Van Esbroeck, K.; Ghiglione, Alexandre; Gilbert, Teva; Demiguel, Stéphane

    2017-09-01

    Europe has currently no full supply chain of CMOS image sensors (CIS) for space use, certainly not in terms of image sensor manufacturing. Although a few commercial foundries in Europe manufacture CMOS image sensors for consumer and automotive applications, they are typically not interested in adapting their process flow to meet high-end performance specifications, mainly because the expected manufacturing volume for space imagers is extremely low.

  17. A Model for Optimizing the Combination of Solar Electricity Generation, Supply Curtailment, Transmission and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Marc J. R.

    With extraordinary recent growth of the solar photovoltaic industry, it is paramount to address the biggest barrier to its high-penetration across global electrical grids: the inherent variability of the solar resource. This resource variability arises from largely unpredictable meteorological phenomena and from the predictable rotation of the earth around the sun and about its own axis. To achieve very high photovoltaic penetration, the imbalance between the variable supply of sunlight and demand must be alleviated. The research detailed herein consists of the development of a computational model which seeks to optimize the combination of 3 supply-side solutions to solar variability that minimizes the aggregate cost of electricity generated therefrom: Storage (where excess solar generation is stored when it exceeds demand for utilization when it does not meet demand), interconnection (where solar generation is spread across a large geographic area and electrically interconnected to smooth overall regional output) and smart curtailment (where solar capacity is oversized and excess generation is curtailed at key times to minimize the need for storage.). This model leverages a database created in the context of this doctoral work of satellite-derived photovoltaic output spanning 10 years at a daily interval for 64,000 unique geographic points across the globe. Underpinning the model's design and results, the database was used to further the understanding of solar resource variability at timescales greater than 1-day. It is shown that--as at shorter timescales--cloud/weather-induced solar variability decreases with geographic extent and that the geographic extent at which variability is mitigated increases with timescale and is modulated by the prevailing speed of clouds/weather systems. Unpredictable solar variability up to the timescale of 30 days is shown to be mitigated across a geographic extent of only 1500km if that geographic extent is oriented in a north

  18. Danube Soya – Improving European GM-free soya supply for food and feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krön Matthias

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Danube Soya Association is an international, voluntary, non-profit, non-governmental association promoting sustainable and GMO**-free soya production along the Danube River Basin – from Switzerland to the Black Sea. Founded in 2012 the association counts today more than 200 members from the whole value chain and civil society in 16 European countries. The members share the vision of a protein transition towards more European and more sustainable protein sources for food and feed. The Danube Area is an area of large potential agricultural surpluses and Danube Soya promotes the idea of using these surpluses to replace a part of the imported soya. The goals of the association are to increase value-added in the rural economies of Central Eastern Europe, promote European cooperation as well as a production of constant and sustainable local soya sources. The Danube Soya Association runs a certification scheme that reaches from soya seeds all the way to final products, which can be labelled with the consumer label “Fed with Danube Soya” (for animal products and “Danube Soya” (for soya food products. Together with its partners, the Danube Soya Association implements and supports dissemination and research projects on different topics.

  19. Evaluation of the contact switch materials in high voltage power supply for generate of underwater shockwave by electrical discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Higa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We have developed the high voltage power-supply unit by Cockcroft-Walton circuit for ingenerate high pressure due to underwater shockwave by electrical discharge. This high voltage power supply has the problem of the metal contact switch operation that contact switch stop by melting and bonding due to electrical spark. We have studied the evaluation of materials of contact switch for the reducing electrical energy loss and the problem of contact switch operation. In this research, measurement of discharge voltage and high pressure due to underwater shockwave was carried out using the contact switch made of different materials as brass plate, brass-carbon plate-brass and carbon block. The contact switch made of carbon is effective to reduce energy loss and problem of contactor switch operation.

  20. Network-independent electrification ranging from the Solar Home System via Alps Association Houses up to electric power supply of a whole village; Netzferne Elektrifizierung vom Solar Home System ueber Alpenvereinshaeuser bis hin zur Dorfstromversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bopp, G.; Holz, F.; Sauer, D.U. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    According to assessment of the European Union approximately two billion people live worldwide without having a connection to a public electric power grid, half of them even live in areas without any access to electricity at all. In the medium term, high investment costs along with a simultaneously low electric power demand (smaller than 1 KWh/day) will impede grid connection of these isolated, scattered populated areas for economic reasons. Photovoltaic plants are one of the most interesting technical options for the solution of this energy supply task. However, a lot painful experience gained in pilot projects, has shown, that various frame conditions must be taken into consideration for planning these plants. Apart from technical aspects, cultural, social, economic and financial aspects must be taken into account. While the pure electric power supply is improved, other central areas of living like food and water supply, the health system, education system and infrastructure measures must be improved as well in order to achieve lasting improvement of the living standard of the people living away from grid supply. (orig.)

  1. Optimising waste from electric and electronic equipment collection systems: a comparison of approaches in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning; Oberdörfer, Michael; Günther, Marko

    2015-03-01

    The first European waste from electric and electronic equipment directive obliged the Member States to collect 4 kg of used devices per inhabitant and year. The target of the amended directive focuses on the ratio between the amount of waste from electric and electronic equipment collected and the mass of electric and electronic devices put on the market in the three foregoing years. The minimum collection target is 45% starting in 2016, being increased to 65% in 2019 or alternatively 85% of waste from electric and electronic equipment generated. Being aware of the new target, the question arises how Member States with 'best practice' organise their collection systems and how they enforce the parties in this playing field. Therefore the waste from electric and electronic equipment schemes of Sweden, Denmark, Switzerland, Germany and the Flemish region of Belgium were investigated focusing on the categories IT and telecommunications equipment, consumer equipment like audio systems and discharge lamps containing hazardous substances, e.g. mercury. The systems for waste from electric and electronic equipment collection in these countries vary considerably. Recycling yards turned out to be the backbone of waste from electric and electronic equipment collection in most countries studied. For discharge lamps, take-back by retailers seems to be more important. Sampling points like special containers in shopping centres, lidded waste bins and complementary return of used devices in all retail shops for electric equipment may serve as supplements. High transparency of collection and recycling efforts can encourage ambition among the concerned parties. Though the results from the study cannot be transferred in a simplistic manner, they serve as an indication for best practice methods for waste from electric and electronic equipment collection. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Climate impacts on hydropower and consequences for global electricity supply investment needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Sean W. D.; Hejazi, Mohamad; Kim, Son H.; Clarke, Leon; Edmonds, Jae

    2017-12-01

    Recent progress in global scale hydrological and dam modeling has allowed for the study of climate change impacts on global hydropower production. Here we explore the possible consequences of these impacts for the electricity supply sector. Regional hydropower projections are developed for two emissions scenarios by forcing a coupled global hydrological and dam model with downscaled, bias-corrected climate realizations derived from sixteen general circulation models. Consequent impacts on power sector composition and associated emissions and investment costs are explored using the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). Changes in hydropower generation resulting from climate change can shift power demands onto and away from carbon intensive technologies, resulting in significant impacts on power sector CO2 emissions for certain world regions—primarily those located in Latin America, as well as Canada and parts of Europe. Reduced impacts of climate change on hydropower production under a low emissions scenario coincide with increased costs of marginal power generating capacity—meaning impacts on power sector investment costs are similar for high and low emissions scenarios. Individual countries where impacts on investment costs imply significant risks or opportunities are identified.

  3. Untying the Energy Knot of Supply Security, Climate Change, Economic Competitiveness: The Role of Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulteel, Paul; Capros, Pantelis

    2007-07-01

    In energy terms, the following decades will be dominated by the challenge of developing a low-carbon, energy-secure and competitive economy. EURELECTRIC launched a study, horizon 2030-2050, to develop a qualified vision about the role of electricity in responding to these challenges. The resulting message is a positive one: with the right policies that include a long-term visibility of carbon pricing to allow integration of climate change impacts in investments and business strategies, it is possible to substantially reduce greenhouse gas emissions without unreasonable costs to the economy, and at the same time to reduce oil and gas dependency. A focus on demand side energy-efficiency is a prerequisite. The development of renewables, of clean fossil fuel technology with carbon capture and storage, and of nuclear energy can make a low-carbon and largely oil-independent power generation mix a reality. This allows for formidable synergies with energy-efficient electro-technologies at the demand side. Two sectors are especially meaningful in this respect: the heating and cooling and road transport sectors, where heat pumps and plug-in hybrid cars respectively can make energy-efficient, oil-independent and low-carbon homes and cars a reality. Although the analysis is based on European conditions, the authors believe that it has worldwide relevance. (auth)

  4. Evaluating the electricity intensity of evolving water supply mixes: the case of California’s water network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes-Draut, Jennifer; Taptich, Michael; Kavvada, Olga; Horvath, Arpad

    2017-11-01

    Climate change is making water supply less predictable, even unreliable, in parts of the world. Urban water providers, especially in already arid areas, will need to diversify their water resources by switching to alternative sources and negotiating trading agreements to create more resilient and interdependent networks. The increasing complexity of these networks will likely require more operational electricity. The ability to document, visualize, and analyze water–energy relationships will be critical to future water planning, especially as data needed to conduct the analyses become increasingly available. We have developed a network model and decision-support tool, WESTNet, to perform these tasks. Herein, WESTNet was used to analyze a model of California’s 2010 urban water network as well as the projected system for 2020 and 2030. Results for California’s ten hydrologic regions show that the average number of water sources per utility and total electricity consumption for supplying water will increase in spite of decreasing per-capita water consumption. Electricity intensity (kWh m‑3) will increase in arid regions of the state due to shifts to alternative water sources such as indirect potable water reuse, desalination, and water transfers. In wetter, typically less populated, regions, reduced water demand for electricity-intensive supplies will decrease the electricity intensity of the water supply mix, though total electricity consumption will increase due to urban population growth. The results of this study provide a baseline for comparing current and potential innovations to California’s water system. The WESTNet tool can be applied to diverse water systems in any geographic region at a variety of scales to evaluate an array of network-dependent water–energy parameters.

  5. Increased competition on the supply side of the Western European natural gas market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golombek, R.; Gjelsvik, E.; Rosendahl, K.N.

    1996-03-01

    This publication discusses the impact of breaking up national gas sales consortia in Western Europe. A numerical model of the Western European natural gas market is used to show that once the demand side of the market is liberalized, each producing country has an incentive to break up its national gas sales consortium. The situation is not stable, however, since each country has an incentive to increase the number of domestic producers in response to more competitors. Consequently the model suggests that there may be a large number of producers in a completely liberalized natural gas market. 19 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  6. VersiCharge-SG - Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) for Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Dong [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haas, Harry [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Terricciano, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-30

    some real life experimentation and sporadic deployment of these technologies [14]. By many accounts, the second decade of the 21st Century is expected to be the time when mass volume production and popular usage of these AFV technologies, especially EV, will materialize. The current DOE request for proposals recognizes the need for major technological changes to ensure that the above national goal is realizable. Two major challenges have been identified: (1) major reduction in the cost of ownership of EVSEs, and (2) managing additional EV loads in the power grid while maintaining power quality, reliability, and affordability. We note that the two challenges are closely linked – A holistic approach to true lifecycle cost of EVSE ownership will certainly include any taxes and surcharges that can be put in place for major potential investments in the grid, and higher electricity charges in case of more frequent and longer peak periods. From a societal perspective, this cost could also include the lost GDP (computed on a local basis) and revenue for businesses at local and regional levels when the grid is no longer capable of meeting the demand and unexpected outages occur. A typical end-point electrical distribution system delivers power to a residential EVSE from the neighborhood distribution pole, as shown in Fig.1. This pole has a transformer (neighboring step-down transformer) that steps down the utility medium voltage to dual 120VAC single phase (also called 240VAC split phase). This voltage is fed through a meter into the residential load control center. The load control center consists of branch circuit breakers and distributes the power supply within various areas of the residential unit. One of the branch circuits from the load control center feeds EV charging station for the unit. An electric vehicle charger is plugged into the socket of the EV charging station and other end of this charger is connected to the vehicle during charging. Figure 1 illustrates a

  7. LIBERALISATION OF THE ELECTRICITY SECTOR IN THE EUROPEAN UNION: PRESENT STATE AND SOME OPEN QUESTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, A.

    2007-07-01

    The liberalisation of the electricity sector started approximately 10 to 15 years ago, depending on the country. Nonetheless, there is still no general agreement on the liberalisation model this sector should follow, mainly because of the discussion of whether the liberalisation is an end in itself, or a means for -basically- lower energy prices. The complexity of the sector and the resilience of the incumbents' market power have currently placed the liberalisation process at a crossroad. In the EU, entrenched national interests are another obstacle to deal with. In this article, we first give an overview of the different liberalisation processes in the electricity sector and then summarize the pending challenges from an EU perspective. Next, we argue that the EU should focus on conditions aiming at implementing an effective liberalisation process, rather than on a formal liberalisation approach. We show how asymmetries between non-sector regulations in the European states and among companies create an uneven playing field, contrary to the European vision of an internal competitive energy market. We end the article studying the compatibility of the current European regulatory framework with the upcoming challenges in the energy sector. (auth)

  8. Sustainability Of Electricity Supply Technologies Under German Conditions: A Comparative Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschberg, S.; Dones, R.; Heck, T.; Burgherr, P.; Schenler, W.; Bauer, C

    2005-03-01

    The study reported here is intended to provide a framework for a systematic comparative evaluation of the sustainability of energy systems. The existing, representative evaluation criteria and indicators, recently proposed by competent international organisations, have first been reviewed. Based on this survey, and the experience gained at PSI from previous evaluation studies, a set of criteria and indicators for use in the present project have been established. Main efforts have focussed on the generation of quantitative, technology-specific, economic, environmental and social indicators. A number of methods have been employed, including Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Risk Assessment (RA), and the Impact Pathway Approach (IPA). Some new, advanced methodologies have also been implemented, in particular an improved link between LCA and impact estimation, and an enhanced treatment of site-dependent effects. Two methods of indicator aggregation were employed: namely, the estimation of total (internal and external) costs, and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA). Use of MCDA is motivated principally by the acknowledgement of the role of value judgments in decision-making. In terms of total costs, nuclear power displays top performance under German conditions, superior to all other currently implemented technologies. Evaluations employing a variety of sustainability criteria result in a fragmented picture of the merits and drawbacks of the currently available electricity supply options. No single system exhibits superior performance on the basis of all criteria. MCDA ranking based on the three pillars of sustainability of economy, ecology and social, is relatively robust if the pillars are considered to be equally important, and the weighting of lower-level criteria (e.g. financial requirements or employment effects) is subject to variation. Placing emphasis on economy penalizes renewables, while emphasis on the environment penalizes fossil systems, and emphasis on

  9. Supply-side-demand-side optimization and cost-environment trade offs for China`s coal and electricity system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Zhijun; Kuby, M. [Boston University, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Geography, Center for Energy and Environmental Studies

    1997-02-01

    The authors simultaneously optimize supply-side and demand-size investments for satisfying China`s coal and electricity needs over a 15 year time horizon. The results are compared to equivalent results from a supply-side only optimization assuming a business-as-usual demand scenario. It is estimated that, by shifting investment from energy production and transportation to energy efficiency improvement, China could meet the same energy service demand in 2000 for 7% less cost and 120 million tons (mt) less coal. Alternatively, for greater environmental protection, China could satisfy the same demands at the same cost using 275 mt coal. 27 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Regression Analysis of Variables Describing Poultry Meat Supply in European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonič Miro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, based on the analysis of official FAOSTAT and EUROSTAT data on poultry meat for 38 European countries for years 2007 and 2009, two hypotheses were examined. Firstly, considering four clustering variables on poultry meat, i.e. production, export and import in kg/capita, as well as the producer price in US $/t, using descriptive exploratory and cluster analysis, the hypothesis that the clusters of countries may be recognized was confirmed. As a result six clusters of similar countries were distinguished. Secondly, based on multiple regression analysis, this paper proofs that there exists the statistically significant relationship of poultry meat production on export and import of that kind of meat, all measured in kg/capita. There is also a high correlation between production, as a dependent, and each of two independent variables.

  11. The political economy of institutional change in the electricity supply industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufin, Carlos Ramon

    2000-09-01

    In the first part, a positive political economy model of the behavior of public enterprise, consumer electoral preferences, electoral platform choices of political parties, and side payments by production factors ("suppliers") to political parties, is used to analyze the political economy of choices among three alternative institutional arrangements: competition among private firms, private monopoly, or public enterprise monopoly. The analysis shows that political choices will be biased in favor of public enterprise, because consumers and suppliers benefit from its behavior. Voter and politician ideologies can temper or exacerbate this logic. Competition for economic rents increases the likelihood of public enterprise. Lastly, a weak judiciary can also make public enterprise likelier, but it creates uncertainty about parties' future actions and therefore it lowers the effectiveness of supplier side payments. In Part 2, the model's conclusions are tested for the electricity supply industry (ESI) across a cross-section of more than 80 countries. Coding is used to compute scores for observed outcomes with regard to reliance on competition versus monopoly and on private versus public ownership. Multiple indicators for the hypothesized explanatory variables are aggregated using factor analysis. OLS regressions show that ideology plays an important role in both competition and property outcomes, and to a lesser extent, distributional conflict, while judicial independence does not in general have a clear effect. In the last part, the validity of the same hypotheses is tested by means of a comparison of the process of restructuring of the ESI in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, and Chile. The case studies show that ideology plays a major role in shaping the outcomes of the institutional change process; distributional conflict, or the conflict over the economic rents that can be extracted from the electricity industry, also has a significant influence on institutional change

  12. Export Supply of Electricity from Laos to Thailand: An Econometric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Thongphet Lamphayphan; Toshihisa Toyoda; Chris Czerkawsk; Phouphet Kyophilavong

    2015-01-01

    Thailand, as the largest electricity market for Laos, has imported significant amounts of electricity from Laos since the operation of first hydropower plant in Laos. However, currently there have been a number of new power particularly nuclear power plants in Thailand being studied implying the possibility of reduction in Thailand’s electricity import from Laos. Since Thailand is the largest market of Laos’ electricity, the change in demand for electricity from Thailand has substantial impac...

  13. Life-cycle implications and supply chain logistics of electric vehicle battery recycling in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Thomas P.; Kavvada, Olga; Shah, Nihar; Sathre, Roger; Scown, Corinne D.

    2015-01-01

    Plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) use in the United States (US) has doubled in recent years and is projected to continue increasing rapidly. This is especially true in California, which makes up nearly one-third of the current US PEV market. Planning and constructing the necessary infrastructure to support this projected increase requires insight into the optimal strategies for PEV battery recycling. Utilizing life-cycle perspectives in evaluating these supply chain networks is essential in fully understanding the environmental consequences of this infrastructure expansion. This study combined life-cycle assessment and geographic information systems (GIS) to analyze the energy, greenhouse gas (GHG), water use, and criteria air pollutant implications of end-of-life infrastructure networks for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in California. Multiple end-of-life scenarios were assessed, including hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical recycling processes. Using economic and environmental criteria, GIS modeling revealed optimal locations for battery dismantling and recycling facilities for in-state and out-of-state recycling scenarios. Results show that economic return on investment is likely to diminish if more than two in-state dismantling facilities are constructed. Using rail as well as truck transportation can substantially reduce transportation-related GHG emissions (23-45%) for both in-state and out-of-state recycling scenarios. The results revealed that material recovery from pyrometallurgy can offset environmental burdens associated with LIB production, namely a 6-56% reduction in primary energy demand and 23% reduction in GHG emissions, when compared to virgin production. Incorporating human health damages from air emissions into the model indicated that Los Angeles and Kern Counties are most at risk in the infrastructure scale-up for in-state recycling due to their population density and proximity to the optimal location.

  14. A preliminary study on the changes in the Italian automotive supply chain for the introduction of electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossini, M.; Ciarapica, F.; Matt, D.; Spena, P.R.

    2016-07-01

    A survey has been carried out among Italian car makers, suppliers, and customers to identify the potential changes that the traditional Italian automotive supply chain would need for the introduction of electric vehicles. In addition, this study investigates the degree of importance that enterprises attribute to the electric vehicle market and their perceptions about the development of this market, also evaluating which types of electric vehicles and body styles are receiving the most relevant investment. An empirical investigation has been carried out to examine the above-mentioned aspects. Data have been collected through an on-line survey and analysed by a descriptive statistical analysisconfirmatory factors analysis, and cluster analyses. Market penetration of electric vehicles is mainly influenced by technological choices of car makers and battery manufacturers and by the ability to organize and manage the integrated actions of stakeholders, also including component suppliers, and manufacturers of vehicle management systems. Stakeholders have to exploit economies of scale, to make use and expand long-time competencies in electric engineering with automotive know-how, and to build up cooperation with experts in the new value chain to facilitate the required transfer of know-how. Alliances and joint ventures can provide manufacturers access to the know-how, technology, and production capacity of battery suppliers. Outsourcing, especially as regards research and development, will occur even more frequently in the near future. An agile supply chain should be adopted to manage a fluctuating market demand. This preliminary study contributes to provide an outlook of some of the most important changes that traditional Italian automotive supply chain would need to promote the introduction of electric vehicles and their critical components with an emphasis on production aspects. (Author)

  15. A preliminary study on the changes in the Italian automotive supply chain for the introduction of electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Rossini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A survey has been carried out among Italian car makers, suppliers, and customers to identify the potential changes that the traditional Italian automotive supply chain would need for the introduction of electric vehicles. In addition, this study investigates the degree of importance that enterprises attribute to the electric vehicle market and their perceptions about the development of this market, also evaluating which types of electric vehicles and body styles are receiving the most relevant investment. Design/methodology/approach: An empirical investigation has been carried out to examine the above-mentioned aspects. Data have been collected through an on-line survey and analysed by a descriptive statistical analysis, confirmatory factors analysis, and cluster analyses. Findings: Market penetration of electric vehicles is mainly influenced by technological choices of car makers and battery manufacturers and by the ability to organize and manage the integrated actions of stakeholders, also including component suppliers, and manufacturers of vehicle management systems. Stakeholders have to exploit economies of scale, to make use and expand long-time competencies in electric engineering with automotive know-how, and to build up cooperation with experts in the new value chain to facilitate the required transfer of know-how. Alliances and joint ventures can provide manufacturers access to the know-how, technology, and production capacity of battery suppliers. Outsourcing, especially as regards research and development, will occur even more frequently in the near future. An agile supply chain should be adopted to manage a fluctuating market demand. Originality/value: This preliminary study contributes to provide an outlook of some of the most important changes that traditional Italian automotive supply chain would need to promote the introduction of electric vehicles and their critical components with an emphasis on production aspects.

  16. Towards a unified European electricity market: The contribution of data-mining to support realistic simulation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Tiago; Santos, Gabriel; Pereira, Ivo F.

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide electricity markets have been evolving into regional and even continental scales. The aim at an efficient use of renewable based generation in places where it exceeds the local needs is one of the main reasons. A reference case of this evolution is the European Electricity Market, where...

  17. RE-Europe, a large-scale dataset for modeling a highly renewable European electricity system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tue Vissing; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    , we describe a dedicated large-scale dataset for a renewable electric power system. The dataset combines a transmission network model, as well as information for generation and demand. Generation includes conventional generators with their technical and economic characteristics, as well as weather......-driven forecasts and corresponding realizations for renewable energy generation for a period of 3 years.(R2.9) These may be scaled according to the envisioned degrees of renewable penetration in a future European energy system.(R2.10) The spatial coverage, completeness and resolution of this dataset, open the door...

  18. Mergers and acquisitions in the European electricity sector. Cases and patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codognet, M.K.; Glachant, J.M.; Leveque, F.; Plagnet, M.A

    2002-08-01

    This report surveys 96 mergers and acquisitions of electric power companies in the European Union from January 1998 to August 2002. Cases are described in part 1 and patterns in part 2. The companies in concern are: E.ON (Germany), Powergen (UK), RWE (Germany), National Power (UK), Innogy (UK), Electricite de France (EdF), Edison (Italy), EnBW (Germany), Electricidade de Portugal (EdP), Suez (France), Endesa (Spain), Enel (Italy), Vattenfall (Sweden), Bewag (Germany), Hafslund ASA (Norway), FORTUM (Finland), STATKRAFT (Norway), British Energy (UK), Scottish and Southern Energy (UK), National Grid Transco (UK), Centrica (UK), Sydvest Energi (Denmark), Essent (Netherlands) and Nuon (Netherlands). (J.S.)

  19. A Sepic Type Switched Mode Power Supply System For Battery Charging In An Electric Tricycle Auto-Rickshaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kureve

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the plug-in electric tricycle Auto rickshaw battery charging system using a non-isolated DC-DC SEPIC converter which operates as a switched mode power supply SMPS. The control of dc voltage output is by varying the gating pulses duty cycle of the switch in the dc-dc converter using PID controller based PWM technique. The 60 V 30 A DC-DC SEPIC converter is designed to provide non-inverting voltage buck from the rectified AC mains for charging deep cycle battery bank in an electric auto rickshaw. The charger system is implemented using MATLABSimulink.

  20. A proposed national wind power R and D program. [offshore wind power system for electric energy supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heronemus, W.

    1973-01-01

    An offshore wind power system is described that consists of wind driven electrical dc generators mounted on floating towers in offshore waters. The output from the generators supplies underwater electrolyzer stations in which water is converted into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen is piped to shore for conversion to electricity in fuel cell stations. It is estimated that this system can produce 159 x 10 to the ninth power kilowatt-hours per year. It is concluded that solar energy - and that includes wind energy - is the only way out of the US energy dilemma in the not too distant future.

  1. Electric power supply concept for the North Sea island Pellworm; Stromversorgungskonzept fuer die Nordseeinsel Pellworm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durstewitz, M.; Kansteiner, B.; Rothert, M. [Institut fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET), Kassel (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    The project idea of a CO{sub 2}-free island was brought up in 1993 by the association Oekologisch Wirtschaften e.V. (OeW) and incorporated into the ALTENER-programme of the EC with the support of the company Schleswag AG. Target of the ALTENER-programme is to double the use of renewable energies, to triple the generation of electric energy from renewable energies and to guarantee a market share of 5% for bio fuels in public traffic to achieve an efficient reduction of CO{sub 2} emission until the year 2005. Experience with renewable energies has already been gained on the island Pellworm for many years, since 1983 the largest photovoltaic-wind-hybrid power plant (1 MW) in Europe has been built in several phases with the support of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research and the EC. By the order of the Forum for Future Energies, Bonn, ISET investigated the energy and power demand for electric power on Pellworm and the corresponding offer of wind and photovoltaic power plants that already exist, are planned or will be installed in the future with respect to the design of storage and back-up systems as well as possibilities of load management in order to reach an autarkic electric power supply of the island. The provision is dominated by the prevailing potential of wind energy and can not be adequately supplemented by other energy carriers such as sun or biomass. Hence energy storage plays a special role. (orig.) [German] Die Projektidee einer CO{sub 2}-freien Insel wurde 1993 von Oekologisch Wirtschaften e.V. (OeW), Pellworm und mit Unterstuetzung der Schleswag AG in das ALTENER-Programm der EU eingebracht. Ziel von ALTENER ist die Verdopplung der Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien, die Verdreifachung der elektrischen Energie aus erneuerbaren Energien und die Sicherung eines Marktanteils von 5% Biokraftstoffen im Verkehr zur wirksamen Reduktion der CO{sub 2}-Emissionen bis zum Jahr 2005. Auf der Insel Pellworm gibt es bereits langjaehrige Erfahrungen mit

  2. Liberalisation of the European Electricity Industry: Internal Market or National Champions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domanico, F.

    2007-07-01

    This article offers an analysis of the present competitive and regulatory framework of the European electricity sector. Considering the complexity of this industry, the focus in this work is mainly on the problem of market concentration of incumbents in the sector as a result of the liberalisation process. The new trend toward the creation of ''national champions'' as well as recent mergers between gas suppliers and electricity producers raised serious concerns about abuses of market power and risks of future collusion. Taking account of investment in interconnection as well as other international and regional experiences, the internal market issue is investigated as the solution to the''risks'' from liberalisation. (auth)

  3. Principal Mismatch Patterns Across a Simplified Highly Renewable European Electricity Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mads Raunbak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to its spatio-temporal variability, the mismatch between the weather and demand patterns challenges the design of highly renewable energy systems. A principal component analysis is applied to a simplified networked European electricity system with a high share of wind and solar power generation. It reveals a small number of important mismatch patterns, which explain most of the system’s required backup and transmission infrastructure. Whereas the first principal component is already able to reproduce most of the temporal mismatch variability for a solar dominated system, a few more principal components are needed for a wind dominated system. Due to its monopole structure the first principal component causes most of the system’s backup infrastructure. The next few principal components have a dipole structure and dominate the transmission infrastructure of the renewable electricity network.

  4. Future Electricity Demand of the Emerging European Countries and the CIS Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fatih Bayramoglu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, one of the leading factors used in the evaluation of a country’s economic development is energy consumption. Because of economic growth, demand for energy is also increasing. In this study, the emerging European countries’ (the Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Turkey and the CIS countries’ (Kazakhstan, Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan  electricity consumption has been forecasted for five years period (2015-2019. In the study, GM(1,1 Rolling Model, which is developed in the framework of Grey System Theory is used as a mathematical model for real-time forecasting. The results of the study show that there will not be a significant change in electricity demand in this two area during the 2015-2109 period.

  5. Urban exposure to ELF magnetic field due to high-, medium- and low-voltage electricity supply networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottura, V; Cappio Borlino, M; Carta, N; Cerise, L; Imperial, E

    2009-12-01

    The regional environment protection agency (ARPA) of the Aosta Valley region in north Italy performed a survey of magnetic field triggered by the power supply network in high, medium and low voltages on the entire area of Aosta town. The electrical distribution system for houses was not however taken into account. The aim of the survey was to evaluate the global population exposure and not simply the assessment of the legal exposure limit compliance.

  6. Electricity and energy policy: French specificities and stakes in the European framework; Electricite et politique energetique: specificites francaises et enjeux dans le cadre europeen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    The present day context of liberalization of European power markets and increase of energy prices raises the question of the competitiveness of the French economy: what type of supply and what technological trend would allow to relax this constrain? It is therefore the overall main trends of the French energy policy that should be reexamined in the broader framework of Europe. This is the aim of this document. It presents, first, the present day organization of the French power market and the recent changes that have followed its opening to competition. Then, it describes the evolutions since the first petroleum shock and the share given to electricity in the French energy mix, the technological choices that have led to the present day domination of nuclear energy in the power generation means. Finally, this policy and its perspectives is compared to the main European trends in the domain of energy security, environment protection and market liberalization. It appears, in particular, that the choices made by France in the domain of electricity (demand mastery efforts, large share given to electricity, preponderance of nuclear power, development of renewable energy sources, in particular hydroelectric power) have limited its energy bill and enhanced its energy independence. Also, all energy sources considered, they have led to a low level of CO{sub 2} emissions with respect to other developed countries. (J.S.)

  7. Research document no. 30. Introducing competition in the French electricity supply industry: the destabilization of a public hierarchy in an open institutional environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finon, D

    2002-07-01

    The introduction of market rules in a electricity supply industry characterized by a vertically integrated monopoly and public ownership is not inherently doomed to failure if characteristics of the reform or other elements of industrial structures give room for enforcing market-rules. The organisation of the French ESI in a public monopoly was deeply rooted in French institutional peculiarities. The paper analyses how the governmental goal of preserving the national champion EDF have had two paradoxical effects in favour of competition development and the building of safeguards for the entrants: the creation of a credible regulatory governance structure with effective power of control on the network access, and which promoted market-rules and the creation of a power exchange for balancing the incumbent dominant position; and the enforcement of the credibility of the regulatory framework by the self control of the incumbent on the use of its dominant position and on the capture of the regulator. This two effects results from the influence of the European institutional environment which is superposed to the national one, in particular under the intensive scrutiny of the European Commission, on a model far behind the competitive model. The paper concludes to the originality of such an institutional model: a permanent regulatory threat on the incumbent for balancing the effects of public property and integration of industrial structures. (author)

  8. Stationary diesel engines for use with generators to supply electric power

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The procurement of stationary diesel engines for on-site generation of electric power deals with technical criteria and policy relating to federal agency, not electrical components of diesel-generator sets or for the design of electric-power generating plants or their air-pollution or noise control equipment.

  9. Analysing green supply chain management practices in Brazil's electrical/electronics industry using interpretive structural modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Kannan, Devika; Mathiyazhagan, K.

    2013-01-01

    Industries need to adopt the environmental management concepts in the traditional supply chain management. The green supply chain management (GSCM) is an established concept to ensure environment-friendly activities in industry. This paper identifies the relationship of driving and dependence...

