WorldWideScience

Sample records for european electoral politics

  1. Media competition and electoral politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piolatto, A.; Schütt, F.

    2015-01-01

    We build a framework linking competition in the media market to political participation. Media outlets report on the ability of candidates running for office and compete for audience through their choice of slant. Citizens consume news only if the expected utility of being informed about candidates'

  2. Media Competition and Electoral Politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piolatto, A.; Schuett, F.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: We build a framework linking competition in the media market to political participation, media slant, and selection of politicians. Media outlets report on the ability of candidates running for office and compete for audience through their choice of slant. Citizens derive utility from

  3. Political Parties’ Welfare Image, Electoral Punishment and Welfare State Retrenchment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Gijs; Vis, Barbara; van Kersbergen, Kees

    2013-01-01

    of voters supports the welfare state, the usual assumption is that retrenchment backfires equally on all political parties. This study contributes to an emerging body of research that demonstrates that this assumption is incorrect. On the basis of a regression analysis of the electoral fate of the governing...... parties of 14 OECD countries between 1970 and 2002, we show that most parties with a positive welfare image lose after they implemented cutbacks, whereas most parties with a negative welfare image do not. In addition, we show that positive welfare image parties in opposition gain votes, at the expense...... of those positive welfare image parties in government that implemented welfare state retrenchment. Comparative European Politics (2013) 11, 1-21. doi:10.1057/cep.2012.5; published online 11 June 2012...

  4. Electoral Politics in Zimbabwe: Authoritarianism Versus the People

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2006-08-31

    Aug 31, 2006 ... ZANU-PF party. Human rights groups in Zimbabwe report that the majority of .... both the Zimbabwe Constitution and the Electoral Act (1990) have been ... The political environment did not accord the eligible voters their basic.

  5. Transnational Political Rights and Electoral Systems Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Jørgen

    Voting from abroad is possible in slightly more than half of all countries, even though it may not be an option for all a country’s citizens permanently or temporarily out-of-country. This paper looks at the special electoral systems created for this purpose as it focuses on changes and innovations...... in electoral system design in order to cater for the special interests of diaspora voters. Most countries allowing voting from abroad simply includes the votes coming from out-of-country among the votes cast in-country, so no special electoral system has been invented or implemented. But at least 14 countries...... have created exterritorial constituencies, where they in most cases basically use the same electoral system as they do for the ordinary in-country voting. The conclusion is that the creation of new electoral systems for voting from abroad has not – at least not so far – attracted a lot of interest from...

  6. Curbing Electoral Violence in Nigeria: The Imperative of Political ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both domestic and international political sociologists based on empirical investigations argue that the greatest obstacle to democratic consolidation in. Nigeria is electoral violence. This is as a result of the rascal politics that the political elites engage in. Sometimes, the violence is intra-party, and most of the time, it is ...

  7. Teaching American Politics through Student Projects: Electoral Reform Issues and Political Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, Donald K.; Hogan, Eugene

    1979-01-01

    Describes two projects which involve college students in political science courses on American politics in doing research and giving class reports on proposals for reforming the electoral college and the electoral process. Findings indicate that students participating in the projects become more aware of political realities and learn how to use…

  8. Structure of Political Success Factors as an Indicator of Political Direction in Electoral System Development

    OpenAIRE

    Panina, Nataliia

    2005-01-01

    The article presents a conceptual model of democratic electoral system development and analysis of empirical data on factors of political success in the electoral situation. Various participants of the electoral process (population, politicians, journalists, government employees, analysts-politologists) evaluated the political success factors; and comparative analysis of these evaluations made it possible to determine the main vectors (“reverse” and “manipulative-mystifying”) affecting deviat...

  9. Bolivia: New Presidential Electoral System and Political Parties Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Torrico

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the incentives generated by presidential electoral systems in Bolivia. The system that was in place until 2005 led to the formation of coalition governments that aimed at giving the Executive the majority in Congress. However, these coalitions gradually lost the electorate confidence, and citizens sought alternative political options to major parties from the early nineties on, giving rise to a social dissatisfaction with democracy. This, in turn, led to the resignation of Sánchez de Lozada and, later, to the triumph of Evo Morales. The new electoral system for electing the president, included in the 2009 Constitution, increases the likelihood that the elected government does not have a majority in Congress. Similar situations in the past led to political crisis and anticipation of elections. In a more favorable context characterized by greater satisfaction with democracy and their parties, the challenge is to take decisions inclusively, something unprecedented in Bolivian politics.

  10. Elections to the European Parliament through the prism of social media as an electoral resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A N Katkina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the social media as a relatively new tool for electoral and political activities for creating a positive image of political parties and candidates (on the example of the European Parliament. The social media are becoming increasingly important in the nowadays world politics due to the growing number of the Internet users, the fall in the popularity of traditional media, and the fast spread of new media as well as the transformation of the Internet into the area for active political actions. The key role in the formation of the political image belongs to political institutions (parties, government agencies, certain politicians and public figures, as well as to representatives of the electorate, i.e. population. The analysis of the efforts of various political actors in the social media allows to identify their three basic functions: a tool to increase voter turnout; a tool to increase the popularity of candidates and parties; a tool to increase public awareness of the political and electoral processes in general. Currently the most serious obstacle for strategic studies of social networks is the tremendous pace of their technological development that complicates long-term predictions in the field. However, despite the lack of universally accepted criteria for assessing the efficiency of political activities in the social media, the author believes that the key success factor is the so-called “permanent presence” of electoral subjects in the Internet.

  11. Political-electoral advertising: a discourse in search of legitimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilda Gaspar Oliveira Aquino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine political discourse in order to describe the specific elements of electoral advertising and to detect the discursive strategies used to refer to the construction of presidential candidate’s image, Dilma Roussef. For this purpose, we analyzed segments of the first program of the candidate’s electoral campaign, broadcast on television in 2010, by national network in the Election Schedule. Theorical discussion is made from works on political discourse, as noted in Charaudeau (2008, van Dijk (2008, Aquino (1997, among others. Analysis showed that there was concern in presenting the candidate, little known by part of electorate, through linguistic-discursive resources, used as arguments involving reason and emotion, in a process which goal was to legitimate Dilma, in order to win the election, as it was the case.

  12. EU issue voting: asset or liability? How European integration affects parties' electoral fortunes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    This study develops and tests arguments about how political parties’ electoral fortunes in national elections are influenced by voters’ preferences regarding the European Union (EU). To date, there is increasing evidence demonstrating the impact of EU issues on vote choice in national elections — a

  13. Electoral rules in Serbia and the European standards on universal suffrage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastić Maja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Elections are the most important form of citizens' participation in political decision-making processes in every state. Electoral rules shape the electoral democracy as an essential component of democracy. Elections are the basis for government legitimacy and the cornerstone of democracy, providing that they are organized on the following principles: universal and equal suffrage; free, personal and direct voting by secret ballot. The subject matter of this article is the principle of universal suffrage in the electoral rules in Serbia and its compliance with the European standards. The electoral legislation in Serbia is not homogeneous and it is contained in several legislative acts. The Act on the Election of Members of Parliament is the basic legislative act which regulates the matter of parliamentary elections. The Presidential and local elections are regulated by separate legislative acts, which (along with the Act on the Unified Register of Voters regulate the substantive and procedural framework of Serbian electoral law. Within the framework of European electoral standards, the author explores the relevant provisions of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (Article 3 of Protocol No. 1, the OSCE documents (primarily the Copenhagen Criteria and the Code of Good Practice in Electoral Matters, adopted by the Venice Commission. The author analyzes the national electoral rules and how they provide for the exercise of the principle of universal suffrage, i.e. the right of each citizen to vote and to stand for election, including the envisaged restrictions to this right. Bearing in mind that the universal suffrage right may be exercised only if the state ensures that the electoral register is regularly and efficiently updated, the author specifically focuses on the voters' registration. The exercise of the universal suffrage right will also be considered in terms of candidacy for an MP position. The

  14. Elections to the European Parliament Through the Prism of Social Media as an Electoral Resource in European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katkina Anna Nikolaevna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines social media as a relatively new tool of electoral and political activity aimed at creating a positive image of political parties and candidates to the European Parliament. In the modern world of politics it is becoming increasingly important due to such factors as the growing number of World Wide Web users, the decline in the traditional media popularity and the rapid spread of new media, as well as the transformation of the Internet space into the platform for active political interactions. The key role in realizing the task of forming political image belongs to political institutions (parties, state bodies, politicians and social activists, as well as population representatives. The analysis of the efforts of various political subjects in the social media roughly demonstrates three functions of this new phenomenon: social media as a turnout increase tool, as a tool of increasing the recognition of candidates and parties by population; as a tool of informing the population about political and electoral processes in society. Currently, the main obstacle for the strategic research in this area is the fact that social networking technologies are rapidly developing, that embarrasses in making long-term prediction on its use. In spite of the absence of recognized criteria giving the opportunity to evaluate political activity in social media, the key efficiency criteria and success factor is so called “permanent presence” of electoral activity subjects in the Internet.

  15. Politics and population health: Testing the impact of electoral democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Andrew C; Veenstra, Gerry

    2016-07-01

    This study addresses questions of whether and why electoral democracies have better health than other nations. After devising a replicable approach to missing data, we compare political, economic, and health-related data for 168 nations collected annually from 1960 through 2010. Regression models estimate that electoral democracies have 11 years of longer life expectancy on average and 62.5% lower rates of infant mortality. The association with life expectancy reduces markedly after controlling for GDP, while a combination of factors may explain the democratic advantage in infant health. Results suggest that income inequality associates independently with both health outcomes but does not mediate their associations with democracy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Electoral Politics and ETA’s ceasefire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Argomaniz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent Euskadi ta Alkartasuna (ETA ceasefire declaration has been received with much interest and fanfare by the international media. The same announcement was met instead with a tangible lack of enthusiasm by Spanish and Basque political figures.  The Spanish president Zapatero, the Basque president Lopez and Urkullu, the leader of the most voted Basque nationalist party (PNV, agreed that the communiqué was a ‘step forward’ but ultimately ‘insufficient’ and ‘not the news the country had been hoping for’. Such mix of scepticism and disappointment is partly a product of the previous failed experience with the 2006 ETA truce. Months of painstakingly slow negotiations between ETA and government representatives were then shattered with a bomb attack at Madrid airport that killed two people. The outcome left the Zapatero’s government frustrated and unwilling to get their fingers burnt again.

  17. European conditionality, ethnic control or electoral disarray? The 2011 controversial territorial reform attempt in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoş DRAGOMAN

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Though much criticized, especially for its inability of spending European subsidies, the current regional administration in Romania remained unchanged until the communist times. The sudden rush in totally reshaping the regional administration in 2011 triggered an intense debate on the matter. Though brief, it shed light on political constraints operating when it comes to reshape regional design. Whereas official arguments pointed at a severe European conditionality, electoral calculations seem to be at stake. Yet the decisive opposition to the project by the Hungarian party in government unravels a more profound conditionality, namely ethnic balance, related to the political geography of Transylvania.

  18. [Electoral demography. The demographic dimension of a political process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, J M

    1991-01-01

    A complete and reliable knowledge of the potential voters is indispensable for holding elections in a democratic society. In 1990 a new Federal Code of Electoral Institutions and Procedures (COFIRE) was approved in Mexico. A new list of potential voters was to be created based on the 1990 census and without reference to the old list. The planning and implementation of the 1991 electoral rolls required great efficiency in order to complete the work in time for elections, while assuring its validity and legitimacy through a clear and participatory process in which all political parties played a permanent role. COFIRE designated July 1991 as the date for completion, allowing just 10 months for the entire process from planning to completion. The 1991 work represented a political process as much as a technical challenge. A working group from the political parties provided advice on all aspects of the work, from defining the social communications campaign to cartographic review and organization of field work. Although the list potential voters not intended for demographic purposes, its validity, coverage, and variety of information make it a rich source of sociodemographic information. An estimated 95% of individuals included in the 1990 census were included in the lists of prospective voters. Of these, 39,500,000 citizens, or 86% of the census population, actually registered as of the deadline on May 31. The final coverage by states varied from a low of 79.3% in Guerrero to a high of 91.0% in the Federal District.

  19. Party-political and electoral system of Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Decresci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Oriental Republic of Uruguay is seen by many as a pioneer among Latin American nations to modernize its state and its policy. Since the late nineteenth century to the twentieth, Uruguayan political actors operate significant changes such as the separation of church and state, labor regulation, divorce law, women's vote, etc. Because of this and the progressive modernization, it was called the “Switzerland of the Americas”. Today, it still stands out in this area by regularizing abortion, homoaffective marriage, liberalization and access to marijuana. Moreover, noteworthy that such measures were achieved largely because of governance that the executive enjoys in the midst of this political system. Thus, this work aims to analyze such Uruguayan political system. In short, a political system is understood by the government system, the electoral system and the party system. That said, it will be analyzed in the political scenario of the country, their characteristics, party and election rules, political parties, party dynamics and relations between the powers.

  20. Political pugilists: recuperative gender strategies in canadian electoral politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiolino, Elise

    2015-05-01

    This paper offers the concept recuperative gender strategies to describe how political leaders work to restore their public gender identities. The author examines a charity-boxing match between two Canadian politicians, Justin Trudeau and Patrick Brazeau. Trudeau is the current leader of the Liberal Party of Canada and son of former Prime Minister, Pierre Trudeau. Brazeau was a Conservative Senator. Through a discourse analysis of 222 national newspaper articles published on the match, this paper chronicles Justin Trudeau's transition from "precariously masculine" to "sufficiently masculine" and discusses the significance of this transformation for Trudeau's suitability for Liberal Party leadership. Cet article propose le concept de stratégies de récupération des sexes pour décrire et expliquer comment des dirigeants politiques travaillent à rétablir leurs identités sexuelles publiques. J'analyse la couverture médiatique du combat de boxe caritatif datant de mars 2012 et opposant deux politiciens canadiens : Justin Trudeau, le chef du Parti libéral du Canada, et Patrick Brazeau, un sénateur conservateur. En m'appuyant sur une analyse de discours de 222 articles de journaux nationaux publiés au sujet de ce combat, je détaille la transition de Justin Trudeau d'une forme de masculinité « précaire » à une « masculinité suffisante », et je discute de l'importance de cette transformation pour l'aptitude perçue de Trudeau comme chef du Parti libéral. © 2015 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  1. An Inquiry into the Use of Illegal Electoral Practices and Effects of Political Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Roxana Gutiérrez-Romero

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates whether vote-buying and the instigation of violence in the disputed 2007 Kenyan elections were strategically motivated, and whether those affected by electoral violence changed their views towards ethno-politics and the use of violence. To answer these questions, a panel survey conducted before and after the elections is combined with external indicators of electoral violence. We find that political parties targeted vote-buying towards specific groups to weaken the s...

  2. SYRIZA’S electoral rise in Greece: protest, trust and the art of political manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Tsakatika, Myrto

    2016-01-01

    Between 2010 and 2015, a period of significant political change in Greece, the Coalition of the Radical Left (SYRIZA), a minor party, achieved and consolidated major party status. This article explores the role of political strategy in SYRIZA’s electoral success. It argues that contrary to accepted wisdom, targeting a ‘niche’ constituency or protesting against the establishment will not suffice for a minor party to make an electoral breakthrough. SYRIZA’s case demonstrates that unless a minor...

  3. Electoral Politics in Zimbabwe: Authoritarianism Versus the People ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The majority of Zimbabweans are now accustomed to electoral fraud as practised by the ruling Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) led by President Mugabe. Elections are generally not conducted in a manner that can be deemed to be free, fair and transparent. The major electoral malpractices ...

  4. Electoral democracy, revolutionary politics and political violence: the emergence of Fascism in Italy, 1920-21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elazar, D S

    2000-09-01

    This study examines the determination of the Italian Fascists' extra-parliamentary, para-military, violent strategy. What were the effects of the socialists' political strategy, relying on electoral democracy, on the creation and strategy of the Fascist Action Squads? A comparison among Italy's 69 provinces, based on quantitative and qualitative historical evidence reveals a distinct pattern in the Fascists' violence. They attacked mainly provinces where the Socialists enjoyed the greatest electoral support. This pattern was a product of two historical processes: (a) the threat of the Socialist party to the landlords' economic and political hegemony, and (b) the landlords' tradition of militant anti-worker organization which culminated in their alliance with the Fascists. The Fascists' struggle for, and takeover of, political power was not an immanent historical necessity. It was first and foremost an anti-socialist reaction. It was shaped both 'from below', by the political power and radicalism of the PSI and the para-military capacity of the Fascist Squads; and 'from above', by the active support the Fascists received from the landlords and the state. Supported by organized landlords and blessed with the authorities' benevolence, the Squads were able to destroy - physically and politically - the legitimately constituted provincial governments of the Socialists. The alliance with the landlords determined the Squads' almost exclusive attacks on Socialist provincial strongholds that constituted the greatest threat to the landlords' interests, while provinces dominated by the ruling Liberal party were excluded from the Squads' path of 'punitive expeditions'.

  5. ELECTORAL POLITICS AND CONFRONTING THE CHALLENGE OF BASQUE AND MORO NATIONALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa S. Encarnacion Tadem

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the similarities and differences concerning the extent to which electoral politics addresses the concerns of Basque and Moro nationalism. These demands mainly focus on the factors that have brought about their political, cultural and, for the Moros, also economic marginalization. In terms of similarities, electoral politics in the form of plebiscites and referendums are used to gauge the sentiments of the Basques and the Moros with regards to approving a national constitution with provisions affecting them as well as the establishment of an autonomous region for the Moros and the strengthening of a federal form of government in the case of the Basques. Elections are also used to choose their leaders at the local, provincial, regional and national levels. As for the differences, among the major ones are the following: One is that electoral politics in the Basque region mirrors the class divide in society and reflects the interests of the constituencies. This is not the case in Muslim Mindanao whereby patronage politics rules and electoral results are generally dictated by the Muslim elites who have close ties with the national elites. And secondly, the ideological bias of the elected leader and his political power in Spain has a direct impact on Basque nationalism. In the case of the Philippines, it is the personality of the elected leader that determines whether peace negotiations will be pursued or not. But this does not impact on national or local electoral politics as in the case of Spain.

  6. The electoral feedback effects of welfare reform in mature European welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The electoral hazard of welfare state reforms in mature welfare states has been a widely acknowledged feedback effect in the literature. However, the literature does typically no distinct between party families when it comes to the electoral consequences of welfare state reforms and treats...... electorates as unity. This paper analysis the feedback effects of social policy retrenchment under Third Way social democracy since 1994. The paper argues that Third Way reforms resulted in lasting electoral setback for social democracy since these reforms went against the social policy preferences of social....... The restructuring of mature Western welfare states thus accounts for changing patterns of political behaviour as a consequence of policy feedback....

  7. Electoral Mobilization for European Parliament Elections – A Portuguese Quasi-Experimental Plan for The 2004/2009 Elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge De Sá

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The European Parliament (EP elections have registered high rates of abstention and Portugal is no different from all the other EU countries. From a relational marketing paradigm, we have tried to define the concept of local proximity-based political communication, the grounds for a research program based on a quasi-experimental plan aimed at verifying a set of assumptions on the effects of local proximity-based political communication on the mobilization of Portuguese voters for the EP elections of 2004 and 2009. The results are clear: the proximity-based political communication generated significant electoral mobilization in those two elections.

  8. Electoral institutions, parties, and the politics of class: Why some democracies redistribute more than others

    OpenAIRE

    Iversen, Torben; Soskice, David

    2005-01-01

    We develop a general model of redistribution and use it to account for the remarkable variance in government redistribution across democracies. We show that the electoral system plays a key role because it shapes the nature of political parties and the composition of governing coalitions, whether these are conceived as electoral alliances between classes or alliances between class parties. Our argument implies a) that center-left governments dominate under PR systems, while center-right gover...

  9. The Emergence of Political Opposition in Mexico, 1949-1952. Two Proposals for Electoral

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    José Fernando Ayala López

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using methodological elements from political and institutional history, the present article analyzes, the first proposal for the implementation of an electoral system of proportional representation in Mexico and its primary repercussions in the formulation of subsequent electoral laws. This initiative was presented by Vicente Lombardo Toledano and the Popular Party (PP in 1951, during the XLI Legislature (1949-1952. This event is correlated with the emergence of political opposition in the Chamber of Deputies. In the same year as the PP proposes reform, the National Action Party (PAN proposes another initiative of electoral reform. Both proposals propitiate a legislative debate that identifies the importance of elections as an instrument of State political control and proposed its reformulation. In this sense, the principal contribution of this study is to visibilize the proreform discourses of political opposition in a period which is often through of as being characterized by authoritarianism and censorship.

  10. Spaghetti Politics: Local Electoral Systems and Alliance Structure in Italy, 1984-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parigi, Paolo; Bearman, Peter S.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the impact of the Italian electoral reforms of 1993 on the structure of local political alliances. The reform, which moved Italy from a purely proportional representation system to a mixed, largely majoritarian system, was designed to increase transparency, reduce corruption, limit the number of political parties, and create…

  11. Some General Considerations Regarding the Implications of the Changing of Electoral System upon the Structure of Political Élites in Romania

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    Marcela Monica Stoica

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is innovating the theory of elités in the way it was configured by the Central and Eastern European thinking (researches and studies because it is focused on the way the changing of the electoral system influences the structure of political parliamentary elités. This study aims at revealing the connection between the electoral system and the structure of political élites, and it is based on two sociological researches that took place in the Romanian Parliament (Chamber of Deputies in two different chronological and political moments. The first chronological moment was in October 2008 and the second was in November 2009. The political moments are given by the presence of two different types of electoral systems. In the first research, the political élites analyzed belonged to a parliament elected by a proportional representation system (PR on closed lists, and in the second, the elections took place by „uninominal” system. It is shown that the change of electoral system from a period to another does determines the strategy of behavior of the political parliamentary élites and, implicitly, the functioning of parliamentary democracy through the political decisions that shape a certain behavior of élites.

  12. A study on the impact of campaign finance, political capital and gender on electoral performance

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    Bruno Wilhelm Speck

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the association between political finance and electoral performance in the 2010 Brazilian elections for state and federal deputies. It also investigates the interaction effect of incumbency and gender on this association. We conclude: (i there is a positive and statistically significant association between political finance and electoral performance, yet the intensity of this association varies according to the type of candidate; (ii the association is stronger for challengers than for incumbents – thus extending the "Jacobson effect" to the Brazilian case; and (iii the association is stronger for women than for men – which suggests an extension of the idea underlying the "Jacobson effect". The association between finance and electoral performance tends to be stronger for candidates facing electoral disadvantages, whether these stem from limited political capital, gender discrimination, or any other factor not studied here resulting in a similar effect. Political finance works as a tool that, to some extent, may counteract the negative effect of such factors on electoral performance.

  13. Opposition Politics and Electoral Democracy in Cameroon, 1992-2007

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-29

    May 29, 2015 ... This article seeks to assess the impact of electoral democracy in. Cameroon especially ... Democratic Party (KNDP), the Cameroon People National Congress (CPNC) and the Cameroon .... The Supreme Court cancelled the election results in seven constituencies ..... Church and the media (Ake 2000:135).

  14. Ideological Consumerism in Colombian Elections, 2015: Links Between Political Ideology, Twitter Activity, and Electoral Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Jorge E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Propagation of political ideologies in social networks has shown a substantial impact on voting behavior. Both the contents of the messages (the ideology) and the politicians' influence on their online audiences (their followers) have been associated with such an impact. In this study we evaluate which of these factors exerted a major role in deciding electoral results of the 2015 Colombian regional elections by evaluating the linguistic similarity of political ideologies and their influence on the Twitter sphere. The electoral results proved to be strongly associated with tweets and retweets and not with the linguistic content of their ideologies or politicians' followers in Twitter. Finally, suggestions for new ways to analyze electoral processes are discussed. PMID:28080152

  15. Ideological Consumerism in Colombian Elections, 2015: Links Between Political Ideology, Twitter Activity, and Electoral Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Juan C; Camargo, Jorge E

    2017-01-01

    Propagation of political ideologies in social networks has shown a substantial impact on voting behavior. Both the contents of the messages (the ideology) and the politicians' influence on their online audiences (their followers) have been associated with such an impact. In this study we evaluate which of these factors exerted a major role in deciding electoral results of the 2015 Colombian regional elections by evaluating the linguistic similarity of political ideologies and their influence on the Twitter sphere. The electoral results proved to be strongly associated with tweets and retweets and not with the linguistic content of their ideologies or politicians' followers in Twitter. Finally, suggestions for new ways to analyze electoral processes are discussed.

  16. The divided Electorate: Media Use and Political Involvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, Kees; Semetko, Holli A.; Semetko, H.

    2003-01-01

    Research examining media effects on political attitudes has put forth broadly conflicting explanations: media use diminishes knowledge and involvement and contributes to political cynicism and declining turnout; media use contributes to learning, political involvement, trust, efficacy, and

  17. Framing superiority and closeness: bridging the class gap in Philippine electoral politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, R.

    2011-01-01

    Contentious politics produces diverse leadership styles that may all be salient to a country’s electorate. This article explores key cultural frames that allow politicians to project both superiority and closeness to lower-class populations, hinged on different criteria of legitimacy. In the

  18. Electoral Proximity and the Political Involvement of Bureaucrats: A Natural Experiment in Argentina, 1904

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    Valentín Figueroa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I use a slightly modified version of the Becker–Stigler model of corrupt behavior to explain bureaucratic political involvement. Since bureaucrats prefer higher rewards and not to support losing candidates, we expect them to become politically involved near elections – when rewards are expected to be higher, and information more abundant. Taking advantage of a natural experiment, I employ differences-in-means and differences-in-differences techniques to esti-mate the effect of electoral proximity on the political involvement of justices of the peace in the city of Buenos Aires in 1904. I find a large, positive, and highly local effect of electoral proximity on their political involvement, with no appreciable impact in the months before or after elections.

  19. Partisan heart and/or rational mind? Party identification, political knowledge and electoral turnout

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    Pavlović Zoran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analysing the relationship between positive and negative party identification and political knowledge, as well as their interplay in regard to electoral turnout. The data from the Serbian 2012 post-election public opinion survey on the nationally representative probability-based sample of voting age citizens were used (N = 1568. The data show that political knowledge is significantly and positively correlated both with positive and negative party identification. Citizens who are more knowledgeable and positively identified are also more likely to vote. However, it is shown that the influence of political knowledge on electoral turnout is moderated only by positive party identification. Political knowledge significantly predicts turnout only in the group of citizens without positive party identification. Being negatively identified with a political party does not modify the relationship between political knowledge and turnout. The results are discussed in terms of the Michigan model of party identification and cognitive mobilisation thesis. The roles of affective and cognitive motivation in electoral participation are additionally stressed and debated. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 47010

  20. Political Psychology of European Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The...

  1. Electoral system and political parties in Mexico (1994-2000 Sistema electoral y sistema de partidos en México (1994-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto HERNÁNDEZ NORZAGARAY

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the consequences of the electoral formula and the effective threshold, the size of electoral circumscriptions and the number of congressional representatives on the levels of disproportional representation that exists in the legislature since the federal elections of 1994 in Mexico. Following this, and through the use of a number of political indices the article assesses the impact of these factors on the political party system. In particular the study examines levels of concentration and competition, of political party fragmentation, and levels of electoral polarisation and volatility. The main objective is to determine the institutional impact of the «period of reforms» on the configuration of a new political party system in Mexico.Key words: México, electoral system, political party system, fragmetation, volatility.En este trabajo sobre el sistema electoral y el sistema de partidos políticos en México, exploramos las consecuencias que han tenido la fórmula electoral y el umbral efectivo, la magnitud de las circunscripciones y el tamaño del Congreso legislativo, en los niveles de desproporcionalidad existente en el poder legislativo desde las elecciones federales de 1994. Así mismo, como extensión de ese esfuerzo, mediante diversos índices politológicos profundizamos en los efectos que ha tenido en el sistema de partidos. En particular, interesa estudiar los niveles de concentración y competitividad, la fragmentación y número efectivo de partidos, la polarización y volatilidad del voto. En suma, pretendemos determinar cuál es el impacto institucional del llamado «periodo de reformas» en la conformación de un nuevo sistema de partidos políticos mexicanos.

  2. Obstacles and Challenges to Gender Parity. Political Violence, Electoral System and Interculturalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Albaine

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is a contribution to the debate about the adoption of gender parity policies in Latin America analyzing particular obstacles and challenges related to the implementation of this principle. Electoral systems tend to either optimize or reduce the impact of such gender parity measures. As well as with quotas, the size of the electoral district and the kind of electoral list system are the two variables that most influence the effective implementation of these measures. At the same time, the socio-cultural context also influences the process of implementation of gender parity measures. In patriarchal societies –with high levels of gender-based violence– electoral processes are often characterized by gender-based harassment and political violence, one of the greatest obstacles for increasing women’s political participation. These situations are further complicated in societies which are also characterized by ethnic and cultural diversity, presenting the challenge of including women who are also discriminated against for their ethno-cultural identity.

  3. Portuguese Electoral Debate: Presidentialization and Linguistic Mitigation Strategies in Situations of Political Confrontation

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    Maria Aldina Marques

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In a context of increasing presidentialization of legislative election campaigns, I aim to study mitigation as a feature of the Portuguese electoral political debate, a genre of political discourse marked by the intersection with the television media discourse. It is a discursive genre of confrontation between participants-adversaries, seeking for the adhesion of voters by the proposals that they present and also, if not mainly, by the discredit of the political opponent. However, confrontation is not absolute, as the interlocutors must guarantee basic dimensions of political communication, ensuring by the construction, negotiation and co-management of the interpersonal relationship the preservation of a positive individual image in relation to the electorate. I hypothesize that, in this process, linguistic mitigation constitutes a nuclear strategy, carried out in each moment of the debate according to different linguistic-discursive mechanisms. The electoral debate here analysed was held in May 2011 in RTP between Pedro Passos Coelho, leader of the Social Democratic Party, and future prime minister, and José Sócrates, of the Socialist Party, prime minister in office, at the time.

  4. Curbing Electoral Violence in Nigeria: The Imperative of Political ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    to choose those who will run the affairs of the state in a given period. ..... short and long term deepen our political culture and socialization processes. Therefore .... Commemoration of Shehu Yar'Adua Memorial Forum delivered on March. 19.

  5. Political Psychology of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social...... construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The chapter argues that the study of the EU has much to benefit from political psychology in terms of theories...... and methods of European identity and integration, but it also argues that political psychology can benefit from the insights of European integration by rethinking the processes that drive the marking of inside and outside, interior and exterior, belonging and otherness....

  6. THE POLITICAL ACTOR’S BRAND IN THE 2012 BACĂU ELECTORAL CAMPAIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cirtita-Buzoianu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the image and identity of political actors during an electoral campaign, as these two elements are defining for political marketing in attracting and convincing voters. With that in mind we will monitor the image of the two candidates for the position of mayor in the 2012 electoral campaign in Bacău, as it appeared in the written local press. The analysis of the two politicians will be made from the perspective of two pre-established image indicators: the political and the human dimensions. Each of the two dimensions has sub indicators pre-established in order to validate the general mediatized image of the candidate. Regarding the political dimension we will measure the sub indicators: political communication, attitude towards corruption, interest for civil problems, the ability to negotiate and political project, while the human dimension has the following sub indicators: faith, empathy, morality, honesty, charisma, consistency and leadership. Thus, we will try to identify if there are major differences between the two dimensions, for the two candidates, from a quantitative as well as a qualitative perspective.

  7. Crisis of governance in South Sudan : electoral politics and violence in the world's newest nation

    OpenAIRE

    Brosché, Johan; Höglund, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Since mid-December 2013, thousands of people have been killed in armed conflict in South Sudan. The fighting is entrenched in a power struggle between the main political contenders ahead of elections which were scheduled for 2015. This article examines the violence in South Sudan since the North-South war ended with a focus on the consequences of the introduction of electoral politics. Our research contributes to the literature on state-building and peace-building in war-torn societies, by ex...

  8. Eastern European Political Socialization Modeling Research: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Florela Voinea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents empirical modeling research on political socialization of the citizens in the new Eastern European democracies. The political socialization issue offers a comparative perspective over the modeling methodologies in analytical paradigms. Eastern European political culture research has revealed features of the electoral behavior and political participation which can be identified in different degrees in all the new democracies in the area: passivity with respect to political activity of parties, elites and institutions, political apathy or lack of reaction to anti-democratic actions, skepticism or distrust in institutions, scarce participation to social movements. Several authors explain the actual political behavior of the Eastern European citizens’ and their low social and political involvement by the (political culture heritage of the communist regimes in which they lived for a long time, and which keeps shaping their political attitudes towards the state, civil society, government and institutions. Research issues in the analysis of political participation are traditionally based on statistics analyses of empirical evidence coming from public surveys. However, scarcity ofempirical data from the communist periode with regard to (political socialization, values and beliefs represent a major obstacle towards a better understanding of the historical roots of current behaviors and attitudes. Scarcity of observational data might be overcome by computational and simulation modeling.

  9. Effectiveness of political advertising in the electoral process: experience on extraordinary presidential elections – 2014 in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Muzychenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The place and role of political advertising and political agitation in the electoral process as an example of extraordinary presidential elections - 2014in Ukraine are analyzed in the paper. It’s revealed a concept of «political advertising» within the Ukrainian legislation and the peculiarities of the legal regulation of its implementation during the presidential elections in Ukraine. Restrictions relating to forms of political agitation and the volume of financing. It was found that political advertising is a form of agitation and can be financed only with specially crafted by candidate election fund, the size of which, unlike elections to representative bodies of power is not limited. The analysis of the election funds of candidates in terms of establishing relationship between costs and result, which is one of the performance criteria of political advertising effectiveness in the electoral process. For this purpose, analysis of the cost structure of election funds, which are dominated by the cost of the media used. Also examines distribution channels of political advertising and the quality of the TV election advertising products. It is proved that political advertising affects electoral behavior, but direct relationship between the election’s success and amount invested in the political campaign funds are not found. That suggests the expediency consideration of other factors influence the electoral behavior, such as political program of applicants, their political experience, subjective preferences of voters and more.

  10. Financing of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns in Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farije ALIU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Political party in the Republic of Macedonia began to operate after independence and the adoption of the Constitution in November 1991 and has since become an integral part of the political scene and the data from the Central Registry of the Republic of Macedonia registered political parties more than 50 political parties active in the current system. The electoral system in the country is set according to the proportional model where direct and free elections by secret ballot to elect members of Parliament and members of the municipal councils and the City of Skopje for four years, while according to the majority model is the selection of the President of the Republic for a term of five years and the election of mayors of municipalities and the City of Skopje for four years. The legal framework for the financing of political parties in the country is well developed. The main law governing the financing of political parties and their supervision law on financing of political parties and the amendments to the same law. The provisions contained in the law is comprehensive, addressing the financing of the regular activities of political parties and their supervision and demonstrate ensuring transparency and accountability in political financing and a ban on anonymous donations and donations from abroad and determine the rules for cap on private donations and prohibiting quid pro quo agreements. Some provisions relating to the financing of political parties included in the Law on Political Parties and certain provisions governing the various supervisory authorities, in particular the Law on Prevention of Corruption and the Law on State Audit footnote. The basic law that regulates elections is the Electoral Code. Under the provisions of the Electoral Code the political parties and election campaign organizers are required to submit financial reports to the authorities to ensure respect for the principles of transparency and accountability and are

  11. Engagement in the electoral processes: scaling laws and the role of political positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, M C; Ribeiro, H V; Lenzi, E K; Picoli, S; Mendes, R S

    2013-08-01

    We report on a statistical analysis of the engagement in the electoral processes of all Brazilian cities by considering the number of party memberships and the number of candidates for mayor and councillor. By investigating the relationships between the number of party members and the population of voters, we have found that the functional forms of these relationships are well described by sublinear power laws (allometric scaling) surrounded by a multiplicative log-normal noise. We have observed that this pattern is quite similar to those we previously reported for the relationships between the number of candidates (mayor and councillor) and population of voters [Europhys. Lett. 96, 48001 (2011)], suggesting that similar universal laws may be ruling the engagement in the electoral processes. We also note that the power-law exponents display a clear hierarchy, where the more influential is the political position the smaller is the value of the exponent. We have also investigated the probability distributions of the number of candidates (mayor and councillor), party memberships, and voters. The results indicate that the most influential positions are characterized by distributions with very short tails, while less influential positions display an intermediate power-law decay before showing an exponential-like cutoff. We discuss the possibility that, in addition to the political power of the position, limitations in the number of available seats can also be connected with this changing of behavior. We further believe that our empirical findings point out to an under-representation effect, where the larger the city is, the larger are the obstacles for more individuals to become directly engaged in the electoral process.

  12. European Union: Gender and politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žunić Natalija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Political representation is the central issue in contemporary debates on the level of democracy in political institutions and processes in the European Union. Underrepresentation of particular groups in political institutions, decision-making and policy-making processes is perceived as the problem of justice, legitimacy and effectiveness in democratic societies. In this paper, the author analyzes the gender aspects of democratic decision-making processes and political representation of women in the EU member states. The social, historical and political dimension of women's efforts to obtain and promote their civil status and political rights have been the framework for developing the principle of gender equality as one of the founding EU principles. In the past hundred years, one of the most significant trends in politics has been the expansion of formal political representation of women. Yet, even though it has been more than a hundered years since women won their political rights in the 19th and the 20th century (the right to vote and the right to be voted, gender differences in political rights are still a substantial part of debate. Today, women's political representation is still inadequate and their political capacity and power have not been exercised to a sufficient extent (or proportionally through their actual representation in parliament. In March 2012, the European Commisision published a report on gender equality in different areas of social life; the Eurobarometer survey shows that women are generally underrepresented in politics. In national parliaments, only one out of four MPs is a woman. In the European Parliament, three out of ten parliamentarians are women. The statistics shows a huge discrepancy among the EU Member States in terms of women's representation in parliament (44.7% in Sweden as contrasted to 13.3% in Romania. The prevailing view in many studies is that post-industrial democracies are deficient as they have failed

  13. POLITICAL ISLAM IN TUNISIA: ELECTORAL CONFLICT AND COOPERATION IN THE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS OF 2004 AND 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Martínez Fuentes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the key points in the future of today’s political transition in Tunisia lies in the Islamists’ willingness to cooperate with the rest of the political parties to promote political change, as well as their electoral performance in the next elections. The aim of this article is to help reduce uncertainty on this issue, by clarifying its antecedents. With this aim, the author adopts as the article’s area of study the strategic-relational dimensions of Tunisia’s Islamist party’s performance in elections. With this in mind, the author analyses the types of interaction that the Islamist party maintained in the presidential elections of 2004 and 2009 with the other political and social parties that were critical of the Ben Ali regime, and examines its causes. As a result of this, the study concludes that up to now, both the party’s alignment with certain secular political and social actors from the structure of opposition to the Ben Ali regime, and its policy of confrontation with certain others, has not been based on any programmatic issue, nor on any issues of sensitivity or religious conception, but rather on the struggle to head political change and to lead a new government.

  14. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...... to form winning coalitions in the Council, the ideological positioning of the co-legislators and the inclusion of the cohesion countries have played a significant role in driving budget change....

  15. THE 2014 EUROPEAN ELECTIONS IN ROMANIA. TRANSLATING LOW MEDIA SALIENCE INTO ELECTORAL ”SILENCE”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana RADU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available European Elections are often perceived as ”second-order” elections, thus enjoying lower visibility and turnout than national/presidential elections. According to the specialized literature, this might be due to the fact the EU is usually seen by the electorate (i.e. citizens of the member states as a far away issue, out of its core area of concern, a phenomenon rooted, for example, into a low degree of europeanization of the national public spheres (Delanty, 2007 or poor European leadership (Habermas, 2012. This paper aims at exploring how European Elections have been approached by the five most popular TV channels in Romania: TVR1, PRIMA TV, Antena 1, Kanal D, and PRO TV. Our paper builds on an extensive content analysis of all of the 3257 prime time news broadcasted by these TV channels between April 25 and May 25 (i.e. during the electoral campaign. Our research focuses on media salience of European Elections, as well as on the key actors present in these news.

  16. Winning strategies of political campaigns in hybrid electoral spaces. Case study – Iasi County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Marius Tompea

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Our material introduces the concept of hybrid electoral area, as a distinct electoral entity set up by special territorial and administrative processes. We analyze specific cases of such spaces in Iasi and we see how the winning electoral strategies have been configured here. We provide examples of campaign activities and actions which ensured the candidates’ success by simultaneously targeting both the electoral sub-spaces and the community seen as whole.

  17. The Impact of Race and Ethnicity, Immigration, and Political Context on Participation in American Electoral Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, John R; Darrah, Jennifer; Oh, Sookhee

    2012-01-01

    This study uses national survey data in federal election years during 1996-2004 to examine voter registration and voting. It shows that racial/ethnic disparities in socio-economic resources and rootedness in the community do not explain overall group differences in electoral participation. It contradicts the expectation from an assimilation perspective that low levels of Latino participation are partly attributable to the large share of immigrants among Latinos. In fact net differences show higher average Latino participation than previously reported. The study focuses especially on contextual factors that could affect collective responses of group members. Moving beyond past research, significant effects are found for the group's representation among office holders, voting regulations, and state policies related to treatment of immigrants.

  18. The impact of EU referenda on national electoral politics: evidence from the Dutch case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, C.E.

    2009-01-01

    This study deals with the issue of increasing contention regarding European matters in national arenas. Specifically, it focuses on the impact of European Union referenda on national elections. EU referenda have two important consequences for national politics: they increase inter-party conflict

  19. Nonverbal Messages in Televised Presidential Political Advertising--Pragmatic Politics with Electoral Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Delia B.

    Television politics, emphasizing emotions over rational decision making, has been accused of warping the political process, especially in the election of the president. In the incomplete medium--the collection of dots--that is television, the viewer completes the circle of communication, filling in the image with his or her own attitudes. The…

  20. Political Disaffection and Stability of Electoral Results in Chilean, 1993-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Avendaño

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the electoral stability vis à vis the increase of unstable votes in 1993 and 2009 parliamentary elections in Chile. In contrast with other academic works which conceive little volatility as corollary of a persistent voter’s behavior, we argue that the electoral results are consequence of the electoral system which in fact generates change in electoral behavior. We have named this phenomenon as “self-compensation”. Data analyzed in this paper show an important decrease in stable voters and that mobility exists. Nevertheless, the special characteristic of the electoral mobility is what gives stability to voter’s behavior during this period. Palabras claves: Chile, sistema de partidos, elecciones, volatilidad, voto no estable. Keywords: Chile, party system, elections, volatility, vote not stable.

