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Sample records for european efficiency static

  1. PV inverter test setup for European efficiency, static and dynamic MPPT efficiency evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sera, Dezso; Teodorescu, Remus; Valentini, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    This paper concerns the evaluation of performance of grid-connected PV inverters in terms of conversion efficiency, European efficiency, static and dynamic MPP efficiency. Semi-automated tests were performed in the PV laboratory of the Institute of Energy Technology at the Aalborg University...... (Denmark) on a commercial transformerless PV inverter. Thanks to the available experimental test setups, that provide the required high measuring accuracy, and the developed PV simulator, which is required for MPPT performance evaluation, PV Inverters can be pretested before being tested by accredited...

  2. The European strategy for fast reactor core static mechanics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.H.; Di Francesca, R.; Coors, D.; Steenberghe, T. van

    1987-01-01

    The strategy is designed to meet the needs of participating European countries by achieving the following objectives: To provide generic information and data on the static mechanics of all styles of core of interest, validate codes and optimise new designs. To endorse specific features of SPX2 and SNR2 designs. To provide the new facilities which are needed. To present the programme of work required and timescale. (orig./HP)

  3. Static and dynamic efficiency of white certificate schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraudet, L.G.; Finon, D.

    2011-01-01

    White Certificate Schemes mandate energy companies to promote energy efficiency through flexibility mechanisms, including the trading of energy savings. They can be characterized as a quantity-based, baseline-and-credit system for the diffusion of energy efficient technologies. This paper compares experiences with White Certificate Schemes in Great Britain, Italy and France, in order to identify the basic drivers of each, and ultimately offer an original interpretation as an adaptive instrument, in the sense that it can take different forms in response to specific institutional contexts. A first analysis shows that Schemes perform well in terms of static efficiency, i.e. they are cost-effective and generate net social benefits over the period considered, though with large discrepancies rooted in different technological potentials. Regarding dynamic efficiency, i.e. the ability to induce and sustain technological change over the long haul, market transformation occurred in Great Britain, but was poorly incentivized in Italy and France by inadequate compliance cost recovery rules. Substantial organizational change has occurred in every country, mainly by strengthening vertical relationships between obliged parties and upstream businesses. Overall, the obligation (rather than the market component) drives the early phases of the Schemes. (authors)

  4. THE STEEL EUROPEAN STOCK MARKET EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica CHIRILA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Testing the hypothesis of informational efficiency is a permanent preoccupation of researchers because the theories and the models of modern finance are based on it. This paper presents the results obtained after testing the efficiency hypothesis, in the weak form, for the European stock market of the companies that belong to the economic steel sub-sector. Following the use of both linear and non-linear tests of autocorrelation of returns we can conclude that the European stock market in the economic steel sub-sector is inefficient from an informational point of view and the investors in these stocks may obtain better results than those of the European market in general.

  5. European Integration between Equity, Efficiency and Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Marchis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Throughout this article I tried to highlight the path for improving the Europeans standards ofliving. Poverty, inequality and efficiency are the key concepts of the welfare economic. Similar to many otherarticles about equity, efficiency and welfare, this article offers an account of the challenges facing theEuropean Union welfare in a context of global economy assessing the ability of different components of thewelfare governance to respond to these challenges. The welfare of European Union is analyzed under themultidimensional aspects of integration, such as: internal versus external integration and multilevelintegration. Aging, changes in the labor market, increased mobility are particular aspects that characterize EUand under the fundamental reform of Europe 2020 Strategy, welfare economic becomes a priority even if thepolitical integration comes first to the economic one. As Europe grows more diverse, the welfare economictranslates from desire to necessity.

  6. Efficiency of European Dairy Processing Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soboh, R.A.M.E.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Dijk, van G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares the technical efficiency and production frontier of dairy processing cooperativesand investor owned firms in six major dairy producing European countries. Two parametric produc-tion frontiers are estimated, i.e. for cooperatives and investor owned firms separately, which are

  7. Market efficiency in the European carbon markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, Amélie; Darné, Olivier; Fouilloux, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the relationship between futures and spot prices in the European carbon markets from the cost-of-carry hypothesis. The aim is to investigate the extent of efficiency market. The three main European markets (BlueNext, EEX and ECX) are analyzed during Phase II, covering the period from March 13, 2009 to January, 17, 2012. Futures contracts are found to be cointegrated with spot prices and interest rates for several maturities in the three CO 2 markets. Results are similar when structural breaks are taken into account. According to individual and joint tests, the cost-of-carry model is rejected for all maturities and CO 2 markets, implying that neither contract is priced according to the cost-of-carry model. The absence of the cost-of-carry relationship can be interpreted as an indicator of market inefficiency and may bring arbitrage opportunities in the CO 2 market. - Highlights: • We study the cost-of-carry hypothesis in the European carbon markets during Phase 2. • We apply cointegration tests with and without structural breaks on several maturities. • We find that futures contracts are cointegrated with spot prices and interest rates. • The cost-of-carry model is rejected for all maturities and carbon markets

  8. Static and dynamic efficiency of irreversible health care investments under alternative payment rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levaggi, R; Moretto, M; Pertile, P

    2012-01-01

    The paper studies the incentive for providers to invest in new health care technologies under alternative payment systems, when the patients' benefits are uncertain. If the reimbursement by the purchaser includes both a variable (per patient) and a lump-sum component, efficiency can be ensured both in the timing of adoption (dynamic) and the intensity of use of the technology (static). If the second instrument is unavailable, a trade-off may emerge between static and dynamic efficiency. In this context, we also discuss how the regulator could use control of the level of uncertainty faced by the provider as an instrument to mitigate the trade-off between static and dynamic efficiency. Finally, we calibrate the model to study a specific technology and estimate the cost of a regulatory failure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. EC static high-temperature leach test. Summary report of an European Community interlaboratory round robin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koennecke, R.; Kirsch, J.

    1985-01-01

    The results of an interlaboratory static high-temperature leach test conducted by the Commission of the European Communities in 1983 over a period of 9 months are compiled and statistically evaluated. A total of 12 laboratories - 10 from Member States of the EC and one from Finland and the USA - provided information concerning the test method and the analytical test results in the frame of a round robin test (RRT). All together these laboratories tested 366 waste from specimens of the borosilicate glass UK 209 containing simulated high-level radioactive waste. Leach tests were performed on the basis of the ''Document on the EC static high-temperature leach test method'' in autoclaves at leaching temperatures of 90 0 C, 110 0 C, 150 0 C, and 190 0 C over time periods of 3,7,14,28 and 56 days using dionized water as leachant. The resulting leachates were analysed for the elemental concentrations of Si,B,Sr,Nd and Cs by all laboratories and for the concentrations of the optional elements Na, Al,Ce,Mo,Cr,Fe,Li,Mg and Zn by some of the participating laboratories. Additionally, the F content of the blank leachates was analysed by all laboratories

  10. The static welfare effects of the accession to the European Union on the Finnish agricultural markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. NIEMI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Finland’s entry into the European Union in 1995 and the application of the Common Agricultural Policy have had major repercussions on Finland’s agriculture, which faces the major disadvantages of an unfavourable climate and farm structure. This paper attempts to measure the direct static welfare effects associated with the opening of Finnish agricultural markets for more competition. Using a standard comparative static partial equilibrium analysis in the Marshallian economic surplus framework, the welfare effects are calculated for eight major cereal and livestock commodities produced in Finland for the year 2003. The results suggest that farmers, despite the growth in direct payments, have incurred large annual welfare losses ranging from EUR 570 to EUR 600 million. Consumers, on the other hand, have gained from the accession between EUR 815 and 875 million annually. The taxpayers’ have gained – as a result of the decrease in the direct subsidies and export restitutions paid by the national budget – between EUR 470 and EUR 580 million. The net welfare benefit in Finland, in terms agricultural sector only, was a welfare benefit of EUR 500–700 million in 2003.;

  11. Determinants of Romanians' Migration within the European Union: Static and Dynamic Panel Gravity Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ana Maria Davidescu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The 1st of January 2007 marked Romania’s accession to the European Union (EU and represented its 'ticket' to a free access to the common market. This soon evolved into an important trigger for the increased migration flows from Romania towards the more developed western countries, members of the EU. Not only the opportunity of a free movement of persons – emerged with the integration - but also the existing socio-economic disparities between Romania and the more developed western countries in the EU, led to unidirectional migration flows. Using both static and dynamic panel gravity models, we aim to identify the main determinants of Romanians' migration towards 10 EU member states – Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Netherlands, Finland, Germany, Norway, Poland, Spain, and Sweden – for the period 2007-2014. Our empirical findings support the results of other studies performed on different economies. The most important pull factor for Romanians' migration is represented by the economic conditions in the destination countries, proxied by the GDP/capita. Other important pull factors fuelling Romanians' migration refer to the unemployment rate, life expectancy, education spending, and population density. A key role is also played by the existing social networks in the destination countries which are proxied in our model by the lagged migration flows

  12. An empirical analysis of China's energy efficiency from both static and dynamic perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhaohua; Feng, Chao; Zhang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing the global DEA (data envelopment analysis), this paper analyzes China's energy efficiency from both static and dynamic perspectives based on China's provincial panel data for the period of 2001–2010. We present the evolution of energy efficiency in China from 2001 to 2010, and identify the key factors influencing the energy efficiency from the aspects of technical progress, productive scale and management level. The results show that there was an overall declining trend for China's energy efficiency from 2001 to 2005, and technical regress and the decrease in scale efficiency were the main reasons for this decline. Then an overall rising trend appeared during 2005–2010, and technical progress was the most important motivation for this increase. Moreover, among the three main regions in China, the eastern China was leading in the energy efficiency during the sample period, while the energy efficiency in western China fell far behind since the beginning. And the energy efficiency in central China was in the middle. This indicates that west region may be China's promising growth engine of energy efficiency in the future, and further technical progress is thought to be the key motivation for this improvement. - Highlights: • We analyze China's energy efficiency from both static and dynamic perspectives. • The global DEA (data envelopment analysis) method is utilized in this paper. • Technical progress is the key factor for the change of China's energy efficiency. • There are significant differences in energy efficiency of different regions in China. • Western area is China's promising growth engine of energy efficiency in the future

  13. On the dependence of static flat seal efficiency to surface defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledoux, Y.; Lasseux, D.; Favreliere, H.; Samper, S.; Grandjean, J.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the role of the modal content of surface defects on static flat seal efficiency. The configuration under consideration is an annular contact between two surfaces, one holding all the defects, the other being assumed flat and infinitely rigid. The analysis is carried out on synthetic 'turned-like' surfaces generated by combinations of the first 50 vibrational eigen modes determined from modal discrete decomposition. The transmissivity of the contact, that fully characterizes the seal efficiency, is computed on the basis of a Reynolds model for incompressible flow. The dependence of the transmissivity upon the modal content of the surface defects is analyzed on a contact pressure range of common use employing a simplified deformation algorithm. Impact of the defects modal content is investigated statistically through a pair of experimental designs. It is shown that, i) the uncertainty on transmissivity, while considering a series of parts, can be drastically reduced if defect modes are well selected; ii) the transmissivity itself can be very significantly decreased when the defects modal content is conveniently controlled. While clearly indicating that the common surface roughness specification is generally not a relevant one to ensure a required seal performance, this work opens wide perspectives on the seal improvement by surface defects optimization only. - Highlights: → Computation of contact transmissivity qualifying static seal efficiency. → Statistical analysis of surface defects modal content on static flat seal. → Improvement of static flat seal efficiency. → Significant transmissivity reduction by convenient control of surface defects modes. → Drastic reduction of transmissivity uncertainty by surface defects modes selection.

  14. Static vs. mobile sink: The influence of basic parameters on energy efficiency in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Majid I; Gansterer, Wilfried N; Haring, Guenter

    2013-05-15

    Over the last decade a large number of routing protocols has been designed for achieving energy efficiency in data collecting wireless sensor networks. The drawbacks of using a static sink are well known. It has been argued in the literature that a mobile sink may improve the energy dissipation compared to a static one. Some authors focus on minimizing Emax , the maximum energy dissipation of any single node in the network, while others aim at minimizing Ebar , the average energy dissipation over all nodes. In our paper we take a more holistic view, considering both Emax and Ebar . The main contribution of this paper is to provide a simulation-based analysis of the energy efficiency of WSNs with static and mobile sinks. The focus is on two important configuration parameters: mobility path of the sink and duty cycling value of the nodes. On the one hand, it is well known that in the case of a mobile sink with fixed trajectory the choice of the mobility path influences energy efficiency. On the other hand, in some types of applications sensor nodes spend a rather large fraction of their total lifetime in idle mode, and therefore higher energy efficiency can be achieved by using the concept of reduced duty cycles. In particular, we quantitatively analyze the influence of duty cycling and the mobility radius of the sink as well as their interrelationship in terms of energy consumption for a well-defined model scenario. The analysis starts from general load considerations and is refined into a geometrical model. This model is validated by simulations which are more realistic in terms of duty cycling than previous work. It is illustrated that over all possible configuration scenarios in terms of duty cycle and mobility radius of the sink the energy dissipation in the WSN can vary up to a factor of nine in terms of Emax and up to a factor of 17 in terms of Ebar. It turns out that in general the choice of the duty cycle value is more important for achieving energy

  15. Investment Strategy and Efficiency of Investment Activity of European Insurers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhabynets Olga Yo.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article studies investment strategy and efficiency of investment activity of European insurance companies. In particular, it analyses the share of investments of insurance companies of Europe in GDP, investment portfolio of European insurers and its structure, contribution of insurance companies – leaders of investment activity – into the European investment portfolio. It studies influence of the financial crisis upon investment strategy of European insurers and analyses efficiency of investment activity of European insurers in risk insurance and life insurance. The article proves that investment business models of insurance companies are capable of resisting crisis phenomena more efficiently than other financial institutions. It marks out that measures of insurance companies that are directed at increase of profitability of investments require from them both significant expenditures on creation of the system of investment risk management and open access to different categories of financial assets and markets, which influences the general risk level, taken upon by an insurance company. The author draws a conclusion that, taking into account recent developments, European insurers should focus on equity and investment risk management, finding new possibilities for their (investments growth and also adaptation of new systems and operations for solution of these important tasks.

  16. Regional R&D efficiency in Korea from static and dynamic perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Ungkyu; Asmild, Mette; Kunc, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Research and development (R&D) efficiency has gained great attention in regional innovation research. This study examines the R&D efficiency patterns of 15 Korean regions for 2005–09. It employs data envelopment analysis to identify the regions' R&D performances relative to the best practices from...... the static perspective, and the Malmquist productivity index to evaluate their changes in performance within a given timeframe, providing a dynamic perspective. The results classify the Korean regions into deteriorating, lagging and improving groups, and indicate that most regions suffer from declining R...

  17. Efficiency of European emissions markets: Lessons and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurti, Chandrasekhar; Hoque, Ariful

    2011-01-01

    While prior studies have shown that emission rights and futures contracts on emission rights are efficiently priced, there are no studies on the efficiency of the options market. Therefore, this study fills the gap. We examine empirical evidence regarding the efficiency of the options market for emissions rights in Europe. We employ the put-call parity approach to test the efficiency of options on emission rights traded in the European market. This implies that firms can trade options on emission rights in addition to other existing strategies in order to manage their greenhouse gas emissions. - Highlights: → Efficiency of the European options market for emissions. → Design implications for the development of emissions trading schemes in other countries. → Governance issues pertaining to emissions trading.

  18. Efficient Market Hypothesis: Some Evidences from Emerging European Forex Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Anoop S Kumar; Bandi Kamaiah

    2014-01-01

    This study attempts to analyze the presence of weak form efficiency in the forex markets of a set of select European emerging markets namely Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia and Slovenia using the monthly NEER data ranging from jan-1994 to Dec-2013. We employ a two step comprehensive methodology where in the first place we test for weak form efficiency using a family of individual and joint variance ratio tests. The results show that while the marke...

  19. Competition Efficiency Analysis of Croatian Junior Wrestlers in European Championship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristijan Slacanac

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Croatian junior wrestler won a bronze medal at the European Championship 2016 year. Considering the potential of our wrestlers there is an obvious need of technical and tactical analysis so our juniors and seniors U23 wrestlers would be able to achieve even better results. Match analysis were conducted by LongoMatch 0.20.1. Seven matches of Croatian wrestlers were analysed. Time parameters, score efficiency, technical efficiency and tactical structure were observed and analysed from the aspect of attack and defence phase and successful/unsuccessful techniques. This paper shows descriptive parameters and competitor efficiency were calculated. The results show a great number of positive score in a standing position in relation to parterre position. The parameters of competitive efficiency (0.49 points per minute show better attacking efficiency (1.32 points per minute in relation to defence efficiency (0.83 points per minute. Croatian wrestlers achieve less score per minute in relation with elite wrestlers, but it is visible a significant progress in technical and tactical efficiency in relation in the past three year. According to place realization of technique, Croatian wrestlers realized more technique in the center, while opponents realized technique in the zone and moving to the zone. Further analysis of efficiency and individualisation training will improve efficiency of Croatian national wrestlers.

  20. Efficiency in the European agricultural sector: environment and resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho, Victor; Madaleno, Mara; Macedo, Pedro; Robaina, Margarita; Marques, Carlos

    2018-04-22

    This article intends to compute agriculture technical efficiency scores of 27 European countries during the period 2005-2012, using both data envelopment analysis (DEA) and stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) with a generalized cross-entropy (GCE) approach, for comparison purposes. Afterwards, by using the scores as dependent variable, we apply quantile regressions using a set of possible influencing variables within the agricultural sector able to explain technical efficiency scores. Results allow us to conclude that although DEA and SFA are quite distinguishable methodologies, and despite attained results are different in terms of technical efficiency scores, both are able to identify analogously the worst and better countries. They also suggest that it is important to include resources productivity and subsidies in determining technical efficiency due to its positive and significant exerted influence.

  1. The static and dynamic efficiency of instruments of promotion of renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D; Menanteau, P.

    2003-01-01

    Results of a comparative analysis of the economic and social efficiency of the instruments used to promote renewable energy sources are discussed. The analysis was carried out first from a static point of view and then using dynamic criteria, to ascertain the ability of the instruments to stimulate technological progress and cost reduction. The first part of the analysis is devoted to characterization of the rationale of these policies in a cost-efficiency framework, followed by an analysis of the instruments in relation to the classic discussion of environmental policy that opposes price-based approaches versus quantity-based approaches. The final part of the analysis examines the incentives to invest and innovate in the context of each framework in relation to the surplus allowed by each policy instrument and its effects on the tendency of manufacturers and renewable energy producers to innovate. The evidence shows that in terms of installed capacity price-based approaches have been superior to the quantity-based approaches that have been used until recently. In contrast, quantity-based approaches have been found to be more efficient for defining and adjusting the overall goals. Adjusting the quotas also provides an indirect way of controlling overall costs. 22 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs

  2. Eco-Efficiency Actions and Firm Growth in European SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisenda Jové-Llopis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of eco-efficiency actions on firm performance in terms of sales growth in an extensive sample of 11,336 small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs located in 28 European countries. Our empirical results suggest that not all eco-strategies are positively related to better performance, at least not in the short term. We found that European companies using renewable energies, and recycling or designing products that are easier to maintain, repair, or reuse, perform better. Those that aim to reduce water or energy pollution, however, seemed to show a negative correlation to firm growth. Our results also indicate that high investment in eco-strategies improves firm growth, particularly in new members that joined the EU from 2004 onwards. Finally, we observed a U-shaped relationship between eco-strategies and firm growth, which indicates that a greater breadth of eco-strategies is associated with better firm performance. However, few European SMEs are able to either invest heavily or undertake multiple eco-strategies, thus leaving room for policy interventions.

  3. Efficient Market Hypothesis: Some Evidences from Emerging European Forex Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop S Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to analyze the presence of weak form efficiency in the forex markets of a set of select European emerging markets namely Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia and Slovenia using the monthly NEER data ranging from jan-1994 to Dec-2013. We employ a two step comprehensive methodology where in the first place we test for weak form efficiency using a family of individual and joint variance ratio tests. The results show that while the markets of Croatia, Czech Republic and Bulgaria may be weak form efficient at a shorter lag, the other six markets are not informationally efficient. In the next stage, we estimate a measure of relative efficiency to show the extent to which a market is weak-form inefficient. From the results, it is found that the forex markets of Croatia, Czech Republic and Bulgaria are least weak form inefficient compared to others. The findings of the study are of relevance as it shows that even after roughly two decades of free market economic policies, majority of the forex markets in the area remains informationally inefficient.

  4. Efficiency vs Effectiveness: a Benchmarking Study on European Healthcare Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado lo Storto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. This paper illustrates a benchmarking study concerning the healthcare systems in 32 European countries as of 2011 and 2014. Particularly, this study proposes a two-dimensional approach (efficiency/effectiveness models to evaluate the performance of national healthcare systems. Data Envelopment Analysis has been adopted to compute two performance indices, measuring efficiency and effectiveness of these healthcare systems. The results of the study emphasize that the national healthcare systems achieve different efficiency and effectiveness levels. Their performance indices are uncorrelated and behave differently over time, suggesting that there might be no real trade-off between them. The healthcare systems’ efficiencies remain generally stable, while the effectiveness values significantly improved from 2011 to 2014. However, comparing the efficiency and effectiveness scores, the authors identified a group of countries with the lowest performing healthcare systems that includes Ukraine, Bulgaria, Switzerland, Lithuania, and Romania. These countries need to implement healthcare reforms aimed at reducing resource intensity and increasing the quality of medical services. The results also showed the benefits of the proposed approach, which can help policy makers to identify shortcomings in national healthcare systems and justify the need for their reform.

  5. Economic efficiency of extensive livestock production in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastić Lana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Various types of extensive livestock production are present worldwide, primarily in regions where natural resources such as pastures and meadows could be used. Extensive livestock production is common in the EU, as well. Therefore the goal of this research was to establish economic efficiency of extensive livestock production types and to compare their efficiency with some intensive livestock production types. In order to achieve that goal FADN (Farm Accountancy Data Network methodology was used. Source of information was FADN database as well as appropriate sector analysis and publications of European commission. It has been determined that sheep and goat production is competitive with intensive production types (dairy and granivores - pigs and poultry. Cattle production (other than dairy production proved to be economically inefficient due to low output level.

  6. Energy efficiency and performance indicators of European electricity market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin DUGULEANĂ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The electric power system plays a vital role in the development of every country, ensuring the “fuel” which feeds its economic motor. The efficient functioning of this motor is essential for economy. The efficiency and the performances of electric power systems are reflected on the living level of population, through the money spent and the satisfaction level of their needs. The continuity of power distribution process, the good communication between the suppliers and consumers, the promptitude of interventions, the environment protection - all these are aspects characterizing the performance level of power distribution systems. The paper analyzes the evolution of quality indicators of power distribution systems both for countries’ level and for population on European market of electricity.

  7. Time-zero efficiency of European power derivatives markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peña, Juan Ignacio; Rodriguez, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    We study time-zero efficiency of electricity derivatives markets. By time-zero efficiency is meant a sequence of prices of derivatives contracts having the same underlying asset but different times to maturity which implies that prices comply with a set of efficiency conditions that prevent profitable time-zero arbitrage opportunities. We investigate whether statistical tests, based on the law of one price, and trading rules, based on price differentials and no-arbitrage violations, are useful for assessing time-zero efficiency. We apply tests and trading rules to daily data of three European power markets: Germany, France and Spain. In the case of the German market, after considering liquidity availability and transaction costs, results are not inconsistent with time-zero efficiency. However, in the case of the French and Spanish markets, limitations in liquidity and representativeness are challenges that prevent definite conclusions. Liquidity in French and Spanish markets should improve by using pricing and marketing incentives. These incentives should attract more participants into the electricity derivatives exchanges and should encourage them to settle OTC trades in clearinghouses. Publication of statistics on prices, volumes and open interest per type of participant should be promoted. - Highlights: •We test time-zero efficiency of derivatives power markets in Germany, France and Spain. •Prices in Germany, considering liquidity and transaction costs, are time-zero efficient. •In France and Spain, limitations in liquidity and representativeness prevent conclusions. •Liquidity in France and Spain should improve by using pricing and marketing incentives. •Incentives attract participants to exchanges and encourage them to settle OTC trades in clearinghouses.

  8. Measurement of cost efficiency in the European banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Tuškan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analysed and compared efficiency results in the banking industry using two different approaches: financial indicators and the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA methodology. In the indicator-based approach, we used chosen accounting ratios (Return on Assets - ROA, Return on Equity – ROE and Cost to Income Ratio - CIR and the descriptive statistics methodology to conduct analysis. In the case of DEA, a nonparametric linear programming methodology approach, expenses as input data and income as output data are used for measuring efficiency using the CCR DEA model, BCC DEA model and window analysis DEA technique. The objective of this research is ascertain whether a correlation exists between the results of the different ways of measuring efficiency. In that sense, the main purpose of this research is to draw a more precise conclusion about the efficiency of the banking industry, as tested for the period 2008–2012 on a sample of 28 European banking systems. The main difference in the obtained results is a lag of values of average accounting ratios in comparison to the results of the DEA methodology. Such a finding suggests that the DEA methodology can be useful in detecting early signs of inadequate business strategies, which can lead to the slowdown of business activity or poorer efficiency results. This can be especially important in times of an unstable financial or macroeconomic environment, as it can assist in detecting early signs of a crisis. In general, the results of both approaches suggest that banking systems in post-transition countries have a higher cost efficiency. Such systems continue to be dominantly financed through long-term deposits and are also exposed to a specific risk. They do business in a specific competitive, financial and macroeconomic environment that significantly influences the prices of financial services (i.e. higher margins, and as a consequence, leads to potentially higher banking sector earnings.

  9. Renewable energy and energy efficiency in liberalized European electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlgemuth, Norbert

    2000-01-01

    Given the projected growth in global energy demand, renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) play a crucial role in the attainment of the environmental dimension of sustainable development. Policy mechanisms to promote RE and EE have been justified on the rationale of market failure, which prevents price signals alone from being sufficient to induce consumers to implement the socially optimal level. The paper shows driving forces for increasing competition in the electricity supply industry and discusses the implication of electricity industry liberalisation on RE/EE activities. Policies of the European Commission to promote RE/EE are presented, including a more detailed description of the experience made in the United Kingdom. Conclusions are that the new market structure may be too short sighted to stimulate RE and EE activities and that the design of policies should be compatible with the new market-orientated structure of the electricity industry. If implemented properly, and compatible with the competitive market organisation, electricity supply liberalisation could pave the way for 'sustainable electricity' in the European Union. (Author)

  10. Do Forwarders Improve Sustainability Efficiency? Evidence from a European DEA Malmquist Index Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Klumpp

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability performance and efficiency is an important topic in transportation and for forwarders. This is shown, for example, by the fact that major logistics service providers LSP publish sustainability reports, often within the annual legal business report. However, in depth research is missing regarding the efficiency of forwarders regarding the established triple bottom line approach for sustainability, including economic, social, and ecology performance areas. This is especially true for a dynamic time-series perspective, as usually only static analyses for one point in time are presented (in most cases single business years. Therefore, the operations research technique of a data envelopment analysis (DEA Malmquist index calculation is used in order to provide a longitudinal calculation of efficiency, incorporating multiple objectives regarding the triple bottom line approach for European forwarders. Several indicators are tested, including total revenues and assets as input types, profit (EBIT and dividend volume (economic dimension, employment and gender equality in management (social, and carbon-equivalent emissions (environmental as output types.