  10. Supply Curves for Solar PV-Generated Electricity for the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

    2008-11-01

    Energy supply curves attempt to estimate the relationship between the cost of an energy resource and the amount of energy available at or below that cost. In general, an energy supply curve is a series of step functions with each step representing a particular group or category of energy resource. The length of the step indicates how much of that resource is deployable or accessible at a given cost. Energy supply curves have been generated for a number of renewable energy sources including biomass fuels and geothermal, as well as conservation technologies. Generating a supply curve for solar photovoltaics (PV) has particular challenges due to the nature of the resource. The United States has a massive solar resource base -- many orders of magnitude greater than the total consumption of energy. In this report, we examine several possible methods for generating PV supply curves based exclusively on rooftop deployment.

  11. Electric generation situation through hybrid systems in Para state and perspectives in face of the global supply of electric power; Situacao da geracao eletrica atraves de sistemas hibridos no estado do Para e perspectivas frente a universalizacao da energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Claudomiro Fabio de Oliveira; Pinho, Joao Tavares; Pereira, Edinaldo Jose da Silva; Galhardo, Marcos Andre Barros; Vale, Silvio Bispo do; Maranhao, Wilson Monteiro de Albuquerque [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos e Desenvolvimento de Alternativas Energeticas], e-mail: gedae@ufpa.br

    2004-07-01

    This work presents an analysis of the hybrid systems for electricity generation installed in the State of Para, emphasizing the profile of the supplied localities, the conversion technologies in the several configurations used for electric power generation, the social, economic and environmental impacts caused by such systems, the management and sustainability of the systems, and their perspectives in face of the global supply of electric power in Brazil. (author)

  12. Effect of voltage shape of electrical power supply on radiation and density of a cold atmospheric argon plasma jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Sohbatzadeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we investigated generating argon cold plasma jet at atmospheric pressure based on dielectric barrier discharge configuration using three electrical power supplies of sinusoidal, pulsed and saw tooth high voltage shapes at 8 KHZ. At first; we describe the electronic circuit features for generating high voltage (HV wave forms including saw tooth, sinusoidal and pulsed forms. Then, we consider the effect of voltage shape on the electrical breakdown. Relative concentrations of chemical reactive species such as Oxygen, atomic Nitrogen and OH were measured using optical emission spectroscopy. Using a simple numerical model, we showed a HV with less rise time increases electron density, therefore a cold plasma jet can be produced with a minimal consumption electrical power

  13. Germany without renewables? Electricity costs and security of supply without the supply of renewable energy in 2011-2013. Discussion paper; Deutschland ohne Erneuerbare Energien? Stromkosten und Versorgungssicherheit ohne die Einspeisung Erneuerbarer Energien in den Jahren 2011-2013. Diskussionspapier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillig, Marius; Karl, Juergen

    2014-12-15

    In the years 2010 to 2013, the share of electricity produced from renewable energy of approximately 17 rose to 24%. For this share compared to conventional production results significantly increased electricity costs, which are allocated on the EEG surcharge to the final consumer. In public discussion of these costs, however, often is ignored that the rapid rise of the share of renewable energy lead to an oversupply of power and therefore decreasing electricity costs in total resulted. By the oversupply the trend of a strong increase in the 2000 to 2008 of Electricity prices on the European electricity markets was broken. The aim of this discussion paper is to reconstruct based on historical price data on the spot market of the Leipzig electricity exchange which prices would be set on the electricity market in the years 2011 to 2013 without the power supply from wind and photovoltaic. The analysis shows that electricity prices have increased without wind and sun, for example, for 2013, due to the significantly lower power supply by an average of 5.29 ct / kWh in the ''day-ahead'' trade on the spot market. The cost of the EEG surcharge of approximately EUR 20.4 billion are thus in 2013 savings of conventional electricity of approximately 31.6 billion euros. This saved a total of approximately 11.2 billion euros in 2013 for the German final consumers. About 269 hours of the year, the demand could not be satisfied with the offered maximal power of 2013. This does not automatically mean that in these situations, major faults (''blackouts'') would have been incurred because the consideration Reserve power plants for system services (''control reserve'') are not taken into account and possible additional import electricity. A stable network operation was reliably ensured only by the supply of renewable energy in these situations, however. Due to the massive development of renewable energy is therefore reduced to

  14. Decarbonizing the European electricity sector. Modeling and policy analysis for electricity and CO{sub 2} infrastructure networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oei, Pao-Yu Charly Robin

    2016-03-03

    This dissertation uses three models to analyze different decarbonization strategies for combating global climate change: The cost minimizing mixed-integer model CCTS-Mod examines the economics of Carbon Capture, Transport, and Storage (CCTS) for the electricity and industry sector; the welfare maximizing quadratically constrained model ELMOD focuses on different trajectories for renewable energy sources (RES) and transmission grid expansions; and the equilibrium model ELCO combines the insights of the individual sectors to a combined CCTS and electricity investment and dispatch model. Modeling results show that an investment in CCTS is beneficial for the iron and steel sector once the CO{sub 2} certificate price exceeds 50 Euros/t CO{sub 2}. The threshold is 75 Euros/t CO{sub 2} for the cement industry and 100 Euros/t CO{sub 2} for the electricity sector. Additional revenues from using CO{sub 2} for enhanced oil recovery (CO{sub 2}-EOR) lead to an earlier adoption of CCTS in the North Sea region. The lack of economies of scale results in increasing CO{sub 2} storage costs of more than 30%, while transport costs even double. Research from the last years, however, indicates that CCTS is unlikely to play an important role in decarbonizing the electricity sector. The identified reasons for this are incumbents' resistance to structural change, wrong technology choices, over-optimistic cost estimates, a premature focus on energy projects instead of industry, and the underestimation of transport and storage issues. Keeping global temperature rise below 2 C therefore implies the phase-out of fossilfueled power plants and, in particular, of CO{sub 2}-intensive coal power plants. The low CO{sub 2} price established by the European Emissions Trading Scheme is insufficient to induce a fuel switch in the medium term. Therefore, supplementary national measures are necessary to reduce coal-based power generation; i.a. feed-in tariffs for RES, minimum CO{sub 2} prices, or

  15. Estimates of U.S. Commercial Building Electricity Intensity Trends: Issues Related to End-Use and Supply Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, David B.

    2004-09-04

    This report examines measurement issues related to the amount of electricity used by the commercial sector in the U.S. and the implications for historical trends of commercial building electricity intensity (kWh/sq. ft. of floor space). The report compares two (Energy Information Administration) sources of data related to commercial buildings: the Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) and the reporting by utilities of sales to commercial customers (survey Form-861). Over past two decades these sources suggest significantly different trend rates of growth of electricity intensity, with the supply (utility)-based estimate growing much faster than that based only upon the CBECS. The report undertakes various data adjustments in an attempt to rationalize the differences between these two sources. These adjustments deal with: 1) periodic reclassifications of industrial vs. commercial electricity usage at the state level and 2) the amount of electricity used by non-enclosed equipment (non-building use) that is classified as commercial electricity sales. In part, after applying these adjustments, there is a good correspondence between the two sources over the the past four CBECS (beginning with 1992). However, as yet, there is no satisfactory explanation of the differences between the two sources for longer periods that include the 1980s.

  16. Balancing reserves within a decarbonized European electricity system in 2050. From market developments to model insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Casimir [German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin), Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Energy, Transportation, Environment; Univ. of Technology, Berlin (Germany). Workgroup for Infrastructure Policy (WIP)

    2017-03-30

    This paper expands the discussion about future balancing reserve provision to the long-term perspective of 2050. Most pathways for a transformation towards a decarbonized electricity sector rely on very high shares of fluctuating renewables. This can be a challenge for the provision of balancing reserves, although their influence on the balancing cost is unclear. Apart from the transformation of the generation portfolio, various technical and regulatory developments within the balancing framework might further influence balancing costs: i) dynamic dimensioning of balancing reserves, ii) provision by fluctuating renewables or new (battery) storage technologies, and iii) exchange of balancing reserves between balancing zones. The first part of this paper discusses and transforms these developments into quantitative scenario definitions. The second part applies these scenarios to dynELMOD (dynamic Electricity Model), an investment model of the European electricity system that is extended to include balancing reserve provision. In contrast to other models applied in most papers on balancing reserves, this model is capable of evaluating the interdependencies between developments in balancing reserve provision and high shares of fluctuating renewables jointly. The results show that balancing reserve cost can be kept at current levels for a renewable electricity system until 2050, when using a dynamic reserve sizing horizon. Apart from the sizing horizon, storage capacity withholding duration and additional balancing demand from RES are the main driver of balancing costs. Renewables participation in balancing provision is mainly important for negative reserves, while storages play an important role for the provision of positive reserves. However, only on very few occasions, additional storage investments are required for balancing reserve provision, as most of the time sufficient storage capacities are available in the electricity system.

  17. Danish and European plans for wind energy deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Hjuler; Knudsen, Søren; Morthorst, Poul Erik

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we outline European policies directed towards the ambitious target of large-scale use of wind energy in the European electricity supply system, and the scenarios that foresee up to 34% of Europe’s electricity coming from wind by 2030. First, however, we address Danish energy policy...

  18. Closed-Loop Supply Chains in the Electrical and Electronics Industry of Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Tomoaki Shimada

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the impact of the home appliance recycling law on closed-loop supply chain activities in the home appliance industry of Japan. We also examine the activities of PC (personal computer) recycling and mobile phone recycling in Japan to conduct comparative research on their reverse supply chains. This study is based on semi-structured interviews that were conducted with the managers of five major home appliance/PC manufacturers and public data. All the managers agreed that although...

  19. Investigation into outages of electric power supply as the result of ice storms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-09-01

    The accumulation of large amounts of ice on electric power distribution conductors and on trees surrounding these conductors has resulted in a number of extended customer electric power outages. Commonwealth Associates, Inc. was assigned the task of reviewing six ice-caused electric outages at the following utilities: Long Island Lighting Company; Portland General Electric; Central Illinois Public Service; Central Illinois Light Company; Dallas River Power and Light; and City Water, Light and Power Department of Springfield, Illinois. Weather conditions that result in ice storms are reviewed. Discussions conducted with public officials in the affected communities and states are described and results and recommendations are presented.

  20. Electric traction motion power and energy supply : basics and practical experience

    CERN Document Server

    Steimel, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This book has evolved from the lecture series ""Elektrische Bahnen" (""Electric railways") which has been held at Ruhr-Universität Bochum since 1996. Its primary audience are students of electrical energy technologies, control engineering and mechanical engineering as well as young engineers of electrical engineering, especially in the fields of power electronics, in railway industry and in railway-operating companies. The book intends to convey mechanical fundamentals of electric railway propulsion, which includes rail-bound guidance, transmission of traction effort from wheel to rail under t

  1. Electrical and magnetic fields of the power supply; Elektrische und magnetische Felder der Stromversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-01-15

    The availability of electrical energy in all areas of life is guaranteed by a widely ramified power grid. When electricity is transported, magnetic fields are created in addition to the electrical fields. In this brochure one will learn more about the causes and effects of electrical and magnetic fields as well as protection concepts and preventive measures. [German] Die Verfuegbarkeit von elektrischer Energie in allen Lebensbereichen wird von einem weit verzweigten Stromnetz gewaehrleistet. Wird Elektrizitaet transportiert, entstehen zusaetzlich zu den elektrischen auch magnetische Felder. In dieser Broschuere erfaehrt man mehr zu Ursachen und Wirkungen elektrischer und magnetischer Felder sowie Schutzkonzepten und Vorsorgemassnahmen.

  2. OPTIMIZATION OF THE RELIABILITY OF AGRICULTURAL CONSUMERS ELECTRICITY DISTRIBUTING AND SUPPLY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lupushor I.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The problems of the optimization reliability in electrical networks of the different class of voltage have probabilistic nature, they discretely change and depend on the number of factors both definite and indefinite and have importance by selection of electric equipment, graph of development of electrical networks and voltage levels. The definition of the major factors, which have determining significance on their value and speed of their change allow to elaborate methods of their optimization and to elaborate effective methods of their growth limitation in electrical networks with the different class of voltage.

  3. Model and Simulation of Permanent Magnets Synchronous Machine (PMSM of the Electric Power Supply System (EPS, in Accordance with the Concept of a More Electric Aircraft (MEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setlak Lucjan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the mathematical model of synchronous electric machine, basing on permanent magnets, presented in this paper, the key importance of alternator AC power sources in the form of generator (for conventional aircraft and in the form of integrated unit starter/AC synchronous generator S/G AC (with respect to advanced aircraft concept in the field of more/all electric power MEA/AEA was highlighted. In addition, through the analysis and selected simulations of the power supply system of a modern aircrafts, sources of onboard electrical energy (synchronous generator, integrated unit starter/AC generator were located in board autonomic power system ASE (EPS, PES. Key components of this system are the electro-energetic power system EPS and the energo-electronic power system PES. Additionally, the analysis and exemplary simulations of key electricity sources based on mathematical models have contributed to highlighting the main practical applications in line with the trend of a more electric aircraft.

  4. Joining Criteria for Harmonizing European Forest Available for Wood Supply Estimates. Case Studies from National Forest Inventories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Fischer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For national and international reporting on forest available for wood supply (FAWS, harmonized data are needed. This information is required as forests provide goods for various sectors like the timber industry or the bioenergy sector. The effect of applying different thresholds to the three restriction classes (environmental, social and economic restriction within the proposed reference definition for FAWS was evaluated. We applied the reference definition for FAWS to national data sets provided by five European National Forest Inventories using harmonized thresholds. The effects on FAWS area and growing stock were evaluated for each restriction and threshold. All countries within this study could report on protected areas. Social restrictions were not applied in any country, data on other restrictions are available but definitions vary. The application of common thresholds for restrictions proved difficult as effects vary between countries. The economic restriction is the most challenging to assess as many countries do not have corresponding data for direct calculation of, e.g., harvesting costs. Using proxies for harvesting costs was difficult, as common thresholds may not be applied in different countries. For standardized reporting, a FAWS definition should be developed that utilizes existing, harmonized indicators to describe restrictions.

  5. Impacts of recent drought and warm years on water resources and electricity supply worldwide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Sheffield, Justin; Wiberg, David; Wood, Eric F.

    2016-01-01

    Recent droughts and heatwaves showed the vulnerability of the electricity sector to surface water constraints with reduced potentials for thermoelectric power and hydropower generation in different regions. Here we use a global hydrological-electricity modelling framework to quantify the impacts of

  6. Becoming a First Mover in Green Electricity Supply: Corporate Change Driven by Liberalisation and Climate Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, Peter

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a study of a trend-setting company in the electricity sector in the Netherlands and its innovative response to the combined influence of liberalisation and climate change. The company became a first mover through its invention of the concept of green electricity and the

  7. Design and Application of a Power Unit to Use Plug-In Electric Vehicles as an Uninterruptible Power Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorkem Sen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Grid-enabled vehicles (GEVs such as plug-in electric vehicles present environmental and energy sustainability advantages compared to conventional vehicles. GEV runs solely on power generated by its own battery group, which supplies power to its electric motor. This battery group can be charged from external electric sources. Nowadays, the interaction of GEV with the power grid is unidirectional by the charging process. However, GEV can be operated bi-directionally by modifying its power unit. In such operating conditions, GEV can operate as an uninterruptible power supply (UPS and satisfy a portion or the total energy demand of the consumption center independent from utility grid, which is known as vehicle-to-home (V2H. In this paper, a power unit is developed for GEVs in the laboratory to conduct simulation and experimental studies to test the performance of GEVs as a UPS unit in V2H mode at the time of need. The activation and deactivation of the power unit and islanding protection unit are examined when energy is interrupted.

  8. Methodology for electric power supply in isolated areas feasibility studies elaboration; Metodologia para la elaboracion de estudios de factibilidad de electrificacion de zonas aisladas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo C, N.; Bustamante, G.; Flores, F.; Hernandez, L. [Compania Anonima de Administracion y Fomento Electrico (CADAFE), Caracas (Venezuela)

    1986-12-31

    This work explain a methodology for implementation of electric power supply in isolated areas, which has low consumption rates and localizes too far from the main consumer`s centers as main characteristics. The methodology is based on technological and economical comparison of some alternatives of electric power supply, like small hydroelectric power plants, wind power plants, solar plants, power transmission lines and diesel fueled power plants. 9 figs., 9 tabs., 3 refs.

  9. Wireless Power Supply via Coupled Magnetic Resonance for on-line Monitoring Wireless Sensor of High-voltage Electrical Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xingkui, Mao; Qisheng, Huang; Yudi, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    On-line monitoring of high-voltage electrical equipment (HV-EE) aiming to detect faults effectively has become crucial to avoid serious accidents. Moreover, highly reliable power supplies are the key component for the wireless sensors equipped in such on-line monitoring systems. Therefore......, in this paper, the wireless power supply via coupled magnetic resonance (MR-WPS) is proposed for powering the wireless sensor and the associated wireless sensor solution is also proposed. The key specifications of the MR-WPS working in switchgear cabinet with a harsh operation environment are analyzed...... and determined. Design of these key parameters of the coupled magnetic resonant unit (CMRU) in MR-WPS is provided as well as the method of optimizing the resonant windings is given. Finally, a prototype is built and tested. The experimental results are presented in order to show that sufficient and reliable...

  10. Network modelling of palm biodiesel plants to supply the isolated electric power systems of Pará state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thassyo Jorge Gonçalves Pereira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the great advance brought by the National Interconnected System (NIS, which is able to provide clean hydroelectric power to almost all Brazilian customers, there are still cities supplied by power generated from fossil fuel, which are subsidized by taxes, they are called Isolated Electric Power Systems (IEPS. Pará State, that has 34 cities with IEPS, also has potential to crop raw material (palm and sugar cane to produce biodiesel for power generation. Our study analyzes the supply and distribution network of biodiesel under some scenarios of waterways availability, considering that they are also source of power to the NIS by the construction of hydroelectric dams. We develop specific demand and facility location models and apply them to the scenarios. Our results point to the efficiency of the generated models, the importance of three cities for the network, and to the little impact of some waterways in the total transportation costs.

  11. The impact of German CO{sub 2}-reduction targets on the European electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindenberger, Dietmar [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.

    2016-07-01

    The topic ''CO{sub 2}-reduction within the electric power system'' should actually be preceded by a more general remark on the efficiency of energy policy from a macroeconomic perspective. An efficient and effective energy policy necessitates that the primary targets of such an energy policy, namely safeguarding a sustainable energy supply as well as considering environmental and climate objectives, are attained at the lowest possible costs. This corresponds to the general economic principle according to which given goals are to be achieved with relatively little effort and/or investments. That is beyond doubt because it means nothing else than to avoid any unnecessary waste of resources in order to reach such objectives.

  12. Climate change and the vulnerability of electricity generation to water stress in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Paul; van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Nanninga, Tijmen; Walsh, Brid; Rodrigues, João F. D.

    2017-08-01

    Thermoelectric generation requires large amounts of water for cooling. Recent warm periods have led to curtailments in generation, highlighting concerns about security of supply. Here we assess EU-wide climate impacts for 1,326 individual thermoelectric plants and 818 water basins in 2020 and 2030. We show that, despite policy goals and a decrease in electricity-related water withdrawal, the number of regions experiencing some reduction in power availability due to water stress rises from 47 basins to 54 basins between 2014 and 2030, with further plants planned for construction in stressed basins. We examine the reasons for these pressures by including water demand for other uses. The majority of vulnerable basins lie in the Mediterranean region, with further basins in France, Germany and Poland. We investigate four adaptations, finding that increased future seawater cooling eases some pressures. This highlights the need for an integrated, basin-level approach in energy and water policy.

  13. Challenges in Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Management: A Profitability Assessment in Three European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idiano D’Adamo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE is known as an important source of secondary raw materials. Since decades, its treatment allowed to recover great amounts of basic resources. However, the management of electronic components embedded in WEEE still presents many challenges. The purpose of the paper is to cope with some of these challenges through the definition of an economic model able to identify the presence of profitability within the recovery process of waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs. To this aim, a set of common economic indexes is used within the paper. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis on a set of critical variables is conducted to evaluate their impact on the results. Finally, the combination of predicted WEEE volumes (collected during the 2015–2030 period in three European countries (Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom and related economic indexes quantify the potential advantage coming from the recovery of this kind of waste in the next future.

  14. RE-Europe, a large-scale dataset for modeling a highly renewable European electricity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Tue V.; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-11-01

    Future highly renewable energy systems will couple to complex weather and climate dynamics. This coupling is generally not captured in detail by the open models developed in the power and energy system communities, where such open models exist. To enable modeling such a future energy system, we describe a dedicated large-scale dataset for a renewable electric power system. The dataset combines a transmission network model, as well as information for generation and demand. Generation includes conventional generators with their technical and economic characteristics, as well as weather-driven forecasts and corresponding realizations for renewable energy generation for a period of 3 years. These may be scaled according to the envisioned degrees of renewable penetration in a future European energy system. The spatial coverage, completeness and resolution of this dataset, open the door to the evaluation, scaling analysis and replicability check of a wealth of proposals in, e.g., market design, network actor coordination and forecasting of renewable power generation.

  15. Progress of electricity from biomass, wind and photovoltaics in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger-Waldau, A.; Ossenbrink, H. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Ispra (Italy). Renewable Energies Unit

    2004-04-01

    The world market for renewable energies is continuously growing. In particular, the wind energy and photovoltaic markets show yearly growth rates between 20 and over 30% in the last few years. Despite the fact that there are still discrepancies between the European Union and the USA how to deal with climate change, renewable energies will play an important role for the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and the worldwide introduction of tradable green certificates. Apart from the electricity sector, renewable energy sources for the generation of heat and the use of environmental friendly bio-fuels for the transport sector will become more and more important in the future. This article tries to give an overview about the progress of renewable energies in Europe. (author)

  16. The nature of supply side effects on electricity prices: the impact of water temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogert, Alexander; Dupont, D.Y.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we show that the impact of water temperatures on electricity prices observed in Europe in summer 2003 has prevailed for years. We trace its source to technological and regulatory constraints and draw lessons for modelling.

  17. The Study of Permanent Magnets Synchronous Machine (PMSM of the Autonomous Electric Power Supply System (ASE, compatible with the Concept of a More Electric Aircraft (MEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setlak Lucjan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis and mathematical models of synchronous electric machines (motor/generator, basing on permanent magnets, presented in this paper, the main importance of alternator AC power sources in the form of starter/generator (for conventional aircraft and in the form of integrated unit starter (motor/AC synchronous generator S/G AC (with respect to advanced aircraft concept in terms of more electric aircraft was highlighted. Additionally, through the analysis and selected simulations of the on-board autonomous power supply system of the modern aircrafts, sources of electrical energy (synchronous motor/generator, integrated unit starter/AC generator were located in board autonomic power system ASE (EPS, PES. Main components of this system are the electro-energetic power system EPS and the energo-electronic power system PES. In addition, the analysis and exemplary simulations of main electricity sources based on mathematical models have contributed to highlighting the main practical applications in accordance with the concept of MEA.

  18. Regulating the Electricity Supply Industry in Nigeria. An Assessment of Consumer's Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawale Ibrahim Olateju

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The power sector is critical to the development of any country and Nigeria is no exception, incessant power outrage has been the bane of economic development in the country. For the past three decades, the power sector of the country has been plagued by a lot of problems ranging from low power generation and distribution, decaying facilities most of which were commissioned before and shortly after the country’s independence. The interaction of the electric power industry with climate is manifested both in the effect that severe weather has on the power system and through the contribution of electric power to the production of greenhouse gas (GHG and other pollutants.The paper examines and provides answers to (i the nature of consumers’ attitudes towards power consumption and (ii suggest ways of informing the consumers on the need to conserve power when not in use. This study was carried out in Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State, south-west Nigeria. The findings show that 61 percent of electricity consumers’ agreed that rationing of electricity consumption would stabilized the electricity distribution, whereas 39 percent were not in agreement. The study also shows that about 90 percent of the consumers were not satisfied with the services being offered by the Government owned company, while the remaining 10 percent were satisfied. We suggest the authority take to prepaid method of electricity consumption and also intensify efforts to enlighten the public on the need to conserve power.

  19. Modeling Future Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Environmental Impacts of Electricity Supplies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. Bilec

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Brazil’s status as a rapidly developing country is visible in its need for more energy, including electricity. While the current electricity generation mix is primarily hydropower based, high-quality dam sites are diminishing and diversification to other sources is likely. We combined life-cycle data for electricity production with scenarios developed using the IAEA’s MESSAGE model to examine environmental impacts of future electricity generation under a baseline case and four side cases, using a Monte-Carlo approach to incorporate uncertainty in power plant performance and LCA impacts. Our results show that, under the cost-optimal base case scenario, Brazil’s GHGs from electricity (excluding hydroelectric reservoir emissions rise 370% by 2040 relative to 2010, with the carbon intensity per MWh rising 100%. This rise would make Brazil’s carbon emissions targets difficult to meet without demand-side programs. Our results show a future electricity mix dominated by environmental tradeoffs in the use of large-scale renewables, questioning the use tropical hydropower and highlighting the need for additional work to assess and include ecosystem and social impacts, where information is currently sparse.

  20. The Electricity Usage Pattern for Cooker Manufacturing in Three European Countries. A Benchmarking Study of Electrolux Factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nord-Aagren, Elisabet

    2002-12-01

    The European electricity market became deregulated by January 1999 and it is now free to trade electricity across borders. The price of electricity varies to a great extent among the countries within the European Union. Swedish electricity will increasingly be an export product on the European electricity market, due to the lower price compared with other countries in Europe. Energy statistics and studies indicate a clear relation between electricity price and electricity use. For the industrial sector in countries with low electricity prices, electricity is a major energy source. Electricity is the dominant energy source, not only for industrial processes but also for support processes, e.g. process heating and heating of the premises. The situation is quite different for industry in countries with high electricity prices. Electricity is sparingly used and only for electricity-specific processes. This thesis presents a benchmarking study of the electricity usage pattern for Electrolux cooker manufacturing in three European cities, i.e. Fredericia in Denmark, Spennymoor in England and Motala in Sweden. The basic idea is to investigate the relation between electricity price and use for cooker manufacturing and explain the differences. The results show that a high electricity price corresponds to a low electricity use and vice versa. Motala has the highest electricity use and the lowest electricity price. Spennymoor's electricity use is half of Motala's and the electricity price is about double Motala's. Spennymoor and Fredericia have about the same electricity price. They differ mainly in which energy source is used for process heating. The total energy use per cooker at Motala is rather close to that of Fredericia. They use less energy than Spennymoor, which has a high gas use. The total energy cost for Fredericia is 45.9 SEK/unit, Motala is 23.7 SEK/unit and Spennymoor is 40.9 SEK/unit. In this study the unit process method was used. The method is a

  1. Designing Decentralized Water and Electricity Supply System for Small Recreational Facilities in the South of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasharin, D. V.

    2017-11-01

    The article tackles the issues of designing seasonal water and power supply systems for small recreational facilities in the south of Russia based on intelligent decision support systems. The paper proposes modular prefabricated shell water and power supply works (MPSW&PW) along with energy-efficient standalone water-treatment plants as the principal facilities compliant with the environmental and infrastructural requirements applied to specially protected areas and ensuring the least possible damage to the environment due to a maximum possible use of local construction materials characterized by impressive safety margins in highly seismic environments. The task of designing water and power supply systems requires the consideration of issues pertaining to the development of an intelligent GIS-based system for the selection of water intake sites that facilitate automation of data-processing systems using a priori scanning methods with a variable step and random directions. The paper duly addresses such issues and develops parameterized optimization algorithms for MPSW&PW shell facilities. It equally provides the substantiation of water-treatment plants intelligent design based on energy recovery reverse osmosis and nanofiltration plants that enhance the energy efficiency of such plants serving as the optimum solution for the decentralized water supply of small recreational facilities from renewable energy sources.

  2. Direct load control for electricity supply and demand matching : increasing reliability of wind energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve ten, Marieke

    2009-01-01

    In Sweden as well as in The Netherlands energy policy is increasingly aiming at extending the use of renew-able sources. In accordance with the targets of the European Union, both countries have formulated national targets for the year 2020. For wind ener

  3. Method for selecting parameters and assessing efficiency of wind-diesel power plants for autonomous electrical supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obukhov, S. G.; Plotnikov, I. A.; Masolov, V. G.

    2018-01-01

    The article presents an original technique for selecting parameters and evaluating the efficiency of wind-diesel power plants for isolated power supply systems. The initial data to perform energy calculations are simulation models of electric load and wind speed. The load is simulated using typical schedules of electric loads of a decentralized consumer, taking into account a random component for each hour of the day. To create a simulation model of the wind, a typical climatic series of wind speeds at a prospective site of the power plant has been constructed according to the data of long-term meteorological observations. The proposed technique was verified through the example of choosing a wind-diesel power plant for the village of Ust-Olenyok of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).

  4. Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwich, Edgar G; Gibon, Thomas; Bouman, Evert A; Arvesen, Anders; Suh, Sangwon; Heath, Garvin A; Bergesen, Joseph D; Ramirez, Andrea; Vega, Mabel I; Shi, Lei

    2015-05-19

    Decarbonization of electricity generation can support climate-change mitigation and presents an opportunity to address pollution resulting from fossil-fuel combustion. Generally, renewable technologies require higher initial investments in infrastructure than fossil-based power systems. To assess the tradeoffs of increased up-front emissions and reduced operational emissions, we present, to our knowledge, the first global, integrated life-cycle assessment (LCA) of long-term, wide-scale implementation of electricity generation from renewable sources (i.e., photovoltaic and solar thermal, wind, and hydropower) and of carbon dioxide capture and storage for fossil power generation. We compare emissions causing particulate matter exposure, freshwater ecotoxicity, freshwater eutrophication, and climate change for the climate-change-mitigation (BLUE Map) and business-as-usual (Baseline) scenarios of the International Energy Agency up to 2050. We use a vintage stock model to conduct an LCA of newly installed capacity year-by-year for each region, thus accounting for changes in the energy mix used to manufacture future power plants. Under the Baseline scenario, emissions of air and water pollutants more than double whereas the low-carbon technologies introduced in the BLUE Map scenario allow a doubling of electricity supply while stabilizing or even reducing pollution. Material requirements per unit generation for low-carbon technologies can be higher than for conventional fossil generation: 11-40 times more copper for photovoltaic systems and 6-14 times more iron for wind power plants. However, only two years of current global copper and one year of iron production will suffice to build a low-carbon energy system capable of supplying the world's electricity needs in 2050.

  5. Europe's fragile energy security. Supply crises and their significance for European energy policy; Europas fragile Energiesicherheit. Versorgungskrisen und ihre Bedeutung fuer die europaeische Energiepolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurze, Kristina

    2009-07-01

    The author compares the way the EC responded to the 1973/74 oil crisis with developments following the Russian/Ukrainian gas conflict in 2005/2006. She then uses this as a basis for analysing the situation underlying the current dynamic changes in cooperation in the area of European energy policy. One major difference to the 1970s that becomes apparent from the viewpoint of constructivist securitisation is that energy supply issues today are regarded as a shared security problem. This makes it easier to overcome national reservations against an integrated European energy policy.

  6. The level of diversity in European electricity companies based on selected economic indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ulatowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article was to show variations in the electricity sector in the context of macro and micro-economic conditions with the use of discriminatory analysis. Using the STATISTICA programe to carry out the analysis of discrimination macroeconomic data has been used on the economies of the countries in which the parent companies of the energy companiesare established and the financial and economic results of individual concerns. Power companies: power plants, distribution companies and vendors of energy in Poland have been included as a single entity. An attempt to determine the factors of macro and micro-economic and financial data, which significantly affected the distinctionbetween the concerns was investigated. The results of the discriminatory analysis allowed for the submission of the following conclusions: selected on the basis of the following micro-economic factors distinguished the companies that had the largest share of variables: revenue per employee and long-term assets to long-term capital, and clearly distinguished EdF and electricity companies in Poland. This means that the dominant European companies show a similarity in implementation adopted by the owners of the economic-financial conditions for development. According to factors and the economic contribution to the largest macroeconomic identifying similar groups had the same variables: consumption of electricity in TWh and public debt in% of GDP, which correctly classified all concerns at 100%. It follows from this that the greatest contributions in distinguishing concerns have external factors and more specifically, the national macro-economic indicators in the countries in which the handquestors of the parent companies are found.

  7. Analytical Assessment of Voltage Support via Reactive Power from new Electric Vehicles Supply Equipment in Radial Distribution Grids with Voltage-Dependent Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zecchino, Antonio; Marinelli, Mattia

    2018-01-01

    Grid operators have to cope with secure electric vehicles integration in the power system, which may lead to violations of the allowed voltage band. This work intends to provide an analytical assessment and guidelines for distribution system operators when evaluating new electric vehicle supply...