  1. Parameters of measuring of european political consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Pikula

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author analyzes the parameters of European political consciousness, i.e. European research field of political consciousness in qualitative and quantitative terms, which may be based on different indicators. The issue of emergence and development of European political consciousness becomes topical because firstly, its formation as the subjective dimension of European integration policy is not a spontaneous process and, secondly, European integration is carried out not only from the top but from the bottom, requiring deliberate interference of the public with the process; the public possesses the formed European political consciousness. Since the latter is a specific mental construct, the author offers to apply the triad «criteria ­ parameters – indicators». The characteristic that makes it possible to evaluate certain processes or phenomena in the system of Europeanness / Europeanism and specifies the quality system of views and opinions, which are realized in European behavior, is considered to be the criterion of European political consciousness. The European political consciousness parameters are seen to include the relevant historical memory, trends of public opinion and awareness regarding the European Union and position of its members in the European integration process, including the assessment of the existence and development of the EU; knowledge and views on the main EU institutions, assessing the importance of the main institutions of the EU and trust in them; a positive vision for the future of the European Union etc. The author considers the performance and objective characteristics and dimensions, including positive correlation of national and European levels of identity (European identity and European behavior to be the indicatiors of European political awareness. On the basis of these indicators the control of the condition and trends of European political consciousness development will be carried out.

  2. Electoral Institutions and Electoral Violence in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Fjelde, Hanne; Höglund, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Political violence remains a pervasive feature of electoral dynamics in many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, even where multiparty elections have become the dominant mode of regulating access to political power. With cross-national data on electoral violence in Sub-Saharan African elections between 1990 and 2010, this article develops and tests a theory that links the use of violent electoral tactics to the high stakes put in place by majoritarian electoral institutions. It is found that ele...

  3. Electoral reform and public policy outcomes in Thailand: the politics of the 30-Baht health scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selway, Joel Sawat

    2011-01-01

    How do changes in electoral rules affect the nature of public policy outcomes? The current evidence supporting institutional theories that answer this question stems almost entirely from quantitative cross-country studies, the data of which contain very little within-unit variation. Indeed, while there are many country-level accounts of how changes in electoral rules affect such phenomena as the number of parties or voter turnout, there are few studies of how electoral reform affects public policy outcomes. This article contributes to this latter endeavor by providing a detailed analysis of electoral reform and the public policy process in Thailand through an examination of the 1997 electoral reforms. Specifically, the author examines four aspects of policy-making: policy formulation, policy platforms, policy content, and policy outcomes. The article finds that candidates in the pre-1997 era campaigned on broad, generic platforms; parties had no independent means of technical policy expertise; the government targeted health resources to narrow geographic areas; and health was underprovided in Thai society. Conversely, candidates in the post-1997 era relied more on a strong, detailed national health policy; parties created mechanisms to formulate health policy independently; the government allocated health resources broadly to the entire nation through the introduction of a universal health care system, and health outcomes improved. The author attributes these changes in the policy process to the 1997 electoral reform, which increased both constituency breadth (the proportion of the population to which politicians were accountable) and majoritarianism.

  4. Political Intersectionality and Democratic Politics in the European Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    2015-01-01

    Public Sphere (EPS). It is inspired by results and reflections from the European Gender Project (EGP) , where intersectionality was used as an approach for analysing negotiations between gender and ethno-national diversity in selected European countries and in relation to the European Public Sphere....... The aim of the essay is to further deepen the theoretical and empirical understanding of intersectionality by reflecting on the relations between political intersectionality and democratic politics from a particular European perspective. It thus confronts theory and research findings concerning...... intersections of gender and ethnic diversity in political life at the national and transnational levels across Europe. In this context, political intersectionality refers to the framing of gender and ethnic diversity by major political actors as well as by activities of women’s and anti-racist organisations...

  5. Five political ideas of European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the possible implications of leading contemporary theories of political philosophy for some of the main questions that the political institutions of the European Union will have to decide on concerning the future of European contract law. Thus, it explores what a utilitarian,

  6. Imitating the newcomer. How, when and why established political parties imitate the policy positions and issue attention of new political parties in the electoral and parliamentary arena : the case of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otjes, Simon Pieter

    2012-01-01

    This thesis studies, how, when and why established political parties imitate new political parties. It examines new party effects on both the policy positions of established parties and the attention established political parties spend on issues. It examines this effect in both the electoral and

  7. The Impact of Negative Income Tax on Participation in Electoral Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Joseph

    This paper reports on the impact of the Rural Income Maintenance Experiment on participation in the electoral process. Paradigms of the left and of the right predict dramatically different consequences of universal income supplement, the left wing seeing such a program as essential for minimal democratic processes while the right sees in universal…

  8. Electoral Governance in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Marchetti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electoral governance has increasingly more frequently been the object of study of the comparative politics literature. This article examines the electoral governance institutional model adopted in Brazil and its consequences for political/electoral competition. It is argued herein that Brazil’s Electoral Justice System, motivated by the institutional design, has ended up becoming one of the main actors of the country’s recent democratic consolidation, being decisive not only with regard to rule adjudication and application, but also to rulemaking. With the purpose of assessing this governance model in action, three important recent rulings by Brazil’s Electoral Justice System are analysed here: verticalization of the coalitions, reduction in the number of councillors, and party loyalty.

  9. The Political History of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz-Forberg, Hagen; Stråth, Bo

    This book adopts a historical perspective to explore the tensions between the idea of a European democracy through a European market, and the observations that there are signs of increasing social disintegration, political extremism and populism in the wake of economic integration. It was shortli......This book adopts a historical perspective to explore the tensions between the idea of a European democracy through a European market, and the observations that there are signs of increasing social disintegration, political extremism and populism in the wake of economic integration...

  10. The Political Psychology of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    express for the EU and fellow Europeans, and the passion with which supporters of the EU argue for greater integration and enlargement are today central to understanding European integration. Being mindful of Europe - reflecting on the ways in which psychology and politics are deeply implicated in under......In an era of European crises over political legitimacy, economic austerity, and collapse of confidence in the EU the topic of European integration has be-come a very emotional subject. The anger which protestors demonstrate against economic austerity, the hate which nationalist far-right parties...

  11. Political motivations for intra-European migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bygnes, Susanne; Flipo, Aurore

    2017-08-01

    Motivations for migrating within the European Union have mainly been attributed to economic, career and lifestyle choices. This article suggests that political dissatisfaction is also an important motivator of recent intra-European migration. In our analysis of in-depth interviews with Romanian migrants in Spain and with Spanish migrants in Norway, we found a common emphasis on the political dimensions of their decision to migrate. In the interviews, the economic component of migration was often related to bad governance and negative perceptions of the state. The similarities of Spanish and Romanian migration narratives are especially striking because Spain and Romania represent substantially different migratory, political and economic contexts. However, migration is more obviously intertwined with conventional acts of political protest in the Spanish case. We suggest that differences in democratic contexts are pivotal in people's reactions to and framing of their deep dissatisfaction with domestic politics, as found in many European countries today.

  12. Political dimension of European constitutionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplánová Patricia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Author in the article tries to analyse different elements of document called European Constitution. Analysis is supported with theoretical framework of federalism, presented by Brezovšek. Authors is playing with idea of (confederal and international organization elements of European Constitution and their mix. They are also trying to set some connections between so called common European identity as necessary condition to give legitimacy to the European Constitution. This became important question after „votes of non-confidence“ to the European Constitution in France, despite it should be addressed already before. However, European Constitution is important document on the path of European integration and lack of support to it will slow down this process of widening and deepening European ties.

  13. Effects of first time voters’ political social media use on electoral behaviour - A smartphone-based measurement of media exposure to political information in an election campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob; de Vreese, Claes; Jensen, Camilla

    in citizens’ political media diet. Especially social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter or YouTube offer an up-to-date stream of information, easy to tune in and with personalized content citizens (or at least their network) are interested in. A recent study by PEW (Mitchell, Gottfried & Matsa, 2015...... for young citizens in an election campaign. Second, it will concentrate on their social media use to gain not only gain information about the platform first time voters use, but digging deeper to distinguish between types of content their social media exposure to political information consists of. Third......, it will determine what effect the exposure to political information on different media channels can have on electoral participation and their first vote in a national election....

  14. From Millennium Development Goals to Sustainable Development Goals: Gender and Inclusive Electoral Politics in Nigeria, 1999 – 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka C. Iloh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the extent to which Nigeria achieved gender parity in the political process between 1999 and 2015 (the period of the Millennium Development Goals and the prospects of sustaining the achievement (if any under the Sustainable Development Goals regime, between 2015 and 2030. Relying mainly on qualitative method and documentary evidence, predicated on the social dominance theory, the study posits that women have been structurally denied access to political power in Nigeria. The patriarchal system which is prevalent in the country ensures that there is no parity between the sexes in the political process. This is despite the fact that women constitute more than 50% of the population but yet, comprise less than 10% of Nigeria’s legislature. This paper, therefore, submits that for Nigeria to achieve the 2030 Agenda on gender parity in the political process, it should move beyond mere policy rehearsals and take concrete steps such as instituting a quota system in its electoral laws. Other countries that have achieved gender parity in the political process did so mainly through constitutional means, rather than mere advocacy.

  15. Political values in a European museum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molema, Marijn; Huistra, Pieter; Wirt, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The last decades have seen the rise of a European politic of cultural identity. One of the most recent initiatives in this respect, dating from 2007, is the House of European History that is due to open its doors in 2015. In this article, we investigate the recent history of the House, in particular

  16. An Analysis of Malaysian Political Communication and Its Role in Electoral Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saabar Suhaimee Saahar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to discuss political communication in Malaysia especially after the 12th General Elections (GE12. The purpose of this study is to analyse the political efficacy or sense making process which involve analysing the techniques and creative execution that had been used by political parties and its effects on Malaysian voters. The results of GE 12 had fashioned a political tsunami that influenced many important aspects in the Malaysian political landscape, be it national and economic policies, social unity or campaign strategies. Therefore, the main focus of this paper is to discuss the elements and importance of political communication research in Malaysian political communication campaign by focusing on the aspects of creative execution, political information efficacy and sense making process and its impact on the choice of communication tools amongst Malaysian voters.

  17. Political public relations in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the state of political public relations in the European Union by specifically focusing on reputation management and relationship management. Its arguments are based on a theoretical review of the literature of political public relations, reputation and relationship management......, and EU communication. The article suggests an in-depth examination of the nature of some of the EU’s major problems in political public relations, and contributes to a more nuanced understanding of the possibilities and limitations of applying reputation and relationship management constructs...

  18. How Context Matters? Mobilization, Political Opportunity Structures and Non-Electoral Political Participation in Old and New Democracies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vráblíková, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2014), s. 203-229 ISSN 0010-4140 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP408/12/1474 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : Political participation * political opportunity structure * national institutions Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences Impact factor: 2.028, year: 2014

  19. The European Politics of Brain Drain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Jacob

    This qualitative multi-method studymaps the politics of brain drain at the level of the European Union and follows the evolution of the issue over the last four parliamentary periods. By utilizing a novel combination of interviews with a content and network analysis of parliamentary questions...

  20. Political Values in a European Museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Huistra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The last decades have seen the rise of a European politic of cultural identity. One of the most recent initiatives in this respect, dating from 2007, is the House of European History that is due to open its doors in 2015. In this article, we investigate the recent history of the House, in particular through an analysis of the Conceptual Basis that was meant to be its foundation. We analyse the two narrative strategies that are employed in the formation of a shared European past and cultural identity. The first is that of continuity, in which Europe’s deep roots are traced. The second is that of a shared European destiny. Finally, we investigate the criticism these plans have received.

  1. The Europeanization of Politics: Building a Terminology for European Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Grubiša

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the problem of Europeanisation, one of the key concepts developed within the European Studies in the last ten years or so, since the adoption and entry into force of the Maastricht Treaty. The fi rst part of the article deals with various models of Europeanisation in a context extending beyond the conceptual framework of the European Union, within which the phenomenon of Europeanisation arises. Therefore, the author attempts to develop a typology of broader approaches to the identifi cation of the phenomenon and process of Europeanisation, which includes six conceptions thereof: the fi rst approach is a geographical-political one, where Europeanisation is seen as a change in outer borders of Europe, from the reduction of Europe to the countries of Western Europe and Central Europe, to the extension of the concept of Europe to marginal countries; the second approach links the concept of Europeanisation with the development of political institutions on the European level. The third defi nition identifi es Europeanisation as an export of various forms of political organisation, a process which proceeds from the experience of European colonisation to the diff usion of European values as a role model for other continents; the fourth model of Europeanisation is the identifi cation with the project of European unifi cation, i. e. the process of integration which ends up in a federal, unifi ed Europe; the fi fth subtype is the penetration of national systems of governance by the European model of multilevel governance, which becomes manifest in the adaptation, convergence and harmonisation of the political and legal systems of member nations. The author elaborates on this classic typology by adding the sixth approach, which he calls “retrospective Europeanisation”. It involves Europeanisation as identifi cation with traditional European values that existed before EC and EU, primarily with the preintegration traditional

  2. Reinventing Dalit Women's Identity?:Dynamics of Social Activism and Electoral Politics in Rural North India

    OpenAIRE

    Govinda, Radhika

    2008-01-01

    Dalit or ex-untouchable women's voices and perspectives have been marginalized not only in Dalit movements but also in predominantly upper-caste Hindu-led women's movements. This paper aims at exploring the unheard voices and perspectives of Dalit women in the context of Dalit assertion in the state of Uttar Pradesh, north India. Scholarly writing examines the different facets of Dalit political assertion led by the Bahujan Samaj Party in Uttar Pradesh. Few scholars, however, examine the ways...

  3. Fortunes and misfortunes of political leaders reflected in the eyes of their electors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porciello, Giuseppina; Liuzza, Marco Tullio; Minio-Paluello, Ilaria; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2016-03-01

    Gaze-following is a pivotal social behaviour that, although largely automatic, is permeable to high-order variables like political affiliation. A few years ago we reported that the gaze of Italian right-wing voters was selectively captured by the gaze of their leader Silvio Berlusconi. This effect was particularly evident in voters who saw themselves as similar to Berlusconi. Two years later, we were able to run the present follow-up study because Berlusconi's popularity had drastically dropped due to sex and political scandals, and he resigned from office. In a representative subsample of our original group, we investigated whether perceived similarity and gaze-following reflected Berlusconi's loss in popularity. We were also able to test the same hypothesis in an independent group of right-wing voters when their leader, Renata Polverini, resigned as Governor of 'Regione Lazio' due to political scandals. Our results show that the leaders' fall in popularity paralleled the reduction of their gaze's attracting power, as well as the decrease in similarity perceived by their voters. The less similar right-wing voters felt to their leader, the less they followed his/her gaze. Thus, the present experimental findings suggest that gaze-following can be modulated by complex situational and dispositional factors such as leader's popularity and voter-leader perceived similarity.

  4. From the Dog Whistle to the Dog Scream: The Republican Party's (AbUse of Discriminatory speech in Electoral Campaigns and Party Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza-Maria Filimon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2016 U.S. presidential election can be described as nostalgic. On one hand, there was the fond remembrance of the Clinton administration characterized by a period of economic prosperity which overshadowed the more disastrous aftermath of various policies (the crime bill, the welfare reform, the Defense of Marriage Act, the repeal of the 1933 Glass-Steagall Act, etc.. On the other, the 2016 election brought to the surface a dormant longing for a privileged past rooted in open discrimination, inequality, segregation, and white supremacy, echoed by Donald Trump’s campaign. The Republican candidate had won the party’s nomination by openly and devoutly proselytizing against minority groups that allegedly threaten the fabric, integrity, and security of the United States. The more ethnic stereotypical caricatures and outright lies he employed in his speeches, the more successful his primary campaign was and the more he unnerved the Republican establishment, the general electorate, and the media. Yet Donald Trump’s campaign was not innovative by any means. Instead, as this study will argue, Trump’s electoral success during the primary elections can be in part attributed to the Republican Party’s decades-long history of strategic racism that has been instrumental in grooming the party’s base into Donald Trump’s supporters. In order to showcase that Trump’s ascendancy to the top of the Republican primary election was not a political accident, but a natural progression of decades-old officially sanctioned electoral policies, the study analyzes the origins behind the “dog whistle” practice, based on the model of strategic racism advanced by Ian Haney López. In conducting this research, I provide examples from U.S. public officials – past and present – and also highlight the role of the media in the propagation and cultivation of dog whistle politics.

  5. Franchise and Electoral Participation of Third Country Citizens Residing in the European Union and of European Union Citizens Residing in Third Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Arrighi, Jean-Thomas; Bauböck, Rainer; Collyer, Michael; Hutecheson, Derek; Moraru, Madalina; Khadar, Lamin; Shaw, Jo

    2013-01-01

    This Study analyses some key trans-border situations in which citizens may finddifficulties in exercising their electoral rights – both to vote in elections, and to stand as candidates. It focuses on the electoral rights of EU citizens when resident outside the state where they are citizens, and on the electoral rights of third country citizens resident in the EU Member States. It also covers several complementary issues by examining the consular representation of EU citizensoutside the terri...

  6. Politics and Policies of Promoting Multilingualism in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaine, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the politics of policies promoting multilingualism in the European Union (EU), specifically in light of the recently released European Union Civil Society Platform on Multilingualism. As the most far-reaching and ambitious policy document issued by the European Commission, the Platform warrants close scrutiny at a significant…

  7. Dialogue: Intersectionalizing European politics: bridging gender and ethnicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mügge, L.; de Jong, S.

    2013-01-01

    This Dialogues section brings together research from two hitherto separate interdisciplinary strands of European scholarship on politics: Gender Studies, and Migration and Ethnic Studies. Combining theories, concepts, methods, and findings, the papers demonstrate what each field can learn from the

  8. The politics of a European civil code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    Last year the European Commission published its Action Plan on European contract law. That plan forms an important step towards a European Civil Code. In its Plan, the Commission tries to depoliticise the codification process by asking a group of academic experts to prepare what it calls a 'common

  9. European welfare regimes: Political orientations versus poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifidis Kosta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This inquiry analyzes how political orientations shape welfare states and labour market institutions when seeking to reduce poverty. In order to identify effects of these two key variables, we conduct a panel regression analysis that includes two poverty measures: poverty rates before and after social spending. This inquiry considers 14 EU countries, and in the period from 1995 to 2008, which are grouped according to welfare state regimes. We consider Social Democratic, Corporatist, Mediterranean and Liberal welfare state regimes. Panel regression results indicate that political orientation engenders no significant statistically measurable effects on poverty rates before social spending. Effects register, however, as significant when considering poverty rates after social spending. With respect to the first set of results, we advance two key explanations. First, we note a longer period of time is necessary in order to observe actual effects of political orientation on market generated poverty. Second, political parties with their respective programs do not register as influential enough to solve social problems related to income distribution when taken alone. Influences register as indirect and are expressed through changes in employment rates and social spending. The second set of results support the hypothesis that a selected political regime does indeed contribute to poverty reduction. In sum, political orientation and political regime does indeed affect poverty through welfare state institutions, as well as through labour market institutions.

  10. Politics of climate change: a European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Riordan, T.; Jaeger, Jill

    1996-01-01

    The Politics of Climate Change provides a critical analysis of the political, moral and legal response to climate change, in the midst of various other closely connected socio-economic policy shifts. Evolving from original EC commissioned research, it examines how climate change was put on the policy agenda with the evolution of the United Nations Framework Convention and subsequent Conference of Parties, and considers the uncertainties of climate futures in the context of changing social and industrial policies. (Author)

  11. The Politics of European Human Rights Culture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Agha, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2017), s. 200-215 ISSN 1805-8396 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-30299S Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : Court of Justice of the European Union * European Court of Human Rights * religious symbols Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences OBOR OECD: Law

  12. Municipal Size and Electoral Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritzen, Poul Erik; Rose, Lawrence; Denters, Bas

    are based on a strategy whereby theoretical models are developed and investigated for several different indicators of local democracy in a successive, cumulative fashion using a ‘funnel of causality logic’. This paper reports on results concerning local electoral political participation. We conclude...

  13. Electoral Governance: More than Just Electoral Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Medina Torres, Luis Eduardo; Ramírez Díaz, Edwin Cuitláhuac

    2015-01-01

    The meaning of "electoral governance" is often equated with "electoral administration". The process, however, can be divided into three distinct stages: 1) formation of regulatory bodies and norms; 2) implementation of these norms; and 3) dispute resolution. Given these three parts, electoral governance amounts to much more than just administration. In this article we explain why many academic studies of electoral governance have neglected the role of conflict resolution, focusing instead on ...

  14. The Politics of Electoral Reforms in Post-Communist Countries : The 6 March 2005 Parliamentary elections in the Republic of Moldova

    OpenAIRE

    Sulima, Snejana

    2007-01-01

    The article deals with the March 6th 2005 parliamentary election in the Republic of Moldova. It mentions the changes that occurred in the electoral system after the 1991 declaration of independence of the country. The article cites electoral legislation, describes the running of the electoral process and analyses the election results of the 2006 process. It also contains information about the implication of international bodies in the Moldavian elections.

  15. Electoral Offenses in The Common Law System

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Mulaj

    2013-01-01

    Electoral behavior is a new element in the political analysis of democracy in Albania. Distinctive features of the Albanian transition distinguish other models of the former communist countries, as well as significantly differ with Western models and electoral behavior analysis of the relations between political actors and citizens voting. Penal Code of the Republic of Albania remains the basis of criminal law to sanction criminal acts in the election. The object of criminal misconduct are di...

  16. Persuasive territories in European cultural politics:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel; Thylstrup, Nanna Bonde

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to view the concept of persuasive technology as a framework for discussing cultural politics on the internet. Taking digital collections as a point of departure, the cases of Europeana and Google Books are to be discussed as promoting different assemblies of information......, practice and identity politics. Through this discussion the study aims to show how the internet becomes territorialized through persuasive mechanisms. Design/methodology/approach – The study applies different concepts on the cases, derived from different fields of social theory, such as “soft power......”, “assembly” and “folksonomy” in order to question the traditional view of persuasive technology as a concept instrumental to, for example, marketing agendas. Targeting the relation between policy and everyday practice, the paper aims to open a discussion of persuasive technology deeply embedded in digital...

  17. Much More Than Economy: Assessing Electoral Accountability in the CEE Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumarola Andrea

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electoral accountability is considered the mechanism through which voters hold governments responsible for their performance. Questioning the traditional approach of economic voting theory, the article focuses on the influence exerted by the political context—comprehensively considered as government clarity of responsibility, availability of governing alternatives, electoral formula, and freedom of the media—on the accountability mechanism in eleven countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Using individual and aggregate data collected after the 2014 European Elections by the European Election Study (EES, the present article analyses this process in its double dimension of answerability and enforcement (Schedler 1999. Our findings suggest that voters’ ability to express discontent with economic performance in new European democracies is strongly influenced by specific characteristics of the political context. A stable and cohesive government as well as a free media system, in particular, seem to facilitate performance voting in the region.

  18. Political consequences of the electoral calendar in Latin America: Advantages and disadvantages of simultaneous and separate parliamentary and presidential elections Consecuencias políticas del calendario electoral en América latina: ventajas y desventajas de elecciones simultáneas o separadas para presidente y legislatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Enrique MOLINA V.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the ideas put forward by Shugart and Carey (1992 and Mainwaring and Shugart (1997 regarding the combined effect of presidential electoral systems and the timing of the parliamentary elections over political representation and governability. The hypotheses of these authors are contrasted with the results of Latin American presidential elections (1996-2000. The conclusion is reached that, as expected, the timing of presidential and parliamentary elections and the electoral system for president tend to influence the chance that the party or coalition of the president has a sizeable or majority parliamentary representation.El trabajo analiza los planteamientos desarrollados por Shugart y Carey (1992 y Mainwaring y Shugart (1997 con relación al efecto que sobre la gobernabilidad y la representatividad tienen las distintas combinaciones de sistema electoral para presidente de la República con la fecha en que se realizan las elecciones legislativas (simultáneas o separadas con las presidenciales, confrontando las hipótesis que se derivan de estos análisis con los resultados de las elecciones presidenciales celebradas en los países de América Latina entre 1996 y 2000. Se llega a la conclusión de que los resultados electorales tienden a corroborar las hipótesis sobre el efecto combinado del calendario electoral y el sistema electoral presidencial sobre la gobernabilidad y la representatividad, y en particular sobre la posibilidad de que el presidente electo cuente con una fuerza parlamentaria mayoritaria o sólida.

  19. The Nature and Functions of European Political Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Zupančič

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The political border limits a state’s territory and symbolizes the extent of a state’s power and ownership. Borders give integrity to the inner state territory which they enclose (the role of establishing national integrity and at the same time form an outer boundary segregating the state territory from the surrounding politicial entities (the segregation role. European borders are old and reflect the political history of an old continent. The last major border changes happened after World War II. Over the centuries borders were merely lines separating one territory from another. Such borders were understood as »frontiers«. Forming an effective barrier against enemies was the overriding function of borders. Many borders were fortified and further enhanced by means of various defensive systems. In the second half of the 20th century the character of political borders changed. They became a contact area between countries, nations and cultures. Contemporary European borders reflect the colourful history of an old continent. They are predominantely functional markers: they represent the political and juridical delimitation of territories, they mark economic barriers and show their defensive nature and reveal the extent of cultural contact. As a result of European integration processes, the nature of political borders has changed: instead of division, their integration role is brought to the fore. A united Europe is nevertheless still not a borderless Europe! The borders within the »Schengen-area« have retained their political and administrative functions, it is just that the customs and security checks at the borders have been removed. During the period of European integration, borderlines were stabilized in accordance with the 1974 Helsinki Agreement. But despite this we can still observe ongoing changes to state borders, particularly in areas of conflict such as the Balkan peninsula. It seems after all that the process of demarcation

  20. How campaigns polarize the electorate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kasper M.; Kosiara-Pedersen, Karina

    2017-01-01

    The minimal effect theory of campaign studies stipulates that intense political competition during campaigns assures and reinforces the initial party choice of the electorate. We find that this reinforcement is two-fold. During the campaign, the party preference of the voters’ in-group party...... an increase in their preference for their most preferred party and a decrease for their least liked party as the campaign progresses. These trends show that the political campaign polarizes the electorate by increasing the affective distance between in-group party and out-group party preferences, thereby...... resulting in stronger political polarization after the campaign than before the campaign. The data utilized in this study is a large six-wave panel-study of Danish voters’ party preferences during the Danish parliamentary election of 2011. Thus, the analysis provides evidence of the minimal effect theory...

  1. Expert advice and political choice in constructing European banking union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donnelly, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    International actors promoted the transfer of regulatory authority and financial resources from national governments to the European Union (EU) in the context of establishing the prerequisites for financial stability in Europe through banking union. It was supplied, however, by a political process

  2. Political participation in European welfare states: Does social investment matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marx, Paul; Nguyen, Christoph

    2018-01-01

    The role of the welfare state has expanded beyond passive assistance and decommodificaton. In many countries, social investment policies now actively encourage (re)integration into the labour market. While the effectiveness of these policies is debated, we know even less about their broader social...... and political effects. In this contribution, we explore the impact of social investment policies on one key aspect of social life: political participation. Combining insights from social psychology with institutional analysis, we investigate the impact of three social investment policies (early childhood...... education, secondary education, active labour market policies) on two disadvantaged groups: young individuals from low-skill backgrounds; and single parents. Combining the European Social Survey with data on social investment, we find that these risk groups have reduced political efficacy and political...

  3. Engaging with European Politics through Twitter and Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossetta, Michael; Dutceac Segesten, Anamaria; Trenz, Hans-Jörg

    2017-01-01

    , partisan, and moral) and four degrees of engagement (making, commenting, diffusing, and listening). Moreover, we argue that differences in Twitter and Facebook’s “digital architectures” encourage certain styles and degrees of engagement over others, and that the two social platforms sustain different...... levels of transnational activity. Supporting our argument with European cases, we suggest that Twitter is more suitable to fulfill social media’s transnational promise than Facebook, which is better adept at stimulating political participation....

  4. The European Union’s normative power in global politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2012-01-01

    comparison. Both political and scholarly assessments argue that ‘we are one of the most important, if not the most important, normative powers in the world’ (Barroso in Peterson, 2008: 69) and that ‘Europe has tremendous normative power’ (Moravcsik, 2010: 18). The normative power approach set out here makes...... it possible to explain, understand, and judge the EU in global politics by rethinking the nature of power and actorness in a globalising, multilateralising and multipolarising era. The EU uses normative power in global politics but the question is whether it is more prone than other actors to do so? In areas...... which are core to the ‘European project’, it seems clear that the EU is more disposed to use normative power....

  5. Divided Wisconsin: Partisan Spatial Electoral Realignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaniewski, Kazimierz J.; Simmons, James R.

    2016-01-01

    When the Republican and Democratic presidential candidates head into the general election this fall, they will be courting votes from a statewide electorate that has dramatically shifted over time, mirroring the political polarization that is happening across the country. Over the last three decades, Wisconsin's political geography has evolved…

  6. Social movements, public spheres and the European politics of the environment: green power Europe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    This book examines how the European environmental movement, as part of an emerging European civil society, has impinged on the problem definitions and solution strategies in the European politics of the environment. Examining core case studies in European environmental policy - biodiversity politics

  7. Two Dogs Fight and a Third Grabs the Bone. Reasons for the Electoral Success of Unexpected Candidates – the Croatian Political Scene after the Last Two Parliamentary Election Cycles (2015–2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikucka-Wójtowicz Dominika

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The last two years in Croatian politics can be seen as an important turning point. The most recent two parliamentary election cycles (2015-2016, as well as the presidential race held a year earlier, were both more interesting and more unpredictable than the previous elections. The objective of this article is to analyse and identify their distinguishing features as well as their significance and implications for the further functioning of the Croatian political scene. Owing to the fact that in both electoral cycles an important voice in the shape of the ruling coalition went to the party that came third in the election and, also surprisingly, this was both a newly established formation and to a great extent with an anti-establishment appeal, particular attention is focused on the appearance on the party scene of new political groupings. The article attempts to place them within the framework of the existing new party typologies and point to the main reasons for their electoral success, as well as evaluating their chances for survival on the party scene.

  8. Environment protection and other political spheres of the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rengeling, H.W.

    1993-01-01

    It has long been known that environment protection is largely a cross-sectional task. The provision of Article 130 r Section 2 Clause 2 of the EEC Treaty that states that environment protection forms an integral part of all the other polticial spheres of the Community is not only a plank in the platform of the Community but also a juridical innovation. Time will tell what concrete legal claims can be derived from this provision, particularly on the part of the European Court of Justice. The lectures relate amongst others to the following topics: Environment protection and competition politics, environment protection and energy poltics, environment protection and development aid politics. Eight of the lectures were abstracted individually. (orig./HSCH) [de

  9. The Electoral College: A Teaching/Learning Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Angela Blackston

    This teacher's guide describes a course unit on the electoral college designed to teach eighth grade students about the election process for the President of the United States. The historical significance of the electoral college, its procedures, and its relevance to today's political system are discussed. Ten lesson plans with student objectives,…

  10. The role of authenticity in electoral social media campaigns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Grow (Gabrielle); J.R. Ward (Janelle)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAuthenticity is a popular buzzword in electoral politics: Electoral candidates and politicians are expected to be authentic in their public interactions. Since 2008, campaigning via social media has become an integral part of elections in the United States, and continues to gain

  11. Learned voices of European citizens: from governmental to political subjectivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simons MAARTEN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the way in which voice operates within the current discourse of democracy, citizenship, and learning. Based on an analysis of «learning devices» and «citizenship devices» we will show that the individual is asked to articulate him or herself in particular ways as evidence of engagement, of inclusion, and of participatory democracy. It is someone’s «personhood» –issues related to identity, preferences, feelings of ownership– that comes to count as evidence of civic engagement and political involvement. This process of personalization –the inscription of the individual as a person that turns him or her into a European citizen– will be described as an important aspect of the current mode of governmental subjectivation. To address this we explore, in line with Jacques Rancière, the notion of «political subjectivation». While governmental subjectivation involves a process of identification with the order of society, political subjectivation is a paradoxical process of deidentification with the social order. It is about the articulation of one’s voice as equal within a social order in which one has no voice according to the ruling organisation of positions.

  12. Polish electoral geography and its methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Rykiel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the understanding of electoral geography between social sciences are discussed in the article. Main fields and spatial scales of Polish electoral geography are identified. Main methods of multidimensional statistics are discussed. A necessity of a proper choice, based on theories of voting behaviour, of explaning variables to statistical models are emphasised. Regression analysis indicates only a formal usefulness in electoral geography, for quantitative relationships between variables in the model can be evidenced, which may be meaningless not only essentially, but even statistically. The application of canonical analysis in electoral geography brought a methodological turning-point to the statistical approach. This method allowed to combine: (1 the foundation of the selection of input variables on theories of voting behaviour; (2 the analysis of dependence of the electoral results on socio-economic characteristics of areas; (3 an identification of electoral options; (4 a quantification of the role of the historical heritage in the contemporary voting behaviour; and (5 the analysis of the stability of the electoral space. A well grounded opinion was weakened about the general competitiveness of right- and left-wing parties in Poland’s political space. Parties with similar rather than different programmes compete in given areas. It was indicated that elections have only formal influence on the structure of Parliament while the electoral system is decisive. Electoral, including territorial, manipulations also play their part. The empirical analysis indicated that Poland’s political space is polarised between the right-wing-oriented areas of the south-eastern half of the country and the left-wing-oriented areas of the north-western half. The political competition between the left and the right operates merely on the national scale, while it is not reflected territorially.The quantification of the influence of the nineteenth

  13. Indigenous participation and representation in Venezuelan electoral processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando ANGOSTO FERRÁNDEZ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the Venezuelan regional elections of 2008 as a contextual event for the analysis of electoral strategies and results associated with the indigenous representation. Three factors intertwined in the electoral moment are analyzed: 1. the existence of minimum guaranteed representation for indigenous population in legislative organs; 2. the participation of indigenous candidates and electors; 3. the maneuvers of political parties and civil organizations that attempt to channel and/or benefit from such indigenous representation and participation. The description of the electoral context facilitates the identification of factors that, beyond the normative structure of the State, condition the agency of individuals and parties involved in electoral processes. Among those factors are the symbolic value of indigeneity in the current process of national identity re-definition, the interest of political parties in controlling the vote of the indigenous representation and the tendency towards the consolidation of professionalized elites within the indigenous activism.

  14. Race, Class and Voting Patterns in South Africa's Electoral System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2006-08-29

    Aug 29, 2006 ... mainly crime, policing, and public order while those of the Indian and coloured .... and English-speaking whites respectively, developed electoral .... changing the political and socio-economic arrangements of society, the latter.

  15. Social media effects on opinion polarization and political participation during the 2015 European immigration movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob

    The selective exposure to likeminded political viewpoints on algorithmic social media platforms is seen as a potential source for opinion polarization. But so far, little is known about how realistic this proposed mechanism is. It is furthermore an open question, what effects a potential opinion...... polarization invoked by social media use has on citizens’ democratic behavior, especially in a non-electoral context. Focusing on the issue of immigration during the refugee influx to Europe in autumn 2015, this study investigates the effects of social media usage on attitude polarization and connects...... it to political participation in refugee-related activities. A panel study conducted among Danish citizens (n=847) reveals that frequent social media usage contributes to a reinforcement of existing attitudes and at the same time mobilizes political participation. However, citizens who become more extreme...

  16. International Political Actorness of the European Union: Evaluation Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GNATYUK N.N.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is a completely new international entity which is hard to evaluate using traditional criteria of political actorness. Its active international presence stimulates the modeling of international actor features beyond the scope of “state-international organization” scheme. The concept of international actorness serves as a starting point for the development of appropriate analytical model. Unlike the traditional state-centered approaches which define an international actor through its affiliation witch the international system, this concept operates at the internal level of international entity and at the international structure level. Furthermore, both of these levels are treated as ontologically neutral and mutually constitutive. This basic theoretical scheme is used for elaboration of evaluation criteria of political actorness. The proposed system of criteria is based on drawing, synthesizing and developing the main writings on “new international actors” since the times of classic work by Carol A. Cosgrove and Kenneth J. Twitchett. The key elements of actorness assessed in this article include defining of capacity to act on the global scene as well as the acceptance by other actors and by international system as a whole. At the internal level, the EU’s actor capacity is measured by assessing its core elements ranging from core aspects, such as autonomy, authority, actor capability, coherence and cohesion to identity aspects. On the external level, the decisive criteria are recognition and acceptance by others which reflect expectations and perceptions of the EU. The proposed approach of evaluating the international actorness enables us to consider the political activity of the EU on the basis of coordinated system of interaction between the variables of international and domestic levels of the analysis. Furthermore, this contributes to the development of cumulative, coherent, and comprehensive theory of international

  17. Electorally unstable by supply or demand?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, Carina Saxlund

    2013-01-01

    The stability of voters’ partisan choices from election to election is a key feature of democratic politics, but why it varies across advanced industrial democracies and elections is not well understood. This study makes several key contributions to explaining electoral volatility. Firstly...... performance, and strategic incentives—do. Thirdly, earlier contradictory findings with respect to the role of the electoral system are clarified, as its effects are shown to be indirect rather than direct. And finally, the importance of the temporal dimension to stability is demonstrated, as the time since...

  18. Electoral Engineerings in Post‑communist Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Radu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the dynamics of voting systems practiced in Romania, as resulting from changes to the legal framework during the 25 years of post-communism, trying to answer the question whether the legislative effervescence in the electoral area materialized in structural changes of the electoral mechanism, changes congruent to the the idea of reform in the field. Following their approach, the authors conclude that the main driver of change in election legislation was represented by the (subjective interests of the mainstream political parties.

  19. Electoral Offenses in The Common Law System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Mulaj

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Electoral behavior is a new element in the political analysis of democracy in Albania. Distinctive features of the Albanian transition distinguish other models of the former communist countries, as well as significantly differ with Western models and electoral behavior analysis of the relations between political actors and citizens voting. Penal Code of the Republic of Albania remains the basis of criminal law to sanction criminal acts in the election. The object of criminal misconduct are directly related to the normal criminal and legal protection and free elections as well as the Albanian Constitution provides all these obstacles to electoral subjects committed by force or by any other means which directly affect the normal performance electoral system. Barriers can be done with physical or psychological, and consists in blocking commissioners election materials, election materials decay affecting decay electoral system unfairly supported a particular political party or a coalition of political parties that present list candidacy according to the rules defined in the electoral code. Albanian Constitution as the fundamental law of the Albanian state provides for the rightness of the equality of the vote for all Albanian citizens The vote is the democratic way that every citizen expressing the opinion and its political will but to have democratic value ratings should be personal equal, free and secret. The right to vote is a political right provided by the Albanian Constitution and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and as such is closely linked to democracy, the sovereignty of the people and citizens. Total vote, or the right to get to the polls all Albanian citizens, men and women, and in fact is the greatest achievement of the twentieth century. According to the Electoral Code of the Republic of Albania every citizen exercises his right to vote at his polling station, where placed under citizen’s location criteria. Voting centers

  20. The Digital Dimension of European Cultural Politics: Index, Intellectual Property and Internet Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanna Thylstrup

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Internet and the World Wide Web (WWW have become dominant fields for European Union (EU politics. What used to be at the outer fringes of the EU policies has now taken centre stage. The transnational and dialogical structure of the Internet has hardwired it for international cultural politics, yet the very same structure also works to erode the very territorial foundation of traditional cultural politics. Given the delicate and complex terrain cultural politics traverse in international politics, and the trailblazing progression of the Internet, it seems on-line cultural politics is not just the application of existing cultural politics to cyberspace but a new field to be explored, analyzed and taught. The present article maps a constituent European cultural boundary on the WWW as the EU has circumscribed it and places this cultural node within a wider array of Europeanization and globalization processes.

  1. ELECTORAL PRESCRIBERS. WHO ARE THEY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin SASU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The decision to vote and choosing among the candidates is an extremely important one with repercussions on everyday life by determining, in global mode, its quality for the whole society. Therefore the whole process by which the voter decides becomes a central concern. Prescribers, supposed to have a big influence on the electoral market, are a component of the microenvironment political organizations. These are people who occupy important positions that can influence the behavior of others. In the political environment, prescribers are known under the name of "opinion formers", "opinion leaders", "mediators" (Beciu, 2009 or "influencers" (Keller and Berry, 2003 Weimann, 1994. This paper aims to review the central opinions on what is the influence prescribers, opinion makers on voting behavior, voting and decisions on whether and how they act?

  2. NATURE OF ELECTORAL MARKETING IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DINU GABRIEL

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A serious analysis of the political market is impossible without studying consumer behavior (or user offers political, macro-environment is an essential component of marketing that can be influenced by marketing actions of the political structure. The study of human behavior is essential for understanding how people will react - most often very different - methods of marketing of that structure. The objective of the elector's behavior is to help us understand certain actions and attitude motivations, preferences, self image, social environment, reference groups aiming the family of those whom are going to vote in certain circumstances. As a result of all the influence the elector is exposed to, he exhibits a certain behavior within the elective process.

  3. Pink programming across Europe: exploring identity politics at European LGBT film festivals

    OpenAIRE

    Dhaenens, Frederik

    2018-01-01

    LGBT film festivals curate programs that are expected to cater to LGBT identity politics, conform to normative cinematic standards of European film festivals and consider the manifold desires of their target audiences. Since programmers are crucial to this process, the present study investigated European programmers’ approaches to identity politics. The analysis of in-depth expert interviews with 24 film programmers from 17 film festivals in 17 European countries revealed that most programmer...

  4. Electoral Violence in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfo, Eldrigde; Söderberg Kovacs, Mimmi; Nyström, Daniel; Utas, Mats

    2012-01-01

    In the time period 2012–2013, over 20 national elections and two constitutional referendums are scheduled in Africa. In several of these elections, violence is anticipated to play a prominent role. There is great urgency to support the establishment of effective and legitimate electoral institutions and electoral frameworks; institute reforms aimed at lowering the stakes of elections; encourage the devolution of powers; improve the socio-economic standing of the populace; and devise strategie...

  5. Elements of European Political Culture in the Central Asian National Outskirts of the Russian Empire: Perception Specifics of Foreign Cultural Innovations (late 19th – early 20th

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya A. Lysenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main results of political modernization in the Central Asian national outskirts of the Russian Empire taken place in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. The concept “Central Asian national outskirts” includes Stepnoy and Turkistan Governorate Generals, the two administrative-territorial entities founded in the 1860s as a result of a complete joining of the Kazakh camping grounds of the Junior, Middle and Elder zhuzhes; after the Kokand and Khivinsk khanates inhabited by nomads ( the Kirghiz, the Kara-Kalpaks as well as the settled population (the Uzbeks were conquered. The analysis of the sources and materials conducted by the authors asserts that the political modernization of the Central Asian national outskirts proposed by the Russian Empire was carried out in line with the fundamental characteristics of West European civilization and the basis of its political culture. Thus the system of local government was established and the democratic electoral system was introduced by means of expanding the voter’s base, with the region’s population participating in social and political life. The principles of bourgeois ideology based on such concepts as “equality”, “freedom”, “self-determination” were also formed. However, the political modernization of the Central Asian national outskirts should not be considered as complete. Up to 1917 the political sphere of the region’s population was characterized by the predominance of traditional mores, values and laws, whereas clan ideology, tribalism and Muslim ethno-consciousness were characteristic of the social sphere. All these factors affected the process of adapting to western political culture. The institutionalization of the new structures did not go along with the de-institutionalization of the traditional ones, and so resulted in the combination and coexistence of the traditional and modern structures.