  11. EFFICIENCY INDICATORS SITUATION EUROPEAN CHAMPIONSHIP IN HANDBALL WOMEN'S 2010th

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Gardašević

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the 47 matches played at the 9th European Championship in Handball, Women, held in Denmark and Norway in December 2010. Observed were 16 teams participating. Recorded in the technical and tactical elements, the phases of attack and defense, more than 250 players. We analyzed the following technical and tactical elements: the number of shots on goal, the success rates, assists, defensive blocks, steals and penalties. Individual performance was correlated with the final team standings. The results confirmed that the team to achieve successful results especially significant individual efficiency in defense phase. This confirms the fact that among the 10 players that have shown the highest degree of efficiency defense is 7 from the three best teams. In this way, once again exactly confirmed that a solid game in defense phase prerequisite for high placement in major competitions. The teams they finished poorly, such as the National Team of Serbia, in this area have demonstrated a number of shortcomings, which among other shows inadequate method of training. The discussion and conclusions are given suggestions for improving existing training practice

  12. Efficient Computation of Buffer Capacities for Cyclo-Static Dataflow Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiggers, M.H.; Bekooij, Marco Jan Gerrit; Bekooij, Marco J.G.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    A key step in the design of cyclo-static real-time systems is the determination of buffer capacities. In our multi-processor system, we apply back-pressure, which means that tasks wait for space in output buffers. Consequently buffer capacities affect the throughput. This requires the derivation of

  13. Efficient Computation of Buffer Capacities for Cyclo-Static Dataflow Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiggers, M.H.; Bekooij, Marco Jan Gerrit; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2006-01-01

    A key step in the design of cyclo-static real-time systems is the determination of buffer capacities. In our multi-processor system, we apply back-pressure, which means that tasks wait for space in output buffers. Consequently buffer capacities affect the throughput. This requires the derivation of

  14. European Bank Efficiency and Performance : The effects of supranational versus national bank supervision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galema, R.J.; Koetter, M.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explores European bank efficiency and performance. First, the authors provide an overview of the key estimation methods for efficiency and discuss selected applications to the European banking sector. Second, they apply stochastic frontier analysis to investigate the extent to which the

  15. Comparative thermal performance of static sunshade and brick cavity wall for energy efficient building envelope in composite climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charde Meghana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficient building technologies can reduce energy consumption in buildings. In present paper effect of designed static sunshade, brick cavity wall with brick projections and their combined effect on indoor air temperature has been analyzed by constructing three test rooms each of habitable dimensions (3.0 m × 4.0 m × 3.0 m and studying hourly temperatures on typical days for one month in summer and winter each. The three rooms have also been simulated using a software and the results have been compared with the experimental results. Designed static sunshade increased indoor air temperature in winter while proposed brick cavity wall with brick projections lowered it in summer. Combined effect of building elements lowered indoor air temperature in summer and increased it in winter as compared to outdoor air temperature. It is thus useful for energy conservation in buildings in composite climate.

  16. Transport efficiency in open quantum systems with static and dynamical disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Celardo, G. Luca; Borgonovi, Fausto; Kaplan, Lev

    2017-12-01

    We study, under very general conditions and in a variety of geometries, quantum enhancement of transport in open systems. Both static disorder and dephasing associated with dynamical disorder (or finite temperature) are fully included in the analysis. We show that quantum coherence effects may significantly enhance transport in open quantum systems even in the semiclassical regime (where the decoherence rate is greater than the inter-site hopping amplitude), as long as the static disorder is sufficiently strong. When the strengths of static and dynamical disorder are fixed, there is an optimal opening strength at which the coherent transport enhancement is optimized. Analytic results are obtained in two simple paradigmatic tight-binding models of large systems: the linear chain and the fully connected network. The physical behavior is also reflected, for example, in the FMO photosynthetic complex, which may be viewed as being intermediate between these paradigmatic models. We furthermore show that a nonzero dephasing rate assists transport in an open linear chain when the disorder strength exceeds a critical value, and obtain this critical disorder strength as a function of the degree of opening.

  17. A New Energy Efficiency Measure for Quasi-Static MIMO Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Belmega , Elena Veronica; Lasaulce , Samson; Debbah , Merouane; Hjorungnes , Are

    2009-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we consider the multiple input multiple out- put (MIMO) quasi static channel. Our objective is to study the power allocation (over the transmit antennas) problem where not only the performance with respect to (w.r.t.) the transmission reliability but also the cost in terms of the consumed power is accounted for. We first review the existing results w.r.t energy effciency functions (benefit per cost) which focus mainly on the single input single output (S...

  18. Seven proposals for an efficient and dynamic European electricity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, J.H.; Geoffon, P.; Finon, D.

    2013-01-01

    While liberalisation of the electricity generation sector is inevitably a long term process, given the complexity of the industry, European consumers expect to reap identifiable benefits in terms of price, innovation in associated services, environmental performance and security of supply. Yet rather than evidence of progress, complexity - indeed confusion - effectively characterises Europe's electricity structure at present. It's time to react. (authors)

  19. Seven proposals for an efficient and dynamic European electricity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, Jan Horst; Geoffron, Patrice; Finon, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    While liberalisation of the electricity generation sector is inevitably a long term process, given the complexity of the industry, European consumers expect to reap identifiable benefits in terms of price, innovation in associated services, environmental performance and security of supply. Yet rather than evidence of progress, complexity - indeed confusion - effectively characterises Europe's electricity structure at present. It is time to react

  20. Efficiency and Equity within European Education Systems and School Choice Policy: Bridging Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Kaire; Kerem, Kaie; Lauri, Triin

    2013-01-01

    We seek out the good institutional features of the European choice policies that can enhance both equity and efficiency at the system level. For causality analysis we construct the typology of 28 European educational systems by using fuzzy-set analysis. We combine five independent variables to indicate institutional features of school choice…

  1. Increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of renewable energy support policies in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klessmann, C.B.

    2012-01-01

    The thesis discusses the effective and cost-efficient design of renewable energy sources (RES) support policies in the European Union along some major discussion lines of the European RES policy debate: the effectiveness of the different national support policies in the member states the cost

  2. Energy efficiency in the European water industry. A compendium of best practices and case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frijns, J. [Watercycle Research Institute KWR, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Uijterlinde, C. [Foundation for Applied Water Research STOWA, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2010-02-15

    This European report on best practices of energy efficiency in the water industry showcases 23 energy efficiency initiatives which were collected as case studies from European water utilities. The 25 case studies presented in this report will be submitted to UKWIR and Black and Veatch, for potential inclusion in the Global Water Research Coalition (GWRC) global compendium of best practice case studies. The aim of the GWRC-compendium is to identify the promising developments and future opportunities to help deliver incremental improvements in energy efficiency through optimisation of existing assets and operations. But also more substantial improvements in energy efficiency from the adoption of novel (but proven at full scale) technologies. The European report describes case studies from: Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Norway, Spain and Switzerland. Black and Veatch has gathered furthermore information on 47 cases from the UK. These are reported separately and are not included in this European overview.

  3. Search for efficiency on the European gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier Muluala, V.L.

    1997-03-01

    The first part of this work is devoted to the structural analysis of the natural gas industry. After a characterization of the gas activities in the European context, the theoretical tools allowing the determination of the natural structure of gas industries are presented in a critical manner. The second part examines the re-structuration dynamics of gas activities. The deregulation logic, which favours the liberalization of the gas sector, and the post-deregulation strategies that could be implemented by the actors are analyzed. According to the analysis of these strategies, it seems that a vertical reintegration of gas activities is possible. (J.S.)

  4. Static and dynamic efficiency of white certificate schemes; L'efficacite statique et dynamique des dispositifs de -certificats blancs-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraudet, L.G. [CIRED-ENPC, 94 - Nogent-sur-Marne (France); Finon, D. [CIRED-CNRS, 94 - Nogent-sur-Marne (France)

    2011-07-15

    White Certificate Schemes mandate energy companies to promote energy efficiency through flexibility mechanisms, including the trading of energy savings. They can be characterized as a quantity-based, baseline-and-credit system for the diffusion of energy efficient technologies. This paper compares experiences with White Certificate Schemes in Great Britain, Italy and France, in order to identify the basic drivers of each, and ultimately offer an original interpretation as an adaptive instrument, in the sense that it can take different forms in response to specific institutional contexts. A first analysis shows that Schemes perform well in terms of static efficiency, i.e. they are cost-effective and generate net social benefits over the period considered, though with large discrepancies rooted in different technological potentials. Regarding dynamic efficiency, i.e. the ability to induce and sustain technological change over the long haul, market transformation occurred in Great Britain, but was poorly incentivized in Italy and France by inadequate compliance cost recovery rules. Substantial organizational change has occurred in every country, mainly by strengthening vertical relationships between obliged parties and upstream businesses. Overall, the obligation (rather than the market component) drives the early phases of the Schemes. (authors)

  5. Advanced scoring method of eco-efficiency in European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho, Victor; Madaleno, Mara; Robaina, Margarita; Villar, José

    2018-01-01

    This paper analyzes a set of selected German and French cities' performance in terms of the relative behavior of their eco-efficiencies, computed as the ratio of their gross domestic product (GDP) over their CO 2 emissions. For this analysis, eco-efficiency scores of the selected cities are computed using the data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique, taking the eco-efficiencies as outputs, and the inputs being the energy consumption, the population density, the labor productivity, the resource productivity, and the patents per inhabitant. Once DEA results are analyzed, the Malmquist productivity indexes (MPI) are used to assess the time evolution of the technical efficiency, technological efficiency, and productivity of the cities over the window periods 2000 to 2005 and 2005 to 2008. Some of the main conclusions are that (1) most of the analyzed cities seem to have suboptimal scales, being one of the causes of their inefficiency; (2) there is evidence that high GDP over CO 2 emissions does not imply high eco-efficiency scores, meaning that DEA like approaches are useful to complement more simplistic ranking procedures, pointing out potential inefficiencies at the input levels; (3) efficiencies performed worse during the period 2000-2005 than during the period 2005-2008, suggesting the possibility of corrective actions taken during or at the end of the first period but impacting only on the second period, probably due to an increasing environmental awareness of policymakers and governors; and (4) MPI analysis shows a positive technological evolution of all cities, according to the general technological evolution of the reference cities, reflecting a generalized convergence of most cities to their technological frontier and therefore an evolution in the right direction.

  6. Policies for improving energy efficiency in the European housing stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sunikka, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    According to EC forecasts, if energy efficiency could be increased 1% annually until 2010, two-thirds of the potential energy saving in the EU could be achieved. This would comply with 40% of the EU's Kyoto obligation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 8% on the 1990 level by 2010-12, by cutting

  7. An Efficient and Self-Adapting Localization in Static Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Dong

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Localization is one of the most important subjects in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs. To reduce the number of beacons and adopt probabilistic methods, some particle filter-based mobile beacon-assisted localization approaches have been proposed, such as Mobile Beacon-assisted Localization (MBL, Adapting MBL (A-MBL, and the method proposed by Hang et al. Some new significant problems arise in these approaches, however. The first question is which probability distribution should be selected as the dynamic model in the prediction stage. The second is whether the unknown node adopts neighbors’ observation in the update stage. The third is how to find a self-adapting mechanism to achieve more flexibility in the adapting stage. In this paper, we give the theoretical analysis and experimental evaluations to suggest which probability distribution in the dynamic model should be adopted to improve the efficiency in the prediction stage. We also give the condition for whether the unknown node should use the observations from its neighbors to improve the accuracy. Finally, we propose a Self-Adapting Mobile Beacon-assisted Localization (SA-MBL approach to achieve more flexibility and achieve almost the same performance with A-MBL.

  8. Constructing an Efficient and Balanced European Patent System: “Muddling through”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses ways to construct a more efficient and balanced European patent system. It identifies and describes challenges relating to innovation, to non-economic issues and to governance. In order to improve the patent system, a cautious approach of “Muddling through” is recommended. More...... concretely, the paper puts forward some of the solutions proposed in the STOA Report to the European Parliament on “Policy options for the improvement of the European patent system” and suggest initiatives such as the insertion of a mission statement in the EPC, improvement of patent quality, increasing...... access to patented inventions and enhancement of governance....

  9. Definition of Static Voltage Characteristics of the Motor Load for the Purpose of Increase in Energy Efficiency of Coal Mines of Kuzbass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepsha, Fedor; Efremenko, Vladimir

    2017-11-01

    The task of determining the static load characteristics is one of the most important tasks, the solution of which is necessary for the correct development of measures to increase the energy efficiency of the Kuzbass coal mines. At present, the influence of electric receivers on the level of consumption of active and reactive power is not taken into account, therefore, the proposed measures to increase the energy efficiency are not optimal. The article analyzes the L-shaped and T-shaped circuit for the replacement of an asynchronous motor (AM), according to the results of which it is determined that the T-shaped replacement scheme is the most accurate for determination of static load characteristics. The authors proposed and implemented in the MATLAB Simulink environment an algorithm for determining the static voltage characteristics of the motor load.

  10. Energy efficiency in the European Union: overview of policies and good practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The world is facing increasing energy prospects and stakes, in terms of energy supply security and safety, environmental impact as well as economic and social costs. In Europe, these fast-growing concerns have led to the adoption of new energy efficiency policies at national and European levels: legislation, regulations, institutional measures, awareness-raising and training campaigns, financial incentives, investment schemes, etc. As in other sectors and at each stage of European development, knowledge and experience feedback drive the Member States towards a growing harmonization of national policies: the most encouraging national measures may be adopted by other countries and even implemented at a European level. The valorization and exchange of best practices therefore contributes to the fulfilment of European commitments on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions reduction. All these schemes are integrally part of a common European energy policy to be applied to energy production, transportation and distribution - the supply side - as well as to all social and economic activities which make up the demand side, and which is the subject of this document. The presentation hereafter provides an overview of energy efficiency policies and programs implemented in the European Union and in the Member States. It shows the diversity of available means of action and strategic choices within the different countries whilst highlighting the most innovative and significant measures. The various tools available are of course used in different ways in each country depending on their characteristics. Economic structure, for example, can explain the differences in the implementation of certain measures as it results in concentrating on the sectors which produce the most greenhouse gases - and which differ from one country to another. Energy balances -energy-producing countries or energy-dependent countries - and political contexts - with more or less liberal governments

  11. Economic efficiency versus social equality? The U.S. liberal model versus the European social model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Vicente; Schmitt, John

    2005-01-01

    This article begins by challenging the widely held view in neoliberal discourse that there is a necessary trade-off between higher efficiency and lower reduction of inequalities: the article empirically shows that the liberal, U.S. model has been less efficient economically (slower economic growth, higher unemployment) than the social model in existence in the European Union and in the majority of its member states. Based on the data presented, the authors criticize the adoption of features of the liberal model (such as deregulation of their labor markets, reduction of public social expenditures) by some European governments. The second section analyzes the causes for the slowdown of economic growth and the increase of unemployment in the European Union--that is, the application of monetarist and neoliberal policies in the institutional frame of the European Union, including the Stability Pact, the objectives and modus operandi of the European Central Bank, and the very limited resources available to the European Commission for stimulating and distributive functions. The third section details the reasons for these developments, including (besides historical considerations) the enormous influence of financial capital in the E.U. institutions and the very limited democracy. Proposals for change are included.

  12. Realizing Mitigation Efficiency of European Commercial Forests by Climate Smart Forestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefpour, Rasoul; Augustynczik, Andrey Lessa Derci; Reyer, Christopher P O; Lasch-Born, Petra; Suckow, Felicitas; Hanewinkel, Marc

    2018-01-10

    European temperate and boreal forests sequester up to 12% of Europe's annual carbon emissions. Forest carbon density can be manipulated through management to maximize its climate mitigation potential, and fast-growing tree species may contribute the most to Climate Smart Forestry (CSF) compared to slow-growing hardwoods. This type of CSF takes into account not only forest resource potentials in sequestering carbon, but also the economic impact of regional forest products and discounts both variables over time. We used the process-based forest model 4 C to simulate European commercial forests' growth conditions and coupled it with an optimization algorithm to simulate the implementation of CSF for 18 European countries encompassing 68.3 million ha of forest (42.4% of total EU-28 forest area). We found a European CSF policy that could sequester 7.3-11.1 billion tons of carbon, projected to be worth 103 to 141 billion euros in the 21st century. An efficient CSF policy would allocate carbon sequestration to European countries with a lower wood price, lower labor costs, high harvest costs, or a mixture thereof to increase its economic efficiency. This policy prioritized the allocation of mitigation efforts to northern, eastern and central European countries and favored fast growing conifers Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris to broadleaves Fagus sylvatica and Quercus species.

  13. European chemistry for growth. Unlocking a competitive, low carbon and energy efficient future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    The long term role of the chemical industry as Europe progresses to an energy efficient and low GHG emission future, and the sector's potential to assist Europe in meeting its decarbonisation targets is investigated. The timeline for deploying existing and new technologies from 2020 to 2050 and their potential impact on energy efficiency and GHG emission levels, as well as the competitive position of the European chemical industry is assessed. Cefic commissioned Ecofys to perform analyses and bring forward key conclusions and recommendations from their independent viewpoint, in close collaboration with the sector. As a strategic orientation for this industry and a high level priority for Cefic's Board, this Roadmap meets the need for the European chemical industry to develop a new, longer term strategic approach to energy and climate policy and contributes to the debate on the post-2020 policy framework. This Roadmap has three main objectives: (1) Provide quantitative and more qualitative evidence on the options available to the European chemical industry to contribute to the EU's long term GHG emissions reduction goals. These options apply to technologies and product development for the sector itself and for other sectors of the EU economy; (2) Based on this evidence, define a long term vision for the European chemical industry within a European Union that progresses to a low GHG emission future by defining a number of plausible scenarios in the context of global market developments; (3) Formulate recommendations externally to policy makers and internally to the European chemical industry based on the scenarios studied. Chapter 2 provides an overview of the European chemical industry, while Chapter 3 describes the current policy landscape for the European chemical industry. Chapter 4 focuses on the European chemical industry as an enabler of energy efficiency and emissions reduction for sectors across the economy. In Chapter 5, the energy efficiency

  14. Technological growth of fuel efficiency in european automobile market 1975–2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Kejia; Chen, Yuche

    2016-01-01

    This paper looks at the technological growth of new car fleet fuel efficiency in the European Union between 1975 and 2015. According to the analysis results, from1975 to 2006 the fuel efficiency technology improvements were largely offset by vehicles' increased weight, engine size, and consumer amenities such as acceleration capacity. After 2006, downsizing in weight and engine capacity was observed in new car fleet, while fuel consumption decreased by 32% between 2006 and 2015. We adopt a statistical method and find that from 1975 to 2015, a 1% increase in weight would result in 0.3 to 0.5% increments in fuel consumption per 100 km, and a 1% reduction in 0–100 km/h acceleration time would increase fuel consumption by about 0.3%. Impacts of other attributes on fuel consumption are also assessed. To meet the European Union's 2021 fuel consumption target, downsizing of cars, as well as at least maintaining fuel efficiency technology growth trend observed between 2005 and 2015, are needed. Government policies on controlling improvement in acceleration performance or promoting alternative fuel vehicles are also important to achieve European Union 2021 target. - Highlights: • We evaluated fuel efficiency technological growth trends in European cars. • We quantified trade-offs between vehicle attributes and fuel consumption using statistical methods. • Technology development was offset by upsizing and upgrading of cars in 1975–2006. • Technology development and downsizing enabled large improvements in efficiency in 2006–2015. • Maintaining historical trend of efficiency improvement is not enough to achieve EU 2021 target.

  15. Energy consumption across European Union farms: Efficiency in terms of farming output and utilized agricultural area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinho, Vítor João Pereira Domingues

    2016-01-01

    Energy consumption is a global concern, namely due to the limited availability of energy sources and the consequences in terms of gas emissions, with its implications upon greenhouse gas emissions. In the agricultural sector this question bears an additional concern, considering that it is an economic activity which is sensitive to the dimension of the costs associated with production factors. In this way, the objective of the study presented here is to analyze, the efficiency of energy consumption, for the twelve former European Union countries, at farm level, in terms of farming output and utilized agricultural area, over the period 1989–2009 and for the years 2004–2012, with data available in the Farm Accountancy Data Network. On the other hand, the implications of energy consumption in farms' economic performance were analyzed, through econometric techniques (time series, panel data and generalized method of moments) and models based on the Kaldor developments. As a main conclusion, to stress the decrease in efficiency related with energy consumption by farms in the twelve former European Union countries. - Highlights: • It was analyzed the efficiency of energy consumption. • It was considered data for the twelve former European Union states at farm level. • They were evaluated the implications of energy consumption in farms performance. • The conclusions stress the decrease in efficiency of the farms energy consumption.

  16. An analysis of Spain's global and environmental efficiency from a European Union perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz-Díaz, María Teresa; Velasco-Morente, Francisco; Yñiguez, Rocío; Díaz-Calleja, Emilio

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable economic growth from the environmental point of view is one of the commitments of the EU-28. Different measures have been implemented to deal with this issue. This work analyses Spain’s natural efficiency and management efficiency, in their static and dynamic sense, for the years 2005–2012, in comparison EU-28. The analysis has been carried out using the Malmquist Index and natural and managerial efficiency. Three variables have been considered as inputs: work, gross fixed capital formation and final energy consumption. Two variables are the outputs: the GDP as a desirable output and greenhouse effect gas emissions as an undesirable output. The result is that Spain’s managerial efficiency and natural efficiency are, though their values are lower, evolving in a similar manner to those of the countries which have been at the heart of the EU longer. These levels of efficiency are higher than those of the block of countries which have joined the EU-28 more recently. The natural Malmquist Index results indicate that these are the countries which have had a greater growth in productivity, above Spain’s and the average of the more “veteran” countries. - Highlights: • Analyze the environmental efficiency of Spain with DEA methodology. • The Spain’s natural efficiency and management efficiency, (2005–2012) are studied in comparison EU-28. • Spain’s managerial efficiency and natural efficiency are evolving in a similar manner to the western EU. • Natural Malmquist Index indicate that these are the countries which have had a greater growth in productivity, above Spain’s.

  17. Solar Power in the European Context: Conversion Efficiency and the Issue of Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Silva Pacini Costa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is committed to increasing the use of renewable energies across Europe. One of the ways this is to be done is through the promotion of solar photovoltaics (PV, a method with significant environmental benefits. However, the high costs of electricity generated through PV have constrained the market reach of this option. This paper takes the form of a policy discussion, analyzing the fundamental issues concerning this type of energy, and its place in the European alternative energy market. Furthermore, a scenario is drafted to estimate how efficient solar panels should ideally be to make electricity produced by them cost-competitive with conventional, grid-tied energy sources. The study considers both a conventional scenario and another, with carbon capture costs incorporated into the final electricity prices. It is observed that in order to be competitive with conventional fossil-based electricity, photovoltaic conversion efficiencies should be around 34%. Incorporating carbon costs would further help promote solar PV, making it more price-attractive compared to emission-intensive electricity generation based on fossil fuels. The final part of the paper sheds light on the new developments on European PV, mainly in regards to the 2008 European Commission Climate Change Package, its implications and reactions from the industry.

  18. Market liberalization in the European Natural Gas Market. The importance of capacity constraints and efficiency differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brakman, S. [University of Groningen, Faculty of Economics, Department of International Economics and Business, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Van Marrewijk, C.; Van Witteloostuijn, A. [Utrecht University, Utrecht School of Economics, Janskerkhof 12, 3512 BL Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2009-06-15

    In the European Union, energy markets are increasingly being liberalized. A case in point is the European natural gas industry. The general expectation is that more competition will lead to lower prices and higher volumes, and hence higher welfare. This paper indicates that this might not happen for at least two reasons. First, energy markets, including the market for natural gas, are characterized by imperfect competition and increasing costs to develop new energy sources. As a result, new entrants in the market are less efficient than incumbent firms. Second, energy markets, again including the market for natural gas, are associated with capacity constraints. Prices are determined in residual markets where the least efficient firms are active. This is likely to lead to price increases, rather than decreases.

  19. European Union's renewable energy sources and energy efficiency policy review. The Spanish perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Alegria Mancisidor, Itziar Martinez; Diaz de Basurto Uraga, Pablo; Ruiz de Arbulo Lopez, Patxi [Departamento de Organizacion de Empresas, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (Spain); Martinez de Alegria Mancisidor, Inigo [Departamento de Electronica y Telecomunicaciones, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    The European Union's (EU) energy objectives, legislation and programmes are determinant for the current strategy for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES) and energy efficiency (EE) in Spain, which is becoming a key element for its international competitiveness. Firstly, this article explores the evolution of the EU's energy strategy, focusing on the adopted legislations and programmes to promote RES and EE. It concludes with an analysis of the impact of those measures in Spain. (author)

  20. European Union's renewable energy sources and energy efficiency policy review. The Spanish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Alegria Mancisidor, Itziar Martinez; Diaz de Basurto Uraga, Pablo; Ruiz de Arbulo Lopez, Patxi; Martinez de Alegria Mancisidor, Inigo

    2009-01-01

    The European Union's (EU) energy objectives, legislation and programmes are determinant for the current strategy for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES) and energy efficiency (EE) in Spain, which is becoming a key element for its international competitiveness. Firstly, this article explores the evolution of the EU's energy strategy, focusing on the adopted legislations and programmes to promote RES and EE. It concludes with an analysis of the impact of those measures in Spain. (author)

  1. Business Efficiency - Ranking the Republic of Croatia as a Destination in Regional, European and Global Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Mladen Verdris; Ruzica Simic

    2008-01-01

    Since the beginning of this decade, which corresponds to the processes of an accelerated political, social and economic opening to the European and global environment, the Republic of Croatia has become aware of the need for deep reforms to enable the creation of permanently sustained success of its national economy. In this context, the creation of conditions for efficiency in existing business entities, and the shaping of new and effective institutions, is becoming the central question for ...

  2. Increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of renewable energy support policies in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klessmann, C.B.

    2012-01-01

    The thesis discusses the effective and cost-efficient design of renewable energy sources (RES) support policies in the European Union along some major discussion lines of the European RES policy debate: the effectiveness of the different national support policies in the member states; the cost savings potential of different cost reduction policies for reaching the 2020 RES target; the role of market risk exposure and market integration for RES deployment and the cost-efficiency of RES support; and the role and design of cross-country cooperation mechanisms for efficient RES target achievement. The analysis showed that the effectiveness and efficiency of RES support policies is still low in many European member states but that top runner countries have gained significant experience in tailored RES policy design. The key recommendations for improving the effectiveness and efficiency of RES support policies across Europe are: Reducing policy and market risks, particularly those that have no or little potential to trigger cost-optimised behaviour of RES generators Ensuring long-term commitment and increasing the stability of the regulatory framework for RES Against the background of the risk-averse financial environment and the new budgetary constraints of the recent financial crisis, it has become even more important for governments to take measures to reduce RES financing risks. Without such risk reduction, it seems unlikely that sufficient investments will be attracted to reach the EU 2020 targets. Furthermore, stable and risk sensitive policies could reduce the policy costs for achieving the target by up to 4 billion Euro per year. In addition to improving the effectiveness and efficiency of their national support instruments, policymakers should consider the increased use of cooperation mechanisms that could potentially further decrease the cost of European RES target achievement by 2-3 billion Euro per year, at least if the respective cooperation mechanisms do

  3. Testing market efficiency of crude palm oil futures to European participants

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xing

    2009-01-01

    Palm oil is the most consumed and traded vegetable oils in the EU and the world. Increasing non-food uses for vegetable oils in especially feedstock of biofuels in recent years have caused the price volatility to rise in both EU and global market. The most efficient pricing of crude palm oil (CPO) is to found on Bursa Malaysia (BMD), and it provides by far the world’s most liquid palm oil contract. The goal of this study is to investigate CPO futures market efficiency of BMD for the European ...

  4. Case study; Paper on the energy efficiency evolution in the European road freight transport sector

    OpenAIRE

    Riccardo Basosi; Franco Ruzzenenti

    2014-01-01

    One of the goals of WP7 is that of analyzing the energy crisis within the global economic crisis and assess to what extent fuel prices can promote the transition towards a more sustainable and efficient energy regime. This paper addresses the European freight transport system, national and cross-boarder, and assesses the evolution of its efficiency and intensity during the period 1998-2011, when oil prices globally increased, up the hike of the 2008. It will also be investigated the rebound e...