  8. The impact of national interests and European coordination on securing investment in trans-national electricity networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Blijswijk, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Achieving the transition to a renewable energy supply in Europe requires further integration of national electricity systems. To support the large-scale integration of variable renewable energy sources, different regions in Europe will increasingly come to rely on each other to meet demand during

  9. A critical assessment of the different approaches aimed to secure electricity generation supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batlle, C.; Rodilla, P. [Technological Research Institute, Pontifical University of Comillas, Sta. Cruz de Marcenado 26, 28015 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    Since the very beginning of the power systems reform process, one of the key questions posed has been whether the market, of its own accord, is able to provide satisfactory security of supply at the power generation level or if some additional regulatory mechanism needs to be introduced, and in the latter case, which is the most suitable approach to tackle the problem. This matter is undoubtedly gaining importance and it has taken a key role in the energy regulators' agendas. In this paper, we critically review and categorize the different approaches regulators can opt for to deal with the problem of guaranteeing (or at least enhancing) security of supply in a market-oriented environment. We analyze the most relevant regulatory design elements throughout an updated assessment of the broad range of international experiences, highlighting the lessons we have learned so far in a variety of contexts. Based on the analysis, we conclude by providing a set of principles and criteria that should be considered by the regulator when designing a security of supply mechanism. (author)

  10. Integration of electromobiles into the electricity network and its impact on the energy supply; Netzintegration von Elektrofahrzeugen und deren Auswirkungen auf die Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linssen, Jochen [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung (IEF), Systemforschung und Technologische Entwicklung (IEF-STE); Danzer, Michael [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Ulm (Germany). Fachgebiet Elektrochemische Akkumulatoren; Marker, Stefanie [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachgebiet Kraftfahrzeuge (KFZ); Maas, Heiko [Ford Forschungszentrum Aachen GmbH (FFA), Aachen (Germany); Strunz, Kai [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachgebiet Sustainable Electric Networks and Sources of Energy (SENSE); Weinmann, Oliver [Vattenfall Europe Innovation GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    Electrically powered vehicles are currently seen as a promising option in sparing resources, improving security of supply, gaining local freedom from emissions, increasing energy efficiency and reducing greenhouse gas emissions from road traffic. Due to the energy turnaround this trend is now paralleled by an increase in the share of renewable energy in the electricity supply and hence in fluctuations in energy production. This has led to greater demands being placed on the design of electricity networks as well as on power plant deployment planning. New concepts for the integration of energy from fluctuating sources, including the use of storage facilities, are also becoming attractive as a result.

  11. Willingness to pay for public services and quality of supply in the electricity area; Zahlungsbereitschaft fuer Service public und Versorgungsqualitaet im Strombereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leukert, K.; Telser, H.; Vaterlaus, S.; Mahler, P.

    2008-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the results of a study made on the willingness to pay for public services and quality of supply in the electricity area. First, the starting point of the study and definitions of quality of supply and security of supply are noted. The methods used in the study are presented and macro-economic aspects are reviewed. The costs of black-outs are examined and the carrying out of surveys in the electricity market is discussed. The results of surveys made in households and commercial enterprises concerning the willingness to pay for security of supply and the costs incurred when supplies fail are presented and discussed. The report is completed with a comprehensive list of references and an appendix containing the results of the various tests and surveys made.

  12. Planning Under Uncertainty for Aggregated Electric Vehicle Charging with Renewable Energy Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, E.M.P.; Spaan, M.T.J.; Kaminka, Gal A.; Fox, Maria; Bouquet, Paolo; Hüllermeier, Eyke; Dignum, Virginia; Dignum, Frank; van Harmelen, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Renewable energy sources introduce uncertainty regarding generated power in smart grids. For instance, power that is generated by wind turbines is time-varying and dependent on the weather. Electric vehicles will become increasingly important in the development of smart grids with a high penetration

  13. The rule of law approach to regulating electricity supply in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the transfer of government shares in 17 electricity generation and distribution companies in November 2013, Nigeria crossed the Rubicon in the privatization process. This process began in earnest in 2003 with the liberalization of the telecom sector as part of a strategic reform to improve efficiency in these utility sectors ...

  14. CONVERTER SOLAR RADIATION INTO ELECTRICITY TO SUPPLY THE AUTOMOTIVE SEMICONDUCTOR THERMOELECTRIC AIR CONDITIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Ismailov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the possibility to increase the efficiency of converters of solar radiation into electricity by combining constructive photoelectric effect, See-beck thermoeffect and semiconductor solar cells, which will create integrated device to provide power semiconductor thermoelectric automobile air conditioner. 

  15. Technical and commercial aspects of the connection of wind turbines to electricity supply networks in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, P. [Garrad Hassan & Partners Ltd., Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    This paper reviews some technical and commercial issues now topical for wind energy developments in Europe. The technical issues are important because of the weak nature of the existing electricity systems in rural or upland areas. Several commercial issues are considered which may improve the economics of wind energy as market incentives are gradually withdrawn. 9 refs.

  16. Information management in retail market design in the electricity supply industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, Elizabeth Florence

    The retail electricity market is no different from any other market in the need to know how much of a good is bought and by whom and when. However what sets the electricity market apart is the time definition of the "when" and therein lies the problem. It is not enough to know how much a customer uses; it is when that use takes place that is important. In an ideal world all customers would have their consumption measured accurately and in real time. Costs however are a problem in the real world and other less costly approaches are needed. Market designers then have to decide which measurement approach to apply to which group of customers. Affordability has been the main criterion used. If the costs of measurement are a small percentage annual outlay on electricity (usually based on a fixed rate) then that measurement approach is deemed appropriate. This dissertation presents a method for determining a solution that is optimal for customer and retailer. Retailers are assumed to maximize profit in providing a fixed rate and a market-based pricing option. The latter has a measurement cost attached. Customers choose the pricing option that minimizes their costs and reflects their ability to respond to market prices. The threshold level determined from this optimization depends not only on the cost of measurement but also on the level and variability of electricity prices, but most importantly it depends on the ability of an individual customer to change the pattern of electricity use across the day. The optimization method does more than replace affordability in the determination of appropriate threshold levels between measurement options. The method: (1) underscores the need to look at threshold levels not on a consumption basis but on an individual customer's ability to modify usage patterns in response to market prices, in other words ability to substitute across time periods; (2) highlights the need for a flexible approach to measurement; there must be a choice of

  17. Report on the draft of the law No. 1253 concerning the Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply. Volume I. General discussion and Examination of the articles; Rapport sur le projet de loi (no. 1253) relatif a la modernisation et au developpement du service public de l'electricite. Tome I. Discussion generale et Examen des articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataille, Christian [Assemblee Nationale, Paris (France)

    1999-02-11

    This report on the draft of the law No. 1253 concerning the Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply is composed of three parts. The first part contains the following three sections: I. The electricity, a commodity as others?; II. The stride towards liberalization; III. France and the opening of electricity market. In turn, the first section addresses the following two subjects: A. The 'classic' approach or recognizing the peculiarity of electricity; B. The European approach or the trend of trivializing the electricity. The second section addresses the subjects titled: A. A long and severe bargaining; B. Directive 96/92/CE of 19 December 1996, a new step in achieving a domestic market of electricity; C. The stage of implementation throughout the member states. The third section presents the current juridical framework and the main problems stipulated in the draft of the law concerning the Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply. The second part of this report is devoted to the debates in the Commission of Production and Exchanges and contains the following three sections: I. Auditions; II. General discussion; III. The examination of the articles of the law concerning the Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply.

  18. Environmental sustainability of electricity supply in the world between 1980 and 2011: Lessons learnt and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Espinosa Martinez, Nieves

    2014-01-01

    utilisation of renewables. However, has such moves led to burden-shifting from these environmental impacts to others as relevant? Considering the whole spectrum of environmental problems, are there any identifiable patterns across regions or impact categories that could serve to draw recommendations...... recommend that electricity planning be accompanied with quantification of all relevant environmental impacts of the foreseen energy systems to prevent or minimise problem-shiftings ensuring an environmentally-sound energy transition....

  19. Neurodegenerative disease and magnetic field exposure in UK electricity supply workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorahan, T; Mohammed, N

    2014-09-01

    Previous research has suggested a possible link between neurodegenerative disease and exposure to extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields. To investigate whether risks of Alzheimer's, motor neurone or Parkinson's disease are related to occupational exposure to magnetic fields. The mortality experienced by a cohort of 73051 employees of the former Central Electricity Generating Board of England and Wales was investigated for the period 1973-2010. All employees were hired in the period 1952-82, were employed for at least 6 months and had some employment after 1 January 1973. Detailed calculations had been performed by others to enable an assessment to be made of exposures to magnetic fields. Poisson regression was used to calculate relative risks (rate ratios) of developing any of the three diseases under investigation for categories of lifetime, distant (lagged) and recent (lugged) exposure. No statistically significant trends were shown for risks of any of these diseases to increase with estimates of lifetime, recent or distant exposure to magnetic fields. There is no convincing evidence that UK electricity generation and transmission workers have suffered elevated risks from neurodegenerative diseases as a consequence of exposure to magnetic fields. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Examining global electricity supply vulnerability to climate change using a high-fidelity hydropower dam model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sean W D; Ng, Jia Yi; Galelli, Stefano

    2017-07-15

    An important and plausible impact of a changing global climate is altered power generation from hydroelectric dams. Here we project 21st century global hydropower production by forcing a coupled, global hydrological and dam model with three General Circulation Model (GCM) projections run under two emissions scenarios. Dams are simulated using a detailed model that accounts for plant specifications, storage dynamics, reservoir bathymetry and realistic, optimized operations. We show that the inclusion of these features can have a non-trivial effect on the simulated response of hydropower production to changes in climate. Simulation results highlight substantial uncertainty in the direction of change in globally aggregated hydropower production (~-5 to +5% change in mean global production by the 2080s under a high emissions scenario, depending on GCM). Several clearly impacted hotspots are identified, the most prominent of which encompasses the Mediterranean countries in southern Europe, northern Africa and the Middle East. In this region, hydropower production is projected to be reduced by approximately 40% on average by the end of the century under a high emissions scenario. After accounting for each country's dependence on hydropower for meeting its current electricity demands, the Balkans countries emerge as the most vulnerable (~5-20% loss in total national electricity generation depending on country). On the flipside, a handful of countries in Scandinavia and central Asia are projected to reap a significant increase in total electrical production (~5-15%) without investing in new power generation facilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Multi area and multistage expansion-planning of electricity supply with sustainable energy development criteria: a multi objective model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unsihuay-Vila, Clodomiro; Marangon-Lima, J.W.; Souza, A.C Zambroni de [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)], emails: clodomirounsihuayvila @gmail.com, marangon@unifei.edu.br, zambroni@unifei.edu.br; Perez-Arriaga, I.J. [Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Madrid (Spain)], email: ipa@mit.edu

    2010-07-01

    A novel multi objective, multi area and multistage model to long-term expansion-planning of integrated generation and transmission corridors incorporating sustainable energy developing is presented in this paper. The proposed MESEDES model is a multi-regional multi-objective and 'bottom-up' energy model which considers the electricity generation/transmission value-chain, i.e., power generation alternatives including renewable, nuclear and traditional thermal generation along with transmission corridors. The model decides the optimal location and timing of the electricity generation/transmission abroad the multistage planning horizon. The MESEDES model considers three objectives belonging to sustainable energy development criteria such as: a) the minimization of investments and operation costs of : power generation, transmission corridors, energy efficiency (demand side management (DSM) programs) considering CO2 capture technologies; b) minimization of Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions (LC GHG); c) maximization of the diversification of electricity generation mix. The proposed model consider aspects of the carbon abatement policy under the CDM - Clean Development Mechanism or European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme. A case study is used to illustrate the proposed framework. (author)

  2. European energy markets integration and its effects on prices and efficiency of electricity producing firms

    OpenAIRE

    Armada Ramírez, Ferran

    2016-01-01

    [eng] In this work we investigate the effect of energy (electricity) market integration in Europe and its effects on electricity prices and efficiency improvements in electricity producing firms. We first describe at detail the electricity sector, the role of electricity markets, the main characteristics of electricity as a commodity as well as the main features of this particular and strategic sector, we speak about the evolution of consumption of electricity in developed countries and parti...

  3. Possibilities and consequences of deregulation of the European electricity market for connection of heat sparse areas to district heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amiri, S. [Department of Technology and Built Environment, Division of Energy and Mechanical Engineering, University of Gaevle, SE-801 76 Gaevle (Sweden); Moshfegh, B. [Department of Technology and Built Environment, Division of Energy and Mechanical Engineering, University of Gaevle, SE-801 76 Gaevle (Sweden); Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2010-07-15

    The objective of the study is to analyse the conditions for connection of residential buildings in heat sparse areas to district heating systems in order to increase electricity production in municipal combined heat and power plants. The European electricity market has been assumed to be fully deregulated. The relation between connection of heat sparse areas, increased electricity and heat production as well as electricity prices, fuel prices and emissions rights is investigated. The results of the study show that there is potential to expand the district heating market to areas with lower heat concentrations in the cities of Gaevle, Sandviken and Borlaenge in Sweden, with both economic and environmental benefits. The expansion provides a substantial heat demand of approximately 181 GWh/year, which results in an electricity power production of approximately 43 GWh/year. Since the detached and stand-alone houses in the studied heat sparse areas have been heated either by oil boiler or by direct electricity, connection to district heating also provides a substantial reduction in emissions of CO{sub 2}. The largest reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions are found to be 211 ktonnes/year assuming coal-fired condensing power as marginal electricity production. Connection of heat sparse areas to district heating decrease the system costs and provide a profitability by approximately 22 million EURO/year for the studied municipalities if the price of electricity is at a European level, i.e. 110 EURO/MWh. Sensitivity analysis shows, among other things, that a strong relation exists between the price of electricity and the profitability of connecting heat sparse areas to district heating systems. (author)

  4. Wind-powered asynchronous AC/DC/AC converter system. [for electric power supply regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitan, D. K.

    1973-01-01

    Two asynchronous ac/dc/ac systems are modelled that utilize wind power to drive a variable or constant hertz alternator. The first system employs a high power 60-hertz inverter tie to the large backup supply of the power company to either supplement them from wind energy, storage, or from a combination of both at a preset desired current; rectifier and inverter are identical and operate in either mode depending on the silicon control rectifier firing angle. The second system employs the same rectification but from a 60-hertz alternator arrangement; it provides mainly dc output, some sinusoidal 60-hertz from the wind bus and some high harmonic content 60-hertz from an 800-watt inverter.

  5. Electrical Pressurization Concept for the Orion MPCV European Service Module Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiss, Jan-Hendrik; Weber, Jorg; Ierardo, Nicola; Quinn, Frank D.; Paisley, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the design of the pressurization system of the European Service Module (ESM) of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). Being part of the propulsion subsystem, an electrical pressurization concept is implemented to condition propellants according to the engine needs via a bang-bang regulation system. Separate pressurization for the oxidizer and the fuel tank permits mixture ratio adjustments and prevents vapor mixing of the two hypergolic propellants during nominal operation. In case of loss of pressurization capability of a single side, the system can be converted into a common pressurization system. The regulation concept is based on evaluation of a set of tank pressure sensors and according activation of regulation valves, based on a single-failure tolerant weighting of three pressure signals. While regulation is performed on ESM level, commanding of regulation parameters as well as failure detection, isolation and recovery is performed from within the Crew Module, developed by Lockheed Martin Space System Company. The overall design and development maturity presented is post Preliminary Design Review (PDR) and reflects the current status of the MPCV ESM pressurization system.

  6. Assessment of economic impact of electricity supply interruptions in the Sri Lanka industrial sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijayatunga, P.D.C. [University of Moratuwa (Sri Lanka). Centre for Energy Studies, Department of Electrical Engineering; Jayalath, M.S. [NEXANT SARI/Energy, A Bectel Affiliated Company, Colombo (Sri Lanka)

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the outcome of the Sri Lanka case study on assessing the economic impact of power interruptions on industry in the South Asia region, comprising the countries of Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh and India. The technical assessment evaluates the cost to the country's economy in terms of the industrial loss due to supply interruptions and environmental impacts from standby generation used to supplement the power requirements of the industrial sector. The study found that the main economic impact of the power interruptions, both planned and unplanned, is the loss of output in the industrial sector. In a typical year of power shortages, such as 2001, arising from a deficit in generation capacity, these losses can be as high as approximately US$ 81 million a year, which is approximately 0.65% of the country's gross domestic product (GDP). Also, the economic impact due to unplanned outages can be around US$ 45 million (0.3% of GDP) in a typical year. On average, these values for planned and unplanned outages are US$ 0.66 and US$ 1.08 per kW h of energy loss, respectively. It is also observed that 92% of the sampled industries have standby generation facilities to satisfy either, in full or partially, their own power requirements, which produced approximately 146 GW h of energy in 2001. The serious economic and environmental impacts of power interruptions, both planned and unplanned, underlines the importance of timely implementation of the long term least cost generation expansion plan and proper maintenance of transmission and distribution networks to ensure their high reliability. Therefore, it is clear that the utility needs to take immediate steps to improve its supply reliability in order to retain consumers and justify the existence of a centralised generation facility. (author)

  7. Growth potential of energy sector reforms: new evidence on EU and Southeast European countries by exploring impact on electricity generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nela Vlahinić Lenz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to investigate the impact of energy sector reforms on electricity generation and thus economic growth in EU and Southeast European countries. The paper aims at clarifying whether the impact of energy sector reforms on generation efficiency differs among countries according to their level of development and regional characteristics. Our hypothesis is that the EU reform model is not appropriate for all Member States and Southeast European countries since it does not improve efficiency in electricity generation in all countries and therefore, it can hamper economic growth. For testing the defined hypothesis the panel regression model with fixed effects has been used. The research results show that unlike in the EU-15 (old Member States, energy sector reforms in the EU-12 (new Member States, and selected Southeast European countries (Energy Community contracting parties have no significant impact on electricity transmission and distribution losses. These evidences imply that the uniform EU reform model does not improve efficiency of electricity generation in less developed countries. On the contrary it can even hamper economic growth and therefore it cannot be appropriate for all Member States. The reason lies in the fact that successful reform model requires adequate level of institutional resources that are missing in most transition and post-transition countries.

  8. Capacity study for solid biomass facilities - scenarios for supply and demand of solid biomass for electricity and heat generation in north west Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagels, E.T.A.; Junginger, H.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The growing awareness for climate change and security of supply leads to a increasing share of renewable energy in which biomass plays an important role. Especially in the European Union (EU-27), where member states have agreed on a binding target of a 20% renewable energy share of

  9. Theory of pollution control in electricity supply with reference to transnational and transmedia effects. [Monograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Highton, N.H.; Webb, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    There has been increasing concern in recent years about man-made sources of sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) and, although there is currently no restriction on the volume of SO/sub 2/ emitted by electric power plants in Britain, there is some pressure to do so. The technically feasible options for controlling SO/sub 2/ emmission are discussed, followed by an examination of the main analytical problem: what effect control options would have on the optimal short-run operation of a generating plant, and the extent of the investment in pollution control equipment over some planning period with an exogenously given forecast of electricity demand. The analysis admits the possibility of damage occurring outside national boundaries due to the transport of SO/sub 2/ over long distances (transnational) and the possibility of damage occurring in other parts of the environment inside national boundaries (transmedia) due to the waste byproducts of SO/sub 2/ control. 2 references, 1 figure.

  10. An Intelligent Approach to Strengthening of the Rural Electrical Power Supply Using Renewable Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, F. C.; Sisodia, G. S.; Gopalan, S.

    2017-08-01

    The healthy growth of economy lies in the balance between rural and urban development. Several developing countries have achieved a successful growth of urban areas, yet rural infrastructure has been neglected until recently. The rural electrical grids are weak with heavy losses and low capacity. Renewable energy represents an efficient way to generate electricity locally. However, the renewable energy generation may be limited by the low grid capacity. The current solutions focus on grid reinforcement only. This article presents a model for improving renewable energy integration in rural grids with the intelligent combination of three strategies: 1) grid reinforcement, 2) use of storage and 3) renewable energy curtailments. Such approach provides a solution to integrate a maximum of renewable energy generation on low capacity grids while minimising project cost and increasing the percentage of utilisation of assets. The test cases show that a grid connection agreement and a main inverter sized at 60 kW (resp. 80 kW) can accommodate a 100 kWp solar park (resp. 100 kW wind turbine) with minimal storage.

  11. Off-grid hybrid electric power supply system, using a combination of solar cells, small scale wind turbine and batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeter, W.

    1994-03-01

    The design of an off-grid electric power supply system consisting of a small scale wind turbine, a combination of solar cells and batteries is described. The robust, small scale FC 4000 wind turbine, which needs little maintenance, can be used under varying climatic conditions. It is equipped with a permanent-magnet generator with an output of 1.5 kW. The generator`s rotor is directly coupled with the wind turbine`s rotor and is without a gearbox, so the frequency and output varies according to wind speed. The 12 m{sup 2} solar cell system consists of round modules embedded in glass and with an efficiency of 13%. The lead acid batteries are used when power consumption exceeds production and store energy for future use. Further adjustments are necessary in order to optimize the performance of this hybrid system. (AB)

  12. Methodical Principles for Determination of Optimum Breaking Places of Distributive Electrical Networks with Due Account of Supply Network of 110 kV and Higher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fursanov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A specified model and algorithm for optimization of slit points in a distributive 10 (6 kV electrical network with due account of supply network of 110 kV and higher have been developed in the paper. In order to determine loss values in supply network a special mathematical model of the closed network has been constructed and the model permits to execute the given operation with minimum computing expenses. The paper proposes and analyzes methods for registration of task limitations: damage due to insufficient supply of electric power, possible network overloads for permissible currents, power supply provision for the 1st category consumers, prohibition against switching in public network and switching-on of sectional apparatus being switched-off according to normal scheme.

  13. Electricity supply system and generation expansion plan in Sri Lanka; Suriranka no denryoku jijo to dengen kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayama, M. [Chuo Kaihatsu Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-02-15

    A history of the electric power enterprise in Sri Lanka is quite new. As a real power generation plant for a general supply, since the Old Laxapana (8.33 MW {times} 3 units) plant has been developed, 15 hydraulic power plants, the annual power generation quantity of 3832 GWh have been developed up to present, and now this hydraulic power generation has formed a supply as the main constituents. So as to supplement this hydraulic power generation, the thermal power plants of 250 MW such as the petroleum thermal, diesel and gas turbine plants have been developed during 1962-1984. These thermal power plants have a role to replenish the peak power in the dry season. Accompanied with an economic growth the power demands elongate at a rate of GDP elastic value. The sold power quantity in 1992 is 2869 GWh, and its breakdown is a proportion of 23% for the household, 37% for the industry and 40% for the others. As for a power source development from now on, although there are currently 7 projects of the hydraulic development appropriated in the long term plan as economically feasible for development, none of other projects are not yet set to be worked except 2 projects being advanced the development preparation by an aid through Japanese Government. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Development of a Simulation Framework for Analyzing Security of Supply in Integrated Gas and Electric Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwabena Addo Pambour

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas and power networks are tightly coupled and interact with each other due to physically interconnected facilities. In an integrated gas and power network, a contingency observed in one system may cause iterative cascading failures, resulting in network wide disruptions. Therefore, understanding the impacts of the interactions in both systems is crucial for governments, system operators, regulators and operational planners, particularly, to ensure security of supply for the overall energy system. Although simulation has been widely used in the assessment of gas systems as well as power systems, there is a significant gap in simulation models that are able to address the coupling of both systems. In this paper, a simulation framework that models and simulates the gas and power network in an integrated manner is proposed. The framework consists of a transient model for the gas system and a steady state model for the power system based on AC-Optimal Power Flow. The gas and power system model are coupled through an interface which uses the coupling equations to establish the data exchange and coordination between the individual models. The bidirectional interlink between both systems considered in this studies are the fuel gas offtake of gas fired power plants for power generation and the power supply to liquefied natural gas (LNG terminals and electric drivers installed in gas compressor stations and underground gas storage facilities. The simulation framework is implemented into an innovative simulation tool named SAInt (Scenario Analysis Interface for Energy Systems and the capabilities of the tool are demonstrated by performing a contingency analysis for a real world example. Results indicate how a disruption triggered in one system propagates to the other system and affects the operation of critical facilities. In addition, the studies show the importance of using transient gas models for security of supply studies instead of successions of

  15. Development of the Optimum Operation Scheduling Model of Domestic Electric Appliances for the Supply-Demand Adjustment in a Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Takashi; Iwafune, Yumiko; Ogimoto, Kazuhiko

    The high penetration of variable renewable generation such as Photovoltaic (PV) systems will cause the issue of supply-demand imbalance in a whole power system. The activation of the residential power usage, storage and generation by sophisticated scheduling and control using the Home Energy Management System (HEMS) will be needed to balance power supply and demand in the near future. In order to evaluate the applicability of the HEMS as a distributed controller for local and system-wide supply-demand balances, we developed an optimum operation scheduling model of domestic electric appliances using the mixed integer linear programming. Applying this model to several houses with dynamic electricity prices reflecting the power balance of the total power system, it was found that the adequate changes in electricity prices bring about the shift of residential power usages to control the amount of the reverse power flow due to excess PV generation.

  16. Customer loyalty in the liberalized electricity supply industry; Kundenbindung im liberalisierten Stromversorgungsmarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skerst, B. von [sample QM Gesellschaft fuer Qualitaetsmanagement mbH, Moelln (Germany)

    1999-03-22

    Especially smaller energy suppliers are not yet sufficiently prepared for the competition in the liberalized German electricity market. Aside a remarkable improvement of their cost position they have to better adjust to the wishes and needs of their customers. The reliable assessment and satisfaction of these customer needs requires systematic customer loyalty management - and that not only for large business customers. (orig.) [Deutsch] Vor allem kleinere Energieversorger sind auf den Wettbewerb im liberalisierten deutschen Strommarkt bisher nicht ausreichend vorbereitet. Neben einer deutlichen Verbesserung ihrer Kostenposition muessen sie sich mehr auf die Wuensche und Beduerfnisse ihrer Kunden einstellen. Die zuverlaessige Ermittlung und Befriedigung dieser Kundenbeduerfnisse erfordert systematisches Kundenbindungsmanagement - und das nicht nur bei grossen Geschaeftskunden. (orig.)

  17. Wind power systems for individual applications. [electric power supplies for homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clews, H. M.

    1973-01-01

    A small windpower system is described which is suitable for electrifying a house. The self-contained unit consists of a two kilowatt wind driven generator, a set of 19 storage batteries, a small dc to ac inverter, and a gasoline generator for use as an emergency backup system in case of prolonged calm periods. Cost effectiveness of the electricity generated by this windmill system comes out to about 15 cents per kilowatt hour - assuming a 10 year life for the batteries and a 20 year life for the other components. Some other small windpower systems are also described, and it is shown that a windpowered generator in the 15- to 25-kilowatt output range coupled to a direct heated water storage system is able to heat a typical New England home.

  18. Electrical integration of renewable energy into stand-alone power supplies incorporating hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, Matthew; Thomson, Murray

    2007-07-15

    A stand-alone renewable-energy system employing a hydrogen-based energy store is now being commissioned within the HaRI project at West Beacon Farm, Leicestershire, UK. The interconnection of the various generators, loads and storage system is made through a central DC busbar: an arrangement that is believed to be unique within systems of this type and scale. The rotating generators, such as the wind turbines, are connected through standard industrial drives operating in regenerative mode, while the DC devices - electrolyser, fuel cell and solar photovoltaic array - employ custom DC-DC converters. This paper reviews the design philosophy of the electrical system and the various converters required. Modelling and simulation of the system is discussed along with practical lessons learnt from its implementation and some initial results are presented. (author)

  19. On the 'Net Impact' of Europeanization. The EU's telecoms and electricity regimes between the global and the national

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Levi-Faur

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Does Europeanization matter, and, if so, to what extent and in what respects? While research on the European Union is thriving, only limited efforts have been directed towards a discussion of this crucial question. This paper examines the outcome of the EU policy process from various comparative perspectives in an effort to distinguish the 'net effects' of EU membership and EU-level policy outcomes from more general – perhaps global – processes of change. The effects of EU membership are discussed in relation to the process of liberalization and the major question raised is whether Europeanization matters for the advance of liberalization. In responding to this question, the paper advances the following major argument: While the Europeanization of the telecoms and electricity industries has led to some liberalization, it is at best a mediating variable, not an independent one. The major features of liberalization would have been diffused to practically all member states even in the absence of the European Commission and other agents of supranationalism. This is not to suggest that Europeanization does not matter, but that it matters in less obvious and perhaps less critical ways than is frequently assumed. These arguments are supported by comparative empirical analysis of the spatial and temporal diffusion of liberalization across nations and sectors, and by a comparison of the diffusion of liberalization today with the diffusion of nationalization in the past.

  20. On the 'Net Impact' of Europeanization. The EU's telecoms and electricity regimes between the global and the national

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Levi-Faur

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Does Europeanization matter, and, if so, to what extent and in what respects? While research on the European Union is thriving, only limited efforts have been directed towards a discussion of this crucial question. This paper examines the outcome of the EU policy process from various comparative perspectives in an effort to distinguish the 'net effects' of EU membership and EU-level policy outcomes from more general perhaps global processes of change. The effects of EU membership are discussed in relation to the process of liberalization and the major question raised is whether Europeanization matters for the advance of liberalization. In responding to this question, the paper advances the following major argument: While the Europeanization of the telecoms and electricity industries has led to some liberalization, it is at best a mediating variable, not an independent one. The major features of liberalization would have been diffused to practically all member states even in the absence of the European Commission and other agents of supranationalism. This is not to suggest that Europeanization does not matter, but that it matters in less obvious and perhaps less critical ways than is frequently assumed. These arguments are supported by comparative empirical analysis of the spatial and temporal diffusion of liberalization across nations and sectors, and by a comparison of the diffusion of liberalization today with the diffusion of nationalization in the past.

  1. Embedding resilience in the design of the electricity supply for industrial clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Márcio das Chagas; Diniz, Helder Henrique Lima; Droguett, Enrique López; da Cunha, Beatriz Sales; Lins, Isis Didier; Simoni, Vicente Ribeiro

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an optimization model, using Mixed-Integer Linear Programming (MILP), to support decisions related to making investments in the design of power grids serving industrial clients that experience interruptions to their energy supply due to disruptive events. In this approach, by considering the probabilities of the occurrence of a set of such disruptive events, the model is used to minimize the overall expected cost by determining an optimal strategy involving pre- and post-event actions. The pre-event actions, which are considered during the design phase, evaluate the resilience capacity (absorption, adaptation and restoration) and are tailored to the context of industrial clients dependent on a power grid. Four cases are analysed to explore the results of different probabilities of the occurrence of disruptions. Moreover, two scenarios, in which the probability of occurrence is lowest but the consequences are most serious, are selected to illustrate the model's applicability. The results indicate that investments in pre-event actions, if implemented, can enhance the resilience of power grids serving industrial clients because the impacts of disruptions either are experienced only for a short time period or are completely avoided.

  2. LNG regasification terminals access capacity analysis for security of European natural gas supply/Analiza dostupnosti kapaciteta terminala za uplinjavanje UPP-a radi osiguravanja sigurnosti opskrbe Europe prirodnim plinom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Veselic, Matija; Sedlar, Daria Karasalihovic; Hrncevic, Lidia

    2011-01-01

    ... opportunities for LNG in Europe. In these circumstances, LNG represents an opportunity for many European countries to diversify their natural gas supply, while decreasing their dependence on Russian natural gas import at the same time...

  3. ANALIZA DOSTUPNOSTI KAPACITETA TERMINALA ZA UPLINJAVANJE UPP-A RADI OSIGURAVANJA SIGURNOSTI OPSKRBE EUROPE PRIRODNIM PLINOM/LNG REGASIFICATION TERMINALS ACCESS CAPACITY ANALYSIS FOR SECURITY OF EUROPEAN NATURAL GAS SUPPLY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matija Veselic; Daria Karasalihovic Sedlar; Lidia Hrncevic

    2011-01-01

    ... opportunities for LNG in Europe. In these circumstances, LNG represents an opportunity for many European countries to diversify their natural gas supply, while decreasing their dependence on Russian natural gas import at the same time...

  4. Second European symposium `Solar and electric-powered vehicles`. Proceedings; Zweites Europaeisches Symposium Solar- und Elektromobile. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This book contains 30 scripts of the talks, which were given at the Second European symposium ``Solar and electric-powered vehicles``. For each of the 30 scripts a separate abstract has been written. The main emphasis of the symposium was on: Marginal conditions and an overview of the market; Aspects of the energy storage; Safety aspects; Comfort of solar and electric-powered vehicles. (HW) [Deutsch] Das vorliegende Buch enthaelt die 30 Manuskripte der Vortraege, die anlaesslich des zweiten europaeischen Symposiums `Solar- und Elektromobile` gehalten wurden. Fuer die 30 Manuskripte wurde eine gesonderte inhaltliche Erschliessung erarbeitet. Schwerpunkte der Tagung: - Rahmenbedingungen und Marktuebersicht; - Aspekte der Energiespeichers; - Sicherheitsfragen; - Komfort von Solar- und Elektromobilen. (HW)

  5. Security of Energy Supply in the New Europe: A Role for the European Atomic Energy Community in the European Union’s Neighbourhood Policy?