  6. In conclusion: Political representation ans legitimacy in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, Hermann; Schmitt, Hermann; Thomassen, Jacques J.A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to expand knowledge of political representation in the EU and of the legitimacy of its political order. In this concluding chapter, a summary is given of what has been learned on these two subjects and what this says about the EU as a developing democratic political

  7. The relationship between campaigning on Twitter and electoral support: present or absent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruikemeier, S.; van Noort, G.; Vliegenthart, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the content characteristics of political communication on Twitter during an election campaign and the relationship between candidates’ style of online campaigning (i.e., politically personalized and interactive communication) and electoral support for those candidates.

  8. How campaigns enhance European issues voting during European Parliament elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek; Møller Hansen, Kasper; Larsen, Martin Vinæs

    2017-01-01

    Based on findings from the literature on campaign effects on the one hand, and the literature on European Parliament elections on the other, we propose a model of European Parliamentary elections in which the campaign shift the calculus of electoral support, making differences in national political...... allegiances less important and attitudes about the European project more important by informing voters of and getting them interested in European politics. In effect, we argue that the political campaign leading up to the election makes European Parliament elections less second-order. While previous studies...... have demonstrated that EU attitudes can matter for voting behavior in European Parliament elections, existing research has drawn on post-election surveys that do not enable us to capture campaign effects. Our contribution is to assess the impact of a campaign by utilizing a rolling cross sectional...

  9. Assessing the Relationship between Community Education, Political Efficacy and Electoral Participation: A Case Study of the Asylum Seeking Community in Cork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Clodagh; Murphy, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses the relationship between community education and internal political efficacy. In particular it examines the association between voter/civic programmes run in advance of the 2009 local elections in Ireland and internal political efficacy amongst the asylum seeking community in Cork. A survey is used to test this relationship.…

  10. POSICIONES POLÍTICAS VS MERCADO ELECTORAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octaviano Moya Delgado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This work shows a revision of the divided vote that has generated a process of high competitiveness in Mazatlán, Sinaloa. It confronts the political positions of the voters with the options of electoral competition. To do this on the assumption that the electoral behavior occurs more as a result of the individual analysis of the voters on benefits (utility that offer candidates and parties competing in the elections, which the characteristics of political-ideological of the voters themselves. To check it, it is analyzed three empirical dimensions, in which are: the context and actors in the election, the conditions of competition, positions politico-ideological and utility of the vote.

  11. Sructure in political beliefs. A new model for Stochastic Unfolding with Application to European Party Activists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuur, Hendrik van

    1984-01-01

    This study investigates interrelationships among the political beliefs of more than ten thousand active members of fifty political parties in nine countries of the European Community. These interrelationships are explored in part with a newly developed model for the analysis of preferences:

  12. Screening the 'War on Terror' : the politics and aesthetics of torture in American and European cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodde, O.C.

    2016-01-01

    Cinema and society interact. This given becomes fascinating when socio-politically sensitive issues are adapted in films that confront spectators with the frames of reference they use to make sense of society. This thesis studies how North-American and European films depict political torture in the

  13. How the European debt crisis reshaped national political space : The case of Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katsanidou, Alexia; Otjes, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Where some authors saw a limited impact of Europeanisation on national party politics, others proposed that in addition to the pre-existing economic left-right dimension a separate European Union dimension structures the national political space. This article looks at the Greek bail-out during the

  14. Regional homogeneity of electoral space: comparative analysis (on the material of 100 national cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Avksentiev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author examines dependence on electoral behavior from territorial belonging. «Regional homogeneity» and «electoral space» categories are conceptualized. It is argued, that such regional homogeneity is a characteristic of electoral space and can be quantified. Quantitative measurement of government regional homogeneity has direct connection with risk of separatism, civil conflicts, or legitimacy crisis on deviant territories. It is proposed the formulae for evaluation of regional homogeneity quantitative method which has been based on statistics analysis instrument, especially, variation coefficient. Possible directions of study with the use of this index according to individual political subjects and the whole political space (state, region, electoral district are defined. Calculation of appropriate indexes for Ukrainian electoral space (return of 1991­2015 elections and 100 other national cases. The dynamics of Ukraine regional homogeneity on the material of 1991­2015 electoral statistics is analyzed.

  15. Citizenship rights for immigrants: national political processes and cross-national convergence in western Europe, 1980-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, Ruud; Michalowski, Ines; Waibel, Stine

    2012-01-01

    Immigrant citizenship rights in the nation-state reference both theories of cross-national convergence and the resilience of national political processes. This article investigates European countries' attribution of rights to immigrants: Have these rights become more inclusive and more similar across countries? Are they affected by EU membership, the role of the judiciary, the party in power, the size of the immigrant electorate, or pressure exerted by anti-immigrant parties? Original data on 10 European countries, 1980-2008, reveal no evidence for cross-national convergence. Rights tended to become more inclusive until 2002, but stagnated afterward. Electoral changes drive these trends: growth of the immigrant electorate led to expansion, but countermobilization by right-wing parties slowed or reversed liberalizations. These electoral mechanisms are in turn shaped by long-standing policy traditions, leading to strong path dependence and the reproduction of preexisting cross-national differences.

  16. Europe – political cleavage in the French presidential elections .

    OpenAIRE

    Loredana Pătruţiu Balteș

    2012-01-01

    The French presidential elections of 2012 brought a new political approach concerning the candidates speech, because Europe became one of the main electoral themes within a national election. In full European economic crisis, the French people seem more than ever interested about the future of European construction, and in this context, the presidential candidates had to tackle this topic of interest in their election campaign. Analyzing the speeches of the first three candidates among the Fr...

  17. Tobacco control policy development in the European Union: do political factors matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosdriesz, Jizzo R.; Willemsen, Marc C.; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E.

    2015-01-01

    There has been much variation between European countries in the development of tobacco control policy. Not much is known about the factors that shape this variation. This study aimed to assess the role of political factors in tobacco control policy development. We used data from 11 European

  18. Towards a European public sphere? Vertical and horizontal dimensions of Europeanised political communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, R.; Erbe, J.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we address the alleged communication or public sphere deficit of the EU. We develop a systematic approach to the Europeanization of public spheres, which distinguishes three forms of Europeanized political communication: supranational, vertical and horizontal. We propose that the

  19. Suffrage and Electoral Rights of Expatriates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Gjidara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper points out the historical aspect of suffrage and electoral rights. The practice of the Court of the European Union, the European Court for the protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and the opinion and recommendation of the European Commission on the voting rights of citizens who live abroad are pointed out. This is illustrated by the example of the Republic of France. Finally, the Residency Act of the Republic of Croatia, which was enforced on 14 December 2012, is analysed in detail. To conclude, according to the author’s opinion, the deficiencies of Croatian law are pointed out as well as the possible problems in practice.

  20. Old Versus New Europe? Differences in Content and Style of Political Advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R.; Zeh, R.; Holtz-Bacha, C.; Novelli, E.; Rafter, K.

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, we focus on the idea that national electoral campaigns – and specifically political advertising strategies – differ according to the length of European Union (EU) membership along with other country characteristics. One of the EU’s main paradigms is to balance socio-economic

  1. Orchestrating French Music Conservatories: European Political Interventions and Local Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raevskikh, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Supported by the omnipresent State in the past, French music education leans increasingly towards a more liberal and competitive model. In the current context of a decentralized economy and European integration, music conservatories are called upon to contribute to regional and municipal development and enhance European student mobility. How do…

  2. US - European Union Relations: Economic Change and Political Transition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kramer, Steven

    1999-01-01

    .... ̂ The introduction of the euro as the currency of the EMU will aid participating European Union (EU) member states by eliminating transaction costs, exchange rate risks, and interest rate spreads across the 11 European currencies early in the coming century...

  3. THE ELECTORAL FAILURE OF LIBERAL PARTIES IN CENTRAL EUROPE: A DIRECTIONAL MODEL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru VOLACU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we provide a theoretical framework for interpreting the reiterated failure of liberal parties in a series of Central European states (namely Austria, Belgium, Germany, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. We argue that the directional model of spatial analysis elaborated by Rabinowitz and Macdonald (1989 and Macdonald, Listhaug and Rabinowitz (1991 can be an efficient instrument used for understanding why liberal parties are not able to perform as well as their opponents in elections, our hypothesis being, in consistency with the theoretical predictions made by the directional model, that political parties which ideologically diverge from the center without becoming too radical are more likely to increase their electoral percentage then parties which converge toward the ideological center. We test and partially confirm our hypothesis by comparatively studying the ideological shifts and electoral percentages of liberal parties within the 5 states mentioned above, across a period of five consecutive elections, proving that a correlation between ideological shifts and electoral percentages exists in the sense predicted by the directional model for a large majority of cases.

  4. Political Strategies and Language Policies: The European Union Lisbon Strategy and Its Implications for the EU's Language and Multilingualism Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyzanowski, Michal; Wodak, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the interplay between the politics and policies of multilingualism by looking at the role of political macro-strategies in shaping language and multilingualism policies within the European Union. The paper focuses on the relationship between the European Union's 2000-2010 Lisbon Strategy on the European Knowledge-Based Economy…

  5. Romanian Post‑Revolution Electoral Myths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Bulai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes some of the political and electoral myths of the post-communist transition, myths that have occupied the political agenda and the public debate throughout this period. Myths are seen as simple or complex narratives that have an explanatory and justificatory function in relation to social life, focused on Romanian society’s problems. They define and legitimizes a certain way to solve them and guides the development of society on the basis of some axiomatic principles. The article analyzes such myths, older or more recent, such as the myth of changing the electoral system, the myth of renewing the political class, the myth of the fundamental power of the referendum, the myth of the reform of the state, or of the constitutional amendments. The proposed analysis highlights the negative effects of using myths as instruments of the political and social changing on public policies and more generally on governance, and also the long-term harmful effects of the use of myths in defining political vision and Romania’s governmental development strategies.

  6. Politics and Aesthetics in European Baroque and Classicist Tragedy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemendal, J.; Smith, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    A volume of essays investigating European tragedy in the seventeenth century, comparing Shakespeare, Vondel, Gryphius, Racine and several other vernacular tragedians, together with consideration of eo-Latin dramas by Jesuits and other playwrights.

  7. Legislative amendments and informal politics in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cross, James P.; Hermansson, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    the Commission’s proposals and the final legislative outcome passed by the European Union. It does so by implementing minimum edit distance algorithms to measure changes between legislative proposals and outcomes. The findings suggest that legislative amendments are determined by the formal and informal...... institutional structures in which negotiations take place and characteristics of the proposal itself. Our conclusions contribute to the ongoing debate on the nature and distribution of legislative powers in the European Union....

  8. Electoral and Partisan Cycles between US Economic Performance and Presidential Popularity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Letterie (Wilko); O.H. Swank (Otto)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we discuss a recent paper by Stephen E Haynes in which he relates electoral cycles in political support to electoral cycles in economic variables Haynes finds that the cycle in support for Republican presidents is explained by the cycle in economic variables, whereas the

  9. El spot electoral negativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma Peña-Jiménez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available l spot político tiene durante la campaña un objetivo final inequívoco: la consecución del voto favorable. Se dirige al cuerpo electoral a través de la televisión y de Internet, y presenta, en muchos casos, un planteamiento negativo, albergando mensajes destinados a la crítica frontal contra el adversario, más que a la exposición de propuestas propias. Este artículo se centra en el análisis del spot electoral negativo, en aquellas producciones audiovisuales construidas sin más causa que la reprobación del contrincante. Se trata de vídeos que, lejos de emplearse en difundir las potencialidades de la organización y las virtudes de su candidato –además de su programa electoral–, consumen su tiempo en descalificar al oponente mediante la transmisión de mensajes, muchas veces, ad hominem. Repasamos el planteamiento negativo del spot electoral desde su primera manifestación, que en España data de 1996, año de emisión del conocido como vídeo del dóberman, sin olvidar otros ejemplos que completan el objeto de estudio.

  10. ELECTORAL POPULISM VERSUS ECONOMIC STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie Mihai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that in election years, political parties compete in measures and promises that are more or less extravagant, designed to attract votes from voters. The situation is understandable to a certain extent, this practice being common in other countries as well, important being not to "jump the horse" as unfortunately happens in Romania, where in four years the politicians, in their desire to obtain a mandate in local or parliamentary elections, replete with all kinds of promises, without regard to the impact that their application might have on the stability of the overall economy. As the electoral legislation has become more stringent, attracting voters by giving them attentions and gifts (buckets, packages of food with sugar, oil, etc., or gourmet was forbidden and election promises have climbed the first rung of the strategy of attracting voters. On the other hand, the old local and central political structures at the end of their mandate try, for the last hundred meters, to adopt populist, hoping both to renew mandates and to solve personal interests relating to special pensions bonuses and all sorts of pecuniary advantages, according to the principle "after us the deluge".

  11. Poetics and Politics of the European Capital of Culture Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng; Håkanson, Lars; LaCava, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The European Capital of Culture (ECoC) project was designed to promote European identity and integration. Hosting cities have since carried a variety of visions and objectives, ranging from the improvement of material infrastructure and urban revitalization, over the enhancement of cultural life...... to the alleviation of poverty through increasing employment, and the attraction of more tourists. This variety of hopes is repeatedly articulated, as cities compete to become the next ECoC. Being an ECoC is seen to offer invaluable marketing opportunities to improve the city and its image. This paper situates...

  12. Global and local football : politics and Europeanization on the fringes of the EU [Book Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mayo, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This book, focusing on one of international football’s minnows, Malta, is intended to provide a case study concerning the dialectic of the local and the global within the context of the politics of European and world football. The authors stir up football memories, for people of my age, against the backdrop of important political events occurring in a country which has just joined the European Union. It draws heavily on the work of Carmel Baldacchino , rightly regarded by the authors as Malta...

  13. Intermediate Conditions of Democratic Accountability: A Response to Electoral Skepticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Maloy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to respond to “democratic deficits” in modern constitutional republics must contend with the broad scholarly trend of electoral skepticism. While generally casting doubt on periodic competitive elections’ suitability as vehicles of accountability, electoral skepticism does not necessarily entail an absolute devaluation of elections. Some normative and empirical research responds to this trend by refocusing attention on values other than popular power, such as civil peace, which might be served by periodic competitive elections. Another response short of abandoning the value of popular power, however, is to draw out possibilities for institutional design from the restricted conditions under which previous study has found electoral accountability to be plausible or likely. This second task requires an empirically informed exercise in political theory. Pursuing it in a programmatic and policy-relevant way requires descending from the grand, systemic level of constitutional structures and electoral formulae to intermediate (or middle-range institutional conditions of accountability, such as rules about parties, campaigns, and election administration. My analysis reinterprets principal-agent models to develop four general types of crucial condition for electoral accountability, and then ramifies this scheme by reference to recent empirical research. The result is a “top ten” list of specific institutional factors that could be theoretically decisive in helping or hindering electoral accountability. These ten conditions could guide future research designs and reform proposals alike.

  14. Resistance to the political representation of alien populations: the European paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulier-boutang, Y

    1985-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of the resistance of European nations to granting unnaturalized citizens the right to vote in local, regional, and national elections. It argues that this political inflexibility contrasts with the economic flexibility these nations demonstrated when they made a call for labor to overseas populations, former colonies, and other countries, and which they exhibit now as they work to modernize production systems in their industries. Because of this lack of political representation, local authorities have proven disinterested in migrants' concerns and migrants have become subjects of the labor market, rather than of the law. Overall "political underdevelopment" will only intensify the turbulence projected for Europe's economy.

  15. Performance and institucional identity: the Electoral Tribunal in the 2000 electoral alternance Desempeño e identidad institucional: el tribunal electoral en la alternancia del 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor DÍAZ-SANTANA; David H. CORROCHANO

    2010-01-01

    In this article we want to analyse the work made by the "Tribunal Electoral del Poder Judicial de la Federación (TEPJF)" and its relation, in its grade and identity, within the presidential elections on the July 2sd, 2000. Our hypothesis is that TEPJF had started an institutional blackmail, which put several doubts on the process, and could limit the democratic advances built until today but also generate a post electoral conflict with political instability consequences in the country.Analiza...

  16. European market integration for gas? Volume flexibility and political risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asche, Frank; Tveteras, Ragnar; Osmundsen, Petter

    2002-01-01

    Long-term take-or-pay contracts regulating gas exports to the Continent are described and analyzed. We thereafter examine whether the German gas market is integrated. Time series of Norwegian, Dutch and Russian gas export prices to Germany in 1990-1998 are examined. Cointegration tests show that that the different border prices for gas to Germany move proportionally over time, indicating an integrated gas market. We find differences in mean prices, with Russian gas being sold at prices systematically lower than Dutch and Norwegian gas. Among the explanatory factors for price discrepancies are differences in volume flexibility (swing) and perceived political risk

  17. Families and the European Union : law, politics and pluralism.

    OpenAIRE

    McGlynn, C.M.S.

    2006-01-01

    In the first book to offer a comprehensive analysis of family law in the European Union, McGlynn argues that a traditional concept of 'family' which has many adverse effects - on individuals, on families (in all their diverse forms), and indeed on the economic ambitions of the EU is forming the basis for the little-recognised and under-researched field of EU family law. This book examines three different aspects of family life - childhood, parenthood and partnerships - and critically analyses...

  18. Orchestrating French Music Conservatories: European Political Interventions and Local Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Raevskikh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Supported by the omnipresent State in the past, French music education leans increasingly towards a more liberal and competitive model. In the current context of a decentralized economy and European integration, music conservatories are called upon to contribute to regional and municipal development and enhance European student mobility. How do conservatories react to the restructuring of the competitive field? How do they affect European territorial cohesion? Are they managing adaptive or hybrid strategies with new conceptions of music education? Alternatively, do they gradually move away from the marketplace and become an obsolete and difficult heritage to maintain? To answer these questions, it is necessary to analyze the current balance of power among the different elements of the French multi-level system of conservatories, including communal, inter-communal, departmental, regional, national and European institutions. By combining different sources of spatial and statistical data, this paper contributes to constructing a comparative institutional geography of French multi-level territorial divisions. Extraction and treatment of the small data with SPSS statistical software allowed us to build a number of small-scale datasets that were merged to broader geographical databases from the French National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (INSEE. The geographical units that structure the INSEE databases (the zip and district codes, codes of regions, departments, GPS coordinates made possible the location of each conservatory within municipal, departmental, regional and national spaces. A cartographic approach to studying music conservatories allows the identification of problems that deserve further detailed qualitative and statistical study in the future.

  19. Legality, separation of powers, stability of electoral law: The impact of new voting technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Driza Maurer, Ardita

    2016-01-01

    Legality, separation of powers and stability of electoral law are some of the principles of the European constitutional heritage. They should be respected and implemented throughout the electoral process, including when new voting technologies are used. This paper discusses e-voting specific implementations of the principles or challenges to it. Ongoing and proposed improvements in legislation or practice are pinpointed.

  20. Transparency, political polarization, and political budget cycles in OECD countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the effects of fiscal transparency and political polarization on the prevalence of electoral cycles in fiscal balance. While some recent political economy literature on electoral cycles identifies such cycles mainly in weak and recent democracies, in contrast we show, conditioning ...

  1. A Foreign Correspondent's View of the Electoral Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Mary A. Ed.

    According to their personal points of view regarding United States politics, a panel of foreign correspondents from other nations evaluated the United States electoral process and discussed the difficulties involved in conveying the complexities of this process to an audience. This document contains an edited transcript of the panel's comments.…

  2. Political Education Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    League of United Latin American Citizens, Washington, DC.

    Written to help Hispanics understand the electoral process more thoroughly and to encourage them to participate more actively in the political arena, this manual begins by describing the present status of the Hispanic electorate and then explains how laws are made, how Hispanics can influence legislation, and how to organize a voter registration…

  3. The New Political Economy of Health Care in the European Union: The Impact of Fiscal Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Scott L; Jarman, Holly; Baeten, Rita

    2016-01-01

    We argue that the political economy of health care in the European Union is being changed by the creation of a substantial new apparatus of European fiscal governance. A series of treaties and legal changes since 2008 have given the European Union new powers and duties to enforce budgetary austerity in the member states, and this apparatus of fiscal governance has already extended to include detailed and sometimes coercive policy recommendations to member states about the governance of their health care systems. We map the structures of this new fiscal governance and the way it purports to affect health care decision making. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Responsive to the people? : Comparing the European cognitive maps of Dutch political leaders and their followers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Esch, Femke; Joosen, Rik; van Zuydam, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Political leaders are often perceived as unresponsive to the daily concerns of citizens, especially when European integration is concerned. Academic research, however, provides at most mixed evidence for the existence of such a gap. This article tries to shed light on this discrepancy by introducing

  5. Listen to us! Regional and local public affairs in the Dutch and European political arena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figee, Edward Leopold

    2017-01-01

    The research in this dissertation is focused on the question what processes decentralized governments (i.e., municipalities and provinces) have to overcome in order to intervene in the Dutch and European political arena and to acquire attention for their interests. In the introduction (ch. 1) PA is

  6. Searching for (un)sustainabilty in pangasius aquaculture: A political economy of quality in European retail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, S.R.; Duijf, M.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on a political economy of food quality, this paper investigates the main sources of uncertainty over the environmental sustainability of Vietnamese pangasius catfish in European markets and how retailers subsequently respond to these uncertainties. Based on media survey and interviews with

  7. The transnational circulation of scientific ideas: importing behavioralism in European political science (1950-1970).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncourt, Thibaud

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to deepen our understanding of the transatlantic circulation of scientific ideas during the Cold War by looking at the importation of behavioralism in European political science. It analyses the social, institutional, and intellectual dynamics that led to the creation, in 1970, of a transnational organization that aimed to promote behavioralism in Europe: the European Consortium for Political Research (ECPR). Using qualitative material drawn from archives and interviews, the study shows that the creation of the ECPR was the joint product of academic, scientific, and political rivalries. It argues that the founding of the organization served a purpose for several agents (chiefly, academic entrepreneurs and philanthropic foundations) who pursued different strategies in different social fields in the context of the Cold War. More broadly, it suggests that the postwar development of the social sciences and the circulation of scientific ideas are best accounted for by mapping sociological interactions between scientific fields and neighboring social spheres. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Detractors of democracy: overview of electoral crimes and abstentionism in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Manuel Ibarra-Reyes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at two obstacles to democratic life in Mexico, electoral crimes and abstentionism. Speaking of electoral crimes and rates of abstentionism to analyze two of the most complex obstacles that the political culture and the Mexican democratic life faces and allows action strategies that promote from the legal wing and political inculturation tangible and implementable solutions context national to strengthen the social system. Thus, the characteristics of both problems and their current status in the country are presented.

  9. Detractors of democracy: overview of electoral crimes and abstentionism in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Rubén Manuel Ibarra-Reyes; Elizabeth Amador-Márquez

    2017-01-01

    This paper looks at two obstacles to democratic life in Mexico, electoral crimes and abstentionism. Speaking of electoral crimes and rates of abstentionism to analyze two of the most complex obstacles that the political culture and the Mexican democratic life faces and allows action strategies that promote from the legal wing and political inculturation tangible and implementable solutions context national to strengthen the social system. Thus, the characteristics of both problems and their c...

  10. Geography of Electoral Volatility in the Warmia and Mazury Voivodeship of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarasov Ilya N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe the impact of administrative reforms on the electoral volatility in the Warmia and Mazury voivodeship of Poland. The administrative reforms resulted in the formation of a new territorial organization of power. Using three large administrative units of Poland as an example, the authors analyse the experience of the formation of a geographic region by merging several politically diverse territories. The merger took place in a changing political environment. It inevitably affected the strategy and tactics of the development of local self-governance. The formation of the region has been going on in such a manner that differences in the electoral preferences and political behaviour of the urban population (the regional metropolis and the periphery remain unchanged. Having performed the index analysis and a comparative analysis of the electoral data, the authors conclude that the consistency of administrative decisions on the formation of the region and the electoral performance have been weakening over time. During the initial phase, the electoral volatility was mainly due to the sluggishness and inertia of the previous territorial organization. After the phase of stabilization, the electoral volatility indices in different geographical areas changed due to a combination of social and political factors. The authors show that the ‘looseness’ of the Polish party system affect the electoral volatility in the region more than institutional decisions of the administrative reforms.

  11. Precarious Voices? Types of “Political Citizens” and Repertoires of Action among European Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Monticelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article’s goal is to explore the existence of ‘political citizens’ profiles across three European cities (Turin, Cologne and Lyon and to ascertain the role of an unstable occupational status on the repertoires of action deployed. For this purpose, a technique called latent class cluster analysis (LCCA is applied to a large sample, including young precarious and regular workers (deployed as a reference group. This technique allowed us to derive five descriptive probabilistic profiles of ‘political citizens’ and their repertoires of action in each city. The empirical findings underline the emergence of hybrid repertoires of action together with ‘single-issue’ or ‘cause-oriented’ forms of political participation. This study represents an attempt to encourage the dialogue between two strands of research in social sciences, namely sociology of work and political participation and to foster the formation of an innovative research agenda crossing these two fields.

  12. The Electoral Geography of the 2016 Presidential Election in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgian-Ionuţ GUŢOIU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Portugal elected a new president in January, this year. While the campaign was rather atypical, with a majority of independent candidates and a low involvement of the parties, we employ here an analysis of the election’s electoral geography, in order to identify if the geographical partisan delimitations influenced the electoral outcome. At this election a clear political geographical divide existed between the urban North and the rural South. Our findings suggest that the geographical distribution of the votes follows the candidates’ ideological identity.

  13. LA REFORMA ELECTORAL OAXAQUEÑA EN LOS AYUNTAMIENTOS MIXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Valdivia Dounce

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se revisan los posibles efectos de las reformas en materia electoral indígena en los municipios de la región mixe de Oaxaca, comparando las tendencias políticas anteriores a las reformas, observadas en investigación de campo, con los resultados de las elecciones federales de 2006 y estatales de 2007.   ABSTRACT This paper reviews the possible effects of indigenous electoral reforms in the municipalities in the Oaxacan Mixe region, comparing political tendencies prior to reforms, as observed in field research, with results from federal elections in 2006 and state elections in 2007.

  14. Normative changes and gender equity. From electoral quotas to parity in Latin America: the cases of Bolivia and Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Nélida ARCHENTI; María Inés TULA

    2014-01-01

    This study, aimed at analyzing the impact of institutional factors on the efficacy of gender parity policy in Latinamerica. It compares regulatory changes and electoral results in Bolivia and Ecuador, the only two countries in Latinamerica that have implemented parity on national elections. These data demonstrate the persistence of obstacles for gender political parity effectiveness derived from electoral systems and from party aligned strategies channeled by electoral rationality.

  15. Normative changes and gender equity. From electoral quotas to parity in Latin America: the cases of Bolivia and Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélida ARCHENTI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study, aimed at analyzing the impact of institutional factors on the efficacy of gender parity policy in Latinamerica. It compares regulatory changes and electoral results in Bolivia and Ecuador, the only two countries in Latinamerica that have implemented parity on national elections. These data demonstrate the persistence of obstacles for gender political parity effectiveness derived from electoral systems and from party aligned strategies channeled by electoral rationality.

  16. Electoral Violence and Democratization Process in Nigeria: A Reference of 2011 and 2015 General Elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence I. EDET

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The general account of Nigeria’s post-independence electoral processes has always been characterized by violence. Nigeria’s 2015 general elections marked the fifth multi-party elections in the country and the second handover of civilian administrations since the inception of the Fourth Republic democratic experiment in 1999. This account cannot be analyzed without issues of electoral violence. Electoral violence had been a permanent feature of Nigeria’s democratic process, except 2015 general elections where the international observers described as a “significant improvement” over the previous elections in terms of violence related cases. Electoral related violence in the country particularly in 2011 got to an unprecedented dimension resulting in destruction of lives and property worth millions of naira. This paper expatiates on electoral violence and its general implications on the democratization process in the country, with major emphasis on the 2011 and 2015 general elections. The paper argued that the high incidence of pre and post electoral violence in the country within the periods has to do with the way Nigerian politicians regard politics, weak political institutions and weak electoral management body as well as bias nature of the security agencies, etc. However, the paper examined the general implications of electoral violence on democratization process and how the country can handle the electoral process to avoid threats associated with the electoral violence. Archival analysis, which widely extracted data from newspapers, journals, workshop papers, books, as well as publications of non-governmental organizations was adopted for the study. The major significance of this study is to expose the negative implications associated with electoral violence and how it can be curbed. The position canvassed in this paper will serve as a useful political literature for political leaders, policy makers and the general reading public who

  17. Controlling the EU Executive? The Politics of Delegation in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandsma, Gijs Jan; Blom-Hansen, Jens

    Every year the EU Commission issues thousands of rules based on powers delegated by the Council of Ministers and the European Parliament. But delegation is carefully controlled. Traditionally, control has been exerted through a system of committees of member state representatives (‘comitology......’). However, this system was contested by the European Parliament which was left without any influence. The Lisbon Treaty introduced a new control regime for delegated powers, the so-called delegated acts system, which was meant to supplement the existing system. The new system involves direct control...... by the Council of Ministers and the European Parliament and thus for the first time gave the European Parliament real influence over delegated powers. However, the choice over which delegation regime to use in practice has turned into one of the most vehement institutional conflicts in the EU political system...

  18. European integration in crisis? Of supranational integration, hegemonic projects and domestic politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulmer, Simon; Joseph, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The European Union is facing multiple challenges. Departing from mainstream theory, this article adopts a fresh approach to understanding integration. It does so by taking two theoretical steps. The first introduces the structure–agency debate in order to make explicit the relationship between macro-structures, the institutional arrangements at European Union level and agency. The second proposes that the state of integration should be understood as the outcome of contestation between competing hegemonic projects that derive from underlying social processes and that find their primary expression in domestic politics. These two steps facilitate an analysis of the key areas of contestation in the contemporary European Union, illustrated by an exploration of the current crisis in the European Union, and open up the development of an alternative, critical, theory of integration. PMID:29708125

  19. Protest Demonstrations, Political Partici

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    2015-04-14

    Apr 14, 2015 ... the Era of Terrorism: Nigeria's Public Order Act and the ... Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights and other international laws. But owing to the .... little sense to limit analysis of political participation to voting and electoral.

  20. The idea of civil control in the European political and legal thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T D Sokolova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the problem of defining the role and functions of civil control from the political and legal thought perspective and in the context of the possible ways of civil society and state authorities interaction. The demand for external evaluation as a prerequisite for the development of political system and the demand for establishing an effective feedback mechanism within it together with the lack of a unified approach to the interpretation of civil control in the political science and legal doctrines determined the relevance of the study of the established traditions in the interpretation of civil control in social sciences and humanities. Whereas social and power relations always develop within a specific legislative framework, whose maturity and consistency largely determine the state of civil society, it is not possible to evaluate control functions of the public sector otherwise than through the study of the legal framework of the state. Thus, the article describes the evolution of the views on possible formats of social and power relations in the context of transformations of the European social thought and political and legal approaches to the perception of power institutions, building a dialogue between social and political organizations, defining the forms of civic participation in political decision-making and interpretation of civil control.

  1. Structural Violence: Moving beyond ethnicity towards and understanding of electoral violence in kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owiso, Michael Omondi

    2018-01-01

    Ethnicity has come to be widely used as an explanation to electoral violence in Kenya. Research on electoral violence has been limited to electoral related violence in relation to the manipulation of the multi-ethnic composition of the country by the political elite. In light of this, this study......, but at the same time expose the disconnect in electoral violence studies. The study is based on desk research and digs into books, journals, memoirs, newspapers and official government documents to unearth the underlying structure of Kenya (the actors, institutions, cultural hegemony, history and ideologies...... wishes to move beyond this otherwise simplistic view of electoral conflict in Kenya and relate these occurrences to the wider problem that the country faces. Taking a structural view, this contribution seeks to join other studies that have emphasized the structural causes of conflict in Kenya...

  2. El recurso de amparo electoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Diego Brenes Villalobos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Analiza la figura procesal del recurso de amparo electoral, su génesis, naturaleza jurídica,carácter residual, y otras características propias de su evolución y desarrollo, que lo diferencian con el recurso contencioso-electoral, para lo cual se realiza un amplio análisis de la jurisprudencia emanada tanto del Tribunal Supremo de Elecciones, como de la Sala Constitucional de la Corte Suprema de Justicia

  3. Electoral Politics and Election Outcomes in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2006-09-16

    Sep 16, 2006 ... section of the presidential and National Assembly Elections Act. The change .... of its functions, such as registering voters and supervising the conduct of ..... civil rights as well as civic duties, including the need to contest ...

  4. Analysis of the European union’s supranationalism crisis within the political-institutional paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Bashtannyk

    2014-04-01

    So, the same logic of integration policy has caused deferred manifestation of the contradictions that have not been resolved by the development of such a grand united project. It is determined that the investigation of this problem is possible by applying methodological tools of historical institutionalism within political­institutional paradigm of political science. In such kind of analysis it becomes possible to conduct qualitative research and perspective political component of European integration phenomenon’s nature. Economic crisis was the challenge for those unifying international institutions that were considered “post­national polity” and whose institutional framework seemed never shaken. This proves once again that it is impossible to cancel on the willful way the influence of the historical patterns in principle and “path dependence” in particular.

  5. A European Navy: Can it Complete European Political and Economic Integration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    would enjoy a comprehensive and complete defense structure, perhaps even more effective and cost-efficient than is possible with the current lineup ...malfunctions or operator error. A unified and unifying European Navy would standardize basic equipment and procedures , facilitating effective exercises

  6. The European politics of animal experimentation: From Victorian Britain to 'Stop Vivisection'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Pierre-Luc; Chiapperino, Luca; Testa, Giuseppe

    2017-08-01

    This paper identifies a common political struggle behind debates on the validity and permissibility of animal experimentation, through an analysis of two recent European case studies: the Italian implementation of the European Directive 2010/63/EC regulating the use of animals in science, and the recent European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) 'Stop Vivisection'. Drawing from a historical parallel with Victorian antivivisectionism, we highlight important threads in our case studies that mark the often neglected specificities of debates on animal experimentation. From the representation of the sadistic scientist in the XIX century, to his/her claimed capture by vested interests and evasion of public scrutiny in the contemporary cases, we show that animals are not simply the focus of the debate, but also a privileged locus at which much broader issues are being raised about science, its authority, accountability and potential misalignment with public interest. By highlighting this common socio-political conflict underlying public controversies around animal experimentation, our work prompts the exploration of modes of authority and argumentation that, in establishing the usefulness of animals in science, avoid reenacting the traditional divide between epistemic and political fora. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Unconventional Participation in Time of Crisis: How Ideology Shapes Citizens’ Political Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Memoli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Since democracy requires the involvement of citizens, the topic of political participation has attracted great attention from both practitioners and scholars. During the current financial and economic crisis, there have been various protest movements in many European countries. In this paper, which employs data from the European Social Survey and analyzes some European countries using a longitudinal study (2002-2012, I measure unconventional political participation considering three types of action - signed a petition, participated in a lawful demonstration and joined a boycott. By linking citizens to government ideology and vote for party government to political action through a multilevel model, this paper argues that both ideology and citizens’ electoral choices have a bearing on unconventional political participation. In times of crisis, government choices do not feed the level of unconventional political participation. However, differences emerge in terms of political behavior when I consider citizens’ ideology, loser status and government ideology.

  8. Are Empires Striking Back? A Political and Cultural Comparison of the European Union and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumetz Jérôme

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is a position paper focusing on the current standoff between two regional powers, the European Union and Russia. Following a series of crises, in particular the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation in 2014, the relationship between Russia and many of its neighbours has significantly deteriorated. This shift has led to various geopolitical opinions, often opposite and seemingly irreconcilable. A holistic and historical approach to this new reality leads some to question the validity of the current world order through the prism of the anachronistic concept of Empires. Subsequent to a review of definitions, the author analyses historical characteristics and political factors of the two territories on focus: the European Union and Russia. There are two outcomes of this study: On the one side, the European Union has become an organisation that shares many characteristics of an Empire, but several key elements exclude it from this political construction. On the other side, the geopolitical actions of Russia have shaped the position of the country into a structure that bears many of the artefacts of an Empire with key essential features. The conclusion of this argument states that the European Union is not an Empire by design, despite many resembling features; whilst Russia lives in an anachronistic paradigm of an Empire, without having the means of being one.

  9. Political Stability and Fianancial Crisis: What the data say for the European Union’s countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Vasileiou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to examine in detail political stability in the European Union’s (EU countries during the period 2002-12. Firstly, it examines the causality relationship between political stability and economic growth, which is an issue that has puzzled scholars for decades. Using the Granger causality test the empirical findings suggest that in the case of the EU’s countries, causality is one directional, moving from political stability to economic growth. Secondly, it examines the factors that affect political stability. Using the fixed effects panel data model, we may suggest that the long term recession, the increased unemployment ratios and the high levels of inflation significantly threaten political stability. However, there are other factors that are not exclusively due to economics, such as transparency, public health care, education etc., which may significantly reduce the previously mentioned consequences.  Finally, this study suggests some reforms of the EU’s regulation according to the migration policy that may smooth social and humanitarian disparities.

  10. Political Stability and Fianancial Crisis: What the data say for the European Union’s countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Vasileiou

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to examine in detail political stability in the European Union’s (EU countries during the period 2002-12. Firstly, it examines the causality relationship between political stability and economic growth, which is an issue that has puzzled scholars for decades. Using the Granger causality test the empirical findings suggest that in the case of the EU’s countries, causality is one directional, moving from political stability to economic growth. Secondly, it examines the factors that affect political stability. Using the fixed effects panel data model, we may suggest that the long term recession, the increased unemployment ratios and the high levels of inflation significantly threaten political stability. However, there are other factors that are not exclusively due to economics, such as transparency, public health care, education etc., which may significantly reduce the previously mentioned consequences.  Finally, this study suggests some reforms of the EU’s regulation according to the migration policy that may smooth social and humanitarian disparities.

  11. Segunda ronda electoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Román Jacobo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available El instituto del Ballotage nace en Francia en 1852, pero no es hasta el año de 1958 donde reaparece de forma definitiva, bajo un régimen de gobierno semi presidencialista; surge en el derecho electoral costarricense mediante una enmienda en 1926, a la Constitución Política de 1871, evocado en forma desnaturalizada para ajustarse a un sistema de corte esencialmente presidencialista, con matices de parlamentarismo. Es en la Constituyente de 1949 donde se dibujan con mayor claridad los rasgos de lo que actualmente conocemos como segunda elección popular, al perfilarse con características propias del derecho Constitucional Costarricense. A pesar de su veterana presencia en la vida constitucional del país, no es hasta el 2002 donde dicho instituto protagoniza en la realidad nacional, cuando se cumplen los supuestos del artículo 138 de nuestra Carta Magna, para que se lleve acabo una segunda elección o Ballotage. Fue así como el primer domingo de abril de ese año, en medio de mucha expectativa, este instituto desfiló en la práctica democrática del país.

  12. Refugees as Innocent Bodies, Directors as Political Activists: Humanitarianism and Compassion in European Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipek Celik-Rappas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the ways in which refugees and humanitarianism appear in European film productions. It argues that European films often present images of innocent and victimized refugees in order to raise compassion of their liberal spectators. In the meanwhile their directors are praised for their humanitarian activism as they are considered to save refugees and their suffering from anonymity and placing their stories and humanity on the screen. Examining a number of European productions of the 2000s (Children of Men, Dheepan, In This World, Terraferma, and Welcome this study suggests that politics of humanitarianism and of filmmaking on refugees share a similar problematic approach: in order to prove refugee eligibility for asylum and to raise compassion, they seek to establish the precarity and innocence of refugees, especially through showing their bodily pain.

  13. Signs of Fascism Rising: A European Americanist Looks at Recent Political Trends in the U.S. and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, Rob

    2017-01-01

    This paper's central concern is with signs of fascism in recent political developments in a number of European countries and the United States. It takes the reader back to earlier periods in European and American history when this same anguished question was raised. Thus a longer intellectual history of concerns about the viability of democratic systems is drawn to guide us in our current political evaluations.

  14. The Impact of Electoral System Reform on Taiwan’s Local Factions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Göbel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, the single non-transferable vote (SNTV was abolished in Taiwan. The SNTV had long been seen as a major factor in the sustenance of county- and township-level clientelist networks (“local factions”. It was also associated with phenomena such as extremism, candidate-centred politics, vote-buying, clientelism and organized crime involvement in politics. More recent scholarship, however, has led to doubts that a single formal institution like an electoral system could have such a powerful influence on electoral mobilization. This article puts these positions to an initial test. It examines the impact of the electoral reform on the mobilization capacity of a local faction in a rural county notorious for its factionalism. By illuminating its intricate mobilization structures, it provides support for the second position: These structures are too resilient to be affected by even a radical electoral reform.

  15. State Independent Electoral Commissions and local government elections in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson O. Olaniyi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Many state governments have not been allowing their State Independent Electoral Commissions (SIECs to conduct elections as at when due but rather settle for ‘caretaker committees’. Where elections have been conducted, the party in control of a state apparatus has been known to have cleared the polls. The general objective of this study is to assess the impact of electoral contest at the local government level on the political development of Nigeria. Specific objectives include (1 assessing the role of the political executives of a state in the determination of representation at the local government level in Nigeria; and (2 assessing the activities of SIECs in the management of local government polls. This study adopts comparative cum case study approach to analysing local government polls in Nigeria. This is discussed on a geopolitical basis. Some of the findings of the study include: (1 local government election in Nigeria is not given premium position by many state governments in the political landscape of their state because of the fear of playing into the hands of their political rivals; and (2 SIECs are only independent in name and not in practice. The study recommends, among others, that (1 the country should adopt the arrangement in the aborted Third Republic where the country’s EMB was empowered to conduct all elections at all levels of government and (2 local government elections in Nigeria should key into the electoral process of the country in all ramifications.