  5. Heterogeneous technologies, strategic groups and environmental efficiency technology gaps for European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kounetas, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    This paper measures technology (TG) and environmental efficiency technology gaps (EETGs) in 25 European countries over two distinct periods 2002 and 2008 examining the possible effect of adopted environmental regulations and the Kyoto protocol commitments on environmental efficiency technology gaps. However, the introduction of the metafrontier in our analysis puts into our discussion the role of heterogeneous technologies and its effect on the above-mentioned measures. Employing a directional distance function, we investigate whether there is an actual difference, in terms of environmental efficiency and efficiency performance, among European countries considering the technological frontiers under which they operate. The construction of individual frontiers has been realized employing a large number of variables that are highly correlated with countries' learning and absorbing capacity, new technological knowledge and using economic theory and classical frontier discrimination like developed vs. developing, North vs. South and participation in the Eurozone or not. The overall results indicate a crucial role of heterogeneous technologies for technology gaps in both periods. Moreover, a significant decrease for both measures, although in different percent, has been recorded emphasizing the key role of knowledge spillovers. -- Highlights: •We estimate technology gaps (TGs) for 25 EU countries in two distinct periods. •We estimate environmental efficiency technology gaps (EETGs). •We consider countries' technological capabilities with R&D, innovation and eco-innovation. •We test the effect of different frontier constitutions on TGs-EETGs. •We denote the specific role of knowledge spillovers

  6. European regional efficiency and geographical externalities: a spatial nonparametric frontier analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramajo, Julián; Cordero, José Manuel; Márquez, Miguel Ángel

    2017-10-01

    This paper analyses region-level technical efficiency in nine European countries over the 1995-2007 period. We propose the application of a nonparametric conditional frontier approach to account for the presence of heterogeneous conditions in the form of geographical externalities. Such environmental factors are beyond the control of regional authorities, but may affect the production function. Therefore, they need to be considered in the frontier estimation. Specifically, a spatial autoregressive term is included as an external conditioning factor in a robust order- m model. Thus we can test the hypothesis of non-separability (the external factor impacts both the input-output space and the distribution of efficiencies), demonstrating the existence of significant global interregional spillovers into the production process. Our findings show that geographical externalities affect both the frontier level and the probability of being more or less efficient. Specifically, the results support the fact that the spatial lag variable has an inverted U-shaped non-linear impact on the performance of regions. This finding can be interpreted as a differential effect of interregional spillovers depending on the size of the neighboring economies: positive externalities for small values, possibly related to agglomeration economies, and negative externalities for high values, indicating the possibility of production congestion. Additionally, evidence of the existence of a strong geographic pattern of European regional efficiency is reported and the levels of technical efficiency are acknowledged to have converged during the period under analysis.

  7. Measuring the efficiency of energy-intensive industries across European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makridou, Georgia; Andriosopoulos, Kostas; Doumpos, Michael; Zopounidis, Constantin

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the energy efficiency trends of five energy-intensive industries in 23 European Union (EU) countries over the period 2000–2009. In particular, the performance of the construction, electricity, manufacturing, mining and quarrying, and transport sectors is examined. The analysis is based on Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) combined with the Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI), which allows for distinctions between efficiency and technology changes over time. At the second stage of the analysis, cross-classified multilevel modelling is applied to analyse the main drivers behind efficiency performance using a number of sector and country characteristics. Based on DEA results, an overall improvement in efficiency is observed in all sectors over the period. The decomposition of the MPI indicates that technology change is primarily responsible for the improvements achieved in most sectors. The results obtained by the cross-classified model show, among other things, that the high electricity prices, energy taxes, and market share of the largest generator in the electricity market have a negative effect on industrial energy efficiency. - Highlights: • Analysis of energy efficiency and trends of industrial sectors in EU. • Combination of non-parametric frontier models and multilevel explanatory analysis. • Examination of the drivers of energy efficiency. • Industrial energy efficiency performance is mainly driven by technological improvement.

  8. Solving employment problems in the European Union: The role of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltshire, V.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is based on a project funded under the European Commission's SAVE (Specific Actions for Vigorous Energy Efficiency) program. The project is looking at the employment implications of energy efficiency programs, using a large number of case studies throughout the nine European Union (EU) countries participating in the project. Various modeling techniques are being used to investigate policy scenarios. The EU is particularly interested in looking at employment potential of energy efficiency at the present time. Traditionally, jobs in the environmental sector have only been seen as occurring in end-of-pipe type industries, such as pollution control; but a large potential for employment opportunities has now been recognized in the energy efficiency sector. Included in the study will be a detailed discussion of the quality, as well as the quantity, of jobs created, i.e. what skill levels will be required and the types of people who would wish to undertake the work. The qualitative aspect of jobs will be looked at for their suitability for solving EU and country specific problems, such as long term unemployment of unskilled workers. This paper will present some initial results from the study and discuss the issues raised by it and by other recent work in this area. Such issues include not only the types and numbers of jobs directly created through the programs, but also indirect effects on the local, national and international economies. The negative effects, such as the reduced energy usage effect on the supply industry will also be examined

  9. Market Barriers to Increased Efficiency in the European On-road Freight Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarnink, S.; Faber, J.; Den Boer, E.

    2012-10-15

    There are numerous technical and operational measures available to improve the fuel efficiency of truck fleets, but many of these measures are currently not universally implemented. Even cost-effective measures (i.e., measures which can be implemented with net fuel savings that outweigh the initial technology costs and potentially at a net profit) are often not adopted. The main barrier is the lack of information on the fuel savings of individual technical measures for trucks and especially trailers. While many transport companies and all original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) are aware that certain technologies exist, few respondents believe that these technologies are cost-effective. As a result of this belief, the supply of fuel-saving technologies from OEMs is limited. This report aims to better understand the reasons for the limited adoption of cost-effective fuel-saving technologies and to inform the policy-making process in the European Union and abroad, and specifically to provide input to the European Commission's strategy for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from HDVs. The primary goal of the study is to identify the barriers to the implementation of technologies that improve fuel efficiency in the European road freight transport sector. For this report, the existence and importance of barriers were analyzed through surveys of and interviews with transport companies, OEMs, shippers and logistics service providers.

  10. The European Model Company Act: How to choose an efficient regulatory approach?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix

    ) on the organization of company laws reflect an interesting paradigm shift. Whereas, previously company law was primarily focused on preventing abuse, there is now a trend towards legislation that promote commerce and satisfy the needs of business. This means that the goal of economic efficiency is having...... an increasing influence on the framing of company legislation, such as the choice between mandatory or default rules. This article introduces the project "European Company Law and the choice of Regulatory Method" which is carried out in collaboration with the European Model Company Act Group. The project aims...... to analyze the appropriateness of different regulatory methods which are available to achieve the regulatory goals.   ...

  11. Point Climat no. 23 'The new European Energy Efficiency Directive: France is on track'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berghmans, Nicolas; Alberola, Emilie

    2012-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: On October 4 2012, the European Union adopted a new Directive in order to help reach the common target of a 20% improvement in energy efficiency in 2020. At a time when a major national debate on energy transition is set to take place in France, this new directive will need to be taken into account when defining future energy policy. The measures specified in the European Directive, which focus on buildings and energy suppliers, will enable part of France's goal to be met. The transposition of the Directive into French law will result in the setting of a national target for 2020, and will primarily reinforce an existing requirement that applies to energy suppliers, as well as adding measures aimed at informing energy consumers

  12. Monitoring the informational efficiency of European corporate bond markets with dynamical permutation min-entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunino, Luciano; Bariviera, Aurelio F.; Guercio, M. Belén; Martinez, Lisana B.; Rosso, Osvaldo A.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper the permutation min-entropy has been implemented to unveil the presence of temporal structures in the daily values of European corporate bond indices from April 2001 to August 2015. More precisely, the informational efficiency evolution of the prices of fifteen sectorial indices has been carefully studied by estimating this information-theory-derived symbolic tool over a sliding time window. Such a dynamical analysis makes possible to obtain relevant conclusions about the effect that the 2008 credit crisis has had on the different European corporate bond sectors. It is found that the informational efficiency of some sectors, namely banks, financial services, insurance, and basic resources, has been strongly reduced due to the financial crisis whereas another set of sectors, integrated by chemicals, automobiles, media, energy, construction, industrial goods & services, technology, and telecommunications has only suffered a transitory loss of efficiency. Last but not least, the food & beverage, healthcare, and utilities sectors show a behavior close to a random walk practically along all the period of analysis, confirming a remarkable immunity against the 2008 financial crisis.

  13. Residential energy-efficient technology adoption, energy conservation, knowledge, and attitudes: An analysis of European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Bradford; Schleich, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Relationships between measures of household energy use behavior and household characteristics are estimated using a unique dataset of approximately 5000 households in 10 EU countries and Norway. Family age-composition patterns are found to have a distinct impact on household energy use behavior. Households with young children are more likely to adopt energy-efficient technologies and energy conservation practices and place primary importance on energy savings for environmental reasons. By contrast, households with a high share of elderly members place more importance on financial savings, and have lower levels of technology adoption, energy conservation practice use, and knowledge about household energy use. Education levels also matter, with higher levels associated with energy-efficient technology adoption and energy conservation practice use. Similarly, university education increases the stated importance of energy savings for greenhouse gas reductions and decreases the stated importance for financial reasons. Education impacts also vary greatly across survey countries and there is some evidence of an Eastern–Western European divide with respect to attitudes towards energy savings. These cross-country differences highlight the need to balance a common EU energy-efficiency policy framework with flexibility for country specific policies to address unique constraints to energy-efficient technology and conservation practice adoption. - Highlights: ► Household energy use behavior is explored with data from 11 European countries. ► Household age structure and education influence household energy use behavior and attitudes. ► Significant country differences in household energy use behavior exist. ► The EU needs to balance a common energy-efficiency policy framework with country specific policies.

  14. INSTITUTIONAL BARRIERS TO EFFICIENT POLICY INTERVENTION IN THE EUROPEAN PORT SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry UBBELS

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growing role of private involvement in recent port developments, most maritime trade is still largely handled in ports where investments, pricing and other managerial decisions are, to a varying extent, dependent, or at least influenced by public bodies. This paper shows that the extent and type of public intervention differs considerably between ports in the Hamburg-Le Havre range. The wide variety in ownership, financing and management of ports throughout Europe indicates that there is no level playing field at present. Because ports operate in an increasingly competitive environment (intensified by globalisation trends and the completion of the internal market, this may lead to situations of unfair competition. The European Union emphasises the importance of a more harmonised approach of port regulation by national governments (in terms of financing and pricing of infrastructure. Given the differences in (national port management styles and the low levels of transparency, the creation of a level playing field in the European port industry seems far away. This suggests the presence of a major institutional difference in European transport policy that hampers efficient policy intervention.

  15. Evaluation of the energy efficiency evolution in the European road freight transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzzenenti, F.; Basosi, R.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate energy efficiency in the European freight transport sector over three decades, according to a variety of indicators, methodologies and databases. The aim is, on the one hand, of determining major drawbacks in energy efficiency metrics, on the other hand, identifying a possible trend in the sector. The present analysis shows that energy efficiency evaluation is generally subject to misinterpretation and distortion with regard to the methods and data source adopted. Two different indicators (energy intensity and fuel economy) were initially taken into account to select the most suitable for evaluating vehicles' efficiency. Fuel economy was then adopted and measured according to two different methodologies (top-down and bottom-up). We then considered all the possible sources of distortion (data sources employed, methods of data detection, speed of detection, power enhancement, size factor) with the aim of accomplishing a sound estimation. Fuel economy was eventually divided with the maximum power available (adjusted fuel economy), to account for the power shift of vehicles, that represents a further efficiency improvement.

  16. Main determinants of efficiency and implications on banking concentration in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Bautista Mesa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to measure the main determinants influencing bank efficiency. We suggest that the bank efficiency ratio, obtained from the income statement, is positively related to the size of a bank in terms of total assets. However, we believe that such a relationship cannot be maintained for banks over a certain size. By the use of the regression analysis method, we analyze the link between bank efficiency and bank size, using a sample of 3952 banks in the European Union. Our results show that the efficiency ratio stops improving for banks with total assets over $25 billion. Previous literature, using different analysis techniques, does not reach an agreement on this point. Furthermore, our study identifies further variables which negatively affect the efficiency of banks, such as competition and lending diversification, or affect them positively, such as the wholesale funding ratio and income diversification. Our findings imply the need for different bank policies depending on total assets, in order to limit the size and activities of banks.

  17. Voluntary agreements, implementation and efficiency. European relevance of case study results. Reflections on transferability to voluntary agreement schemes at the European level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helby, Peter

    2000-04-01

    As a policy instrument, voluntary agreements often fascinate policy-makers.This is fuelled by a number of assumed advantages, such as the opportunity for co-operation rather than confrontation, speed and flexibility and the cost-effectiveness. Some advantages might even be accentuated at the European level: Co-operation has added advantage at the European level where the culture of consensus decision is strong. Flexibility is extra attractive for policy makers dealing with an economy less homogeneous than the average national economy. Speed is certainly welcomed by policy-makers otherwise faced with the slow-winding European legislative process. Cost-effectiveness is eagerly sought by European policy makers facing tight administrative budgets and staff limits. This report examines lessons from the VAIE case studies that may be useful to policy makers engaged in the development of voluntary approaches at the European level. These case studies are about voluntary agreement schemes for industrial energy efficiency deployed in Denmark, France, Germany, Netherlands, and Sweden. For a summary of these case studies, please refer to the the VAIE final report. More detailed information is available in the VAIE national reports. It needs to be emphasised that the empirical base is very narrow. The 'lessons' presented can only be hypotheses, based on an inductive leap from a very narrow experience. The reader will need to check these hypotheses against her own broader experience and personal judgement. According to the principle of subsidiarity, voluntary agreements should be implemented at the European level only if that would have significant advantage over national action. Action at the European level, rather than the national level, would have these potential advantages: Being more consistent with the development of the single market; Allowing higher demands on energy efficiency without negative effect on competitiveness and employment; Stimulating company

  18. Photovoltaics: Reviewing the European Feed-in-Tariffs and Changing PV Efficiencies and Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Feed-in-Tariff (FiT mechanisms have been important in boosting renewable energy, by providing a long-term guaranteed subsidy of the kWh-price, thus mitigating investment risks and enhancing the contribution of sustainable electricity. By ongoing PV development, the contribution of solar power increases exponentially. Within this significant potential, it is important for investors, operators, and scientists alike to provide answers to different questions related to subsidies, PV efficiencies and costs. The present paper therefore (i briefly reviews the mechanisms, advantages, and evolution of FiT; (ii describes the developments of PV, (iii applies a comprehensive literature-based model for the solar irradiation to predict the PV solar energy potential in some target European countries, whilst comparing output predictions with the monthly measured electricity generation of a 57 m² photovoltaic system (Belgium; and finally (iv predicts the levelized cost of energy (LCOE in terms of investment and efficiency, providing LCOE values between 0.149 and 0.313 €/kWh, as function of the overall process efficiency and cost. The findings clearly demonstrate the potential of PV energy in Europe, where FiT can be considerably reduced or even be eliminated in the near future.

  19. Comparative Analysis of Football Efficiency Among Two Small European Countries: Portugal and Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANNIS DOUVIS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates changes in total productivity, breaking this down into technically efficient change and technological change by means of data envelopment analysis(DEA applied to a representative sample of football clubs operating in the two small European countries: Portugal and Greece. The aim of this procedure is to seek out those best practices that will lead to improved performance in the market. We rank the football clubs according to their change in total productivity for the period 1999/2000 to 2002/2003,concluding that some clubs experienced productivity growth while others experienced a decrease in productivity. The implications arising from the study are considered in terms of managerial policy.

  20. Free allocation in the European Emissions Trading System (EU ETS): identifying efficient mechanisms through to 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalard, Matthieu; Alberola, Emilie

    2015-11-01

    In a world with asymmetrical climate policies, the conclusions of the European Council of October 2014 agreed on continuing the allocation of free CO 2 emissions allowances beyond 2020 to industrial sectors in the EU ETS. This statement has been confirmed in the European Commission's proposal to revise EU ETS directive for phase IV disclosed in July 2015. The stated objective is to ensure that the most efficient industrial installations do not face undue carbon costs which would lead to carbon leakages. Furthermore, free allocations should not undermine the incentive to cut CO 2 emissions, lead to distortions or windfall profits and reduce the auctioning share of allowances. From 2013 to 2020, the allocation of free allowances has been defined according to harmonized European rules based on benchmarks (carbon intensity targets) and historical output adjusted to the free allocation cap by applying the Cross-Sectoral Correction Factor (CSCF). What would be the impact of pursuing the current mechanism through to 2030? Does the EU Commissions' proposal of 15 July respond to the Council's requirements? Which alternative mechanisms could do so? This study examines four scenarios and their potential consequences. - Scenario 1 continues the current free allocation mechanism until 2030. The volume of free allocations thus calculated would be higher than the available free allocation cap and would need to be reduced by a Cross-Sectoral Correction Factor (CSCF) of 66% in 2030. Carbon costs would thus increase for all installations, regardless their exposure to carbon leakages, reducing the protection of most exposed sectors, while widely allocating sectors with limited exposure. - Scenario 2 analyses the proposal to implement an allocation mechanism based on recent industrial output combined with appropriate updating of benchmarks. This allocation method is more effective in combating carbon leakage, as it gives clearer incentive to maintain domestic production

  1. www.topten.info goes European. How to get Mr. Smith hooked to energy efficient appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attali, Sophie; Bush, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Topten is a consumer-oriented online search tool first created in Switzerland, which presents the 'best appliances' in various categories of products (white and brown goods, ITC, cars, lighting...). Energy efficiency is the key criteria. But Topten is more than an internet platform. It is a communication tool which helps to show how our energy consumption causes climate change and what we can do personally to reduce our impact. It is also a powerful instrument to influence manufacturers. Topten is independent of producers and retailers and relies on neutral tests and analyses of independent institutions and standardized declarations of manufacturers. The paper presents: The tool itself: what can be seen on www.topten.ch, why it has been developed in this way, how it is constantly updated, who is behind it with which goals... The results in Switzerland after five years of growing success, the media's central role in rising awareness, Topten's role as a reference for energy efficiency policies, manufacturers' reactions,... The new policy orientation taken by Topten with the support of WWF Europe: the extension to other countries through a Topten.info platform - in order to create multinational pressure at the European level to influence manufacturers while working specifically on national markets and adapting the concept to the specific needs of each country

  2. Energy Saving Fonds and guarantee of efficiency. An integrative concept for the implemention of the European energy efficiency regulation. Brief study; Energiesparfonds und Effizienzgarantie. Ein integratives Konzept zur Umsetzung der europaeischen Energieeffizienz-Richtlinie. Kurzstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pehnt, Martin; Brischke, Lars-Arvid

    2013-04-15

    The authors of the contribution under consideration report on Energy Saving Fonds and guarantee of efficiency as an integrative concept for the implementation of the European Energy Efficiency Directive. The authors sum up thirteen thesis for this energy efficiency strategy.

  3. Travelling energy systems: knowledge transfer for energy efficiency and conservation from European to Australian building projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glad, Wiktoria (Tema Technology and Social Change, Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden); Inst. for Sustainable Futures, Univ. of Technology, Sydney (Australia))

    2009-07-01

    Energy efficiency and conservation in the Australian built environment have not yet been implemented to any great extent. Despite favourable prerequisites, such as vast windswept unpopulated areas suitable for wind power and many hours of direct sunlight in most populated areas, electricity is mainly generated by burning brown coal and buildings are poorly equipped for hot summers and cool winters. Australia urgently needs to convert to alternative energy sources and implement energy efficiency measures, since its carbon dioxide emissions per capita are among the highest in the world. In a recent major redevelopment in Sydney, the Carlton and United Brewery (CUB) site knowledge of energy efficiency and conservation measures used in European buildings was transferred and implemented in local designs and infrastructure. This knowledge came mainly from urban planning and developments in London, but also from high-profile architectural firms based in Paris and Germany. The arrival of this knowledge in Australia led to phases when the knowledge was translated and enacted in local spaces and the constituent ideas were transformed into action. The present research is based on ten months of ethnographic fieldwork in which the planning and design of the CUB site was observed. The results of the study identify barriers to and opportunities for energy system knowledge transfer between different cultures and local spaces. Substantial time must be spent overcoming cultural barriers, so the involved parties can start talking the same language. This is not only true for stakeholders operating in different continents, but for stakeholders operating in different local arenas in the same country.

  4. Towards a higher energy efficiency and lower carbon society the European approach and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hein, Klaus R.G.

    2010-01-01

    The use of natural energy sources and their conversion to secondary forms of energy are a crucial base for the development of our society with its continuous change of requirements due to an increase in population and the broadening of the needs in our modern life. As a consequence the consumption of primary energy resources rose drastically worldwide during the last 5 decades in particular in the industrialized regions such as Europe. Parallel in time the increasing awareness of negative effects of fuel dependent pollution on the environment and the introduction of stringent emission control regulations about 3 decades ago initiated extensive development and retrofit activities resulting in the today applied high level state of the art. As an additional challenge the worldwide debate about the potential effects of the emission of the s.c green house gases on the global climate in particular carbon dioxide from the use of predominantly fossil fuels have initiated in the European Union extensive efforts in efficiency improvements of large scale fuel conversion and more recently in the development of processes for CO 2 capture and its subsequent storage. Furthermore the use of the s.c CO 2 neutral fuels such as biomass and organic wastes as well as the non carbonaceous options water wind and solar power are promoted towards a growing role in a future primary energy mix. In addition the majority of the member states of the European Union support the minimization of energetic losses by the provision of incentives for energy savings and for switching to lower energy consuming alternatives. In fact all the above mentioned instruments have to be applied in order to fulfil the long term requirements e. g. a reduction of the greenhouse gas emission by at least 20% by 2020 and further alleviations for the time beyond. The presentation will start with summarizing the development of the demand and supply of energy in Europe during the recent decades. After an outline of the

  5. Improving Agricultural Water Use Efficiency: A Quantitative Study of Zhangye City Using the Static CGE Model with a CES Water−Land Resources Account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Water resources play a vital role in human life and agriculture irrigation, especially for agriculture-dominant developing countries and regions. Improving agricultural water use efficiency has consequently become a key strategic choice. This study, based on Zhangye City’s economic characteristics and data, applies a static Computable General Equilibrium (CGE model with a constant elasticity of substitution (CES composited water−land resources account to assess the impact of improving agricultural water use efficiency on economy, water conservation and land reallocation. Results reveal that: Zhangye City’s GDP increases by 0.10% owing to an increasing average technical level by improving agricultural water use efficiency; total water consumption decreases by 122 million m3, 69% of which comes from a reduction of surface water use; and land demand increases by 257.43 hectares mainly due to agricultural land demands. With respect to the sectors’ output, export-oriented sectors with higher water intensities in the agricultural sectors benefit most. In contrast, land-intensive sectors contract the most, as the rental price of land rises. Therefore, agricultural water conservation technology should be introduced considering more in surface water. Furthermore, higher demand for agricultural land would reduce land availability for other sectors, thus inhibiting urbanization pace on a small scale.

  6. Energy efficiency and renewable energy policy in the Czech Republic within the framework of accession to the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wees, M.T. van; Uyterlinde, M.A.; Maly, M.

    2002-01-01

    The main barrier for end-use energy efficiency and renewable energy in the Czech Republic is the lack of a stable political and regulatory framework. Market incentives can only properly work if the market conditions and restrictions are clear and stable. However, no comprehensive policies and regulation have been implemented in the Czech Republic. Although the acquis communautaire of the European Union includes regulation on energy efficiency and renewable energy, this topic remains low on the negotiation agenda for accession. This paper reports on the current situation in the Czech Republic, including the potentials for end-use energy efficiency and renewable energy, on the existing policy and regulatory framework, and on the remaining gaps with the requirements of accession to the European Union. Also, the impact of the recent increase of nuclear capacity on energy efficiency and renewable energy in the Czech Republic is discussed

  7. Antibacterial Efficiency of Benzalkonium Chloride Base Disinfectant According To European Standard 13727, Chemical Analysis and Validation Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldırım, Çinel; Çelenk, Veysel

    2018-01-01

    Antibacterial Efficiency of Benzalkonium Chloride Base Disinfectant According To European Standard 13727, Chemical Analysis and Validation Studies This study was aimed to provide principle of the chemical analyses, antibacterial efficiency test and validation procedures of the most commonly used benzalkonium chloride (BAC) base disinfectant as a biocide. Disinfectant which comprised 20 % BAC concentration was used as a prototype product and active substance was verified with chemical analysis...

  8. Efficient Pricing of European-Style Asian Options under Exponential Lévy Processes Based on Fourier Cosine Expansions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, B.; Oosterlee, C.W.

    2013-01-01

    We propose an efficient pricing method for arithmetic and geometric Asian options under exponential Lévy processes based on Fourier cosine expansions and Clenshaw–Curtis quadrature. The pricing method is developed for both European style and American-style Asian options and for discretely and

  9. Health professional mobility in the European Union: Exploring the equity and efficiency of free movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinos, Irene A

    2015-12-01

    The WHO Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel is a landmark in the health workforce migration debate. Yet its principles apply only partly within the European Union (EU) where freedom of movement prevails. The purpose of this article is to explore whether free mobility of health professionals contributes to "equitably strengthen health systems" in the EU. The article proposes an analytical tool (matrix), which looks at the effects of health professional mobility in terms of efficiency and equity implications at three levels: for the EU, for destination countries and for source countries. The findings show that destinations as well as sources experience positive and negative effects, and that the effects of mobility are complex because they change, overlap and are hard to pin down. The analysis suggests that there is a risk that free health workforce mobility disproportionally benefits wealthier Member States at the expense of less advantaged EU Member States, and that mobility may feed disparities as flows redistribute resources from poorer to wealthier EU countries. The article argues that the principles put forward by the WHO Code appear to be as relevant within the EU as they are globally. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Exploring energy efficiency in several European countries. An attribution analysis of the Divisia structural change index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández González, P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a new attribution analysis approach to study structural change index. • Based on LMDI method, we decompose changes in AEI in the EU in 1995–2010. • Mild AEI drop as a result of structural change, particularly in Eastern economies. • Transport, hotels and restaurants: positive contributors, specifically in Western EU. • Strategies should be focused on Industry: the most influential sector in reducing AEI. - Abstract: This paper aims at exploring the influence that the changes in sectoral composition in most EU economies have had on aggregate energy intensity. We rely on the so-called Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method, implemented within a multiplicative energy intensity approach. Then, based on the Index Decomposition Analysis (IDA), we present, develop and apply a new methodology that enables the exploration of the contribution of each sector to the percent change in the structural factors index. Our findings show: (a) a greater importance of the intensity factor over the structural one, (b) a positive influence of structural change in some ex-communist countries, and (c) a strong, negative contribution of the industrial sector (including construction) to changes in aggregate energy intensity in most European economies, particularly in the Western ones. In short, adaptation to more efficient techniques, innovation, R and D, and substitution for higher quality energies, seem to be the action lines to follow, although in former communist countries these strategies should be accompanied by other policies aiming at accelerating the transition processes

  11. NVL-C: Static Analysis Techniques for Efficient, Correct Programming of Non-Volatile Main Memory Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seyong [ORNL; Vetter, Jeffrey S [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Computer architecture experts expect that non-volatile memory (NVM) hierarchies will play a more significant role in future systems including mobile, enterprise, and HPC architectures. With this expectation in mind, we present NVL-C: a novel programming system that facilitates the efficient and correct programming of NVM main memory systems. The NVL-C programming abstraction extends C with a small set of intuitive language features that target NVM main memory, and can be combined directly with traditional C memory model features for DRAM. We have designed these new features to enable compiler analyses and run-time checks that can improve performance and guard against a number of subtle programming errors, which, when left uncorrected, can corrupt NVM-stored data. Moreover, to enable recovery of data across application or system failures, these NVL-C features include a flexible directive for specifying NVM transactions. So that our implementation might be extended to other compiler front ends and languages, the majority of our compiler analyses are implemented in an extended version of LLVM's intermediate representation (LLVM IR). We evaluate NVL-C on a number of applications to show its flexibility, performance, and correctness.