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Pamela M.

    2008-01-01

    External energy relations are essential components of both the European Union’s search for an overall energy strategy, an Energy Policy for Europe (EPE) and the development of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP). In this article questions are posed about the role for the use of nuclear technology as the means of meeting some of the objectives of both areas of policy. As both the EPE and the ENP are dependent on the negotiation of international agreements with third parties for their effec...

  6. Photovoltaic system of uninterrupted supply interconnected with the electrical network; Un modelo de autoabastecimiento de suministro electrico. El SAI fotovoltaico interconectado a la red electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallve, X.

    2008-07-01

    Assuring the supply be energetic endogenous resources, both reduces the emission of CO{sub 2} and it is the first step of the future electrical networks with generation deeply distributed and necessarily based on renewable resources. There are well-known the unlimited availability and the environmental advantages of the renewable energies, but now it is necessary to guarantee an electrical constant supply and of quality, that, considering the intermittence of the source, they suppose a challenge and a great opportunity of innovation and of engineering development and industry. (Author) 7 refs.

  7. Reflections of ANEEL criteria for quality in the supply of electrical energy; Reflexoes sobre criterios da Aneel para a qualidade no fornecimento da energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Maria Olivia de Souza [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)], email: molivia@unifacs.br; Mello, Sergio Souto Maia Malbouisson de [Companhia de Eletricidade do Estado da Bahia (COELBA), BA (Brazil)], email: smello@coelba.com.br

    2010-07-01

    This article presents an analysis of the changes implemented by the Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency - ANEEL (Agencia Nacional de Energia Eletrica) to monitor and control the indices related to the continuity of electric power supply. It also presents the evolution of the amount of fines, in case of failure of attending the quality indicators, both the collective and the individual ones. Finally, it presents some issues which need further analysis regarding to the limits of time established to the restoration of the energy supply after a power failure. (author)

  8. DEMOCRITOS Demonstrators for Realization of Nuclear Electric Propulsion of the European Roadmaps MEGAHIT & DiPoP

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Frank; Bauer, Waldemar; Masson, Frederic; RUAULT, Jean-Marc; Worms, Jean-Claude; Detsis, Emmanouil; Lassoudiere, Francois; Granjon, Richard; Gaia, Enrico; Tosi, Martia Cristina; Semenkin, Alexander; Tinsley, Tim; Hodson, Zara; Koppel, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The European Commission Horizon 2020 funded DEMOCRITOS project (2015-2017) will be primary focused to prepare preliminary design of the ground, core and space demonstrators and their test benches for the mega-watt class nuclear electric space propulsion INPPS flagship (International Nuclear Power and Propulsion System). In addition programmatic, organizational and funding aspects for international cooperation related to INPPS realization are sketched. The new project includes partners from Eu...

  9. Implications of end-user behaviour in response to deficiencies in water supply for electricity consumption - A case study of Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Ruchira; Kansal, Arun; Aghi, Sakshi

    2016-05-01

    Over the past two decades, urban lifestyles have changed phenomenally. One aspect of this change is the increasing use of household appliances, which, in turn, influences water and electricity consumption in urban households. It is therefore necessary to revisit water supply norms in view of these behavioural changes. Increasing use of water-related appliances by the surveyed households in Delhi, India has lowered their water consumption but increased their electricity consumption (10-16 kW h a month). Also, longer working hours away from homes have shifted water demand from homes to commercial establishments and institutions. The per-capita water requirement to meet the basic needs for health and hygiene is approximately 76-78 L a day, of which bathing claims the largest share (32%). Nearly 70% of electricity consumption of a household is spent in coping with deficiencies in water supply. Strategies adopted by end users to save water were negatively correlated with those to save electricity. Household incomes have no influence on water consumption except in the case of those living in slums, who are forced to curtail their use of water even at the cost of health and hygiene; for the rest, coping with poor water supply amounts to spending nearly 50% more on electricity, defeating the purpose of subsidised water supply.

  10. REDUCTION IN ELECTRICITY SUPPLIES DURING 'LIMITED POWER' PERIODS IN WINTER 1999-2000

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz/TCR

    1999-01-01

    As in previous years, CERN signed contracts with EDF (Electricité de France) and with EOS (Energie Ouest Suisse), by which it undertakes, in return for special prices, to reduce its electricity consumption when the grids are at peak demand during the tariff period 'Effacement Jour de Pointe' (EJP).The contractual period for compulsory load shedding begins 1st November and ends 31st March. During these five months CERN will have to reduce its power consumption from210 MW to 40 MW during twenty-two 18-hour periods, each beginning at 7 a.m. and ending at 1 a.m. the following day. Notice will be given by EDF to the Technical Control Room (TCR) at 5 p.m. the previous day. The notice period may be reduced to two hours for days following weekends and public holidays, or omitted entirely for technical reasons.For the month of March 2000, the limit of power consumption will be increased from 40 MW to 50 MW to guarantee an easier start-up of the accelerators.During these periods, the PS complex, the SPS and ...

  11. Magnetic fields and brain tumour risks in UK electricity supply workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorahan, T

    2014-04-01

    To investigate whether brain tumour risks are related to occupational exposure to low-frequency magnetic fields. Brain tumour risks experienced by 73 051 employees of the former Central Electricity Generating Board of England and Wales were investigated for the period 1973-2010. All employees were hired in the period 1952-82 and were employed for at least 6 months with some employment in the period 1973-82. Detailed calculations had been performed by others to enable an assessment to be made of exposures to magnetic fields. Poisson regression was used to calculate relative risks (rate ratios) of developing a brain tumour (or glioma or meningioma) for categories of lifetime, distant (lagged) and recent (lugged) exposure. Findings for glioma and for the generality of all brain tumours were unexceptional; risks were close to (or below) unity for all exposure categories and there was no suggestion of risks increasing with cumulative (or recent or distant) magnetic field exposures. There were no statistically significant dose-response effects shown for meningioma, but there was some evidence of elevated risks in the three highest exposure categories for exposures received >10 years ago. This study found no evidence to support the hypothesis that exposure to magnetic fields is a risk factor for gliomas, and the findings are consistent with the hypotheses that both distant and recent magnetic field exposures are not causally related to gliomas. The limited positive findings for meningioma may be chance findings; national comparisons argue against a causal interpretation.

  12. Improving the electromagnetic compatibility of track circuits with electric rolling stock of double power supply with induction traction motors and electrictraction network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Visin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article the research results of many authors on the effect of current interference from the existing electric rolling stock with induction traction motors (ITM on the track circuits and the possibility of exceeding the train traffic safety standards are used. The new promising scheme of power circuit for electric locomotive of double power supply with an ITM applying the intermediary high-frequency transformer for reducing significantly the interference effects to SCB and communication devices is developed.

  13. Guideline for the tendering of the Europe-wide procurement of the electricity supply. 2. rev. ed.; Arbeitshilfe zur Durchfuehrung einer europaweiten Ausschreibung der Stromlieferung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmueller, Christian [Schnutenhaus und Kollegen, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-05-02

    In order to describe the practical fundamentals for the procurement of electricity, the authors of this contribution present a guideline for the implementation of a Europe-wide tendering of the electricity supply. The main aspects of this contribution are the procedure and time schedule of the procurement procedure, preparation of the procurement procedure, design of the procurement procedure concerning to the contents as well as the implementation of the procurement procedure.

  14. Testing Group of Helicoidal Expander – Electric Generator at Comoti Test Bench, Using Air Supplied by 3 Compressors Type CU128G

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian UNGUREANU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describe a project dedicated to exploitation of natural gas, an important quantity of mechanical clean energy is loosed continuously by not using expansion energy in laminating process gas. A group of helicoidal expander – electrical generator was manufactured and tested. It is designed to produce electric energy for own facilities of a gas station or to supply local networks of gas distribution.

  15. The Future of the European Electricity Grid Is Bright: Cost Minimizing Optimization Shows Solar with Storage as Dominant Technologies to Meet European Emissions Targets to 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zack Norwood

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The European roadmap for the power sector dictates an 80–95% cut of existing levels of carbon dioxide emissions is needed by the year 2050 to meet climate goals. This article describes results from a linear cost optimization investment model, ELIN, coupled with a solar technology model, Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power (DCS-CHP, using published investment costs for a comprehensive suite of renewable and conventional electricity generation technologies, to compare possible scenarios for the future electricity grid. The results of these model runs and sensitivity analyses indicate that: (1 solar photovoltaics (PV with battery storage will likely play a very large role in meeting European targets; (2 concentrating solar power (CSP with thermal energy storage is at a slight economic disadvantage with respect to PV to compete economically; (3 the economic potential of wind power is only comparable with solar PV if high wind penetration levels are allowed in the best wind sites in Europe; and (4 carbon capture and nuclear technologies are unlikely to compete economically with renewable technologies in creating a low-carbon future grid.

  16. A MonteCarlo approach for assessing the adequacy of the European gas transmission system under supply crisis conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monforti, F.; Szikszai, A. [European Commission, JRC - Institute for Energy, Energy Security Unit, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2010-05-15

    Europe's dependency on non-EU countries' energy supply is sharply increasing. Recently, sudden supply disruption caused by international disputes outside the EU have created serious problems for some EU countries and raised concern in many others. In these situations, it is highly desirable to have a tool to assess possible outcomes of supply disruptions. This paper presents a newly developed model, MC-GENERCIS, aimed to assess the robustness of the EU transnational gas transmission system during both normal and special operating conditions, including high-demand situations and/or a supply shortage. The model has a country-by-country resolution and examines all possible dispatching choices of national TSOs on the basis of a probabilistic MonteCarlo approach. The preliminary validation of the model through its application to the 'normal' conditions for the winter 2008-2009 and to the recent supply disruption involving Ukrainian gas transit is also described. (author)

  17. Evaluating the likelihood of the adoption of an animal welfare assessment system in European agri-food supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aramyan, L.H.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Backus, G.B.C.; Roest, de K.; Tranter, R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose

    – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the likelihood of adoption of a recently designed Welfare Assessment System in agri‐food supply chains and the factors affecting the adoption decision. The application is carried out for pig and poultry

  18. Enteral Nutrient Supply for Preterm Infants : Commentary From the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agostoni, C.; Buonocore, G.; Carnielli, V. P.; De Curtis, M.; Darmaun, D.; Decsi, T.; Domellof, M.; Embleton, N. D.; Fusch, C.; Genzel-Boroviczeny, O.; Goulet, O.; Kalhan, S. C.; Kolacek, S.; Koletzko, B.; Lapillonne, A.; Mihatsch, W.; Moreno, L.; Neu, J.; Poindexter, B.; Puntis, J.; Putet, G.; Rigo, J.; Riskin, A.; Salle, B.; Sauer, P.; Shamir, R.; Szajewska, H.; Thureen, P.; Turck, D.; van Goudoever, J. B.; Ziegler, E. E.

    The number of surviving children born prematurely has increased substantially during the last 2 decades. The major goal of enteral nutrient supply to these infants is to achieve growth similar to foetal growth coupled with satisfactory functional development. The accumulation of knowledge since the

  19. Reliability of electricity supply. Critical analysis of the dena short analysis of power plant and grid planning in Germany through 2020; Versorgungssicherheit in der Elektrizitaetsversorgung. Kritische Wuerdigung der dena-Kurzanalyse zur Kraftwerks- und Netzplanung in Deutschland bis 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borchert, Joerg; Jungbluth, Christian; Peek, Markus; Ritzau, Michael [Buero fuer Energiewirtschaft und technische Planungen GmbH (BET), Aachen (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    The publication shows that the dena study has serious shortcomings, both in its methodology and in its assumption of energy industry boundary conditions. The best options for development of the power plant park in consideration of climate protection, low price, reliability of supply and high availability cannot be derived using simple time-dependent and static methods. Effective analyses must comprise a simultaneous analysis of power and energy balances, in consideration of the need for power reserves in a dynamic context. Further, market mechanisms must be considered that take account of the neighbouring European markets and the effective mechanisms of deregulated electricity markets. Not least, the political boundary conditions must be considered, e.g. greenhouse gas emissions and financial incentives for renewable energy sources. Even though such analyses are highly complex, they are indispensable if erroneous conclusions are to be prevented.

  20. Green paper: towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply; Livre Vert: vers une strategie europeenne de securite d'approvisionnement energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    The Green Paper ''Towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply in Europe'', published in 2002, gives a clear priority to energy efficiency and renewable. Although it is not a legislative document, it is accepted by the main actors as a reference for all energy related actions. Energie-Cites welcomes the Green Paper. This document gives a clear review of the energy context in Europe and raises fundamental questions, in particular, the place given to energy demand management, presented as the priority policy to ensure security of supply and compliance with the European Union international commitments. However, they precise three important points. It is indispensable that potential energy savings be quantified so as to emphasize the importance of a resource that has always been underestimated. By the same token, the ''demand management'' option presented in the Green Paper would gain in credibility if several alternative scenarios were proposed, the impact and the conditions for the success of such a policy being then more clearly apparent. A policy with a stronger focus on demand management and renewable energy requires one to redirect attention towards a different set of players. (A.L.B.)

  1. Electricity and heat supply of a settlement at different standards of energy efficiency; Strom- und Waermeversorgung einer Siedlung bei unterschiedlichen Energieeffizienz-Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuberth, Jens; Tschetschorke, Katja

    2013-07-15

    The underlying study analyses the ecologic impact and the economic efficiency of several conventional and innovative heat supply systems to provide a quarter heat for space and water heating and electricity for residential and commercial application and for street lighting. Retrofits of buildings change the ratio of demands for electricity and heat. The demand for heat decreases more than the demand for electricity, and the share of distribution losses in heat grids rises. The question is if it is still economically efficient to build or extend local and long-distance district heating networks. Demands for final and primary energy, greenhouse gas emissions and costs (for operation, energy consumption and investments) of the different systems are compared and rated both in charts and tables. A sensitivity analysis includes increasing energy purchasing costs and assesses the possible economic efficiency of the supply systems in future. Another sensitivity analysis estimates how the climate impact of the supply systems for heat and electricity changes if electricity generation becomes less harmful for climate. Additionally, costs for environmental damage - so-called external costs - are internalised in the analysis of economic efficiency. In an overall rating ecologic and economically efficient systems are recommended.

  2. 100% renewable electricity supply by 2050. Preprint; Energieziel 2050. 100% Strom aus erneuerbaren Quellen. Vorabdruck fuer die Bundespressekonferenz am 7. Juli 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaus, Thomas; Vollmer, Carla; Werner, Kathrin; Lehmann, Harry; Mueschen, Klaus

    2010-07-15

    In order to achieve an 80 - 90% reduction in Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions by 2050 we will first have to transform our electricity supply system. The energy sector holds a key function regarding GHG emissions by currently causing more than 80 % of the emissions in Germany. Within this sector the electricity supply is responsible for about 40% of energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions. The potential for reducing emissions in the electricity sector is very high. Provided a highly efficient use of electricity and energy conversion, as well as an energy supply system that is completely based on renewable energies, it will be possible to reach a level of nearly zero GHG emissions. For Germany, the technological change towards an electricity supply system completely based on renewable energies by 2050 is possible. By doing so, Germany's status as a highly industrialised country can be maintained, as can its subsequent ways of living, patterns of consumption and behaviour. This is shown in our simulation of the scenario ''region's network scenario'' as well as in several studies of other institutions like the German Advisory Council on the Environment (SRU), the German Enquete-Commission on sustainable energy supply or Greenpeace. Our results should be regarded as one part of a level playing field needed to create a 100 % renewable electricity supply system by 2050. Aside from the regional scenario, we also sketch two other scenarios: International large scale application of technology and Local Energy Autarky. For these two scenarios we intend to go more into depth within further studies as we expect them to provide further momentum towards achieving the level playing field. A switch to an electricity supply system based on renewable energies will also be economically beneficial. The costs of such a change in the energy supply are significantly lower than those of adapting to an unmitigated climate change we and future generations would have to

  3. Role Of E-Government In Delivery Of Public Services In Tanzania Electric Supply Company In Ruvuma Region Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Jackson Petro Gunda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT E-government facilitates delivery of public services of relevant government information in electronic form to citizens in a timely manner and better service delivery to citizens. E-government is a kind of governmental administration which is based on Information Communication and Technology Services. Electronic government describes the use of technologies to facilitate the operation of government and disperse of government information and services. The scope of the work was limited to Tanzania Electric Supply Company Limited TANESCO in Ruvuma region. The population of thirty 31 were selected from a total population of 169 public servants use both purposive and stratified random sampling techniques applied. The major findings of study revealed that about 67.7 of response from respondents agree that ICT infrastructures specifically modern computer connected to internet reliable internet speed well organized organization website power availability in public operation contribute to efficient in delivery of services it also noted by respondents to faster decision making speeding up transaction processing and reduce cost. The study greatly recommends that capacity building to public servants on ICT install and strengthening ICT infrastructures to government organizational are inevitable to realise relevant role of e-government in delivery of public services.

  4. Electrical energy supply in future powertrains - challenges and solutions; Die Energieversorgung im Antriebsstrang der Zukunft - Herausforderungen und Loesungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugert, G.; Knorr, R.; Grassl, G.; Lohrenz, F.; Stocker, H. [Siemens VDO Automotive AG, Regensburg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The average electrical energy consumption of vehicles has grown continuously during the last years. A further increase is assumed for the next years (2010 to 2020), despite an electrical energy management already visible. This is mainly caused by additional loads due to increasing needs for comfort, safety and communication. Additional loads are expected around the Powertrain in order to improve the efficiency (CO2 emission) of the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE), mainly triggered by legislation. Somewhat contradictory, the market is requiring more driving fun in combination with low fuel consumption. It is predictable that the already started activities to control the energy needs of the 14V board net with an intelligent control and power management won't be sufficient in all cases. The integration of a mild or power hybrid into the Powertrain allows to avoid a shortage in electrical energy supply on a midterm base. In a long term (2020 to 2030) we will see improved and synthetic fuels which satisfy all emission regulations. Although still in small number compared to the ICE dominated Powertrains, there will be some Fuel Cell cars in the market providing enough power and energy for the board net loads and eventually the propulsion. [German] Der mittlere elektrische Energiebedarf in Kraftfahrzeugen ist in den letzten Jahren stetig angestiegen. Kurz- bis mittelfristig (2010 bis 2020) ist mit einem weiteren starken Anstieg zu rechnen, trotz eines moeglichen elektrischen Energie-Managements. Dies ist hauptsaechlich bedingt durch die Zunahme von Verbrauchern fuer Komfort, Sicherheit und Kommunikation. Aber auch am Antriebstrang werden weitere Verbraucher zum Einsatz kommen, um die Effizienz des Verbrennungsmotors (CO2 Ausstoss) zu steigern und die Abgas Emissionen zu reduzieren, getrieben durch gesetzliche Vorgaben. Verschaerfend wirken dabei die gegensaetzlichen Forderungen der Kunden nach mehr Fahrspass bei maximal moeglicher Fahroekonomie. Es ist abzusehen

  5. Electricity decision-making: New techniques for calculating statewide economic impacts from new power supply and demand-side management programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegen, Suzanne Isabel Helmholz

    This dissertation introduces new techniques for calculating and comparing statewide economic impacts from new coal, natural gas and wind power plants, as well as from demand-side management programs. The impetus for this work was two-fold. First, reviews of current literature and projects revealed that there was no standard way to estimate statewide economic impacts from new supply- and demand-side electricity options. Second, decision-makers who were interviewed stated that they were overwhelmed with data in general, but also lacked enough specific information about economic development impacts to their states from electricity, to make informed choices. This dissertation includes chapters on electricity decision-making and on economic impacts from supply and demand. The supply chapter compares different electricity options in three states which vary in natural resource content: Arizona, Colorado and Michigan. To account for differing capacity factors, resources are compared on a per-megawatt-hour basis. The calculations of economic impacts from new supply include: materials and labor for construction, operations, maintenance, fuel extraction, fuel transport, as well as property tax, financing and landowner revenues. The demand-side chapter compares residential, commercial and industrial programs in Iowa. Impact calculations include: incremental labor and materials for program planning, installation and operations, as well as sales taxes and electricity saved. Results from supply-side calculations in the three states analyzed indicate that adding new wind power can have a greater impact to a state's economy than adding new gas or coal power due to resource location, taxes and infrastructure. Additionally, demand-side management programs have a higher relative percentage of in-state dollar flow than supply-side solutions, though demand-side programs typically involve fewer MWh and dollars than supply-side generation. Methods for this dissertation include researching

  6. Supply-side and demand-side policies for biosimilars: an overview in 10 European member states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémuzat, Cécile; Kapuśniak, Anna; Caban, Aleksandra; Ionescu, Dan; Radière, Guerric; Mendoza, Cyril; Toumi, Mondher

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: This study aimed to provide an overview of biosimilar policies in 10 EU MSs. Methods: Ten EU MS pharmaceutical markets (Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and the UK) were selected. A comprehensive literature review was performed to identify supply-side and demand-side policies in place in the selected countries. Results: Supply-side policies for biosimilars commonly include price linkage, price re-evaluation, and tendering; the use of internal or external reference pricing varies between countries; health technology assessment is conducted in six countries. Regarding demand-side policies, pharmaceutical prescription budgets or quotas and monitoring of prescriptions (with potential financial incentives or penalties) are in place in eight and in seven countries respectively. Switching is generally allowed, but is solely the physician’s responsibility. Automatic substitution is not recommended, or even forbidden, in most EU MSs. Prescription conditions or guidelines that apply to biosimilars are established in nearly all surveyed EU MSs. Conclusions: Important heterogeneity in policies on biosimilars was seen between (and even within) selected countries, which may partly explain variations in biosimilar uptake. Supply-side policies targeting price have been reported to limit biosimilar penetration in the long term, despite short-term savings, while demand-side policies are considered to positively impact uptake. PMID:28740617

  7. POLISH FARM MACHINERY MARKET AFTER ACCESSION TO THE EUROPEAN UNION – PRODUCTION AND SUPPLY OF MEANS OF AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pawlak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available After accession to the EU in 2004 the demand for tractors and agricultural implements has grown, followed by increasing supply of them. In 2012, the supply of brand-new agricultural tractors was by 185.4% higher than in 2003. In 2012 the value of renovation index of tractor fleet in agriculture was by 149.3% higher than in 2003. In spite of significant increase of demand for tractors, their production in 2012 was by 39.2% lower than in 2003. The downfall in number of tractors produced in Poland caused that imported tractors achieved more and more important share in supplies on Polish market. In 2003 the share of imports amounted to 64.0% and in 2012 – 91.4%. Production of most other means of agricultural mechanization was in 2012 higher than in 2003. The increase in a case of manure spreaders amounted to 704.3%; self loading or unloading agricultural tractor trailers – 362.1%; fertilizer spreader – 335.2%; field sowing machines – 245.3%; pick-up balers – 222.1% and harvester threshers – 194.8. Decreases were noted in cases of steamers – by 73.3%; potato planters – by 49.7%; harrows other than disc ones – by 42.2%; potato diggers – by 31.2% and rototillers – by 22.8%.

  8. Supply-side and demand-side policies for biosimilars: an overview in 10 European member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémuzat, Cécile; Kapuśniak, Anna; Caban, Aleksandra; Ionescu, Dan; Radière, Guerric; Mendoza, Cyril; Toumi, Mondher

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to provide an overview of biosimilar policies in 10 EU MSs. Methods: Ten EU MS pharmaceutical markets (Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and the UK) were selected. A comprehensive literature review was performed to identify supply-side and demand-side policies in place in the selected countries. Results: Supply-side policies for biosimilars commonly include price linkage, price re-evaluation, and tendering; the use of internal or external reference pricing varies between countries; health technology assessment is conducted in six countries. Regarding demand-side policies, pharmaceutical prescription budgets or quotas and monitoring of prescriptions (with potential financial incentives or penalties) are in place in eight and in seven countries respectively. Switching is generally allowed, but is solely the physician's responsibility. Automatic substitution is not recommended, or even forbidden, in most EU MSs. Prescription conditions or guidelines that apply to biosimilars are established in nearly all surveyed EU MSs. Conclusions: Important heterogeneity in policies on biosimilars was seen between (and even within) selected countries, which may partly explain variations in biosimilar uptake. Supply-side policies targeting price have been reported to limit biosimilar penetration in the long term, despite short-term savings, while demand-side policies are considered to positively impact uptake.

  9. Relationship between the economic cost and the reliability of the electric power supply system in city: A case in Shanghai of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Tianqing; Ma, Xianguo [College of Power Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); Wang, Xiaohua [College of Engineering, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing Puzhen 210031 (China)

    2009-10-15

    This paper presents a model to quantify the impact of electric power outages on GDP by using Cobb-Douglas production function to develop an economic relationship between the reliability of the electric power supply system and the cost of electric energy unserved. Our findings show that average costs for providing a stable power supply are much lower than disruption costs, which is supported by recurring to the data available of Shanghai. Estimated by using Shanghai's macroeconomic data of 1990-2006, this relationship indicates that the impact of electricity service disruption on Shanghai's GDP is about 48.18 x 10{sup 8}CNY in 2006, matching an alternative ''back-of-envelope'' estimate of 50.91 x 10{sup 8} CNY. The estimated costs per kWh unserved are 1.81-10.26 CNY in 1990-2006, mirroring the increasing importance of electricity in the period's economic development. These results demonstrate the usefulness of our approach for quantifying the reliability benefits of investments in electricity infrastructure. (author)

  10. Green certificate trading in the Netherlands in the prospect of the European electricity market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinica, V.; Arentsen, Maarten J.

    2002-01-01

    The support system for green electricity in the Netherlands has been one of the most complex and complicated systems across Europe. A voluntary trade of green certificates—or green labels—was one of the schemes used in the policy models of the 1990s. The liberalization of the electricity market has

  11. Communications architecture for an electric company, European utility communications architecture, EURUCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uuspaeae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    The scope of this research is integration and interoperability of various information systems and data communications for electric utilities. Utility Communication Architecture refers to an overall view of the communications needs and communication systems in an electric utility. The objective is to define and specify suitable and compatible communications procedures within the Utility and also to outside parties

  12. Electricity from biomass in the European Union - with or without biomass import

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, K.; Meibom, P.; Henriksen, T.C.

    2006-01-01

    . The ADMIRE REBUS model combines cost data for electricity producing renewable energy technologies with data on the renewable energy resources available in EU and assesses the effect of the various national support policies for green electricity in the EU countries. The major finding of the study...

  13. A Robust Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller Synthesis Applied on Boost DC-DC Converter Power Supply for Electric Vehicle Propulsion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boumediène Allaoua

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of electric vehicles power electronics system control comprising of DC-AC inverters and DC-DC converters takes a great interest of researchers in the modern industry. A DC-AC inverter supplies the high power electric vehicle motors torques of the propulsion system and utility loads, whereas a DC-DC converter supplies conventional low-power, low-voltage loads. However, the need for high power bidirectional DC-DC converters in future electric vehicles has led to the development of many new topologies of DC-DC converters. Nonlinear control of power converters is an active area of research in the fields of power electronics. This paper focuses on a fuzzy sliding mode strategy (FSMS as a control strategy for boost DC-DC converter power supply for electric vehicle. The proposed fuzzy controller specifies changes in the control signal based on the surface and the surface change knowledge to satisfy the sliding mode stability and attraction conditions. The performances of the proposed fuzzy sliding controller are compared to those obtained by a classical sliding mode controller. The satisfactory simulation results show the efficiency of the proposed control law which reduces the chattering phenomenon. Moreover, the obtained results prove the robustness of the proposed control law against variation of the load resistance and the input voltage of the studied converter.

  14. Absence of a market in the Dutch balancing mechanism: European rules versus specific investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesten, E.M.M.I.; Jolink, A.

    2013-01-01

    The European directives for the electricity industry prescribe the creation of a market for balancing electricity supply and demand. In this paper, we demonstrate that a market for balancing has not emerged in the Dutch electricity industry, and that, instead, the balancing transactions are

  15. Control of the electrical operating point of an electric discharge by mean of its power supply; Controle du point de fonctionnement des decharges electriques par l'intermediaire de leur alimentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salanne, J.Ph.

    2005-11-15

    The operating points obtained by the coupling of the power supply with the electric discharge system can be unstable because of the dynamical behaviour of the discharge or because of a change in its length. In this work, the different possible couplings existing between the discharge and the characteristics of its power supply are analyzed in order to optimize the design and control of the power supply and to control the operating point. Analytical and numerical modeling of the system are proposed which allow to simulate the couplings between the power supply and the discharge. This approach is completed by experimental investigations allowing to consider the cases of peak/peak discharges, dielectric barrier discharges (DBD), and gliding arcs. (J.S.)

  16. Modelling and multi-scenario analysis for electric heat tracing system combined with low temperature district heating for domestic hot water supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    . In this study, electric heat tracing system was investigated as a solution to this dilemma. A model of electric heat tracing system for multi-storey buildings was built. Various pipe materials and insulation thicknesses as the parameters of the model were compared to make a comprehensive study. The performance......Low temperature district heating (LTDH) is a cost-efficient way of supplying space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) for buildings in urban areas. However, there is concern that the potential hygiene problems (Legionella) might occur if LTDH is implemented, especially for large buildings...... profiles to the model. The energy and economy performances of electric heat tracing system in different scenarios were simulated by Matlab. The results were compared to the conventional circulation system with the current generation district heating. The electric heat tracing system with LTDH showed good...

  17. Use of small reactors as an alternative to supply electricity to Baja California Sur; Uso de reactores pequenos como alternativa de suministro de electricidad para Baja California Sur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, G.; Portes, E.; Ramirez, J. R. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ortega, G., E-mail: gustavo.alonso@inin.gob.mx [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Rio Rodano No. 14, 06500 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    The state of Baja California Sur (Mexico) does not form part of the national interconnected electrical system of the country, reason why is local its electrical power supply; one of the alternatives to cover future demands is the use of gas-based combined cycles, which presents the additional problem of including a high price for gas transportation in its costs. In order to reduce total costs, including investment, fuels and operation and maintenance in the operation of the Baja California Sur state electricity system in the coming years, mainly due to the estimated natural gas cost order of $11.50 dollars per million BTU, a proposal is presented to reduce the costs of the electrical system by replacing the necessary combined cycles with the new Small Modular Reactor type nuclear reactors, this alternative is economically competitive. (Author)

  18. A system dynamics analysis of the Nordic electricity market: The transition from fossil fuelled toward a renewable supply within a liberalized electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogstad, Klaus-Ole

    2005-07-01

    A system dynamic model to analyze long-term versus short-term implications of various energy policies within the context of the Nordic electricity market has been developed. The model itself provides a theory of the development of the Nordic electricity market in response to various energy policies, both in the long and the short term. The model includes generation scheduling, demand, price formation, investment decisions, resource availability and to some extent technology progress as endogenous. Thus, explanations of the model behaviour can be found from within the model. As examples of use, the model/modelling concept addresses two important questions on the energy policy agenda. First the marginal C02-emission controversy has been study, whether building gas power in Norway increase or reduce Nordic C02-emissions. The results were that in the short run, some emission reductions can be obtained due to substitution of existing coal units by operations of the market, but this effect was found to be modest. Existing gas power is also substituted, plus some bio. In the long run, there are also some investment substitutions of renewables. These effects do not appear to be significant in the short run, but in the long run, the investment rate of renewables is reduced as a consequence of reduced prices from gas. The reduced investments in renewables results in increased emissions. Some increase in demand is also to be expected from adding gas power, due to price-elasticity of demand. The net result is that gas power is likely to increase C02-emissions, which contradicts the current belief as well as results from other electricity market models that omit the long-term mechanisms such as investment decisions and technology progress. The second study analyzed the current Swedish TGC market at the time of the introduction. The purpose was to assist market design. It was found that the current Swedish TGC market design is likely to crash, due to the slow adjustment of the

  19. Market integration of local energy systems: Is local energy management compatible with European regulation for retail competition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eid, C.; Bollinger, L.A.; Koirala, B.P.; Scholten, D.J.; Facchinetti, E.; Lilliestam, J.; Hakvoort, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    The growing penetration of distributed energy resources is opening up opportunities for local energy management (LEM) – the coordination of decentralized energy supply, storage, transport, conversion and consumption within a given geographical area. Because European electricity market liberalization

  20. The Evolution of Electricity Prices in The EU since the Single European Act

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    T Robinson

    2008-01-01

    .... This paper considers the impact of EU Directives on the evolution of electricity prices. Three empirical tests for convergence are applied to prices for ten EU countries; a simple test for β-convergence...

  1. The management of waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    TARTIU Valentina Elena

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide, WEEE constitutes one of the fastest growing waste fractions generated, accounting for 8% of all municipal waste. This trend increases the environmental burdens consequently action on WEEE is an urgent need in nowadays. The paper outline the current status of the management of the WEEE across the European Union.