  16. The approach of political parties in Turkey to the membership of the European Union in the eyes of the youth

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Samur

    2007-01-01

    Political parties are the representatives of interests and expectations in the society and the stance of political parties in relation to an issue critical for our society, such as membership of Turkey to the European Union is very important. The perceived image of political parties among people regarding that stance is also important to the same extent. Based on this understanding and moving from the results of a survey conducted among seniors from almost all of the faculties at Dice Univers...

  17. “If you don’t take off your clothes, we’re going to kill you” : Sexual electoral violence as a silent weapon in Burundi and implications for humanitarian action

    OpenAIRE

    van Baalen, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Previous research on electoral violence has explored the variation in manifestation, perpetrators, victims and causes or motivations.  While explanations have prescribed to structural and electoral factors or the nature of politics, nature of elections and electoral institutions, the causes and motivations behind sexual electoral violence has been under-researched. This in-depth single case study of sexual violence against women associated with the opposition in Burundi explores the possibili...

  18. Entre communication politique et propagande : les publicités électorales de 1979 à 2005  Political Communication or Propaganda? Electoral Advertising, 1979-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Rivière De Franco

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Advertising and propaganda share a common purpose: to try to influence and modify people’s beliefs and behaviours though persuasion. This article intends to examine the advertisements produced by the Conservative Party and the Labour Party over seven electoral campaigns, highlighting the choices made by the parties in the making of this type of electoral communication (in terms of pictures, texts, slogans and logos, leading to a classification of those documents in different groups according to their content (positive, negative, both negative and personal, comparative, and showing how the messages are systematically repeated to make them easier to remember and to create a cumulative effect. These analyses will enable to determine to what extent the parties, the outgoing government and the official opposition, exert systematic actions over voters to make them adopt their ideas and vote for them.

  19. Internet Effects in Times of Political Crisis: Online Newsgathering and Attitudes toward the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccini, Leonardo; Sudulich, Laura; Wall, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates the influence of online news consumption on attitudes toward the European Union in a context of protracted economic crisis. Using data from the 2011 Irish National Election Study, we combine location-specific information on broadband availability with respondent geo-location data, which facilitates causal inference about the effects of online news consumption via instrumental variable models. Results show that Irish citizens who source political information online are more prone to blame the EU for the poor state of the economy than those who do not. There is evidence of preference reinforcement among those with negative predispositions toward the EU, but not among pro-EU citizens. We complement this analysis with a study of voting behavior in the European Fiscal Compact Referendum, employing a similar methodological approach. The results from this second survey confirm the anti-EU influence of online news consumption among Irish citizens, although evidence suggests a pro-EU effect among voters who browsed the website of the politically neutral Irish Referendum Commission. Our paper contributes to the literature on public opinion, the EU, and political attitudes in times of crisis.

  20. Was Memphis's Electoral Structure Adopted or Maintained for a Racially Discriminatory Purpose?

    OpenAIRE

    Kousser, J. Morgan

    1992-01-01

    Two themes run throughout this chronologically organized, extensively documented paper: The first is the pervasiveness of racial issues and racial conflicts in Memphis from 1955 to 1971, the period on which the paper centers. The second is the interconnection between electoral politics and electoral rules. That these are central and tragic themes in southern history is precisely the point: Memphis has never entirely outgrown the worst parts of its southern heritage. The two themes imply on...

  1. Desempeño e identidad institucional: el tribunal electoral en la alternancia del 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Corrochano, David H.; Díaz-santana, Héctor

    2001-01-01

    In this article we want to analyse the work made by the "Tribunal Electoral del Poder Judicial de la Federación (TEPJF)" and its relation, in its grade and identity, within the presidential elections on the July 2sd, 2000. Our hypothesis is that TEPJF had started an institutional blackmail, which put several doubts on the process, and could limit the democratic advances built until today but also generate a post electoral conflict with political instability consequences in the country. Ana...

  2. Government, politics and health policy: A quantitative analysis of 30 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenbach, Johan P; McKee, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Public health policies are often dependent on political decision-making, but little is known of the impact of different forms of government on countries' health policies. In this exploratory study we studied the association between a wide range of process and outcome indicators of health policy and four groups of political factors (levels of democracy, e.g. voice and accountability; political representation, e.g. voter turnout; distribution of power, e.g. constraints on the executive; and quality of government, e.g. absence of corruption) in contemporary Europe. Data on 15 aspects of government and 18 indicators of health policy as well as on potential confounders were extracted from harmonized international data sources, covering 30 European countries and the years 1990-2010. In a first step, multivariate regression analysis was used to relate cumulative measures of government to indicators of health policy, and in a second step panel regression with country fixed effects was used to relate changes in selected measures of government to changes in indicators of health policy. In multivariate regression analyses, measures of quality of democracy and quality of government had many positive associations with process and outcome indicators of health policy, while measures of distribution of power and political representation had few and inconsistent associations. Associations for quality of democracy were robust against more extensive control for confounding variables, including tests in panel regressions with country fixed effects, but associations for quality of government were not. In this period in Europe, the predominant political influence on health policy has been the rise of levels of democracy in countries in the Central & Eastern part of the region. In contrast to other areas of public policy, health policy does not appear to be strongly influenced by institutional features of democracy determining the distribution of power, nor by aspects of political

  3. Careerism, Committee Assignments and the Electoral Connection

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, Jonathan N.; Sala, Brian R.

    1996-01-01

    Most scholars agree that members of Congress are strongly motivated by their desire for reelection. This assumption implies that members of Congress adopt institutions, rules, and norms of behavior in part to serve their electoral interests. Direct tests of the electoral connection are rare, however, because significant, exogenous changes in the electoral environment are difficult to identify. We develop and test an electoral rationale for the norm of committee assignment "property rights...

  4. [Eating disorders after the political changes in the formerly communist Eastern-European countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathner, G; Túry, F; Szabó, P

    2001-06-24

    The authors summarize the Central and East European epidemiological data of eating disorders. These demonstrate that eating disorders are not exclusively characteristic to Western societies. In this respect the comparison of newer data to those which were performed before the political changes in 1989-1990 is especially valuable. Formerly in a Hungarian university sample the prevalence of bulimia was 1-1.3% among females, 0-0.8% among males, and this was higher than the prevalence of 0.6% in Austrian females, or 0% in German Democratic Republic. After the social changes similar data were found in several East European countries. This corroborates the culture-change idea of eating disorders. The transition to a Western market economy and the process of globalization is an experiment to evaluate the effect of sociocultural factors. The values and norms (e.g. thinness ideal) come closer to the Western culture, and mass media have a significant impact in this process.

  5. Modeling Electoral Coordination: Voters, Parties and Legislative Lists in Uruguay Modelando la Coordinación Electoral: Votantes, Partidos y Listas Legislativas en Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Levin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During each electoral period, the strategic interaction between voters and political elites determines the number of viable candidates in a district. In this paper, we implement a hierarchical seemingly unrelated regression model to explain electoral coordination at the district level in Uruguay as a function of district magnitude, previous electoral outcomes and electoral regime. Elections in this country are particularly useful to test for institutional effects on the coordination process due to the large variations in district magnitude, to the simultaneity of presidential and legislative races held under different rules, and to the reforms implemented during the period under consideration. We find that district magnitude and electoral history heuristics have substantial effects on the number of competing and voted-for parties and lists. Our modeling approach uncovers important interaction-effects between the demand and supply side of the political market that were often overlooked in previous research.En cada período electoral, votantes y élites interactúan para determinar el número de agentes políticos postulados para la elección, así como el número de agentes políticos que reciben apoyo de los votantes. En este artículo, modelamos la interacción entre votantes y élites usando un modelo jerárquico de regresiones aparentemente no relacionadas, explicando la coordinación electoral a nivel de distrito en el Uruguay en función de la magnitud del distrito, resultados de elecciones anteriores, y régimen electoral. Las elecciones en este país son particularmente útiles para el estudio de los determinantes institucionales de la coordinación electoral debido a la amplia variación en la magnitud de los diferentes distritos, a la simultaneidad de las elecciones presidenciales y legislativas reguladas por normas electorales diversas, y a las reformas que tuvieron lugar durante el período bajo consideración. Encontramos que la

  6. Communicable disease policy development in response to changing European political frontiers in Finland, Norway and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernitz, Brita Kaltenbrunner

    2008-11-01

    The European Union (EU) enlargement of 2004 brings both opportunities and challenges for public health. It is believed that further integration will bring direct health benefits, mainly through improved socioeconomic conditions, but there are also risks associated with the EU expansion, in particular cross-border health risks, such as the impact of the internal EU market policy of free movement and migration on communicable disease patterns. Against this background, this article examines communicable disease policy development in Finland, Norway and Sweden in response to changing European political frontiers, in particular the EU accession of the Baltic States. The emphasis is on HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. The study is based on a qualitative and quantitative approach, using two complementary methods: documentary analysis and stakeholder analysis. The article identifies a distinct pattern in communicable disease policy development between 1990 and 2005. The turn of the new millennium saw a sharp increase in national attention and the priority assigned to communicable diseases in Finland, Norway and Sweden. The article argues that this development is likely to be related to the rising national, regional and European awareness of the public health challenges associated with communicable diseases in today's borderless Europe. It also shows that the Baltic health situation is a particular concern for Finland. Although there is increasing national and regional activity within the communicable disease area, there is a need for a more effective European approach to tackle the future communicable disease challenges that may follow in an increasingly interdependent and integrated Europe.

  7. Refugee Migration and Electoral Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil; Dustmann, Christian; Vasiljeva, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    find that – in all but the most urban municipalities - allocation of larger refugee shares between electoral cycles leads to an increase in the vote share not only for parties with an antiimmigration agenda but also for centre-right parties, while the vote share for centre-left parties decreases...

  8. Politics of place. Political representation and the culture of electioneering in the Netherlands, c. 1848-1980s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaal, H.G.J.

    2016-01-01

    This article is a first attempt to explore how a politics of place has manifested itself in Dutch electoral culture since the middle of the nineteenth century. It aims to move beyond a narrow interpretation of a politics of place as an ‘old-fashioned’ feature of electoral politics to be associated

  9. Finding Political Opportunities: Civil Society, Industrial Power, and the Governance of Nanotechnology in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lamprou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union encourages and institutionalizes participation by environmental, consumer, and labor organizations in the governance of nanotechnology. Interviews with leaders of the civil society organizations (CSOs show that they identified multiple problems with nanotechnology policy but had only limited success in gaining the changes that they sought. CSO leaders explain their lack of success as due to the overwhelming power of industry and the support of the European Commission for new industrial development, including nanotechnology. We analyze the perspectives of CSO leaders about their difficulties to develop the theory of the political opportunity structure in the situation of a highly scientized policy field with strong industrial monitoring. We suggest the need to extend the theory to pay more attention to the strategies that reformers can use to maneuver in and to open a relatively closed political opportunity structure. We argue that formal stakeholder engagement is not very effective and suggest instead the importance of the following: building coalitions with government actors, threatening or mobilizing grassroots mobilization, making the issue salient to the public, and pursuing the full range of institutional repertoires.

  10. The relationship between the political authorities and the commercial actors in the European natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mjelde, Jarle Christian

    1998-01-01

    In summarizing the reasons for the fall of the Roman empire one has found about 210 significant ones. Without too much comparison the Roman empire and the EU natural gas market have similarities in connections between political authorities and the commercial actors in the European natural gas market. The area has consisted of several independent markets with different solutions that from 1988 has been tried integrated in an inner energy market. Several governmental and private actors have interest in this sector and both inhabitants and businesses are affected by alterations in a national natural gas market. This process is not yet finished. The thesis gives a broad description of the topic by including as many as possible of the EU member states. The topic is large and complex and the author has had to make a choice which parts to emphasize. There are chapters on the theoretical basis, the natural gas industry, what factors may explain the relationship between the political authorities and the commercial actors in the national natural gas market in each EU member and how does the EU Commission goals regarding free competition in the energy market affect the relationship between the political authorities and commercial actors in the national natural gas market

  11. Partisan Optimism and Political Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Madum, Andreas

    Partisan voters are optimistic about electoral outcomes: their estimates of the probability of electoral success for their party or candidate are substantially higher than the average among the electorate. This has large potential implications for political bargaining. Optimism about future...... electoral outcomes can make costly bargaining delay look more favorable, which may induce partisans to punish their party for agreeing to a compromise rather than waiting, for example by not turning out to vote. Therefore, party decision makers should take optimism among partisans into account when...... bargaining. In this paper we use game theoretic modeling to explore the implications of partisan optimism for political bargaining. We show that increased optimism among a partisan group leads to a stronger bargaining position for their party, but may hurt its electoral prospects. Another main finding...

  12. Future electoral impacts of having a female mayor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Arvate

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We explore an electoral quasi-experiment where a woman nearly won or lost to a man in a mayoral election. Our data combines municipal Brazilian election results, which occur every four years, with municipal level votes for female and male candidates in state and federal deputy elections, whose districts are larger than the municipalities. Our results show that when voters are exposed to a female leader, the relative number of votes given to female candidates increases. This result depends on the political environment in which the exposure occurs. These effects on the electorate's response tend to be stronger: 01. in municipalities where there is a previous higher proportion of female councilors, and 02. when the mayors have higher education levels. Our results provide evidence that the observed electorate's gender preferences in politics are alterable, but that policy interventions aimed to equalize access will be more effective if they are targeted at underrepresented populations that have the correct skill requirements to perform in leadership positions.

  13. The electoral offer of the Bloque Nacionalista Galego (BNG at the regional level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ares Castro-Conde

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This piece of research analyses the electoral offer of the Bloque Nacionalista Galego (BNG at the regional level since 1982. Changes in its electoral strategy are examined. Particularly, it assesses the effects of movements along both the left-right and the centre-periphery dimensions on the size of its political group as well as on its options to hold office. Light is also shed on the increasing distance between the BNG´s political preferences and the voters’ positions.

  14. Performance and institucional identity: the Electoral Tribunal in the 2000 electoral alternance Desempeño e identidad institucional: el tribunal electoral en la alternancia del 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor DÍAZ-SANTANA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we want to analyse the work made by the "Tribunal Electoral del Poder Judicial de la Federación (TEPJF" and its relation, in its grade and identity, within the presidential elections on the July 2sd, 2000. Our hypothesis is that TEPJF had started an institutional blackmail, which put several doubts on the process, and could limit the democratic advances built until today but also generate a post electoral conflict with political instability consequences in the country.Analizamos el desempeño del Tribunal Electoral del Poder Judicial de la Federación (TEPJF relacionándolo con su grado y tipo de identidad en la coyuntura de las elecciones presidenciales del 2 de julio del 2000. Para ello partimos de la premisa que las instituciones no sólo deben tener un buen desempeño, sino que éste debe ser trasmitido ante la ciudadanía. Nuestra hipótesis es que el TEPJF tuvo un buen desempeño pero carecía de identidad lo que facilitó la puesta en marcha de un "chantaje" institucional que marcó la incertidumbre del proceso, pudo limitar los avances democratizadores construidos hasta la fecha, y generar un conflicto postelectoral con consecuencias para la estabilidad política del país.

  15. The political mobilization of corporate directors: socio-economic correlates of affiliation to European pressure groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Matthew; Glouharova, Siana; Harrigan, Nicholas

    2010-06-01

    Business has played a central role in the debate over Britain's place in the European Union. This paper examines the socio-economic characteristics of directors of Britain's largest corporations who affiliated either to Business for Sterling or Britain in Europe. It reports associations between directors' social backgrounds and their probabilities of affiliation. Elite university education, club membership, wealth and multiple directorships were all associated with higher propensities to affiliate. The associations are consistent with the idea that directors' social resources allow them to overcome collective action problems as well as supplying them with the motivations to affiliate. They also indicated that directors form a privileged group in that they have a number of very powerful actors who can take unilateral political actions.

  16. The mechanism of influence of interest groups in the European Union: political and sociological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Kanevsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interaction between interest groups and political institutions is one of the cornerstones of the European Union policy making process. Although majority of Russian and foreign works dedicated to lobbying and decision making in the EU, concentrate on a governmental stadial system and normative procedures that regulate interest groups access to policy making centers. Such institutional approach doesn’t clarify why the EU has concrete policies, why not all interest groups are able to win, who sets the agenda and in whose interests decisions are made. Current article, using contemporary theories and research, analyzes process of interaction between interest groups and governmental structures in the EU. It also proposes explanations of wins and losses in the policy making process, trying to answer how interest groups interacts with each other and what patterns can be identified in the process of interest aggregation by governmental structures.

  17. What Kind of Animal is Electoral Integrity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Jørgen

    This discussion paper attempts to take a comprehensive look at electoral integrity. The concept is initially defined in a way which follows the ordinary language use of “integrity”, i.e. as something which has not in any way been damaged or ruined. Electoral integrity thus refers to the perfect......”, or “acceptable” elections. “Electoral acceptability” is maybe the concept best covering “real-world electoral integrity”, so that the relationship between the two might remind one of the relationship between “Dahl’s democracy” and “polyarchy”? The opening discussion is followed by a presentation and discussion...... of some key points in relation to the eight attributes of electoral integrity suggested here. The conclusion is that electoral integrity is a complicated concept to work with and that it is not enough to measure it solely based on election observation reports or the average of perceptions of a sample...

  18. Electoral Violence Prevention:What Works?

    OpenAIRE

    Birch, Sarah; Muchlinski, David

    2017-01-01

    Elections are in theory democratic means of resolving disputes and making collective decisions, yet too often force is employed to distort the electoral process. The post-Cold War increase in the number of electoral authoritarian and hybrid states has brought this problem into relief. In recent years the prevention of electoral violence has played an increasingly large role in the democratic assistance activities undertaken by international agencies, following increased awareness within the i...

  19. German Economic Expansion under the Conditions of the European Debt Crisis and Military-Political Conflict in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михаил Михайлович Кухтин

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The German economic expansion in the EU is examined in the article. Berlin is using the European debt crisis and the political instability in Ukraine to strengthen its positions in the world. Interests of weak countries of the Eurozone are being ignored. Chancellor A. Merkel is striving for a gradual revision of European legislation in Germany’s favor. Today’s Berlin is supporting Ukrainian nationalists, hoping to hinder the growth of Russian influence in Eastern Europe with their help. The aggravation of international competition does not allow Germany to pursue a different European policy.

  20. Muslim and European Perceptions of Oceanic "Trade" in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries and their Implications for International Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah al-Ahsan

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries Muslim and European powers perceived the importance of oceanic trade routes differently. During this earliest phase of European colonial expansion, Muslim powers, particularly the Osmanlis who claimed to be the champion of Islam, did not consider the loss of oceanic trade routes to Europeans a serious threat to Muslim interests. However, this gradually led not only to the loss of trade which was once dominated by Mus1im merchants, but might have contributed to the total disappearance of Muslim powers from their supremacy of world politics later in history.

  1. Youth, Europe and the Nation: The Political Knowledge, Interests and Identities of the New Generation of European Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faas, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Europe is undergoing considerable demographic, economic, cultural and socio-political change. National citizenship identities have been challenged by the simultaneous processes of European integration and the migration of people into and across Europe. This paper explores how the current generation of youth relates towards Europe, and highlights…

  2. The impact of internet-communications on electoral processes in Ukraine (on the example of parliamentary elections of 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana O. Mykhalchuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of Internet communications on electoral processes in Ukraine on the example of parliamentary elections in 2012. Internet is an integral part of modern electoral processes and the parliamentary elections of 2012 were not an exception. The author aims at determining the level and efficiency of various channels and forms of network communications implemented in the electoral process. Thus, the role of political sites, blogs, and social networks are analyzed. Internet communications were used by NGOs to monitor the electoral process. The innovation in the election campaign was the video surveillance at polling stations with the ability to stream online. The author shares the view of most researchers that online communications didn’t become the primary means of competition for a place in the parliament. Political parties focused mainly on manipulative potential of television political advertising and traditional political technologies. Thus, Internet was not considered to be the effective mechanism for bringing «political dividends». There are some other reasons why Internet communications had no real influence on the course and the results of the elections (digital divide, mixed electoral system, political parties that tend to be archaic.

  3. Conflicts and Negotiations about framings of gender equality and diversity by political actors within the European public sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    2014-01-01

    that the European Union (EU) approach to gender equality has strengthened the transnational space of mobilization and given actors new possibilities to negotiate about multiple inequalities and direct their claims at different levels. This has at the same time led to a diversification of women’s claims...... and conflicts about the meanings and framings of gender equality and diversity within the EPS. This is illustrated by case studies of the framing of gender equality and ethno-national diversity by political actors in the European Women’s Lobby and the European Parliament. The article proposes......This article addresses conflicts and negotiations about gender equality and diversity within the European public sphere (EPS). It aims to explore the specific constraints and possibilities for realizing gender equality and justice from the transnational European context. Research illustrates...

  4. U.S. Presidential Election – 2012: trends tone in marketing and political PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Peru-Bălan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is a synthesis of political PR strategies used in the U.S. presidential campaign of November 6, 2012. Also, we elucidated electoral profiles of the two candidates-Republican and Democrat - campaign themes impact on American voting decision. Article contains U.S. electoral marketing trend analysis, design principles of electoral spots, negative advertising in campaign.

  5. U.S. Presidential Election – 2012: trends tone in marketing and political PR

    OpenAIRE

    Aurelia Peru-Bălan

    2013-01-01

    This article is a synthesis of political PR strategies used in the U.S. presidential campaign of November 6, 2012. Also, we elucidated electoral profiles of the two candidates-Republican and Democrat - campaign themes impact on American voting decision. Article contains U.S. electoral marketing trend analysis, design principles of electoral spots, negative advertising in campaign.

  6. Getting the message across: perceived effectiveness of political campaign communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Spanje, J.; Boomgaarden, H.G.; Elenbaas, M.; Vliegenthart, R.; Azrout, R.; Schuck, A.R.T.; de Vreese, C.H.

    2013-01-01

    Do political actors communicate effectively during electoral campaigns? We introduce a novel concept in electoral research, the "perceived effectiveness of political parties' election campaigns." This evaluation concentrates on the extent to which a party is seen as getting its message across to the

  7. Do Leadership Changes Improve Electoral Performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helboe Pedersen, H.; Schumacher, G.; Cross, W.; Pilet, J.-B.

    2015-01-01

    Does changing the leader improve a party’s electoral performance? And does it matter who for electoral performance who selects the leader? We hypothesize that in parties with inclusive selectorates leadership change is beneficial because the competition for the leadership is more open, receives more

  8. Getting elections right? Measuring electoral integrity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ham, C.T.

    2015-01-01

    Holding elections has become a global norm. Unfortunately, the integrity of elections varies strongly, ranging from “free and fair” elections with genuine contestation to “façade” elections marred by manipulation and fraud. Clearly, electoral integrity is a topic of increasing concern. Yet electoral

  9. The Role of the Mass Media in the Nigerian Electoral Process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses generally on the role of the mass media in Nigerian electoral process as it pertains to overall development of Nigeria. The background is the recognition of the central role of the media in political and social affairs as a natural outcome of its unlimited communicative strength and outreach. The statement of ...

  10. Thai Electoral Campaigning: Vote-Canvassing Networks and Hybrid Voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anyarat Chattharakul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on evidence gathered through participant observation, this article illuminates the nature of vote-canvassing, previously a black box in Thai electoral studies. Offering a close-up study of the internal mechanisms of an individual Thai election campaign, this article reveals that vote-canvasser networks are underpinned by long-term dyadic relationships, both hierarchical and horizontal, between the candidate, vote-canvassers and voters. These networks continue to be the most important factor in winning elections. This article documents how candidates draw up an election campaign map and identify voters along residential lines to maximise their vote-canvassing strategy. The findings of this article challenge Anek’s 1996 concept of “two democracies”, which argues that rural voters are influenced by money, local leaders, political factions and corrupt politicians while more well-educated, urban, middle-class voters are more oriented toward the alternative policies offered by competing parties. The case study of Kom’s election campaign showed that the role of the much-vaunted middle-class voters is not decisive, even in suburban areas of Bangkok. While political marketing has grown in importance in Thai elections, it has not displaced traditional electoral practices. Thai society is, in fact, deeply fragmented and diverse – too complex to be divided in such a simplistic manner. This article suggests that rather than undergoing a linear transformation, political hybridisation is a key trend in Thai election campaigns.

  11. Migrant crisis and strengthening of the right wing in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratković Milijana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Migrant crisis, slow economic growth and growing disillusionment with the European Union led to strengthening of far-right parties that have achieved electoral success in a number of European countries. The collapse of the national economy has created a huge number of unemployed. New problems such as migrant crisis foster instability in the EU particularly due to the terrorist acts (Paris, Brussels and other forms of violence (Cologne, Vienna that involved migrants from the Middle East. What could represent the biggest problem is the ability of the European radical right parties to constitute it on the joint basis regardless different political backgrounds. The Alliance of European National Movements was formed in Budapest in 2009. Migrant crisis underlined divisions within the European Union, which led to the radicalization of European political scene.

  12. Political legitimacy and European monetary union: contracts, constitutionalism and the normative logic of two-level games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Richard; Weale, Albert

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The crisis of the euro area has severely tested the political authority of the European Union (EU). The crisis raises questions of normative legitimacy both because the EU is a normative order and because the construction of economic and monetary union (EMU) rested upon a theory that stressed the normative value of the depoliticization of money. However, this theory neglected the normative logic of the two-level game implicit in EMU. It also neglected the need for an impartial and publically acceptable constitutional order to acknowledge reasonable disagreements. By contrast, we contend that any reconstruction of the EU's economic constitution has to pay attention to reconciling a European monetary order with the legitimacy of member state governance. The EU requires a two-level contract to meet this standard. Member states must treat each other as equals and be representative of and accountable to their citizens on an equitable basis. These criteria entail that the EU's political legitimacy requires a form of demoicracy that we call ‘republican intergovernmentalism’. Only rules that could be acceptable as the product of a political constitution among the peoples of Europe can ultimately meet the required standards of political legitimacy. Such a political constitution could be brought about through empowering national parliaments in EU decision-making. PMID:26924935

  13. Political legitimacy and European monetary union: contracts, constitutionalism and the normative logic of two-level games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Richard; Weale, Albert

    2015-02-07

    The crisis of the euro area has severely tested the political authority of the European Union (EU). The crisis raises questions of normative legitimacy both because the EU is a normative order and because the construction of economic and monetary union (EMU) rested upon a theory that stressed the normative value of the depoliticization of money. However, this theory neglected the normative logic of the two-level game implicit in EMU. It also neglected the need for an impartial and publically acceptable constitutional order to acknowledge reasonable disagreements. By contrast, we contend that any reconstruction of the EU's economic constitution has to pay attention to reconciling a European monetary order with the legitimacy of member state governance. The EU requires a two-level contract to meet this standard. Member states must treat each other as equals and be representative of and accountable to their citizens on an equitable basis. These criteria entail that the EU's political legitimacy requires a form of demoi cracy that we call 'republican intergovernmentalism'. Only rules that could be acceptable as the product of a political constitution among the peoples of Europe can ultimately meet the required standards of political legitimacy. Such a political constitution could be brought about through empowering national parliaments in EU decision-making.

  14. Political keys to a solar energy economy--A European view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheer, H.

    1993-01-01

    The concept of ''keys to a solar energy economy'' is not representative of European politics. In Europe, and in Germany too, solar energy is still marginalized in practice. Many so-called ''energy specialists'' play down the importance of renewable energies as ''additive energies'' beside nuclear and fossil energies, the latter considered to be the main energy sources. The author presents four strategies to achieve the replacement of non-renewable and ecologically detrimental energy sources by renewable, natural energy sources. First, energy efficiency of conventional energies must be combined with increased energy prices due to taxation if total consumption is to be reduced. Secondly, global afforestation of 10 million square kilometers would bind 10 million tons of carbon dioxide for a period of nearly 50 years. The third strategy would be an industrial break-through program to finance renewable energy programs. Public administrators would replace state armament projects step-by-step with production of solar technology. The last strategy is the introduction of solar technology in developing countries through technology transfer

  15. A Global Civilian Power? The Future Role of the European Union in International Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedrudin Brljavac

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Questions about the future of the European Union as an international actor continue to puzzle students of international relations and particularly students of EU foreign policy. What kind of predictions can we make about the future role of the EU in international politics? While the question is often framed in terms of military versus normative and/or global civilian power Europe, there are indications that ambitions in both directions may very well coincide. However, despite the EU’s development towards deepened defense integration since the 1990s, such developments are by far outweighed by developments pointing in the direction of the EU consolidating its role as a global civilian power. In this article, we analyze the union’s civilian policies and contrast the findings of our analysis with developments in the field of Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP. Based on our analysis of EU enlargement policy, external aid, global environmental policy and the union’s commitment to multilateralism, our conclusion is that the EU’s international role in the next decades will continue to be best described in terms of a global civilian power.

  16. Politically Induced Regulatory Risk and Independent Regulatory Agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Strausz, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty in election outcomes generates politically induced regulatory risk. Political parties' risk attitudes towards such risk depend on a fluctuation effect that hurts both parties and an output--expansion effect that benefits at least one party. Notwithstanding the parties' risk attitudes, political parties have incentives to negotiate away all regulatory risk by pre-electoral bargaining. Efficient pre-electoral bargaining outcomes fully eliminate politically induced regulatory risk. P...

  17. Simulation Games on the European Union in Civics: Effects on Secondary School Pupils' Political Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Monika; Leunig, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Civics courses strive to promote students' political competencies, which according to the model of Detjen et al. incorporate content knowledge, abilities to make political judgements and take political action, as well as motivational skills and attitudes. For achieving these goals, high hopes are placed on active learning tools such as political…

  18. Corporate Political Strategies related to Decisions of European Competition Commission on Regulatory Issues in the European Telecommunications Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, H.L. van; Ross, T.

    2014-01-01

    The European regulatory institution has the tasks to protect fair competition and equal opportunities for all companies in the European telecommunications industry and to protect the welfare of the consumers. This regulator is responsible for the adherence of telecommunications companies to

  19. The institutional structure and political economy of food distribution systems: A comparative analysis of six Eastern European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Skytte, Hans

    This paper discusses the food distribution systems of six Eastern European countries. It considers the macro and task environments of distribution systems, discussing the constraints and opportunities the environments present to companies. The institutional structure of retailing and wholesaling...... are analysed and important developments in the institutional structure are noted. The internal political economy of distribution channels in Eastern Europe is analysed and the modernisation of distribution systems discussed. Finally, some conclusions are offered and areas for future research suggested....

  20. Regional electoral process in a context of discussion about the project of the electoral codex of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Олеговна Лисянская

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the given article are analyzed pluses and minuses of different electoral systems, their applicability to the Russian conditions, considering the reforms of the electoral legislation of Russia. The project of the Electoral Codex as possible document that regulates regional electoral process put under consideration.

  1. Regional electoral process in a context of discussion about the project of the electoral codex of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Елена Олеговна Лисянская

    2009-01-01

    In the given article are analyzed pluses and minuses of different electoral systems, their applicability to the Russian conditions, considering the reforms of the electoral legislation of Russia. The project of the Electoral Codex as possible document that regulates regional electoral process put under consideration.

  2. Electoral Violence in Putin´s Russia: Modern Authoritarianism in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Mochtak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies and analyses the acts of electoral violence that occurred during the 2011 parliamentary and 2012 presidential elections in the Russian Federation, and connects them with the practices of modern authoritarian regimes. The analytical tool employed is based on an electoral violence research framework, which provides insight into the negative dynamics of an electoral competition and its outcomes. The authors argue that electoral violence is used to advance the Russian authoritarian regime, which is a modern form of authoritarian rule. By analysing the post-electoral turmoil and the response of authorities to public demonstrations, we depict the regime's ability to adapt its position to maximise outcomes in the political conflict and opportunistically select the best tool to achieve its goals. We further argue that Russia, with its authoritarian tendencies, utilises confrontation dynamics during elections in order to allow the politicisation of various latent conflicts (interest- or value-oriented that are impossible to solve in the everyday depoliticised routine of the undemocratic system.

  3. PARTICIPACIÓN ELECTORAL EN LAS ELECCIONES PRIMARIAS EN URUGUAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Buquet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available So far Uruguay is the only country in the world in which parties carried out open and simultaneous primary elections in order to select their presidential candidates. The effects of employing primaries on the election results are determined by the particular characteristics of the electorate who voluntarily participate in them. From survey data, we analyze the factors affecting participation in such instances and their effects on the type of presidential candidates tend to be elected. The results show that in primary elections vote citizens more educated, more interested in politics, identified with political parties and with more extreme ideological positions. As a result we observe that through primaries, candidates away from the median voter are more likely to be winners than with DSV system.

  4. Sistemas electorales y justicia electoral a debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Nohlen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Despliega conceptos y planteamientos en torno a los sistemas electorales y la justicia electoral. El autor inicia con una descripción estricta de los sistemas electorales para orientar, en una segunda parte, un debate sobre la justicia electoral, que marca dos tendencias: la judicialización de la política y la politización de la administración y la jurisdicción electoral. Concluye que el desarrollo de la justicia electoral en América Latina, en sus múltiples dimensiones, es comprensible sólo con referencia al contexto sociocultural y político de la región

  5. REFORMING THE ETHIOPIAN ELECTORAL SYSTEM: LOOKING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Russia, Hungary and Chile replaced their electoral systems by new ones in response to ... inclusive. The article rather examines the practical consequences of FPTP .... programs but rather were inclined to hate mongering propagandas. The.

  6. The Politics of the Economics of Education in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This article critically examines the work of the European Commission-sponsored network, the European Expert Network on Economics of Education (EENEE). The aim is to develop understanding of the context and significance of the mobilization of the economics of education research and policy paradigm within the European Union's Education and Training…

  7. The behaviour of international firms in socio-political environments in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadjikhani, A; Ghauri, PN

    Most of the earlier studies on international business ignore the influence of the political actors and the environment on the internationalisation of the firm. The focus of this study is on the interaction between business and political actors and the main question deals with how firms standing in

  8. Bioethical ambition, political opportunity and the European governance of patenting: the case of human embryonic stem cell science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Brian; Salter, Charlotte

    2013-12-01

    Scientific progress in the life sciences is dependent on the governance of tensions between the economic potential of the innovation and the cultural response from society. Ownership of the scientific innovation through patenting is a necessary part of the realization of its economic value yet, in the case of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) science, ownership of the human body and human life may offend fundamental cultural values. In the case of transnational patenting governance by the European Patent Office (EPO) and the European Union (EU), cross-national cultural conflict in the field of hESC science has produced a political demand for a form of governance that can incorporate ethical as well as economic judgements in its decision making. This paper explores how bioethics has responded to this opportunity to establish itself as a form of expert authority for the negotiation and resolution of the cultural conflict. In so doing, it shows how the political struggle that has accompanied this bid for new governance territory has been influenced both by the political tensions between the EPO and EU systems of patenting governance and the resistance of competing experts in law and science to a bioethical presence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. In pursuit of a promise perspectives on the political process to establish the European Spallation Source (ESS) in Lund, Sweden

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    On 28 May 2009, at a closed meeting in Brussels, ministers and state secretaries of education and science from several EU countries decided to build the European Spallation Source (ESS) in Lund, Sweden. Or did they? It is common for big European science projects to be surrounded by secrecy and political deceit, but the ESS is extraordinary in its elusiveness. There is a remarkable lack of concrete economic, political, technical and scientific underpinnings to the project - but a boasting certainty in the promises of future paybacks. The ESS is an accelerator-based neutron spallation facility that will cost billions of Euros to build and run. It is expected to bring new knowledge in several fields including materials science, energy research, and the life sciences. But its financing is not yet certain, and future returns hard to predict. How then could the decision to build ESS occur? Why was there so little organized resistance? This book places the ESS project in its political and scientific context. It link...

  10. Regionalism and political pepresentation in comparativeperspective: the European Union and MERCOSUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Tostes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore the consequences of institutionalization in regional integration processes. More specifically, it explores the creation of representative regional institutions which strengthen integration, while at the same time affecting the distribution of sovereign and representative powers among the players involved in the policy-making process within member states. The premise is that institutionalization at a regional level brings gains in strategic actions and more efficient mechanisms of collective international action, on one hand, but on the other, it can have a democratic cost, in terms of a society's participation and control over collective decisions which impact the national decision-making process. In the case of the Latin American integration process, the initiative of setting up a regional parliament for MERCOSUL, the PARLASUL, must be understood within the problematic context of the effects of regional representation on national sovereignty. Thus, although with some limitations, the European experience serves as a parallel to the initiatives of establishing regional parliaments. The paper is divided into three sections: the first is historical and theoretical; it covers the origin and transformations of the modern sovereign state system, along with the changes that have occurred over time from regional integration events and their differences. Some concepts and classic theoretical approaches on the topic are reference sources, such as the contributions of Schmitter (1970, Mattli (1999 and Fawcett and Hurrell (2003, for example. In the second section, one of the characteristics of the new regionalism is explored: institutional innovation (HURRELL, 1995. In this case, the aim is to further verify the impact of regional integration on national politics, the role of the regional parliaments and the purpose of extra-state representation, its different models and its consequences for national sovereignty of states involved

  11. IndElec: A Software for Analyzing Party Systems and Electoral Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ocaña

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available IndElec is a software addressed to compute a wide range of indices from electoral data, which are intended to analyze both party systems and electoral systems in political studies. Further, IndElec can calculate such indices from electoral data at several levels of aggregation, even when the acronyms of some political parties change across districts. As the amount of information provided by IndElec may be considerable, this software also aids the user in the analysis of electoral data through three capabilities. First, IndElec automatically elaborates preliminary descriptive statistical reports of computed indices. Second, IndElec saves the computed information into text files in data matrix format, which can be directly loaded by any statistical software to facilitate more sophisticated statistical studies. Third, IndElec provides results in several file formats (text, CSV, HTML, R to facilitate their visualization and management by using a wide range of application softwares (word processors, spreadsheets, web browsers, etc.. Finally, a graphical user interface is provided for IndElec to manage calculation processes, but no visualization facility is available in this environment. In fact, both the inputs and outputs for IndElec are arranged in files with the aforementioned formats.

  12. The Noisy Counter-Revolution: Understanding the Cultural Conditions and Dynamics of Populist Politics in Europe in the Digital Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rensmann

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article argues for a cultural turn in the study of populist politics in Europe. Integrating insights from three fields—political sociology, political psychology, and media studies—a new, multi-disciplinary framework is proposed to theorize particular cultural conditions favorable to the electoral success of populist parties. Through this lens, the fourth wave of populism should be viewed as a “noisy”, anti-cosmopolitan counter-revolution in defense of traditional cultural identity. Reflective of a deep-seated, value-based great divide in European democracies that largely trumps economic cleavages, populist parties first and foremost politically mobilize long lingering cultural discontent and successfully express a backlash against cultural change. While the populist counter-revolution is engendered by profoundly transformed communicative conditions in the age of social media, its emotional force can best be theorized with the political psychology of authoritarianism: as a new type of authoritarian cultural revolt.

  13. European Social Union: a political necessity and an urgent research programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbroucke, F.

    2013-01-01

    Progressive economic analysis should contribute to a coherent conception of the reasons behind, the agenda for, and the governance of a European Social Union. I use the words ‘European Social Union’ deliberately, for the following reasons. First, it would be wrong to assert that the EU has no social

  14. The development of European gas markets. Environmental, economic and political perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, J.; Moe, A.; Martinsen, K.D.

    1996-01-01

    By reviewing past history and developments in the European gas markets and European energy policy, this book identifies the driving forces for future market development. Topics covered include future gas demand and potential supplies, inter-fuel competition and the likely structure of gas markets in Europe in the future. (UK)

  15. The making of a European public sphere: media discourse and political contention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, R.; Statham, P.

    2010-01-01

    This book investigates an important source of the European Union’s recent legitimacy problems. It shows how European integration is debated in mass media, and how this affects democratic inclusiveness. Advancing integration implies a shift in power between governments, parliaments, and civil

  16. Assessing Presidential Character: Degradation Rituals in Political Campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, W. Lance

    1981-01-01

    Considers the consequences of taking political blunders seriously as central objects of electoral discourse. Explores gaffes as possible degradation rituals and as contributions to the definition of the electoral process and to the information needs of voters who must make decisions within that process. (PD)

  17. Framing the Discussion: Elections as Components of Larger Political and Cultural Geographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopp, Larry

    2016-01-01

    It is important to remember that elections are but one piece--albeit an important one--of much larger processes of politics and governance. Moreover, in the United States they are increasingly implicated in the construction of identities and places. What goes on in the course of electoral politics (creating electoral systems and voting districts,…

  18. Economic populism, partial deregulation of transport fuels and electoral outcomes in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, Sunderasan

    2014-01-01

    The Indian political class is known to employ populist, albeit economically unsustainable, measures to replace intrinsic ‘valence’, especially shortly prior to election windows. Such measures include loan-waivers, interest rate concessions, provision of free electricity for agriculturists, etc. The union government’s leverage to maneuver and to micro-manage retail fuel prices within partially deregulated environments is hypothesized to provide incumbents with an advantage over rival contestants in the electoral process. This paper analyzes the evolution in the retail prices of diesel and petrol (gasoline), and the transfer of such evolution, into the inflation index of the ‘all commodity’ basket. It is observed that when international benchmark prices are relatively low and domestic inflation is moderate, the transfer occurs within about 42 weeks. During periods of high oil prices-frequently above USD 100 a barrel-and high inflation-higher than 5.00–5.50%-prices of petroleum distillates tend to feed into overall inflation more rapidly, within about 34–40 weeks. The study, covering a total of 82 elections for the central and state (provincial) governments during the period 2000 to 2013, concludes that even as patterns of manipulation of prices are apparent, ceteris paribus, such leverage does not necessarily seem to translate into favorable electoral outcomes. This conclusion reiterates observations that economic im/prudence may not necessarily determine electoral outcomes, and that the basis for electoral choices made by the Indian voter–consumer remains subjective. - Highlights: • Incumbent politicians’ influence on fuel pricing. • Fuel prices manipulated and increases delayed until after elections. • Price reductions brought forward. • ex ante Inflation expectations of voter–consumers. • Electoral outcomes. • Price manipulation found irrelevant to electoral performance

  19. The electoral volatility in Serbia: Comparison and explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonić Slobodan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of this article the electoral volatility in Serbia is compared to those in other countries. The Pedersen’s Index for Serbia from 1990 to 2003 is 19.6, which means there is high electoral volatility. However, compared to other countries in transition, the volatility in Serbia turns out to be average. Therefore, I conclude that the causes of high volatility in Serbia could not be specific, but similar to the reasons in other post-communist countries. In the second part, I analyze the general reasons for the increased volatility. They are: the large number of parties participating in political life, and insufficient time, passed since the restoration of multiparty elections, for the voters to become more seriously tied to the parties, or for the parties to become socially anchored. In the third part, I analyze the particular causes of the increased volatility that are specific, first of all, for Serbia and other post-communist societies. They are: the fast change of social structure, which leads to a general feeling of social and personal insecurity, as well as the widespread dissatisfaction with the gap between the increase of social inequality and the number of social winners, which increases the frequency of protest voting. At the end, I conclude that, in time, some of these factors would probably lose their significance, so the volatility in Serbia would decrease. However, a noticeable decrease could hardly be expected during the next ten years at least.