  12. Switching from static to adaptable and dynamic building envelopes: A paradigm shift for the energy efficiency in buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Perino

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The key role of the building envelope in attaining building energy efficiency and satisfactory indoor comfort has long been established. Nevertheless, until recent times, all efforts and attention have mainly been focused on increasing and optimizing the thermal insulation of the envelope components. This strategy was a winning approach for a long time, but its limitations became obvious when users and designers started to consider the overall energy demand of a building and started to aim for Zero Energy Building (ZEB or nearly ZEB goals. New and more revolutionary concepts and technologies needed to be developed to satisfy such challenging requirements. The potential benefits of this technological development are relevant since the building envelope plays a key role in controlling the energy and mass flows from outdoors to indoors (and vice versa and, moreover, the facades offer a significant opportunity for solar energy exploitation. Several researches have demonstrated that the limitation of the existing facades could be overcome only by switching from ‘static’ to ‘responsive’ and ‘dynamic’ systems, such as Multifunctional Facade Modules (MFMs and Responsive Building Elements (RBE. These components are able to continuously and pro-actively react to outdoor and indoor environment conditions and facilitate and enhance the exploitation of renewable and low exergy sources. In order to reduce the energy demand, to maximize the indoor comfort conditions and to produce energy at the site, these almost ‘self-sufficient’, or even ‘positive energy’ building skins frequently incorporate different technologies and are functionally connected to other building services and installations. An overview of the technological evolution of the building envelope that has taken place, ranging from traditional components to the innovative skins, will be given in this paper, while focusing on the different approaches that have characterized this

  13. Pre-sowing static magnetic field treatment for improving water and radiation use efficiency in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under soil moisture stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mridha, Nilimesh; Chattaraj, Sudipta; Chakraborty, Debashis; Anand, Anjali; Aggarwal, Pramila; Nagarajan, Shantha

    2016-09-01

    Soil moisture stress during pod filling is a major constraint in production of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), a fundamentally dry land crop. We investigated effect of pre-sowing seed priming with static magnetic field (SMF) on alleviation of stress through improvement in radiation and water use efficiencies. Experiments were conducted under greenhouse and open field conditions with desi and kabuli genotypes. Seeds exposed to SMF (strength: 100 mT, exposure: 1 h) led to increase in root volume and surface area by 70% and 65%, respectively. This enabled the crop to utilize 60% higher moisture during the active growth period (78-118 days after sowing), when soil moisture became limiting. Both genotypes from treated seeds had better water utilization, biomass, and radiation use efficiencies (17%, 40%, and 26% over control). Seed pre-treatment with SMF could, therefore, be a viable option for chickpea to alleviate soil moisture stress in arid and semi-arid regions, helping in augmenting its production. It could be a viable option to improve growth and yield of chickpea under deficit soil moisture condition, as the selection and breeding program takes a decade before a tolerant variety is released. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:400-408, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Short and long term efficiencies of debris risk reduction measures: Application to a European LEO mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, T.; Kervarc, R.; Bertrand, S.; Carle, P.; Donath, T.; Destefanis, R.; Grassi, L.; Tiboldo, F.; Schäfer, F.; Kempf, S.; Gelhaus, J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent numerical studies indicate that the low Earth orbit (LEO) debris environment has reached a point such that even if no further space launches were conducted, the Earth satellite population would remain relatively constant for only the next 50 years or so. Beyond that, the debris population would begin to increase noticeably, due to the production of collisional debris (Liou and Johnson, 2008). Measures to be enforced play thus a major role to preserve an acceptable space mission risk and ensure sustainable space activities. The identification of such measures and the quantification of their efficiency over time for LEO missions is of prime concern in the decision-making process, as it has been investigated for the last few decades by the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC). This paper addresses the final results of a generic methodology and the characteristics of a tool developed to assess the efficiency of the risk reduction measures identified for the Sentinel-1 (S1) mission. This work is performed as part of the 34-month P2-ROTECT project (Prediction, Protection & Reduction of OrbiTal Exposure to Collision Threats), funded by the European Union within the Seventh Framework Programme. Three ways of risk reduction have been investigated, both in short and long-term, namely: better satellite protection, better conjunction prediction, and cleaner environment. According to our assumptions, the S1 mission vulnerability evaluations in the long term (from 2093 to 2100) show that full compliance to the mitigation measures leads to a situation twice safer than that induced by an active debris removal of 5 objects per year in a MASTER2009 Business-As-Usual context. Because these measures have visible risk reduction effects in the long term, complementary measures with short response time are also studied. In the short term (from 2013 to 2020), a better prediction of the conjunctions is more efficient than protecting the satellite S1 itself. By

  15. Energy Efficiency Labeling According to the Energy Legislative of the European Union and the Republic of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raguzin, I.; Krstulovic, V.

    2001-01-01

    In the majority of developed countries, minimal standards for energy efficiency are an indispensable part of national energy policies, aiming to reduce the consumption of energy and emissions of waste. The successful integration of the Republic of Croatia into the European Union will certainly be influenced by accepting of the European norms and energy efficiency standards. The Croatian Parliament has billed a set of five acts that represent reform laws for the energy sector. As the EU membership is Croatian national objective, those acts are simultaneously adjusting Croatian legislation to European regulatory acts for that area. The Energy law provides energy efficiency labeling for producers and retailers. The paper describes, beside the EU directives for energy efficiency labeling of products, the basic approach of the Republic of Croatia to the definition of implementation regulations for labeling. Regarded are also basics of concept and practical experience of ''Energy Star'' initiative in the USA, the objective of which is to, being a support on local and federal level, facilitate the decision-making for the purchase of energy efficient products and services.(author)

  16. Efficiency of the Slovak forestry in comparison to other European countries: An application of Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalčík Miroslav

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency improvement is important for increasing the competitiveness of any sector and the same is essential for the forestry sector. A non-parametric approach – Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA was used for the assessment of forestry efficiency. The paper presents the results of the efficiency evaluation of forestry in European countries using DEA. One basic and two modified models (labour and wood sale were proposed, based on available input and output data from Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounts for Forests and specific conditions of forestry also. The sample size was 22 countries and the data for 2005–2008 was processed. Obtained results show average efficiency in the range of 69 – 90% (depending on the model. Based on the results of the analysis following can be concluded: Slovak forestry achieved under average efficiency in comparison to other European countries, there were great differences in efficiency among individual countries; state of economy (advanced countries and countries with economy in transition and region did not influence the efficiency statistically significant.

  17. How do policies for efficient energy use in the household sector induce energy-efficiency innovation? An evaluation of European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girod, Bastien; Stucki, Tobias; Woerter, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Research on innovation induced by climate-mitigation policy has been focused predominantly on the supply side of the energy system. Despite considerable climate-mitigation potential on the demand side, less attention is given to the innovation effect of policies addressing the household sector. Based on a comprehensive data set, including 550 policy measures over 30 years (1980–2009) and covering 21 European countries, we find—based on econometric estimations—that policies targeting efficient energy use in the household sector significantly increase the number of patented energy-efficiency inventions. A comparison of the different policy types reveals a particularly strong influence from financial subsidies and energy labels. The results indicate that policies supporting early market adoption of energy-efficient technologies are effective in fostering innovation. - Highlights: • We evaluate the impact of energy-efficiency policy on energy-efficiency innovation. • The dataset covers patents and policies for 1980–2009 in 21 European countries. • Household policies show a positive influence on innovation activity (patented inventions). • The influence is most pronounced for financial subsidies and energy labels.

  18. European project Educa-RUE: An example of energy efficiency paths in educational buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desideri, Umberto; Leonardi, Daniela; Arcioni, Livia; Sdringola, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► European project aimed at improving energy performance in educational buildings. ► Development and updating of technical competence through training courses. ► Development of “Educa-RUE method”, a model of energy management for public buildings. ► Local Energy Plans, based on environmentally friendly criteria. ► Results obtained by testing and proving Educa-RUE method in different regional areas. -- Abstract: The aim of Educa-RUE project is to improve energy performance in building sector at local level and with particular attention to educational buildings, by promoting the ability of local players to guide and orient initiatives, designed to encourage energy saving by means of specific measures and integrated tools. The project is therefore focused to speed up the implementation of European Directive on Energy Performance in Buildings, EPBD (2002/91/EC), in Member States at local government level and to ensure its operability, within the various national legislations of reference. Educa-RUE lasted 30 months, from January 2008 to June 2010, and involved the following eight partners: for Italy, Provinces of Potenza (project leader), Perugia, Rieti and Palermo; for other Countries, Climate Energy Ltd. Essex and Energy Solutions North West London (UK), Associación Aragonesa de Entidades Locales ASAEL (Spain), Municipality of Prenzlau (Germany). A number of closely interconnected actions were carried on in eight Work Packages (WPs) to face the energy efficiency aspects identified as primary problems by the partners. The project developed a model process, known as “Educa-RUE method”, to assess possible policies of intervention on educational buildings, owned or managed by each Partner. In particular the Province of Perugia, leader of WP 2 and 5, provided guide lines and tools in order to: identify the state of the art of EPBD implementation and the main non-technological barriers, which are preventing its application at local level

  19. Trends in Data Centre Energy Consumption under the European Code of Conduct for Data Centre Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Avgerinou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is recognised as one of the key challenges humankind is facing. The Information and Communication Technology (ICT sector including data centres generates up to 2% of the global CO2 emissions, a number on par to the aviation sector contribution, and data centres are estimated to have the fastest growing carbon footprint from across the whole ICT sector, mainly due to technological advances such as the cloud computing and the rapid growth of the use of Internet services. There are no recent estimations of the total energy consumption of the European data centre and of their energy efficiency. The aim of this paper is to evaluate, analyse and present the current trends in energy consumption and efficiency in data centres in the European Union using the data submitted by companies participating in the European Code of Conduct for Data Centre Energy Efficiency programme, a voluntary initiative created in 2008 in response to the increasing energy consumption in data centres and the need to reduce the related environmental, economic and energy supply security impacts. The analysis shows that the average Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE of the facilities participating in the programme is declining year after year. This confirms that voluntary approaches could be effective in addressing climate and energy issue.

  20. A harmonized and efficient clinical research environment would benefit patients and enhance European competitiveness. Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Antonino; Aringhieri, Eugenio; Boccia, Stefania; Buccella, Filippo; Gorini, Barbara; Gramaglia, Donatella; Masetti, Riccardo; Rossi, Paolo; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    The forthcoming implementation of the European Clinical Trial Regulation (Regulation (EU) No. 536/2014), which is expected to facilitate the conduct of clinical trials across the European Union, will require National Authorities to create the best conditions for the implementation of the new Regulation through national guidelines, so that sponsors may reconsider Europe as a prime location for planning clinical trials. During a meeting titled "Innovation in Clinical Research", an expert panel discussed potential local advances fostering competitiveness of European clinical research with representatives of the pharmaceutical industry, patient organisations and Italian regulatory agency in view of the forthcoming implementation of (EU) No. 536/2014 on clinical trials of medicinal products. In this article we summarise the findings of the meeting, describe features characterising clinical research patterns and offer some suggestions on the possible involvement of all stakeholders in order to foster research innovation and allow the timely access to novel medicines for patients.

  1. Foreign bank entry, bank efficiency and market power in Central and Eastern European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poghosyan, Tigran; Poghosyan, Arsen

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the implications of the recently observed sharp expansion of foreign banks in the Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) as measured by equity ownership. We show that the mode of foreign entry has a pivotal impact on the post-entry performance of banks in CEECs. Foreign

  2. An efficient rapid warning system for earthquakes in the European - Mediterranean region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazet-Roux, G.; Bossu, R; Tome, M.; Giovambattista, R. Di

    2002-01-01

    Every year a few damaging earthquakes occur in the European-Mediterranean region. It is therefore indispensable to operate a real-time warning system in order to provide rapidly reliable estimates of the location, depth and magnitude of these seismic events. In order to provide this information in a timely manner both to the scientific community and to the European and national authorities dealing with natural hazards and relief organisation, the European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC) has federated a network of seismic networks exchanging their data in quasi real-time. Today, thanks to the Internet, the EMSC receives real-time information about earthquakes from about thirty seismological institutes. As soon as data reach the EMSC, they are displayed on the EMSC Web pages (www.emsc-csem.org). A seismic alert is generated for any potentially damaging earthquake in the European-Mediterranean region and disseminated within one hour following its occurrence. Potentially damaging earthquakes are defined as seismic events of magnitude 5 or above in the European-Mediterranean region. The utility of this EMSC service is clearly demonstrated by its following among the public: EMSC e-mail dissemination list has been subscribed by about 300 institutions (ECHO, NGO, civil defence services, seismological institutes) or individuals and the rate of internet connections to EMSC web site dramatically increase following an alert. The aim of this presentation is to give a complete technical description of the EMSC warning system. We will also take this opportunity to thank each of the contributing institutions for their support and efforts to enhance the system performances. (authors)

  3. New reassortant and enzootic European swine influenza 1 viruses transmits efficiently through direct contact in the ferret model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fobian, Kristina; P. Fabrizio, Thomas; Yoon, Sun-Woo

    2015-01-01

    The reverse zoonotic events that introduced the 2009 pandemic influenza virus into pigs have drastically increased the diversity of swine influenza viruses in Europe. The pandemic potential of these novel reassortments is still unclear, necessitating enhanced surveillance of European pigs...... with additional focus on risk assessment of these new viruses. In this study, four European swine influenza viruses were assessed for their zoonotic potential. Two of the four viruses were enzootic viruses of subtype H1N2 (with avian-like H1) and H3N2 and two were new reassortants, one with avian-like H1...... and human-like N2 and one with 2009 pandemic H1 and swine-like N2. All viruses replicated to high titers in nasal wash- and nasal turbinate samples from inoculated ferrets and transmitted efficiently by direct contact. Only the H3N2 virus transmitted to naïve ferrets via the airborne route. Growth kinetics...

  4. Compact and resource efficient cities? Synergies and trade-offs in European cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian; Große, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    city. Compact cities and compact urban development are thought to decrease energy and resource demand per capita and increase efficiency. At the same time trade-offs and potential rebound effects of increased resource efficiency question certain achievements of a dense urban structure. This paper...... alternative travel modes. Also the allocation of efficiency gains due to compact urban development has to be taken into account in order to avoid direct and indirect rebound effects....

  5. Efficiency or speculation? A time-varying analysis of European sovereign debt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Paulo

    2018-01-01

    The outbreak of the Greek debt crisis caused turmoil in European markets and drew attention to the problem of public debt and its consequences. The increase in the return rates of sovereign debts was one of these consequences. However, like any other asset, sovereign debt returns are expected to have a memoryless behaviour. Analysing a total of 15 European countries (Eurozone and non-Eurozone), and applying a time-varying analysis of the Hurst exponent, we found evidence of long-range memory in sovereign bonds. When analysing the spreads between each bond and the German one, it is possible to conclude that Eurozone countries' spreads show more evidence of long-range dependence. Considering the Eurozone countries most affected by the Eurozone crisis, that long-range dependence is more evident, but started before the crisis, which could be interpreted as possible speculation by investors.

  6. The European Parliament and the conflict in Libya (2011: an efficient moral platform?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelios Stavridis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The actions of the European Parliament with respect to the internal crisis in Libya and the international interventions carried out in the country in 2011 contradict the widely-held perception of the European Union’s passivity concerning the events of the Arab Spring. Previously, the Parliament had been the Brussels institution that had been relatively the most critical of Muamar el Gadafi’s regime. In the context of the violent repression of the protests in that year, the EU took on a role as an effective moral platform and showed great consensus in calling for international intervention based on the doctrine of the «responsibility to protect». This confirms the hypothesis that the parlamentarisation of international relations encourages the introduction of regulatory elements far from the traditional premises and prescriptions of realism.

  7. Efficiency Analysis of European Freight Villages-Three Peers for Benchmarking

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Congcong; Taudes, Alfred; Dong, Guozhi

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the performance of Freight Villages (FVs) has important implications for logistics companies and other related companies as well as governments. In this paper we apply Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to measure the performance of European FVs in a purely data-driven way incorporating the nature of FVs as complex operations that use multiple inputs and produce several outputs. We employ several DEA models and perform a complete sensitivity analysis of the appropriateness of the chose...

  8. Analysis of low carbon super credit policy efficiency in European Union greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez, Roberto; Zubelzu, Sergio; Díaz, Guzmán; López, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we address the current European Union's support policy for BEV (battery electric vehicles) manufacturing under the Super-credit modality, and its actual relationship with the reduction of carbon emissions derived from the use of battery electric vehicles (BEV). Particularly, we have estimated the BEV associated carbon emissions through the method provided by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). In this sense, we have employed a BEV model to investigate the BEV emissions by country in the EU according to the regional electricity mix. We additionally have accounted for the particularities of real-world driving, which further affects the results. We have employed a measure of driving aggressiveness by modifying the standard benchmarking driving cycle fostered by the European Union and of necessary application by vehicle manufacturers—the NEDC—to show that BEV emissions are not negligible when compared with internal combustion vehicles; mainly in urban environments. On the whole, in this paper we provide a revision framework of the Super Credits meant to support the increase of the BEV fleet in the European Union. In its current form, the Super-credits support policy is a constant ratio depending on the manufactured internal combustion vehicles. We claim, however, that they should depend on the BEV recipient country instead. By revising the European electricity mix, we demonstrate for instance that countries such as Poland, though indirectly, largely exceed the allowed limits of CO 2 emissions derived from the upstream generation of electricity required to load the BEV. - Highlights: • Super-credit support policy is aimed at promoting the manufacturing of BEV in the EU. • It does not account for upstream electricity generation in the BEV user country. • We analyze the generation emissions ensuing from the use of the BEV in EU countries. • We show that indirect carbon emissions in some countries exceed proposed targets.

  9. The Economic Efficiency of European Football Clubs--Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatunin, Aleksey V.; Vishnyakova, Angelina B.; Sherstneva, Natalia L.; Mironova, Svetlana P.; Dneprov, Sergey A.; Grabozdin, Yuriy P.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of this paper lies in the fact that football business has grown significantly in the past 20 years and football clubs have become large companies, which in an effort to be profitable and successful on the field need to improve the efficiency of their business. The aim of this article is to measure economic efficiency of 48 big…

  10. The PHARE Multi-country Energy Program an efficient tool for European integration of the partner countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Votruba, J.; Milev, N.; Kostrzewa, J.; Binig, A.V.

    1996-01-01

    The present paper intends to demonstrate the financial, geographical and qualitative dimensions of the PHARE transfer of know-how in the energy field. Also it emphasizes the efforts made to improve the international cooperation, to ensure the realization of certain objectives of continental interest and for the harmonization of the national interests in a common European policy in the energy sector. Since its inception the efforts of the PHARE Multi-country Energy Program (MEP) aimed at three strategic targets: development of energy supply, improvement of energy efficiency and environment protection. (author). 4 tabs., 3 refs

  11. Comparative study of the efficiency of public supports to investments in energy management in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheuer, Stefan; Ballu, Matthieu; Di Stefano, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes a detailed overview of public budgets invested by the different member States of the European Union via subsidy systems, loans or tax arrangements in order to support investments in energy efficiency in buildings. The author also studied results published for these public instruments in terms of energy savings, and proposed a comparison which takes the lifetime of these savings into account. The study is based on available official information. Thus, before presenting the obtained results, the author describes how data have been collected and harmonised, presents the comparative analysis and discusses the lifetime measurement issue

  12. Silicon-Light: a European FP7 Project Aiming at High Efficiency Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells on Foil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soppe, W.; Haug, F.-J.; Couty, P.

    2011-01-01

    Silicon-Light is a European FP7 project, which started January 1st, 2010 and aims at development of low cost, high-efficiency thin film silicon solar cells on foil. Three main routes are explored to achieve these goals: a) advanced light trapping by implementing nanotexturization through UV Nano...... calculations of ideal nanotextures for light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells; the fabrication of masters and the replication and roll-to-roll fabrication of these nanotextures. Further, results on ITO variants with improved work function are presented. Finally, the status of cell fabrication on foils...

  13. The Efficiency of the European Non-Life Insurance: CEO Power, Macroeconomic, and Market Characteristics Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Bahloul

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A numbers of studies focusing on the determinant of the insurance market efficiency have increased in the last decade. In fact, many factors, like the CEO’s power, can influence the efficiency in the insurance firm. The purpose of this research is to analyze the relationship between efficiency, measured by the cost function using the stochastic frontier approach (SFA methodologies, and the market structure, as well as the macroeconomic variables. In addition, it focuses on identifying the impact of the integration of the CEO power variable in the cost function on this relation. The result shows that after the consideration of the CEO power score in the cost efficiency, the relation between insurance efficiency and the determinant of market development, as well as the domestic economy, has changed and become more significant. The result also shows that the firms become more efficient and more profitable with a higher concentration ratio and this is in accordance with the structure-conduct-performance (SCP theory.

  14. Do private hospitals outperform public hospitals regarding efficiency, accessibility, and quality of care in the European Union? A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Florien M; Stadhouders, Niek W; Adang, Eddy M; Groenewoud, Stef; Jeurissen, Patrick P T

    2018-03-02

    European countries have enhanced the scope of private provision within their health care systems. Privatizing services have been suggested as a means to improve access, quality, and efficiency in health care. This raises questions about the relative performance of private hospitals compared with public hospitals. Most systematic reviews that scrutinize the performance of the private hospitals originate from the United States. A systematic overview for Europe is nonexisting. We fill this gap with a systematic realist review comparing the performance of public hospitals to private hospitals on efficiency, accessibility, and quality of care in the European Union. This review synthesizes evidence from Italy, Germany, the United Kingdom, France, Greece, Austria, Spain, and Portugal. Most evidence suggests that public hospitals are at least as efficient as or are more efficient than private hospitals. Accessibility to broader populations is often a matter of concern in private provision: Patients with higher social-economic backgrounds hold better access to private hospital provision, especially in private parallel systems such as the United Kingdom and Greece. The existing evidence on quality of care is often too diverse to make a conclusive statement. In conclusion, the growth in private hospital provision seems not related to improvements in performance in Europe. Our evidence further suggests that the private (for-profit) hospital sector seems to react more strongly to (financial) incentives than other provider types. In such cases, policymakers either should very carefully develop adequate incentive structures or be hesitant to accommodate the growth of the private hospital sector. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. RE-Shaping. Shaping an effective and efficient European renewable energy market. D23 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathmann, M.; Klessmann, C.; Nabe, C.; De Jager, D.; De Lovinfosse, I. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands); Ragwitz, M.; Steinhilber, S.; Breitschopf, B. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany); Burgers, J.; Boots, M. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands); Weoeres, B. [EnergoBanking, Budapest (Hungary); Resch, G.; Panzer, C.; Ortner, A.; Busch, S. [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Energy Systems and Electric Drives, Energy Economics Group EEG, Vienna (Austria); Neuhoff, K.; Boyd, R. [Climate Policy Initiative, German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin), Berlin (Germany); Junginger, M.; Hoefnagels, R. [Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Cusumano, N.; Lorenzoni, A. [Bocconi University, Milan (Italy); Konstantinaviciute, I. [Lithuanian Energy Institute LEI, Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2012-02-15

    The core objective of the RE-Shaping project is to assist Member State governments in preparing for the implementation of Directive 2009/28/EC (on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources) and to guide a European policy for RES (renewable energy sources) in the mid- to long term. The past and present success of policies for renewable energies will be evaluated and recommendations derived to improve future RES support schemes. The core content of this collaborative research activity comprises: Developing a comprehensive policy background for RES support instruments; Providing the European Commission and Member States with scientifically based and statistically robust indicators to measure the success of currently implemented RES policies; Proposing innovative financing schemes for lower costs and better capital availability in RES financing; Initiation of National Policy Processes which attempt to stimulate debate and offer key stakeholders a meeting place to set and implement RES targets as well as options to improve the national policies fostering RES market penetration; Assessing options to coordinate or even gradually harmonize national RES policy approaches. This report marks the end of the research project RE-Shaping and summarizes its research activities, results, and recommendations.

  16. Assessing wood use efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of wood product cascading in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bais-Moleman, A.L.; Sikkema, Richard; Vis, Martijn; Reumerman, Patrick; Theurl, Michaela; Erb, Karl Heinz

    2017-01-01

    Cascading use of biomass is a recognized strategy contributing to an efficient development of the bioeconomy and for mitigating climate change. This study aims at assessing the potential of cascading use of woody biomass for reducing GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions and increasing the overall wood

  17. A highly efficient pricing method for European-style options based on Shannon wavelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Ortiz Gracia (Luis); C.W. Oosterlee (Cornelis)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIn the search for robust, accurate and highly efficient financial option valuation techniques, we present here the SWIFT method (Shannon Wavelets Inverse Fourier Technique), based on Shannon wavelets. SWIFT comes with control over approximation errors made by means of sharp quantitative

  18. A Highly Efficient Shannon Wavelet Inverse Fourier Technique for Pricing European Options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortiz-Gracia, Luis; Oosterlee, C.W.

    2016-01-01

    In the search for robust, accurate, and highly efficient financial option valuation techniques, we here present the SWIFT method (Shannon wavelets inverse Fourier technique), based on Shannon wavelets. SWIFT comes with control over approximation errors made by means of sharp quantitative error

  19. A highly efficient Shannon wavelet inverse Fourier technique for pricing European options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Ortiz Gracia (Luis); C.W. Oosterlee (Cornelis)

    2016-01-01

    htmlabstractIn the search for robust, accurate, and highly efficient financial option valuation techniques, we here present the SWIFT method (Shannon wavelets inverse Fourier technique), based on Shannon wavelets. SWIFT comes with control over approximation errors made by means of

  20. Foreign bank entry, bank efficiency and market power in Central and Eastern European Countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poghosyan, T.; Poghosyan, Arsen

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2010), s. 571-598 ISSN 0967-0750 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : foreign bank entry * bank efficiency * market power Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.536, year: 2010

  1. Do forwarders improve sustainability efficiency? : Evidence from a European DEA Malmquist index calculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumpp, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability performance and efficiency is an important topic in transportation and for forwarders. This is shown, for example, by the fact that major logistics service providers LSP publish sustainability reports, often within the annual legal business report. However, in depth research is

  2. WEAK EFFICIENCY AND LINEAR REGRESSION OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davtyan Azat

    2013-07-01

    Those findings can be used for deeper investigation of market efficiency by highlighting convergence processes of CEE countries with EU old member states. Also effective capital allocation channels, institutional foundations of markets and strengthening of corporate governance should be highlighted. Finally, the outcomes of my paper will be useful for researchers in the field of finance.

  3. Feed in or certificates, competition or complementarity? Combining a static efficiency and a dynamic innovation perspective on the greening of the energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midttun, Atle; Gautesen, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    European policy on the greening of the energy industry has been characterised by a debate between proponents of two apparent polar opposites, feed in tariffs and certificate markets. Different European countries have chosen both mechanisms and, as a consequence, the European Union has maintained a fairly pluralist position, abstaining from stricter harmonisation. Taking a dynamic innovation perspective on European energy industry, we argue that feed in tariffs and certificate markets should not be seen as competing alternatives, but rather as complementary regulatory instruments targeting subsequent steps in the product cycle, on the way from early technology-conceptualisation and development towards competitive positioning in mature energy markets. We see both policy instruments as necessary to achieve the extensive transformation towards sustainable development that is judged as important tools in the context of the global climate challenge

  4. Has airline efficiency affected by the inclusion of aviation into European Union Emission Trading Scheme? Evidences from 22 airlines during 2008–2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ye; Wang, Yan-zhang; Cui, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the impacts of including aviation into European Union Emission Trading Scheme on airline efficiency since 2008. Airline efficiency is divided into three stages: Operations Stage, Services Stage and Sales Stage, and Greenhouse Gases Emission is treated as an undesirable output of Services Stage. Two models, Network Slacks-Based Measure with weak disposability and Network Slacks-Based Measure with strong disposability, are established to evaluate the efficiencies of 22 international airlines from 2008 to 2012. The results show that: (1) Most airlines' efficiencies have increased in the period. (2) The average efficiency of European airlines is much higher than that of non-European airlines. (3) The model with weak disposability is more reasonable in distinguishing the airline efficiency while strong disposability is a more reasonable way in treating undesirable outputs. - Highlights: • A new theoretical model of airlines efficiency is built. • Network Slacks-Based Measure models with weak disposability and strong disposability are proposed. • The efficiencies of 22 airlines from 2008 to 2012 are evaluated. • The impacts of including airlines into European Union Emission Trading Scheme are analyzed.

  5. GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS AND UNIT-LINKED INSURANCE MARKETS EFFICIENCY: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botoş Horia Mircea

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates the impact of the Global financial crisis on the efficiency of four Central and Eastern European emerging unit-linked insurance markets, applying the automatic variance ratio (AVR test of Kim (2009 and variance ratio tests using ranks and signs by Wright (2000 for entire, pre-crisis and crisis periods. This study contributes to the existing literature on efficient market hypothesis with several distinct features: it provides a systematic review of the weak-form market efficiency literature that examines return predictability of the daily ING unit-linked funds prices; also the article aims at monitoring any improvement in the degree of efficiency in time and also examines the relative efficiency of unit-linked insurance markets in pre-crisis and crisis periods. Unit linked insurance are life insurance policies with investment component. In the literature there are few studies investigating the effects of a financial crisis on the potential of predictability and implicitly on the degree of efficiency of financial markets. The occurrence of a market crash or financial crisis is a possible contributing factor of market inefficiency. Most of the studies are focused on the Asian crisis in 1997: Holden et al. (2005 examined the weak-form efficiency of eight emerging Asian stock markets using VR tests before, during and after the Asian crisis; Kim and Shamsuddin (2008 used three different types of multiple VR tests for nine Asian stock markets; the findings reported by Lim et al. (2008 are consistent with those reported by Cheong et al. (2007, in which the highest inefficiency occurs during the crisis period. Todea and Lazar (2010 investigated the effects of the Global crisis on the relative efficiency of ten CEE stock markets, using Generalized Spectral test of Escanciano and Velasco (2006. Wright (2000 proposes the alternative non-parametric variance ratio tests using ranks and signs of return and demonstrates that

  6. EFFICIENCY OF THE CHEMICAL TREATMENT AGAINST THE EUROPEAN CORN BORER IN SEED MAIZE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilija Raspudić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a chemical treatment against larvae of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner. The experiment was set up in 2010 and 2011 in Čepin (eastern Croatia in two treatments: control treatment and insecticide treatment. The trial involved two hybrids of FAO group 400: PR37N01 and PR37F73. Biology of pests was monitored in order to determine population size and larvae development stage as well as the optimal time of insecticide application. After determination of thresholds, maize was treated with chemical formulations of active substance dimethoate. Towards the end of vegetation, length of stem damage, number of larvae in maize stalk and ear as well as grain yield were recorded by dissection of maize stalks. Statistical analysis shows that year, hybrid and chemical treatment significantly influenced the incidence of this pest and justified the use of chemical preparations with mandatory monitoring biology of this pest.