  2. Transactional Sex: Supply and Demand Among European Men Who have Sex with Men (MSM) in the Context of Local Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Rigmor C.; Schmidt, Axel J.; Weatherburn, Peter; The EMIS Network

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: Transactional sex (TS) is generally defined as the trading of sex for material goods. Cast within the broader context of prostitution laws, we examined variations in the sociodemographic profile of men who have sex with men engaging in TS by payment direction (buying/selling). Methods: The data were collected as part of the 38-country European Men who have sex with men Internet Survey project, conducted in 2010. Results: About 12% of respondents reported engaging in TS in the past year. TS was associated with laws, age, education, employment, and residence. Conclusions: The striking sociodemographic differences in TS by payment direction suggest a power differential and a leading role of socioeconomic factors in TS. PMID:26430474

  3. Commodity futures markets: are they an effective price risk management tool for the European wheat supply chain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Revoredo-Giha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The instability of commodity prices and the hypothesis that speculative behaviour was one of its causes has brought renewed interest in futures markets. The paper analyses the European wheat futures markets (feed and milling and the Chicago Board of Trade’s wheat contract as a comparison. Although the main purpose of the paper is to analyse whether futures markets are still useful for hedging (considering the demands from different market participants, implicitly this can be seen as testing whether the increasing presence of speculation has made futures markets divorced from physical markets. The results indicate that hedging with futures markets is still a viable alternative for dealing with price risk. This is particularly true in short period hedges (e.g. merchants and processors, where the basis seems to have been affected by the observed price instability.

  4. An active power dispatch technique using pseudo spot price of electricity for a power system area including limited energy supply thermal units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadil, Salih [Osmangazi Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Eskisehir (Turkey); Yasar, Celal [Dumlupnar Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Kutahya (Turkey)

    2002-02-01

    We propose a new active power dispatch technique using pseudo spot price of electricity for a power system area including limited energy supply thermal units. The dispatch technique considers upper and lower generation limits of the generation units, maximum capability of transmission lines and the fuel constraint of the limited energy supply thermal units in a lossy power system. Calculation of active line flows that are used in the determination of optimal active generations are obtained by means of Newton-Raphson AC load flow calculation. We assume that limited energy supply thermal units are fueled under take-or-pay agreement. The proposed dispatch technique was tested on an example power system. The dispatch problem was also solved by means of another dispatch technique that uses gradient method. Results obtained from both techniques are compared. (Author)

  5. Multi-agent simulation of competitive electricity markets: Autonomous systems cooperation for European market modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Gabriel; Pinto, Tiago; Morais, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    , respecting to the reality of different countries. This integration is done through the development of an upper ontology which integrates the essential concepts necessary to interpret all the available information. The continuous development of Multi-Agent System for Competitive Electricity Markets platform......The electricity market restructuring, and its worldwide evolution into regional and even continental scales, along with the increasing necessity for an adequate integration of renewable energy sources, is resulting in a rising complexity in power systems operation. Several power system simulators...... have been developed in recent years with the purpose of helping operators, regulators, and involved players to understand and deal with this complex and constantly changing environment. The main contribution of this paper is given by the integration of several electricity market and power system models...

  6. L'approvisionnement de l'Europe en gaz naturel à l'horizon 2010 European Natural Gas Supplies in Year 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauquis P. R.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente une prévision à l'horizon 2010 des besoins et de l'approvisionnement en gaz de l'Europe (Europe occidentale et orientale. Il montre qu'à cet horizon, tant la Norvège que l'Afrique du Nord augmenteront substantiellement leurs approvisionnements destinés à l'Europe, tandis que la plus forte augmentation en terme de volumes proviendra de l'ex-URSS et principalement de Russie. D'après cette analyse, la Russie serait capable de produire les volumes requis, même sans mettre en production les gisements de la péninsule de Yamal, tandis que les réserves gazières de la mer de Barentz russe (nommément le champ de Stockmanovskoye pourraient être développées d'ici 2005 ou même plus tôt. Durant la période 1995-2005, les quantités de gaz destinées à l'Europe en provenance du Moyen-Orient resteraient très limitées, alors qu'un premier gazoduc vers l'Europe pourrait entrer en opération vers 2010. Ultérieurement, le gaz du Moyen-Orient serait nécessaire pour maintenir un approvisionnement gazier de l'Europe en ligne avec les besoins européens. This article attempts to forecast european (Western and Eastern natural gas demand and gas supplies up to 2010. It shows that at such a horizon both Norway and North Africa will have substantially increased their gas exports supplied to the European markets while the largest increase in terms of additionnal volumes will comes the former USSR, essentially from Russia. According to this analysis, Russia would be able to produce the required volumes even without putting into production the Yamal Peninsula fields, while the Russian Barentz Sea gas reserves (namely Stockmanovskoye could be developed by 2005 or even earlier. During the period 1995-2005 only very limited gas exports to Europe would be required from the Middle East gas sources but the first gas pipeline between this region and Europe could begin to operate around 2010. Later on additionnal Middle East gas will be

  7. The internationalization of the European electricity industry. The case of Vattenfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoegselius, Per [History of Science and Technology, KTH - Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 76, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-09-15

    This article explains how the Swedish state-owned electricity company Vattenfall managed to become the most successful foreign player on the German electricity market. It does so by providing an in-depth historical analysis of Vattenfall's transformation from a national into an international actor, a process that proved long and difficult. The article starts out by identifying the transformation pressures that Vattenfall faced in the late 1980s. It then continues with a detailed analysis of Vattenfall's response to these pressures, culminating in a seemingly sudden wave of major acquisitions in Germany in the period 1999-2002. (author)

  8. Enabling demand response by extending the European electricity markets with a real-time market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyeng, P.; Kok, K.; Pineda, S.; Grande, O.; Sprooten, J.; Hebb, B.; Nieuwenhout, F.

    2013-01-01

    The EcoGrid concept proposes to extend the current wholesale electricity market to allow participation of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) and domestic end-consumers in system balancing. Taking advantage of the smart grid technology, the EcoGrid market publishes the real-time prices that entail

  9. Impact of electricity prices on foreign direct investment: Evidence from the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartekova, E.; Ziesemer, T.H.W.

    2015-01-01

    In the course of recent years growing concerns over increasing energy prices have emerged in the context of maintaining Europe’s international competitiveness. In particular, rising electricity price differentials adversely affect firms’ total production costs and ultimately impact their investment

  10. Decentralized electricity supply in the built environment. Evaluation of transitions based on system options; Decentrale elektriciteitsvoorziening in de gebouwde omgeving. Evaluatie van transities op basis van systeemopties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, A.; Ros, J.P.M.

    2009-04-15

    Local sustainable electricity production technologies as well as technologies with high domestic electricity demand are generally expected to develop in the long run and largely affect the local electricity networks. Distributed sustainable electricity systems are a realistic option to ensure a sustainable, affordable and secure energy supply, but systemic, technical and institutional adaptations are required for their further development. Moreover, distributed production systems do not necessarily offset the opportunities that can be met with central production options. Developing a distributed electricity network, with high levels of local electricity production as well as demand, could lead to significant reductions in environmental pressure, but high investments are required, while security of supply remains a function of reliability of electricity production and network control. Domestic electricity demand becomes generally higher, largely due to electric cars and heat pumps. Depending on car loading patterns, the daily demand profiles may become more pronounced. These developments may be accommodated by improved interlinkages between production and consumption, thus elaborating a distributed electricity network. Such interlinkages require the articulation of consumers in a role of co-producers, while network balancing shifts from top-down control to a bottom-up balancing activity. [Dutch] Er zijn vele technische mogelijkheden om op lokale schaal - op gebouwen, in woningen en wijken - efficienter en schoner elektriciteit te produceren. Zonnepanelen, windmolens en brandstofcellen zijn hiervan voorbeelden. Het aanbod van elektriciteit uit deze systemen vertoont echter grote fluctuaties. Bovendien kan de elektriciteitsvraag in huishoudens in de toekomst sterk toenemen voor het opladen van elektrische auto's of de toepassing van warmtepompen. Het vraagt daarom nogal wat aanpassingen in vormgeving en aansturing van het systeem om vraag en aanbod in balans te

  11. European renewable energy policy at crossroads-Focus on electricity support mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouquet, Doerte [Kuhbier Law Firm, Avenue de la Fauconnerie 73, B-1170 Brussels (Belgium)], E-mail: fouquet@kuhbier.com; Johansson, Thomas B. [International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics, Lund University, P.O. Box 196, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2008-11-15

    The European Union has adopted targets for the expanded use of renewable energies (REs) as one mean to achieve improved energy security, reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and improved competitiveness of the European economies. Realising that rapid expansion of RE will not happen in the energy market place, as it now exists, various support mechanisms are under consideration, most prominently these may be grouped into two major categories, tradable green certificates (TGC) and feed-in tariffs (FiT). Experiences from a number of countries in Europe suggest that FiT deliver larger and faster penetration of RE than TGC, at lower cost. The two major systems are compared in overall terms. In a TGC system, a target for RE penetration is set by public authorities seeking to minimise cost for achieving this target. The certificate price is set by the market. In a FiT system, public authorities set an effective price but are not limiting the quantity installed. This has led to impressive growth rates, particularly in Denmark, Germany, and Spain. It is found that investor risks are much lower in a FiT system, and that innovation incentives are larger. Against this background, the European Commission proposal for an EU-wide TGC system is discussed. It is found that such a system is likely to be less effective and less efficient than maintaining national FiT systems, and that it also risks time-consuming legal processes during which investor uncertainties would risk a marked slow-down in investments. Given the underlying objective of addressing security, climate change and competitiveness, it therefore appears that, at least for the time being, continued reliance on national systems, especially FiT would be preferred.

  12. European renewable energy policy at crossroads. Focus on electricity support mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouquet, Doerte [Kuhbier Law Firm, Avenue de la Fauconnerie 73, B-1170 Brussels (Belgium); Johansson, Thomas B. [International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics, Lund University, P.O. Box 196, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2008-11-15

    The European Union has adopted targets for the expanded use of renewable energies (REs) as one mean to achieve improved energy security, reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and improved competitiveness of the European economies. Realising that rapid expansion of RE will not happen in the energy market place, as it now exists, various support mechanisms are under consideration, most prominently these may be grouped into two major categories, tradable green certificates (TGC) and feed-in tariffs (FiT). Experiences from a number of countries in Europe suggest that FiT deliver larger and faster penetration of RE than TGC, at lower cost. The two major systems are compared in overall terms. In a TGC system, a target for RE penetration is set by public authorities seeking to minimise cost for achieving this target. The certificate price is set by the market. In a FiT system, public authorities set an effective price but are not limiting the quantity installed. This has led to impressive growth rates, particularly in Denmark, Germany, and Spain. It is found that investor risks are much lower in a FiT system, and that innovation incentives are larger. Against this background, the European Commission proposal for an EU-wide TGC system is discussed. It is found that such a system is likely to be less effective and less efficient than maintaining national FiT systems, and that it also risks time-consuming legal processes during which investor uncertainties would risk a marked slow-down in investments. Given the underlying objective of addressing security, climate change and competitiveness, it therefore appears that, at least for the time being, continued reliance on national systems, especially FiT would be preferred. (author)

  13. Design choices for electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vries, Laurens

    2007-07-01

    Ten years after the first European Electricity Directive, the goal of creating a single European electricity market has not been reached, despite concerted efforts by the EU and certain member states to continue with the reforms. The policy of subsidiarity for many aspects of market design has as a consequence that member countries are implementing a variety of different market designs and are implementing the reforms at varying speeds. The Florence regulatory process, which was intended to provide a bottom-up approach for coordination and harmonization, has effectively stalled and been replaced by a series of 'mini fora' in which smaller groups of countries work on integrating their markets. At the same time, the European electricity supply industry is facing some significant challenges. This paper investigates the different choices that can be made in the design of electricity markets, how they relate to each other and how they relate to the policy goals. (auth)

  14. Report on the draft of the law No. 1253 concerning the Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply. Volume III. Appendices and Table of abbreviations; Rapport sur le projet de loi (no. 1253) relatif a la modernisation et au developpement du service public de l'electricite. Tome III. Annexes et Table des sigles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataille, Christian [Assemblee Nationale, Paris (France)

    1999-02-11

    The third volume of the Report on behalf of the Production and Exchange Commission on the draft of the law No. 1253 concerning the Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply contains Appendices. The appendix number 1 presents the directive 96/92 CE of the European Parliament and Council of 19 December 1996, concerning common rules referring to the electricity internal market. It contains the chapters titled: 1. Field of application and definitions; 2. General rules for sector organization; 3. Production; 4. Exploitation of the transport grid; 5. Exploitation of the distribution grid; 6. Accounting dissociation and transparency; 7. Organization of the grid access; 8. Final dispositions. The appendix number 2 gives the law no. 46 - 628 of 8 April, modified, on the nationalization of the electricity and gas. The third appendix reproduces Decree no. 55 - 662 of 20 May 1955 concerning relationships between the establishments aimed by the articles 2 and 23 of the law of 8 April 1946 and the autonomous producers of electric energy. The appendix number 4 contains the notification of State Council of 7 July 1994 regarding the diversification of EDF and GDF activities. The fifth appendix is a chronological list of the European negotiations concerning the opening of the electricity market (1987 -1997). Finally, a list of following abbreviations is given: ART, ATR, CNES, CRE, CTE, DNN, FACE, FPE, GRT, IEG, INB, PPI, RAG and SICAE.

  15. COMPARING EUROPEAN MEMBER STATE ELECTRIC VEHICLE UPTAKE INCENTIVES AND CHARGING INFRASTRUCTURE PROVISION

    OpenAIRE

    HARRISON GILLIAN; THIEL CHRISTIAN

    2015-01-01

    A complex system dynamics model of the EU light duty vehicle sector has been employed to assess policy options for electric (e) - mobility. The focus in this research is on passenger cars, and investigating the implications for individual member states, who are currently tasked with designing national uptake incentives and policy frameworks for alternative fuels and their infrastructure. The model encompasses the market agents of User, Automobile Manufacturer, Infrastructure Provider and Auth...

  16. e-commerce in the electricity supply industry: legal setting and selected legal issues arising in doing one's business via the Web; E-Commerce in der Elektrizitaetzwirtschaft: rechtliche Rahmenbedingungen und ausgewaehlte Rechtsprobleme bei der Nutzung des Internets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genten, A.; Rosin, P. [RWE Plus AG, Essen (DE). Privat Kundenmanagement (Recht)

    2001-07-01

    It is expected that e-commerce will be increasingly applied in business relations of the international electricity supply industry. This is why the contribution here sets out the legal provisions effective within the European Union as well as in Germany. Examples are given to illustrate specific aspects. (orig./CB) [German] Es wird erwartet, dass auch in der Elektrizitaetswirtschaft E-Commerce immer groessere Aufmerksamkeit findet. Demzufolge ist auch fuer die Elektrizitaetswirtschaft eine Auseinandersetzung mit den rechtlichen Rahmenbedingungen und den Rechtsproblemen bei der Nutzung des Internets von Interesse. Die Abhandlung erlaeutert den Europaeischen Rechtsrahmen fuer E-Commerce und den nationalen Rechtsrahmen fuer E-Commerce. (orig./CB)

  17. Heat supply to low energy dwellings in district heating areas. Analyses of CO{sub 2} emissions and electricity supply security; Varmeforsyning til lavenergiboliger i omraader med fjernvarmekonsesjon. Analyser av CO{sub 2}-utslipp og forsyningssikkerhet for elektrisitet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thyholt, Marit

    2006-07-01

    Building low energy dwellings in large development projects is a new situation in Norway. The municipalities have to a little extent analyzed the consequences of this new housing standard with respect to the energy supply to such areas, and how this standard may change the plans for new or extended district heat production. In the provision about the mandatory connection to district heating plants, and the appendant provision related to a heating system that can utilize district heat, the district heat supply and the heat demand are not seen in connection. The objective of this dissertation is to provide the municipalities with a basis for decision making in the processing of applications concerning dispensation from the mandatory connection or the heating system requirement for dwellings with low heat demand. This basis for decision making is based on the national aim of reducing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions and of improving the electricity supply security. This summary provides an abstract from the discussion of the legislation as an incentive or barrier for building low energy dwellings. An abstract from a survey among construction firms concerning the motivation for building low energy dwellings is also included. In addition, the summary provides a comprehensive abstract of the results from the CO{sub 2} emission calculations, and the basis for these calculations. Introductorily a brief background of the national focus on energy savings and increased use of hydronic heating, including district heat, is given.

  18. The power vacuum: the effect of the electricity power crisis on GDP in South Africa in the context of an uncertain coal supply.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, P. [Freyaafdrammen (South Africa)

    2011-07-01

    In 1988 the South African government released a white paper advocating an increased electricity supply to meet social obligations. Large sectors of the rural population in South Africa were not electrified. The National Electrification Program (NEP) was launched in 1994 to wipe out the electrification backlog by 2012. The target of the first phase of NEP was achieved. By 2003, a basic 50kWh electricity per month was supplied free of charge, due to the poverty of the population. In 1996, the GEAR (Growth, Employment and Redistribution) strategy was introduced to generate 6% GDP growth, create 400,000 new jobs each year and increase foreign investment. But the race for GDP growth could result in high electricity consumption and frequent interruptions, particularly in energy-intensive industries which had been introduced in South Africa. The national coal production rate has been reached and surpassed its peak, leading to the end of the cheap coal era in South Africa but more expensive coal could slow down industrial development.

  19. Recovery of the electric supply in the SBO event of prolonged in NPP Almaraz; Recuperacion del suministro electrico en caso de SBO prolongado en CN Almaraz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alejo Silvo, J. M.; Garcia Galarraga, M.

    2013-07-01

    In the framework of strategies of defence in depth and in response to the complementary technical instructions of the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN) carried out after the tests of resistance, Almaraz NPP has implemented a series of modifications in order to deal with events of total loss of power Electric, Station blackout (SBO), over a long period of time, beyond the foundations of design. The purpose of modifications in Almaraz NPP is the creation of a supply infrastructure independent of the existing plant, which can attach portable external sources to supply power to a series of considered to be receptors of importance for the monitoring and maintenance of the plant in a safe condition.

  20. ASPECTS REGARDING THE DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE OF FLAMEPROOF ELECTRIC MOTORS SUPPLIED VIA STATIC FREQUENCY CONVERTERS FOR EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai MAGYARI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The electric power drive systems consisting of three phase induction motor and static frequency converter are designed to enhance the performance on site, by diminishing the energy consumption, optimization of the technological processes and the reduction of costs for the maintenance and repairs of the equipment. The paper presents some important issues concerning the selection of inverter fed flameproof electric drives in the field of potentially explosive atmospheres of gases and vapors by ensuring a correct risk management against the hazard of electric sparks as well as excessive temperatures.

  1. Contribution of coal to the transformation of the German electricity supply; Beitrag der Kohle zur Transformation der deutschen Stromversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milojcic, George [Bundesverband Braunkohle (DEBRIV), Koeln (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    The use of coal, hard coal and lignite, is compatible with the targets of the German ''Energiewende''. This fact is often ignored. Due to the uncertain geopolitical situation, the domestic lignite is an important element for a reliable energy supply of Germany. In addition to the known factors secure availability, competitiveness and local economic importance, flexibility has become a characteristics of lignite. The change of the German energy supply is only possible with domestic lignite. This article points out the importance of lignite for this process.

  2. Design and evaluation metrology for electric power supply in motor vehicles; Auslegungs- und Bewertungsmetrik fuer die elektrische Energieversorgung von Kraftfahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cierullies, J.

    2006-07-01

    Electric power systems in motor vehicles are subject to increasingly complex requirements. On the one hand, electricity consumption increases with the new comfort and safety systems which involve complex control algorithms. On the other hand, there is the problem of weight which prevents design of power generation and storage systems for maximum load. The publication attempts to estimate the required component size and assess the overall system of electronic components and intelligent algorithms. (orig.)

  3. Controlling in power supply companies that use structured electricity procurement; Controlling in EVU bei einer strukturierten Beschaffung von Strom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutz, Andreas [prevero AG, Muenchen (Germany); Bernklau, Nadine [TU Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Wirtschaftsethik

    2011-01-15

    The liberalisation of the electricity market continues to offer innovative avenues for trading, especially in procurement. This leads to higher levels of complexity and responsibility in the tasks of a power supplier's purchasing department. What is needed ultimately is a well-developed procurement controlling system. A recent study shows how such a system should be designed in the case of electricity.

  4. An ex ante welfare analysis of the unbundling of the distribution and supply companies in the Dutch electricity sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nooij, M.; Baarsma, B.

    2008-01-01

    The Dutch Minister of Economic Affairs intends (i) to unbundle the distribution companies from the commercial companies which are currently in the same holding (supply and generation) and (ii) to allow the Transmission System Operator to manage all the 110 kV grids (currently it manages the 220 kV

  5. System for the reliability analysis of the electric energy supply; Sistema para el analisis de confiabilidad del suministro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perales, Favio; Martinez, Javier; Huesca, Francisco; Garcia, Norma; Nieva, Rolando [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    A computer tool, developed for the reliability evaluation of the electric energy supply, considering the faults in the generation and transmission systems, is presented. The application of the tool in planning the expansion and operation of the electric systems, the methodology of the solution employed and the various functions it accounts for, are described. At the end some illustrative examples of its applications by means of the studies with a model of representative characteristics of the interconnected national system. [Espanol] Se presenta una herramienta computacional desarrollada para evaluar la confiabilidad del suministro de energia electrica, considerando las fallas en los sistemas de generacion y transmision. Se describen las aplicaciones de la herramienta en la planeacion de la expansion y de la operacion de sistemas electricos, la metodologia de solucion empleada y las diversas funciones con que cuenta. Al final se presentan algunos ejemplos ilustrativos de sus aplicaciones mediante estudios con un modelo de caracteristicas representativas del sistema interconectado nacional.

  6. Techno-economic feasibility of energy supply of remote villages in Palestine by PV-systems, diesel generators and electric grid (Case studies: Emnazeil and Atouf villages)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrik, Imad [An-Najah National Univ., Nablus (PS). Energy Research Centre; Lecumberri, Marta

    2010-07-01

    The energy situation in Palestine is somewhat unique when compared to other countries in the Middle East. There are virtually no available natural resources, and due to the ongoing political situation, the Palestinians rely (or have to rely) almost totally on Israel for their energy needs. This paper presents three energy supply alternatives for a remote village represented in PV system, diesel generator and electric grid. Design of these systems and the associated costs of their utilization are illustrated. Economic evaluation methods are used to compare the economic-effectiveness of these energy systems. The results show that, utilizing of PV systems for rural electrification in Palestine is economically more useful than using diesel generators or extension of the high voltage electric grid. The obtained results represents also a helpful reference for energy planers in Palestine and justify the consideration of PV systems more seriously. (orig.)

  7. Treatment of synthetic arsenate wastewater with iron-air fuel cell electrocoagulation to supply drinking water and electricity in remote areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Hwan; Maitlo, Hubdar Ali; Park, Joo Yang

    2017-05-15

    Electrocoagulation with an iron-air fuel cell is an innovative arsenate removal system that can operate without an external electricity supply. Thus, this technology is advantageous for treating wastewater in remote regions where it is difficult to supply electricity. In this study, the possibility of real applications of this system for arsenate treatment with electricity production was verified through electrolyte effect investigations using a small-scale fuel cell and performance testing of a liter-scale fuel cell stack. The electrolyte species studied were NaCl, Na 2 SO 4 , and NaHCO 3 . NaCl was overall the most effective electrolyte for arsenate treatment, although Na 2 SO 4 produced the greatest electrical current and power density. In addition, although the current density and power density were proportional to the concentrations of NaCl and Na 2 SO 4 , the use of concentrations above 20 mM of NaCl and Na 2 SO 4 inhibited arsenate treatment due to competition effects between anions and arsenate in adsorption onto the iron hydroxide. The dominant iron hydroxide produced at the iron anode was found to be lepidocrocite by means of Raman spectroscopy. A liter-scale four-stack iron-air fuel cell with 10 mM NaCl electrolyte was found to be able to treat about 300 L of 1 ppm arsenate solution to below 10 ppb during 1 day, based on its 60-min treatment capacity, as well as produce the maximum power density of 250 mW/m 2 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 'A thorn in the side of European geodesy': measuring Paris-Greenwich longitude by electric telegraph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The difference in longitude between the observatories of Paris and Greenwich was long of fundamental importance to geodesy, navigation and timekeeping. Measured many times and by many different means since the seventeenth century, the preferred method of the later nineteenth and early twentieth centuries made use of the electric telegraph. I describe here for the first time the four Paris-Greenwich telegraphic longitude determinations made between 1854 and 1902. Despite contemporary faith in the new technique, the first was soon found to be inaccurate; the second was a failure, ending in Anglo-French dispute over whose result was to be trusted; the third failed in exactly the same way; and when eventually the fourth was presented as a success, the evidence for that success was far from clear-cut. I use this as a case study in precision measurement, showing how mutual grounding between different measurement techniques, in the search for agreement between them, was an important force for change and improvement. I also show that better precision had more to do with the gradually improving methods of astronomical, time determination than with the singular innovation of the telegraph, thus emphasizing the importance of what have been described as 'observatory techniques' to nineteenth-century practices of precision measurement.

  9. Volatility transmission and volatility impulse response functions in European electricity forward markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Pen, Yannick [Institut d' Economie et de Management de Nantes - IAE, Universite de Nantes, Chemin de la Censive du Tertre, BP 52231, 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Sevi, Benoit [Universite d' Angers (GRANEM), Faculte de Droit, Economie et Gestion, Universite d' Angers, 13 allee Francois Mitterrand, BP 13633, 49036 Angers cedex 01 (France)

    2010-07-15

    Using daily data from March 2001 to June 2005, we estimate a VAR-BEKK model and find evidence of return and volatility spillovers between the German, the Dutch and the British forward electricity markets. We apply Hafner and Herwartz [2006, Journal of International Money and Finance 25, 719-740] Volatility Impulse Response Function (VIRF) to quantify the impact of shock on expected conditional volatility. We observe that a shock has a high positive impact only if its size is large compared to the current level of volatility. The impact of shocks are usually not persistent, which may be a consequence of the non-storability of power. Finally, we estimate the density of the VIRF at different forecast horizons. These fitted distributions are asymmetric and show that large increases in expected conditional volatilities are possible even if their probability is low. These results have interesting implications for market participants whose risk management policy depends on option prices which themselves depend on the characteristics of volatility. (author)

  10. Energy efficiency by use of automated energy-saving windows with heat-reflective screens and solar battery for power supply systems of European and Russian buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, V. M.; Smirnov, N. N.; Tyutikov, V. V.; Flament, B.

    2015-10-01

    The new energy saving windows with heat-reflecting shields have been developed, and for their practical use they need to be integrated into the automated system for controlling heat supply in buildings and the efficiency of their use together with the existing energy-saving measures must be determined. The study was based on the results of field tests of windows with heat-reflective shields in a certified climate chamber. The method to determine the minimum indoor air temperature under standby heating using heat-reflective shields in the windows and multifunctional energy-efficient shutter with solar battery have been developed. Annual energy saving for the conditions of different regions of Russia and France was determined. Using windows with heat-reflecting screens and a solar battery results in a triple power effect: reduced heat losses during the heating season due to increased window resistance; lower cost of heating buildings due to lowering of indoor ambient temperature; also electric power generation.

  11. PHOEBUS Juelich - a plant for autarkic electric power supply with solar energy throughout the whole year; PHOEBUS Juelich - eine Anlage zur ganzjaehrig autarken solaren Stromversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthels, H.; Brocke, W.A.; Groehn, H.G.; Heuts, G.; Mai, H.; Mergel, J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ) (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieverfahrenstechnik

    1999-07-01

    The construction and operation of the plant PHOEBUS Juelich is a first step to supplying larger buildings with solar-electric energy (main library of FZJ). The grid-free yearly supply is achieved with four differently orientated photovoltaic generators combined with an energy storage system, consisting of an electrolyzer, product gas storage for hydrogen and oxygen and fuel cells. The whole energy conversion chain of the presented plant occurs completely free of emission. The reaction product of the 'cold combustion' of hydrogen in the fuel cell is water that is separated into its components hydrogen and oxygen in the electrolysis with the stored electric current. The main system steps of an solar-electric island grid supply are investigated with the demonstration plant at the Research Center Juelich. Future-orientated steps are supposed to be taken with this project in order to achieve a decentral, autonomous energy supply at a scale close to practice. After the planning phase in the year 1992, the installation works began in spring 1993 and were completed in August 1994. Afterwards the actual test phase began with tests of the components in individual checks and during the operation (control system) of the overall plant. The permission to operate the long-term storage with the corresponding safety devices was granted in July 1995. Since this point in time the plant was operated according to its determination. (orig.) [German] Die Errichtung und der Betrieb der Anlage PHOEBUS Juelich stellt einen ersten Schritt zur solarelektrischen Versorgung eines groesseren Gebaeudes (Zentralbibliothek des FZJ) dar. Die netzfreie Jahresversorgung wird erzielt mit vier unterschiedlich ausgerichteten Photovoltaik-Generatoren in Kombination mit einem Energiespeichersystem, bestehend aus einem Elektrolyseur, der Produktgasspeicherung fuer Wasserstoff und Sauerstoff und einer Brennstoffzelle. Die gesamte Energieumwandlungskette der hier vorgestellten Anlage laeuft voellig

  12. METHODS OF IMPROVING THE RELIABILITY OF THE CONTROL SYSTEM TRACTION POWER SUPPLY OF ELECTRIC TRANSPORT BASED ON AN EXPERT INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Matusevych

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The author proposed the numerous methods of solving the multi-criterion task – increasing of reliability of control system on the basis of expert information. The information, which allows choosing thoughtfully the method of reliability increasing for a control system of electric transport, is considered.

  13. Economy wide emission impacts of carbon and energy tax in electricity supply industry: A case study on Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siriwardena, K.; Wijayatunga, P.D.C.; Fernando, W.J.L.S.; Attalage, R.A. [Sri Lanka Energy Managers Association, 29, Fairfield Gardens, Colombo 8 (Sri Lanka); Shrestha, R.M. [Asian Institute of Technology, PO Box 4, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand)

    2007-07-15

    This paper presents the results and analysis of a study conducted with the objective of investigating the impact on economy wide emissions due to carbon and energy taxes levied within the electricity generation sector of Sri Lanka. This exercise is mainly based on the input-output table developed by the national planning department. An input-output decomposition technique is used to analyze four types of effects that contribute to the overall reduction in equivalent carbon, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions. These four effects are: fuel mix effect (i.e. the change in emissions due to variation I fuel mix), structural effect (i.e. change in emissions due to changes in technological coefficients with taxes compared to that without taxes), final demand effect (i.e. the change in emissions associated with changes in final demand) and joint effect (i.e. the interactive effect between or among the fuel mix, structural and final demand effects). The polluting fuel sources and low energy efficiency generation technologies are less preferred under these tax regimes. Of the four effects, a change in fuel mix in thermal electricity generation and a change final demand for electricity were found to be the main contributors in achieving economy wide emission reductions. It was found in the analysis that a minimum of US$ 50/tC tax or US$ 1.0/MBtu of energy tax is required to have a significant impact on economy wide emissions in the Sri Lankan context. This translates into an overall increase in electricity generation cost of approximately USCts 0.9 kW{sup -1} h{sup -1} and USCts 0.6 kW{sup -1} h{sup -1} under the carbon and energy tax regimes, respectively. The reduction in emissions is also strongly coupled with the value of the price elasticity of electricity. (author)

  14. The nationalization of electricity supply and construction of large hydropower in Para State, Brazil; A estatizacao da oferta de energia eletrica e a construcao de grandes hidreletricas no estado do Para

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcos Vinicius Miranda da [Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq), Belem, PA (Brazil)], email: marcos.silva@pq.cnpq.br; Beltrao, Norma Ely Santos; Ferreira Filho, Helio; Oliveira, Renata Melo e Silva de; Penna, Heriberto Amanajas [Universidade Estadual do Para (UEPA), Belem, PA (Brazil)], emails: normaelybeltrao@gmail.com, hlio.ferreira@gmail.com, renata_ep@yahoo.com.br, heripena@yahoo.com.br

    2010-07-01

    The state of Para has the largest hydropower potential in Brazil, making it one of the main targets of electricity supply expansion policy. It is not only the existence of this potential that has created a favorable context for building of large hydroelectric dams in Para state, other factors also play important role. In this article will be analyzed one of these factors - the statization process of electricity supply in the country - and its influence on decision to build large hydroelectric dams in Para. It is observed that the state presence is an indispensable support to Brazilian electric system expansion policy that prioritizes the building of large hydropower to meet the energy demand in the country. This means that unless there is a change in the control of electric power supply, other large hydroelectric dams will be built in Para state, even taking into account the strong opposition on those generation plants. (author)

  15. PROGRAM TECHNICAL SYSTEM OF PROVIDING OF SECURITY OF THE INFORMATIVE RESOURCES FOR ON THE CIRCLES OF ELECTRIC POWER SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Bakiko

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The model of anti-interference protective filter with due account taken of stray parameters of elements is developed. The algorithm of functioning of anti-interference protective filter with integrated system management, which forms the new class of intellectual devices of security of informative resources on the circles of power supply, is offered. The analysis of possibilities of dynamic magnetic biasing of direct current of pericardium of throttle with the use of latitudinal impulsive modulation is experimentally conducted. The efficiency of hardware-software complex of security of informative resources is explored.