  20. Variaciones en el comportamiento electoral en Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana DUARTE RECALDE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El proceso electoral en Paraguay se ha visto condicionado históricamente por el control de la Asociación Nacional Republicana, partido hegemónico durante los años del régimen de Stroessner y los años de la transición democrática. Por este motivo, la alternancia al mando del Poder Ejecutivo ocurrida en el año 2008, como resultado del proceso electoral, marcó un hito en la historia política del país y resaltó la importancia del análisis del comportamiento electoral de los paraguayos, sus tendencias y los elementos coyunturales y estructurales que las condicionan. En el presente trabajo se describen los parámetros de comportamiento electoral en las tres últimas elecciones generales celebradas en el país considerando los índices de volatilidad electoral resultantes de estos comicios y los niveles de participación efectiva registrados, analizándolos a partir del contexto sociopolítico en que se desarrollan.

  1. Elementos del sistema electoral del Congreso Mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Medina García

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es un estudio de los componentes del sistema electoral, diseñado por el legislador mexicano para integrar al parlamento federal. Estudio desarrollado a sabiendas de la importancia que reviste el sistema electoral como un medio que permite a los ciudadanos convertir su voto expresado en las urnas en escaños a favor de determinado candidato o partido. En dicho análisis tomamos en cuenta la evolución constitucional del sistema electoral mexicano, la participación de las fuerzas minoritarias en la integración del Senado y de la Cámara de Diputados, la división que se hace del territorio en circunscripciones electorales, la barrera electoral que se fija a los partidos políticos para acceder a la representación en el Parlamento, la fórmula de asignación que se aplica a la votación obtenida, para finalmente concluir que el sistema electoral mexicano es esencialmente mayoritario aun cuando se vista de proporcional.

  2. The British Position towards European Integration: A Different Economic and Political Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troitiño David Ramiro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The United Kingdom has had an important position in Europe for centuries. Often it is seen as an anti-European country, or as being anti-integration in Europe but it is just defending its own interests, which in many cases hare differed from other members of the European Communities. The UK policy towards European cooperation has been influenced by the particular interest of the country, but there has always been a strong relation between the British and Europe. Great Britain had the biggest empire in human history spread all over the globe, and hence its interest was global rather than limited to local European states. The UK was a victorious country in the Second World War, the only Western European state that participated actively in Nazi defeat. As an important consequence, British nationalism was seen as a positive force to unite all the British against an external threat. During centuries, the British economy has been based on trade, and internationally the government supported and expanded the free trade idea in the world economy to European trade relations. This paper analyzes the main issues that explain the special relations between the EU and the UK. The paper is developed from a historical point of view with a methodology’ based on the critical review of historical facts from a global perspective of the whole traditional approach of the UK towards European integration.

  3. Electoral Violence and the Crisis of Democratic Experiment in Post-Colonial Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehinmore Omolere Monday Ph.D

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available  This study discusses the peculiar nature of political participation as well as the attendant violence that characterize it in post independent Nigeria. Central to discussion is identification of the various factors which influence electoral violence and the extent to which it has inhibited national cohesion and democratic values. The study concludes that, Nigeria should produce selfless and visionary leaders, educated masses as well as operating within the frame work of true federalism so as to make appreciable improvement on her development strides. The study therefore recommends discouragement of use of money and material gift during elections, reduction of remuneration of political office seekers, commensurate punishment for culprits’ as well as independence of the independent Electoral Commission should be truly granted.

  4. Electoral Violence and the Crisis of Democratic Experiment in Post-Colonial Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehinmore Omolere Monday Ph.D

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the peculiar nature of political participation as well as the attendant violence that characterize it in post independent Nigeria. Central to discussion is identification of the various factors which influence electoral violence and the extent to which it has inhibited national cohesion and democratic values. The study concludes that, Nigeria should produce selfless and visionary leaders, educated masses as well as operating within the frame work of true federalism so as to make appreciable improvement on her development strides. The study therefore recommends discouragement of use of money and material gift during elections, reduction of remuneration of political office seekers, commensurate punishment for culprits’ as well as independence of the independent Electoral Commission should be truly granted.

  5. Discursos cruzados: telenoticiários, HPEG e a construção da agenda eleitoral Cross-discourses: news programs on TV, free time for political propaganda on TV, and the construction of the electoral agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Miguel

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O Horário de Propaganda Eleitoral Gratuita (HPEG faculta aos candidatos um espaço de comunicação autônomo, em que suas mensagens não têm que passar pelo crivo dos grupos de mídia. O paper discute a eficácia do HPEG, em contraposição ao telejornalismo, e analisa a evolução da relação entre os dois nas quatro eleições presidenciais brasileiras do período pós-autoritário. Em 1989, os telenoticiários mostravam-se receptivos à agenda proposta pelos partidos em seus programas de TV, mas há um nítido fechamento nas eleições seguintes. Em 2002, os principais candidatos preferiram aderir à agenda e aos enquadramentos dominantes, reconhecendo a incapacidade do HPEG para alterar a pauta da mídia.The free time for political propaganda on TV gives candidates a space for autonomous communication in which their messages do not have to pass the scrutiny of media groups. This paper discusses the effectiveness of such free time on TV as opposed to TV journalism, and examines the development of the relationship between them in the four presidential elections in Brazil in the post-authoritarian period. In 1989, TV news programs welcomed the agenda put forward by candidates in their TV programs, but a closure is clear in the next elections. In 2002, the main candidates chose to join mainstream agenda and frameworks, acknowledging the inability of free TV time to change the media's agenda.

  6. Ballistic Missile Defense in the European Theater: Political, Military and Technical Considerations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Terstegge, Stephen D

    2007-01-01

    ... that threatens the homeland of the United States. Therefore, the United States faces the complex security challenge of emplacing ballistic missile defense assets on European soil in the very near-term to mitigate this threat...

  7. Tendencias en el estudio del comportamiento electoral en México / Trends in Electoral Behavior Studies in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Flores González

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available El estudio del comportamiento electoral, en lo que se refiere a la manera en cómo los ciudadanos toman la decisión de por quién votar en una democracia, es un tema que adquiere relevancia en México a partir de las elecciones de 1988, derivado del surgimiento de fuerzas políticas que pueden competir electoralmente contra el partido hegemónico: el Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI. Debido a lo reciente de este acontecimiento, muchas de las investigaciones realizadas en el país sobre este campo de estudio corresponden a esfuerzos aislados y poco sistematizados. Por esta razón, el objetivo del presente trabajo es sistematizar, mediante una revisión documental, el conocimiento disponible en México sobre el comportamiento electoral de los votantes mexicanos. De esta revisión se concluye que los estudios electorales en México han buscado adaptar a la realidad del país los constructos y las teorías creadas y probadas en Estados Unidos. Esta adaptación ha resultado positiva la mayoría de las veces y hoy existen instituciones y asociaciones académicas que han consolidado este campo de estudio. / The study of electoral behavior regarding how citizens decide who to vote for in a democracy has become important in Mexico since the 1988 elections. That is because in that year, political forces emerged that were able to compete at the polls with the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI, until then hegemonic. Since this is still very recent, many of the initial research projects in this field in Mexico have been isolated efforts that were not very systematic. For this reason, the aim of this article is to systematize the information available in Mexico about voter behavior through a review of the literature. This review concludes that electoral studies in Mexico have attempted to adapt to Mexico’s situation constructs and theories created and tested in the United States. This adaptation has been positive in most cases, and today

  8. The Dataset of Countries at Risk of Electoral Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Birch, Sarah; Muchlinski, David

    2017-01-01

    Electoral violence is increasingly affecting elections around the world, yet researchers have been limited by a paucity of granular data on this phenomenon. This paper introduces and describes a new dataset of electoral violence – the Dataset of Countries at Risk of Electoral Violence (CREV) – that provides measures of 10 different types of electoral violence across 642 elections held around the globe between 1995 and 2013. The paper provides a detailed account of how and why the dataset was ...

  9. Making concessions: Political, commercial and regulatory tensions in accounting for European roads PPPs

    OpenAIRE

    Stafford, Anne; Acerete, Basilio; Stapleton, Pam

    2010-01-01

    Governments increasingly use private finance to fund roads infrastructure. In particular the European Commission has promoted the use of public private partnerships (PPPs) to deliver the projects forming the trans-European Network. This use of private finance raises important questions about how public monies and assets are accounted for. The paper examines, first, accounting in both public and private sectors for roads PPPs in Spain and the UK, countries which not only have considerable expe...

  10. Reportaje interactivo acerca del panorama político electoral en Ecuador de 2016 a 2017.

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Cajamarca, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    This study is an interactive report of the 2016 to 2017 electoral panorama in Ecuador, it focuses in building a multimedia product, which would be used to classify the profiles and campaign plans of the different candidates, synthetizing the huge amount of information in existence. For this purpose we have sustained our research in the analysis done from the perspective of political communication, study of its different narratives, and with this we have elaborated a transmedia product utilizi...

  11. Electoral system, pesonal votes, and party choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Søren Risbjerg

    Using local elections in Denmark as an example this paper shows that individual party choice is influenced both by individual level, municipality level, and national level characteristics. Some hypotheses about the effects of the electoral system on personal votes derived from a theory by Carey...... & Shugart (1995) are first tested using a fixed-effects model. The effect of the personal reputation of the candidates, measured by personal votes, on party choice is then tested using a multilevel multinomial logit model suggested by Rabe-Hesketh and Skrondal (2008). The paper shows that both the electoral...

  12. EU Simulations and Engagement: Motivating Greater Interest in European Union Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Nicholas; Van Dyke, Gretchen; Loedel, Peter; Scherpereel, John; Sobisch, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    While the effects of simulation-based courses on the knowledge of participating students may be marginal in relation to standard lecture and discussion-based courses, this article argues that the greatest leverage is gained by increasing participating students' level of interest in the subject of study and in politics more broadly. Participants…

  13. Gender Achievement and Social, Political and Economic Equality: A European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireson, Gren

    2017-01-01

    Differences in gender equality based on social, political and economic factors is cited, by some writers, as a contributory factor in the differentially greater achievement of boys in STEM subjects through the concept of gender stratification. Gender differences, especially in mathematics, have been linked directly to gender parity in wider…

  14. Social Studies: The Electoral Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrager, Donald M.

    This quinmester course of study for grades seven through nine provides a framework for analyzing election processes in a democracy by investigating democratic societies of the past, and contrasting democracies with totalitarian types of government. Major emphasis is upon analyzing the system of institutionalized political parties, the…

  15. Institutional pioneers in world politics: Regional institution building and the influence of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Tobias; Burilkov, Alexandr

    2017-09-01

    What drives processes of institution building within regional international organizations? We challenge those established theories of regionalism, and of institutionalized cooperation more broadly, that treat different organizations as independent phenomena whose evolution is conditioned primarily by internal causal factors. Developing the basic premise of 'diffusion theory' - meaning that decision-making is interdependent across organizations - we argue that institutional pioneers, and specifically the European Union, shape regional institution-building processes in a number of discernible ways. We then hypothesize two pathways - active and passive - of European Union influence, and stipulate an endogenous capacity for institutional change as a key scope condition for their operation. Drawing on a new and original data set on the institutional design of 34 regional international organizations in the period from 1950 to 2010, the article finds that: (1) both the intensity of a regional international organization's structured interaction with the European Union (active influence) and the European Union's own level of delegation (passive influence) are associated with higher levels of delegation within other regional international organizations; (2) passive European Union influence exerts a larger overall substantive effect than active European Union influence does; and (3) these effects are strongest among those regional international organizations that are based on founding contracts containing open-ended commitments. These findings indicate that the creation and subsequent institutional evolution of the European Union has made a difference to the evolution of institutions in regional international organizations elsewhere, thereby suggesting that existing theories of regionalism are insufficiently able to account for processes of institution building in such contexts.

  16. Migration, Multiple Citizenships, and the Right toParticipate in Official Electoral Bodies in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Antonio Rojas Choza

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available El fenómeno migratorio en México y el recono-cimiento de la ciudadanía múltiple ha abierto dis-tintas problemáticas en torno al ejercicio de los derechos políticos, en particular, el derecho a in-tegrar autoridades electorales. El objetivo del pre-sente texto es reflejar cuantitativamente la posible dimensión de la ciudadanía múltiple en México, producto de la creciente migración internacional, y realizar un análisis jurídico de las restricciones por motivo de la ciudadanía múltiple en el ejerci-cio de la función electoral. Para el caso de Méxi-co, dichas restricciones son discriminatorias y no guardan razonabilidad ni proporcionalidad entre los distintos cargos, sean autoridades electorales administrativas o jurisdiccionales. / Migration and the recognition of multiple citizenship have opened up different problems in the exercise of political rights, and specifically, the right to be part of official electoral bodies. This article aims to quantify the possible effects of multiple citizenship in Mexico due to growing international migration, as well as to analyze the legal restrictions on the exercise of electoral rights due to multiple citizenship. In the case of Mexico, these restrictions are discriminatory and neither reasonable nor proportional to the different administrative or jurisdictional electoral positions.

  17. The political economy of energy use and pollution: the environmental effects of East-European transition to market economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midttun, A.; Chander, I. [Norwegian School of Management, Sandvicka (Norway)

    1998-11-01

    The transition of Eastern Europe to Western-type liberal capitalism has been interpreted as an important step towards a more ecologically sustainable Europe. The main argument has been that the energy efficiency of the West-European economy will be imported to Eastern Europe and lead to lower energy consumption and lower pollution. This line of argumentation seems sound as far as the industrial sector is concerned. However, it does not take into consideration the energy and pollution bill of the lavish lifestyle of modern consumer-oriented societies. A shift away from the moderate private consumption of East-European Communism, towards the Western consumerist lifestyle may diminish or even abolish the positive ecological effects of the East-European transition to a competitive market economy. The article explores energy consumption and pollution patterns of Eastern and Western Europe both as far as industrial and domestic end-user consumption is concerned. The article argues that these patterns are related to basic characteristics of the communist and capitalist systems and that pollution and energy use are fundamentally conditioned by the overall political economy. 18 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab., 1 app.

  18. The Poetics and Politics of the European Capital of Culture Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng; Håkanson, Lars; LaCava, Laura

    The European Capital of Culture (ECoC) project was designed to promote European identity and integration. Hosting cities have since carried a variety of visions and objectives, ranging from the improvement of material infrastructure and urban revitalization, over the enhancement of cultural life...... to the alleviation of poverty through increasing employment, and the attraction of more tourists. This variety of hopes is repeatedly articulated, as cities compete to become the next ECoC. Being an ECoC is seen to offer invaluable marketing opportunities to improve the city and its image. This paper situates...

  19. A systematic approach to study electoral fraud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leemann, Lucas; Bochsler, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    , we propose a more encompassing approach, testing for several empirical implications of different possible forms of fraud. To illustrate this approach we rely on a case of electoral irregularities in one of the oldest democracies: In a Swiss referendum in 2011, one in twelve municipalities irregularly...

  20. The political economy of a tradable GHG permit market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, P.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Vesterdal, Morten

    2002-01-01

    The EU has committed itself to meet an 8% greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction target level following the Kyoto agreement. Therefore, the EU Commission has just proposed a new directive establishing a framework for GHG emissions trading within the European Union. This proposal is the outcome of a policy...... that the dominant interest groups indeed influenced the final design of an EU GHG market....

  1. Equality machineries matter: The impact of women's political pressure on European social care policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenbergh, I.L.; Roggeband, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the impact of feminist pressure and European Union (EU) policies on national policy changes, such as the introduction or extension of public childcare provision, parental leave, and part-time work legislation. We compared six countries on the basis of Qualitative Comparative

  2. Legislative codecision and its impact on the political system of the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burns, Charlotte; Rasmussen, Anne; Reh, Christine

    2013-01-01

    of the codecision procedure in 1993, which empowered the European Parliament (EP) and transformed the EU system of governance. Following the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon the majority of legislation is now subject to codecision under the ordinary legislative procedure. Consequently, the operation...

  3. Serbia amidst competing sovereignty claims : balancing the Westphalian legacy with the political pragmatism of European integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jancic, D.

    This paper analyzes the hypothesis that the recent challenges for Serbian statehood – which culminated in Kosovo’s unilateral declaration of independence – prompted Serbia to redefine its relationship with the European Union and to accelerate the accession process, and thus to depart from

  4. A Second Chance for Europe : Economic, Political and Legal Perspectives of the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritzen, Jo

    2017-01-01

    This book calls upon us to rethink and reboot the European Union. The authors dissect the EU’s many vulnerabilities: how some Member States are backsliding on the rule of law, freedom of the press, and control of corruption – and how globalization’s ‘discontents’ are threatening the liberal

  5. How political candidates use Twitter and the impact on votes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruikemeier, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the content characteristics of Twitter during an election campaign, and the relationship between candidates’ style of online campaigning (i.e., politically personalized and interactive communication) and electoral support for those candidates. Thereby, it provides a better

  6. Voting patterns and alliance formation in the European Parliament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hix, Simon; Noury, Abdul; Roland, Gérard

    2009-03-27

    Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) have voluntarily formed transnational political groups and invariably follow the voting instructions of these groups. This is intriguing as there are few obvious incentives for doing so. Unlike national parties, for example, the political groups in the European Parliament are not punished by the electorate if they are divided on key issues, as citizens know very little about what goes on inside the European Parliament. This paper pieces together an explanation of why the European political groups exist and why they have become so powerful by looking at the determinants of group cohesion and by undertaking a spatial analysis of voting in the European Parliament. MEPs who share preferences on a range of issues on the European Union policy agenda have an incentive to establish a division-of-labour contract and to share the costs of collecting information. Once internal party policy specialization and agenda setting has been established, MEPs have incentives to follow the voting instructions of their group owing to the advantages of cohesion in a context of repeated voting.

  7. Electorate redistricting for a single-member district plurality, two-ballot voting system: Taiwan’s electoral reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Pei-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we formulated a mathematical model for electorate demarcation in line with Taiwan’s electoral reforms, minimizing legislative seats for the main opposition party in Taipei City. The model is compared with historical election data to establish characteristics that are most contested and germane to the reform. Examination of the constituency demarcation for the Seventh Legislator Election ascertains that electorate demarcation can/can not be manipulated to create electoral advantage. Demonstrable evidence of a bias toward disproportionate representation in the single-member district plurality, two-ballot voting system ultimately attests the importance of scenario analysis before adopting new electorate systems.

  8. The polity and politics of carbon-dioxide taxation in small European states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    to the adoption of carbon dioxide taxation in only smaller countries in Europe. The research questions addressed by the present paper are how and why is it that small countries that in terms of emissions are virtually irrelevant to climate change and which are more open to forces of international competition...... are more susceptible to introduce carbon dioxide taxes ? It is hypothesized that features of the institutionalized patterns of policy-making, the polity of small states, can provide explanations for their climate politics, and ultimately the outcome policy in question....

  9. Energy. Political contacts at national, state and European level; Energie. Politikkontakte Bund, Land, Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzapfel, Andreas (ed.)

    2013-04-01

    The manual is in three sections: 1. Parliaments and governments, survey and organization; 2. Biographic section, with 304 biography; 3. Index of names. The first section informs on the organizational structure of parliaments and governments. The subject of energy is discussed three times, i.e. in 'Economics', 'Environment', and 'Research'. For each parliament, the members of the energy policy TCs are listed, followed by names and contact addresses of the senior officials and departments with contact data, both on a national, state, and European scale. The second section contains the biographies of energy policy experts of the German parliament and government, the sixteen land parliaments and governments, and the European Commissions. As the subject of energy is highly interdisciplinary, the authors selected the energy policy committees of the German parliament and state parliaments. The biographies of the committee members are presented in the text.

  10. The Youth and Political Ideology in Ghanaian Politics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2012-10-31

    Oct 31, 2012 ... Abstract. The youth of Ghana have played an important role in both local and national politics since the inception of the Fourth Republic. Among other things, they have served as the foot-soldiers and channels through which party manifestoes have been transmitted to the electorate and polling agents ...

  11. Germany, the European Union, and the Euro: The Primacy of Politics in Treasure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Spain GNP Gross National Product IMF International Monetary Fund LTROs Long-term Refinancing Operations NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement...together on foreign policy, as it creates a program that promotes joint foreign policy. The third pillar expands the joint law enforcement capabilities...failure to ratify a European Constitution . The supranational Constitution , which the member states’ leadership approved and signed on 29 October

  12. Between the European Union and Russia. Perspectives on Ukraine’s complex political situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusch Lina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ukraine finds itself in a difficult position between the European Union and the newest Russian-engineered integration project for the post-Soviet space, the Eurasian Union. A thorough understanding of the interdependence between Ukraine and its partners is thus essential for determining "the right way" for Ukraine. The paper, on which this article is based, explores this by applying Complex Interdependence Theory and proposes a cautious foreign policy approach.

  13. Between the European Union and Russia. Perspectives on Ukraine’s complex political situation

    OpenAIRE

    Rusch Lina

    2013-01-01

    Ukraine finds itself in a difficult position between the European Union and the newest Russian-engineered integration project for the post-Soviet space, the Eurasian Union. A thorough understanding of the interdependence between Ukraine and its partners is thus essential for determining "the right way" for Ukraine. The paper, on which this article is based, explores this by applying Complex Interdependence Theory and proposes a cautious foreign policy approach.

  14. Ecological modernisation and the scalar level of contradictions in Southern European water politics: the case of the Odelouca Dam in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Thiel

    2010-01-01

    The author reconstructs the history of the implementation of the Odelouca Dam in the Algarve in a Natura 2000 area, viewing it in the context of Southern European coastal development. He looks at the dynamics leading up to the construction of the dam, and illustrates the persistence of the hydraulic paradigm in Portugal and the way it has been moulded by shifting European policy-making paradigms—namely, ecological modernisation (EM). Political aspects of EM are discussed because they seem to ...

  15. Taxes as a political instrument in the climate policy of some European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasa, Sjur

    2000-06-01

    While the use of climate taxes in Norway has not been increasing much recently, many European countries have shown an increasing interest in taxing their factories. There is also increasing interest within the EU centrally for such ''green'' taxes. The report briefly reviews the use of green taxes in some European countries. The focus is on some of the ''green'' (and rich) nations within the EU, namely Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands, as theses countries have had the most rapid increase in the use of taxis in their climate policies in the 1990s. In addition, Great Britain is also discussed, where the use of green taxes has recently been implemented as a climate policy. A main objective of the report has been to introduce a comparative perspective into the Norwegian debate on green taxes and climate. In Norway, some actors have described the attempts to go in for the use of taxes as a means towards the industry as distinctively Norwegian. The report concludes that taxes on the manufacturing industries are used increasingly often in important European countries. The report may also add background material to the current debate in Norway on gas power plants

  16. From the European Union to Euroland - Historical, Fiscal and Political Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Piccirilli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The processes of normalization, internationalization, since its birth - the European Union - have never had a down hill ride. The hard times have been serious and numerous enough to even threaten it. On the tenth anniversary of its birth, the Euro seems to be going through another bad phase, threatening once again the Union as in the late seventies and early eighties of the last century. In that period a Frenchman, Jack Delors, head of the commission, with a lot of courage and determination, led the then European Community into the European Union with a single currency, the Euro. Today is the Euro to be questioned due to the sovereign debt crisis that, because of the great recession, countries have had to compensate for the drop in household and businesses spending with the increased public spending and/or load of tax reductions. In doing so they have had to widen the budget deficit and burden the public debt, which in many cases has caused difficulties in financing the deficit and refinance its debts, as investors have began to distrust the solvency of countries, especially in Eurolandia, where the lack of a single government and of a central bank that does not have the power to fund the States, makes it much more difficult to manage the crisis..

  17. Thinking big: Politics, progress, and security in the management of Asian and European energy megaprojects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Graaf, Thijs; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines four energy megaprojects, two in Europe and two in Asia. For each region, a large natural gas pipeline project and an international project involving solar power from the desert is studied. The natural gas projects are: the Nabucco project (in Europe) and the trans-ASEAN gas pipeline network (in Asia). The solar power from the desert projects are: Desertec (in Europe) and Gobitec (in Asia). The article probes explanations of megaproject failure along social, technical, economic, political, and psychological dimensions. We find that these projects, though they are very different in nature and pertain to different regions, all suffer from a similar set of problems: too many stakeholders and stakeholder fragmentation; cost overruns and the risk of accidents and attacks; massive externalization of costs to third party stakeholders; concentration of wealth and corruption; and inflated expectations and biased projections. We conclude by reflecting on lessons for not only the involved institutions and investors, but energy analysts and the public at large. - Highlights: • Four energy megaprojects are analyzed: Nabucco, TAGP, Gobitec and Desertec. • Despite their differences, all suffer from a similar set of problems. • They exhibit social, technical, economic, political, and psychological failures

  18. Partisan optimism and political bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Madum, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    to explore the implications of partisan optimism for political bargaining. We show that increased optimism among a partisan group leads to a stronger bargaining position for their party, but may hurt its electoral prospects. Another main finding is that even high levels of partisan optimism do...

  19. Research of features and structure of electoral space of Ukraine in 2014 with the use of synthetic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Shelemba

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at the ground of expediency of the use of synthetic authorial model for research of features and structure of electoral space of Ukraine in 2014 year. Methodological principles of the use of synthetic model are expounded with the use of quality and quantitative methods researches of electoral space, among that methods of factor and cross­correlation analysis. A synthetic model (approach that is built on the basis of the use of the best scientific approaches takes into account features and progress of electoral space of Ukraine trends. The analysis of features and structure of electoral space of Ukraine is conducted in 2014 with the use of an offer model. The application author synthetic model allows the study of the use of association factor and correlation analysis to justify support to political parties during election campaigns, respectively, depending on the factors and the most important correlates. It was found that electoral choice depends on the actions of those factors in the highest degree the expectations of the region. This article has shown that the use of Ukraine at this stage of the investigated during election campaigns as the most significant social correlates of «Human Development Index» is reasonable and one that makes it possible to obtain reliable results. It is proved that a high level of correlation holds at a high level of support the party and, consequently, high sense of social correlates all variants of expert research.

  20. The European Union in International Politics: Acting as a Global Civilian Power (GCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedrudin Brljavac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the Cold War the European Community lacking common military instruments was perceived as the example of a civilian power. However, in the early 1990s, under the framework of CFSP, the first concrete defence initiatives have been launched. By the end of the 1990s and after the agreement on the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP the first Rapid Reaction Forces were on the European military agenda. Such defence and military capabilities challenged the idea of the EU as a civil or civilian power. Thus, a main concern in the paper has been to assess the character and identity of the EU`s activities in the context of international relations. For this purpose, this study has explored the EU policy instruments such as the enlargement policy, external aid, environmental policy at the global level, multilateralism, and the EU armed forces. The study concludes that the enlargement policy accounts for an important EU strategy to shape the international environment through civilian means. Furthermore, the international aid policy of the EU states has primarily been based on the sense of duty to other countries as constructivists point out. The EU has also been vocal and has used environmental foreign policy as an instrument to demonstrate its global leadership role which is a clear indication of its commitment to global welfare. Thanks to its presence in the major multilateral interventions of the last decade, the EU has qualified itself as great supporter of multilateralism. Lastly, the EU military capabilities are not achieved by creating permanent European armed forces but are still based on the voluntary contributions of its member states. Therefore, the EU still can be portrayed as a global civilian power (GCP or civilian power Europe (CPE.

  1. A glimpse into european political debate: is energetic transition really mandatory for everybody?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Diderot was one of the main actors in the transition to modern age and his 'Lettre sur les aveugles' provides amusing insights into the construction process of a new mind-set by exploring different views about how we 'see' (or 'frame') reality. In every transitional process there are things we see immediately and things we don't see because of our blind loyalty to custom. Therefore, a critical approach is essential to better understand (and to better manage) any transitional process - including the present transition towards the European 'Energy Union'

  2. Political Economy of Exchange Rate Regimes: A Panel Data Analysis of Selected European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet BEŞKAYA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of economic and political factors on the choice of exchange rate regimes. In order to achieve this goal, we apply for Binary Choice Panel Probit Model to examine the relationships between exchange rate regimes and financial depth, real exchange rate, capital inflow and democracy. Our data covers the period of 1980-2013 for the selected EU countries, namely, Austria, Germany, Belgium, France, Denmark, England, Sweden and Italy. Estimation results demonstrates that the choice of fixed exchange rate regime become disadvantageous and flexible exchange rate turn out to be the right choice as financial depth, real exchange rate, capital inflow and democratization increases.

  3. Electoral system and electoral campaign in Ancient Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Notari Tamaš

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most famous orators of the Antiquity, Marcus Tullius Cicero entered the election for the consul's position held in 64 B.C. arranged under extremely disturbed circumstances and he won the consulatus for 63 B.C. Difficulties were caused among others by the fact that an indebted nobleman called Lucius Sergius Catilina saw the only breakthrough for ensuring his political and financial survival in being elected consul, and manifested that in case he would lose he would be willing to take as well violent actions (later, he actually carried out his threats. The orator's younger brother, Quintus Tullius Cicero wanted to help his brother in his campaign foreseen as having quite a lot of turns; so, he wrote a manual for him on the lawful and illegal instruments that could be used in the elections. This work, Commentariolum petitionis (A Handbook for Applicants for Offices is the first summary of campaign strategy in the history of mankind. In addition to the evaluation of the given situation, the presentation (and exploitation of the weaknesses of counter nominees, the book provides advice on several counts that might possibly continue to have relevance even today. We do not know to what extent the experienced politician, Cicero adhered to his younger brother's advice; it is, however, a fact that he was elected consul, and as a consul he defeated Catilina's revolt in. 63 B.C.

  4. The Media as a Dual Mediator of the Political Agenda–Setting Effect of Protest : A Longitudinal Study in Six Western European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R.; Walgrave, S.; Wouters, R.; Hutter, S.; Jennings, W.; Gava, R.; Tresh, A.; Varone, F.; Grossman, E.; Breunig, C.; Brouard, S.; Chaques-Bonafont, L.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigates the impact of media coverage of protest on issue attention in parliament (questions) in six Western European countries. Integrating several data sets on protest, media, and political agendas, we demonstrate that media coverage of protest affects parliamentary agendas: the more

  5. Positioning as a Part of Political Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Liutko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The political subject is defined as the consumer of goods in the form of political power, political ideas, political leaders, and parties. Political marketing is understood as the identification of political relations and processes with different forms of market exchange and the process of electoral choice as a specific market (the act of purchase and sale. The concept of political positioning appeared as the result of relevant categories of commercial research in the political sphere. Political positioning should be considered as the process of political communication aimed at acquiring by political actor his position in political marketing. It is the most difficult type of political and communication strategic campaigns. This approach allows the candidate (party to compare his image with electorate’s views of desired (acceptable candidate, political party; compare his image with the image of an opponent; explore the pros and cons of alternative positions; and choose those the most advantageous position for a candidate (party.

  6. Transnational networks, diffusion dynamics, and electoral revolutions in the postcommunist world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, Valerie; Wolchik, Sharon L.

    2007-05-01

    Since 1996, eight elections have taken place in postcommunist Europe and Eurasia that have replaced illiberal with liberal governments. There is ample evidence that these “electoral revolutions” reflected the cross-national diffusion of a distinctive model of regime change that was developed elsewhere and that was designed to promote democratization in authoritarian political contexts featuring semi-competitive elections. This electoral model spread throughout the postcommunist region because of both shared perceptions by opposition groups of similar local conditions and the existence of transnational democracy promotion networks that included local, regional and American participants. As these revolutions spread, however, they were less successful in carrying through democratic change-in part because local conditions were less supportive and in part because authoritarian leaders and their international allies were both forewarned and forearmed.

  7. Electoral Quotas: Should the UK learn from the rest of the world?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Game

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available UK Prime Minister Gordon Brown would surely love his political legacy to include a significant contribution to constitutional reform. Certainly he inherited, on succeeding Tony Blair in 2007, a substantial agenda of unfinished constitutional business: devolution, House of Lords reform, the electoral system, a bill of rights, a written constitution. Two years on, though, major progress on any of these ‘big’ topics seems most unlikely before a probable 2010 General Election. Which might mean a rather modest constitutional legacy, based mainly on bringing some prerogative powers under MPs’ scrutiny and control, and, in other comparatively minor ways, boosting the role of Parliament. One such low profile, though not unimportant, initiative is Brown’s revival of the Speaker’s Conference, a constitutional device that many supposed had become extinct with the creation in 2000 of the Electoral Commission.

  8. Political Party Funding in Romania - One Step Forward, Two Steps Back?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Georgel Savenco

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Within political life, the determining role is given to political parties in their capacity as actors in the electoral campaign and in the race for political power. This is the reason for which we believe that the means of financing political parties and the electoral campaigns in which they partake is an important aspect within the electoral reform, as without an adequate funding their chances of winning the electoral race are drastically reduced. On the other hand, funding of political parties is of great interest as the lack of transparency which usually encircles this process can lead to a dangerous phenomenon, namely corruption. Throughout this article we present the current situation and critically analyze the changes which the Romanian legislature plans to apply to the political party financing law.

  9. VOTERS DECIDE. CLASSICAL MODELS OF ELECTORAL BEHAVIOR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin SASU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The decision to vote and choosing among the candidates is a extremely important one with repercussions on everyday life by determining, in global mode, its quality for the whole society. Therefore the whole process by which the voter decide becomes a central concern. In this paper we intend to locate the determinants of the vote decision in the electoral behavior classical theoretical models developed over time. After doing synthesis of classical schools of thought on electoral behavior we conclude that it has been made a journey through the mind, soul and cheek, as follows: the mind as reason in theory developed by Downs, soul as preferably for an actor in Campbell's theory, etc. and cheek as an expression of the impossibility of detachment from social groups to which we belong in Lazarsfeld's theory.

  10. The political economy of a tradable GHG permit market in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markussen, P.; Tinggaard Svendsen, G.; Vesterdal, M.

    2002-01-01

    The EU has committed itself to meet an 8% greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction target level following the Kyoto agreement. Therefore, the EU Commission has just proposed a new directive establishing a framework for GHG emissions trading within the European Union. This proposal is to outcome a policy process started by the EU Commission and its Green Paper from March 2000. The main industrial stake holders all had the opportunity to comment on the Green Paper and from their directive proposal. Here, we find that the dominant interest groups indeed influenced the final design of an EU GHG market. This industrial rent-seeking most prominently lead to a grand fathered permit allocation rule like the one found in the US tradable permit systems. (au)

  11. The political economy of a tradable GHG permit market in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markussen, P; Tinggaard Svendsen, G; Vesterdal, M

    2002-07-01

    The EU has committed itself to meet an 8% greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction target level following the Kyoto agreement. Therefore, the EU Commission has just proposed a new directive establishing a framework for GHG emissions trading within the European Union. This proposal is to outcome a policy process started by the EU Commission and its Green Paper from March 2000. The main industrial stake holders all had the opportunity to comment on the Green Paper and from their directive proposal. Here, we find that the dominant interest groups indeed influenced the final design of an EU GHG market. This industrial rent-seeking most prominently lead to a grand fathered permit allocation rule like the one found in the US tradable permit systems. (au)

  12. ARE THE EUROPEAN UNION CAP’S SUBSIDIES A POLITICAL RENT? AN ATTEMPT AT METHODOLOGY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czyżewski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the “induced innovation model of agricultural development” there exist mechanisms for this sector’s participation in contributing to economic development, as well as in sharing its benefits. Nonetheless, inefficiencies of the market that distort market signals, constitute a barrier of the latter process. Therefore, the so-called “surplus drainage” from agriculture takes place. The authors claim that it is possible to objectively measure a “surplus drainage” from agriculture as a result of market failure. Assuming that rural areas generate public goods (i.e. a landscape, a biodiversity, rural culture and tradition, unique food quality, food safety, food security speculative land investors have lower willingness to contribute to its creation, than family farms. This is why agrarian policy levies more duties on them (institutional barriers and favours farmers. The mentioned premises imply that the CAP’s subsidies should not be perceived as political rents according to its classical definition. Only a part of subsidies left after subtracting a value of “surplus drainage” and a compensation of public goods has a hallmark of the rent. A valuation of these values is an important scientific challenge.

  13. A Pragmatic Study of Barak Obama's Political Propaganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ameedi, Riyadh Tariq Kadhim; Khudhier, Zina Abdul Hussein

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates, pragmatically, the language of five electoral political propaganda texts delivered by Barak Obama. It attempts to achieve the following aims: (1) identifying the speech acts used in political propaganda, (2) showing how politicians utilize Grice's maxims and the politeness principle in issuing their propaganda, (3)…

  14. Words and figures. A socio-semiotic approach of the electoral poster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela ROVENTA-FRUMUSANI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the third millennium, in a “risk society” threatened by crisis we witness a reconfiguration of the individuals relationship to media messages which becomes more and more complex. Political action change (“Arab spring”, “Bucharest civic winter”, discourses emphasize the interactive components (debates, polemics, acid commentaries, channels multiply (SMS, Blogs, social networks, media genre and perspectives also change. In the framework characterized by: i fragmentation of public space, ii new forms of social interaction ; iii specific media stories and representations, we analyze the political mediated discourse on the basis of the emotion/argumentation dichotomy. Our corpus is constituted by electoral messages (outdoors from the last Romanian Parliamentary elections (December 2012 and web sites of the main political parties. The methodological approach will be based on a semiotic and discourse analysis of political advertising messages compared to commercial advertising.

  15. Perspectives of policy and political decision makers on access to formal dementia care: expert interviews in eight European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broda, Anja; Bieber, Anja; Meyer, Gabriele; Hopper, Louise; Joyce, Rachael; Irving, Kate; Zanetti, Orazio; Portolani, Elisa; Kerpershoek, Liselot; Verhey, Frans; Vugt, Marjolein de; Wolfs, Claire; Eriksen, Siren; Røsvik, Janne; Marques, Maria J; Gonçalves-Pereira, Manuel; Sjölund, Britt-Marie; Woods, Bob; Jelley, Hannah; Orrell, Martin; Stephan, Astrid

    2017-08-03

    As part of the ActifCare (ACcess to Timely Formal Care) project, we conducted expert interviews in eight European countries with policy and political decision makers, or representatives of relevant institutions, to determine their perspectives on access to formal care for people with dementia and their carers. Each ActifCare country (Germany, Ireland, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, United Kingdom) conducted semi-structured interviews with 4-7 experts (total N = 38). The interview guide addressed the topics "Complexity and Continuity of Care", "Formal Services", and "Public Awareness". Country-specific analysis of interview transcripts used an inductive qualitative content analysis. Cross-national synthesis focused on similarities in themes across the ActifCare countries. The analysis revealed ten common themes and two additional sub-themes across countries. Among others, the experts highlighted the need for a coordinating role and the necessity of information to address issues of complexity and continuity of care, demanded person-centred, tailored, and multidisciplinary formal services, and referred to education, mass media and campaigns as means to raise public awareness. Policy and political decision makers appear well acquainted with current discussions among both researchers and practitioners of possible approaches to improve access to dementia care. Experts described pragmatic, realistic strategies to influence dementia care. Suggested innovations concerned how to achieve improved dementia care, rather than transforming the nature of the services provided. Knowledge gained in these expert interviews may be useful to national decision makers when they consider reshaping the organisation of dementia care, and may thus help to develop best-practice strategies and recommendations.

  16. Politics 2.0: The Use of Social Networks in Argentinean Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Romina Dominguez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is part of a doctoral thesis that analyzes the political use of the communication 2.0, specifically of Facebook and Twitter. The political agent chosen is the President, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner in the pre electoral period of the first Simultaneous Open and Compulsory Primary. It is important to mention that she is the first Argentinean president to use the social networks with electoral purposes in pursuit of her reelection, given that the development of these communicational tools is recent and previous presidents did not count with them. In order to analyze the use of social networks by the President in a pre-election period, political discourse was analyzed and compared the treatment of electoral information of three traditional mass media-La Nacion, Clarin and Página/12- and the political material, or management review published, shared and retweeted by the political agent chosen. The study found that the agent used its social networking times during the period. The electoral messages aimed to list the qualities of his first management through specific government measures without making campaign promises. Meanwhile, the media published a significant amount of notes linked to the President but was tiny references to electoral publications on social networks.

  17. European communion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on ‘sharing’ or ‘communion......’, provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as ‘integration’ or ‘co-operation’. The concept of ‘European communion’ is defined as the ‘subjective sharing of relationships’, understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing...... relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European...

  18. Forms And Methods Of Modern Russian Youth Involvement Into The Electoral Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey D. Maslov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article authors analyzes forms and methods of modern Russian youth involvement in the electoral process. Involving young people in the electoral process is directly related to the problem of increasing the level of political culture in the society. This article presents the main forms of work to attract young people to participate in elections in our country, according to the Central Election Commission (CEC of Russia, some of the regional election commissions, the Russian Public Opinion Research Center (WCIOM. Authors note that at present there are more than one hundred and sixty legislative acts of the Russian Federation, which reflect certain aspects of the state youth policy. All these measures stimulate the political activity of young people, but in our opinion, that is not enough. The fundamental change in the attitude of young people to politics, to the institution of elections is possible only when young people feel like a real part and the subject of transformation processes in our country. In conclusion authors summarizes, that a fundamental change in the relationship of young people to politics, the institution of elections is possible only, when very young feel a real party and the subject of transformation processes in our country. This is possible only when the state is really and not formally prioritizes youth policy. Young people should have a daily state support for education, starting a business, implementation of acquired skills for a decent fee, starting a family, buying a house, etc.

  19. Modelling loans and deposits during electoral years i n Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae - Marius JULA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the effect of electoral years on loans and deposits for population in Romania. Using monthly data regarding the total loans and deposits, we identify the significance of the electoral timing on population´s behavior regarding financial decisions. We estimate that there are small changes in population´s affinity for increase in the indebtedness or for savings. We use dummy variables for electoral periods, and when these are econometrically significant there is an evidence of the influence of the electoral timings in population´s financial decisions.

  20. European emissions trading and the international competitiveness of energy-intensive industries: a legal and political evaluation of possible supporting measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselt, H. van; Biermann, F.