  7. Development of a modelling framework in response to new European energy-efficiency regulatory obligations: The Irish experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, David; O Gallachoir, Brian P.; Walker, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Momentum has been building for an EU-wide approach to energy policy in which energy end-use efficiency is regarded as one of the main planks. Member States are already obliged to plan for the achievement of energy savings targets in respect of the period 2008-2016 and they now face additional economy-wide targets for 2020. Efficiency investments are widely regarded as capable of improving industrial competitiveness, security of energy supply and the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. Nevertheless, the design of policy packages may involve trade-offs between these objectives. The challenge for energy modellers is to quantify future energy savings associated with combinations of efficiency measures. This paper draws on the international experience in energy modelling and tracks recent progress that has been made towards a harmonised European framework for verification of savings. It points to the significant development work that remains to be done, particularly to enable an increased reliance on bottom-up evaluation methods. One significant gap in our knowledge relates to the required adjustment of technical savings due to behavioural factors such as rebound effects. The paper uses one country (Ireland) as a case study to demonstrate how a framework is being developed to respond to these new requirements.

  8. Analysis of frequency and efficiency of using dribble in the European basketball championship in Poland in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrić Miodrag

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was primarily aimed at detecting dribbling techniques, used in the European Championship in Poland, their frequency and efficiency. Secondary goal of the research was to explain the game of basketball in offense in a more exact way according to the analyzed technical and tactical dribbling activities. In the sample of eight games four variables were observed: time of using dribble, different starts of dribble, dribble course and dribble finish. Observation protocol was applied on each game and on each player separately. According to the acquired data it can be concluded that eight games at the 2009 European Championship in Poland were dominated by the dribbling technique which was characterized by crossover step, in which cross over dribble was most used and most frequent finish was in passing after stop. When it comes to the time of using dribble, it is evident that all the observed teams had almost the same time of using dribble, but that also the time of using dribble partly affected final placement, because the teams which used it the least played in the finals , Spain 31.28 minutes and Serbia 32.28 minutes. The team that used dribbling the least became the champion, and that was the team of Spain.

  9. New reassortant and enzootic European swine influenza viruses transmit efficiently through direct contact in the ferret model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fobian, Kristina; Fabrizio, Thomas P; Yoon, Sun-Woo; Hansen, Mette Sif; Webby, Richard J; Larsen, Lars E

    2015-07-01

    The reverse zoonotic events that introduced the 2009 pandemic influenza virus into pigs have drastically increased the diversity of swine influenza viruses in Europe. The pandemic potential of these novel reassortments is still unclear, necessitating enhanced surveillance of European pigs with additional focus on risk assessment of these new viruses. In this study, four European swine influenza viruses were assessed for their zoonotic potential. Two of the four viruses were enzootic viruses of subtype H1N2 (with avian-like H1) and H3N2, and two were new reassortants, one with avian-like H1 and human-like N2 and one with 2009 pandemic H1 and swine-like N2. All viruses replicated to high titres in nasal wash and nasal turbinate samples from inoculated ferrets and transmitted efficiently by direct contact. Only the H3N2 virus transmitted to naïve ferrets via the airborne route. Growth kinetics using a differentiated human bronchial epithelial cell line showed that all four viruses were able to replicate to high titres. Further, the viruses revealed preferential binding to the 2,6-α-silalylated glycans and investigation of the antiviral susceptibility of the viruses revealed that all were sensitive to neuraminidase inhibitors. These findings suggested that these viruses have the potential to infect humans and further underline the need for continued surveillance as well as biological characterization of new influenza A viruses.

  10. Environmental assessment of microwaves and the effect of European energy efficiency and waste management legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro; Mendoza, Joan Manuel F; Azapagic, Adisa

    2018-03-15

    More than 130 million microwaves are affected by European Union (EU) legislation which is aimed at reducing the consumption of electricity in the standby mode ('Standby Regulation') and at more sustainable management of end-of-life electrical and electronic waste ('WEEE Directive'). While legislation focuses on these two life cycle stages, there is little information on the environmental impacts of the entire life cycle of microwaves. To address this gap, this paper presents a comprehensive life cycle assessment of microwaves and assesses the environmental implications of the Standby Regulation and the WEEE Directive at the EU level. The impacts are first considered at the level of individual appliances and then at the EU level, with the aim of evaluating the potential environmental implications of the full implementation of the above two EU regulations by 2020. The effects of the electricity decarbonisation and the expected increase in the number of microwaves in use have also been considered. The results suggest that implementation of the EU regulation by 2020 will reduce the environmental impacts considered by 4%-9% compared to the current situation. The majority of these reductions is due to the Standby Regulation, with the contribution of the WEEE Directive being small (~0.3%). However, the expected decarbonisation of electricity will result in much higher reductions (6%-24%) for most impact categories. The results also show that the materials used to manufacture the microwaves, the manufacturing process and end-of-life disposal are environmental hot-spots for several impacts, including depletion of abiotic elements. Therefore, efforts to reduce the environmental impacts of a future electricity mix should be combined with the development of specific eco-design regulations for microwaves that stipulate optimisation of resource consumption. Possible future trends, such as shorter lifetimes and limited availability of some resources, make the development of such

  11. Material efficiency improvement for European packaging in the period 2000-2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hekkert, M.; Joosten, L.; Worrell, E. [Department of Science, Technology and Society, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1999-07-01

    In this paper the current material consumption for packaging making in Europe is described. Per packaging type (food bottles, non-food bottles, boxes for primary packaging, flexible packaging, carrier bags, industrial boxes and pallets) options for improved material efficiency are described. The options are in the field of using thinner materials, using less material by changing the shape of the package, using recycled material and using refillable packages. This paper shows that many options are available to reduce the future material input for packaging and that a reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions by this sector with a factor 2 is possible. A substantial share of this reduction can be achieved without any changes in consumer behavior. 57 refs.

  12. Determining the Efficiency of Adaptation of Foreign Economic Activity of Machine-Building Enterprises in Conditions of Deepening the European Integration Process of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semeniuk Iryna Yu.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The article determines that introduction and implementation of the mechanism for foreign economic adaptation of machine-building enterprises to the conditions of the European integration processes requires constant monitoring of the processes of export-import operations and the adaptation activities to identify current problems and avoid risks. It has been found that one of the monitoring instruments is the system of indicators, which provides to evaluate the efficiency of use of the mechanism for foreign economic adaptation of a machine-building enterprise by comparing the values of the obtained indicators after accomplishing adaptation changes with the values of the indicators of previous periods. It is suggested to determine efficiency of adaptation of foreign economic activity of machine-building enterprises to conditions of deepening of the European integration process of Ukraine by means of: index of change of volume of exported production of a machine-building enterprise to the EU countries; weighted average of the change in the share of the European market, which is covered by the enterprise’s products; indicator of efficiency of exports of production of a machine-building enterprise to the European Union countries; indicator of the index of changes in the volume of permanent orders from European partners; integral indicator of efficiency of use of adaptive potential of a machine-building enterprise in conditions of integration processes.

  13. Voluntary agreements in the field of energy efficiency and emission reduction: Review and analysis of experiences in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezessy, Silvia; Bertoldi, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    A number of Member States of the EU have introduced voluntary agreements (VAs) that aim to deliver energy savings and emission reductions via increased energy efficiency in different end-use sectors, mainly targeting industry. Where there is a successful track record of cooperation between public authorities and the private sector, VAs can offer advantages to public authorities in comparison to legislation, most importantly better flexibility when introduced or updated, greater acceptance by industry, possibility for tailor-made solutions e.g. at the level of industrial sectors and opportunity to overcome the information asymmetry between public authorities and private actors. Nevertheless, VAs have been criticized for lack of specific obligations and lenient targets, as well as for deficiencies in compliance monitoring and self-reporting and difficulty in establishing the policy additionality of VA activity. This paper analyses the design of existing VAs in terms of general framework, targets and sectors, obligations and commitments, motivation to join, reporting and monitoring provisions, and results of existing VAs as reported by national authorities. The paper summarizes the key characteristics of voluntary agreements and gives recommendations for the successful application of this policy tool. - Highlights: → Analyze the design of voluntary agreements (VAs) for energy efficiency. → Study national-level VAs in the European Union. → Analyze their general framework and results delivered. → Summarize the key characteristics of VAs. → Give recommendations for the successful application of this policy tool.

  14. Evaluation of the efficiency face to the NO{sub x} emissions from European gas-fired heat process equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fourniguet, M.J.; Quinqueneau, A. [Gaz de France, Saint-Denis la Plaine (France); Karll, B. [Dansk Gasteknisk Center, Hoersholm (Denmark); Breithaupt, P. Gasunie [Gasunie, Groningue (Netherlands); Jonsson, O. [Svensk Gastekniskt Center AB, Malmoe (Sweden); Navarri, P. [CETIAT, Villeurbanne (France)

    1999-10-01

    In the frame of the project, tests have been performed by Gaz de France, CETIAT, DGC, GASUNIE and SGC on 35 European industrial sites in order to depict what the European industry using natural gas as an energy source actually looks like in 1997, the levels of efficiency and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions currently being achieved. These 35 industrial sites were chosen among the three following sectors: steam or water boilers, engines or turbines and industrial processes (food processing industry, metallurgy, ceramic, paper and textile industries). The partners focused on relatively new installations or newly retrofitted which were equipped with low NOx technologies. To create an open database between the Partners, a common EXCEL sheet has been defined and used to report the results for the three sectors concerned including principally the following items: General background on the site: it includes the description of the installation, technical characteristics of the furnace, the boiler or the engine, operating scenarios, gas total rating, and depending of the type of installation power density, rated electric power or production rate; Description of the equipment: it includes, if available, the control system of the heating equipment and the low NOx techniques identified; Description of the measurement techniques: In order to compensate for the lack of international standard, this part has been particularly detailed. It includes the description of flue gas analysers (CO, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, NOx, CH{sub 4}, UHC, N{sub 2}O, VOC), metering and pressure and temperature probes in terms of measurement principle, supplier, measurement rang and accuracy and gas calibration. It precise the position of the sampling points and the type of the sampling line; Results: The operating conditions (atmospheric data, type of natural gas burnt during the test and measurement period) are given before the results themselves (complete flue gas analysis and determination of combustion

  15. Energy efficiency, carbon emissions, and measures towards their improvement in the food and beverage sector for six European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, Steven; Schmitt, Bastian; Chester-Jones, Mae; Sturm, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Basic and detailed audits of small and medium sized food and beverage enterprises were conducted in six European Union countries to determine product specific energy consumption and measures to reduce energy use and carbon emissions. Collected results showed that the companies’ products had similar specific energy consumption as prior studies, but due to no standard metrics, the range was rather large. Auditors primarily recommended energy savings measures (process optimization and heat recovery), due to their low payback periods. Lower carbon energy sources were also recommended (solar thermal and combined heat/power), but often at higher costs, supported through government incentive programs. Through these measures, energy savings of up to 45% and carbon to 30% (∼30,000 t CO_2 equivalent in the audited companies) were possible, dependent on the type, size of company, and fuel choice. Typically, very small companies and those using coal showed the greatest margin for improvement, though it varied greatly depending on the type of product produced and the installed heating and cooling equipment. Auditors noted significant barriers toward the implementation of measures, e.g. companies found the costs too high, did not know of efficient technologies and their performance, or did not have managerial support to implement efficiency measures. - Highlights: • The Food and Beverage sector in Europe was assessed for carbon reduction potential. • Significant emission reductions can be achieved by energy efficiency and renewables. • The Bakery and Meat branches can reduce energy consumption by 30–40%. • Small and coal burning companies have the greatest potential for emission reduction. • Financial barriers remain the hardest obstacle to realize reduction potential.

  16. The effects of variable renewable electricity on energy efficiency and full load hours of fossil-fired power plants in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Mats; Crijns-Graus, Wina; Harmsen, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on the effects of variable renewable electricity (VRE) on full load hours and energy efficiency of fossil-fired power generation in the European Union from 1990-2014. Member states were aggregated into three groups based on the level of VRE penetration. Average full load hours are

  17. Statics of deformable solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bisplinghoff, Raymond L; Pian, Theodore HH

    2014-01-01

    Profusely illustrated exposition of fundamentals of solid mechanics and principles of mechanics, statics, and simple statically indeterminate systems. Covers strain and stress in three-dimensional solids, elementary elasticity, energy principles in solid continuum, and more. 1965 edition.

  18. High-Rise Refurbishment: The Energy-Efficient Upgrade of Multi-Story Residences in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Some 36 million European households are in high-rise residences, one in six of all households, and yet many of the buildings are in urgent need of refurbishment. This study, which is one in a series being conducted on behalf of the International Energy Agency addressing the energy performance of the existing IEA-wide building stock, identifies a Europe-wide cost-effective energy saving potential of 28% from energy-efficient refurbishment of the high-rise residential building stock. Attainment of this potential would imply a 1.5% reduction of Europe's total final energy demand and annual CO2 emissions savings of 35 Mt. In practice only the less efficient buildings need to be refurbished to realise these stockaverage savings and for these buildings typical savings in heating energy from refurbishment of between 70 and 80% are identified. Buildings in general suffer from a variety of barriers that tend to prevent their occupants from maintaining and refurbishing them to levels of comfort and energy performance that would be justified over the longer term, but collective housing in general is particularly susceptible to market failures. Many occupants do not own the property while their landlords usually have little motivation to finance improvements. Refurbishment requires collective agreement on a capital investment, which is difficult to establish especially when some occupants expect to live in the building over the longer-term but others only for the short-term. Furthermore, in most cases the occupants of high-rise residences are not among the wealthier members of society and they find it difficult to raise capital for longer-term investments. It is not surprising, then, to find that this section of the building stock is the most neglected and that there remain significant cost-effective opportunities for it to be refurbished in a way that improves comfort, saves energy, reduces CO2 emissions and significantly improves the urban environment.

  19. Towards the review of the European Union Water Framework Directive: Recommendations for more efficient assessment and management of chemical contamination in European surface water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water is a vital resource for natural ecosystems and human life, and assuring a high quality of water and protectingit from chemical contamination is a major societal goal in the European Union. The Water Framework Directive(WFD) and its daughter directives are the major body of ...

  20. Towards the review of the European Union Water Framework Directive: Recommendations for more efficient assessment and management of chemical contamination in European surface water resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brack, W.; Dulio, V.; Agerstrand, M.; Allan, I.; Altenburger, R.; Brinkmann, M.; Bunke, D.; Burgess, R.M.; Cousins, I.; Escher, B.I.; Hernandez, F.J.; Hewitt, L.M.; Hilscherova, K.; Hollender, J.; Hollert, H.; Kase, R.; Klauer, B.; Lindim, C.; Herraez, D.L.; Miege, C.; Munthe, J.; O'Toole, S.; Posthuma, L.; Rudel, H.; Schafer, R.B.; Sengl, M.; Smedes, F.; van de Meent, D.; van den Brink, P.J.; van Gils, J.; van Wezel, A.P.; Vethaak, A.D.; Vermeirssen, E.; von der Ohe, P.C.; Vrana, B.

    2017-01-01

    Water is a vital resource for natural ecosystems and human life, and assuring a high quality of water and protecting it from chemical contamination is a major societal goal in the European Union. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its daughter directives are the major body of legislation for

  1. Towards the review of the European Union Water Framework Directive: Recommendations for more efficient assessment and management of chemical contamination in European surface water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, Werner; Dulio, Valeria; Ågerstrand, Marlene; Allan, Ian; Altenburger, Rolf; Brinkmann, Markus; Bunke, Dirk; Burgess, Robert M; Cousins, Ian; Escher, Beate I; Hernández, Félix J; Hewitt, L Mark; Hilscherová, Klára; Hollender, Juliane; Hollert, Henner; Kase, Robert; Klauer, Bernd; Lindim, Claudia; Herráez, David López; Miège, Cécil; Munthe, John; O'Toole, Simon; Posthuma, Leo; Rüdel, Heinz; Schäfer, Ralf B; Sengl, Manfred; Smedes, Foppe; van de Meent, Dik; van den Brink, Paul J; van Gils, Jos; van Wezel, Annemarie P; Vethaak, A Dick; Vermeirssen, Etienne; von der Ohe, Peter C; Vrana, Branislav

    2017-01-15

    Water is a vital resource for natural ecosystems and human life, and assuring a high quality of water and protecting it from chemical contamination is a major societal goal in the European Union. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its daughter directives are the major body of legislation for the protection and sustainable use of European freshwater resources. The practical implementation of the WFD with regard to chemical pollution has faced some challenges. In support of the upcoming WFD review in 2019 the research project SOLUTIONS and the European monitoring network NORMAN has analyzed these challenges, evaluated the state-of-the-art of the science and suggested possible solutions. We give 10 recommendations to improve monitoring and to strengthen comprehensive prioritization, to foster consistent assessment and to support solution-oriented management of surface waters. The integration of effect-based tools, the application of passive sampling for bioaccumulative chemicals and an integrated strategy for prioritization of contaminants, accounting for knowledge gaps, are seen as important approaches to advance monitoring. Including all relevant chemical contaminants in more holistic "chemical status" assessment, using effect-based trigger values to address priority mixtures of chemicals, to better consider historical burdens accumulated in sediments and to use models to fill data gaps are recommended for a consistent assessment of contamination. Solution-oriented management should apply a tiered approach in investigative monitoring to identify toxicity drivers, strengthen consistent legislative frameworks and apply solutions-oriented approaches that explore risk reduction scenarios before and along with risk assessment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Static electromagnetic frequency changers

    CERN Document Server

    Rozhanskii, L L

    1963-01-01

    Static Electromagnetic Frequency Changers is about the theory, design, construction, and applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers, devices that used for multiplication or division of alternating current frequency. It is originally published in the Russian language. This book is organized into five chapters. The first three chapters introduce the readers to the principles of operation, the construction, and the potential applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers and to the principles of their design. The two concluding chapters use some hitherto unpublished work

  3. The use of long term agreements to improve energy efficiency in the industrial sector: Overview of the European experiences and proposal for a common framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertoldi, P.

    1999-01-01

    In the European Union efficiency improvements in the industrial sector are regarded as a key element of Member States' strategies to meet their Kyoto target. Besides the traditional policy instruments, such as fiscal and financial aids, minimum efficiency standards, R and D and technology programs, there is an increasing interest by both public authorities and industry for voluntary approaches to improve industrial energy efficiency. In the European context the term voluntary approach is often used to describe a wide range of industry actions including, inter alia: industry covenants, negotiated agreements, long term agreements, self regulations, codes of conduct, benchmarking and monitoring schemes. These voluntary approaches differ in relation to their form, legal status, provisions and enforceability. The paper provides an up-to-date overview of the present status of the different voluntary approaches for the industrial sector in several Member States (the Netherlands, Sweden, Germany, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, and the United Kingdom). The paper will focus on the particular type of voluntary approach implemented in the Netherlands and commonly called Long Term Agreements (LTA). The paper analyses the opportunities and advantages for creating a common EU framework for the conclusion and implementation of LTAs, based on the successful Dutch model. In doing so, the paper intends also to contribute to the approximation of the LTA's essential elements throughout the Community in order to reduce possible distortions of the internal market and of the competitive position of national industries, thus enlarging the acceptability of this instrument by public authorities and industry. For some industrial sectors, which are quite homogeneous throughout the Community and represent a limited number of companies, the paper analyses the advantages of having European LTAs and recommends their implementation. The paper presents the achievable results at EU level in terms of

  4. Optical characterisation of 3-D static solar concentrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellami, Nazmi; Mallick, Tapas K.; McNeil, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel static solar concentrator was designed coined the Square Elliptical Hyperboloid, SEH. ► The geometrical profile of the SEH was optimised for a low concentration ratio of 4 suns. ► The SEH has a large acceptance angle of 120° allowing 8 h of sun collection during the day. ► A prototype of the SEH was made and tested in indoors conditions. ► The experimental results validate the optical model. - Abstract: The focus of this research is to develop a solar concentrator which is compact, static and, at the same time, able to collect maximum solar energy. A novel geometry of a 3-D static concentrator has been designed and coined the Square Elliptical Hyperboloid (SEH) to be integrated in glazing windows or facades for photovoltaic application. The 4× SEH is optically optimised for different incident angles of the incoming light rays. The optimised SEH is obtained by investigating its different non-dimensional parameters such as major axis over minor axis of the elliptical entry and the height over side of the exit aperture. Evaluating the best combination of the optical efficiency and the acceptance angle, results confirm that the 4× SEH built from dielectric material, working with total internal reflection, is found to have a constant optical efficiency of 40% for an acceptance angle equal to 120° (−60°, +60°). This enables capture of the sun rays all day long from both direct beam light and diffuse light making it highly suitable for use in northern European countries. A higher optical efficiency of 70% is obtained for different dimensions of the SEH; however, the acceptance angle is only 50°. The optimised SEH concentrator has been manufactured and tested; the experimental results show an agreement with the simulation results thus validating the optical model.

  5. Energy management in the patrimonial buildings of European territorial organizations in the framework of markets liberalization. Economic study of financial incentive mechanisms in favor of energy efficiency investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayral, L.

    2005-12-01

    The territorial and patrimonial components of energy savings are not well developed because many barriers - political, organisational and financial - prevent investments in energy efficiency. Although investing in the improvement of the energy efficiency of their public buildings is a rational process, the local authorities are far from systematically carrying out this type of investment. Their limited investment capacity, associated to the lack of spare capital to finance their projects leads them to a 'vicious circle of energy wasting'. Our thesis analyzes the economic and financial tools a local authority can use to invest and enter a 'virtuous circle of energy efficiency'. Our topic deals with the financing of energy efficiency investments at a local level. We describe with details the functioning of each financial mechanism indexed. We illustrate their implementation within European municipalities through many case studies. Finally, we suggest recommendations for their broad reproducibility within French local authorities. (author)

  6. Energy efficiency in the European Union: What can be learned from the joint application of directional distance functions and slacks-based measures?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Calvet, Roberto; Conesa, David; Gómez-Calvet, Ana Rosa; Tortosa-Ausina, Emili

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyze the efficiency of electricity and derived heat generation in the European Union (EU). • We consider both desirable and undesirable outputs. • In our specifications both directional distance functions and slacks-based measure models are used. • Results show remarkable efficiency differences among EU countries. • This would call for further intensification of harmonization environmental policies in the EU. - Abstract: Over the last few years concerns have increased about the energy mix in many countries. These concerns have been of greater magnitude for countries with a common energy regulation such as European Union (EU) member states. An important aspect to take into account when choosing a given energy mix is the efficiency involved in its generation. In this context, the present study analyzes the efficiency with which electricity and derived heat was produced in 25 EU member states over the last decade. This analysis considers not only the inputs and outputs involved but, more importantly, which undesirable by-products were generated during the production process, a relevant issue for EU climate policy. To this end, two nonparametric frontier models are applied: first, a Directional Distance Function (DDF), based on Briec’s (1997) [16] proposal and, second, a modified version of Tone’s (2001) [51] Slacks-Based Measure (SBM) model, both of which are especially appropriate in this particular context due to their treatment of undesirable outputs. Results are partly innovative since, with few exceptions, applications on this issue are relatively scarce. From a policy implications’ point of view, our achievements are also interesting because they reveal remarkable efficiency differences among EU countries: those countries from the latest EU enlargements account for the lowest efficiencies, with large opportunities for improvement in CO 2 abatement and primary energy saving. Results also show stable efficiencies along the

  7. Report on the behalf of the economy, sustainable development and land planning commission of the European resolution proposition by Mr Ladislas Poniatowski on the directive proposition by the European Parliament and Council related to energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poniatowski, L.

    2011-01-01

    In its first part, this report outlines the interest of the directive proposition as energy efficiency and energy savings must be a priority for the European energy policy, that important energy saving fields are still to be explored, and that this directive is an ambitious and multi-sector oriented arrangement. The second part deals with the resolution proposition (the version proposed by M. Poniatowski and that of the commission). These propositions present the general objectives, comment the rules concerning public bodies, discuss obligation mechanisms regarding energy savings, discuss the issue of energy counting and billing, and the development of cogeneration and networks. The discussion of the commission is reported

  8. Rectifier cabinet static breaker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantino, R.A. Jr; Gliebe, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    A rectifier cabinet static breaker replaces a blocking diode pair with an SCR and the installation of a power transistor in parallel with the latch contactor to commutate the SCR to the off state. The SCR serves as a static breaker with fast turnoff capability providing an alternative way of achieving reactor scram in addition to performing the function of the replaced blocking diodes. The control circuitry for the rectifier cabinet static breaker includes on-line test capability and an LED indicator light to denote successful test completion. Current limit circuitry provides high-speed protection in the event of overload. 7 figs

  9. Rectifier cabinet static breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Jr, Roger A.; Gliebe, Ronald J.

    1992-09-01

    A rectifier cabinet static breaker replaces a blocking diode pair with an SCR and the installation of a power transistor in parallel with the latch contactor to commutate the SCR to the off state. The SCR serves as a static breaker with fast turnoff capability providing an alternative way of achieving reactor scram in addition to performing the function of the replaced blocking diodes. The control circuitry for the rectifier cabinet static breaker includes on-line test capability and an LED indicator light to denote successful test completion. Current limit circuitry provides high-speed protection in the event of overload.

  10. 'Static' octupole deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leander, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Certain nuclei can be described as having intrinsic shapes with parity breaking static moments. The rationale for this description is discussed, spectroscopic models are outlined and their consequences are compared with experiment. (orig.)

  11. Sawja: Static Analysis Workshop for Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Laurent; Barré, Nicolas; Besson, Frédéric; Demange, Delphine; Jensen, Thomas; Monfort, Vincent; Pichardie, David; Turpin, Tiphaine

    Static analysis is a powerful technique for automatic verification of programs but raises major engineering challenges when developing a full-fledged analyzer for a realistic language such as Java. Efficiency and precision of such a tool rely partly on low level components which only depend on the syntactic structure of the language and therefore should not be redesigned for each implementation of a new static analysis. This paper describes the Sawja library: a static analysis workshop fully compliant with Java 6 which provides OCaml modules for efficiently manipulating Java bytecode programs. We present the main features of the library, including i) efficient functional data-structures for representing a program with implicit sharing and lazy parsing, ii) an intermediate stack-less representation, and iii) fast computation and manipulation of complete programs. We provide experimental evaluations of the different features with respect to time, memory and precision.

  12. Energy transition and security: which voluntary codes? Energy efficiency: IEA, IEC and ISO dialogue. The European Commission's safety, solidarity and efficiency measures. Securing natural gas supplies and favoring cogeneration. Less energy consuming buildings: rework of the energy efficiency directive. Energy efficiency inside buildings: GDF Suez report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourneur, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    This dossier gathers a series of short articles about energy security and efficiency in a context of policy transition. The first paper deals with the use of international standards to promote energy efficiency thanks to efficient public policies and private sector actions. This was the main topic of the mixed workshop organized by the International electrotechnics Commission (IEC) in spring 2009. The second paper presents the new strategic analysis of the European commission in the domain of energy which stresses on the '20-20-20' climate change proposals approved in December 2008. A new European action plan for energy security and solidarity defines 5 domains requiring an extra action to warrant a sustainable energy supply. The commission is also examining the challenges that Europe will have to face between 2020 and 2050. The third article treats of the security of natural gas supplies which represents a quarter of the European Union (EU) energy mix. The supply crises susceptible to occur may have serious economic and social consequences. Therefore, the EU must be prepared to warrant its security of supplies. Cogeneration allows the EU to stay close to its energy goals. Buildings play a key role in the realisation of the EU's energy saving objectives and fight against climate change. The new directive on buildings energy efficiency (2002/91/CE) will allow to exploit this potential of saving and to stimulate sustainable investment and employment as well. Finally, the publication of the second WBCSD (World business council for sustainable development) international report on buildings energy efficiency has led GDF Suez utility to reaffirm its commitment in favour of energy saving and efficiency. (J.S.)