  16. Application of multi-criteria methods to compare different solutions of supplying buildings in electricity from photovoltaic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendecka Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the technologies of electricity generation in distributed systems are usually associated with Renewable Energy Sources (RES. The choice of the construction site depends mainly on the availability of the power system. However, energy planning, especially in case of RES, is a complex process involving multiple and often conflicting objectives. The complexity of the selection of the electricity system is typically addressed with the use of multi-criteria tools, involving all of the considered criteria and also different methods of their aggregation. The result is a final ranking of the available alternatives. This paper describes the application of a multi-criteria decision tool for the comparative analysis of the use of alternative options of the PV technology for electricity production. Four decision variants are considered, including the different construction of solar farms (static and movable structure and different types of configuration of individual installation (off and on-grid. The construction of each new sources of electricity generation, including PV, is the multi-threaded and multi-dimensional decision problem. The criteria used in the analysis combine economic, environmental and social issues. The first of the considered criterion is the Net Present Value (NPV which determines the economic viability of the project. The second criterion, thermo-ecological cost (TEC, connecting energy and environmental issues. Finally, the Land Use (LU is considered as a social criterion. As aggregation function, the Weighted Sum Method (WSM is used. The sensitivity analysis of the criteria weights was performed with the use of a novel method involving Monte Carlo simulation and a method of data reconciliation.

  17. The Water - Energy Nexus Of Hydropower. Are The Trade-Offs Between Electricity Generation And Water Supply Negligible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, L.; Pfister, S.

    2015-12-01

    Hydropower ranks first among renewable sources of power production and provides globally about 16% of electricity. While it is praised for its low greenhouse gas emissions, it is accused of its large water consumption which surpasses that of all conventional and most renewable energy sources (except for bioenergy) by far. Previous studies mostly applied a gross evaporation approach where all the current evaporation from the plant's reservoir is allocated to hydropower. In contrast, we only considered net evaporation as the difference between current evaporation and actual evapotranspiration before the construction of the reservoir. In addition, we take into account local water stress, its monthly fluctuations and storage effects of the reservoir in order to assess the impacts on water availability for other users. We apply the method to a large dataset of almost 1500 globally distributed hydropower plants (HPPs), covering ~43% of global annual electricity generation, by combining reservoir information from the Global Reservoir and Dam (GRanD) database with information on electricity generation from the CARMA database. While we can confirm that the gross water consumption of hydropower is generally large (production-weighted average of 97 m3/GJ), other users are not necessarily deprived of water. In contrast, they also benefit in many cases from the reservoir because water is rather stored in the wet season and released in the dry season, thereby alleviating water stress. The production-weighted water scarcity footprint of the analyzed HPPs amounts to -41 m3 H2Oe/GJ. It has to be noted that the impacts among individual plants vary a lot. Larger HPPs generally consume less water per unit of electricity generated, but also the benefits related to alleviating water scarcity are lower. Overall, reservoirs promote both, energy and water security. Other environmental impacts such as flow alterations and social impacts should, however, also be considered, as they can be

  18. Analysis of Electric Propulsion Performance on Submersible with Motor DC, Supply Power 10260AH at Voltage 115VDC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Ranu Kusuma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Electric propulsion is the ship system using propulsion motor to replace performance of main engine. The application of diesel engine as propulsion system have some problems and weaknesses such as diesel engine unability to operate when submersible vessel is operating under sea. To overcome that problems in submersible vessel, alternative solution of ship propulsion is required. DC Motor can be used as this alternative solution. Submersible vessel use electric propulsion system with DC Motor because DC Motor has advantages of easy rotation setting and does not cause noise when submersible vessel is diving. This bachelor thesis will study the application of DC Motor as an electric propulsion system on submersible vessel with length 59,57 m in series and parallel circuit by simulation using MATLAB software. The simulation data obtained are rotation and torque of DC Motor. From these simulation, it can be concluded that parallel circuit rotation is greater than series circuit rotation. It caused the greater speed and lower power in parallel circuit. 

  19. Law of the electricity sector in France. The legal framework for the French electricity supply between legal market deregulation requirements and public service obligations; Stromwirtschaftsrecht in Frankreich. Der Rechtsrahmen fuer die franzoesische Elektrizitaetsversorgung zwischen unionsrechtlichen Marktoeffnungsvorgaben und gemeinwirtschaftlichen Verpflichtungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckler, Julius

    2016-07-01

    The process of creating an internal electricity market is still unfinished. This has, in addition to technical reasons, also legal reasons: The persistence of the structures and regulatory frameworks that have grown during monopoly times, in part is very strong, which is particularly evident in France. The power supply there is intensively controlled by its state as a public service, both indirectly by the state-owned company EDF and directly by statutory regulations. The market deregulation is not thereby completely prevented. However, together with the particular importance of nuclear power for the French power supply, considerable barriers to market opening are emerging. Against this background and out of the historical development, the author examines the current French law of the electricity sector across all value-creation stages in its relations to EU law. [German] Der Strombinnenmarktprozess ist nach wie vor unvollendet. Dies hat neben technischen auch rechtliche Gruende: Die Beharrungskraefte der zu Monopolzeiten gewachsenen Strukturen und Ordnungsrahmen sind zum Teil aeusserst stark, was sich besonders in Frankreich deutlich zeigt. Die dortige Stromversorgung wird ausgehend von ihrer Einordnung als Service Public sowohl mittelbar durch das Staatsunternehmen EDF als auch unmittelbar durch gesetzliche Regelungen intensiv staatlich kontrolliert. Die Marktoeffnung wird dadurch zwar nicht vollkommen verhindert. Zusammen mit der besonderen Bedeutung der Kernkraft fuer die franzoesische Stromversorgung ergeben sich hieraus aber erhebliche Marktoeffnungshemmnisse. Vor diesem Hintergrund und ausgehend von der historischen Entwicklung untersucht der Autor das geltende franzoesische Stromwirtschaftsrecht ueber alle Wertschoepfungsstufen hinweg in seinen Bezuegen zum EU-Recht.

  20. Investigation of a generator system for generating electrical power, to supply directly to the public network, using a windmill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp, C.

    1979-01-01

    A windpowered generator system is described which uses a windmill to convert mechanical energy to electrical energy for a three phase (network) voltage of constant amplitude and frequency. The generator system controls the windmill by the number of revolutions so that the power drawn from the wind for a given wind velocity is maximum. A generator revolution which is proportional to wind velocity is achieved. The stator of the generator is linked directly to the network and a feed converter at the rotor takes care of constant voltage and frequency at the stator.

  1. ARE. Regional energy supplies - progress report 2000-2001; ARE. Regionale Energieversorgung 2000-2001. Taetigkeitsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    The ARE progress report discusses the following issues: Economic development and its effects on power supply; Deregulation of the electricity and gas market; Competition between regional utilities; Energy policy of the new German government; European regulations; Legislation on energy supply; Energy supply and cartel law; Regional supply in the East German states. [German] Der Taetigkeitsbericht der ARE befasst sich mit folgenden Themen: Gesamtwirtschaftliche Entwicklung und ihre Auswirkung auf die Energiewirtschaft, Oeffnung des Monopoles fuer Strom und Gas, Wettbewerb der regionalen Energieversorger, Energiepolitik der neuen Bundesregierung, Europaeische Richtlininen, energiewirtschaftsrecht, Versorgungswirtschaft und Kartellrecht und der Regionalversorgung in den neuen Bundeslaendern.

  2. Studies of breakeven prices and electricity supply potentials of nuclear fusion by a long-term world energy and environment model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokimatsu, K.; Asaoka, Y.; Konishi, S.; Fujino, J.; Ogawa, Y.; Okano, K.; Nishio, S.; Yoshida, T.; Hiwatari, R.; Yamaji, K.

    2002-11-01

    In response to social demand, this paper investigates the breakeven price (BP) and potential electricity supply of nuclear fusion energy in the 21st century by means of a world energy and environment model. We set the following objectives in this paper: (i) to reveal the economics of the introduction conditions of nuclear fusion; (ii) to know when tokamak-type nuclear fusion reactors are expected to be introduced cost-effectively into future energy systems; (iii) to estimate the share in 2100 of electricity produced by the presently designed reactors that could be economically selected in the year. The model can give in detail the energy and environment technologies and price-induced energy saving, and can illustrate optimal energy supply structures by minimizing the costs of total discounted energy systems at a discount rate of 5%. The following parameters of nuclear fusion were considered: cost of electricity (COE) in the nuclear fusion introduction year, annual COE reduction rates, regional introduction year, and regional nuclear fusion capacity projection. The investigations are carried out for three nuclear fusion projections one of which includes tritium breeding constraints, four future CO2 concentration constraints, and technological assumptions on fossil fuels, nuclear fission, CO2 sequestration, and anonymous innovative technologies. It is concluded that: (1) the BPs are from 65 to 125 mill kW-1 h-1 depending on the introduction year of nuclear fusion under the 550 ppmv CO2 concentration constraints; those of a business-as-usual (BAU) case are from 51 to 68 mill kW-1h-1. Uncertainties resulting from the CO2 concentration constraints and the technological options influenced the BPs by plus/minus some 10 30 mill kW-1h-1, (2) tokamak-type nuclear fusion reactors (as presently designed, with a COE range around 70 130 mill kW-1h-1) would be favourably introduced into energy systems after 2060 based on the economic criteria under the 450 and 550 ppmv CO2

  3. Analysis of the Potential for Use of Floating PV Power Plant on the Skadar Lake for Electricity Supply of Aluminium Plant in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladan Durković

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a conceptual solution for the supply of a part of electrical energy for the needs of Aluminium Plant Podgorica (KAP in Montenegro from a large Floating Photovoltaic Power Plant (FPPP, that would be installed on the nearby lake. The recommended FPPP, with an innovative azimuth angle control method and total installed power of 90 MWp, would consist of 18 power plants having an installed power of 5 MWp each. An analysis using the NREL solar insolation database ascertained that the recommended FPPP power plant can achieve a significantly higher production in comparison with previous solutions. An economic analysis has shown that the recommended power plant would yield positive economic indicators. Additionally, such a power plant would significantly contribute to the reduction of CO2 emissions.

  4. Calculation of Residual Electricity Mixes when Accounting for the EECS (European Electricity Certificate System — the Need for a Harmonised System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Jørgen Hanssen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the Electricity Directive, suppliers of electricity must disclose their electricity portfolio with regards to energy source and environmental impact. This paper gives some examples of disclosure systems and residual electricity mixes in Norway, Sweden and Finland, compared to an approach based on a common regional disclosure. Disclosures based on the E-TRACK standard are presented, as well as the variation in CO2 emissions from different residual mixes. The results from this study clearly show that there is a need for a harmonised, transparent and reliable system for the accounting of electricity disclosure in Europe.

  5. Nuclear power and the continuity of supply in the enlarged European Union. Opening address at the 2004 winter meeting; Kernenergie und Versorgungssicherheit in der erweiterten Europaeischen Union - Wintertagung 2004. Eroeffnungsansprache zur Wintertagung 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maichel, G. [Atomforum e.V., Essen (Germany)

    2004-03-01

    The EU expansion in 2004 will completely change the face of the European community of states. The structure of the power supply system, too, will undergo major changes. Both the expansion of the EU and the reliability of electricity supply are topical problems in need of perspectives of solutions. Nuclear power can and will contribute to these solutions. For Germany, it is imperative that an energy consensus be worked out and put into effect across all party lines in an effort to create reliable framework conditions for the next twenty or thirty years. The goal must be a balanced energy mix also ensuring the competitiveness of Germany as an industrialized country. The individual strengths of each of the energy sources must be pooled so as to result in an optimum. Foregoing the use of nuclear power in the future is wrong in respect of the national economy, power economy, and climate policy. Developments in the neighboring countries in Europe and worldwide document that the opting-out policy of the German federal government is an approach peculiar to Germany. The final storage of radioactive waste in Germany is a topic to be finalized speedily. The Konrad and Gorleben mines constitute a promising concept of final storage of all types of radioactive waste in Germany. This goal must be pursued further in a firm policy and must not be delayed by new site selection procedures. In the field of nuclear research, Germany must not be separated from international developments. Nuclear competence must be preserved and promoted. The future power supply situation in Europe is characterized by the need for a considerable addition of generating capacity. As is demonstrated by the project of the new nuclear power plant to be built in Finland, nuclear power is going to play an important role in meeting this need.(orig.) [German] Das Jahr 2004 wird der europaeischen Staatengemeinschaft mit der EU-Erweiterung ein voellig neues Gesicht verleihen. Auch die Energieversorgungsstruktur

  6. Use of external cost assessment and multi-criteria decision analysis for comparative evaluation of options for electricity supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschberg, S.; Dones, R.; Gantner, U

    2001-03-01

    The paper addresses external cost and multi-criteria analyses carried out for selected future electricity generating systems of interest under the Swiss conditions. The external cost estimates are based on an application of the 'impact pathway approach', enhanced by earlier experience from extensive Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The estimated total costs, i.e. the sum of internal and external costs, may serve as a measure of economic and environmental efficiency of energy systems. The multi-criteria approach allows a more explicit consideration of the social dimension, which is highly important for the decision-making process. The applications of multi-criteria analyses illustrate the sensitivity of the results to the range of preferences expressed in the energy debate. Certain patterns in system ranking can be observed in spite of these sensitivities. Both total cost assessment and multi-criteria analysis are found to be useful, complementary instruments to support procedures for decision-making. (author)

  7. Some potential material supply constraints in the deployment of photovoltaic solar electric systems. (A preliminary screening to identify critical materials)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, R.L.; Gurwell, W.E.; Bloomster, C.H.; Smith, S.A.; Nelson, T.A.; Pawlewicz, W.W.

    1978-09-01

    The objectives of this study are to: (1) identify potential material supply constraints which could seriously impede the large scale installation of photovoltaic (PV) systems; (2) provide a functional description of materials used in the construction of selected photovoltaic systems in computerized format suitable for interactive updating in workshops or for future reviews; (3) provide a data base of statistics and production processes in machine accessible format for making this assessment and supporting future PV assessments; and (4) show the sensitivity of potential shortages to the size of the PV implementation scenario. The scope of the study includes the screening of 13 photovoltaic cells in a total of 15 system designs. Some cells are also included in concentrating systems at 500 suns and 30 suns. The systems all are based on the substitutions of various cells and concentrator devices into designs based on the Meade, Nebraska 25 kW installation. The system designs all include energy storage but the effect of deleting energy storage is also examined. The study methodology, results, and recommendations are presented in detail. (WHK)

  8. BACKGROUNDS OF EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY OF TRACTION ASYNCHRONOUS ELECTRIC DRIVES IN THE STRUCTURE OF DC TRACTION POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU. S. Bondarenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Application of physical modeling as a tool for research of any events or systems is becoming more widespread, including the field of railway transport. At the same time the adequacy of results that can be obtained, depends largely on the similarity degree of the physical model to real system. From the standpoint of the traction asynchronous electric drive (TAED research together with the traction power supply system research, the similarity can not be determined by the direct proportion of the parameters, because the processes nature accompanying the operation of these systems is non-linear. These features should be taken into account in the experimental setup, the basis for constructing of which is establishing of the system similarity that defines the purpose of this paper. Methodology. At the heart of the experimental setup creation laid reproduction of processes of energy transformation in the system of the DC traction power supply. Determination of the similarity degree of the proposed facility to the real system was carried out using the basic theorems of the similarity theory, their additional provisions on the complexity and nonlinear systems, as well as elements of mathematical analysis. Findings. According to the results of work: 1 The block diagram, the energy conversion mechanism of which is similar to the real system was received. This scheme is the basis of experimental setup, built in the future for the study of electromagnetic compatibility of TAED in the structure of DC traction electric power supply system. 2 Similarity of obtained structural scheme with the real system with the mechanism definition of calculating the scaling relations was established. Originality. In the process of establishing the similarity a simplified method for determining the scaling relations for nonlinear systems was suggested. They are identical in their structure components, but have different capacities. Practical value. Experimental

  9. Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply. Law draft adopted by the National Assembly; Projet de Loi relatif a la Modernisation et au Developpement du Service Public de l'Electricite adopte par l'Assemblee Nationale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Assembly [ed.] [Assemblee Nationale, Paris (France)

    1999-03-02

    This document presents the draft of the law regarding the revamping and expanding the domestic electricity supply, adopted by the French National Assembly. The first Title devoted to the definition of the domestic electricity supply contains 5 articles. The second Title deals with the production of electricity in the articles 6 through 12. Title three concerns the transport and electricity distribution issue exposed in articles 13 through 21 and three chapters titled: - Chap. 1, Transport of electricity; - Chap. 2, Distribution of electricity; - Chap.3, Safety and security of the grids. The Title four concerns with the access to domestic electricity grids exposed in the articles 22 to 24. The fifth Title settles in articles 25 to 27 the issue of the dissociation and transparency of accounting. The articles 28 through 41 treat under Title six the problems of Regulation. The Object of Electricity Authority of France is stipulated in the Title seven containing only the article 42. Social issues are stipulated in Title eight containing two articles, the first one being a completion to Chapter III of the Title seven in the Labour Law, titled 'Electricity and Gas Industries'. Finally, the Title nine comprising articles 45 to 52 deals with Diverse and Transient Provisions. The law draft was debated in public session in Paris on 2 March and signed by the President Laurent Fabius.

  10. Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply. Law draft modified by the Senate; Projet de Loi relatif a la Modernisation et au Developpement du Service Public de l'Electricite modifie par le senat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Assembly [ed.] [Assemblee Nationale, Paris (France)

    1999-10-07

    This document presents the draft of the law (TA no. 2) modified by the French Senate regarding the revamping and expanding the domestic electricity supply. The first Title, devoted to the definition of the domestic electricity supply, contains 5 articles. The second Title deals along articles 6 through 12 with the production of electricity. Title three concerns the transport and electricity distribution issue exposed in articles 13 through 21 and three chapters titled: - Chap. 1, Transport of electricity; - Chap. 2, Distribution of electricity; - Chap.3, Safety and security of the grids. The Title four is devoted to the access to domestic electricity grids exposed in the articles 22 through 24. The fifth Title settles in articles 25 through 27 the issue of the dissociation and transparency of accounting. The articles 28 through 41 treat under Title six the problems of Regulation. The Object of Electricity Authority of France is stipulated in the Title seven containing only the article 42. Social issues are stipulated in Title eight containing two articles, the first one being a completion to Chapter III of the Title seven in the Labour Law, titled 'Electricity and Gas Industries'. Finally, the Title nine comprising articles 45 to 52 deals with Diverse and Transitory Provisions. This law draft was debated in public seance in Paris on 7 October 1999 and signed by the President Christian Poncelet.

  11. L E E guide on electric power supply in high rise buildings. tot. rev. ed.; L E E. Leitfaden Elektrische Energie im Hochbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennings, D.; Hinz, E.; Steinmueller, B.; Grossklos, M.

    2000-07-01

    Energy policy aiming at sustainability must take account of the noxious effects of fossil fuels. This guide will help to solve this problem. It is an easy to handle tool for integral planning and optimisation of electric power supply in administrative and office buildings, with a standard projecting procedure, a method for improving electric systems in buildings on the basis of characteristic values, and hints for planning and optimisation. It addresses builder owners and investors as well as architects, planners, engineers and energy consultants all of whom may be concerned in the planning of a building and its technical facilities. [German] Eine am Ziel der Nachhaltigkeit orientierte Energiepolitik muss Konsequenzen draus ziehen, dass der Einsatz der fossilen Energietraeger, auf denen unsere Energieversorgung bisher basiert, mit schaedlichen Umweltauswirkungen verbunden ist. Kohlendioxid und andere klimarelevante Spurengase heizen die Erdatmosphaere auf und drohen zur Klimakatastrophe zu fuehren; Stickoxid und Schwefeldioxid belasten mit dem sauren Regen Boden, Gewaesser und ganze Oekosysteme. Der vorliegende Leitfaden 'Elektrische Energie im Hochbau' will hier Abhilfe schaffen. Er stellt ein gut zu handhabendes Werkzeug dar, mit dessen Hilfe eine integrale Planung und Optimierung des rationellen Einsatzes elektrischer Energie in Dienstleistungsgebaeuden moeglich ist. Inhalte des Leitfadens sind die Darstellung des Planungsablaufs, ein Kennwertverfahren zur Verwertung und Verbesserung von elektrischen Anwendungen im Gebaeudebereich als Massnahme zur Investitions- und Betriebskostenreduzierung sowie Hinweise fuer Planung und Optimierung. Der Leitfaden richtet sich sowohl an die Bauherren bzw. Investoren als auch die an der Gebaeude- und Technikplanung Beteiligten, also die Architekten, Planer, Ingenieure und Energieberater. (orig.)

  12. Forward-looking energy supply in the Thuringia Forest; From a 2 MW electric heating system to a natural gas modular cogeneration plant. Zukunftsweisende Energieversorgung im Thueringer Wald; Vom 2 MW-Elektroheizsystem zum Erdgas-BHKW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tech, T. (GERTEC GmbH - Beratende Ingenieure, Essen (Germany))

    1993-11-01

    Within the scope of the conversion of a hotel into a spa clinic also the heating system with an electric central storage system of 855 m[sup 2] consuming large amounts of primary energy was replaced by a modern heating system. In the first stage a boiler plant and a district heat network were installed. For space heating and hot water supply seven heat terminal stations were integrated in the supply system. In the second stage a natural gas cogeneration plantt with several modules was built. With heat-oriented operation 80% of the heat demand in the supply network is to be covered with combined heat and power generation. (BWI)

  13. Paths to bioenergy villages. A guideline for a independent supply of heat and electricity based on biomass in rural area. 3. ed.; Wege zum Bioenergiedorf. Leitfaden fuer eine eigenstaendige Waerme- und Stromversrogung auf Basis von Biomasse im laendlichen Raum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppert, Hans; Eigner-Thiel, Swantje; Girschner, Walter; Karpenstein-Machan, Marianne; Roland, Folker; Ruwisch, Volker; Sauer, Benedikt; Schmuck, Peter

    2010-12-15

    Bioenergy villages are one component for the sustainable energy supply in rural areas. The guideline under consideration is intended to encourage people in villages to switch their heat supply and electricity supply on the bases of biomass. The focus of this process-oriented guideline is on: (1) A presentation of the social feasibility, especially the involvement, motivation and encouragement of the population; (2) The presentation of concepts for a nature-friendly cultivation of the required biomass; (3) The treatment of economic and legal issues from the perspective of the people involved.

  14. Multi-criteria assessment of technologies for electricity and heat supply; Multikriterielle Bewertung von Technologien zur Bereitstellung von Strom und Waerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberschmidt, Julia

    2010-08-26

    The present thesis deals with how decisions concerning the future energy supply can be effectively, transparently and comprehensibly supported, against the backdrop of sometimes conflicting objectives. The relevance of the question is first of all explained in the context of important framework conditions for decisions in the energy sector. Subsequently, the most significant technology paths which already contribute to today''s energy supply or represent potential future options are shown. However, none of these options alone can meet the demands for a cost-effective, environmentally friendly and reliable energy supply. Rather, their strengths and weaknesses should be carefully weighed against each other in the light of the specific framework conditions. This gives rise to the need for a multi-criteria decision-making support tool, in order to be able to evaluate energy technologies while simultaneously comparing and considering several objectives. An in-depth analysis of known applications of multi-attribute methods in the energy sector shows that methods for multi-attribute decision aiding are already established in the energy industry and energy policy. Weaknesses of known applications lie primarily in the fact that in many cases technological change has not yet been adequately addressed. Therefore, in the present thesis a multi-criteria method is developed which allows established and innovative technologies to be systematically compared, together with the consideration of criteria weighting depending on different technology cycle phases. The proposed method is implemented in a decision support system (DSS), which is validated using two case studies. In the first case study, alternative energy supply concepts for a bio-energy village are compared. In the second case study, technologies for stationary electricity storage are compared. The results show that criteria weightings depending on varying technology cyclephases produce different results than

  15. Financial Situation in Regional Energy Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Viktorovna Chaika

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is important to monitor the financial condition of energy supply organizations in regional management and development of energy infrastructure. This condition depends on economic factors, tariff regulation and budget subsidies. The article presents indicators of aggregated financial statistics on energy supply in the regions of Russia’s European North. For the purpose of comparative analysis, the author formed a comprehensive indicator of financial stability and evaluated trends in the dynamics of past due debt and profitability. The analysis shows the following sectoral and regional characteristics: the financial situation in the electric power sector is relatively stable, but it is unsatisfactory in heat supply; the increase in negative trends, such as the decrease in repayment ability, low and negative profitability, and the accumulation of considerable arrears. Financial instability becomes a system-wide characteristic of heat supply. It is necessary to introduce a multi-step process of financial recovery of the industry as a whole. In the first place, external factors such as poor repayment discipline, inefficient tariff regulation and insufficient provision of budget subsidies for tariff misbalances must be resolved; otherwise, they will further aggravate financial instability. Strategically, a stable financial situation in energy supply can be achieved only through technological modernization. Specific features of heat supply in northern regions make it impossible to rely only on tariff sources of investment; large-scale renovation requires governmental financial support and the creation of conditions for attracting private investment

  16. Climate Action Benefits: Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides background on the relationship between electricity and climate change and describes what the CIRA Electricity analyses cover. It provides links to the subsectors Electricity Demand and Electricity Supply.

  17. Assessment of the waste electrical and electronic equipment management systems profile and sustainability in developed and developing European Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanescu, Dumitrita; Cailean Gavrilescu, Daniela; Teodosiu, Carmen; Fiore, Silvia

    2018-03-01

    The assessment of waste management systems for electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) from developed economies (Germany, Sweden and Italy) and developing countries (Romania and Bulgaria), is discussed covering the period 2007-2014. The WEEE management systems profiles are depicted by indicators correlated to WEEE life cycle stages: collection, transportation and treatment. The sustainability of national WEEE management systems in terms of greenhouse gas emissions is presented, together with the greenhouse gas efficiency indicator that underlines the efficiency of WEEE treatment options. In the countries comparisons, the key elements are: robust versus fragile economies, the overall waste management performance and the existence/development of suitable management practices on WEEE. Over the life cycle perspective, developed economies (Germany, Sweden and Italy) manage one order of magnitude higher quantities of WEEE compared to developing countries (Romania and Bulgaria). Although prevention and reduction measures are encouraged, all WEEE quantities were larger in 2013, than in 2007. In 2007-2014, developed economies exceed the annual European collection target of 4 kg WEEE/capita, while collection is still difficult in developing countries. If collection rates are estimated in relationship with products placed on market, than similar values are registered in Sweden and Bulgaria, followed by Germany and Italy and lastly Romania. WEEE transportation shows different patterns among countries, with Italy as the greatest exporter (in 2014), while Sweden treats the WEEE nationally. WEEE reuse is a common practice in Germany, Sweden (from 2009) and Bulgaria (from 2011). By 2014, recycling was the most preferred WEEE treatment option, with the same kind of rates performance, over 80%, irrespective of the country, with efforts in each of the countries in developing special collection points, recycling facilities and support instruments. The national total and the

  18. European energy law in Germany; Europaeisiertes Energierecht in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allwardt, C.

    2006-07-01

    The book focuses on deregulation and unbundling of the European electricity market. The structure of the European power supply industry is described, with the focus on Germany. European and German boundary conditions are outlined, and the German Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (Renewables Act) and its amendments is discussed in detail. The author discusses if the mechanism claimed in this Act for funding of renewable energy sources is compatible with European law, especially as regards competition and free trading as well as financial aids. It is found that there should be no doubts on a European level as any obstacles set by the Act are justified by European environmental policy. The case is different on a national scale as the mechanism concerning exceptions form the rule is incompatible with the equality principle laid down in the German constitution. (orig.)

  19. SOFC solid oxide fuel cell power plants for the decentralised electric energy supply; SOFC-Brennstoffzellen-Kraftwerke fuer die dezentrale elektrische Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogang Tchonla, Etienne

    2012-07-01

    To use the fuel cell economically, the efficiency of the system must still be raised so that it can be set up in the market. Within the scope of analysis on this topic, a 120-kW-SOFC-demonstration power plant was to be considered. Since not enough information about the demonstration power plant from the operator was available for the investigation, we had to calculate with the help of the known technical data of similar power plants. After that a model was build and simulated by means of MATLAB/Simulink. Before that the single power plant components were being described. Two of them (the boost converter as well as the inverter) were looked at more thoroughly. As a result of the analysis, it was found that a standard inverter which had been conceived for other applications, for example, Photovoltaic or Wind Power can also be used for fuel cells. Unfortunately, this was not the case for the added boost converter. It had to be precisely conceived for the used fuel cell type. After this discovery information was won for the realization of a 1-MW-Fuel Cell Power Plant. The topology of the 1-MW-power plant was fixed on the basis of the 120-kW-system. A parallel connection of eight 120-kW SOFC-fuel cell aggregates is intended, as well as a connection at the outlet side 120-kW boost converters. A standard inverter with 1 MW electrical power as well as a 1-MVA-transformer could be used for the realization of the 1-MW-power plant. The binding of the power plant in the three-phase current network was examined in view of the norms, laws and connection conditions. Beside the distinction of the operating forms of the power plant (parallel or isolated operation) the security of the plant was emphasized with regard to quick fault recognition, safe supply line isolation in the fault case as well as a compliance of the prescribed regulations. To verify the calculated results as well as the provided models, a 10-kW-labor sample was built and examined in the lab. This experimental

  20. Electricity and gas market design to supply the German transport sector with hydrogen; Strom- und Gasmarktdesign zur Versorgung des deutschen Strassenverkehrs mit Wasserstoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinius, Martin

    2015-07-01

    The German government has set targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 40% by 2020, 55% by 2030, 70% by 2040 and 80-95% by 2050 compared to 1990 as reference year. As well as meeting other requirements, these targets can be achieved by raising the contribution of renewably-generated power to Germany's gross electricity consumption to 80% by 2050. Based on Germany's potential, intermittent energy sources (IES) such as on- and offshore wind, as well as photovoltaics, are necessary sources that must be utilized in order to achieve these ambitious targets. Because of the intermittency of these sources, there will be times in which surplus power generated could be used for example for the transport sector. During these periods of surplus power, the storage capacity of hydrogen allows for a socalled ''power-to-gas'' concept whereby the surplus power can be used to produce hydrogen and oxygen by means of electrolyzers. The aim of this thesis is to identify and develop a market design that is characterized by high penetration levels of IES, supplemented by the use of hydrogen in the transport sector. Furthermore, the aim was to develop a model in which the electricity and gas sector, including a hydrogen pipeline grid, is represented so as to analyze and validate selected market designs. Therefore, potential electricity and gas markets, as well as the most important potential share and stakeholders of a hydrogen infrastructure, are analyzed. With the model developed in this thesis, an existing energy concept has been developed, analyzed and evaluated. In addition, the distribution of the hydrogen production costs was calculated by employing a Monte Carlo Simulation analysis. The developed energy concept relies on 170 GW onshore and 60 GW offshore wind capacity and these dominate the model. This leads to surplus power, especially in the federal states of Lower Saxony, Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. To supply the

  1. European symposium 'Solar- and electric-powered vehicles'. Europaeisches Symposium Solar- und Elektromobile; Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Considerable impulses in the field of battery- and light-weight construction technology as well as the legislation of important foreign markets brought about the idea of an OTTI-technology meeting regarding the subject of solar- and electric-powered vehicles. The 26 articles cover the following subjects: How to use electric-powered vehicles, market overview, practical experience in different user areas, technical problems and their solutions as well as security issues of light-weight and electric-powered vehicles. All articles are available as separate records in this database. (BWI)

  2. Sustainable electricity supply of the future. Costs and benefits of a transformation to 100% renewable energies; Nachhaltige Stromversorgung der Zukunft. Kosten und Nutzen einer Transformation hin zu 100% erneuerbaren Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Andreas; Luenenbuerger, Benjamin; Osiek, Dirk

    2012-08-15

    In the brochure under conideration, the Federal Environment Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on a sustainable electricity supply in the future. The costs and benefits of the transformation to 100% renewable energy sources are considered. The Federal Environment Agency concludes: A sustainable power supply requires the transition to a fully renewable energy supply. A full supply of electricity from renewable sources by 2050 is feasible technically. Thereby electricity from wind power and solar energy may play a central role in any ambitious expansion scenarios. The cost of power generation from renewable energy already are sunk. This trend will continue. Since the conventional power generation is more expensive in the future, renewable energy pays off more and more. Environmentally harmful subsidies and the lack of consideration of the social costs caused by the fossil and nuclear power generation massively distort the competition at the expense of renewable energy. The transformation of the energy system is worthwhile macroeconomically. The promotion of renewable energies avoids social follow-up costs caused by environmental damages and health related harms. Jobs are created. The regional value added is increased. It also improves the competitiveness of the fast-growing world markets for renewable energy technologies.