    2007-01-01

    The EU Emissions Trading Directive is expected by European energy-intensive industries to harm their competitiveness vis-a-vis non-European competitors. Many additional measures have thus been proposed to 'level the playing field' and to protect the competitiveness of European energy-intensive industries within the larger effort of reducing Europe's greenhouse gas emissions and of meeting its obligations under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. This article evaluates a range of proposed measures based on a set of political and legal criteria, including environmental effectiveness; the need to consider differentiated commitments, responsibilities and capabilities; conformity with world trade law and European Union law; and Europe's overall political interests. We discuss measures that could be adopted by the European Union and its member states, such as direct support for energy-intensive industries, restrictions of energy-intensive imports into the European Union through border cost adjustments, quotas or technical regulations, and cost reimbursement for affected developing countries. We also analyse measures available to multilateral institutions such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol and the World Trade Organisation. We conclude with a classification of the discussed measures with red (unfeasible), yellow (potentially feasible) or green (feasible) labels. (author)

  1. European emissions trading and the international competitiveness of energy-intensive industries: a legal and political evaluation of possible supporting measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asselt, Harro van; Biermann, Frank

    2007-01-01

    The EU Emissions Trading Directive is expected by European energy-intensive industries to harm their competitiveness vis-a-vis non-European competitors. Many additional measures have thus been proposed to 'level the playing field' and to protect the competitiveness of European energy-intensive industries within the larger effort of reducing Europe's greenhouse gas emissions and of meeting its obligations under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. This article evaluates a range of proposed measures based on a set of political and legal criteria, including environmental effectiveness; the need to consider differentiated commitments, responsibilities and capabilities; conformity with world trade law and European Union law; and Europe's overall political interests. We discuss measures that could be adopted by the European Union and its member states, such as direct support for energy-intensive industries, restrictions of energy-intensive imports into the European Union through border cost adjustments, quotas or technical regulations, and cost reimbursement for affected developing countries. We also analyse measures available to multilateral institutions such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol and the World Trade Organisation. We conclude with a classification of the discussed measures with red (unfeasible), yellow (potentially feasible) or green (feasible) labels

  2. Political Transmigrants: Rethinking Hmong Political Activism in America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengher N. Vang, Ph.D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the initial resettlement of the Hmong in the United States in the mid-1970s, they have maintained strong political and military relationships with the Lao People‘s Democratic Republic (LPDR. Yet, there is little research on that relationship and the involvement of the Hmong in the United States in political developments in Laos. Most works on Hmong political activism have focused on the electoral participation and representation of Hmong Americans in relation to American domestic politics. In this article, using archival, ethnographic, and interview data that I have collected between 2006 and 2009 in Laos, Thailand, and the United States, I describe and analyze the non-domestic or transnational form of Hmong American political expression and participation. I argue that Hmong political activism in America not only was transnational from the outset, but that their transnational involvement in political developments in Laos and their relations with the Lao PDR government also had a significant impact on their ethnic politics. Many Hmong political activists made their entry into ethnic politics through the door of transnational politics, and many were motivated by transnational political issues to participate in domestic American politics. By exploring their transnational involvement in political developments in Laos and their relations with the Lao PDR government, we get a more complete and dynamic understanding of Hmong political activism in the United States than is possible by focusing exclusively on domestic and electoral participation. Examining their transnational politics also allows us to see the transnationality of not only their culture, identity, and community but also that of their political activities and aspirations.

  3. THE UNINOMINAL VOTE AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE ROMANIAN ELECTORAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PORUMBACEAN CLAUDIU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Since 1990, after the first democratic elections inRomania, before each election, there were debates about the technical way inwhich elections should be conducted. If, as of May 20th 1990 and till the autumnof 2004, parliamentary elections held in Romania were conducted in the form ofproportional representation, by voting on political party lists, in electoraldistricts strictly drawn by type and capital district, after the 2004 electiondebates around the modification of the voting system were approached withincreased interest and very intense discussions at the decision – making levelswere initiated.Thus, after lengthy debates in parliament and inside the civil society, and alsofollowing the referendum on 25th of November 2007, initiated by the Presidentunder the Constitution of Romania (in consultation with the Parliament, it wasdecided that the Romanian electoral system would be modified from theproportional party lists voting method into the uninominal majority vote inelectoral constituencies and uninominal colleges (districts.The decision being thus taken by the voters, the Parliament started to discuss thesuggested bills and finally Law no. 35/2008 was passed in March 2008, this lawbeing known as the "law of the single vote".Law no. 35/2008 confirms the modification of the Romanian electoral systemand the November 2008 parliamentary elections were held under itsprerogatives. The consequences of the electoral changes are still commentedupon by the most prominent public life players in Romania.

  4. Group dynamics in the Citizens' Assembly on Electoral Reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongh, M.S. de

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, the Dutch Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations set up a national citizen assembly on electoral reform. One hundred and forty Dutch citizens were asked to work together for nine months to investigate various electoral systems for choosing members of the Parliament, and eventually

  5. Un potencial comunicativo desaprovechado. Twitter como mecanismo generador de diálogo en campaña electoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Alonso-Muñoz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available El uso de Twitter como herramienta estratégica para la comunicación política se ha incrementado notablemente durante los últimos años, especialmente en periodo de campaña electoral. El objetivo de esta investigación es examinar el grado de cumplimiento de los principios dialógicos atribuidos a las redes sociales. Para ello se aplica la técnica del análisis de contenido cuantitativo a los tuits publicados por los principales partidos españoles (PP, PSOE, Podemos y Ciudadanos durante las elecciones generales de 2015. Los resultados demuestran que pese al elevado número de publicaciones realizadas por los cuatro partidos, ninguno aprovecha el potencial dialógico de Twitter. Untapped communication potential. Twitter as a mechanism for generating dialogue in an electoral campaign Abstract The use of Twitter as strategic tool for political communication has increased considerably in recent years, particularly during electoral campaigns. The main goal of this paper is to examine the degree of compliance with the principles of dialogue attributed to social media. To achieve this, a quantitative content analysis was carried out on the tweets shared by the main Spanish political parties during the 2015 General Elections. The results show that although a high number of tweets were made by the four political parties during this period, none of them took advantage of the full potential of dialogue on Twitter. Keywords: Twitter, social media, political communication, electoral campaign, digital media

  6. Internet and Electoral Competition: The Case of Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya [ENG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests the equalization hypothesis at the vote level. A good number of studies have examined whether the Internet is levelling the playing fi eld in electoral competition by offering fringe parties opportunities to increase their visibility. To test the infl uence of use of the Internet in vote choice, we analyze the behaviour of ERC voters. Using survey data, we test whether online exposure to political information affects vote choice among these voters. We fi nd that online exposure to political information increases the probability of voting for Solidaritat Catalana relatively to voting again for ERC. The analysis provides empirical evidence to support the idea that the Internet works as a differentiated media environment in which political messages compete in more equal terms.

  7. Los medios en los modelos clásicos de comportamiento electoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Nicolás Menin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available [es] El objetivo del presente artículo es la revisión bibliográfica de la noción de medios de comunicación en los modelos clásicos de comportamiento electoral. Según el modelo de Columbia tienen función de activar, reforzar o convertir, teniendo en cuenta las variables, y, los valores del elector en el Índice de Predisposición Política (IPP, que influencia la selectividad de tipos de medios y recepción de información. Según el modelo Michigan son un componente intermediario entre la percepción no-política-externa y la político-personal. Tales evaluaciones se sostienen en una selectividad alta, tanto en el consumo de medios como en su contenido. Por último, el modelo económico propone que los medios son fuentes y flujos gratuitos de información de carácter persuasivo por su “selección de hechos parciales” para favorecer o no a una determinada fuerza política en términos del beneficio real o hipotético que deduce el votante y, por lo tanto, también con capacidad para corromper al Gobierno y a la oposición. [en] The aim of this article is the bibliographical review of the notion of media in the classical models of electoral behavior. According to the Columbia model, they have the function of activating, reinforcing or converting, taking into account the variables, and the values of the elector in the Political Predisposition Index (IPP, which influences the selectivity of media types and information reception. According to the Michigan model, they are an intermediary component between non-political-external and political-personal perception. Such evaluations are held in high selectivity, both in media consumption and in content. Finally, the economic model proposes that the media are sources and free flows of information of a persuasive nature by their ´selection of partial facts´ to favor or not to a certain political force in terms of the real or hypothetical benefit that the voter deduces and, therefore, also

  8. Enseñanza del Derecho Electoral en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio Sobrado González

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available La ponencia pretende revisar cuál ha sido el tratamiento académico que los estudios electorales (en general y el derecho electoral (en particular han recibido en Costa Rica, así como profundizar en la importancia de la enseñanza del derecho electoral en nuestro país. Mediante un repaso a la reconocida autonomía del derecho electoral, así como los abordajes que su estudio ha tenido en los contextos universitario y profesional, la ponencia concluye que el plan de estudios de la carrera de licenciatura en Derecho debe contemplar al menos un curso de Derecho Electoral, sea mediante uno específico en la materia (preferiblemente, o bien, mediante el reconocimiento expreso de la enseñanza del derecho electoral como parte medular e integral del curso de Derecho Constitucional (en su defecto.

  9. Decomposing the Relationship Between Candidates' Facial Appearance and Electoral Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies show that candidates’ facial competence predicts electoral success. However, a handful of other studies suggest that candidates’ attractiveness is a stronger predictor of electoral success than facial competence. Furthermore, the overall relationship between inferences from...... candidates’ faces and electoral success is challenged in two ways: (i) non-facial factors in candidate photos such as clothing and hair style as well as (ii) parties’ nomination strategies are suggested as potential confounds. This study is based on original data about all 268 candidates running in three...... local elections in 2009 in Denmark and supports a two-component structure of the relationship between candidates’ facial appearance and their electoral success. Facial competence is found to mediate a positive relationship between candidates’ attractiveness and electoral success, but simultaneously...

  10. The Game Frame and Political Efficacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2012-01-01

    Several observational and experimental studies have confirmed the ‘spiral of cynicism’ hypothesis: the tendency of the news media to cover politics through a game frame, which focuses on political strategy instead of political issues, leads to cynicism about election campaigns and politicians amo...... on a survey among the electorate and a content analysis of political coverage in newspapers. The study shows that exposure to the game frame is indeed associated with lower levels of internal efficacy, even when controlling for potentially confounding variables.......Several observational and experimental studies have confirmed the ‘spiral of cynicism’ hypothesis: the tendency of the news media to cover politics through a game frame, which focuses on political strategy instead of political issues, leads to cynicism about election campaigns and politicians among...... the electorate. However, such cynicism may in itself be somewhat inconsequential, and so this article suggests that we move beyond cynicism regarding specific electoral campaigns or politicians, and that we turn our attention towards political efficacy. This is done in an empirical study, which is based...

  11. Una piedra en el camino: el sistema de partidos de la nueva democracia electoral nicaragüense de los noventa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Santiuste

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the party system in Nicaragua in the light of the electoral processes that have been developing in the country since the defeat of the Sandinist revolution in the 1990 elections. Particularly, the work aims at two ends: to find out the distinctive features that define this system and to assess its influence in democratization. This study shows that the new electoral democracy risen in Nicaragua is characterized by a party system where two apparently contradictory situations coexist: a structure of political competence definitely two-sided, and a high degree of partyfragmentation.

  12. BUSINESS CYCLES, ELECTORAL CYCLES. TOWARD A THEORETICAL FRAME OF INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOGDAN-LUCIAN DOSPINESCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The idea of cyclical movement of a system: be it political, economic, institutional, is one of the constants of critical thinking. In this sense, there is a natural cyclic movement that cannot be avoided (only amplified or diminished and is connected with the nature of these systems. The economy follows a cyclical movement; a period of growth follows a period of decline, and so on. So does popularity for political parties or leaders. In this paper, I explore the links between the business cycles and electoral cycles. For this purpose, I introduce the concept of electoral perception cycles. My hypothesis is that popularity of political parties and leaders follow a cyclical evolution, both on short and long term. I show how perception cycles can impact the “political business cycle theory”. There is great interest in political science literature for the factors that influence the fluctuations in Presidents’ popularity, especially from United States. However, very little has been said about Romania’s case. I investigate the hypothesis of electoral perception cycles looking at the popularity of former president Traian Basescu, over his two terms. The variable used to measure popularity is favorability, measured in national surveys, done face to face, on representative samplez, of around 1000 subjects. I’ve correlated the fluctuations in favorability over time, with key public events or political decisions taken by Traian Băsescu. The main findings are as follows. Firstly, there are significant short term fluctuations (short term perception cycles and they are correlated with major events on the agenda. I would point the following key moments: 1. The referendum for dismissal of the President in May 2007 – Traian Băsescu’s favorability increased by 7 percentage points; 2. The referendum for unicameral Parliament with 300 MPs in the fall of 2009. Coupled with victory in the presidential election, it lead to an increase of 10 percentage

  13. Do progressive goverments undertake different debt burdens? Partisan vs. electoral cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. García-Sánchez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Public debt has traditionally been explained mainly by two political factors: a progressive ideology and the electoral cycle. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how these two factors influence the behavior of Spanish local governments as regards indebtedness, and also how indebtedness is influenced by the interaction of ideology and the electoral cycle.Different dependence models were estimated using panel data methodology based on a sample comprised of Spanish provincial capitals and towns with populations over 50,000, for a total of 148 town councils. The time frame corresponds to the fiscal years 1988 to 2008, inclusive. The results show that in an electoral year all politicians behave opportunistically, giving rise to an important increase in public debt in relation to municipal revenue, although progressive incumbents incur three times more debt than those of the opposite ideology. Moreover, the presence of conservative parties in government has tended to significantly attenuate this behavior in years prior to elections, whereas progressive or left-wing parties have not. It must also be noted that partisan and electoral business cycles have been mitigated since 2002, when the Budgetary Stability Law came into effect, imposing limits on the debt of subnational administrations.The empirical evidence obtained points to the need to perfect internal and external control mechanisms in order to avoid a breakdown in the stability policy and the risk of debt becoming untenable, thus achieving greater budgetary discipline.RESUMENEl nivel de endeudamiento público ha sido explicado mediante dos factores políticos, principalmente, la ideología progresista y el ciclo electoral. El objetivo de este trabajo es evidenciar como influyen ambos factores en el comportamiento de los municipios españoles en relación con la deuda que estos asumen dada su capacidad, y como este esfuerzo se ve influenciado por la interacción entre los ciclos partidista y

  14. Political parties in the Sverdlovsk region: stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhametov Ruslan Salikhovich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the processes of party building in the Russian Federation. On the example of a single region – the Sverdlovsk region – we study the evolution of political parties. The factors favoring the process of formation and functioning of regional political parties and political movements in the Middle Urals are identified and classified. Much attention is paid to such factors of development of the parties in the region as a party-electoral law and the electoral system view.

  15. Social media analysis during political turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonakaki, Despoina; Spiliotopoulos, Dimitris; V Samaras, Christos; Pratikakis, Polyvios; Ioannidis, Sotiris; Fragopoulou, Paraskevi

    2017-01-01

    Today, a considerable proportion of the public political discourse on nationwide elections proceeds in Online Social Networks. Through analyzing this content, we can discover the major themes that prevailed during the discussion, investigate the temporal variation of positive and negative sentiment and examine the semantic proximity of these themes. According to existing studies, the results of similar tasks are heavily dependent on the quality and completeness of dictionaries for linguistic preprocessing, entity discovery and sentiment analysis. Additionally, noise reduction is achieved with methods for sarcasm detection and correction. Here we report on the application of these methods on the complete corpus of tweets regarding two local electoral events of worldwide impact: the Greek referendum of 2015 and the subsequent legislative elections. To this end, we compiled novel dictionaries for sentiment and entity detection for the Greek language tailored to these events. We subsequently performed volume analysis, sentiment analysis, sarcasm correction and topic modeling. Results showed that there was a strong anti-austerity sentiment accompanied with a critical view on European and Greek political actions.

  16. New social movements as a political subculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwick, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    The contribution is based on a topical panel set especially adjusted to the requirements of political culture research, electoral research, and movement research. The book is centered around empirically verified findings of political-cultural modernization and differentiation processes, and the development of German political culture. It was possible to empirically confirm the main thesis in particular: The new social movements call for rigid and quick social changes in emancipatory, equalitary, ecological and fundamental-democratic orientation. Apart from the Greens, an independent political subculture has formed itself, which is, even in the present phase with little movement-specific mobilization, politically effective and empirically ascertainable. (orig.) [de

  17. THE EFFECTS OF ANTI-DISCRIMINATION LAWS AND POLICIES ON POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC STABILITY OF EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merim Kasumović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of a civil society and social systems for protection of different groups is directly related to well functioning political and economic systems. If the level of economic development or political stability is not continuous the implementation of antidiscrimination laws would most likely be at a very low level. In this case development of social rights along with implementation of antidiscrimination rights may be marginalized due to three factors: lack of cooperation among political and economic spheres, lack of knowledge about antidiscrimination laws and absence of political will for adoption and implementation of antidiscrimination laws. Therefore, we focus on the examination of specific issues concerning the three aforementioned factors primarily focusing on EU and divergence in the level of political and economic development among the member states.We will argue that antidiscrimination laws are not welcome in new member states, especially since they increase political and economic costs for the governments of respective countries. Level of political development has much to do with the acceptance and inclusion of AD laws in the decision making process. Economic development has much to do with social and living standards within a country which is directly related to the general perception of the population on AD laws. Therefore, one could say that implementation of AD laws heavily depends on the preparedness of people, economic and political system and their will to cope with costs and benefits of implementing those laws.

  18. Politics representation scenarios and elec toral behavior - study case: Porto Alegre's municipal elections in 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Barth

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to reflect about the influence of the political surveys in the definition of the electoral behavior analyzing the scenarios of political representation, the mechanism of public opinion formation and the specificities of the behavior of the gaucho electorate. We believe the publicity built upon the surveys had a great impact in the Porto Alegre mayor election results in 2004. The methodology we chose was the qualitative approach, that is, content analysis. In the end, we confirm the behavior of the gaucho electorate shows a receptive predisposing to the appeal to the useful vote.

  19. OBSTRUCTION OF THE EXERCISE OF ELECTORAL RIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRCEA CONSTANTIN SINESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the present study, we analyze the crime of obstruction of the exercise of electoral rights, as it is presented in the New Criminal Code, in comparison with the current regulation within the specific election laws. Taking into consideration the fact that the election crimes have been inserted as a separate title (section in the New Criminal Code, we need to highlight the vision of the legislator regarding these crimes. Furthermore, this study consists of a synthetic analysis of the constitutive elements of the mentioned crime, as reconfigured in the form provided by art.385 of the New Criminal Code. We consider that examining this crime is a necessity, because of the lack of Court decisions in this area of practice - probably due to the gaps in the legislation preceding the Criminal Code that is to be enforced in the near future.

  20. El proceso electoral de 2006 y las reformas electorales necesarias

    OpenAIRE

    Cárdenas, Jaime

    2007-01-01

    En este artículo se abordan los principales acontecimientos del proceso electoral de 2006 y algunos previos como la integración del actual Consejo General del Instituto Federal Electoral. El autor considera que la elección del 2 de julio de 2006 debió anularse por que no cumplió con los principios constitucionales de libertad y autenticidad. También señala que las autoridades electorales de México, incluyendo al Tribunal Electoral del Poder Judicial de la Federación, no estuvieron a la altura...

  1. La reforma de la ley electoral: respuesta al Profesor Nohlen

    OpenAIRE

    JORGE DE ESTEBAN

    1982-01-01

    Se aportan ideas relativas a la reforma del sistema electoral español, ya avanzadas en el diario El País los días 16, 18 y 19 de agosto de 1981. Se critica a Dieter Nohlen por su concepto de "normas mínimas para la reforma electoral", ya que se considera inadecuado para captar la complejidad del actual debate. Se tratan temas como el abstencionismo, el conflicto y división de partidos, la influencia del sistema electoral en el sistema de partidos y el problema básico de establecer un régimen ...

  2. Base de datos Electores de Costa Rica (1897-1909.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Molina Jiménez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available La Constitución francesa de 1791 definió la estructura básica de las votaciones indirectas al diferenciar entre ciudadanos y electores: los primeros, en asambleas primarias, escogían a un número reducido de los segundos, quienes elegían, a su vez, a los diputados. Este modelo de representación política fue el que inspiró la Constitución de Cádiz de 1812, la cual organizó la emisión del sufragio en tres grados –ciudadanos, electores de parroquia y electores de partido

  3. Echilibru partinic și reprezentare electorală în democraţiile estice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu-Petru Grecu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The success of democratic order in post-communist countries depends on the balance of political parties, the equilibrium of electoral systems and the role played by the social capital in spreading the rules of democracy. This paper is focused on a quantitative-multivariate analyse of political and party dynamics in Eastern Europe. The main objective of this article is to underline the party dynamics and evolution in a comparative case study between Romania and Poland. We want to create a comprehensive image of election and party evolution in post-communist countries.

  4. Politics-business interaction paths

    OpenAIRE

    Belloc, Marianna; Pagano, Ugo

    2009-01-01

    Most pre-crisis explanations of the various corporate governance systems have considered the separation between ownership and control to be an advantage of the Anglo-American economies. They have also attributed the failure of other countries to achieve these efficient arrangements to their different legal and/or electoral systems. In this paper we compare this view with the co-evolution approach based on the hypothesis that politics and corporate governance influence each other, generating c...

  5. El marketing electoral en el ámbito local: el caso del municipio de Temamatla, Estado de México, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Esthela Benítez Garcés

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se examina la importancia de las estrategias de marketing electoral en la contienda por la Presidencia Municipal de Temamatla, Estado de México, en 2012. Con el fin de alcanzar este objetivo, en la primera parte de la investigación se analiza, en líneas generales, qué es la democracia, así como la importancia de los partidos políticos y de la publicidad electoral; en la segunda se es-tudia cómo las estrategias de mercadotecnia han adquirido relevancia en el ámbito comicial, y en la última se aborda específicamente cómo influyó la propaganda en las elecciones de 2012 en el muni-cipio mencionado / This work examines the importance of the electoral marketing strategies on the elections for Municipal President in Temamatla, State of Mexico in 2012. In order to reach this objective, the first part of the investigation analyzes, in general terms, what democracy is and the importance of the political parties and the electoral publicity. The second part presents the study on how the marketing strategies have become more relevant in the electoral sphere. Finally, the last part presents how the propaganda influenced the 2012 elections in this municipality.

  6. El marketing electoral en el ámbito local: el caso del municipio de Temamatla, Estado de México, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Esthela Benítez-Garcés

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se examina la importancia de las estrategias de marketing electoral en la contienda por la Presidencia Municipal de Temamatla, Estado de México, en 2012. Con el fin de alcanzar este objetivo, en la primera parte de la investigación se analiza, en líneas generales, qué es la democracia, así como la importancia de los partidos políticos y de la publicidad electoral; en la segunda se estudia cómo las estrategias de mercadotecnia han adquirido relevancia en el ámbito comicial, y en la última se aborda específicamente cómo influyó la propaganda en las elecciones de 2012 en el municipio mencionado. / This work examines the importance of the electoral marketing strategies on the elections for Municipal President in Temamatla, State of Mexico in 2012. In order to reach this objective, the first part of the investigation analyzes, in general terms, what democracy is and the importance of the political parties and the electoral publicity. The second part presents the study on how the marketing strategies have become more relevant in the electoral sphere. Finally, the last part presents how the propaganda influenced the 2012 elections in this municipality.

  7. Credibility enacted : Understanding the meaning of credible political leadership in the Dutch parliamentary election campaign of 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zuydam, Sabine; Hendriks, Frank

    2018-01-01

    In times of perception politics, the credibility of electoral candidates is a crucial asset in political marketing. This raises the question to which political leaders citizens attribute credibility and how political credibility is gained and lost through media performance. We analyze and compare

  8. Credibility enacted : Understanding the meaning of credible political leadership in the Dutch parliamentary election campaign of 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zuydam, Sabine; Hendriks, Frank

    2015-01-01

    In times of perception politics, the credibility of electoral candidates is a crucial asset in political marketing. This raises the question to which political leaders citizens attribute credibility and how political credibility is gained and lost through media performance. We analyze and compare

  9. The electoral campaign through Social Media. Case Study – 2014 Presidential elections in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasențe Tănase

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Developing a real network-society, the political communication through Social Media is no longer performing unidirectional, the political actors and the journalists do not have the same influence on the masses, as they had in the classic systems of political communication and the online opinion leaders have become key-factors in all this equation. In this sense, the main purpose of online campaign staff is to empower fans to interact with the posts of the candidate. Thus, any kind of feedback – like, comment or share – decentralizes the political message in social groups of fans, where he has a greater influence than the political actor. Once the message is discussed in social groups, strong ties (friends of the fans are persuaded to become, in their turn, fans of the political actor and the conversion rate increase and this process will continue as long as interaction rate is high. In this paper, we aim to analyse the communication process through Facebook in the electoral campaign for the 2014 Romanian Presidential Elections and to compare the level of support for candidates on Facebook and for the real vote.

  10. Revisiting democratic civil peace: Electoral regimes and civil conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartusevicius, Henrikas; Skaaning, Svend-Erik

    2018-01-01

    to use force. Building on this framework, we distinguish between five regime types according to their electoral features—non-electoral autocracies, single-party autocracies, multi-party autocracies, minimalist democracies, and polyarchies—and specify hypotheses regarding the likelihood of conflict...... in each. In a global statistical analysis spanning 1817‒2006 and employing the new Lexical Index of Electoral Democracy (LIED), we find that polyarchies, characterized by unconstrained contestation, have a lower risk of conflict than any other regime type (although minimalist democracies are only slightly......) elections and minimal electoral competition. Overall, our study underscores the importance of focusing on the central attributes of democracy and sheds new light on the relationship between particular regime features (or types) and conflict, thereby contributing to the growing efforts in conflict research...

  11. Divisor-based biproportional apportionment in electoral systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Sebastian; Zachariassen, Petur; Zachariasen, Martin

    2010-01-01

    in an electoral system context. By performing experiments on real-life benchmark instances (election data with multimember districts), we evaluate the general quality of divisor-based apportionments with respect to, e.g., deviation from quota, reversal orderings, and occurrences of ties. For example, we studied......Biproportional apportionment methods provide two-way proportionality in electoral systems where the electoral region is subdivided into electoral districts. The problem is to assign integral values to the elements of a matrix that are proportional to a given input matrix, and such that a set of row...... the frequency in which a party with a higher vote count in a district ended up with fewer seats in that district....

  12. The Political Economy of Joining the European Union : Iceland's Position at the Beginning of the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Bjarnason, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    Iceland can consider its participation in the European Economic Area (EEA) as an associate membership of the European Union (EU). Under the EEA agreement, Iceland participates in the EU free movement of capital, persons, services and industrial goods, along with cooperation in social policy and related fields. However, Iceland does not participate in the EU Common Fisheries Policy (CFP), the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), or in the EU Cust...

  13. A Political Decision Disguised as Legal Argument? Opinion 2/13 and European Union Accession to the European Convention on Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2015-01-01

    David Thór Björgvinsson was a judge of the European Court of Human Rights between 2004 and 2013. During this period, he was involved in many important judgments, including Scoppola v Italy (No. 3), Eweida and others v United Kingdom, and Al-Jedda v the United Kingdom, amongst others, and went...... Rights, the workings of the European Court of Human Rights, and what the future may have in store for this Court....

  14. The political attack ad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma Peña-Jiménez, Ph.D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During election campaigns the political spot has a clear objective: to win votes. This message is communicated to the electorate through television and Internet, and usually presents a negative approach, which includes a direct critical message against the opponent, rather than an exposition of proposals. This article is focused on the analysis of the campaign attack video ad purposely created to encourage the disapproval of the political opponent among voters. These ads focus on discrediting the opponent, many times, through the transmission of ad hominem messages, instead of disseminating the potential of the political party and the virtues and manifesto of its candidate. The article reviews the development of the attack ad since its first appearance, which in Spain dates back to 1996, when the famous Doberman ad was broadcast, and examines the most memorable campaign attack ads.

  15. From Rebellion to Electoral Violence. Evidence from Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Colombo; Olivia D'Aoust; Olivier Sterck

    2014-01-01

    We aim at understanding the triggers of electoral violence, which spoiled 80% ofelections in Africa during the last decades. We focus on Burundi, a country wherepolls were organized in 2010, only few months after the end of a long-lasting civilwar. We find that an acute polarization between ex-rebels’ groups is highly conduciveto electoral violence. In particular, we predict a five-fold increase in electoralviolence between the lowest- and highest-polarized municipality. However, neitherethni...

  16. Toward Electoral Security: Experiences from KwaZulu-Natal

    OpenAIRE

    Kristine Höglund; Anna K. Jarstad

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing recognition of the dangers of electoral violence. Yet, the theoretical foundation for systematic research and for adequate policy is still underdeveloped. This article aims to develop the theoretical understandings of strategies to manage and prevent electoral violence. This is accomplished by integrating research conducted within the two academic discourses on democratization and conflict management and also by drawing on the experiences from the conflict-ridden province K...

  17. A Political Decision Disguised as Legal Argument? Opinion 2/13 and European Union Accession to the European Convention on Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Butler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available David Thór Björgvinsson was a judge of the European Court of Human Rights between 2004 and 2013. During this period, he was involved in many important judgments, including 'Scoppola v Italy (No. 3',[1] 'Eweida and others v United Kingdom',[2] and 'Al-Jedda v the United Kingdom',[3] amongst others, and went on to serve as Vice-President of the Fourth Section. He has degrees from the University of Iceland, Duke University School of Law, and the University of Strasbourg, and is currently a Professor of Law at the Centre of Excellence for International Courts (iCourts at the Faculty of Law, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. In this interview, carried out in June 2015 for the Utrecht Journal of International and European Law, David Thór Björgvinsson outlined his views to Graham Butler on Opinion 2/13 from the Court of Justice of the European Union on the Union’s accession to the European Convention on Human Rights,[4] the workings of the European Court of Human Rights, and what the future may have in store for this Court. [1] 'Scoppola v Italy (No. 3' (2013 56 EHRR 19. [2] 'Eweida and others v United Kingdom' (2013 57 EHRR 8. [3] 'Al-Jedda v the United Kingdom' (2011 53 EHRR 23. [4] Opinion 2/13 (2014 Accession of the European Union to the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, (not yet reported.

  18. A Political Decision Disguised as Legal Argument? Opinion 2/13 and European Union Accession to the European Convention on Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Butler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available David Thór Björgvinsson was a judge of the European Court of Human Rights between 2004 and 2013. During this period, he was involved in many important judgments, including 'Scoppola v Italy (No. 3',[1] Eweida and others v United Kingdom,[2] and 'Al-Jedda v the United Kingdom';a title="" href="#_ftn3">[3] amongst others, and went on to serve as Vice-President of the Fourth Section. He has degrees from the University of Iceland, Duke University School of Law, and the University of Strasbourg, and is currently a Professor of Law at the Centre of Excellence for International Courts (iCourts at the Faculty of Law, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. In this interview, carried out in June 2015 for the Utrecht Journal of International and European Law, David Thór Björgvinsson outlined his views to Graham Butler on Opinion 2/13 from the Court of Justice of the European Union on the Union’s accession to the European Convention on Human Rights,[4] the workings of the European Court of Human Rights, and what the future may have in store for this Court.[1] Scoppola v Italy (No. 3 (2013 56 EHRR 19.[2] Eweida and others v United Kingdom (2013 57 EHRR 8.[3] Al-Jedda v the United Kingdom (2011 53 EHRR 23.[4] Opinion 2/13 (2014 Accession of the European Union to the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, (not yet reported.

  19. Normative Power vs. Political Interest: EU Aid Selectivity beyond the European Consensus on Development, 2008-13

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Hout (Wil)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper focuses on the ‘governance turn’ in the development policies of the European Union, represented in particular by the adoption of the ‘European Consensus on Development’ in 2005. The main assumption inherent in the EU approach to development is that the

  20. The political economy of joining the European Union: Iceland’s position at the beginning of the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bjarnason, M

    2010-01-01

    Iceland can consider its participation in the European Economic Area (EEA) as an associate membership of the European Union (EU). Under the EEA agreement, Iceland participates in the EU free movement of capital, persons, services and industrial goods, along with cooperation in social policy and

  1. Gender, risk assessment, and political ambition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet-Cushman, Jennie

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, women have long held the right to vote and can participate fully in the political process, and yet they are underrepresented at all levels of elected office. Worldwide, men's dominance in the realm of politics has also been the norm. To date, scholars have focused on supply-side and demand-side explanations of women's underrepresentation but differences in how men and women assess electoral risk (the risk involved in seeking political office) are not fully explained. To fill this gap, I explore how evolutionary theory offers insights into gendered differences in political ambition and the evaluation of electoral risk. Using the framework of life-history theory, I hypothesize that both cognitive and environmental factors in human evolution, particularly as they relate to sexual selection and social roles, have shaped the psychology of ambition in gendered ways affecting contemporary politics. Cognitive risk-assessment mechanisms evolving in the hominid line came to be expressed differently in females and males, in women and men. These gendered expressions plausibly reflect differentiable environmental pressures in the past and may help explain behaviors in and barriers to women's electoral political activity in the present. If so, then the success of efforts to increase such activity - or, regressively, to suppress it - may be better understood.

  2. The costs of electoral fraud: establishing the link between electoral integrity, winning an election, and satisfaction with democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin-Rittberger, Jessica; Harfst, Philipp; Dingler, Sarah C

    2017-07-03

    Previous research has shown that voters' perception of electoral fairness has an impact on their attitudes and behaviors. However, less research has attempted to link objective measurements of electoral integrity on voters' attitudes about the democratic process. Drawing on data from the Comparative Study of Electoral Systems and the Quality of Elections Data, we investigate whether cross-national differences in electoral integrity have significant influences on citizens' level of satisfaction with democracy. We hypothesize that higher levels of observed electoral fraud will have a negative impact on evaluations of the democratic process, and that this effect will be mediated by a respondent's status as a winner or loser of an election. The article's main finding is that high levels of electoral fraud are indeed linked to less satisfaction with democracy. However, we show that winning only matters in elections that are conducted in an impartial way. The moment elections start to display the telltale signs of manipulation and malpractice, winning and losing no longer have different effects on voter's levels of satisfaction with democracy.

  3. The Youth and Political Ideology in Ghanaian Politics: The Case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The youth of Ghana have played an important role in both local and national politics since the inception of the Fourth Republic. Among other things, they have served as the foot-soldiers and channels through which party manifestoes have been transmitted to the electorate and polling agents during registration and voting ...

  4. Indigenous participation and representation in Venezuelan electoral processes Participación y representación indígena en los procesos electorales venezolanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando ANGOSTO FERRÁNDEZ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the Venezuelan regional elections of 2008 as a contextual event for the analysis of electoral strategies and results associated with the indigenous representation. Three factors intertwined in the electoral moment are analyzed: 1. the existence of minimum guaranteed representation for indigenous population in legislative organs; 2. the participation of indigenous candidates and electors; 3. the maneuvers of political parties and civil organizations that attempt to channel and/or benefit from such indigenous representation and participation. The description of the electoral context facilitates the identification of factors that, beyond the normative structure of the State, condition the agency of individuals and parties involved in electoral processes. Among those factors are the symbolic value of indigeneity in the current process of national identity re-definition, the interest of political parties in controlling the vote of the indigenous representation and the tendency towards the consolidation of professionalized elites within the indigenous activism.Este artículo examina los comicios regionales de 2008 en Venezuela como evento contextual para el análisis de estrategias y resultados electorales vinculados a la representación indígena. Se analizan tres factores interrelacionados en el momento electoral: 1. la existencia de representación mínima garantizada a la población indígena en los órganos legislativos; 2. la participación de candidatos y electores indígenas en los comicios; 3. las maniobras de partidos políticos y organizaciones civiles que intentan canalizar y/o beneficiarse de dicha representación y participación. La descripción del contexto electoral permite identificar factores que, más allá de la estructura normativa estatal, condicionan la agencia de individuos y partidos involucrados en los comicios. Entre esos factores se encuentran el valor simbólico de la indigenidad en el actual proceso

  5. Testing with Values: the Refugee Problem and Political Prospects of the “Alternative for Germany”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Алена Васильевна Федина

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the reasons for the electoral success of the “Alternative for Germany” party at the federal and state levels in 2016-2017. Looking at the ideological spectrum of German political parties through the research lens of a two-dimensional coordinate system that, alongside the traditional ideological dimension includes the value axis, the author points out the fact that the problem of the refugees, which appeals to the values of the nation, perplexed German parties, as the choice of a particular strategy in regard to the refugees involved high risks of losing a significant number of votes. As a result, those parties, which managed to clearly articulate their system of values, above all the “Alternative”, benefited from this situation. The author states that the rise of the “Alternative” was caused by the “value vacuum” in the party life in Germany stemming from the progressive “open-door” refugee policy introduced by Chancellor Merkel in order to resolve the European refugee crisis. Much consideration is given to the reasons that led the CDU to adopt such an unusual strategy for a predominantly centrist party. In conclusion the author suggests that, in spite of its electoral success, political influence of the “Alternative” will be seriously limited by the unwillingness on the part of other parties to establish contacts and build inter-party ties with an inexperienced political player, which is prone to neglect the achievements of German democracy and does not fit into the framework of modern political mainstream. From the other hand, the tightening of the immigration policy weakens the protest potential of German voters.

  6. Society as a victim of corruption: Political corruption in Serbia as an obstacle on the road to membership in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanjević Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of corruption in Serbia, as a dangerous phenomenon that is usually classified as a victimless crime, although the damage it causes is enormous and its consequences affect an indefinite and large number of victims. Corruption leads to the expansion of economic inequalities, it slows down and hinders economic growth and development, destroys the legitimacy of institutions, endangers the protection of basic human rights and freedoms and undermines the fundamental values on which the society is based. Particular attention is devoted to the issue od political corruption because it is the most dangerous form of corruption and this problem has been marked by the European Commission as the biggest obstacle on the way of our country towards European integrations. It has been pointed out that the most dangerous crimes of corruption are under-detected and rarely prosecuted, which is influenced by the very fact that corruption is an essential link between the world of politics and economics and that the perpetrators of these acts are persons that are holding prominent positions in the government or an exceptional power in society, and on the other hand, the victims of these acts are all citizens of Serbia.

  7. oas electoral observations vs. unasur accompaniment in the last elections in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Carlos PASCUAL PLANCHUELO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Electoral observation has become an essential exercise for the development of electoral democracy. The proliferation of organizations monitoring elections makes necessary to distinguish real «election observation activities», from other similar activities, such as «electoral accompaniment». Independence is an essential element that must be respected by true electoral observation organizations. Accordingly, the lack of independence in some of these organizations transforms them into «intervened electoral observation» actors, dowgrading its credibility and reliability. Hence, the last electoral processes that have taken place in Venezuela, provide the necessary factual basis to distinguish oas election observation missions, from unasur accompaniment missions.

  8. Seizing Political Opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    2016-01-01

    Political actors need to be nimble and respond to the opportunity to reform old policies and initiate new ones. The article looks at how the European Commission takes advantage of politically opportune moments (the ‘gridlock interval’) in the European Parliament to put forward new legislation...

  9. Personality, Political Behavior, and Political Views about Mexico’s 2012 Presidential Election

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Moreno

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available People’s electoral behavior is understood as political predispositions and attitudes in specific institutional contexts. Recent scholarly work has included personality as a key explanatory factor in individual-level models of political participation. In this paper we build upon these recent efforts. We utilize the Big Five approach to assess the effects of different personality traits on people’s likelihood of political engagement during the 2012 presidential election in Mexico. We focus on the effects of personality on voting in the election and on individual views about the integrity of the electoral process. We use post election survey data collected for the Comparative National Elections Project in the 2012 Mexican presidential election. Our findings show that extraversion is a critical individual-level factor accounting for the propensity to turnout in this election as well as to encourage political discussion with family members, friends, neighbors, and co-workers.

  10. New discursive strategies within Political Communication. Case study: Parliamentary Parties in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ariton-Gelan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of new technologies, implicitely that of Internet contributed to the reconfiguration of the political communication field. In this respect, politicians report themselves to an electorate that is more detached from institutionalized politics and political ideologies, electorate that has the possibility to participate to debating alternative forms of the political, through some social movements and through online forums. Generally, new media created the possibility that journalists and media production agencies imagine more dynamic media formats from the point of view of interaction with citizens and visual strategies. Within the new context coming from the relation between politician, media and electorate, the Internet, through its functions, generates a special kind of „political communication management”.

  11. Reformas eleitorais na América Latina: grandes expectativas, poucos casos, resultados perversos Electoral reforms in Latin America: great expectations, few cases, perverse outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Marenco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este texto pretende realizar um balanço de reformas eleitorais nas regras para a escolha de cadeiras legislativas na América Latina a partir da terceira onda da democracia. Na primeira parte, é feita uma revisão dos estudos sobre sistemas eleitorais, considerando, em particular, os efeitos políticos provocados pelas regras de conversão de votos em mandatos eletivos e os fatores que contribuem para a realização de reformas eleitorais. Na segunda parte, são examinadas as reformas eleitorais promovidas na América Latina, buscando identificar fatores que tenham contribuído para sua realização. Na terceira seção, foram analisadas as consequências provocadas pelas mudanças nos sistemas eleitorais, especialmente aquelas relacionadas ao grau de competição partidária, volatilidade eleitoral e a desestruturação dos sistemas partidários após a implementação das reformas.This article seeks to compare electoral reforms aimed at changing the rules for the choice of legislative seats in Latin America, since the third wave of democracy. In the first section, it is presented a literature review on electoral systems studies, considering especially the political effects of the rules on how seats are distributed according to votes, and the factors that contribute to induce electoral reforms as well. In the second section, the electoral reforms promoted in Latin America are analyzed with the purpose of identifying the factors that contributed to produce such reforms. In the third section, the consequences of changes in the electoral systems are analyzed, focusing those associated to the degree of party competition and electoral volatility.

  12. The Politics of the MST Autonomous Rural Communities, the State, and Electoral Politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergara Camus, Leandro

    Examination of the politicization of landless people in the encampments and settlements of the Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem-Terra (Landless Rural Workers' Movement-MST) in Brazil suggests that the movement's success rest on the fact that it generates relatively autonomous rural communities

  13. The power of likes: Social media logic and political communication

    OpenAIRE

    Kalsnes, Bente

    2016-01-01

    Political communication on social media is the topic of this dissertation. The Internet and social media platforms have provided participants in the public sphere with new ways to connect, communicate and distribute information. This study examines how and why the three main actor groups within political communication – political actors, media actors and citizens – connect and interact on social media during the electoral process in Norway in 2013. This hybrid media landscape is characterized...