  13. Etude Climat no. 43 'Use of Kyoto credits by European installations: from an efficient market to a burst bubble'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, Nicolas; Bellassen, Valentin; Alberola, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Reports' offer in-depth analyses on a given subject. This issue addresses the following points: During the Phase II of the European Trading Scheme, installations had the option to surrender carbon credits from project-based mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol (CERs and ERUs). The rules set by Member States and approved by the European Commission capped the demand at around 1,400 MtCO 2 between 2008 and 2012. In the end, over 1 billion Kyoto credits (675 million CERs and 383 million ERUs) have been surrendered by EU ETS installations. What conclusions can be drawn from this unique experience in a CO 2 allowance market?

  14. Efficient low static-volume water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    Calrod heating element is surrounded by matrix of fused sintered copper or brass balls, and assembly is then installed in piping of water system. As water flows through matrix, sintered balls cause turbulent flow and heating. Applications include laundromats, laboratories, and photographic labs.

  15. Observing the Forces Involved in Static Friction under Static Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Static friction is an important concept in introductory physics. Later in the year students apply their understanding of static friction under more complex conditions of static equilibrium. Traditional lab demonstrations in this case involve exceeding of the maximum level of static friction, resulting in the "onset of motion." (Contains…

  16. Research paper 2000-B-6: adjustments in the Dutch domestic waste incineration sector in the context of the European directive 89/429/EEC. A case study on national implementation, environmental effectiveness, allocative efficiency, productive efficiency and administrative costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lulofs, K. [Twente Univ., Center for Clean Technology and Environmental Policy, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    Within the context of the IMPOL project several fields of European environmental policy are studied on aspects as national implementation and environmental and efficiency outcomes. For the IMPOL project a case study was done on the transformation of the Dutch sector of domestic waste incineration in the context of the European Directive Directives 89/369/EEC and 89/429/ EEC. The case study was done and indicators for environmental effectiveness, allocative efficiency, productive efficiency and administrative costs were chosen in line with a document to coordinate the efforts in the four IMPOL countries. The European Directives 89/369/EEC and 89/429/ EEC regulate Plants for Domestic waste Incineration on the emissions of several pollutants. These emissions are relevant for air quality in general, acidification and the spreading of toxic substances. In the empirical part of this report emphasis is laid on 'existing' incineration plants, being permitted before 1990. In chapter 2 of this report the implementation of the directives 89/369/EEC and 89/429/EEC in the Netherlands is described. In section 2.1 already existing 'older' Dutch policy and regulation is presented. In paragraph 2.2 the integration of the European Directives into Dutch national law is described. In chapter 2.3 the efforts and outcomes on monitoring and enforcement are presented. Chapter 3 goes into the environmental effectiveness. Section 3.1 describes the abatement performance of the whole municipal waste incineration sector during the period of research. Section 3.2 goes into factors that explain the environmental outcomes. Within the IMPOL research-team the decision was taken to concentrate on a number of pollutants of existing waste incinerators. In section 3.3 the data for the existing incinerators are given. In chapter 4 the allocative efficiency of adjustments is elaborated. In section 4.1 the abatement patterns of existing municipal waste incineration plants are presented

  17. Efficient strategies for the integration of renewable energy into future energy infrastructures in Europe – An analysis based on transnational modeling and case studies for nine European regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boie, Inga; Fernandes, Camila; Frías, Pablo; Klobasa, Marian

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the current international climate change strategy, the European Commission has agreed on ambitious targets to reduce CO 2 emissions by more than 80% until 2050 as compared to 1990 levels and to increase the share of renewable energy and improve energy efficiency by 20% until 2020. Under this framework, renewable energy generation has increased considerably in the EU and it is expected to keep growing in the future years. This paper presents long-term strategies for transmission infrastructure development to integrate increasing amounts of renewable generation in the time horizon of 2030–2050. These are part of the outcomes of the SUSPLAN project, which focuses on four possible future renewable deployment scenarios in different European regions taking into account the corresponding infrastructure needs, especially electricity and gas grids, both on regional and transnational level. The main objective of the project is the development of guidelines for the integration of renewable energy into future energy infrastructures while taking account of national and regional characteristics. Therefore, the analysis is based on a two-track approach: A transnational modeling exercise (“top-down”) and in-depth case studies for nine representative European regions (“bottom-up”). - Highlights: • We present the main outcomes of the SUSPLAN EU project. • It assesses long-term energy infrastructure needs to integrate RES in Europe. • Regional and transnational analyses are performed for 4 RES scenarios until 2050. • Major barriers to the integration of RES into energy infrastructure are identified. • Efficient strategies to mitigate these barriers are proposed

  18. Energy conversion statics

    CERN Document Server

    Messerle, H K; Declaris, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Energy Conversion Statics deals with equilibrium situations and processes linking equilibrium states. A development of the basic theory of energy conversion statics and its applications is presented. In the applications the emphasis is on processes involving electrical energy. The text commences by introducing the general concept of energy with a survey of primary and secondary energy forms, their availability, and use. The second chapter presents the basic laws of energy conversion. Four postulates defining the overall range of applicability of the general theory are set out, demonstrating th

  19. Static Transition Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Damian, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Starting from an operational specification of a translation from a structured to an unstructured imperative language, we point out how a compositional and context-insensitive translation gives rise to static chains of jumps. Taking an inspiration from the notion of continuation, we state a new...... compositional and context-sensitive specification that provably gives rise to no static chains of jumps, no redundant labels, and no unused labels. It is defined with one inference rule per syntactic construct and operates in linear time and space on the size of the source program (indeed it operates in one...

  20. Energy policy responses to the climate change challenge: The consistency of European CHP, renewables and energy efficiency policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grohnheit, P.E.

    1999-09-01

    This report is Volume 14 of individual reports of the Shared Analysis Project prepared for the European Commission, Directorate General for Energy. The three major objectives of the project were: to design a common framework of energy analysis that aimed to involve all Member States and the experts of industrial research groups (the shared approach to energy analysis); To analyse generic EU-wide issues important for energy policy and for future energy demand and production, putting particular emphasis on world energy market trends, strategic energy policy responses to the Kyoto process, and evaluation of response strategies to increasing energy import dependence and to climate change activities; to carry out quantitative analyses of energy trends and scenarios as an input for discussion. The present volume considers three main issues concerning energy policy responses to the climate change challenge: the penetration of CHP and renewables according to official objectives, focusing on infrastructure and institutions rather than technology; the consistency of promotion of CHP, renewables and energy savings at the same time; consumers' choices and priorities in a liberalised market. The volume describes examples of policies in several Member States for these technologies with emphasis on CHP for both large-scale and small-scale district heating systems. The penetration of CHP technologies is analysed quantitatively using a traditional optimisation model approach for stylised regions with heat markets suitable for CHP and facing a competitive European market for electricity. The Joint Final Report of the project, titled 'Economic Foundations for Energy Policy' is published as a Special Issue of Energy in Europe, December 1999. All reports are available on the Internet, www.shared-analysis.fhg.de/ The project started in January 1998, involving about 100 months of scientific labour. The project consortium consisted of nine member institutes co-ordinated by

  1. Energy policy responses to the climate change challenge: The consistency of European CHP, renewables and energy efficiency policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grohnheit, P.E.

    1999-09-01

    This report is Volume 14 of individual reports of the Shared Analysis Project prepared for the European Commission, Directorate General for Energy. The three major objectives of the project were: to design a common framework of energy analysis that aimed to involve all Member States and the experts of industrial research groups (the shared approach to energy analysis); To analyse generic EU-wide issues important for energy policy and for future energy demand and production, putting particular emphasis on world energy market trends, strategic energy policy responses to the Kyoto process, and evaluation of response strategies to increasing energy import dependence and to climate change activities; to carry out quantitative analyses of energy trends and scenarios as an input for discussion. The present volume considers three main issues concerning energy policy responses to the climate change challenge: the penetration of CHP and renewables according to official objectives, focusing on infrastructure and institutions rather than technology; the consistency of promotion of CHP, renewables and energy savings at the same time; consumers' choices and priorities in a liberalised market. The volume describes examples of policies in several Member States for these technologies with emphasis on CHP for both large-scale and small-scale district heating systems. The penetration of CHP technologies is analysed quantitatively using a traditional optimisation model approach for stylised regions with heat markets suitable for CHP and facing a competitive European market for electricity. The Joint Final Report of the project, titled 'Economic Foundations for Energy Policy' is published as a Special Issue of Energy in Europe, December 1999. All reports are available on the Internet, www.shared-analysis.fhg.de/ The project started in January 1998, involving about 100 months of scientific labour. The project consortium consisted of nine member institutes co-ordinated by the Fraunhofer

  2. User evaluations of energy efficient buildings: the interplay of buildings and users in seven European case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, Judith; Hauge, Aashild Lappegaard; Denizou, Karine; Jerkoe, Sidsel; Waagoe, Solvaar; Berker, Thomas

    2011-07-01

    The buildings in our study have been operational for just a short period and most of them are still in an adjustment phase. The findings show that users in all case studies often stressed the positive aspects connected to the newness and the architectural quality of the buildings. The interviews also show that energy efficiency is often regarded as a bonus or side effect that is gladly accepted but not the main criteria for choosing a house. Nonetheless, most residents seemed to appreciate the environmental benefits over time. Several respondents were also more concerned about the environment now than before they moved into or started to work in an energy efficient building, and they also reported more environmentally friendly behaviour. In most of the case studies, concerns were expressed about thermal comfort. Informants often experienced the building as too hot in the summer and/or too cold in the winter. This perceived discomfort caused different types of personal actions, which had a potential to interfere with the concept and the calculated energy balance. In order to improve internal conditions, the users in almost every case intervened with the planned use. They found common and known ways to improving their comfort in the buildings without considering how to optimize the new system. None of the respondents had much prior knowledge of energy efficient buildings before moving in or starting to work in the case study buildings. They did not know what to expect from their new environment, and were unfamiliar with the concepts. Many of the informants complained about a lack of information on systems and insufficient training. The studies also show that the occupants desired to control at least some operational aspects. Despite intermittent difficulties with thermal comfort, the tolerance for the buildings performance appeared to be high throughout all the case studies and many respondents were proud of 'their' buildings. Energy efficient buildings are

  3. User evaluations of energy efficient buildings: the interplay of buildings and users in seven European case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, Judith; Hauge, Aashild Lappegaard; Denizou, Karine; Jerkoe, Sidsel; Waagoe, Solvaar; Berker, Thomas

    2011-07-01

    The buildings in our study have been operational for just a short period and most of them are still in an adjustment phase. The findings show that users in all case studies often stressed the positive aspects connected to the newness and the architectural quality of the buildings. The interviews also show that energy efficiency is often regarded as a bonus or side effect that is gladly accepted but not the main criteria for choosing a house. Nonetheless, most residents seemed to appreciate the environmental benefits over time. Several respondents were also more concerned about the environment now than before they moved into or started to work in an energy efficient building, and they also reported more environmentally friendly behaviour. In most of the case studies, concerns were expressed about thermal comfort. Informants often experienced the building as too hot in the summer and/or too cold in the winter. This perceived discomfort caused different types of personal actions, which had a potential to interfere with the concept and the calculated energy balance. In order to improve internal conditions, the users in almost every case intervened with the planned use. They found common and known ways to improving their comfort in the buildings without considering how to optimize the new system. None of the respondents had much prior knowledge of energy efficient buildings before moving in or starting to work in the case study buildings. They did not know what to expect from their new environment, and were unfamiliar with the concepts. Many of the informants complained about a lack of information on systems and insufficient training. The studies also show that the occupants desired to control at least some operational aspects. Despite intermittent difficulties with thermal comfort, the tolerance for the buildings performance appeared to be high throughout all the case studies and many respondents were proud of 'their' buildings. Energy efficient buildings are not the

  4. Explosions and static electricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonassen, Niels M

    1995-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of electrostatic discharges as causes of ignition of vapor/gas and dust/gas mixtures. A series of examples of static-caused explosions will be discussed. The concepts of explosion limits, the incendiveness of various discharge types and safe voltages are explained...

  5. Static Transition Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Damian, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Starting from an operational specification of a translation from a structured to an unstructured imperative language, we point out how a compositional and context-insensitive translation gives rise to static chains of jumps. Taking an inspiration from the notion of continuation, we state a new co...

  6. European practices of providing of efficiency of self-organizations institutions of population in the context of public services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Serohina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The research revealed that European countries devote sufficient attention to ensuring the effectiveness of the institutions of self-organization in the context of their public services. The most common areas where they operate are a system of health, education and assistance during emergencies. The study showed that in the development of public services, there were significant transformations in terms of subject-provider. Historically it was confessional organizations working on a voluntary basis, and linked their activity with the realization of Christian mission. Subsequently, when there had been formation of a «welfare state», the state took over responsibility for the area of public services. In favor of institutions of self-organization has been a change in the system when it became clear that they are best in the provide public services, especially in the social sphere, because they are the demonstrating of social needs. The main mechanisms of cooperation between institutions of self-organization and the public sector are, first, subsidies for statutory activities of the organization. Another mechanism is delegating services or outsourcing and in this case contracts mostly are for one year with possibility of further extension. In addition there is auxiliary element of providing of effectiveness institutions of self-organization, it consists in deprivation of their donors from taxes. Although institutions of self-organization are financed mainly by public authorities, they remain independent, because they have opportunity of funding from other sources. German experience showed that the starting point in the system of public services is the understanding of the necessity of paying taxes as acknowledgment of the rights of all members of society. That is why every taxpayer expects to receive public services at the appropriate level. This unwritten rule contributes to a very high level of provision of public services through an adequate

  7. Animal and management factors influencing grower and finisher pig performance and efficiency in European systems: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, S L; Szyszka, O; Stoddart, K; Edwards, S A; Kyriazakis, I

    2015-07-01

    A meta-analysis on the effects of management and animal-based factors on the performance and feed efficiency of growing pigs can provide information on single factor and interaction effects absent in individual studies. This study analysed the effects of such factors on average daily gain (ADG), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of grower and finisher pigs. The multivariate models identified significant effects of: (1) bedding (Panimals with the least amount of floor space having a higher FI when given a feed with a low metabolisable energy (ME) content, in contrast to all other pigs, which showed a higher FI with increased ME content. The meta-analysis confirmed the significant effect of several well-known factors on the performance and efficiency of grower and finisher pigs, the effects of some less established ones and, importantly, the interactions between such factors.

  8. Efficient integration of renewable energy into future energy systems. Development of European energy infrastructures in the period 2030 to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, Carolin; Uhlig, Jeanette; Zoch, Immo (eds.)

    2011-10-15

    In consideration of strategic climate mitigation, energy security and economic competitiveness goals, the EU passed the Directive 2009/28/EC, including a binding target of 20 per cent renewable energy consumption in the EU by 2020. This target is comprehensive and includes energy generation, transport, heating and cooling sectors. In 2008, renewable energy consumption in the EU was about 10 per cent. So meeting the 20 per cent renewable energy objective will require massive changes in energy production, transmission and consumption in the EU. Furthermore, it is obvious that the development of the energy system will not stop in 2020, but that it will continue towards 2050 and beyond. Over the past century, the European electricity system was developed in line with a national utilit y perspective which heavily emphasised large, centralised conventional power production. Investment decisions for new energy infrastructure and technology were typically made at the national level. In the future, much more energy production will be based on local or regional renewable energy sources (RES). Many consumers may also become energy producers feeding into the infrastructures. Transnational energy transfers will gain in importance. These changes will require very different electricity and gas infrastructures and decision-making processes from today. Lack of infrastructure capacity is already a barrier for the further deployment of RES-based energy production in some regions in Europe. (orig.)

  9. Reproduction Efficiency and Health Traits in Dorper, White Dorper, and Tsigai Sheep Breeds under Temperate European Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gavojdian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current pilot study was to evaluate the reproductive performance and health indicators in Dorper, White Dorper, and Tsigai breed ewes managed semi-intensively under European temperate conditions. A total of 544 ewe-year units were observed, with ewes (ranging from 1.5 to 8 years of age managed under identical rearing conditions for a period of two consecutive production cycles (2012 through 2013 and 2013 through 2014. In general, significant (p≤0.001 genotype-related disparities were found in occurrence rates for all health parameters taken into study. Clinical mastitis incidence was significantly lower (p≤0.05 in Dorper (9.4% and White Dorper (10.8% breeds compared to that of Tsigai ewes (17.4%. Significant differences (p≤0.05 for lameness were found between Dorper and Tsigai breeds, with occurrence rates of 8.0% and 2.9%, respectively. Incidence for pneumonia and abortion was not influenced (p>0.05 by the ewes’ genotype. Litter size was significantly lower (p≤0.05 in White Dorper breed than for Dorper and Tsigai ewes, of 1.21, 1.40, and 1.45, respectively. Conception rates and lambs survival were not affected (p>0.05 by genotype. Results suggest that South African Dorper and White Dorper sheep breeds have adapted well to the specific rearing conditions.

  10. A cost-efficient expansion of renewable energy sources in the European electricity system. An integrated modelling approach with a particular emphasis on diurnal and seasonal patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golling, Christiane

    2012-11-01

    This thesis determines a cost-efficient expansion of electricity generated by renewable energy sources (RES-E) in the European power generation system. It is an integrated modelling approach with a particular emphasis on diurnal and seasonal patterns of renewable energy sources (RES). An integrated modelling approach optimizes the overall European electricity system while comprising fossil, nuclear, and renewable generation as well as storage capacities. The integrated model approach corresponds to a situation in which renewable generation is subject to electricity price signals. In sensitivity scenarios cases of the integrated model approach are compared to situations in which renewable generation is granted priority feed-in and is decoupled from electricity price signals. In addition, the role of different flexibility options, which can be provided by storage capacities and grid expansion are scrutinized. The methodology of the thesis consists of two parts. First, it develops an integrative model approach by extending an existing European electricity model only comprising conventional power generating technologies. Second, an appropriate representation of intermittent RES for electricity market models is established by the determination of corresponding typedays. The typeday modelling takes the spatial correlation of RES and the correlation between wind and solar power into account. Moreover, the typeday modelling captures average dispatch-relevant, diurnal and seasonal RES characteristics such as the level, the variance, and the gradient. The scenario analysis shows that separate developments of renewable and conventional technologies imply several inefficiencies. These increase with higher RES-E penetration. Inefficiencies such as an increased wind power curtailment, an augmented capital turnover, or a higher cumulative installed power generating capacity are revealed and quantified.

  11. European Home Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.

    2009-01-01

    An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes......An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes...

  12. Extension of SASE bandwidth up to 2% as a way to increase the efficiency of protein structure determination by X-ray nanocrystallography at the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkez, Svitozar; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Zagorodnov, Igor [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gelonib, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Yefanov, Oleksandr [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    Femtosecond x-ray nanocrystallography exploiting XFEL radiation is an emerging method for protein structure determination using crystals with sizes ranging from a few tens to a few hundreds nanometers. Crystals are randomly hit by XFEL pulses, producing diffraction patterns at unknown orientations. One can determine these orientations by studying the diffraction patterns themselves, i.e. by indexing the Bragg peaks. The number of indexed individual images and the SASE bandwidth are inherently linked, because increasing the number of Bragg peaks per individual image requires increasing the bandwidth of the spectrum. This calls for a few percent SASE bandwidth, resulting in an increase in the number of indexed images at the same number of hits. Based on start-to-end simulations for the baseline of the European XFEL, we demonstrate here that it is possible to achieve up to a tenfold increase in SASE bandwidth, compared with the nominal mode of operation. This provides a route for further increasing the efficiency of protein structure determination at the European XFEL.We illustrate this concept with simulations of lysozyme nanocrystals.

  13. EFFICIENCY OF PUBLIC SPENDING FOR EDUCATION WITHIN THE EUROPEAN UNION IN THE CONTEXT OF THE STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK "EDUCATION AND TRAINING 2020"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela, POPA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Education is universally recognized as one of the foundations of human development and one of the most powerful tools that a society has for poverty reduction, sustainable development in the long term. The world we live in today can be defined as a global arena, a planet increasingly crowded, faced with a real problem - population growth and thus increasing the number of young people, which means educational systems and to able to support them and to answer their needs. Educational policies should reflect the responsibility of building a world based on a more on mutual support. Marginalization, exclusion, ignorance of the rules of democracy and lack of education are factors that may cause the gap between a minority of people are able to find a path to success and a majority that feels manipulated events. Providing everyone access to knowledge, education has the task of helping people understand the world and to understand others. In the context of the Europe 2020 strategy makes in education provides a new strategic framework for European cooperation in education and training, created from his predecessor's work program "Education and Training 2010", "Education and Training 2020". This paper aims to highlight the strategic objectives for the Member States, the implementation of these, and a number of statistics on the efficiency of public spending on education in the European Union.

  14. Research paper 2000-B-4: adjustments in the Dutch electricity producing sector in the context of the European directive 88/609/EEC: a case study on national implementation, environmental effectiveness, allocative efficiency, productive efficiency and administrative costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lulofs, K. [Twente Univ., Center for Clean Technology and Environmental Policy, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    Within the context of the IMPOL project several fields of European environmental policy are studied on aspects as national implementation and environmental and efficiency outcomes. For the IMPOL project a case study was done on the transformation of the Dutch electricity sector in the context of the European Directive 88/609/EEC. The indicators used in this report for environmental effectiveness, allocative efficiency, productive efficiency and administrative costs were chosen in line with a coordinating document (Eames, 1999). The European Directive 88/609/EEC regulates Large Combustion Plants on their SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. These emissions are relevant for air quality and for the acidification problem. In the empirical part of this report emphasis is laid on the power plants as a specific sub-group of the large combustion plants. The report starts in chapter 2 with a description of the Dutch policy on acidification and regulation that existed when 88/609/EEC was issued. This way it is clarified that the formal implementation of the European Directive was done in the Netherlands with very little effort. In section 2.4 some major information on the structure of the electricity production sector is given as well as some insights into developments. In section 2.5 details on a covenant to reduce emissions from power plants is given. The electricity sector and the government agreed upon this document as a binding agenda for change. In section 2.6 information on monitoring and enforcement is given. In chapter 3, the environmental outcomes are discussed. First the emissions of all large combustion plants are presented in time series. Within the IMPOL research-team the decision was taken to concentrate on the SO{sub 2} emissions of power plants. Therefore, secondly the SO{sub 2} emissions of the power plants and the individual power plants are presented. This opens the possibility for an analysis of the found decrease of SO{sub 2} emissions. In section 3.3 the

  15. Research paper 2000-B-4: adjustments in the Dutch electricity producing sector in the context of the European directive 88/609/EEC: a case study on national implementation, environmental effectiveness, allocative efficiency, productive efficiency and administrative costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lulofs, K.

    2000-01-01

    Within the context of the IMPOL project several fields of European environmental policy are studied on aspects as national implementation and environmental and efficiency outcomes. For the IMPOL project a case study was done on the transformation of the Dutch electricity sector in the context of the European Directive 88/609/EEC. The indicators used in this report for environmental effectiveness, allocative efficiency, productive efficiency and administrative costs were chosen in line with a coordinating document (Eames, 1999). The European Directive 88/609/EEC regulates Large Combustion Plants on their SO 2 and NO x emissions. These emissions are relevant for air quality and for the acidification problem. In the empirical part of this report emphasis is laid on the power plants as a specific sub-group of the large combustion plants. The report starts in chapter 2 with a description of the Dutch policy on acidification and regulation that existed when 88/609/EEC was issued. This way it is clarified that the formal implementation of the European Directive was done in the Netherlands with very little effort. In section 2.4 some major information on the structure of the electricity production sector is given as well as some insights into developments. In section 2.5 details on a covenant to reduce emissions from power plants is given. The electricity sector and the government agreed upon this document as a binding agenda for change. In section 2.6 information on monitoring and enforcement is given. In chapter 3, the environmental outcomes are discussed. First the emissions of all large combustion plants are presented in time series. Within the IMPOL research-team the decision was taken to concentrate on the SO 2 emissions of power plants. Therefore, secondly the SO 2 emissions of the power plants and the individual power plants are presented. This opens the possibility for an analysis of the found decrease of SO 2 emissions. In section 3.3 the likely causes and their

  16. The Static Quantum Multiverse

    OpenAIRE

    Nomura, Yasunori

    2012-01-01

    We consider the multiverse in the intrinsically quantum mechanical framework recently proposed in Refs. [1,2]. By requiring that the principles of quantum mechanics are universally valid and that physical predictions do not depend on the reference frame one chooses to describe the multiverse, we find that the multiverse state must be static---in particular, the multiverse does not have a beginning or end. We argue that, despite its naive appearance, this does not contradict observation, inclu...

  17. PEBBLES Simulation of Static Friction and New Static Friction Benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cogliati, Joshua J.; Ougouag, Abderrafi M.

    2010-01-01

    Pebble bed reactors contain large numbers of spherical fuel elements arranged randomly. Determining the motion and location of these fuel elements is required for calculating certain parameters of pebble bed reactor operation. This paper documents the PEBBLES static friction model. This model uses a three dimensional differential static friction approximation extended from the two dimensional Cundall and Strack model. The derivation of determining the rotational transformation of pebble to pebble static friction force is provided. A new implementation for a differential rotation method for pebble to container static friction force has been created. Previous published methods are insufficient for pebble bed reactor geometries. A new analytical static friction benchmark is documented that can be used to verify key static friction simulation parameters. This benchmark is based on determining the exact pebble to pebble and pebble to container static friction coefficients required to maintain a stable five sphere pyramid.

  18. THE EXPERIENCE OF COMPARISON OF STATIC SECURITY CODE ANALYZERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Markov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a methodological approach to comparison of static security code analyzers. It substantiates the comparison of the static analyzers as to efficiency and functionality indicators, which are stipulated in the international regulatory documents. The test data for assessment of static analyzers efficiency is represented by synthetic sets of open-source software, which contain vulnerabilities. We substantiated certain criteria for quality assessment of the static security code analyzers subject to standards NIST SP 500-268 and SATEC. We carried out experiments that allowed us to assess a number of the Russian proprietary software tools and open-source tools. We came to the conclusion that it is of paramount importance to develop Russian regulatory framework for testing software security (firstly, for controlling undocumented features and evaluating the quality of static security code analyzers.

  19. An easily implemented static condensation method for structural sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadharan, S. N.; Haftka, R. T.; Nikolaidis, E.

    1990-01-01

    A black-box approach to static condensation for sensitivity analysis is presented with illustrative examples of a cube and a car structure. The sensitivity of the structural response with respect to joint stiffness parameter is calculated using the direct method, forward-difference, and central-difference schemes. The efficiency of the various methods for identifying joint stiffness parameters from measured static deflections of these structures is compared. The results indicate that the use of static condensation can reduce computation times significantly and the black-box approach is only slightly less efficient than the standard implementation of static condensation. The ease of implementation of the black-box approach recommends it for use with general-purpose finite element codes that do not have a built-in facility for static condensation.