  3. Generation of electricity from industrial waste heat in the context of European emissions trading. A missed opportunity; Stromgewinnung aus industrieller Abwaerme im europaeischen Zertifikatehandel. Eine vertane Chance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehler, Dirk [Landgericht Muenster (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    The European Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) poses a major financial burden for many branches of industry in Europe. While its role as a model for the world and its great significance in the struggle against global warming are undisputed, at least in the short term it is in the immediate interest of the industry to keep this burden as small as possible. The decision of the European Commission on the free allocation of emission permits (referred to as the benchmarking decision) in the scheme's third phase starting in 2013 offers a number of options to this end. Not all of these are explicitly named in the official ETS legislation, some having only been later accepted by the Commission's Directorate General for Climate Action (DG CLIMA), upon pressure from the industry, as a permissible interpretation of the existing rules. One especially complicated and unhappy example of European management policy under the ETS regime is the promotion of electricity generation from industrial waste heat from the production of ferrosilicon.

  4. Natural gas supplies; Le point sur l'approvisionnement en gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This article comments data about the share of natural gas in the energy demand in Europe, about the uses of natural gas by different sectors (housing and office buildings, electricity production, and industry) in Europe, and about gas European imports and about gas supply origins. Graphs are displaying the evolution of energy demand in some European countries between 1990 and 2006 and for different energy sources (natural gas, coal, oil, primary energy, and renewable energies), the evolution of gas production and consumption in different countries of the European Union between 1990 and 2006, and gas import origins in the European Union in 2006. Gas pipeline projects between gas producing countries and Europe are briefly presented, and the development of liquefied natural gas is briefly commented and outlined as a contribution to supply diversification.

  5. Green paper - towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply, technical document; Livret vert sur la securite de l'approvisionnement en energie, document technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The Green Paper sets forth a series of questions regarding the security of energy in Europe. It addresses the issue of increased consumption and dependence on oil, and sketches out possible strategies for broadening the energy supply and slowing global warming. It draws an alarming picture of the EU energy situation. If no action is taken, it predicts that the EU energy dependency will climb from 50% in 2000 to 70% in 2030. The particular situation for the main imported fossil fuels is described. This technical paper is particularly devoted to the context, the energy sources, the supply disruption, the energy demand, the fuel balance, the energy technology and the transport of fuel in the EU (transit). (A.L.B.)

  6. CO{sub 2} capture and storage in the European Union - security of supply and the role of coal based power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan Kjaerstad; Filip Johnsson [Department of Energy and Environment, Goeteborg (Sweden). Energy Conversion

    2006-07-01

    This paper discusses conditions for Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) in EU25 with respect to Security of Supply, CO{sub 2} emission reduction targets, age structure of EU power plants and timing of investments and storage opportunities. Assuming that EU energy policy will be increasingly dominated by climate-change and security of supply issues, leads to the conclusion that only low- or zero-carbon technologies will be accepted in the long-term. Various barriers to renewable energy sources, the resistance to nuclear power generation and increasing import dependency indicates that coal may continue to play an important role in EU energy supply, but then only in combination with carbon capture and storage (CCS). Thus, CCS applied to coal based power generation could play an important role as a bridging technology towards a sustainable energy system. Based on current information on storage locations and R&D activities it seems as if CCS will first be implemented in the region around the North Sea and thus, not in the EU countries that have the largest problems in complying with the Kyoto targets. Although a number of CCS projects may be initiated between 2010 and 2015, in particular in combination with enhanced oil recovery (EOR), CCS is not believed to have a profound impact on EU CO{sub 2} emission reductions until after 2020. 16 refs.

  7. Biomass gasification, the key to efficient electricity and fuel supply? Conference proceedings; Biomasse-Vergasung - der Koenigsweg fuer eine effiziente Strom- und Kraftstoffbereitstellung? Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaltschmitt, M. [Institut fuer Energetik und Umwelt gGmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Hofbauer, H. (eds.) [Technische Univ., Vienna (Austria)

    2003-07-01

    From the technological view, the decisive factor in efficient supply of electric power or biogenic fuels is the gasification of biogenic solids for production of a synthesis gas of defined qualities. For this reason, this has been and still is one of the most researched technologies ever. Promising results were achieved with wood gasification and with liquid fuels (sun-fuels or syn-fuels). This conference was to provide an outline, a review and a critical assessment of the state of the art of gasification of biogenic solids. The papers are contained in this proceedings volume. (uke) [German] Fuer die effiziente Bereitstellung elektrischer Energie bzw. biogener Kraftstoffe ist aus technologischer Sicht die Vergasung der biogenen Festbrennstoffe zur Erzeugung eines Synthesegases mit definierten Eigenschaften entscheidend. Deshalb war und ist diese Technologie weltweit Gegenstand zahlreicher Forschungs- und Entwicklungsaktivitaeten. So wurden beispielsweise im Bereich der Stromerzeugung aus Holz in der juengeren Vergangenheit sehr vielversprechende Erfahrungen gesammelt, die erwarten lassen, dass diese Technologie in den kommenden Jahren den technischen Durchbruch schaffen und damit kommerziell verfuegbar sein koennte. Aehnliches gilt auch fuer die Bereitstellung fluessiger Bioenergietraeger wie z. B. Sun- oder Syn-Fuels. Vor diesem Hintergrund war es das Ziel der Internationalen Tagung Biomasse-Vergasung - Der Koenigsweg fuer eine effiziente Strom- und Kraftstoffbereitstellung?'', den aktuellen Stand der Technik zur Vergasung biogener Festbrennstoffe sowohl zur Stromerzeugung als auch zur Bereitstellung synthetisierter Kraftstoffe umfassend darzustellen, zu diskutieren und kritisch zu bewerten. Damit wurde eine Standortbestimmung zum technischen Stand der Biomasse-Vergasung erarbeitet, die in dem hier vorliegenden Tagungsband umfassend dokumentiert ist. (orig./Uke)

  8. THE MATHEMATIC STIMULATION OF TRANSIENT PROCESS IN A.C. – SYSTEM “ELECTRIC-TRACTION NETWORK – LOCOMOTIVE” 3. SWITCHING ON MAIN POWER CONVERTER IN “FREE PLAY” MODE; THE ANALYSIS OF VOLTS AND CURRENTS IN THE POWER SUPPLY INPUT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Mischenko

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is a continuation of analysis of the electric equivalent AC circuit «traction substation − device of transversal compensation − electric-traction network − electric locomotive DS 3» and the influence on a power transformer in the idle mode, depending on the feeder voltage and the distance of an electric locomotive from a traction substation. The numeral calculations are performed and the voltage and current values in the electric power supply system are analyzed.

  9. Small nuclear power reactor emergency electric power supply system reliability comparative analysis; Analise da confiabilidade do sistema de suprimento de energia eletrica de emergencia de um reator nuclear de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfietti, Gerson

    2003-07-01

    This work presents an analysis of the reliability of the emergency power supply system, of a small size nuclear power reactor. Three different configurations are investigated and their reliability analyzed. The fault tree method is used as the main tool of analysis. The work includes a bibliographic review of emergency diesel generator reliability and a discussion of the design requirements applicable to emergency electrical systems. The influence of common cause failure influences is considered using the beta factor model. The operator action is considered using human failure probabilities. A parametric analysis shows the strong dependence between the reactor safety and the loss of offsite electric power supply. It is also shown that common cause failures can be a major contributor to the system reliability. (author)

  10. A hybrid approach based on ANP, ELECTRE and SIMANP metaheuristic method for outsourcing manufacturing procedures according to supply chain risks - Case study: A medical equipment manufacturer company in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiwa Farughi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays enterprises should consider seeking to reduce the supply chain risks as a crucial part of their activities in order to improve their competitiveness in the international context. Choosing the suitable strategy in connection with assigning some parts of the production process to outside the organization is a complex multi-criteria decision making problem and it gets more complicated when supply chain risk factors as the factors to select the strategy as well as dependence and the close ties between these criteria also be considered. In this paper, after the identification of risks in the supply chain of a medical equipment manufacturer company, dependence and ties between criteria in line with choosing the best strategy among existing alternatives has been examined in the form of a combined ANP-ELECTRE method. This combined model is of high performance to give a solution to the problem considered in this paper. But given the complex and time consuming nature of the AHP and ELECTRE, in this study a meta-heuristic algorithm is developed called SIMANP that despite the simplicity of computing and high-speed, is good in the terms of precision and efficiency. The results of comparing SIMANP algorithm and the proposed ANP - ELECTRE method are presented at the end.

  11. The strategy of players on the European gas market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecarpentier, A

    2006-07-01

    One result of opening up the European gas market to competition has been to increase the number and diversity of the players involved, whether producers, suppliers or electric utilities. However, while the gas on offer is still controlled by a handful of market players given the increasing importance of state-owned companies from exporting countries outside Europe, the downstream gas sector continues to show a strong concentration of incumbent operators seeking a dominant position in the supply of gas. (author)

  12. USING THE GENERAL ELECTRIC / MCKINSEY MATRIX IN THE PROCESS OF SELECTING THE CENTRAL AND EAST EUROPEAN MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Răzvan Decuseară

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to limited resources a company cannot serve all potential markets in the world in a manner that all the clients to be satisfied and the business goals achieved, which is why the company should select the most appropriate markets. It can focus on a single product market serving many geographic areas, but may also decide to serve different product markets in a group of selected geographic areas. Due to the large number and diversity of markets that can choose, analyze of the market attractiveness and the selection the most interesting is a complex process. General Electric Matrix/McKinsey has two dimensions, market attractiveness and the competitive strength of the firm, and aims to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the company in a variety of areas, allowing the company to identify the most attractive markets and to guide managers in allocating resources to these markets, improve the weaker competitive position of the company in emerging markets, or to draw firm unattractive markets. We can say that it is a very efficient tool for the company being used by international market specialists, on one hand to select foreign markets for the company, and on the other hand, to determine the strategy that the firm will be using to internationalize on those markets. At the end of this paper we present a part of a larger study in which we showed how General Electric Matrix/McKinsey it is used specifically in select foreign markets.

  13. Geothermal energy in the western United States and Hawaii: Resources and projected electricity generation supplies. [Contains glossary and address list of geothermal project developers and owners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Geothermal energy comes from the internal heat of the Earth, and has been continuously exploited for the production of electricity in the United States since 1960. Currently, geothermal power is one of the ready-to-use baseload electricity generating technologies that is competing in the western United States with fossil fuel, nuclear and hydroelectric generation technologies to provide utilities and their customers with a reliable and economic source of electric power. Furthermore, the development of domestic geothermal resources, as an alternative to fossil fuel combustion technologies, has a number of associated environmental benefits. This report serves two functions. First, it provides a description of geothermal technology and a progress report on the commercial status of geothermal electric power generation. Second, it addresses the question of how much electricity might be competitively produced from the geothermal resource base. 19 figs., 15 tabs.

  14. Using electric vehicles as flexible resource in power systems: A case study in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Beltramo, Agnese; Julea, Andreea; Refa, Nazir; Drossinos, Yannis; Thiel, Christian; Quoilin, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    The European Union (EU) is actively encouraging member countries to phase out traditional oil-fuelled cars in cities in favour of Electric Vehicles (EV) as a solution for increasing efficiency, contributing to ensure security of supply, decrease CO2 emission and decrease local (especially urban) air pollution coming from the transport sector. With the increasing associated charging infrastructure deployment all over European countries, the demand coming from these technologies might impact th...

  15. Energy in Europe: the case of electricity or 'how to be european?'; L'entreprise energetique europeenne. Le cas des entreprises electriques, ou 'comment peut-on etre europeen?'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lescoeur, B.; Verger, E. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    2007-08-15

    After a long period of benign neglect, concern has been re-aroused for questions related to energy. European Union has succeeded in opening its gas and electricity markets to free competition. This deregulation process began between 10 and 20 years ago. It was at a time of low electricity prices because Europe was facing a power overproduction due to the important investment made in this sector. Low price policy has made companies to re-organize themselves and the sector in order to stay profitable. Now we are entering a new period in which energy prices keep increasing following the strong energy demand. Europe needs to augment its production of electricity, and firms are now drafting strategies on a continental scale. A major piece of the energy puzzle is still missing: the yet to be designed European energy policy.

  16. Energy and environment policy in the Czech Republic. Vol. 3: Liberalisation of the energy market for electricity and gas in the European Union. A survey and possible implications for the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauch, H.G.

    2002-01-01

    This study is organised in four parts. The first part deals with the political context of the EU: its widening and deepening and the evolution of its energy policy. The second part focuses on the liberalisation of the European market for electricity with a review of the structure of the electricity markets in Germany, France, Italy and Great Britain and of the three electricity networks, an assessment of EU liberalisation policy and its implementation in these four countries. The third part deals with the liberalisation of the European market for natural gas by offering an overview of EU liberalisation policy before the gas directive enters into force in August 2000. Finally part four discusses possible implications of energy liberalisation for the Czech Republic. The study concludes with a review of efforts by the Commission to resolve the conflict between liberalisation of energy markets and the climate policy driven sustainability goals. (orig.)

  17. The value of online information for demand response in Walrasian electricity markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.N. Claessen (Felix); B.J. Liefers (Bart); M. Kaisers (Michael); J.A. La Poutré (Han)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractSmart energy systems integrate renewables and demand response. Most European electricity markets coordinate the resulting time-varying flexibility in demand and supply by organising day-ahead trade with Walrasian mechanisms, using simultaneous call auctions and sealed bids. These

  18. Least-cost planning from the point of view of a German electricity supply company. Das Konzept des Least-Cost Planning aus der Sicht eines deutschen Elektrizitaetsunternehmens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utermark, D. (Hamburgische Electricitaets-Werke AG, Hamburg (Germany, F.R.). Unternehmensplanung)

    1990-06-05

    Least-cost planning is a planning method which aims at using best measures and resources of the eletricity supply companies (EVU) to cover energy and power demand. Measures of the EVU necessary due to demand are as well included in the planning process as possible reactions to supply. Least-cost planning has been developed in the United States after the increase by leaps and bounds of the oil prices in the seventies. No self-contained theory underlies the planning method but least-cost planning is realized by US American EVUs by means of programs. (orig.).

  19. Smart grids fundamentals and technologies in electricity networks

    CERN Document Server

    Buchholz, Bernd M

    2014-01-01

    Efficient transmission and distribution of electricity is a fundamental requirement for sustainable development and prosperity. The world is facing great challenges regarding the reliable grid integration of renewable energy sources in the 21st century. The electric power systems of the future require fundamental innovations and enhancements to meet these challenges. The European Union's "Smart Grid" vision provides a first overview of the appropriate deep-paradigm changes in the transmission, distribution and supply of electricity.The book brings together common themes beginning with Smart Gr

  20. A more effective use of clean energy. Decentralized power supply: EEG promotes the personal use of electricity; Saubere Energie effektiver nutzen. Dezentrale Stromversorgung: EEG foerdert die Eigenstromnutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-05-15

    Despite cutbacks in the feed-in tariff in the most cases PV systems remain viable in the future. However, the system operator has to deal with the achievement and securing a maximum revenue more intensively. It is recommendable not to feed electricity to 100% but to use as much energy as possible. Since the Renewable Energy Law promotes the personal use of electricity in particular, and thus increases the profitability of the plant.

  1. Electrical Supply System for the Experimental Zero-Energy Building (of 300 m2 Based on Renewable and Alternative Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basok, B.I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of the development and implementation of the power supply system of the experimental zero-energy building based on renewable and alternative energy sources are presented. CDF-model to determine the optimal conditions for the deployment of wind energy installations within the building limits is developed.

  2. Modelling and multi-scenario analysis for electric heat tracing system combined with low temperature district heating for domestic hot water supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    Low temperature district heating (LTDH) is a cost-efficient way of supplying space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) for buildings in urban areas. However, there is concern that the potential hygiene problems (Legionella) might occur if LTDH is implemented, especially for large buildings...

  3. Evidence of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) relevant substances in polymeric food-contact articles sold on the European market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puype, Franky; Samsonek, Jiří; Knoop, Jan; Egelkraut-Holtus, Marion; Ortlieb, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In order to confirm the possibility that recycled fractions from the waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) stream were illegally entering the European market in black polymeric food-contact articles (FCAs), bromine quantification, brominated flame retardant (BFR) identification combined with WEEE-relevant elemental analysis and polymer impurity analysis were performed. From the 10 selected FCAs, seven samples contained a bromine level ranging from 57 to 5975 mg kg(-)(1), which is lower than expected to achieve flame retardancy. The BFRs that were present were tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), decabromodiphenylether (decaBDE), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE). Typical elements used in electronic equipment and present in WEEE were detected either at trace level or at elevated concentrations. In all cases when bromine was detected at higher concentrations, concurrently antimony was also detected, which confirms the synergetic use of antimony in combination with BFRs. This study describes also the measurement of rare earth elements where combinations of cerium, dysprosium, lanthanum, neodymium, praseodymium and yttrium were detected in four of the seven BFR-positive samples. Additionally, polymer purity was investigated where in all cases foreign polymer fractions were detected. Despite the fact that this study was carried out on a very small amount of samples, there is a significant likelihood that WEEE has been used for the production of FCAs.

  4. 46 CFR 169.688 - Power supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power supply. 169.688 Section 169.688 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations on Vessels of 100 Gross Tons and Over § 169.688 Power supply. (a) The...

  5. Assessment of electricity demand-supply in health facilities in resource-constrained settings : optimization and evaluation of energy systems for a case in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palacios, S.G.

    2015-01-01

    In health facilities in resource-constrained settings, a lack of access to sustainable and reliable electricity can result on a sub-optimal delivery of healthcare services, as they do not have lighting for medical procedures and power to run essential equipment and devices to treat their patients.

  6. A mathematical model for building an optical system of electricity supply to coal pits using branches or graphoids, a nonstationary problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volotkovskiy, S.A.; Dubinskiy, G.N.; Kunda, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    A technique is proposed for selecting the moments in time and the types of transformations which optimize the process of switching and transfer of electric power transmission lines with which the least value of the universal function of cost for a rated period is found.

  7. Auction of electricity trading capacity at State frontiers. An offence against the European legal free movement of goods and the duty prohibition?; Versteigerung von Stromdurchleitungskapazitaeten an Staatsgrenzen. Ein Verstoss gegen die europarechtliche Warenverkehrsfreiheit und das Zollverbot?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toedtmann, Ulrich [Anwaltskanzlei Eimer Heuschmid Mehle, Bonn (Germany); Kaluza, Anna-Lena [Gleiss Lutz Rechtsanwaelte, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    At the borders of most Member States the capacity for the power transfer across the border clearly is undersized. With its guidelines on electricity regulation in the year 2003, the European Commission has established an auction procedure for a bottleneck management at border interconnectors. Cross-border current flows are more expensive. A cross-border trade of electricity thus is prevented. Instead of today's illegal auction procedure, it is obvious to proceed by competition or other cost-neutral distribution processes. Then, each applicant would have the same chance to receive the contract for a limited capacity without the expensive cross-border traffic.

  8. A model-based analysis for the improvement of electrical energy supply of future offshore windparks by means of biogas technology; Modellbasierte Analyse zur Verbesserung der elektrischen Energiebereitstellung zukuenftiger Offshore-Windparks mittels Biogastechnologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tigges, Martin

    2010-09-06

    Since the beginning of industrial revolution energy supply in Germany was based on fossil fuels. Climatic change, the greenhouse effect, the growth of population on the one hand and shortage on fossil fuels on the other hand and the will to be independent from importing resources from political instable countries are calling for serious changes. The primary modernisation of the current energy supply needs to target a sustainable, generation comprehensive solution. The use of renewable fuels is necessary. Wind energy usage is one of the most promising alternatives within the short-term to middle-term planning of environmental policy. As in Germany nearly all potential habitats on mainland already are tapped, significant development potential is seen at offshore habitats in North as well as Baltic Sea. Germany aims for the allotment of up to 25 GW of offshore wind energy in the North and Baltic Sea till 2025. Electricity generation by wind energy plants subjects to the conditions the volatile characteristics of the wind. Within the planned big offshore wind energy farms comprising more than 80 plants changes in wind velocity as well as directions will lead to fluctuations in energy supply. Up to now the plant resource scheduling needed to react on the users demand. The further development of wind energy and the differences between forecasted and actual wind energy feeds do and will hinder this resource scheduling. New approaches need to be found to be able to ensure the security of energy supplies in Germany. These approaches should be sustainable and therefore be based on the usage of renewable fuels. Within this dissertation possible solutions as well as constraints of the usage of biogas as a nearly CO2 neutral fuel in combination with micro gas turbines adapted to the usage with biogas plants to be able to align the differences between forecasted and actual wind energy supply for a future offshore wind energy plant park are analysed. This combination allows an

  9. How do electricity prices affect in the general supply of modified spot price?; Hvordan paavirkes stroemprisene i alminnelig forsyning av endret spotpris?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericson, Torgeir; Halvorsen, Bente; Hansen, Petter Vegard

    2008-07-01

    In the Nordic electricity market the prices of short-and long-term price are contract set on the common Nordic power exchange Nord Pool. Wholesale market (Nord Pool) and end-user markets are only partially integrated in the short term, since a large proportion of final consumption of electricity traded through dealers. Such sharing of power market in a power exchange and end-user markets make the market vulnerable to a shortage situations in power and energy. It is therefore important to have clarity in how the end-user prices are affected by changes in the prices of energy exchange. The purpose of this study is to analyze how power suppliers taking into account the wholesale prices in the pricing and how long it takes from changes in the prices of power exchange, turn over in changing prices to end users. (AG)

  10. The supply expansion of electricity in Brazilian urban centers through connected photovoltaic systems' network; A expansao da oferta de energia eletrica nos centros urbanos brasileiros por meio de sistemas fotovoltaicos conectados a rede

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedito, Ricardo da Silva; Zilles, Roberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Lab. de Sistemas Fotovoltaicos

    2010-07-01

    This paper aims to outline perspectives on the electricity production through Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems (GCPS), in Brazil, and its insertion on a large scale in the energy matrix, as a supplementary power generation source. The GCPS bring several benefits to the Electrical Sector and the environment by producing energy cleanly and quietly in the places of consumption, avoiding the construction of large power plants and avoiding additional costs with transmission and distribution. In general, these systems can be integrated into the buildings architecture, taking advantage of the rooftop of pre-existing buildings. But, although it has high solar potential, Brazil had been installed a capacity of only 161.32 kWp GCPS until December 2009, a value considered negligible compared, for instance, with 4.5 GWp installed in Europe alone in 2008. This study shows that the cost of generation from a GCPS is still high, reaching to 2.4 times higher than the average residential tariff practiced in Brazil, which turns the technology impracticable commercially. But it shows a trend of equalization between these two values in the next decade for various locations, which will certainly make the GCPS to be considered as an alternative for expanding the energy supply. But for the lack of appropriate technical criteria do not affect the spread of this technology in the future, it is necessary a correct regulation of this activity by the staff of the Electrical Sector. (author)

  11. The bright side of snow cover effects on PV production - How to lower the seasonal mismatch between electricity supply and demand in a fully renewable Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Annelen; Dujardin, Jérôme; Dupuis, Sonia; Lehning, Michael

    2017-04-01

    One of the major problems with solar PV in the context of a fully renewable electricity production at mid-latitudes is the trend of higher production in summer and lower production in winter. This trend is most often exactly opposite to demand patterns, causing a seasonal mismatch that requires extensive balancing power from other production sources or large storage capacities. Which possibilities do we have to bring PV production into closer correlation with demand? This question motivated our research and in response we investigated the effects of placing PV panels at different tilt angles in regions with extensive snow cover to increase winter production from ground reflected short wave radiation. The aim of this project is therefore to quantify the effect of varying snow cover duration (SCD) and of panel tilt angle on the annual total production and on production during winter months when electricity is most needed. We chose Switzerland as ideal test site, because it has a wide range of snow cover conditions and a high potential for renewable electricity production. But methods can be applied to other regions of comparable conditions for snow cover and irradiance. Our analysis can be separated into two steps: 1. A systematic, GIS and satellite-based analysis for all of Switzerland: We use time series of satellite-derived irradiance, and snow cover characteristics together with land surface cover types and elevation information to quantify the environmental conditions and to estimate potential production and ideal tilt angles. 2. A scenario-based analysis that contrasts the production patterns of different placement scenarios for PV panels in urban, rural and mountainous areas. We invoke a model of a fully renewable electricity system (including Switzerland's large hydropower system) at national level to compute the electricity import and storage capacity that will be required to balance the remaining mismatch between production and demand to further illuminate

  12. Opening of energy markets: consequences on the missions of public utility and of security of supplies in the domain of electric power and gas; Ouverture des marches energetiques: consequences sur les missions de service public et de securite d'approvisionnement pour l'electricite et le gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This conference was jointly organized by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the French ministry of economy, finances, and industry (general direction of energy and raw materials, DGEMP). It was organized in 6 sessions dealing with: 1 - the public utility in the domain of energy: definition of the public utility missions, experience feedback about liberalized markets, public utility obligation and pricing regulation; 2 - the new US energy policy and the lessons learnt from the California crisis; 3 - the security of electric power supplies: concepts of security of supplies, opinion of operators, security of power supplies versus liberalization and investments; 4 - security of gas supplies: markets liberalization and investments, long-term contracts and security of supplies; 5 - debate: how to integrate the objectives of public utility and of security of supplies in a competing market; 6 - conclusions. This document brings together the available talks and transparencies presented at the conference. (J.S.)

  13. A novel concept of electrical drives based on two five-phases PMSM connected in parallel and supplied by a single inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tounsi, K.; Djahbar, A.; Zegaoui, A.; Boutoubat, M.; Bokhtache, A. Aissa; Allouache, H.; Aillerie, M.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the vector control of a parallel-connected two five-phase permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs) drive supplied by a single current-controlled voltage source inverter is presented. This system consists of a two five-phase PMSMs; the stators windings of both machines are connected in parallel in appropriate manner by using of the phase transposition property, which allows a decoupled control of the two machines. Based on the mathematical model of the multi-machine drive system, the decoupled dynamic of each machine from the group is obtained using the vector control algorithm. The independent control is ensured by controlling the stator currents and the speed of each machine under vector control consideration. Selected simulation results are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control method under various dynamic operating conditions.

  14. A software system used for load distribution at a combined heat and power plant with the complex mix of the equipment and complex schemes of heat and electric power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarch'yan, V. A.; Chernyaev, A. N.; Andryushin, A. V.; Pechenkin, S. P.; Lisitsa, V. I.; Logvinov, E. I.; Molchanov, A. Yu.

    2013-05-01

    The authors describe various approaches to construction of an algorithm for the solution of the problem of load distribution at a combined heat and power (CHP) plant with the complex mix of the equipment and complex schemes of heat and electrical energy supply on the basis of which the software system has been developed. Methods of obtaining energy characteristics of the equipment used for solving the problem of load distribution were studied. The results of the implementation of the software system for load distribution at the CHP-23 plant belonging to OAO Mosenergo are given. Realization of recommendations on maintaining an operational mode of the equipment with due regard for its optimal loading makes it possible to obtain fuel savings of up to 1%.

  15. an assessment of billing electricity consumers via analogue meters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Electricity supply came into Kano in 1930, with the ... This power station supplied power up to 1968 when Kainji dam ... amount of electric energy supplied to consumers. The ..... projects, invest in transmission capacity building and improve on ...

  16. The Black Box. Obscurity and Transparency in the Dutch Coal Supply Chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde-Ramsing, J.; Steinweg, T.; Racz, K.; Scheele, F.

    2012-01-15

    Every year more than 50 million tonnes of coal flow into the Netherlands, destined either for combustion in coal-fired power plants in this country or for re-export to other European countries for electricity generation there. The capacity to generate electricity from coal in the Netherlands will more than double if the four new coal-fired power plants currently being planned in the Netherlands go forward as envisioned. Much of that coal comes from countries like Colombia, Russia, and South Africa, where sub-standard social and environmental conditions often prevail. A lack of transparency about the origin of coal used in the Netherlands has allowed the electricity companies responsible for importing irresponsibly mined coal to avoid public and political pressure for improving conditions in their supply chain. Increasing transparency in the coal supply chain is an important first step toward improving the sub-standard conditions at coal mines around the world. This report details the functioning of the coal supply chain and provides a thorough overview of all publicly available information on the origin of coal used in Dutch power plants. The report identifies critical gaps in public knowledge resulting from the lack of transparency provided by electricity companies operating in the Netherlands and analyses whether the degree of transparency provided by electricity companies is in line with international standards.

  17. Polygeneration smart grids. A solution for the supply of electricity, potable water and hydrogen as fuel for transportation in remote areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyriakarakos, George; Mohamed, Essam S.; Papadakis, George [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece). Dept. of Natural Resources and Agricultural Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the concept of polygeneration smart grids along with experimental results taken during winter 2009-2010 of a pilot polygeneration smart grid focusing on the evolution of the control strategy. In this smart grid the energy of the sun and the wind is harvested by photovoltaic panels and a wind turbine. The system products are electrical energy, potable water through desalination and hydrogen as both medium term energy storage and transportation fuel. Potable water is also used as seasonal energy storage. The components of the system include PV, a wind turbine, batteries, a PEM fuel cell, a PEM electrolyzer, metal hydride tank, hydrogen vehicle refueling subsystem, reverse osmosis desalination unit, data logging system and a control system. Two different controllers have been developed and tested for this smart grid; an ON/OFF controller which operates the electrolyzer, fuel cell and desalination unit at preset points and a fuzzy logic controller which allows for part load operation. The system is installed at the Agricultural University of Athens and the experimental process is ongoing. (orig.)

  18. Assessment of duration of the drive operation in the mode of kinetic energy recovery under power supply voltage sags in electrical grids of mechanical engineering enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonin, O. B.; Novozhilov, N. G.

    2017-02-01

    Voltage sags in electric grids of mechanical engineering enterprises may lead to disconnection of important power consumers with variable frequency drives from the power grid and further interruption of the production process. The paper considers a sensorless V/f control system of еру induction motor drive under normal conditions and under voltage sags on the basis of a computer model of the drive and derivation of a formula for assessment of possible duration of the drive operation in the mode of controlled recovery of kinetic energy accumulated in rotating mass of the drive. Results of simulations have been used to validate results of calculations of the rotor velocity deceleration made in a closed form obtained from the equation reflecting the balance of torques. It is shown that results of calculations practically coincide with results of simulations in the range up to 5% of the velocity initial value. The proposed formula may be useful for estimation of the duration of the drive operation in the mode of recovery of kinetic energy depending on parameters of the motor and driven mechanisms.

  19. Procurement of green electricity. Guideline for a Europe-wide tender of the supply of green electricity in an open procedure; Beschaffung von Oekostrom. Arbeitshilfe fuer eine europaweite Ausschreibung der Lieferung von Oekostrom im offenen Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmueller, Christian; Schnutenhaus, Joern [Schnutenhaus und Kollegen, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-05-02

    The power generation from fossil fuels causes high emissions of greenhouse gases. The reduction of the power consumption and the purchase of green power pertain to the politically effective climate protection measures. These emissions can be reduced immediately by means of the purchase of green power. The brochure under consideration details the procurement law and technical foundations of this concept for the procurement of green electricity. Part I of this brochure presents the procurement legal framework and the key points of the concept. In part II concrete assistance for the purchase of green power is given. In Part III, further links are compiled.

  20. Africa: a Future Energy Supplier for Europe? Africa as a Member of Trans-European Transfer Networks and a Partner to EU on the Field of Electricity Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Waisová, Šárka

    2009-01-01

    The EU member states rank among the most developed countries in the world which also makes them signifi cant electricity consumers. Electricity consumption in the EU member states has been increasing steadily over several decades and this tendency should be expected to continue in the future Majority of the EU member states are not self -suffi cient as to electricity production and have to cover greater or smaller part of their consumption by import from third countries. The present text deal...