  14. Incentivos al abstencionismo electoral por apatía en ciudadanos bogotanos que nunca han votado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Correa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Electoral abstention in Colombia is evidence of the lack of interest that the population have in exercising their right to vote and elect their governments. Among the types of abstention are, abstention due to apathy, in which the severe consequences of the abstention are ignored and voting is not motivated by giving excuses not to do so. The aim of this study has been to examine and identify the main reasons and functions of the incentives applying the Behavioural Perspective Model (BPM developed by Foxall (2011 to abstention in three apathetic voters of the city of Bogota, male and female between the ages of 28 and 56, using the compiling of information from an in-depth interview technique. In the result employing the verbatim from a hermeneutic analysis, it showed that the main reasons for abstention due to apathy are rejection or lack of credibility in the political system, presence of informational incentives to vote of intangible symbolic value to abstentionism such as, discrediting the act of voting or a perception of lack of competence or the presence of corruption among the candidates. Furthermore, it is perceived that the right to vote as another possibility not as a civic duty. These findings are relevant to the electoral and public management of the Colombian democratic system.

  15. Elecciones 2009 en Uruguay: permanencia de lealtades políticas y accountability electoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Selios

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se indagan las principales características asociadas al comportamiento electoral en las elecciones nacionales uruguayas en el año 2009. Através de la estimación de modelos probit en base a una encuesta electoral, se encuentra que la evaluación de la gestión del gobierno, la percepción de la economía y los aspectos ideológicos aparecen jugando fuertemente en esta elección caracterizada por la baja volatilidad. Estos hallazgos indican la existencia de fuertes lealtades a los partidos agrupados en familias ideológicas, combinadas con aspectos evaluativos sobre el desempeño económico y político, que pautan el voto de los uruguayos en esta elección.This paper inquires about the main characteristics of voting behavior in uruguayan national elections in 2009. Using a probit analysis based on an election poll it is found that government management, perception of economy and ideological issues play an important role in this election characterized by low volatility. These findings indicate strong party loyalties aggregated in "ideological families" as well as evaluative aspects about political and economic performance that determine the Uruguayan vote.

  16. Los conservadores bonaerenses y la reforma de la ley electoral provincial (1910-1913

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Fernández Irusta

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza las tensiones y los conflictos políticos que mediaron en la promulgación de la reforma de la ley electoral bonaerense de 1913. La hipótesis principal del trabajo sostiene que la política democrática impulsada durante la presidencia de Roque Sáenz Peña redefinió las pautas de lucha interna del gobernante Partido Conservador de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, induciendo a sus distintas fracciones a vincular sus intereses particulares al nuevo contexto institucional. En consecuencia, lejos de ofrecer una respuesta en bloque o dividirse en torno al apoyo o rechazo de la democratización, los conservadores bonaerenses produjeron una serie de iniciativas "reformistas" que reflejaban sus propias divisiones internas. En este sentido, la orientación de la ley electoral promulgada en 1913 implicó tanto una respuesta a las demandas reformistas de la época como una fórmula de compromiso surgida tras la resolución de las tensiones acumuladas en los años precedentes.This article analyzes the political conflicts and tensions arising from the promulgation of the 1913 Buenos Aires electoral law reform. The main hypothesis supports that the democratic policy fostered during Roque Sáenz Peña's presidency redefined the guidelines of the internal struggle within the ruling Conservative Party of the Buenos Aires Province, thus inducing its different fractions to link their private interests to the new institutional context. As a result, far from offering a Block response or announcing themselves in favour of, or against, democratization, Buenos Aires conservatives generated between 1910 and 1913 a series of 'reforming' initiatives, which reflected their own internal divisions. In this sense, the direction of the electoral law issued in 1913 implied not only a response to the reforming demands of the era, but also a commitment arising from the solution to the tension built up in the preceding years.

  17. Statistical analysis of Brazilian electoral campaigns via Benford's law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamermann, Daniel; Antunes, Felipe Leite

    2018-04-01

    The principle of democracy is that the people govern through elected representatives. Therefore, a democracy is healthy as long as the elected politicians do represent the people. We have analyzed data from the Brazilian electoral court (Tribunal Superior Eleitoral, TSE) concerning money donations for the electoral campaigns and the election results. Our work points to two conclusions that combined may be in conflict with the democratic principle: money is the determining factor on whether a candidate is elected or not (opposed to representativeness); secondly, the use of Benford's Law to analyze the declared donations received by the parties and electoral campaigns shows either possible manipulations in the declarations or a significant number of donations that might not have been spontaneous from the donors. The better term that describes Brazil's government system is plutocracy (govern by the wealthy).

  18. La reforma de la ley electoral: respuesta al Profesor Nohlen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE DE ESTEBAN

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available Se aportan ideas relativas a la reforma del sistema electoral español, ya avanzadas en el diario El País los días 16, 18 y 19 de agosto de 1981. Se critica a Dieter Nohlen por su concepto de "normas mínimas para la reforma electoral", ya que se considera inadecuado para captar la complejidad del actual debate. Se tratan temas como el abstencionismo, el conflicto y división de partidos, la influencia del sistema electoral en el sistema de partidos y el problema básico de establecer un régimen viable política y económicamente.

  19. Expression of the Objectives of Interactive Electoral Communication: The Study of 2011 Municipal Council Elections

    OpenAIRE

    Šuminas, Andrius

    2011-01-01

    The process of interactive electoral communication initiated by politicians in social media is the object of the dissertation. The aim of the paper is to develop a comprehensive research approach to politicians’ electoral communication in social media and to use the approach in describing the specificity of electoral communication taking place in social media, determining the features of expression of the candidates’ electoral objectives, and making an analysis of the communication that took ...

  20. La elección uruguaya después de la reforma electoral de 1997: los cambios que aseguraron la continuidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Buquet

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an hypothesis is presented in order to explain the 1999 Uruguayan presidential election won by the candidate of the ruling Colorado Party, considering the changes in the electoral system. In this respect the results are not surprising given the behavior of the traditional parties since the 1997 reform. Finally a scene is described to foresee the evolution of the political system in the short and long terms.

  1. INSTITUTIONAL COMMUNICATION IN THE ELECTORAL DEBATES BETWEEN CANDIDATES TO THE PRESIDENCY OF THE GOVERNMENT OF SPAIN IN THE GENERAL ELECTIONS (2008 AND 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gallego Reguera

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Academy of Sciences and the Arts of Spanish Television, as Institution that represents the professionals of the audiovisual sector, was in charge of organizing, producing, issuing and communicating the electoral debates between the candidates for the Presidency of the Government in Spain in the Elections General held in 2008 and 2011. This article describes and analyzes the institutional communication policy of these major political events and the consequent national and international repercussions.

  2. Electoral cycles in electricity losses in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Brian; Golden, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    A third of electricity in India is lost each year, where losses refer to power that is supplied but not billed. Utilizing data from the power corporation of Uttar Pradesh, India's most populous state, we study the politics of electricity losses. Examining annual data over four decades, we document that UP's electricity losses tend to increase in periods immediately prior to state assembly elections. Drawing upon geographically disaggregated data for the period 2000–09, we observe higher line losses just prior to the 2002 and 2007 state elections. Our analysis shows that the incumbent party was more likely to retain the assembly seat as line losses in the locality increased. We interpret these results as corroboration that political parties deliberately redirect electricity to flat rate and unbilled users in a context of chronically inadequate supply. Political factors appear to affect line losses in ways that technical and economic factors alone cannot explain. - Highlights: • A third of electricity in India is lost each year. • Electricity losses increase by 3 percentage points in periods leading up to statewide elections in India's largest state. • Candidates are more likely to win re-election in areas where line losses are allowed to increase. • Political factors affect line losses in ways that technical and economic factors alone cannot explain

  3. A Multifaceted Analysis of the Electoral System of the Republic of Suriname

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imma Curiel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The electoral system of Suriname has been analyzed. Suriname has a unicameral parliament, the National Assembly. The 51 seats of the National Assembly are distributed among 10 districts. There are large discrepancies between the numbers of voters represented by a seat in the various districts. Apportionment methods leading to different seat distributions are explored and compared with each other and with the current one. The comparison is done with respect to the number of voters represented by a seat, the mean majority deficit and the probability that a majority deficit will occur, the influence of a voter in a particular district using the Banzhaf power index, and the influence of a political party relative to the percentage of the popular vote that the party obtained. The method of equal proportions turns out to yield the best results in general. (original abstract

  4. ELECTORAL BEHAVIOUR AT THE 2009 AND 2014 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS IN HARGHITA, COVASNA AND MUREŞ COUNTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOFAN George-Bogdan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study represents a synthesis of the electoral behaviour exhibited by the population of Harghita, Covasna and Mureş counties, at the 2009 presidential elections, held on 22nd November (first tour and 6th December (second tour, and at the presidential elections of 2014 (first tour, 2nd November, and second tour, 16th November. In terms of candidates, the following occured: in 2009, first tour, with 12 candidates, from which only Traian Băsescu and Mircea Geoană proceeded to the second round, and 14 candidates in the first round of the 2014 elections (10 of them from political parties and alliances. The second round was defined by the first two candidates with the highest number of votes, which were Victor-Viorel Ponta and Klaus-Werner Iohannis.

  5. The European atomic politics under the treaty of Lisboa and actual questions of the export of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlenz, Christian; Frenz, Walter

    2011-01-01

    In the context of the actual discussion considerably influenced by safety questions activated by the reactor accident in Tschernobyl in 1986, the EAG gains increasing significance. However, a substantial safety risk proceeds not only with nuclear power stations as a possible goal for attacks of terror, but also from the uncontrolled spreading with nuclear material. The latter equally affects the question on handling radioactive waste materials being straightly discussed in Germany as well as in the European Union as proven by the European Union commissioner Oettinger. This is to be considered in connection with the problem how extensively the competences of the Euratom for the nuclear safety may be interpreted. The actual changes of the legal situation by means of the Lisboa contract for the EAG altogether turned out marginally and let its demand for a reform based on the actual conditions appear more urgent.

  6. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  7. The importance of values in predicting Turkish youth's opinions about the European Union in light of the Copenhagen Political Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuşdil, M Ersin; Simşek, Sefa

    2008-12-01

    The enlargement process of the European Union may be regarded as one of the most important social projects of human history in that it is trying to unite several nation-states under a "European identity." As a historically and culturally "distant" candidate, Turkey has been asked to meet a set of expectations referred to as the "Copenhagen Criteria," requiring a series of large-scale reforms to the infrastructure and superstructure of the country. Taking advantage of the unique opportunity to relate Turkish people's opinions on the criteria to their values, hypotheses based on Schwartz's model of values were tested. Schwartz's Personal Values Questionnaire and a questionnaire measuring opinions on the criteria and the Union were completed by 368 Turkish university students. Factor analysis of the opinion items yielded five factors: reduction of military influence in civil life, scepticism towards Europe and the European Union, improvement of human rights and liberties, improvement of minority rights, and lack of transparency in public institutions. Regression analyses showed that values and nationalism were powerful predictors of opinions whereas the effect of religiosity was limited only to the prediction of a preference for the reduction of military influence in civil life. Preference for openness to change values were successful in predicting variance in three of the five criteria: The more the participants favoured these values, the more they supported the improvement of human rights and liberties, the improvement of minority rights, and regretted the lack of transparency. Self-transcendence values were also positively related to support for the same three criteria together with a preference for reduction of military influence. As for nationalism, the results showed that this variable was related negatively to reduction of the military influence, improvement of human rights and liberties, improvement of minority rights; and positively to scepticism.

  8. Political and Legal Bases of Foreign Policy Activity of the European Union in the Region of Central Asia

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    Turdimurat M. Tursunmuratov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The author analyses the European Union’s foreign policy in Central Asia. He indicates the basic tendencies of development of the EU cooperation with the countries of Central Asian region. Further, the author analyzes the implementation of joint projects within the framework adopted by the Partnership Agreements. Based on a critical analysis, the researcher highlights a number of constraints to effective development of relations between the EU and Central Asian states. He carries out a structural analysis of conceptual documents of the European Union for the development of bilateral and multilateral relations with Central Asian countries in the region. Scientific novelty of this work lies in the systematization of stages in the evolution of relations between the European Union and the countries of Central Asia. The author divides the formation of cooperation into four main stages. The first stage of the relations between the EU and the countries of Central Asia includes conceptual framework of the legal regulatory structure of bilateral and multilateral cooperation. The second stage is characterized by the realization of a number of joint projects in the field of transport communications, democratic transformations, regional security and stability. The third stage of the relations is determined by acquiring of special geographical significance of the region of Central Asia resulting from the engagement of the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan in 2001. The fourth stage has begun in 2015 with the adoption of the EU Strategy for a New Partnership with Central Asia for 2017-2021. These studies serve as a basis for developing some important proposals and recommendations for the improvement of the effectiveness of cooperation between the parties.

  9. Adoption of E-Voting System to Enhance the Electoral Process in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agbesi, Samuel

    2018-01-01

    The literature reviewed confirm challenges in the electoral process in developing countries like Ghana. These challenges are mainly Institutional and Technical Challenges. The Institutional challenges come from the electoral commission, security agencies such as the Police, and civil society groups...... that are not well equipped to lend their full support to the electoral process, and also electoral challenges can be identified in three stages, pre-election, during an election, and after the election. And it is assumed that e-voting system when adopted will resolve this electoral challenges, but the system design...... should be approached from the Socio-technical perspective so that the system will not fail after implementation....

  10. Personality as Correlate of Perceived Job Stress Among Electoral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the relationship of personality (conscientiousness dimension) with electoral officers perceived job stress during election. The survey utilised the expost facto research design. A total of 346 participants responded to the questionnaires. In all, 254 (70.4%) were males and 101 (29.6%) were females.

  11. El Instituto Federal Electoral, un analisis de sus elementos democratizadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saenz Lopez, K.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El Instituto Federal Electoral ha sido poco estudiado en lo relativo a los aspectos endógenos de su actividad, en este análisis se proponen cinco elementos que se presumen son responsables de favorecer la transición a la democracia que México ha vivido desde 1990.

  12. Propuesta de reforma del sistema electoral de Canarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo López Carmona

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El actual sistema electoral canario produce discordancias entre votos recibidos y escaños asignados a los partidos debido (1 a la doble barrera electoral, (2 a que se usan las islas como circunscripciones donde se realizan repartos independientes de escaños a los partidos, (3 y a que el tamaño de estas circunscripciones no es proporcional a sus poblaciones. Ante estas discordancias proponemos como alternativa la técnica del reparto biproporcional, la cual considera tanto los votos totales que reciben los partidos así como un reparto de escaños entre circunscripciones (islas más ajustado a la población actualizada según el último padrón de cada una de ellas. The current canary electoral system produces discordances between the votes received and the seats allocated to parties due to (1 the double electoral barrier, (2 the use of the islands as constituencies where independent distributions of seats are made to parties, (3 and the fact that the size of these constituencies is not proportional to their populations. Given these discordances, this paper presents the technique of biproportional allocation as an alternative to the current method. Biproportionality considers both the total votes received by the parties as well as a distribution of seats among constituencies (islands that is more adjusted to the updated population according to the last census of each one.

  13. Issue cross-pressures and electoral behavior in Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, QingQian

    2017-01-01

    Facing changes and instability in electoral behavior across Western Europe, traditional party identification and social cleavages performed increasingly poorly in understanding and explaining the way in which voters made their voting choices. On the one hand, the increasing number of people who were

  14. Race, Class and Voting Patterns in South Africa's Electoral System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the run up to South Africa's three national elections both academia and the media advocated that electoral behaviour would be informed by the race census thesis. This article challenges this dominant thesis by using evidence from postapartheid South Africa's three general elections which suggests that the racial census ...

  15. Trump's electoral speeches and his appeal to the American white working class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Michèle; Park, Bo Yun; Ayala-Hurtado, Elena

    2017-11-01

    This paper contributes to the study of social change by considering boundary work as a dimension of cultural change. Drawing on the computer-assisted qualitative analysis of 73 formal speeches made by Donald Trump during the 2016 electoral campaign, we argue that his political rhetoric, which led to his presidential victory, addressed the white working class's concern with their declining position in the national pecking order. He addressed this group's concern by raising their moral status, that is, by (1) emphatically describing them as hard-working Americans who are victims of globalization; (2) voicing their concerns about 'people above' (professionals, the rich, and politicians); (3) drawing strong moral boundaries toward undocumented immigrants, refugees, and Muslims; (4) presenting African Americans and (legal) Hispanic Americans as workers who also deserve jobs; (5) stressing the role of working-class men as protectors of women and LGBTQ people. This particular case study of the role of boundary work in political rhetoric provides a novel, distinctively sociological approach for capturing dynamics of social change. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  16. Electoral Entry and Success of Ethnic Minority Parties in Central and Eastern Europe: A Hierarchical Selection Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernauer, Julian; Bochsler, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    and electoral demand, measured here as the size of ethnic groups and the saliency of ethnic issues. In line with these expectations, parties only run if they can expect electoral support sufficient to pass the electoral threshold. This finding would have been overlooked by a na??ve model of electoral success...... which does not take self-selection into account. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd....

  17. Role of political parties in the formation of civil society in Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сирожжон Насипкулович Бердикулов

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of political parties in the development of civil society and the rule of law, as well as issues of political parties differ from other public organizations, the concept of a multi-party system, the importance of a multi-party system in ensuring political pluralism, inter-party competition, constructive opposition, the expression of the interests of the electorate, the space of political parties in parliament and local councils (soviets

  18. Politics, Programs, and Local Governments: The Case of Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bers, Trudy Haffron

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on two aspects of governance and policy: the electoral process by which community college trustees are selected and the responsiveness of colleges to their communities as manifested by their programs. Available from Journal of Politics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611. (Author/IRT)

  19. Expressive voting and political ideology in a laboratory democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiese, Rasmus; Jong-A-Pin, Richard

    2017-01-01

    We test the theory of expressive voting in relation to political ideology in a laboratory experiment. After deriving our hypotheses from a decision theoretic model, we examine voting decisions in an experiment in which we use the size of the electorate as the treatment variable. Using a Heckman

  20. The Political Economy of Financial Systems : Evidence from Suffrage Reforms in the Last Two Centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Lambert, T.; Schwienbacher, A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Initially, voting rights were limited to wealthy elites providing political support for stock markets. The franchise expansion induces the median voter to provide political support for banking development as this new electorate has lower financial holdings and benefits less from the

  1. Cultura política y elecciones en México. El Instituto Federal Electoral y la educación cívica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Carmen ALANIS FIGUEROA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se presentan un conjunto de reflexiones en torno a la cultura política de los mexicanos, la participación electoral y las actividades que realiza el Instituto Federal Electoral para fomentar la cultura cívica. En este sentido se puede decir que en México se vive una democracia que es producto de un proceso de transición pacífica fundado en modificaciones constitucionales y legales que allanaron el camino para la participación incluyente de nuevas fuerzas políticas y la celebración de elecciones confiables y transparentes. Dentro de este proceso de democratización el ámbito de desarrollo más importante fue el de los ciudadanos. La tarea pendiente de la consolidación democrática en México es fomentar la participación activa de una ciudadanía comprometida e informada. Es en esta perspectiva que se inscriben los esfuerzos del Instituto Federal Electoral por construir un sólido anclaje en dos dimensiones de cultura política del ciudadano mexicano: la conductual que se refiere al activismo político y la actitudinal que hace referencia a la aprobación de los ideales democráticos.ABSTRACT: The article talks about a series of reflections about the Mexican’s political culture, election participation and the activities of the Federal Electoral Institute. You could say that Mexico lives in a democracy, which is a product of a process, based upon a pacific political transition, constitutional and legislative changes, which set way for the participation of new influent political forces and the celebration of trustworthy and transparent elections. In this process of democratization the most important development factor was the citizens. For the democratic consolidation of Mexico there is still the pending task of involving an informed and compromised citizenship. It is here where the efforts of the Federal Electoral Institute are focusing to build a solid anchoring of two dimensions of political culture: the behavior of

  2. A Typology of Political Participation Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutceac Segesten, Anamaria; Bossetta, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates how, and to what extent, citizens use Twitter as a platform for political mobilization in an electoral context. Conceptualizing political participation as a process, we develop a typology of political participation designed to isolate mobilizing calls for action from...... the rest of the political discussion online. Based on Twitter data collected one week prior to the 2015 British general election, we then identify the top 100 most retweeted accounts using the hashtag #GE2015, classify them by actor type, and perform a content analysis of their Twitter posts according...... to our typology. Our results show that that citizens – not political parties – are the primary initiators and sharers of political calls for action leading up to the election. However, this finding is largely due to an uneven distribution of citizen-driven mobilizing activity. A small number of highly...

  3. The Differentiation of Parties through the Lens of an Electoral Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Sampugnaro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Parties restructure their organizations to prepare themselves for new challenges. In many cases, the changes involve a reduction of the subsystems structure, dropping the number of territorial units or finding leaner solutions and outsourcing of activities which were once fulfilled within the boundaries of the party organization. Specifically, the phenomenon of outsourcing concerns, on the one hand, aggregation of interests and policymaking and, on the other, electoral mobilization and management of political communication. Looking for new solutions – flexible, without a unique centre – can lead to a process of de-differentiation that characterizes organization in postmodern society: a new definition of levels of hierarchy and "transgression of boundaries", through a continuous exchange of resources with the environment, which is unpredictable and constantly changing. As in other organizations, parties en-courage the formation of horizontal links with new external actors - associations, informal groups, indi-viduals and influencers - in order to build networks that cooperate to exchange essential resources for the party itself. In this framework, the study aims to interpret de-differentiation in political parties from a specific point of view: the analysis of political campaigns as indicators of this process. The “outside campaign”, created by a set of non-party actors, is growing: the sector of organized interests, that, unlike in the past, is "de-aligned" from the political parties and does not respond to traditional socio-political cleavage, is present in parties and candidates’ campaigns with greater resources than was the case formerly.

  4. Online Political Campaigning during the 2014 Regional Elections in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Baranowski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the analysis and evaluation of political communication on a regional level. Without any doubt, the Internet revolution affected electoral campaigning on every level. Online campaigning before local elections is often marginalized by political scientists and other scholars researching political marketing. However, the question emerges: are the candidates aware of the possibilities that new media has brought to political communication? Content analysis of all the major online communication tools has allowed the author to analyze the patterns of using websites, official Facebook profiles and Twitter accounts of candidates during the 2014 Lower Silesian Regional assembly elections. The Lower Silesian Voivodeship is among the fastest developing regions in Poland with high Internet penetration rate. Is the Internet campaign treated as a second-class way to communicate with potential voters, or is it perceived as an opportunity to reach electorate online?

  5. Political tug of war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morhart, Alexander

    2011-07-01

    Rapid expansion of the European power grid is essential for the further development of wind and solar energy. The most significant obstacles are not technical, but rather of a political nature. (orig.)

  6. Newcomers in Politics? The Success of New Political Parties in the Slovak and Czech Republic after 2010?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viera Žúborová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The last election in the Slovak and Czech Republic was special. It not only took place before the official electoral period (pre-elections, but new political parties were “again” successful. The article focuses not only on both elections in the last two years in a comparative perspective, but it analyses the opportunity structure of success as well, including types of new political parties (according to Lucardie. The article seeks to answer the question: why are new political parties electorally successful, able to break into parliament and even become part of a coalition government? We assume that the emergence and success of new political parties in both countries relied on the ability to promote “old” ideas in a new fashion, colloquially referred to as “new suits” or “old” ideological flows in new breeze.

  7. México: contexto econômico e estratégias eleitorais Mexico: economic context and electoral strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Alvarez Béjar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este "exercício de economia política para a análise da conjuntura" examina diversas dimensões do desempenho recente da economia mexicana para no final orientar a análise para a dimensão política, especialmente no que concerne aos mecanismo de sustentação do poder do PRI e às alianças das principais forças eleitorais.This "exercise in political economy directed to the analysis of the conjuncture" examines several dimensions of the recent performance of the Mexican economy, finishing by focusing the analysis on the political dimension, specially concerning the mechanisms for buttressing the power of the PRI and the alliances between the main electoral forces.

  8. Continent of pessimism or continent of realism? A multilevel study into the impact of macro-economic outcomes and political institutions on societal pessimism, European Union 2006-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenvoorden, Eefje H; van der Meer, Tom Wg

    2017-06-01

    The often-posed claim that Europe is a pessimistic continent is not unjustified. In 2012, 53 percent of European Union (EU) citizens were pessimistic about their country. Surprisingly, however, societal pessimism has received very little scientific attention. In this article, we examine to what extent political and economic factors drive societal pessimism. In terms of political factors, we expect that supranationalization, political instability, and corruption increase societal pessimism, as they diminish national political power and can inspire collective powerlessness. Economically, we expect that the retrenchment of welfare state provisions and economic decline drive societal pessimism, as these developments contribute to socioeconomic vulnerability. We assess the impact of these political and economic factors on the level of societal pessimism in the EU, both cross-nationally and over time, through multilevel analyses of Eurobarometer data (13 waves between 2006 and 2012 in 23 EU countries). Our findings show that the political factors (changes in government, corruption) primarily explain cross-national differences in societal pessimism, while the macro-economic context (economic growth, unemployment) primarily explains longitudinal trends within countries. These findings demonstrate that, to a large extent, societal pessimism cannot be viewed separately from its political and economic context.

  9. PARTICULARITIES OF PARLIAMENTARY OVERSIGHT IN DIFFERENT POLITICAL REGIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia-Claudia CĂLIN-MIHALCEA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The quality and intensity of the parliamentary oversight performed over the Government are shaped by several major criteria: political regime, electoral system, structure of the Parliament (unicameral/bicameral, parliamentary culture and tradition. This paper emphasizes some distinctive elements and particular mechanisms of the control exercised over the activities of the executive power, from the point of view of the political regime established in states with modern democracies.

  10. The System of the Geographical Indication – Important Component of the Politics of the Consumers` Protection in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Velčovská

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the use and diffusion of the geographical indication in the European Union countries, having as objective the protection of the products’ names, which are registered as Protected Geographical Indication (PGI and Protected Designation of Origin (PDO labels. The reason for treating this theme started from the fact that the level of knowledge of the system and its symbols by the consumers is very low. In the introductory part, specification of surveyed topic is given and importance of consumer education and information is highlighted. Empirical research is based on two approaches. First, 1114 product names from DOOR database (Database for agricultural products and foodstuffs in EU countries were analysed in order to investigate the frequency of labels utilization by country and product classes, cluster analysis was applied to show the labels distribution by countries. Dominant countries in number of labels are Italy, France and Spain having registered over 50 % of all products. The most frequent product class is Fruits, vegetables and cereals for PGI and Cheeses for PDO. The second approach reflects consumer view on the issue; survey of 250 consumers in the Czech Republic was carried out with the purpose to identify awareness and perceived credibility of labels. Findings reveal a low awareness of labels, credibility of labels is influenced by their low familiarity. The main problem is lack of information. Respondents show interest in getting information regarding this topic. Quality labels have potential to communicate with consumers and facilitate their food purchases, but it is necessary to improve their promotion.

  11. Los modelos latinoamericanos y europeos de control electoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Martínez Ruano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tres son las modalidades clásicas de control del proceso electoral: el control parlamentario, el control jurisdiccional y el control constitucional. A estos tres modelos clásicos se añaden el control realizado por órganos administrativos y jurisdiccionales ad hoc y el control mixto. El interés del estudio es poner de manifiesto la eficacia real de los mecanismos y controles en el ámbito electoral, al objeto de que se evidencien las virtudes y deficiencias de cada uno de los sistemas, en favor de los ciudadanos y de una mayor profundización en el sistema democrático.

  12. Geografía electoral de Andalucía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIO J. PORRAS

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan los resultados de las elecciones generales del 77, 79 y 82 en Andalucía. Para estudiar el comportamiento electoral se toma en cuenta el municipio, la renta per cápita, la provincia y la región. El resultado es la obtención de cuatro grandes zonas diferenciadas en cuanto al comportamiento electoral, que se analizan siguiendo el modelo propuesto por el análisis espacial. Las curvas de comportamiento de varios partidos políticos son descritas en función de los municipios y la renta per cápita, mostrándose una progresión del pluralismo polítco si se sigue el eje zona rural/zona urbana. Se termina el estudio con una interpretación de la tendencia existente hacia el predominio del Partido Socialista en las elecciones del 82.

  13. Nonresponse Bias and Superpopulation Models in Electoral Polls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M. Pavía

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonresponse bias (and, to a lesser extent, measurement error has become the main source of error for electoral forecasts in Spain. Although the post-stratifi cation techniques and ratio estimators currently used in the polling industry reduce deviations, they do not show enough capacity to mend the biases introduced when collecting data. This research reveals how a more effi cient use of the electoral information available outside the sample could help to signifi cantly improve the accuracy of predictions, and uses simulation techniques to show that this may be accompanied by less expensive sampling designs. The analysis, nevertheless, also concludes that the proposed specifi cation is not a panacea and affi rms that there is still scope for reducing nonresponse bias, pointing to several issues for future research.

  14. RATIONAL-IRRATIONAL ELECTORAL PREFERENCES, ALTRUISM AND EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Ungureanu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Caplan (2000, 2001, 2006 proposed the rational-irrationality model arguing that irrationality is a good as any other, whose consumption is maximized in relation to its costs and benefits. Applying this model to the problem of electoral behavior Caplan implies that voters ‘afford’ many irrational beliefs, because the lack of individual decisiveness renders vote as a consequenceless act. This paper contributes to the development of knowledge by analyzing the compatibility of rational irrationality with active electoral behavior. Two important arguments are being proposed: First, Wittman’s (2008 intuition that rational irrationality is incompatible with voting could be supported only about a particular type of altruism, which Caplan actually seems to reject. Second, rational irrationality seems to be compatible with expressive motivations, reinforcing the conclusion that rational-irrational individuals are active voters in mass elections.

  15. Triggers and Characteristics of the 2007 Kenyan Electoral Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Dercon; Roxana Gutiérrez-Romero

    2010-01-01

    Following the 2007 disputed Kenyan Presidential election unprecedented levels of violence erupted across the country adding to the history of troubled elections in Africa. This paper offers quantitative and qualitative evidence on the incidence, impacts and issues that triggered electoral violence. Using two surveys conducted before and after the election we find that one out of three Kenyans were affected by the violence regardless of their ethnicity and wealth. The chances of being a victim...

  16. Social-Psychological Determinants of Electoral Voting Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K A Ivanenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the current models of the voter behavior and proves the need in creating a new overarching conceptual framework, finding the integral social-psychological factor of the voter decision making. The public opinion is regarded as such a factor. The article presents the findings of the latest psychological research, devoted to the analysis of the connection between the different components of public opinion and electoral behavior.

  17. Análisis de la jurisprudencia electoral chilena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Manuel Rosales

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de la reinstauración de la democracia en Chile en el año de 1989, se reestableció el funcionamiento del Tribunal Calificador de Elecciones. Este trabajo presenta un análisis de la producción jurisdiccional de este órgano jurisdiccional desde 1989 hasta 2007, para descubrir cómo funda y motiva sus fallos, los requisitos para acceder a la justicia electoral, entre otros rubros.

  18. Bullets and Votes: Violence and Electoral Participation in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Trelles; Miguel Carreras

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the effect of criminal violence on electoral participation in Mexico. Many scholars have studied the origins of criminal violence, as well as the success or failure of contemporary regimes in dealing with it. However, few have studied how it affects voter turnout. Following recent findings in the behavioral subfield, we hypothesize that as criminal violence increases, citizens abandon public channels of participation and ta...

  19. Medio siglo de historia del organismo electoral de Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador ROMERO BALLIVIÁN

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available En 1956 se celebró la primera elección con sufragio universal de la historia boliviana. Para la ocasión se fundó la Corte Nacional Electoral (CNE, cuya historia retrata el artículo. La primera etapa corre de 1956 hasta 1985, cuando su funcionamiento no era permanente y muchos comicios se celebraron bajo un manto de sospechas de irregularidades por el dominio del gobierno sobre la institución; la segunda va desde 1985 hasta 1991, en ella el organismo electoral desarrolla sus actividades de forma constante y los partidos lo controlan provocando dudas sobre la legitimidad de los resultados; la última abarca desde 1991 hasta 2007, cuando el sistema político acuerda conformar una CNE auténticamente imparcial e independiente, exigiéndole la celebración de elecciones irreprochables que aseguren una fuerte legitimidad de origen a las autoridades elegidas. El estudio presta atención a las disposiciones legales que rigen las tareas del organismo electoral pero sobre todo intenta comprender su acción considerando el contexto político, intelectual y social en el cual las cumplió

  20. THE ROLE AND IMPLICATIONS OF THE EVENT BASED COMMUNICATION IN THE ELECTORAL CAMPAIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatu Cristian Ionut

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The electoral campaigns are considered to be among the most delicate challenges for a marketer due to the limited time available, the sensible margin for error, the high impact of each statement and the condensation of a quite large amount of resources in a 30 day period. While the ultimate goal for the campaign staff is to bring the global electoral package closer to the electorate and earn their votes most, of the time various competitors use disappointingly similar tactics that create confusion among the electorate. The campaign related events turned out to be one of the tactics that allows for a pin-point targeting of the electorate and a better control on the receivers of the message. This paper focuses on the types of events used that can be used in an electoral campaign reinforced with their particularities and effects registered in previous campaigns.

  1. Relansarea proiectului de integrare europeană presupune o luptă politico-culturală cu ideologia neoliberală. Interviu cu Profesorul Angelo Chielli (The revival of the European integration project requires a political and cultural struggle with the neoliberal ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin BOCANCEA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The conflicts within the European Union have always been and will always be purely political. The concentration of power in the hands of independent and supranational authorities leads to their removal from the control of the political institutions and democratic procedures. A revival of the European integration project could be based on a tough politico-cultural fight in a position to undermine the neoliberal ideology. Restarting the process of European integration cannot be the fruit of a ghostly economic recovery or stabilization of the balance states, but only as a result of a change in perspectives and objectives. To further be a viable project, the European Union needs some changes. Politically, it must be a question of political conflict recovery, reunification of alternative forces and proposing a different idea of Europe compared with that of the markets, specific to the neoliberalism. In the ideal contents plan, the concept of solidarity needs to be re-proposed, as a legal principle that allows the establishment of links outside those of family or community type. In this respect, solidarity is not only a guardianship, but even a direct exercise of freedoms.

  2. CODE SETTING TRENDS IN ELECTORAL MATTERS - CODE OF GOOD PRACTICE IN ELECTORAL MATTERS - VENICE 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea-Constantin SINESCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The integrated and ongoing effort of the of the states in the European area to modernize and adapt their laws to the current needs and exigencies of the citizens is transposed, in terms of constitutional matters, in the actions of the European Commission for Democracy through Law, better known as the Venice Commission, as Venice is the place of the proceedings of this Council of Europe's advisory body on constitutional matters.

  3. CODE SETTING TRENDS IN ELECTORAL MATTERS - CODE OF GOOD PRACTICE IN ELECTORAL MATTERS - VENICE 2002

    OpenAIRE

    Mircea-Constantin SINESCU; Mihai-Daniel ONIȘOR

    2016-01-01

    The integrated and ongoing effort of the of the states in the European area to modernize and adapt their laws to the current needs and exigencies of the citizens is transposed, in terms of constitutional matters, in the actions of the European Commission for Democracy through Law, better known as the Venice Commission, as Venice is the place of the proceedings of this Council of Europe's advisory body on constitutional matters.

  4. The specifics of the aplication of social and structural approach to electoral processes analysis

    OpenAIRE

    V F Kovrov

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of a number of problems of the investigation of the electoral process viewed as a social phenomenon contributes to the overcoming of a number of theoretical and methodological obstacles in the process of its sociological cognition. The complexity and delicacy of the electoral process entails the application of a set of distinct approaches, research and description techniques. The article provides the rationale for the most complete insight into the social component of the elector...

  5. When Do Campaigns Matter? Informed Votes, the Heteroscedastic Logit and the Responsiveness of Electoral Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Gerber, Elisabeth R.; Lupia, Arthur

    1993-01-01

    Previous research suggests that voters in mass elections tend to be badly informed. If these voters do not know enough about the relationship between the policy consequences of electoral outcomes and their own interests, then electoral outcomes may not provide meaningful expressions of voter interests. Can campaign activity affect the relationship between voter interests and electoral outcomes? To answer this question, we use survey data from 35 comparable elections and a new empirical method...

  6. El proceso electoral del 7 de febrero de 2010 y sus actores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Seing Jiménez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La participación ciudadana de una importante cantidad de personas en organización y jornada electoral garantiza la pureza del voto. El presente ensayo ofrece una breve descripción de las funciones, que amparadas en el Código Electoral, cumplieron cada uno de los actores que participaron en la jornada electoral costarricense del 7 de febrero de 2010.

  7. El proceso electoral del 7 de febrero de 2010 y sus actores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Seing Jiménez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La participación ciudadana de una importante cantidad de personas en organización y jornada electoral garantiza la pureza del voto. El presente ensayo ofrece una breve descripción de las funciones, que amparadas en el Código Electoral, cumplieron cada uno de los actores que participaron en la jornada electoral costarricense del 7 de febrero de 2010

  8. Black lives matter: Differential mortality and the racial composition of the U.S. electorate, 1970-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Javier M; Geronimus, Arline T; Bound, John; Dorling, Danny

    2015-07-01

    Excess mortality in marginalized populations could be both a cause and an effect of political processes. We estimate the impact of mortality differentials between blacks and whites from 1970 to 2004 on the racial composition of the electorate in the US general election of 2004 and in close statewide elections during the study period. We analyze 73 million US deaths from the Multiple Cause of Death files to calculate: (1) Total excess deaths among blacks between 1970 and 2004, (2) total hypothetical survivors to 2004, (3) the probability that survivors would have turned out to vote in 2004, (4) total black votes lost in 2004, and (5) total black votes lost by each presidential candidate. We estimate 2.7 million excess black deaths between 1970 and 2004. Of those, 1.9 million would have survived until 2004, of which over 1.7 million would have been of voting-age. We estimate that 1 million black votes were lost in 2004; of these, 900,000 votes were lost by the defeated Democratic presidential nominee. We find that many close state-level elections over the study period would likely have had different outcomes if voting age blacks had the mortality profiles of whites. US black voting rights are also eroded through felony disenfranchisement laws and other measures that dampen the voice of the US black electorate. Systematic disenfranchisement by population group yields an electorate that is unrepresentative of the full interests of the citizenry and affects the chance that elected officials have mandates to eliminate health inequality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The specifics of the aplication of social and structural approach to electoral processes analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V F Kovrov

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of a number of problems of the investigation of the electoral process viewed as a social phenomenon contributes to the overcoming of a number of theoretical and methodological obstacles in the process of its sociological cognition. The complexity and delicacy of the electoral process entails the application of a set of distinct approaches, research and description techniques. The article provides the rationale for the most complete insight into the social component of the electoral process via social and structural approach application. The given approach enables one to give concrete expression to the subject matter of electoral sociology at strategic, operational and tactical levels, define the elements of the electoral process, the outcome of the electoral practice, to reveal the invariability of the electoral conscience, psychological attitudes and values of different groups of voters as well as to analyze the evolution of the objective-transforming practice, the electoral activity of the population and to provide the extensive analysis of the results of the material and cultural assimilation of the electoral practice.

  10. Gendering transnational party politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantola, Johanna; Rolandsen-Agustín, Lise

    2016-01-01

    research traditions, we build toward an analytical framework to study gender and transnational party politics. Our empirical analysis focuses on two policy issues, the economic crisis and the sexual and reproductive health and rights, analyzing European Parliament reports, debates and voting on the issues...... from 2009 to 2014. By focusing on gender equality constructions and the way in which consensus and contestation are built around them within and between party groups, we argue that shared constructions about gender equality are issue specific and change over time. Consensus breaks down along the left......In this article, we analyze transnational party politics in the European Union from a gender perspective. This is a subject that has been neglected both by mainstream European studies on party politics and by gender scholars who work on political parties. Drawing on the insights of these two...

  11. The Role of Parliaments in Times of Transition: The Impact of Participatory Politics on Social Cohesion and the Quality of Governance in Post-Authoritarian Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afsah, Ebrahim

    The Role of Parliaments in Times of Transition: The Impact of Participatory Politics on Social Cohesion and the Quality of Governance in Post-Authoritarian Settings This contribution presents the theoretical basis for the normative preference given to electoral politics and investigates the insti......The Role of Parliaments in Times of Transition: The Impact of Participatory Politics on Social Cohesion and the Quality of Governance in Post-Authoritarian Settings This contribution presents the theoretical basis for the normative preference given to electoral politics and investigates...... the institutional prerequisites if competitive electoral politics are to lead to better governance outcomes and greater social stability. Examining why these preconditions are largely lacking in the Arab world, this contribution investigates what could be done to redress these shortcomings....

  12. Los artífices de la legislación electoral: una aproximación a la teoría del gobierno representativo en España (1845-1870

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Zurita

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This article will study from a prosopographical point of view the differing ideas about representative government offered by the various political strands of mid-19th century Spain. With the progressive implementation of liberalism in Spain, the debate about the philosophy and mechanisms of political representation in the construction of the liberal state reached a critical point. Although there was only occasionally political and intellectual debate along the lines of that of France or Great Britain, it is possible to isolate the issues that concerned deputies by studying parliamentary debates on electoral legislation.

  13. Politics of the aged: orientations and behavior in major liberal democracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, L J

    1985-01-01

    Do the political outlook and electoral behavior of the elderly differ notably from that of younger adults in leading capitalist democracies? A cross-national examination of poll data suggests that on the whole they do not. Among the aged certain cross-national differences in rates of political participation beyond voting may be related to differences in national socio-political structures as well as differences in individual attributes.

  14. Apathy, alienation and young people: the political engagement of British millennials

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Conventional wisdom holds that today’s young people, often known as ‘the Millennials’, are a politically alienated generation. Their hostility towards political parties, association with protest movements, and low electoral turnout are all said to indicate their alienation from the processes and institutions of Western democracy. This conventional wisdom stands, however, on shaky ground. Previous research has given too little attention to the definition and measurement of political alienation...

  15. The political history of biofuels in the European Union - Actors, Networks and Strategies; Den politiska historien om biodrivmedel i den Europeiska Unionen - Aktoerer, naetverk och strategier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordangaard, Jacob

    2012-07-01

    The story of biofuels in the European Union is about much more than simply replace petroleum in the transport sector. It is rather a complex story accompanied by an overall desire to change the world's political architecture. This change has been made in order to address global environmental problems such as climate change while creating frameworks and certifications for the global trade in commodities such as palm oil and soy. The process has been full of contradictions in what biofuels can solve and given rise to exaggerated rhetoric about the fuel's environmental benefits versus its harmful impact on the environment and food prices. Doomsday reeking arguments about climate disasters, oil shortages and the destruction of the world's rain forests have been used alternately in diverse contexts. In this process, various market interests have come to stand against each other in the battle for the raw materials used in biofuel production. Good intentions to protect the priceless nature from industrial exploitation has been used as a way to disadvantage certain raw materials as an energy crop. This has given rise to the unholy alliances between environmentalists and corporations to create broad support for positions while individual nations have assisted with capital and resources to promote various self-interests. In the end it has been a matter of building so powerful network as possible, and present a hard hitting problem requiring a solution for success. Out of chaos, it has been born order. This thesis describes the process and the main actors and networks that have driven this.