  20. Main Directions of Increasing Efficiency of Foreign Trade Activities of the Fishing Industry of the European North

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatolii Mikhailovich Vasil’ev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the List of Orders of the Russian Federation President Vladimir Putin has shown that many priority challenges of the fishing industry development, including promotion of fish production with a high degree of processing and its exports have not been solved. Analysis of exports of cod, haddock and saithe from Russia (Murmansk Oblast and Norway proves that there is a wider range of products from Norway with high added value. The unit cost of the same products from Norway is also significantly higher. The consequence of these factors is the low unit cost of Russian exports, compared to Norwegian. For 2009–2013 the average unit cost of cod is lower by 2.66 US dollars (47.9%, of haddock – by 0.23 US dollars (10.6%. The article estimates foreign currency revenues, which were not fully received due to the reasons mentioned above. The author points out key directions of increase of economic efficiency of Russian exports of cod, haddock and saithe: 1. Change in the access of economic agents to marketable resources by stimulating the obtainment of larger quotas of biological resources at the expense of profit ratio. 2. Establishment of an organization for the export of fish products. The purpose of the organization is to study international markets, to regulate foreign trade activities and perform other functions as set forth above, in accordance with the Russian legislation. 3. Exclusion of intermediaries in the sales of fish products by organizing electronic auctions. 4. Prohibition of using fishery products for the payment of loans obtained from foreign banks. 5. Use of trawlers that are not able to produce products with added value, to provide fish processing enterprises of Russia with fish resources

  1. The static pinch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longmire, Conrad L [University of California, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1958-07-01

    In a pinch, the outward diffusion of plasma due to collisions can be balanced by the inward drift resulting from ExB, where E is the applied electric field and B the magnetic field. From the equation expressing the balance of these two effects, together with the pressure balance equation, one obtains the perpendicular conductivity, which is about one-half of the classical parallel conductivity. This result has been applied to the problem of a static pinch under the assumptions: 1) there is an applied longitudinal (B{sub z}) magnetic field; 2) the plasma is isothermal; 3) the solution depends only on the radial coordinate.

  2. How does the European Regional Development Fund finance energy efficiency and renewable investments in housing sector in Bulgaria, Poland and Romania?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-11-01

    The European Union (EU) is leading the global fight against climate change, and has made it a top priority. Its ambitious targets are spelt out in the EU Climate Action and Renewable Energy Package which commits Member States to curb their CO_2 emissions by at least 20% by 2020 through improved energy efficiency and use of renewable energy sources. The housing sector, responsible for 40% of the EU CO_2 emissions, represents a huge potential for energy and emissions savings. The policy at EU level is adopted and the facts are clear - we know in which sectors and how to act to achieve the common objectives. The EU even allocates some funds for EE/RES actions in housing sector, e.g. through the Cohesion policy. Since May 2009, all EU Member States can allocate 4% of their total ERDF allocations to energy efficiency measures in housing, in particular social housing. It would seem that all the conditions are favorable but the reality is different - EE/RES actions are still not the priority of the EU Member States and/or the European funds are rarely used for this type of actions. The case of three EU-12 countries - Bulgaria, Poland and Romania - proves that the Structural Funds available for improvement of housing and particularly social housing sector, are not fully used also for the following reasons: Housing and social housing are not the priorities or national budgets allocated to these sectors are not sufficient to co-finance projects supported by the Structural Funds: - In Romanian operational programs, (social) housing is mentioned very vaguely - eligible measures are not specified in details. - In Bulgaria, the priorities in the operational programs are well identified, however municipalities have difficulties to find even 5% co-financing for their EE/RES projects as national budget is not allocated to this type of measures. Administration of the Structural Funds and criteria of their use are complicated; national governments are lacking human capacities to

  3. Photovoltaic static concentrator analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonacid, G.; Luque, A.; Molledo, A. G.

    1984-12-01

    Ray tracing is the basis of the present analysis of truncated bifacial compound parabolic concentrators filled with a dielectric substance, which are of interest in photovoltaic applications where the bifacial cells allow higher static concentrations to be achieved. Among the figures of merit for this type of concentrator, the directional intercept factor plays a major role and is defined as the ratio of the power of the collector to that at the entry aperture, in a lossless concentrator illuminated by light arriving from a given direction. A procedure for measuring outdoor, full size panels has been developed, and a correction method for avoiding the effect of unwanted diffuse radiation during the measurements is presented.

  4. Genome-wide association study and genetic diversity analysis on nitrogen use efficiency in a Central European winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. collection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Monostori

    Full Text Available To satisfy future demands, the increase of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. yield is inevitable. Simultaneously, maintaining high crop productivity and efficient use of nutrients, especially nitrogen use efficiency (NUE, are essential for sustainable agriculture. NUE and its components are inherently complex and highly influenced by environmental factors, nitrogen management practices and genotypic variation. Therefore, a better understanding of their genetic basis and regulation is fundamental. To investigate NUE-related traits and their genetic and environmental regulation, field trials were evaluated in a Central European wheat collection of 93 cultivars at two nitrogen input levels across three seasons. This elite germplasm collection was genotyped on DArTseq® genotypic platform to identify loci affecting N-related complex agronomic traits. To conduct robust genome-wide association mapping, the genetic diversity, population structure and linkage disequilibrium were examined. Population structure was investigated by various methods and two subpopulations were identified. Their separation is based on the breeding history of the cultivars, while analysis of linkage disequilibrium suggested that selective pressures had acted on genomic regions bearing loci with remarkable agronomic importance. Besides NUE, genetic basis for variation in agronomic traits indirectly affecting NUE and its components, moreover genetic loci underlying response to nitrogen fertilisation were also determined. Altogether, 183 marker-trait associations (MTA were identified spreading over almost the entire genome. We found that most of the MTAs were environmental-dependent. The present study identified several associated markers in those genomic regions where previous reports had found genes or quantitative trait loci influencing the same traits, while most of the MTAs revealed new genomic regions. Our data provides an overview of the allele composition of bread wheat

  5. Static electricity: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Rita M.

    1991-11-01

    The major concern with static electricity is its discharging in a flammable atmosphere which can explode and cause a fire. Textile materials can have their electrical resistivity decreased by the addition of antistatic finishes, imbedding conductive particles into the fibres or by adding metal fibers to the yarns. The test methods used in the studies of static electricity include measuring the static properties of materials, of clothed persons, and of the ignition energy of flammable gases. Surveys have shown that there is sparse evidence for fires definitively being caused by static electricity. However, the 'worst-case' philosophy has been adopted and a static electricity safety code is described, including correct grounding procedures and the wearing of anti-static clothing and footwear.

  6. Avrupa Merkez Bankası'nın (AMB Euro Yönetimindeki Etkinlik Sorununun Analizi ( Efficiency Management Problem Of European Central Bank (ECB About The Euro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin ÖZDEŞER

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of a monetary integration process in the European Union is inarguable. Monetary Union has a corner stone role for letting Economy in the EU to act as a whole. Only 19 members of the EU take place in the Euro Zone. In this case; there is a long time needed for completion the monetary integration process. European Central Bank (ECB which is responsible for the monetary policy application in Euro Zone, will have serious weakness and desperation and having them is inevitable; because the economic and political integration of the EU is not completed yet. All kinds of conflicts in political and economic integration process of the EU and economic crises, will have negative impacts on the EU and also on Euro. ECB is helpless about any negative developments that take place or may take place in European Monetary Union (EMU Area and it does not have an efficient intervention chance for preventing the negative impacts occurring on the Euro. The aim of the study is to present the weakness and desperation of the ECB about applying policies for a stable Euro. Avrupa Birliği'nde (AB Parasal Birlik sürecinin gerekliliği tartışılmazdır. Parasal Birlik; ekonominin AB içerisinde bir bütünsel olarak hareketliliğinin sağlanabilmesi açısından köşe taşı niteliğindedir. AB'nde şu an için toplam 28 olan AB üyesi ülkeden yalnızca 19 üye euro bölgesinde yer almaktadır. Bu durum parasal entegrasyonun tamamlanabilmesi için uzun süreye ihtiyaç olduğunun göstergesidir. Euro bölgesinde para politikalarının uygylanmasından sorumlu olan Avrupa Merkez Bankası (AMB, AB'nin ekonomik ve siyasi entegrasyonunun tamamlanmamasından dolayı ciddi zaaflar ve çaresizlikler yaşamaktadır; ve yaşaması da kaçınılmazdır. AB ve euro bölgesinde yaşanan her türlü sayasi ve ekonomik entegrasyon süreçlerindeki çatışmalar ve aynı zamanda ekonomik krizler; AB'ni ve euroyu olumsuz etkilemektedir. Yalnızca euronun y

  7. Statics and Mechanics of Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    The statics and mechanics of structures form a core aspect of civil engineering. This book provides an introduction to the subject, starting from classic hand-calculation types of analysis and gradually advancing to a systematic form suitable for computer implementation. It starts with statically...

  8. Extending Graphic Statics for User-Controlled Structural Morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Fivet, Corentin; Zastavni, Denis; Cap, Jean-François; Structural Morphology Group International Seminar 2011

    2011-01-01

    The first geometrical definitions of any structure are of primary importance when considering pertinence and efficiency in structural design processes. Engineering history has taught us how graphic statics can be a very powerful tool since it allows the designer to take shapes and forces into account simultaneously. However, current and past graphic statics methods are more suitable for analysis than structural morphogenesis. This contribution introduces new graphical methods that can supp...

  9. Statics and mechanics of structures

    CERN Document Server

    Krenk, Steen

    2013-01-01

    The statics and mechanics of structures form a core aspect of civil engineering. This book provides an introduction to the subject, starting from classic hand-calculation types of analysis and gradually advancing to a systematic form suitable for computer implementation. It starts with statically determinate structures in the form of trusses, beams and frames. Instability is discussed in the form of the column problem - both the ideal column and the imperfect column used in actual column design. The theory of statically indeterminate structures is then introduced, and the force and deformation methods are explained and illustrated. An important aspect of the book’s approach is the systematic development of the theory in a form suitable for computer implementation using finite elements. This development is supported by two small computer programs, MiniTruss and MiniFrame, which permit static analysis of trusses and frames, as well as linearized stability analysis. The book’s final section presents related ...

  10. Statics of Historic Masonry Constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments in its architectural heritage. Given the age of much of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant. This book aims to help fill this demand presenting a comprehensive new statics of masonry constructions. The book, result of thirty years of research and professional experience, gives the fundamentals of statics of the masonry solid, then applied to the study of statics of arches, piers and vaults. Further, combining engineering and architecture and through an interdisciplinary approach, the book investigates the statical behaviour of many historic monuments, as the Pantheon, the Colosseum,  the domes of S. Maria del Fiore in Florence and of St. Peter in Rome, the Tower of Pisa, the Gothic Cathedrals and the Masonry Buildings under seismic actions.

  11. Static Analysis of IMC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrypnyuk, Nataliya; Nielson, Flemming; Pilegaard, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    hand, checking properties on process algebraic descriptions is often hard, while “unfolding” them into the Labelled Transition Systems can lead to the infamous state space explosion problem.In this work we use a subtype of Data Flow Analysis on systems defined by finite-state process algebras with CSP...... used as an intermediate representation format, which is more concise than the Labelled Transition System with all the states explicitly represented and more suitable for devising efficient verification algorithms of concurrent systems than their process algebraic descriptions – see, for example...

  12. Static Analysis of Mobile Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    and not allowed, to do. The second issue was that a fully static analysis was never a realistic possibility, because Java , the programming langauge...scale to large programs it had to handle essentially all of the features of Java and could also be used as a general-purpose analysis engine. The...static analysis of imperative languages. • A framework for adding specifications about the behavior of methods, including methods that were

  13. Static Decoupling in fault detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1998-01-01

    An algebraic approach is given for a design of a static residual weighting factor in connection with fault detection. A complete parameterization is given of the weighting factor which will minimize a given performance index......An algebraic approach is given for a design of a static residual weighting factor in connection with fault detection. A complete parameterization is given of the weighting factor which will minimize a given performance index...

  14. Automatic incrementalization of Prolog based static analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Michael; Kahl, Matthias; Saha, Diptikalyan

    2007-01-01

    Modem development environments integrate various static analyses into the build process. Analyses that analyze the whole project whenever the project changes are impractical in this context. We present an approach to automatic incrementalization of analyses that are specified as tabled logic...... programs and evaluated using incremental tabled evaluation, a technique for efficiently updating memo tables in response to changes in facts and rules. The approach has been implemented and integrated into the Eclipse IDE. Our measurements show that this technique is effective for automatically...

  15. European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.

    1995-01-01

    Different instruments used by European Commission of the European Union for financial support radioactive waste management activities in the Russian Federation are outlined. Three particular programmes in the area are described

  16. Development of plans for retrofitting Russian housing, taking into account European competences for increasing its energy efficiency; Entwicklung von Planungs- und Sanierungskonzepten fuer den russischen Wohnungsbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezhov, Andrey; Himburg, Stefan [Hochschule fuer Technik Berlin (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    There are various options for retrofitting Russian prefabricated concrete-slab buildings of the first period of industrial construction, so-called khrushchevki, with the object of bringing them up to European standards of thermal insulation technology. In the given case the basis of calculations was the German EnEV 2007 (Building Energy Conservation Ordinance). The analysis of sample building data opened up a large range of possibilities for increasing its energy efficiency. For instance, calculations ascertained that relatively inexpensive methods of enhancing a buildings thermal insulation can achieve a significant decrease in energy consumption for heating. In addition, this thesis analyzes possible variations of retrofitting and reconstruction using different types of materials and heating systems. The results clearly illustrate that residential houses e.g. type series 1-507 have a future as comfortable and functional housing space. In fact, and in contrast to common prejudices, their fate is far from hopeless. Even the climatic circumstances of a northern city such as St. Petersburg do not preclude the use of alternative energy sources such as solar energy. On the contrary, it is a conceivable method of support for heating systems. In summary, the investigations show that the retrofitting of prefabricated concrete-slab buildings of the first construction period is a sensible project, especially when taking into account the further development of fossil energy prices. In its most sophisticated form (the passive house), retrofitting will result in energy savings of up to 90 %. [German] Fuer russische Wohnhaeuser der ersten Periode des industriellen Bauens, so genannte ''Chruschtschowki'', besteht ein hoher Sanierungsbedarf. Im Rahmen der nachfolgenden Betrachtungen werden moegliche energetische Sanierungsmassnahmen fuer diese typischen russischen Wohngebaeude vorgestellt. Das Ziel ist eine Angleichung an das europaeische Waermeschutzniveau

  17. Multipoint vibrometry with dynamic and static holograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haist, T.; Lingel, C.; Osten, W. [Institut für Technische Optik, Stuttgart Research Center of Photonic Engineering (SCOPE), University of Stuttgart, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Winter, M.; Giesen, M.; Ritter, F.; Sandfort, K.; Rembe, C. [Polytec GmbH, Polytec-Platz 1-7, D-76337 Waldbronn (Germany); Bendel, K. [Corporate Sector Research and Advanced Engineering, Robert Bosch GmbH, Gerlingen (Germany)

    2013-12-15

    We report on two multipoint vibrometers with user-adjustable position of the measurement spots. Both systems are using holograms for beam deflection. The measurement is based on heterodyne interferometry with a frequency difference of 5 MHz between reference and object beam. One of the systems uses programmable positioning of the spots in the object volume but is limited concerning the light efficiency. The other system is based on static holograms in combination with mechanical adjustment of the measurement spots and does not have such a general efficiency restriction. Design considerations are given and we show measurement results for both systems. In addition, we analyze the sensitivity of the systems which is a major limitation compared to single point scanning systems.

  18. Multipoint vibrometry with dynamic and static holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haist, T; Lingel, C; Osten, W; Winter, M; Giesen, M; Ritter, F; Sandfort, K; Rembe, C; Bendel, K

    2013-12-01

    We report on two multipoint vibrometers with user-adjustable position of the measurement spots. Both systems are using holograms for beam deflection. The measurement is based on heterodyne interferometry with a frequency difference of 5 MHz between reference and object beam. One of the systems uses programmable positioning of the spots in the object volume but is limited concerning the light efficiency. The other system is based on static holograms in combination with mechanical adjustment of the measurement spots and does not have such a general efficiency restriction. Design considerations are given and we show measurement results for both systems. In addition, we analyze the sensitivity of the systems which is a major limitation compared to single point scanning systems.

  19. Statics of historic masonry constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments of its architectural heritage. Given the age of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant; still within the broad studies in the subject it is not yet recognised, in particular within the seismic area, a unitary approach to deal with Masonry structures. This successful book contributes to clarify the issues with a rigorous approach offering a comprehensive new Statics of Masonry Constructions. This third edition has been driven by some recent developments of the research in the field, and it gives the fundamentals of Statics with an original and rigorous mathematical formulation, further in-depth inquired in this new version. With many refinements and improvements, the book investigates the static behaviour of many historic monuments, such as the Gothic Cathedrals, the Mycenaean Tholoi, the Pantheon, the Colosseum, the dome...

  20. Static Analysis for Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Rosa, D. Schuch da

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows how static analysis techniques can help understanding biological systems. Based on a simple example we illustrate the outcome of performing three different analyses extracting information of increasing precision. We conclude by reporting on the potential impact and exploitation o...... of these techniques in systems biology....

  1. Static Verification for Code Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fähndrich, Manuel

    The Code Contracts project [3] at Microsoft Research enables programmers on the .NET platform to author specifications in existing languages such as C# and VisualBasic. To take advantage of these specifications, we provide tools for documentation generation, runtime contract checking, and static contract verification.

  2. Static Analysis for Dynamic XML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Aske Simon; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2002-01-01

    We describe the summary graph lattice for dataflow analysis of programs that dynamically construct XML documents. Summary graphs have successfully been used to provide static guarantees in the JWIG language for programming interactive Web services. In particular, the JWIG compiler is able to check...

  3. Counterterms for static Lovelock solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdizadeh, M.R.; Dehghani, M.H.; Zangeneh, M.K.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the counterterms that remove the non-logarithmic divergences of the action in third order Lovelock gravity for static spacetimes. We do this by defining the cosmological constant in such a way that the asymptotic form of the metric have the same form in Lovelock and Einstein gravities. Thus, we employ the counterterms of Einstein gravity and show that the power law divergences of the action of Lovelock gravity for static spacetimes can be removed by suitable choice of coefficients. We find that the dependence of these coefficients on the dimension in Lovelock gravity is the same as in Einstein gravity. We also introduce the finite energy-momentum tensor and employ these counterterms to calculate the finite action and mass of static black hole solutions of third order Lovelock gravity. Next, we calculate the thermodynamic quantities and show that the entropy calculated through the use of Gibbs-Duhem relation is consistent with the obtained entropy by Wald's formula. Furthermore, we find that in contrast to Einstein gravity in which there exists no uncharged extreme black hole, third order Lovelock gravity can have these kind of black holes. Finally, we investigate the stability of static charged black holes of Lovelock gravity in canonical ensemble and find that small black holes show a phase transition between very small and small black holes, while the large ones are stable. (orig.)

  4. Counterterms for static Lovelock solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehdizadeh, M.R. [Shahid Bahonar University, Department of Physics, PO Box 76175, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dehghani, M.H. [Research Institute for Astrophysics and Astronomy of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zangeneh, M.K. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, we introduce the counterterms that remove the non-logarithmic divergences of the action in third order Lovelock gravity for static spacetimes. We do this by defining the cosmological constant in such a way that the asymptotic form of the metric have the same form in Lovelock and Einstein gravities. Thus, we employ the counterterms of Einstein gravity and show that the power law divergences of the action of Lovelock gravity for static spacetimes can be removed by suitable choice of coefficients. We find that the dependence of these coefficients on the dimension in Lovelock gravity is the same as in Einstein gravity. We also introduce the finite energy-momentum tensor and employ these counterterms to calculate the finite action and mass of static black hole solutions of third order Lovelock gravity. Next, we calculate the thermodynamic quantities and show that the entropy calculated through the use of Gibbs-Duhem relation is consistent with the obtained entropy by Wald's formula. Furthermore, we find that in contrast to Einstein gravity in which there exists no uncharged extreme black hole, third order Lovelock gravity can have these kind of black holes. Finally, we investigate the stability of static charged black holes of Lovelock gravity in canonical ensemble and find that small black holes show a phase transition between very small and small black holes, while the large ones are stable. (orig.)

  5. Static Analysis of Functional Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Klaas; van den Broek, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the static analysis of programs in the functional programming language Miranda is described based on two graph models. A new control-flow graph model of Miranda definitions is presented, and a model with four classes of caligraphs. Standard software metrics are applicable to these

  6. State of the Art on Energy Efficiency in Agriculture, Country data on energy consumption in different agroproduction sectors in the European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de C.L.M.; Buisonje, de F.E.; Ellen, H.H.; Stanghellini, C.; Voort, van der M.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Energy efficiency is the goal of efforts to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services. The general term "energy efficiency", when applied to agriculture, reflects changes in technology, governmental and EC policies – including the Common Agricultural Policy, climate

  7. Magnetic fields and accretion discs around static black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadhich, N.

    1982-01-01

    Some aspects of accretion onto static black holes immersed in a uniform magnetic field are investigated. The Ernst metric is employed to find the 'Keplerian' angular momentum distribution and the efficiency of mass-to-energy conversion for a plasma and for test particles. Under almost all physically reasonable conditions for hydrodynamic accretion the effect of the magnetic field is small. However, for test particles the effect can be very important and the efficiency can approach unity. (author)

  8. GPC light shaper: static and dynamic experimental demonstrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Kopylov, Oleksii; Villangca, Mark Jayson

    2014-01-01

    Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) is an efficient method for generating speckle-free contiguous optical distributions useful in diverse applications such as static beam shaping, optical manipulation and, recently, for excitation in two-photon optogenetics. GPC allows efficient utilization of typical...... Gaussian lasers in such applications using binary-only phase modulation. In this work, we experimentally verify previously derived conditions for photon-efficient light shaping with GPC [Opt. Express 22(5), 5299 (2014)]. We demonstrate a compact implementation of GPC for creating practical illumination...... experiments give ~80% efficiency, ~3x intensity gain, and ~90% energy savings which are in good agreement with previous theoretical estimations....

  9. European communion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on ‘sharing’ or ‘communion......’, provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as ‘integration’ or ‘co-operation’. The concept of ‘European communion’ is defined as the ‘subjective sharing of relationships’, understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing...... relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European...

  10. Evaluation of Advanced Nonlinear Static Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ali Shayanfar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Having very simplicity, nonlinear static procedures (NSPs are the most popular tools for estimation of structural capacity. These approaches construct a graphic display of the overall structural response via a pushover curve. The overall response of the system provides a direct simulation of the building as single degree of freedom (SDOF system that simplifies the design and evaluation of the structure. In this research, the first step in any nonlinear static analysis or in other words perform a pushover analysis has been studied. Applied lateral load to the structural model not only affects the overall responses of the structure through structural capacity curve, but also directly affects the local responses of the structure. In order to evaluate these lateral loads, steel buckling restrained braced frame structures are examined by advanced modal pushovers. Next, the results of these pushover analyses will be compared with nonlinear time history analysis as the most accurate method. Finally, the most efficient method in this particular structure is introduced. The analysis conducted in these structures shows that the lateral load pattern based on story shears offers a good prediction of the maximum response of the concentrically buckling restrained braced frame buildings.

  11. Static Code Analysis with Gitlab-CI

    CERN Document Server

    Datko, Szymon Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Static Code Analysis is a simple but efficient way to ensure that application’s source code is free from known flaws and security vulnerabilities. Although such analysis tools are often coming with more advanced code editors, there are a lot of people who prefer less complicated environments. The easiest solution would involve education – where to get and how to use the aforementioned tools. However, counting on the manual usage of such tools still does not guarantee their actual usage. On the other hand, reducing the required effort, according to the idea “setup once, use anytime without sweat” seems like a more promising approach. In this paper, the approach to automate code scanning, within the existing CERN’s Gitlab installation, is described. For realization of that project, the Gitlab-CI service (the “CI” stands for "Continuous Integration"), with Docker assistance, was employed to provide a variety of static code analysers for different programming languages. This document covers the gene...

  12. Static Behaviour of Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim André

    One new foundation concept in relation to offshore wind turbines is bucket foundations. The concept is known from the oil and gas industry, though the load conditions here are significantly different. The bucket foundation can be used as monopod or e.g. tripod foundations for offshore wind turbines....... The monopod concept is investigated in this thesis, regarding the static behaviour from loads relevant to offshore wind turbines. The main issue in this concept is the rotational stiffness of the foundation and the combined capacity dominated by moments. The vertical bearing capacity of bucket foundations...... theory is proposed. The proposed expression applies to plane strain as well as axis-symmetric stress conditions for foundations with smooth or rough bases. A thorough experimental investigation of the static behaviour of bucket foundations subjected to combined loading is carried out. Laboratory tests...

  13. Size scaling of static friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, O M; Manini, Nicola; Tosatti, Erio

    2013-02-22

    Sliding friction across a thin soft lubricant film typically occurs by stick slip, the lubricant fully solidifying at stick, yielding and flowing at slip. The static friction force per unit area preceding slip is known from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to decrease with increasing contact area. That makes the large-size fate of stick slip unclear and unknown; its possible vanishing is important as it would herald smooth sliding with a dramatic drop of kinetic friction at large size. Here we formulate a scaling law of the static friction force, which for a soft lubricant is predicted to decrease as f(m)+Δf/A(γ) for increasing contact area A, with γ>0. Our main finding is that the value of f(m), controlling the survival of stick slip at large size, can be evaluated by simulations of comparably small size. MD simulations of soft lubricant sliding are presented, which verify this theory.

  14. Statics of historic masonry constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario

    2016-01-01

    This successful book, which is now appearing in its second edition, presents a comprehensive new Statics of Masonry Constructions. Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments in its architectural heritage. Given the age of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant. The book you hold in hands contributes to fill this demand. The second edition integrates the original text of the first edition with new developments, widening and revisions, due to recent research studies achievements. The result is a book that gives a complete picture of the behaviour of the Masonry Constructions. First of all, it gives the fundamentals of its Statics, based on the no-tension assumption, and then it develops the Limit Analysis for the Masonry Constructions. In this framework, through an interdisciplinary approach combining Engineering and Architecture, the book also investigates the sta...

  15. Water cooled static pressure probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagen, Nicholas T. (Inventor); Eves, John W. (Inventor); Reece, Garland D. (Inventor); Geissinger, Steve L. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved static pressure probe containing a water cooling mechanism is disclosed. This probe has a hollow interior containing a central coolant tube and multiple individual pressure measurement tubes connected to holes placed on the exterior. Coolant from the central tube symmetrically immerses the interior of the probe, allowing it to sustain high temperature (in the region of 2500 F) supersonic jet flow indefinitely, while still recording accurate pressure data. The coolant exits the probe body by way of a reservoir attached to the aft of the probe. The pressure measurement tubes are joined to a single, larger manifold in the reservoir. This manifold is attached to a pressure transducer that records the average static pressure.

  16. Precipitation-Static-Reduction Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1943-03-31

    if» 85 z \\ PRECIPITATION-STATIC-REDUCTION RESEARCH study of the effects of flame length , flame spacing, and burner spacing on B shows that there...unod: Flame length *. The visual length of the flame from the burner tip to the flame tip when examined in a darkened room against a black background...Postlve and Negative Flames The use of the second flame-conduction coefficient, B, facilitates considerably the study of the effect of flame length , spacing

  17. Static and Dynamic Membrane Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Ivanov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available While originally P systems were defined to contain multiset rewriting rules, it turned out that considering different types of rules may produce important results, such as increasing the computational power of the rules. This paper focuses on factoring out the concept of a membrane structure out of various P system models with the goal of providing useful formalisations. Both static and dynamic membrane structures are considered.

  18. Homotheties of cylindrically symmetric static spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadir, A.; Ziad, M.; Sharif, M.

    1998-08-01

    In this note we consider the homotheties of cylindrically symmetric static spacetimes. We find that we can provide a complete list of all metrics that admit non-trivial homothetic motions and are cylindrically symmetric static. (author)

  19. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  20. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...

  1. Occupational exposure of NRM spectrometrists to static and radiofrequency fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlana, Tania; Ubeda, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Occupational exposure to static and radiofrequency fields emitted by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometers was assessed through systematic field metering during operation of 19 devices in nine research centers. Whereas no measurable levels of radiofrequency radiation were registered outside the spectrometers, significant exposure to static field was detected, with maximum values recorded at the user s hand (B = 683.00 mT) and head thorax (B = 135.70 mT) during spectrometer manipulation. All values were well below the exposure limits set by the European standard for workers protection against the effects of acute field exposure only. As for potential effects of chronic exposure, waiting for more complete knowledge, adoption of technical and operational strategies for exposure minimizing is advisable. In this respect, the data revealed that compared with standard magnetic shielding, ultra-shield technology allows a 20-65-fold reduction of the field strength received by the operator. (authors)

  2. Enhancement of sedimentation and coagulation with static magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Marcin; Dębowski, Marcin; Hajduk, Anna; Rusanowska, Paulina

    2017-11-01

    The static magnetic field can be an alternative method for wastewater treatment. It has been proved that this physical factor, accelerates the biochemical processes, catalyzes advanced oxidation, intensifies anaerobic and aerobic processes or reduces swelling of activated sludge. There are also reports proving the positive impact of the static magnetic field on the coagulation and sedimentation, as well as the conditioning and dewatering of sludge. In order to be applied in larger scale the published results should be verified and confirmed. In the studies, the enhancement of sedimentation by the static magnetic field was observed. The best sedimentation was noted in the experiment, where magnetizers were placed on activated sludge bioreactor and secondary settling tank. No effect of the static magnetic field on coagulation with the utilization of PIX 113 was observed. However, the static magnetic field enhanced coagulation with the utilization of PAX-XL9. The results suggest that increased sedimentation of colloids and activated sludge, can in practice mean a reduction in the size of the necessary equipment for sedimentation with an unchanged efficiency of the process.