  1. How much room is left for European gas incumbents?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwark, Bastian

    2007-07-01

    In the context of the liberalization of the European natural gas market former monopolists face a challenge to react to market opening by realigning their strategies. Three major groups of companies can be identified that are capable to influence the European gas market significantly each with a distinctive competitive advantage. They consist of the historical gas incumbents, the power incumbents moving into gas as well as the integrated oil and gas producers moving downwards the supply chain by enlarging their supply division. The aim of the paper is to identify the strategic opportunities of the aforementioned three groups and to asses their success. The analysis is done by means of 22 selected companies that are highly active in the EU gas market. An assessment of their market data and comparisons between the three groups will be done. The firms will be matched according to the potential strategic groups and an outlook given in terms of the development of competition in the European gas market. The results sustain the assumption that the playing field for European gas incumbents is going to decrease as both electricity incumbents and integrated oil and gas producers have significant competitive advantages in their potential moves. (auth)

  2. Proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing contract for the supply of four additional low-noise Thyristor-Controlled Reactor coils for a new Static VAR Compensator on the 18 kV electrical network on the Meyrin site

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing contract for the supply of four additional low-noise Thyristor-Controlled Reactor coils for a new Static VAR Compensator on the 18 kV electrical network on the Meyrin site

  3. The transparency of wholesale electricity trading on the stock exchange, investigated for the example of the European Energy Exchange; Die Transparenz im boerslichen Stromgrosshandel am Beispiel der European Energy Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrede, Viola v.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to make a well-founded contribution to the debate on the transparency of wholesale electricity trading on the stock exchange in Germany, while providing decision makers with a scientific basis for their actions. It was the author's intent that among whatever insights were gained on the need for transparency rules for wholesale electricity trading on the German stock exchange the study should be restricted to those that would foreseeably also apply to electricity exchanges yet to come in Germany. The EEX was used as a case example for the one reason that it was the only one in existence in Germany at the time of writing. In line with this, the study also includes suggestions for the German spot market, despite its relocation to Paris following a merger with the French trading platform operator Powernext. The study sets out with a description of the stock exchange and electricity exchange trading in general n order to familiarise the reader with the subject. This is followed by a chapter on the concept of transparency, including a discussion of the function of transparency and its role in economic theories. The study goes on to describe other commodities exchanges and elaborates a comparison with Scandinavian electricity exchanges. The last chapter identifies and discusses needs for change.

  4. Electricity mix and ecological assessments. Consequences of the choice of specific electricity mixes in analyses of the environmental performance of products and services; Strommix in Oekobilanzen. Auswirkungen der Strommodellwahl fuer Produkt- und Betriebs-Oekobilanzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menard, M.; Dones, R.; Gantner, U

    1998-12-01

    The study aims at analysing the methodological issues associated with the definition of electricity mixes and discussing the consequences of the choice of specific electricity mixes in analyses of the environmental performance of products and services, based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This report has been designed as a guideline to support LCA practitioners in the systematic identification of the most appropriate electricity mixes for LCA applications. A detailed checklist has been developed for this purpose. It includes the following items: type of electricity supply (from the net, self production, direct contracts); voltage level; country/place of utilisation; year of utilisation; season/daytime of utilisation; import/export model; and, marginal vs. average approach. A few examples, utilising published LCA studies, illustrate the impacts of the insights gained in the present work. Although primarily aimed at applications in Switzerland, the main concepts, the modelling and parts of the information provided can also be applied to other European countries. In addition to the three models proposed earlier for the assessment of the Swiss yearly average electricity mix, a new model (M4) has been developed in the frame of the present task in order to take into account the conditions characteristic for Switzerland as a transit land for electricity trades between its neighbour countries. All existing electricity mix models as well as selected environmental inventories are described and compared in the report. As an example of results, the CO{sub 2} emissions calculated for the Swiss yearly electricity supply mix are relatively small (48 g/kWh with model M4, as compared with 497 g/kWh for the average UCPTE mix). Key information on the structure of electricity generation and trade in Europe is provided. The modelling of the electricity supply for most of the European countries is less sensitive to the choice of an electricity model than for Switzerland. Considering

  5. The supply of day care : Het aanbod van kinderopvang

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turksema, Rudolf Willem

    2000-01-01

    Previous to the 1990s day-care supply in the Netherlands was lagging behind compared to most other European countries. Therefore, the Dutch government introduced the Stimulative Measures on Child Care at the end of the 1980s. These supply-side subsidies were used to increase day-care supply,

  6. Net energy analysis: Powerful tool for selecting electric power options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, S.

    A number of net energy analysis studies have been conducted in recent years for electric power production from coal, oil and uranium fuels; synthetic fuels from coal and oil shale; and heat and electric power from solar energy. This technique is an excellent indicator of investment costs, environmental impact and potential economic competitiveness of alternative electric power systems for energy planners from the Eastern European countries considering future options. Energy conservation is also important to energy planners and the net energy analysis technique is an excellent accounting system on the extent of energy resource conservation. The author proposes to discuss the technique and to present the results of his studies and others in the field. The information supplied to the attendees will serve as a powerful tool to the energy planners considering their electric power options in the future.

  7. Electricity generation development of Eastern Europe. A carbon technology management case study for Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalvatzis, Konstantinos J. [School of Environmental Sciences and Norwich Business School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-15

    Energy and electricity in particular, are of unquestionable value for the welfare of all modern societies. The electricity sectors of Eastern European countries have undergone several phases of development between the post-WWII days within the CEMA and USSR frameworks and today's EU and global energy and environmental regimes. The present paper examines the progress of the Polish electricity sector throughout the last decades, providing useful information regarding not only the technical generation and distribution infrastructure but also the policies that have been and are currently implemented. The results are discussed in the context of indicators such as the electricity intensity and per capita consumption, and show that although the Polish electricity sector has gone a long way, there still are several necessary technology management steps to be taken if Poland is to adequately address the challenges of international competition, electricity supply security and environmental sustainability. (author)

  8. Income generation in the supply chain of acai in the design of electric energy supply in isolated communities in the municipality of Manacapuru, AM; Geracao de renda na cadeia produtiva do acai em projeto de abastecimento de energia eletrica em comunidades isoladas no Municipio de Manacapuru-AM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacellar, Atlas A.; Souza, Rubem C.R.; Xavier, Diogo J.C.; Seye, Omar; Bacellar, Atlas A.; Santos, Eyde C.S.; Freitas, Katriana T. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (CDEAM/UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento Energetico Amazonico], Email: abacellar@ufam.edu.br

    2006-07-01

    Efforts endeavored by the State aiming to universalize the electricity use in Brazil, PRODEEM and Programa Luz Para Todos are examples of it, had have as result high insolvency or interruption. The aim of this work is to analyze the potentialities of increasing incomes in communities at the city of Manacapuru - AM, assisted by the research project 'Model of electric power Businesses in Isolated Communities at the Amazon region'- NERAM, under the responsibility of CDEAM of Federal University of Amazonas - UFAM, starting from acai supply chain. The strategy is to implement an industry of acai's pulps with the objectives of adding value to the fruit and to use the pits as biomass to generate power. Cooperative as a legal model of enterprise was adopted in order to be responsible for the industry with the participation of the families that work with the fruit and the community in general. The cooperative plant idealized was based on the report of a socioeconomic research applied at the communities. Three methods were used to analyze the investment: Uniform Annual Value Equivalent, Liquid Present Value and Ratio of Internal Return. The results demonstrated the enterprise's viability since obeying the following premises: 50 tons of minimum production of acai per month; R$ 2.50 as a minimum pulp's sale price; and 0.60 kg of pulp for 1 kg of fruit as minimum productivity, which will create nine new puts of work, warranty of acai's fruit sale, income's increasing for the cooperative and incentive to catch the fruit. (author)

  9. Identification and analysis of demands by nature protection at the supply of electricity and heat from energy crop; Identifikation und Analyse naturschutzseitiger Anforderungen an die Strom- und Waermebereitstellung aus Energieholz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirkner, Ronny [Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum g GmbH (DBFZ), Leipzig (Germany). Bereich Bioenergiesysteme

    2013-10-01

    The energetic use of biomass is currently a dominating part concerning the use of renewable energies and both federal and country-specific strategies will be continuously expanded in the course. However, energy and environmental policy objectives need viable sustainability requirements (ecological, economic, social), which is not always consistent due partly contradictory approaches. The article ''Identification and analysis of conservation-sided demands on the electricity and heat supply from energy wood'' is primarily devoted to the environmental analysis from the perspective of nature conservation and landscape management (SRC/woody biomass from landscape planning). The focus of the analysis is the amended Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG 2012), where you can find also in the field of solid fuels new requirements and levels of compensation which increase the attractiveness of selected material flows for the system operator and the resulting consequences for the nature protection and landscape conservation. These arise primarily from a change in the type and intensity of agricultural and forestry land use systems, but also the final form of the energy use of biomass itself. (orig.)

  10. Electric Vehicle Propulsion System

    OpenAIRE

    Keshri, Ritesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Electric vehicles are being considered as one of the pillar of eco-friendly solutions to overcome the problem of global pollution and radiations due to greenhouse gases. Present thesis work reports the improvement in overall performance of the propulsion system of an electric vehicle by improving autonomy and torque-speed characteristic. Electric vehicle propulsion system consists of supply and traction system, and are coordinated by the monitoring & control system. Case of light electric veh...

  11. European Gas Dependency

    OpenAIRE

    Antonsen, Iben; Bieber, Martin; Gandrup, Tobias; Lehmann, Tina; Weinberger, Ashley

    2008-01-01

    The focal point of the project is, as it is implied in the title, European gas dependency, to be more specific; the dependency of Russian gas. We chose Russia, because the EU's import of gas is mainly supplied by Russia. We present background information and knowledge to describe why the case is of relevance and that a situation of dependency exists. We solely look at the dependency from the European Union's point of view, taking point of departure in the Green Paper. The Green Paper is a pap...

  12. Electric power supply 3. Dynamics, control and stabililty, quality of supply, grid planning, operational planning and control, control and information technology, FACTS, high-speed transmission. 3. rev. ed.; Elektrische Energieversorgung 3. Dynamik, Regelung und Stabilitaet, Versorgungsqualitaet, Netzplanung, Betriebsplanung und -fuehrung, Leit- und Informationstechnik, FACTS, HGUe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westermann, Dirk [Technische Univ. Ilmenau (Germany). Inst. fuer elektrische Energie- und Steuerungstechnik; Crastan, Valentin

    2012-07-01

    In view of the large quantity of information, Vol. 2 was divided up into two volumes in the third edition. All three volumes combine theory with practical applicability and present exercises, examples and simulations. The authors have long experience in electric power supply and also teaching experience as university professors. Volume 3, which is published for the first time in the third edition, discusses the following subjects: Control and stability of the power transmission grid, grid planning, operational planning and control, grid control technology, flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS), and high-speed DC transmission systems. [German] Der zweite Band dieses umfassenden Lehr- und Nachschlagewerkes fuer Studenten und Ingenieure in der elektrischen Energietechnik wurde wegen der vielen Erweiterungen in zwei Teile aufgespalten, die fortan als Band 2 und 3 erscheinen. Die drei Baende der ''elektrischen Energieversorgung'' zeichnen sich durch die Synthese von theoretischer Fundierung und unmittelbarem Praxisbezug aus und unterstuetzen das Verstaendnis und den Lernerfolg mit Uebungsaufgaben, Modellbeispielen und Simulationen. Die Autoren schoepfen inhaltlich aus ihrer langjaehrigen Erfahrung auf dem Gebiet der Energieversorgung sowie didaktisch aus ihrer Lehrtaetigkeit als Professoren. Der erstmalig vorliegende dritte Band behandelt die Themen Regelung und Stabilitaet des Energieversorgungnetzes, Netzplanung, Betriebsplanung und -fuehrung, Netzleittechnik sowie Leistungselektronische Netzsteuerung (FACTS) und Hochpannungsgleichstromuebertragung. (orig.)

  13. Skilful seasonal predictions for the European energy industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robin T.; Bett, Philip E.; Thornton, Hazel E.; Scaife, Adam A.

    2017-02-01

    We assess the utility of seasonal forecasts for the energy industry by showing how recently-established predictability of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in winter allows predictability of near-surface wind speed and air temperature and therefore energy supply and demand respectively. Our seasonal prediction system (GloSea5) successfully reproduces the influence of the NAO on European climate, leading to skilful forecasts of wind speed and wind power and hence wind driven energy supply. Temperature is skilfully forecast using the observed temperature-NAO relationship and the NAO forecast. Using the correlation between forecast NAO and observed GB electricity demand, we demonstrate that skilful predictions of winter demand are also achievable on seasonal timescales well in advance of the season. Finally, good reliability of probabilistic forecasts of above/below-average wind speed and temperature is also demonstrated.

  14. European Union Climate Change Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewiner, C.

    2007-08-15

    In March 2007, the European Union Ministers asked Member States to commit to energy consumption and Greenhouse Gases (GHG), mainly CO2 emissions, reductions of 20%, as well as a portion of 20% of renewable energies in their energy production. The horizon of this 'three times 20% objective' is 2020. The underlying assumption is of course an improved security of energy (and electricity) supplies as well as a growing European economy with sustained tertiary and industrial employment. These objectives were articulated to respond to the present Climate Change issues by avoiding an increase of our Planet's temperature beyond 2 to 3 degrees. In the US, the current government has recognized that CO2 is an issue and has begun to take action, issuing a number of executive orders to reduce emissions. This follows a ruling by the US Supreme Court on CO2. It may be that what is happening in Europe will be a model that the US will follow. These different objectives are interlinked and each European country is in a different situation. Moreover, 2020 is a relatively short time horizon compared to the lead time for construction of large plants such as nuclear plants. It is also a short time frame for the industrialization, at reasonable costs, of carbon sequestration equipment, for the renovation of a significant portion of the existing buildings and houses, and for the switch of the present car fleet to electrical cars. More than 20% of the cars bought in 2007 will still be on the road in 2020. More than 80% of the refrigerators bought in 2007 will still be in operation in 2020, and less than 1/3 of the industrial and utility infrastructures in place today will be renewed by 2020. It is even shorter at the Research and Development time scale to find and industrialize new energy savings devices or low energy consumption and low carbon emitting equipment. One important question is also the net cost linked to these objectives that has not been evaluated today. The

  15. Advances and critical aspects in the life-cycle assessment of battery electric cars

    OpenAIRE

    Helmers,Eckard; Weiss, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Eckard Helmers,1 Martin Weiss2 1Department of Environmental Planning and Technology, Environment Campus Birkenfeld, University of Applied Sciences Trier, Birkenfeld, Germany; 2Sustainable Transport Unit, Directorate C – Energy, Transport and Climate, European Commission – DG Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy Abstract: Concerns over climate change, air pollution, and oil supply have stimulated the market for battery electric vehicles (BEVs). The environmental impacts of B...

  16. Large-scale integration of renewable energy into international electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the ability of different energy systems and regulation strategies to integrate renewable energy sources (RES) into the electricity supply system. The fluctuating electricity production from renewable energy must interact with the rest of the production units in order to make it...... capacity. Such investments are feasible because the ability to benefit from trade of electricity on the exchange is improved. At the same time the economic advantage of renewable energy is increased.......The paper presents the ability of different energy systems and regulation strategies to integrate renewable energy sources (RES) into the electricity supply system. The fluctuating electricity production from renewable energy must interact with the rest of the production units in order to make...... it possible for the system to secure a balance between supply and demand. At the same time most European electricity systems are in the process of being transformed into competitive electricity markets. Already today, the annual share of wind power in the western part of Denmark is nearly 20 percent, which...

  17. Climate change: impacts on electricity markets in Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, Rolf; Kittelsen, Sverre A C; Haddeland, Ingjerd

    This paper studies some impacts of climate change on electricity markets, focusing on three climate effects. First, demand for electricity is affected because of changes in the temperature. Second, changes in precipitation and temperature have impact on supply of hydro electric production through a shift in the inflow of water. Third, plant efficiency for thermal generation will decrease because the temperature of water used to cool equipment increases. To find the magnitude of these partial effects, as well as the overall effects, on Western European energy markets, we use the multi-market equilibrium model LIBEMOD. We find that each of the three partial effects changes the average electricity producer price by less than 2%, while the net effect is an increase of only 1%. The partial effects on total electricity supply are small, and the net effect is a decrease of 4%. The greatest effects are found for Nordic countries with a large market share for reservoir hydro. In these countries, annual production of electricity increases by 8%, reflecting more inflow of water, while net exports doubles. In addition, because of lower inflow in summer and higher in winter, the reservoir filling needed to transfer water from summer to winter is drastically reduced in the Nordic countries.

  18. Topics on electricity trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skytte, K.

    2001-07-01

    The first chapter in this thesis is a survey of studies on electricity trade, which has been included in order to show how subjects in this thesis fit into this aspect of energy research. Transitions from centralised monopolies to liberalised electricity markets have been inaugurated in the northern European countries during the last decade. The backgrounds and speed of transitions differ within the countries. Where Norway liberalised its electricity market in order to stabilise the prices, EU urged a liberalisation in order to make the electricity supply industry more effective. Together with national liberalisation, the opening of the cross border trade between the countries is also urged. The first paper in this thesis describes those different liberalisation processes within northern Europe and discusses problems that may arise in a transition period for integrating the countries into a common electricity market with efficient cross-border competition. Before the liberalisation process started, the electricity generation was determined by a central load dispatch at known prices. The introduction of competition has necessitated the creation of new competitive markets, power exchanges and financial markets where generation and prices are determined by demand and supply on the markets. One implication of this is that investments in new plants shall be made under levels of uncertainty about future prices. The second paper in this thesis analyses the importance of introducing uncertainty in energy-economic modelling of the electricity supply sector. Another implication, which arises on introducing a new market structure and power exchanges, is that the design of the power exchanges influences the price setting on the markets. The third paper of this thesis analyses the price setting on the regulating power market on the Nordic power exchange Nord Pool. More precisely, the paper reveals the pattern of the prices on the regulating power market by analysing the cost of

  19. New European context for gas producers/operators; Nouveau contexte gazier europeen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deyirmendjian, J.

    2008-07-01

    The development of the European Union towards more integration would enter a new phase if the draft Third Directive regarding the natural gas industry and the deregulation of gas markets would be validated as it stands. The stakes for gas producing/operating companies are very high: they must position themselves either as networks and installations companies or as production and trading companies - meaning regulation and recurring revenues or the opportunities and risks of production and trade. Changes such these, added to the globalisation of gas flows linked to the development of liquefied natural gas (LNG), require more investments than in the past. These additional investments and this technological progress nevertheless give hope that this transformation will not noticeably weaken the security of gas supplies within the European Union (EU) despite the greater volatility of the markets, which are increasingly dominated by the strategies of financial operators. The author reviews the history of the development of the gas distribution networks in Europe and discusses details of the new draft directive aiming at more competition on a market that has been dominated so far by vertical structures. Similarities and differences to the deregulation of the European electricity market are discussed. The divergent attitudes of the EU Member States and the negotiation strategy of the European Commission are discussed. Merges of gas and electricity utilities are on the agenda. The author then reviews the current situation of natural gas consumption and supplies and the transportation and distribution facilities. Political factors influencing the security of supply are discussed. Underground gas storage facilities are crucial in this context. Several projects for new main gas pipelines are discussed. Diversification of supply sources is considered as of strategic relevance. The article is richly illustrated and includes several maps and diagrams.

  20. Intelligent electrical outlet for collective load control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Ford, Justin R.; Spires, Shannon V.; Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2015-10-27

    Various technologies described herein pertain to an electrical outlet that autonomously manages loads in a microgrid. The electrical outlet can provide autonomous load control in response to variations in electrical power generation supply in the microgrid. The electrical outlet includes a receptacle, a sensor operably coupled to the receptacle, and an actuator configured to selectively actuate the receptacle. The sensor measures electrical parameters at the receptacle. Further, a processor autonomously controls the actuator based at least in part on the electrical parameters measured at the receptacle, electrical parameters from one or more disparate electrical outlets in the microgrid, and a supply of generated electric power in the microgrid at a given time.

  1. NEW EUROPEAN PIPELINE PROJECT EASTRING

    OpenAIRE

    Karch, Lukáš; Varga, Augustín

    2018-01-01

    This paper focuses on the idea of a new European gas pipeline project called Eastring promoted by company Eustream. Eustream is the Slovak gas transmission system operator and has been one of the key players in European gas transmission from Russia to Europe in the last decades. Previous Russian-Ukrainian crisis resulted in reviewing gas flow directions from Russia to Europe in order to enhance the security of gas supplies to Europe. Russia plans to stop gas transmission to Europe via Ukraine...

  2. C/O logging neutron generator with floating power supply

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang Zhon Gjin; Li Wen Sheng; Guo Jing Fu; Wei Bao Jie

    2002-01-01

    Floating power supply is used to neutron tube in logging neutron generator, which minimizes the space of high-strength electric field, and reduces the voltage gradient by 1/3 in the high-strength electric field. Under condition of floating power supply pulse width modulation autocontrol is used to stabilize operation of neutron generator in high temperature circumstance

  3. Cleaning supplies and equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000443.htm Cleaning supplies and equipment To use the sharing features on this page, ... to clean supplies and equipment. Disinfecting Supplies and Equipment Start by wearing the right personal protective equipment ( ...

  4. Model-based control of district heating supply temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarinen, Linn

    2010-11-15

    A model-based control strategy for the supply temperature to a district heating network was tested during three weeks at Idbaecken's CHP plant. The aim was to increase the electricity efficiency by a lower supply temperature, without risking the delivery reliability of heat to the district heating customers. Simulations and tests showed that at high loads, the mean supply temperature could be reduced by 4 deg C and the electricity production could be increased by 2.5%

  5. EUROPEAN ENERGY INTERCONNECTION EFFECTS ON THE ROMANIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionescu Mihaela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author wants to exemplify the extent to which economic growth in Romania is influenced by the current power system infrastructure investments in Europe. Electricity transmission infrastructure in Romania is at a turning point. The high level of security of supply, delivery efficiency in a competitive internal market are dependent on significant investment, both within the country and across borders. Since the economic crisis makes investment financing is increasingly difficult, it is necessary that they be targeted as well. The European Union has initiated the “Connecting Europe” through which investments are allocated to European energy network interconnection of energy. The action plan for this strategy will put a greater emphasis on investments that require hundreds of billions of euro in new technologies, infrastructure, improve energy intensity, low carbon energy technologies. Romania's energy challenge will depend on the new interconnection modern and smart, both within the country and other European countries, energy saving practices and technologies. This challenge is particularly important as Romania has recovered severe gaps in the level of economic performance compared to developed countries. Such investment will have a significant impact on transmission costs, especially electricity, while network tariffs will rise slightly. Some costs will be higher due to support programs in renewable energy nationwide.Measures are more economically sustainable to maintain or even reinforce the electricity market, which system can be flexible in order to address any issues of adequacy. These measures include investments in border infrastructure (the higher the network, so it is easier to evenly distribute energy from renewable sources, to measure demand response and energy storage solutions.An integrated European infrastructure will ensure economic growth in countries interconnected and thus Romania. Huge energy potential of

  6. Impacts of the EC integration on the German power supply. Final report; Auswirkungen der EU-Integration auf die deutsche Energieversorgung. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, M.; Kempfert, C.; Kohlhaas, M. [Deutsches Inst. fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany). Abteilung Energie, Verkehr, Umwelt; Engerer, H.; Hirschhausen, C. von; Zechmann, G. [Deutsches Inst. fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany). Abteilung Weltwirtschaft; Kalashnikov, V.

    2006-07-15

    With the incorporation of countries in Eastern Europe into the European Community, a further growing together of power industries of those countries involved is initiated. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on the impacts of the EC integration on the German power supply. The new and future Eastern European member states of the European Community do not have natural advantages in comparison to the Federal Republic of Germany with respect to the power supply. The differences in the labour costs are greater than the differences in the energy costs. Therefore, adaptation problems due to the extension of the European Community to the East predominantly are to be expected with labour intensive production. Adaptation processes released by the entry into the European community contribute to a dismantling of the cost differences between the old and new member countries. Cost differences in the production of petroleum products in refineries and of electrical power in power stations are harmonized on a long-term basis by harmonization of the environmental protection requirements. The continuing national competencies particularly in the energy policy and the different use of individual energy resources and energy engineering will prevent a complete adaptation of the energy costs. The overall economic effects of the energy-industrial integration of the new and future Eastern European member countries will be low for the Federal Republic of Germany.

  7. Atoms to electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-11-01

    This booklet explains the basic technology of nuclear fission power reactors, the nuclear fuel cycle and the role of nuclear energy as one of the domestic energy resources being developed to help meet our national energy demand. Nuclear power accounted for some 12 percent of the US electric energy supply in 1982. In the 1990's, it is expected to become second only to coal as a source of our electric power, almost doubling its present contribution to our national electricity supply. 14 references, 40 figures, 5 tables.

  8. Life cycle assessment of post-consumer plastics production from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment residues in a Central European plastics recycling plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wäger, Patrick A., E-mail: patrick.waeger@empa.ch; Hischier, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Plastics play an increasingly important role in reaching the recovery and recycling rates defined in the European WEEE Directive. In a recent study we have determined the life cycle environmental impacts of post-consumer plastics production from mixed, plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues in the Central European plant of a market-leading plastics recycler, both from the perspective of the customers delivering the residues and the customers buying the obtained post-consumer recycled plastics. The results of our life cycle assessments, which were extensively tested with sensitivity analyses, show that from both perspectives plastics recycling is clearly superior to the alternatives considered in this study (i.e. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and virgin plastics production). For the three ReCiPe endpoint damage categories, incineration in an MSWI plant results in an impact exceeding that of the examined plastics recycling facility each by about a factor of 4, and the production of virgin plastics has an impact exceeding that of the post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastics production each by a factor of 6–10. On a midpoint indicator level the picture is more differentiated, showing that the environmental impacts of the recycling options are lower by 50% and more for almost all impact factors. While this provides the necessary evidence for the environmental benefits of plastics recycling compared to existing alternatives, it can, however, not be taken as conclusive evidence. To be conclusive, future research will have to address the fate of hazardous substances in the outputs of such recycling systems in more detail. - Highlights: • LCA of plastics production from plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues • Multiple stakeholder perspectives addressed via different research questions • Plastics production from WEEE treatment residues clearly superior to alternatives • Robust results as demonstrated by extensive sensitivity analyses.

  9. Life cycle assessment of post-consumer plastics production from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment residues in a Central European plastics recycling plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wäger, Patrick A; Hischier, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Plastics play an increasingly important role in reaching the recovery and recycling rates defined in the European WEEE Directive. In a recent study we have determined the life cycle environmental impacts of post-consumer plastics production from mixed, plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues in the Central European plant of a market-leading plastics recycler, both from the perspective of the customers delivering the residues and the customers buying the obtained post-consumer recycled plastics. The results of our life cycle assessments, which were extensively tested with sensitivity analyses, show that from both perspectives plastics recycling is clearly superior to the alternatives considered in this study (i.e. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and virgin plastics production). For the three ReCiPe endpoint damage categories, incineration in an MSWI plant results in an impact exceeding that of the examined plastics recycling facility each by about a factor of 4, and the production of virgin plastics has an impact exceeding that of the post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastics production each by a factor of 6-10. On a midpoint indicator level the picture is more differentiated, showing that the environmental impacts of the recycling options are lower by 50% and more for almost all impact factors. While this provides the necessary evidence for the environmental benefits of plastics recycling compared to existing alternatives, it can, however, not be taken as conclusive evidence. To be conclusive, future research will have to address the fate of hazardous substances in the outputs of such recycling systems in more detail. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. European communion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on ‘sharing’ or ‘communion......’, provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as ‘integration’ or ‘co-operation’. The concept of ‘European communion’ is defined as the ‘subjective sharing of relationships’, understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing...... relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European...

  11. Domestic olivine versus magnesite as a thermal energy storage material: Performance comparisons for electrically heated room-size units in accordance with ASHRAE standard 94.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laster, W. R.; Schoenhals, R. J.; Gay, B. M.; Palmour, H., III

    1982-05-01

    Electrically heated thermal energy storage (TES) heaters employing high heat capacity ceramic refractories for sensible heat storage have been in use in Europe for several years. With these heaters, low cost off peak electrical energy is stored by heating a storage core composed of ceramic material to approximately 800 C. During the peak period, no electrical energy is used as the building heating needs are supplied by extracting the stored heat from the core by forced air circulation. Recently significant interest in the use of off peak TES units in the US has occurred, leading to the search for a domestic supply of high heat capacity ceramic refractory material. North Carolina's extensive but under utilized supply of refractory grade olivine has been proposed as a source of storage material for these units. In this paper, the suitability of North Carolina olivine for heat storage applications is assessed by comparing its thermal performance with that of European materials.

  12. Health supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Rolf; Gallagher, Pat

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * The actual application of supply chain practice and disciplines required for service delivery improvement within the current health environment. * A rationale for the application of Supply Chain Management (SCM) approaches to the Health sector. * The tools and methods available for supply chain analysis and benchmarking. * Key supply chain success factors.

  13. European Automotive Congress

    CERN Document Server

    Clenci, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The volume includes selected and reviewed papers from the European Automotive Congress held in Bucharest, Romania, in November 2015. Authors are experts from research, industry and universities coming from 14 countries worldwide. The papers are covering the latest developments in fuel economy and environment, automotive safety and comfort, automotive reliability and maintenance, new materials and technologies, traffic and road transport systems, advanced engineering methods and tools, as well as advanced powertrains and hybrid and electric drives.

  14. Mining in the European Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Kim; Scheepstra, Annette; Gille, Johan; Stępień, Adam; Koivurova, Timo

    The European Arctic is currently experiencing an upsurge in mining activities, but future developments will be highly sensitive to mineral price fluctuations. The EU is a major consumer and importer of Arctic raw materials. As the EU is concerned about the security of supply, it encourages domestic

  15. Future harvesting pressure on European forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabuurs, G.J.; Pussinen, A.; Brusselen, van J.; Schelhaas, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    We provide quantitative insight in the spatial distribution of the future supply of wood as a raw material from European forests (27 countries) until 2060. This supply is tested for two scenarios: `projection of historical management¿ and `new management trends¿ and compared against a benchmark

  16. Towards future organization of French electricity sector; Vers la future organisation electrique francaise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss-Kahn, Dominique; Pierret, Christian [Ministere de l' Economie, des Finances et de l' Industrie, Paris (France)

    2000-02-07

    This document displays information and questions concerning the future organization of the French electric sector. The directive on the domestic electricity market was adopted in 1996 by the Council of the Ministers of European Union and Parliament. The member states were due to transpose the directive within their national legislation up to 19 February 1999. The directive establishes principles but provides large reaches of maneuver to the member states which can choose the organizational means according to their own expectations. These task is considered as feasible by the authors. It must reinforce the public service by giving added strength to the security of supply and ensuring everybody's access to a well marketed and high quality electric supply. By introduction of certain well controlled elements of competition this evolution should also contribute to cost lowering, boost of the national competitiveness and support of employment. The document contains seven chapters which expose the following items: 1. The objectives of reorganization; 2. The directive and its reach; 3. Strengthening the public service; 4. Revamping the electric service to promote the growth; 5. Preserving the grids for the general benefit; 6. Defining the place of EDF within the new organizational scheme; 7. Developing an efficient regulation. Finally, an appendix is given containing the Directive 96/92/CE of the European Parliament and Council of 19 October 1996, concerning the common rules for domestic electricity market.

  17. Flexible use of electricity in heat-only district heating plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Trømborg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available European energy systems are in a period of significant transition, with the increasing shares of variable renewable energy (VRE and less flexible fossil-based generation units as predominant factors. The supply-side changes are expected to cause large short-term electricity price volatility. More frequent periods of low electricity prices may mean that electric use in flexible heating systems will become more profitable, and such flexible heating systems may, in turn, improve the integration of increasing shares of VRE. The objective of this study is to analyze the likely future of Nordic electricity price levels and variations and how the expected prices might affect the use of electricity and thermal storage in heat-only district heating plants. We apply the North European energy market model Balmorel to provide scenarios for future hourly electricity prices in years with normal, high, and low inflow levels to the hydro power system. The simulation tool energyPRO is subsequently applied to quantify how these electricity price scenarios affect the hourly use of thermal storage and individual boilers in heat-only district heating plants located in Norway. The two studied example plants use wood chips or heat pump as base load representing common technologies for district heating in Norway. The Balmorel results show that annual differences in inflow is still a decisive factor for Norwegian and Nordic electricity prices in year 2030 and that short-term (daily price variability is expected to increase. In the plant-level simulations, we find that tank storage, which is currently installed in only a few district heating plants in Norway, is a profitable flexibility option that will significantly reduce the use of fossil peak load in both biomass and heat-pump-based systems. Installation of an electric boiler in addition to tank storage is profitable in the heat pump system due to the limited capacity of the heat pump. Electricity will hence, to a

  18. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  19. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  20. Electrically Assisted Cycling around the World

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelle, Jan; Lataire, Philippe; Maggetto, Gaston; Van den Bossche, Peter; Timmermans, Jean-Marc

    2003-01-01

    This paper will report about Brussels’s contribution to the European E-Tour (Electric Two wheelers On Urban Roads) project. This project aimed to prove the viability of electric two-wheelers in different (urban) areas, by providing European cities with a clean, efficient and reliable alternative for the car. Based on a technical identification of different electric bicycles that are available on the European market and an extended questionnaire filled in by their users, we tried to get an ...