  16. Characterizing and modeling an electoral campaign in the context of Twitter: 2011 Spanish Presidential election as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borondo, J; Morales, A J; Losada, J C; Benito, R M

    2012-06-01

    Transmitting messages in the most efficient way as possible has always been one of politicians' main concerns during electoral processes. Due to the rapidly growing number of users, online social networks have become ideal platforms for politicians to interact with their potential voters. Exploiting the available potential of these tools to maximize their influence over voters is one of politicians' actual challenges. To step in this direction, we have analyzed the user activity in the online social network Twitter, during the 2011 Spanish Presidential electoral process, and found that such activity is correlated with the election results. We introduce a new measure to study political sentiment in Twitter, which we call the relative support. We have also characterized user behavior by analyzing the structural and dynamical patterns of the complex networks emergent from the mention and retweet networks. Our results suggest that the collective attention is driven by a very small fraction of users. Furthermore, we have analyzed the interactions taking place among politicians, observing a lack of debate. Finally, we develop a network growth model to reproduce the interactions taking place among politicians.

  17. Characterizing and modeling an electoral campaign in the context of Twitter: 2011 Spanish Presidential election as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borondo, J.; Morales, A. J.; Losada, J. C.; Benito, R. M.

    2012-06-01

    Transmitting messages in the most efficient way as possible has always been one of politicians' main concerns during electoral processes. Due to the rapidly growing number of users, online social networks have become ideal platforms for politicians to interact with their potential voters. Exploiting the available potential of these tools to maximize their influence over voters is one of politicians' actual challenges. To step in this direction, we have analyzed the user activity in the online social network Twitter, during the 2011 Spanish Presidential electoral process, and found that such activity is correlated with the election results. We introduce a new measure to study political sentiment in Twitter, which we call the relative support. We have also characterized user behavior by analyzing the structural and dynamical patterns of the complex networks emergent from the mention and retweet networks. Our results suggest that the collective attention is driven by a very small fraction of users. Furthermore, we have analyzed the interactions taking place among politicians, observing a lack of debate. Finally, we develop a network growth model to reproduce the interactions taking place among politicians.

  18. «Vote by vote… box by box…». From the post-electoral slogan to the citizen mobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana GUILLÉN RODRÍGUEZ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available From direct observation and hemerography sources, this article reconstructs the mobilizations that took place in Mexico city on June 8, 16 and 30 of 2006, in protestation of the results of the previous electoral day. An important challenge was set out for the institutions behind the slogan «Vote by vote... box by box» and a basic right to democracy was demanded, even in its more limited version: the certainty that what was individually expressed on the ballot boxes, would be counted according to reliable and dependable criteria and procedures. These mobilizations represented an unknown experience in the Mexican context. In contrast to previous actions against electoral fraud, one of the driving forces on this particular protest was the certainty that, from society, people could and should intervene. From such perspective, and regardless of the sympathies or dislikes that it might create, they constitute a milestone for social, political and contemporary history in Mexico. Hence, to recover and to systematize its central characteristics is of great importance.

  19. Neoliberalism and the Unfolding Patterns of Young People’s Political Engagement and Political Participation in Contemporary Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Hart

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent trends suggest that young people in Britain are increasingly rejecting electoral politics. However, evidence suggests that British youth are not apolitical, but are becoming ever more sceptical of the ability of electoral politics to make a meaningful contribution to their lives. Why young people are adopting new political behaviour and values, however, is still a point of contention. Some authors have suggested that neoliberalism has influenced these new patterns of political engagement. This article will advance this critique of neoliberalism, giving attention to three different facets of neoliberalism and demonstrate how they combine to reduce young people’s expectations of political participation and their perceptions of the legitimacy of political actors. We combine ideational and material critiques to demonstrate how young people’s political engagement has been restricted by neoliberalism. Neoliberalism has influenced youth political participation through its critiques of collective democracy, by the subsequent transformations in political practice that it has contributed to, and through the economic marginalisation that has resulted from its shaping of governments’ monetary policy. This approach will be conceptually predicated on a definition of neoliberalism which acknowledges both its focus on reducing interventions in the economy, and also its productive capacity to modify society to construct market relations and galvanise competition amongst agents. From this definition, we develop the argument that neoliberal critiques of democracy, the subsequent changes in political practices which respond to these criticisms and the transformation in socioeconomic conditions caused by neoliberalism have coalesced to negatively influence young people’s electoral participation.

  20. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    and rules. The article examines the reasons for both resistance and selectiveness to Europeanization of the Danish minority policy through a “path dependency” perspective accentuating decision makers’ reluctance to deviate from existing institutional commitments, even in subsequently significantly altered...... political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  1. Desempeño e identidad institucional: el tribunal electoral en la alternancia del 2000 Performance and institucional identity: the Electoral Tribunal in the 2000 electoral alternance

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor DÍAZ-SANTANA; David H. CORROCHANO

    2010-01-01

    Analizamos el desempeño del Tribunal Electoral del Poder Judicial de la Federación (TEPJF) relacionándolo con su grado y tipo de identidad en la coyuntura de las elecciones presidenciales del 2 de julio del 2000. Para ello partimos de la premisa que las instituciones no sólo deben tener un buen desempeño, sino que éste debe ser trasmitido ante la ciudadanía. Nuestra hipótesis es que el TEPJF tuvo un buen desempeño pero carecía de identidad lo que facilitó la puesta en marcha de un "chantaje" ...

  2. Rethinking State Politics: The Withering of State Dominant Machines in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Borges

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Research on Brazilian federalism and state politics has focused mainly on the impact of federal arrangements on national political systems, whereas comparative analyses of the workings of state political institutions and patterns of political competition and decision-making have often been neglected. The article contributes to an emerging comparative literature on state politics by developing a typology that systematizes the variation in political competitiveness and the extent of state elites’ control over the electoral arena across Brazilian states. It relies on factor analysis to create an index of “electoral dominance”, comprised of a set of indicators of party and electoral competitiveness at the state level, which measures state elites’ capacity to control the state electoral arena over time. Based on this composite index and on available case-study evidence, the article applies the typological classificatory scheme to all 27 Brazilian states. Further, the article relies on the typological classification to assess the recent evolution of state-level political competitiveness. The empirical analysis demonstrates that state politics is becoming more competitive and fragmented, including in those states that have been characterized as bastions of oligarchism and political bossism. In view of these findings, the article argues that the power of state political machines rests on fragile foundations: in Brazil’s multiparty federalism, vertical competition between the federal and state governments in the provision of social policies works as a constraint on state bosses’ machine-building strategies. It is concluded that our previous views on state political dynamics are in serious need of re-evaluation.

  3. THE ROMANIAN MEDIA REPRESENTATION OF THE DIASPORA IN AN ELECTORAL CONTEXT: DISCURSIVE IDENTITIES AND FORMS OF COMMITMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMELIA BECIU

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at the media representation of the diaspora in the context of the presidential elections in Romania, in 2014. In a voting situation, how are the discoursive construals of the diaspora reconfigured and how is the public problem of intra-EU migration redefined? Within the frame of a critical discourse analysis, the study examines the media representation of the diaspora and of the public from the perspective of discursive strategies specific to identity construction in the contexts of action at a distance: distance-proximity strategies and, correspondingly, inclusion/exclusion strategies, as well as the configuration of particular forms of commitment. The corpus consists predominantly of political talk shows on two television channels specialized in news broadcasting and political commentary, but different in terms of practices of mediation of the political sphere. The study shows that certain representations of migrants, which have been naturalized over the years, continue to be reproduced in the political and media sphere, but, in an electoral context, they are differently constituted, especially as regards the migrants’ agency

  4. Policy voting, projection, and persuasion: an application of balance theory to electoral behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Max; Visser, Max

    1994-01-01

    In this article differences between rational, policy-based, and rationalized voting are discussed, and it is argued that these forms of electoral decision making are not properly analyzed in existing electoral studies. Policy voting, persuasion, and projection are then redefined as three possible

  5. Personalised parliamentary behaviour without electoral incentives : the case of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwerse, Tom; Otjes, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Most theories of legislative behaviour explain the behaviour of MPs through electoral incentives. However, they fail to explain variation in parliamentary activity when individual electoral incentives are largely absent. This article studies MPs’ activity in such a parliament: the Dutch Tweede

  6. Electoral System Reform Attempts in Sub-Saharan Africa: South Africa, Lesotho, Kenya, and Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Jørgen

    This paper provides a test of the generalizability of the barriers’ approach (Rahat and Hazan, 2011) to the study of electoral system reform attempts. It does so by examining a set of recent attempts of electoral system change in four Sub-Saharan countries (South Africa, Lesotho, Kenya...

  7. Why politicians like electoral institutions: Self-interest, values, or ideology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowler, Shaun; Donovan, Todd; Karp, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    We examine whether MPs and candidates for parliament are motivated by electoral self-interest, values, ideology, or all of these when evaluating proposals for changing electoral institutions. Using survey data from four countries (Australia, Germany, the Netherlands, and New Zealand), we find that

  8. Social Networks As Internet-technologies in Electoral Campaigns: the International View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Александрович Свинин

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Social networks as internet-technologies became a useful instrument for politicians during the electoral campaigns. The main reason for that is the fact that social networks today are the next step in development of communications between people. In the article the author investigates the history of social networks, different cases of application of social networks in electoral campaigns.

  9. Two shades of Green? The electorates of GreenLeft and the Party for the Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otjes, S.; Krouwel, A.P.M.

    2015-01-01

    The Netherlands has two electorally significant parties that might be considered to be part of the ‘Green’ family: GreenLeft and the Party for the Animals. These two parties appeal to different niches of the Green electorate, identified on the basis of issue dimensions, demographics, and their trust

  10. Two shades of Green? The electorates of GreenLeft and the Party for the Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otjes, Simon; Krouwel, Andre

    2015-01-01

    The Netherlands has two electorally significant parties that might be considered to be part of the Green' family: GreenLeft and the Party for the Animals. These two parties appeal to different niches of the Green electorate, identified on the basis of issue dimensions, demographics, and their trust

  11. Romanian’s Legislative Elections or Confirmation of the Political Periphery Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelian Giugăl

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite a formal liberal-democratic society and a supposed legal-rational authority (according to German sociologist Max Weber’s definition, post-communist Romania has continued to be a semi-peripheral country based on status. The perpetuation of the organization model where the personal status always prevails is the main effect on the parties appeared in post-communist political and economic context, which is basically the same as in interwar and communist periods. Thus parties’ development is closely linked to the charisma of their members, and their connection with the electorate/society has no sense concerning political ideology (as it is dominated by the context and electoral clientelism of short notice – one electoral cycle.

  12. Partis politiques et médias en Grande-Bretagne : entre rivalité et complicité Political Parties and Media in Great Britain Rivals or Partners ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Rivière De Franco

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available During the weeks preceding a General Election, British political parties try to convince the electorate to vote for them, but given the limited degree of direct communication, the parties need the media to transmit their messages. Their relationships are complex and behind an apparent antagonism, a real partnership sometimes develops. Indeed, political parties endeavour to influence the media in order to benefit from positive coverage, by resorting to political marketing, by hiring advisers, by giving the media the type of news that they need and by controlling press conferences and press releases. The media do not accept this manipulation and react by making independent political choices, by finding other sources of political news or by revealing the methods used by the political parties to convince voters. In other circumstances, the political parties and the media become partners, since the media enable the parties to transmit their messages without any external modification through electoral broadcasts and advertisements and sometimes they even take an active part in the parties’ electoral campaigns. Even if the political parties and the media need each other, they use and manipulate each other. During electoral campaigns, these relationships are not to be neglected because they can either facilitate or hinder the persuasion of the electorate.

  13. Party Ideology, Electoral Competition and the Election of Women in Five Latin American Democracies: Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Peru and Uruguay, 1980-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago ALLES

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Women have made enormous progress in their political incorporation. However, the pace of that incorporation has differed across countries. The present article analyzes the effects of party ideology and of the characteristics of electoral competition on the election of women in legislative seats in five Latin American democracies over three decades. The empirical results provide evidence of the effects of party (ideology and institutional factors (type of ballot; and at the same time, call into question the effect of factors previously asserted in the literature, such as district magnitude y party magnitude.

  14. La transición mexicana a la democracia: competitividad electoral en México, 1977–1997.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Méndez de Hoyos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the political process encapsulated in the Mexican transition to democracy: the passage from non-competitive elections to competitive ones over a period of two decades. It presents a systematic analysis of the evolution of competitiveness in elections for federal deputies, mostly in the period 1977-1997, with added data on the federal, state and district levels. While tracing the rise in electoral competition, the study also focuses on the accompanying process: the transition from a hegemonic party system, in which competition was generally controlled from the central position of power, towards a real pluralism of party options at the national and sub-national levels.

  15. Violent Extremist Organizations and the Electoral Cycle in Africa: A Framework for Analyzing the 2015 Tanzanian Elections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Peter  Tinti, “Contextualizing Boko Haram,” Beacon Reader, April 21, 2014,  https://www.beaconreader.com/ peter ‐tinti/contextualizing‐boko‐haram, accessed...major political contenders. The Zanzibar  Electoral Commission ( ZEC ), widely perceived as an extension of the ruling party, intensified this  rivalry when...accusation of  ZEC  misconduct, rejection of  the  results,  and  calls  for  a  new  election.34  There  were  several  bomb  and  arson  attacks  on

  16. AN APPLICATION ON BRAND POSITIONING ACTIVITIES OF POLITICAL PARTIES: GAZIANTEP SAMPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent DEMİRAĞ

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim in political marketing is to be able to determine the needs and desires of the voters correctly, to form and implement the policies towards the electorate and finally to be able to sustain the electorate in the political process and to form the electoral loyalty accordingly. Particularly, regardless of the voting rate, in the elections, the second party is considered to have lost the election, and for this reason, it is very important for the political parties that are political practitioners to come to the forefront in the politically high society where competition is experienced in the ruthless dimensions. In order to create this differentiation, it is crucial that the competitors, the market and other variables are analyzed well, the segmentation of the market, the formation and application of positioning-related policies and recertification-related strategies. The aim of the work is to measure perceptions of the characteristics of voters who are thought to be influential in political party preferences. In this context, it has been investigated whether 11 different characteristics determined by voters make a meaningful difference with their demographic characteristics. The identification of these characteristics and their importance will provide significant advantages for political parties in their positioning strategies. Within this scope, face to face surveys and data were collected from the voters voting in the province of Gaziantep. The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis. In this context, it was concluded that the factors affecting political party election differed significantly with demographic criteria.

  17. Comportamiento electoral y democracia en Nicaragua: 1990-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence C. DODD

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En los Estados Unidos y otros países de democracia establecida existen teorías de opción electoral (vote choice para explicar cómo y por qué los votantes toman decisiones electorales. Éstas nos explican cómo votan los ciudadanos, incluso qué peso dan a las evaluaciones de los candidatos, la económica, y otros factores en sus decisiones de voto. Conforme América Latina se democratiza y algunas naciones en el continente cuentan con varios años de continuidad electoral, surgen preguntas con respecto a la relevancia de teorías electorales desarrolladas en las democracias más antiguas para el análisis del contexto de las nuevas democracias. Particularmente, si ciudadanos de naciones pobres que carecen de las ventajas asociadas a la riqueza económica, educación y cobertura extensiva a través de la televisión, presentan patrones de conducta electoral reconociblemente similares a aquéllos presentes en las democracias más antiguas.Este estudio aplica dos teorías electorales de las democracias antiguas a un contexto donde la democracia es nueva: Nicaragua. Éstas son la teoría de retrospección (Fiorina y la teoría de prospección (Sniderman, Tetlock, Brody. El artículo muestra que, no obstante su pobreza y el bajo nivel educativo de muchos de sus habitantes, en las tres últimas elecciones los nicaragüenses tenían una capacidad de voto que sigue las dos teorías. Además, los votantes nicaragüenses pensaron no solamente en los candidatos y la economía sino también en el tipo de régimen, una cuestión que nunca se presentaría en Estados Unidos o en otras democracias antiguas. Los menos educados se mostraron tan capaces de utilizar prospección como los más educados. A pesar de la poca antigüedad de la democracia nicaragüense y de la relativa inexperiencia de su población, hemos descubierto una importante evidencia de la utilización de procesos evaluativos retrospectivos y prospectivos en Nicaragua en las

  18. Ecuador 1984. Propaganda electoral en la prensa de Quito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Cevallos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La revista se centra en el rol que desempeñan los medios en las campañas electorales,se publica la función política de éstos en Escandinavia,(1983La campaña electoral en una transición política en Argentina, (1986Una democracia amenazada en Costa Rica, Rescate de la memoria colectiva desde el Perú, (1983 Impacto de la crisis económica en Venezuela,(1986 Impresiones del periodismo político en Austria, (1984Propaganda electoral en la prensa de Quito, (1984 Estados Unidos. Estrategia de Comunicación:la elección presidencial. En la sección NUEVAS TECNOLOGÍAS se habla de los flujos de datos transfrontera (FDT y cuestiones afines. En DOCUMENTOS se publica sobre Innovación tecnológica en Educación, el Informe de proyectos 1985, la Primera reunión de Jamaica.

  19. Strategic Voting in Heterogeneous Electorates: An Experimental Study

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    Marcelo Tyszler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We study strategic voting in a setting where voters choose from three options and Condorcet cycles may occur. We introduce in the electorate heterogeneity in preference intensity by allowing voters to differ in the extent to which they value the three options. Three information conditions are tested: uninformed, in which voters know only their own preference ordering and the own benefits from each option; aggregate information, in which in addition they know the aggregate realized distribution of the preference orderings and full information, in which they also know how the relative importance attributed to the options are distributed within the electorate. As a general result, heterogeneity seems to decrease the level of strategic voting in our experiment compared to the homogenous preference case that we study in a companion paper. Both theoretically and empirically (with data collected in a laboratory experiment, the main comparative static results obtained for the homogenous case carry over to the present setting with preference heterogeneity. Moreover, information about the realized aggregate distribution of preferences seems to be the element that best explains observed differences in voting behavior. Additional information about the realized distribution of preference intensity does not yield significant further changes.

  20. Deconstructing national leadership: politicians' accounts of electoral success and failure in the Irish Lisbon Treaty referenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Michele; Stevenson, Clifford

    2013-03-01

    The Self Categorization approach to national leadership proposes that leaders rhetorically construct national identity as essentialized and inevitable in order to consensualize and mobilize the population. In contrast, discursive studies have demonstrated how national politicians flexibly construct the nation to manage their own accountability in local interactions, though this in turn has neglected broader leadership processes. The present paper brings both approaches together to examine how and when national politicians construct versions of national identity in order to account for their failure as well as success in mobilizing the electorate. Eight semi-structured conversational style interviews were conducted with a strategic sample of eight leading Irish politicians on the subject of the 2008/2009 Irish Lisbon Treaty referenda. Using a Critical Discourse Psychology approach, the hegemonic repertoire of the 'settled will' of the informed and consensualized Irish nation was identified across all interviews. Politicians either endorsed the 'settled will' repertoire as evidence of their successful leadership, or rejected the repertoire by denying the rationality or unity of the populace to account for their failure. Our results suggest national identity is only constructed as essentialized and inevitable to the extent that it serves a strategic political purpose. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Inequality and anti-globalization backlash by political parties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgoon, B.

    2013-01-01

    Does income inequality increase political backlash against European and global integration? This paper reports research suggesting that it can. The article analyses party opposition to and support for trade openness, European Union integration and general internationalism of political party

  2. Redistributive Politics in a Political Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    One of the main functions of centralized budgets in federal and political unions is to act as an equalizing mechanism to support economic cohesion. This is also the case with the European Union’s budget, which operates as a redistributive mechanism that counteracts the cross-national and cross...... remarkably over the last decades. In this paper, we investigate how and why the net fiscal position of each member state towards the rest of the EU changes over time. Using a novel panel dataset (1979-2014), we study how some key national and EU-level political and economic variables affect the EU...... find that the political orientation of national governments does not per se influence redistributive politics with in the EU. However, when the unemployment rate is rising, right-wing governments are able to extract significantly larger budgetary benefits....

  3. Ethno-Political effects of suburbanization in the Vilnius urban region : An analysis of voting behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubareviciene, R.; Burneika, D.; Van Ham, M.

    2015-01-01

    We use electoral data to analyze the ethno-political consequences that may arise from the fact that the region surrounding the city of Vilnius is dominated by residents with a Polish identity, while those who move to the suburbs are mainly ethnic Lithuanians. In the suburban ring we found increasing

  4. Political shocks and public debt: The case for a conservative central bank revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Bovenberg, A.L.

    2006-01-01

    We explore the dynamics of public debt and optimal institutions in the presence of political shocks arising from electoral uncertainty. Under commitment, optimal stabilization is established by combining an inflation target with a debt target. The inflation target should be contingent on the

  5. Re-Thinking Normative Democracy and the Political Economy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    Normative thinking around democracy often emphasizes the supremacy of electoral politics, underplaying the salience of education as a defining feature to produce a more meaningful, engaged, inclusive form of democracy. Critical pedagogy can be an extremely useful, illuminating and transformative means and process of deconstructing how democracy is…

  6. School Food Politics: The Complex Ecology of Hunger and Feeding in Schools around the World. Global Studies in Education, Volume 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Sarah A., Ed.; Weaver-Hightower, Marcus B., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The essays in "School Food Politics" explore the intersections of food and politics on all six of the inhabited continents of the world. Including electoral fights over universally free school meals in Korea, nutritional reforms to school dinners in England and canteens in Australia, teachers' and doctors' work on school feeding in…

  7. Innovations In Greek Political Communication And Consequences: Significant changes from 1981-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Deligiaouri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of new communicative ethics in politics has imposed new procedures and values in politics. The close inter-relation of media and politics has many facets and effects on the way politics is exercised and on how it is perceived by the citizens. This article investigates how new methods of political communication have been internalized into Greek media democracy, dividing the period from 1981 to the present into five periods of media democracy based on significant events that signaled the transition towards new communicative and political ethics. A study of articles from two newspapers provides useful insights into the role of the media, especially during electoral campaigns and in politics in general. Our research also reflects how the specific socio-political context of the country interferes and affects the adoption of "imported" methods in political communication and how these methods affect citizens’ political behavior.

  8. Can the EU’s constitutional framework accommodate democratic politics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scicluna Nicole

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The robustness of the EU’s constitutional framework – and its ability to accommodate democratic politics – is challenged as never before. The growing disconnect between formally democratic procedures and substantive choice is well illustrated by the Greek crisis. Since its first bailout in May 2010, Greece has held four general elections and a referendum. Yet, the anti-austerity preferences of the Greek electorate have not been effectively translated into policy.

  9. Online Social Media and Political Awareness in Autoritarian Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    John Reuter; David Szakonyi

    2012-01-01

    Does online social media undermine authoritarianism? We examine the conditions under which online social networks can increase public awareness of electoral fraud in non-democracies. We argue that a given online social network will only increase political awareness if it is first politicized by elites. Using survey data from the 2011 Russian parliamentary elections, we show that usage of Twitter and Facebook, which were politicized by opposition elites, significantly increased respondents' pe...

  10. Presidentialism, Decentralization, and Distributive Politics in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Felipe Nunes dos

    2015-01-01

    My dissertation focuses on how presidents allocate discretionary funds to localities. I study national leaders who often face a dilemma about how to allocate limited distributional resources to their greatest political advantage. I argue that the president's resource allocation strategy depends on the level of decentralization in a country. Presidents wish to allocate resources to their supporters in the electorate, and in centralized countries, they can do so directly, without any interferen...

  11. General Public Interest: between Electoral Rhetoric and Administrative Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Cornea

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, public administration is considered to be the operative side of government. Itis supposed to include all the activities involved in carrying out the policies of the elected officialsand some activities associated with the development of these policies. In this respect, well-knownauthors consider that the Public administration is all that comes after the last election promise and theelection night cheer: the means and ends of government. The complexity of social life, however, hasgenerated in recent years the appearance of a rationality deficit in the actions of government. It is thespread of some behaviour patterns that hinder the leadership of the system: rational options arereplaced by investment policy, the administration accepts the behaviours that are substantiallydifferent from the electoral promises. This situation generates dissatisfaction of citizens, declaringthemselves dissatisfied with the activity of the public authorities which, moreover, they have chosen.The intention of this study is to encourage analytical reflections on how the general public interest isrepresented.

  12. Brand Components in Electoral Debates: Presidential Elections Romania 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu-Aurel GHIUȚĂ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper illustrates the use of the brand and its components in the most important campaign debate of the presidential elections in Romania in 2009.The research method we have selected is the case study. The research technique consisted of the content analysis of the two speeches. The conducted analysis has included all the three types of the content analysis: conceptual, relational and qualitative analysis. The content analysis has been conducted by using the Nvivo software. The identification of the candidate’s brand in a single debate particularly entails its presence throughout the electoral campaign. We can outline the main component of the brand notion the two candidates have resorted to in this debate: Băsescu resorted to positioning, while Antonescu opted for differentiation and positioning.

  13. Does the information source matter? Newspaper readership, political preferences and attitudes towards the European Union in the United Kingdom, France and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leruth, B.; Kutiyski, Yordan; Krouwel, A.P.M.; Startin, N.; Caiani, M.; Guerra, S.

    2017-01-01

    This volume focuses on the relationship between the media and European democracy, as important factors of EU legitimacy. The contributors show how the media play a crucial role in making European governance accountable, and how it can act as an intermediate link between citizens and their elected

  14. Pentecostalismo y política electoral en Colombia (1991-2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrán, William Mauricio; Quiroga, Jesús David

    2017-01-01

    RESUMEN: El artículo presenta un balance de la participación del movimiento evangélico-pentecostal en la política electoral colombiana, en el periodo 1991-2014. Describe la génesis de la participación electoral de este movimiento religioso y da cuenta de la trayectoria de sus principales líderes y organizaciones políticas (partidos o movimientos). Presenta las estrategias que estos han implementado para aprovechar su autoridad religiosa en el campo electoral. Finalmente, hace un balance de l...

  15. La experiencia mexicana en materia de reforma política-electoral (1977-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Núñez Jiménez

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El artículo estudia el proceso de fortalecimiento democrático en México, partiendo de un sistema de partido hegemónico, hasta el establecimiento de partidos políticos competitivos. Las reformas electorales se identifican. Centra el análisis de la reforma político electoral en tres ejes: la creación y consolidación del Instituto Federal Electoral, el proceso de formación de un sistema integral de justicia electoral y el fortalecimiento de un sistema de partidos competitivo

  16. Environment protection and energy politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grawe, J.

    1993-01-01

    The lecture first deals with the aims and legal basis in German and European law of environment protection with regard to energy politics. It then goes to deal with European regulations for environment protection and their effects on the energy supply: Air pollution abatement, tax for the protection of the climate, internalisation of external costs. The following European energy-political measures impinge on environment protection: Sponsored projects, least-cost planning, third-party access to the public electricity supply. The discrepancy between European and national policies can be lessened or resolved by the following means: Harmonisation, subsidiarity principle, and scope for entrepreneurial solutions. (orig.) [de

  17. How does single party dominance influence civil society organisations' engagement strategies? Exploratory analysis of participative mainstreaming in a 'regional' European polity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Paul

    2016-04-01

    A raft of United Nations Treaties, European Union Directives and domestic laws oblige governments in 180 + countries to apply the Participative Democratic Model of mainstreaming equalities to public administration by involving those targeted by equality initiatives at all stages in their design and delivery. Notwithstanding Participative Democratic Model's deeply political nature, extant work has overlooked how governing party turnover influences civil society organisations' (CSOs) strategies. Here, this lacuna is addressed using a negative 'extreme case study' research design involving qualitative accounts from civil society organisations in Wales, a 'regional' European polity characterised by one-party dominance. The findings reveal how the absence of turnover distorts the Participative Democratic Model in relation to diverse factors including: strategic bridging, extraparliamentary politics, cognitive locks and party institutionalisation. Inter alia, the wider contribution of this analysis lies in showing the importance of turnover to effective engagement, the 'pathologies' associated with one-party dominance and the need for adaptive civil society strategies tailored to prevailing electoral politics and governing party turnover in liberal democracies.

  18. Dinamica demografică în perioada post-1945 și implicațiile ei (geopolitice (Demographic Trends Since 1945 and its (GeoPolitics Influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelian GIUGĂL

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The world population has constantly increased post-1945. This trend has been unequal, there were significant differences between both continental & regional, developed & underdeveloped spaces. The increase in the developing world has been contra-balanced by decreasing in the developed countries. Additionally, as a consequence of low level fertility, the developed countries are affected by the phenomenon of aging population. Consequently, pro-immigration policies have been implemented in western societies. Under these circumstances, the percentage of Muslim and African population in Europe has lately increased. In this context, this article discusses these regional and continental demographic differences, trying to underline political influences generated by post-WWII demographic trend. Given the background, we state that immigrants from Western countries significantly influence the electoral behaviour. Moreover, recent tensions have changed security policies in the European and North American (USA cities. Last but not least, demographic evolutions have geopolitical impact.

  19. Voting frequentia as an indicator of political activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kryvoshein

    2017-07-01

    Found that the amount of voting frequentia depends on the political regime, the form of government and the level elections. Determined that democracies characterized by an autonomous form of voting frequentia and for undemocratic – mobilizational form of voting frequentia. Followed that the highest rate of participation in voting observed in countries with a parliamentary form of government and proportional electoral system, more than 2/3 of the voting frequentia observed in countries with a parliamentary form of government and majoritarian electoral systems, lowest level of voting frequentia observed in countries with a presidential form of government. It also notes that increased voting frequentia observed in countries where compulsory voting is set. Observed trend of dependency and level elections: electoral activity of elections on the local, regional and supra-national representative authority is much lower than in the presidential and parliamentary elections. Attention is drawn to in explaining the voting frequentia considered rational and irrational factors, since voting is a two-tiered process: active, politically defined part of the voters voted party ideologically and politically unbiased – rationally.

  20. Immigration Ethnic Diversity and Political Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe

    2017-01-01

    I study the impact of immigration and increasing ethnic diversity on political outcomes in immigrant-receiving countries, focusing on immigration and election outcomes in Danish municipalities 1981-2001. A rich set of control variables isolates ethnic diversity effects from those of other immigrant...... characteristics and a novel IV strategy based on historical housing stock data addresses issues of endogenous location choices of immigrants. Increases in local ethnic diversity lead to right-ward shifts in election outcomes by shifting electoral support away from traditional "big government" left-wing parties...... and towards anti-immigrant nationalist parties in particular. These effects appear in both local and national elections....

  1. The Catholic Church, Political Institutions, and Electoral Outcomes in Oaxaca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson Lucinda Benton Sheldon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, se analizan dos argumentos con respecto al papel que la Iglesia católica ha desempeñado dentro de la política estatal en Oaxaca, México, durante las décadas de 1990 y 2000. En el primero de ellos, se plantea que los obispos tienden a favorecer y a facilitar los procesos de democratización en este estado. En el segundo, se sugiere que la Iglesia pudo haber favorecido involuntariamente el autoritarismo gubernamental al apoyar con entusiasmo la legalización de usos y costumbres en la política local. El análisis estadístico presentado en este trabajo muestra que el grado de presencia católica en los municipios oaxaqueños sólo importa en algunos casos y no siempre en la dirección esperada. Más en concreto, ladefensa de tal legalización en algunas comunidades indígenas donde la presencia del catolicismo prevalece, ha disminuido el apoyo al pri y a los partidos marginales. En cambio, en otras comunidades indígenas, el efecto ha sido el contrario. Finalmente, se concluye que la falta de resultados sistematizados demuestra la capacidad de la Iglesia católica para intervenir en las políticas locales oaxaqueñas.

  2. Blame and punishment? The electoral politics of extreme austerity in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Karyotis, Georgios; Rudig, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Can governments that introduce extreme austerity measures survive elections? Contrary to economic voting expectations, the PASOK government in Greece initially appeared to cope quite well, claiming victory in regional elections in 2010 despite widespread anti-austerity protest. In this paper, we interpret this result with the help of a post-election survey, which also covered future voting intention. The explanatory power of models based on theories of economic voting and blame attribution as...

  3. The Political Economy of Financial Systems: Evidence from Suffrage Reforms in the Last Two Centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Degryse, Hans; Lambert, Thomas; Schwienbacher, Armin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Initially, voting rights were limited to wealthy elites providing political support for stock markets. The franchise expansion induces the median voter to provide political support for banking development as this new electorate has lower financial holdings and benefits less from the uncertainty and financial returns from stock markets. Our panel data evidence covering 1830-1999 shows that tighter restrictions on the voting franchise induce a greater stock market development, whereas...

  4. Environment protection and energy politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernice, I.

    1993-01-01

    Three aspects make the issue of energy politics and environment protection in the European Community interesting: Questions of competence, international stipulations, and the concrete measures the Community implements or plans in fulfillment of its duty to integrate these two political spheres. At the international level impulses for an environmentally benign energy policy are given by the World Climate Convention, the Agenda 21 passed at the Rio Conference, and by the European Energy Charter and its consequential documents. (orig./HSCH) [de

  5. Online politics: a cross-national explanatory analysis of political websites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, G.; Kruikemeier, S.; Aparaschivei, A.; Boomgaarden, H.; Vliegenthart, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a systematic investigation of party and candidate websites in five European countries: Germany, Romania, Hungary, The Netherlands and Great Britain. It examines three features of online political communication that are presented on political websites (interactivity,

  6. Sistema electoral costarricense, seis décadas de probada efectividad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zetty Bou Valverde

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Las fortalezas del sistema electoral costarricense no descansan, exclusivamente, en las previsiones normativas o en la fortaleza del organismo electoral sino, también, en el sistema de partidos políticos y la participación de los ciudadanos, pilares esenciales y que no deben ser descuidados si se quiere seguir viviendo en democracia. El nuevo Código Electoral, que entró en vigencia el 2 de setiembre de 2009, incorpora al derecho electoral costarricense importantes principios, mecanismos jurisdiccionales e instituciones que ya habían sido desarrollados por la jurisprudencia del TSE, así como otros novedosos, que vienen a dar más efectividad y seguridad al proceso democrático

  7. When politics prevails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Dagnis; Snaith, Holly

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses Britain’s quest to negotiate its future membership of the European Union (EU) through the lens of Liberal intergovernmentalism. The article demonstrates that despite the significant economic consequences of a potential Brexit, party political factors have hitherto proven more...

  8. On the Frontier of Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladegaard, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    the layers of political and cinematographic ideology. Essential Killing thereby illustrates a pessimistic tendency in current European cinema, which is countered by the comical lesson on political emancipation given by the Indian protagonist of Jarmusch’s film. The two films thus embody two opposing...

  9. Elecciones, electores y partidos en América Latina en la década de 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel ALCÁNTARA SÁEZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este artículo el autor aprovecha la reciente experiencia electoral latinoamericana para realizar un estudio de los sistemas electorales de la región, analizando aspectos como la fórmula electoral y la relación entre el sistema electoral y la gobernabilidad. Seguidamente estudia la relación entre leyes electorales y sistemas de partidos, así como las tendencias del comportamiento del electorado y de los partidos latinoamericanos. Finalmente se extraen conclusiones globales a la luz de los recientes procesos electorales.ABSTRACT: In this article, the author takes the most recent electoral experience in Latin America to make a study on the different electoral systems of the region, by analyzing various aspects like the electoral formula and the connection between electoral system and governability. Next, the article studies the connection between electoral laws and party system, as well as the Latin America elector' & parties' behaviourial trends. Finally, several global conclusions are inferred in the light of the most recent electoral processes.

  10. José Figueres Ferrer y su aporte al sistema electoral costarricense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Fonseca Montoya

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo describe los aportes del Expresidente de la República y Benemérito de la Patria José Figueres Ferrer para el desarrollo y estabilidad del sistema electoral costarricense. Repasa la emisión de Decretos-Ley que desde la Junta Fundadora de la Segunda República aseguraron la estructura que hoy ostenta tanto la legislación electoral como el Tribunal Supremo de Elecciones.

  11. Percepciones públicas del fraude electoral en México

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Schedler

    1999-01-01

    After a long history of electoral fraud, Mexicana entered the 1990s with deep skepticism towardspolitical elections. Subsequent electoral reforma succeeded to bring fraud under control. How did Mexican citizens react to these institutional changes f Did they hibernate under theprotectivecover of un unchanging "culture ofdistrust"? Or did they adapt their expectations to thenew realities? Thearticlesupports the hypothesis ofchange. Analyzing a set of formerly disperse opinwn poli data, it arri...

  12. Sin una ventaja financiera: Incumbentes y el gasto electoral en las elecciones parlamentarias de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Joel W. Johnson; Colorado State University - Pueblo

    2012-01-01

    Research from various countries has shown that incumbents in legislative elections raise and spend more money when they face a tougher contest. A statistical analysis of Chilean candidates’ campaign finance disclosures shows the opposite: an inverse relationship between incumbent spending and electoral competitiveness. This occurs because Chile’s deputies are relatively limited in their influence over policy and pork and because the congressional electoral system makes most competitive contes...

  13. Principios de la actividad electoral en la era digital : una aproximación al control administrativo colombiano de la propaganda electoral en Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Tovar Niño, Tsetian

    2016-01-01

    El desarrollo tecnológico y la expansión de las formas de comunicación en Colombia, no solo trajeron consigo grandes beneficios, sino también nuevos retos para el Estado Moderno. Actualmente, la oferta de espacios de difusión de propaganda electoral ha aumentado, mientras persiste un marco legal diseñado para los medios de comunicación del Siglo XX. Por tanto, este trabajo no solo realiza un diagnóstico de los actuales mecanismos de control administrativo sobre la propaganda electoral en Inte...

  14. El Estado Autonómico y el procedimiento electoral en España: Reforma de la Ley Electoral de Castilla-La Manch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martín Sánchez

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El Sistema Electoral de Castilla-La Mancha es un sistema de listas cerradas y bloqueadas, en el que la circunscripción es la provincia, y que se rige por un criterio mixto de representación territorial y poblacional, en atención a la exigencia constitucional del artículo 152.CE. Está regulado en su norma institucional básica, Estatuto de Autonomía de Castilla-La Mancha, y desarrollado mediante la Ley Electoral de 23 de diciembre de Castilla-La Mancha, reformada recientemente por Ley 12/2007, de 8 de noviembre.

  15. The Ghana 2000 Elections: Voter Choice and Electoral Decisions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contrary to earlier assertions that Ghanaians pay attention not so much to regime performance and achievements as they reach their political decisions, we show empirically that the Ghanaians could also choose between parties and candidates when deciding on an election. (A. J. of Political Science: 2001 6(1): 69-88) ...

  16. Imagining engagement: youth, social media and electoral processes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Dumitrica (Delia)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe case of the 2010 municipal elections in Calgary, Canada, is used here to explore the discursive construction of social media in relation to political engagement. This article examines the way in which 59 undergraduate students at the University of Calgary discuss political engagement

  17. Evaluating the Results of Quota Systems in Politics in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mala Htun

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the varying effects of quota systems, as they emerge from a scenario of women’s increased inroads into politics in Latin America, expressed in the increased number of women in elected offices, the implementation of quota systems and increased presence of the issue of gender equality in political agendas. The character of the electoral system, as based on “open” or “closed” lists; the absence or presence of a norm of a compulsory competitive position for women within political parties and political parties’ commitment to quota policies are the crucial factors that determine variation.

  18. Democracy, Corruption and the Politics of Spirits in Contemporary Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubandt, Nils Ole

    Indonesia has been an electoral democracy for more than a decade, and yet the political landscape of the world’s third-largest democracy is as complex and enigmatic as ever. Indonesia is simultaneous a country that has achieved a successful transition to democracy and a flawed, illiberal......, and predatory democracy. This book provides a portrait of Indonesia’s contradictory democracy through a series of biographical accounts of political entrepreneurs, from the political ‘periphery’ of North Maluku and the ‘political centre’ of East Java respectively. Each biographical account is focused on one...... contentious area of democracy in Indonesia – elections, corruption, decentralization, and regional representation. The chapters explore the intimate ways in which the political world and the spirit world are entangled. The core argument of the book is that Indonesia’s seemingly peculiar problems...

  19. GIS tool for California state legislature electoral history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artham, Swathi

    The California State Legislature contains two bodies consisting of the lower house, the California State Assembly, with eighty members, and the upper house, the California State Senate, with forty members. Elections are held for every two years for both Senate and Assembly. The terms of the Senators are staggered so that half the membership is elected every two years, whereas all the Assembly members are elected every two years. The electoral district boundaries vary after every 10-year census. My main objective is to provide a summary of both California State Senate and California State Assembly election results in a single GIS tool, from the years 1970 to 2012. This tool provides information about different trends in the California State Senate and State Assembly elections along the years. This tool was designed to help students, and teachers to interactively learn about the California State Legislature elections. Users can view the election results by selecting a particular year for Senate or Assembly, which results in adding a new layer on the map with a coloring scheme for better understanding of change of parties; red for Republicans, blue for Democrats and green for Independents. Users can click on any district shown on the map using a hotlink tool to see the electoral trends for the districts for the past years. This application provides a powerful Stored Query Language (SQL) query option to enter queries and get election results in the form of tables with various fields. This data can be further used to aid other analysis as per user requirements. This tool also provides various visual statistics using graphs and tables for voter turnout, number of candidates won by each party, number of seats changed from one party to another. It also features a color matrix table that helps users to see trends in California State Senate and Assembly. Every two-year election results are shown in the form of graphs and tables for better understanding by the user. The tool

  20. "Otpor" - a postmodern Faust: new social movement, the tradition of enlightened reformism and the electoral revolution in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naumović Slobodan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Otpor is discussed in the text as a complex and contradictory new type of social movement, whose members attempted to contribute to the tradition of enlightened reform of social and political life in Serbia, simultaneously in a highly pragmatic and in a creative, possibly even irresponsible manner. After the introduction, analyzed are popular and media narratives on the characteristics of the movement, dilemmas concerning the founding of the movement and meaning of its key symbols, and the Faustian question of goals and consequences of foreign, in particular American influences. Following is a discussion of strategic (non-violent revolution, calculated victimization and tactical (black campaigns, get-out-the-vote campaign roles of Otpor in the coordinated project of ousting Milosevic. Otpor’s role is then re-interpreted in the frame of the ‘electoral revolution’, developed by Valerie Bunce, Sharon Wolchik and Michael McFoul. An assessment of the transformation of Otpor from an active social movement into an exportable blueprint for non-violent political revolutions is offered in lieu of a conclusion.