  3. A Pedagogical Model of Static Friction

    OpenAIRE

    Pickett, Galen T.

    2015-01-01

    While dry Coulombic friction is an elementary topic in any standard introductory course in mechanics, the critical distinction between the kinetic and static friction forces is something that is both hard to teach and to learn. In this paper, I describe a geometric model of static friction that may help introductory students to both understand and apply the Coulomb static friction approximation.

  4. In-Flight Pitot-Static Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, John V. (Inventor); Cunningham, Kevin (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A GPS-based pitot-static calibration system uses global output-error optimization. High data rate measurements of static and total pressure, ambient air conditions, and GPS-based ground speed measurements are used to compute pitot-static pressure errors over a range of airspeed. System identification methods rapidly compute optimal pressure error models with defined confidence intervals.

  5. Efficient pricing of Asian options under Lévy processes based on Fourier cosine expansions Part I : European-style products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, B.; Oosterlee, C.W.

    2011-01-01

    We propose an efficient pricing method for arithmetic, and geometric, Asian options under Levy processes, based on Fourier cosine expansions and Clenshaw–Curtis quadrature. The pricing method is developed for both European–style and American–style Asian options, and for discretely and continuously

  6. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    and rules. The article examines the reasons for both resistance and selectiveness to Europeanization of the Danish minority policy through a “path dependency” perspective accentuating decision makers’ reluctance to deviate from existing institutional commitments, even in subsequently significantly altered...... political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  7. Static feed water electrolysis module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Jensen, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    An advanced static feed water electrolysis module (SFWEM) and associated instrumentation for generating breathable O2 was developed. The system also generates a H2 byproduct for use in an air revitalization system for O2 recovery from metabolic CO2. Special attention was given to: (1) eliminating water feed compartment degassing, (2) eliminating need for zero gravity condenser/separators, (3) increasing current density capability, and (4) providing a self contained module so that operation is independent of laboratory instrumentation and complicated startup/shutdown procedures.

  8. Static stars : Some mathematical curiosities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, C.B.

    1977-01-01

    The equations of structure of static Newtonian and general relativistic stars are investigated. By using Lie group theory, it is shown that, in each case, the condition that there should exist a simple ''homologous'' family of similar solutions necessitates precisely those equations of state for the stellar matter that are usually invoked by means of extraneous physical arguments. In the relativistic case, a diagram which depicts these families is drawn, using the qualitative theory of differential equations. This vividly exhibits the nature of the general solutions, and the exceptional character of the Misner--Zapolsky solution. This diagram is contrasted with similar ones obtained by Chandrasekhar in the Newtonian case

  9. Static Analysis of Dynamic Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Magnus

    Dynamic programming languages are highly popular and widely used. Java- Script is often called the lingua franca of the web and it is the de facto standard for client-side web programming. On the server-side the PHP, Python and Ruby languages are prevalent. What these languages have in common...... with static type systems, such as Java and C# , but the same features are rarely available for dynamic languages such as JavaScript. The aim of this thesis is to investigate techniques for improving the tool- support for dynamic programming languages without imposing any artificial restrictions...... of new dataflow analysis techniques to tackle the nature of dynamic programming languages....

  10. Static Validation of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, P.

    2005-01-01

    We methodically expand protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to specify some of the checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we demonstrate that these techniques ...... suffice to identify several authentication flaws in symmetric and asymmetric key protocols such as Needham-Schroeder symmetric key, Otway-Rees, Yahalom, Andrew secure RPC, Needham-Schroeder asymmetric key, and Beller-Chang-Yacobi MSR...

  11. European Union Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdalbero, D.R.; Schmitz, B.; Raldow, W.; Poireau, M.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an extensive state of the art of the energy research conducted at European Union level between 1984 and 2006, i.e. from the first to the sixth European Community Framework Programmes (FP1-FP6) for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration (RTD and D). The FP is the main legal tool and financial instrument of EU RTD and D policy. It sets the objectives, priorities and budgets for a period of several years. It has been complemented over time with a number of policy oriented initiatives and notably with the launch of the European Research Area. FP7 will cover the period 2007-2013 and will have a total budget of more than euros 50 billion. Energy has been a main research area in Europe since the founding Treaties (European Coal and Steel Community, European Atomic Energy Community-Euratom and European Economic Community), and energy RTD and D has always been a substantial part of common EU research. Nevertheless, when inflation and successive European enlargements are taken into account, over time the RTD and D effort in the field of energy has decreased significantly in relative terms. In nominal terms it has remained relatively stable at about euros 500 million per year. For the next years (FP7), it is expected that energy will still represent about 10 % of total EU research effort but with an annual budget of more than euros 800 million per year. This article presents a detailed review of the thematic areas and budget in both European nuclear energy research (fusion and fission) and non-nuclear energy research (energy efficiency/rational use of energy, fossil fuels, CO 2 capture and storage, fuel cells and hydrogen, renewable energy sources, strategic energy research/socio-economy). (authors)

  12. The role of efficiency improvements vs. price effects for modeling passenger car transport demand and energy demand—Lessons from European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajanovic, Amela; Haas, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the impact of changes in fuel prices and fuel intensity (i.e. liters of fuel used per 100 kilometers) on overall fuel (gasoline and diesel) consumption and on the demand for vehicle km driven in car passenger transport. This is important for deriving effective policy portfolios consisting of fuel taxes and technical standards such as fuel intensity mandates or specific CO 2 emission limits. To extract these impacts, we apply cointegration analyses to six European countries and their aggregate over the period 1970–2007. We consider the impact of fuel prices, household income and fuel intensity on fuel consumption. Furthermore, we investigate how changes in fuel prices and fuel intensity interact, analyzing the rebound effect due to lower fuel intensity and due to the switch to diesel. Because we find a high rebound effect with 44% more km driven if fuel intensity is improved 100%, the major conclusion of our analysis for policy makers is that technical standards as the only policy instrument will have limited success. Rather we recommend increased fuel taxes along with fuel intensity standards so that the taxes compensate for the rebound due to the standards. - Highlights: ► We find a high rebound effect with 44% more km driven if fuel intensity is improved. ► Technical standards as the only policy instrument will have limited success. ► Fuel taxes accompanied to fuel intensity standards may compensate the rebound effect.

  13. Decolorization efficiency of Funalia trogii under static condition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PO4, starch-urea, sucrose-NH4H2PO4 and sucrose-urea containing media. Maximum decolorization was found as 9.61 and 7.77 mg dye/g dry mycelium weight in media containing no extra carbon and nitrogen sources. Kinetic studies were also ...

  14. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  15. Hubble expansion in static spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossler, Otto E.; Froehlich, Dieter; Movassagh, Ramis; Moore, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    A recently proposed mechanism for light-path expansion in a static spacetime is based on the moving-lenses paradigm. Since the latter is valid independently of whether space expands or not, a static universe can be used to better see the implications. The moving-lenses paradigm is related to the paradigm of dynamical friction. If this is correct, a Hubble-like law is implicit. It is described quantitatively. A bent in the Hubble-like line is predictably implied. The main underlying assumption is Price's Principle (PI 3 ). If the theory is sound, the greatest remaining problem in cosmology becomes the origin of hydrogen. Since Blandford's jet production mechanism for quasars is too weak, a generalized Hawking radiation hidden in the walls of cosmic voids is invoked. A second prediction is empirical: slow pattern changes in the cosmic microwave background. A third is ultra-high redshifts for Giacconi quasars. Bruno's eternal universe in the spirit of Augustine becomes a bit less outlandish

  16. European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well.

  17. Static super-replicating strategies for a class of exotic options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.; Deelstra, G.; Dhaene, J.; Vanmaele, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate static super-replicating strategies for European-type call options written on a weighted sum of asset prices. This class of exotic options includes Asian options and basket options among others. We assume that there exists a market where the plain vanilla options on the

  18. Static Schedulers for Embedded Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Because of the need for having efficient scheduling algorithms in large scale real time systems , software engineers put a lot of effort on developing...provide static schedulers for he Embedded Real Time Systems with single processor using Ada programming language. The independent nonpreemptable...support the Computer Aided Rapid Prototyping for Embedded Real Time Systems so that we determine whether the system, as designed, meets the required

  19. Engineering a static verification tool for GPU kernels

    OpenAIRE

    Bardsley, E; Betts, A; Chong, N; Collingbourne, P; Deligiannis, P; Donaldson, AF; Ketema, J; Liew, D; Qadeer, S

    2014-01-01

    We report on practical experiences over the last 2.5 years related to the engineering of GPUVerify, a static verification tool for OpenCL and CUDA GPU kernels, plotting the progress of GPUVerify from a prototype to a fully functional and relatively efficient analysis tool. Our hope is that this experience report will serve the verification community by helping to inform future tooling efforts. ? 2014 Springer International Publishing.

  20. Static and dynamic thyroid scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlstedt, J.

    1986-01-01

    Static images as isolated investigation in thyroid diagnosis mainly provides morphologic information, and therefore sonography is largely applied for this purpose. 99m Tc-pertechnetate scans or 123 I-scans are indicated in cases of malpositions and serve to clarify lesions of unknown dignity. Additionally 201 Tl-chloride is suited for examinations with regard to metabolically active thyroid tissue, whereby differential diagnostic laboratory tests must be carried out to exclude parathyroid adenoma. Dynamic thyroid scans before and after regulation tests (suppression, stimulation) reflect the physiological correlation between the iodine avidity of the thyroid, the peripheral thyroid hormone concentrations and the hypophyseal regulation in the TRH-test. The main application of this procedure is the clarification of thyroid autonomy, i.e. indication, detection, quantification or exclusion of thyroid autonomy. For the treatment of immunogenic thyrotoxicosis, dynamic thyroid scintigraphy provides important information about the onset of remission, thus permitting to end thyreostatic therapy. (orig.) [de

  1. Statics learning from engineering examples

    CERN Document Server

    Emri, Igor

    2016-01-01

    This textbook introduces and explains the basic concepts on which statics is based utilizing real engineering examples. The authors emphasize the learning process by showing a real problem, analyzing it, simplifying it, and developing a way to solve it. This feature teaches students intuitive thinking in solving real engineering problems using the fundamentals of Newton’s laws. This book also: · Stresses representation of physical reality in ways that allow students to solve problems and obtain meaningful results · Emphasizes identification of important features of the structure that should be included in a model and which features may be omitted · Facilitates students' understanding and mastery of the "flow of thinking" practiced by professional engineers.

  2. A static world model. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundman, S.

    1981-01-01

    The static particle model of Part I requires creation of ether proportional to the energy of the particle. It is shown that this ether creation leads to gravitation and a forever expanding universe in agreement with the large-number hypothesis. The age, mass and size of the universe are calculated from atomic constants and G. The model predicts scale-invariance with different scales for gravitational matter, nucleons and electrons. This leads to a fine structure constant decreasing very slowly with time. For each scale there is a different type of dynamic balance governing the expansion of the universe. The model indicates that the universe was initially densely packed with (tau) leptons. It suggests a program for calculating the gravitational constant and the muon-electron mass ratio from other universal constants. Tentative numerological derivation gives these quantities with a higher accuracy than has been achieved experimentally. (Auth.)

  3. European visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, (on the right) visited the CMS assembly hall accompanied by Jim Virdee, Deputy Spokesman of CMS (on the left), and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN. The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, visited CERN on Tuesday 31 January. He was welcomed by the Director-General, Robert Aymar, who described the missions and current activities of CERN to him, in particular the realisation of the LHC with its three components: accelerator, detectors, storage and processing of data. The European Commissioner then visited the CMS assembly hall, then the hall for testing the LHC magnets and the ATLAS cavern. During this first visit since his appointment at the end of 2004, Janez Potočnik appeared very interested by the operation of CERN, an example of successful scientific co-operation on a European scale. The many projects (30 on average) that CERN and the European Commission carry out jointly for the benefit of res...

  4. Static and kinematic positioning using WADGPS from geostationary satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cefalo, R.; Gatti, M.

    2003-04-01

    STATIC AND KINEMATIC POSITIONING USING WADGPS CORRECTIONS FROM GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITES Cefalo R. (1), Gatti M (2) (1) Department of Civil Engineering, University of Trieste, P.le Europa 1, 34127 Trieste, Italy, cefalo@dic.univ.trieste.it, (2) Department of Engineering, University of Ferrara, via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara, Italy, mgatti@ing.unife.it ABSTRACT. Starting from February 2000, static and kinematic experiments have been performed at the Department of Civil Engineering of University of Trieste, Italy and the Department of Engineering of University of Ferrara, Italy, using the WADGPS (Wide Area Differential GPS) corrections up linked by Geostationary Satellites belonging to the American WAAS and European EGNOS. Recently, a prototypal service by ESA (European Space Agency) named SISNet (Signal In Space through Internet), has been introduced using Internet to diffuse the messages up linked through AOR-E and IOR Geostationary Satellites. This service will overcome the problems relative to the availability of the corrections in urban areas. This system is currently under tests by the authors in order to verify the latency of the message and the applicability and accuracies obtainable in particular in dynamic applications.

  5. European hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The European Hadron Facility (EHF) is a project for particle and nuclear physics in the 1990s which would consist of a fast cycling high intensity proton synchrotron of about 30 GeV primary energy and providing a varied spectrum of intense high quality secondary beams (polarized protons, pions, muons, kaons, antiprotons, neutrinos). The physics case of this project has been studied over the last two years by a European group of particle and nuclear physicists (EHF Study Group), whilst the conceptual design for the accelerator complex was worked out (and is still being worked on) by an international group of machine experts (EHF Design Study Group). Both aspects have been discussed in recent years in a series of working parties, topical seminars, and workshops held in Freiburg, Trieste, Heidelberg, Karlsruhe, Les Rasses and Villigen. This long series of meetings culminated in the International Conference on a European Hadron Facility held in Mainz from 10-14 March

  6. Better and more efficient care through ICT-enabled integration of social care and healthcare services: experiences from two European projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Sonja; Meyer, Ingo; Kubitschke, Lutz; Delaney, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    at corporate level. Triangulation is used to cross-reference data from different sources in order to maximize the reliability and robustness of conclusions drawn from the evaluation. Based on an overall framework taking into account themes such as integration, user outcomes, staff impact, organisational impact, technology, implementation and overall satisfaction, the specifics of each site are taken into account in operationally applying the overall framework in each case. The designs to be employed at each site have been developed to be as robust as possible, taking into account the constraints of the realities of the interventions. The evaluation is accompanied by a business case modelling approach that builds largely on a cost-benefit analysis covering the service development and implementation activities as well as the pilots and modelling the further deployment of services in each of the pilot sites. The presentation builds upon experiences gained within the framework of two European projects, CommonWell and INDEPENDENT. They are both co-funded under the EU’s Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme (CIP) focus on better joining-up of formal social/healthcare services and strengthening participation of the so-called ‘third sector’.

  7. A Static Burst Test for Composite Flywheel Rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Stefan; Schulz, Alexander; Sima, Harald; Koch, Thomas; Kaltenbacher, Manfred

    2016-06-01

    High efficient and safe flywheels are an interesting technology for decentralized energy storage. To ensure all safety aspects, a static test method for a controlled initiation of a burst event for composite flywheel rotors is presented with nearly the same stress distribution as in the dynamic case, rotating with maximum speed. In addition to failure prediction using different maximum stress criteria and a safety factor, a set of tensile and compressive tests is carried out to identify the parameters of the used carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) material. The static finite element (FE) simulation results of the flywheel static burst test (FSBT) compare well to the quasistatic FE-simulation results of the flywheel rotor using inertia loads. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the presented method is a very good controllable and observable possibility to test a high speed flywheel energy storage system (FESS) rotor in a static way. Thereby, a much more expensive and dangerous dynamic spin up test with possible uncertainties can be substituted.

  8. Static Equilibrium Configurations of Charged Metallic Bodies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Static equilibrium, charged metallic body, potential energy, projected gradient method. ... television, radio, internet, microwave ovens, mobile telephones, satellite communication systems, radar systems, electrical motors, electrical.

  9. European Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different

  10. Energy transition and security: which voluntary codes? Energy efficiency: IEA, IEC and ISO dialogue. The European Commission's safety, solidarity and efficiency measures. Securing natural gas supplies and favoring cogeneration. Less energy consuming buildings: rework of the energy efficiency directive. Energy efficiency inside buildings: GDF Suez report; Transition et securite energetiques: quels codes volontaires? Efficacite energetique: dialogue AIE, CEI et ISO. Les mesures de securite, solidarite et efficacite de la commission europeenne. Securiser l'approvisionnement en gaz naturel et favoriser la cogeneration. Des batiments moins gourmands en energie: refonte de la directive sur la performance energetique. Efficacite energetique dans les batiments: GDF Suez au rapport (volontaire)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tourneur, J.C

    2009-10-15

    This dossier gathers a series of short articles about energy security and efficiency in a context of policy transition. The first paper deals with the use of international standards to promote energy efficiency thanks to efficient public policies and private sector actions. This was the main topic of the mixed workshop organized by the International electrotechnics Commission (IEC) in spring 2009. The second paper presents the new strategic analysis of the European commission in the domain of energy which stresses on the '20-20-20' climate change proposals approved in December 2008. A new European action plan for energy security and solidarity defines 5 domains requiring an extra action to warrant a sustainable energy supply. The commission is also examining the challenges that Europe will have to face between 2020 and 2050. The third article treats of the security of natural gas supplies which represents a quarter of the European Union (EU) energy mix. The supply crises susceptible to occur may have serious economic and social consequences. Therefore, the EU must be prepared to warrant its security of supplies. Cogeneration allows the EU to stay close to its energy goals. Buildings play a key role in the realisation of the EU's energy saving objectives and fight against climate change. The new directive on buildings energy efficiency (2002/91/CE) will allow to exploit this potential of saving and to stimulate sustainable investment and employment as well. Finally, the publication of the second WBCSD (World business council for sustainable development) international report on buildings energy efficiency has led GDF Suez utility to reaffirm its commitment in favour of energy saving and efficiency. (J.S.)

  11. Static Magnetic Cloak without a Superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Ma, Yungui; He, Sailing

    2018-05-01

    Similar to its electromagnetic counterpart, magnetic cloaking also has very important technological applications. However, the traditional method to build a static magnetic cloak requires the use of superconducting materials as the diamagnetic component, which seriously limits the practical potential because of the cryogenic condition. We show that a diamagnetic active current boundary combined with a high-permeability magnetic inner shell (MIS) can be designed to solve this problem, rendering an ideal magnetic cloaking effect at zero frequency. We first theoretically prove that a current boundary could magnetically behave as a superconductor to external observers. Based on this phenomena, we introduce a high-permeability MIS made of magnetically ultrasoft metallic sheets (permeability μ >103 ) and experimentally prove that the bilayer combination can exactly balance out the disturbance to the external probing field and, meanwhile, have a large invisible inner space. We also show that the active boundary currents can be accordingly configured to overcome the permeability and frequency band limits, leading to a robust cloak over the entire quasistatic frequency region. Our work creates an efficient way to circumvent the traditional limits of metamaterials to build magnetic cloaks for ultralow frequencies. The active-passive hybrid approach could be generally extended to yield other artificial magnetic devices or systems as well.

  12. Liquid methanol under a static electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassone, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.cassone@impmc.upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7590, IMPMC, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7590, IMPMC, F-75005 Paris (France); Università degli Studi di Messina, Dipartimento di Fisica e di Scienze della Terra, Contrada Papardo, 98166 Messina (Italy); CNR-IPCF, Viale Ferdinando Stagno d’Alcontres 37, 98158 Messina (Italy); Giaquinta, Paolo V., E-mail: paolo.giaquinta@unime.it [Università degli Studi di Messina, Dipartimento di Fisica e di Scienze della Terra, Contrada Papardo, 98166 Messina (Italy); Saija, Franz, E-mail: saija@ipcf.cnr.it [CNR-IPCF, Viale Ferdinando Stagno d’Alcontres 37, 98158 Messina (Italy); Saitta, A. Marco, E-mail: marco.saitta@impmc.upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7590, IMPMC, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7590, IMPMC, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2015-02-07

    We report on an ab initio molecular dynamics study of liquid methanol under the effect of a static electric field. We found that the hydrogen-bond structure of methanol is more robust and persistent for field intensities below the molecular dissociation threshold whose value (≈0.31 V/Å) turns out to be moderately larger than the corresponding estimate obtained for liquid water. A sustained ionic current, with ohmic current-voltage behavior, flows in this material for field intensities above 0.36 V/Å, as is also the case of water, but the resulting ionic conductivity (≈0.40 S cm{sup −1}) is at least one order of magnitude lower than that of water, a circumstance that evidences a lower efficiency of proton transfer processes. We surmise that this study may be relevant for the understanding of the properties and functioning of technological materials which exploit ionic conduction, such as direct-methanol fuel cells and Nafion membranes.

  13. Static polarizabilities of dielectric nanoclusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hye-Young; Sofo, Jorge O.; Cole, Milton W.; Velegol, Darrell; Mukhopadhyay, Gautam

    2005-01-01

    A cluster consisting of many atoms or molecules may be considered, in some circumstances, to be a single large molecule with a well-defined polarizability. Once the polarizability of such a cluster is known, one can evaluate certain properties--e.g. the cluster's van der Waals interactions, using expressions derived for atoms or molecules. In the present work, we evaluate the static polarizability of a cluster using a microscopic method that is exact within the linear and dipolar approximations. Numerical examples are presented for various shapes and sizes of clusters composed of identical atoms, where the term 'atom' actually refers to a generic constituent, which could be any polarizable entity. The results for the clusters' polarizabilities are compared with those obtained by assuming simple additivity of the constituents' atomic polarizabilities; in many cases, the difference is large, demonstrating the inadequacy of the additivity approximation. Comparison is made (for symmetrical geometries) with results obtained from continuum models of the polarizability. Also, the surface effects due to the nonuniform local field near a surface or edge are shown to be significant

  14. Static response of deformable microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christov, Ivan C.; Sidhore, Tanmay C.

    2017-11-01

    Microfluidic channels manufactured from PDMS are a key component of lab-on-a-chip devices. Experimentally, rectangular microchannels are found to deform into a non-rectangular cross-section due to fluid-structure interactions. Deformation affects the flow profile, which results in a nonlinear relationship between the volumetric flow rate and the pressure drop. We develop a framework, within the lubrication approximation (l >> w >> h), to self-consistently derive flow rate-pressure drop relations. Emphasis is placed on handling different types of elastic response: from pure plate-bending, to half-space deformation, to membrane stretching. The ``simplest'' model (Stokes flow in a 3D rectangular channel capped with a linearly elastic Kirchhoff-Love plate) agrees well with recent experiments. We also simulate the static response of such microfluidic channels under laminar flow conditions using ANSYSWorkbench. Simulations are calibrated using experimental flow rate-pressure drop data from the literature. The simulations provide highly resolved deformation profiles, which are difficult to measure experimentally. By comparing simulations, experiments and our theoretical models, we show good agreement in many flow/deformation regimes, without any fitting parameters.

  15. An efficiency correction model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francke, M.K.; de Vos, A.F.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze a dataset containing costs and outputs of 67 American local exchange carriers in a period of 11 years. This data has been used to judge the efficiency of BT and KPN using static stochastic frontier models. We show that these models are dynamically misspecified. As an alternative we

  16. Development of Static Balance Measurement and Correction Compound Platform for Single Blade of Controllable Pitch Propeller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Zhang; Shijie, Su; Yilin, Yang; Guofu, Wang; Chao, Wang

    2017-11-01

    Aiming at the static balance of the controllable pitch propeller (CPP), a high efficiency static balance method based on the double-layer structure of the measuring table and gantry robot is adopted to realize the integration of torque measurement and corrected polish for controllable pitch propeller blade. The control system was developed by Microsoft Visual Studio 2015, and a composite platform prototype was developed. Through this prototype, conduct an experiment on the complete process of torque measurement and corrected polish based on a 300kg class controllable pitch propeller blade. The results show that the composite platform can correct the static balance of blade with a correct, efficient and labor-saving operation, and can replace the traditional method on static balance of the blade.

  17. Theory of multisource crosstalk reduction by phase-encoded statics

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.

    2011-03-01

    Formulas are derived that relate the strength of the crosstalk noise in supergather migration images to the variance of time, amplitude and polarity shifts in encoding functions. A supergather migration image is computed by migrating an encoded supergather, where the supergather is formed by stacking a large number of encoded shot gathers. Analysis reveals that for temporal source static shifts in each shot gather, the crosstalk noise is exponentially reduced with increasing variance of the static shift and the square of source frequency. This is not too surprising because larger time shifts lead to less correlation between traces in different shot gathers, and so should tend to reduce the crosstalk noise. Analysis also reveals that combining both polarity and time statics is a superior encoding strategy compared to using either polarity statics or time statics alone. Signal-to-noise (SNR) estimates show that for a standard migration image and for an image computed by migrating a phase-encoded supergather; here, G is the number of traces in a shot gather, I is the number of stacking iterations in the supergather and S is the number of encoded/blended shot gathers that comprise the supergather. If the supergather can be uniformly divided up into Q unique sub-supergathers, then the resulting SNR of the final image is, which means that we can enhance image quality but at the expense of Q times more cost. The importance of these formulas is that they provide a precise understanding between different phase encoding strategies and image quality. Finally, we show that iterative migration of phase-encoded supergathers is a special case of passive seismic interferometry. We suggest that the crosstalk noise formulas can be helpful in designing optimal strategies for passive seismic interferometry and efficient extraction of Green\\'s functions from simulated supergathers. © 2011 The Authors Geophysical Journal International © 2011 RAS.

  18. Development of a static feed water electrolysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, F. H.; Lantz, J. B.; Hallick, T. M.

    1982-01-01

    A one person level oxygen generation subsystem was developed and production of the one person oxygen metabolic requirements, 0.82 kg, per day was demonstrated without the need for condenser/separators or electrolyte pumps. During 650 hours of shakedown, design verification, and endurance testing, cell voltages averaged 1.62 V at 206 mA/sq cm and at average operating temperature as low as 326 K, virtually corresponding to the state of the art performance previously established for single cells. This high efficiency and low waste heat generation prevented maintenance of the 339 K design temperature without supplemental heating. Improved water electrolysis cell frames were designed, new injection molds were fabricated, and a series of frames was molded. A modified three fluid pressure controller was developed and a static feed water electrolysis that requires no electrolyte in the static feed compartment was developed and successfully evaluated.

  19. Improved quasi-static nodal green's function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junli; Jing Xingqing; Hu Dapu

    1997-01-01

    Improved Quasi-Static Green's Function Method (IQS/NGFM) is presented, as an new kinetic method. To solve the three-dimensional transient problem, improved Quasi-Static Method is adopted to deal with the temporal problem, which will increase the time step as long as possible so as to decrease the number of times of space calculation. The time step of IQS/NGFM can be increased to 5∼10 times longer than that of Full Implicit Differential Method. In spatial calculation, the NGFM is used to get the distribution of shape function, and it's spatial mesh can be nearly 20 times larger than that of Definite Differential Method. So the IQS/NGFM is considered as an efficient kinetic method

  20. DYNAMIC ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN THE SOUTH-WEST OLTENIA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mariana Cismaş

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure of an economy is not and has never been permanent, it does not have a static character, but only a moment of stability of a system whose internal organization is, is therefore a dynamic process. In this sense, the ultimate goal of the analysis of structural changes is to highlight the phenomenon of economic efficiency in the complex process of economic growth during the cross in our country since 1990.Lisbon agenda have targeted the European Union to become the most competitive region until 2010.Ulterior this target strategy was complemented by growth and job creation, becoming the main way of creating a European competitiveness . In this context, public policy challenges identified in the national economies have become energy market liberalization, efficiency and diversification, regulation of the economic environment, innovation and technology transfer policies that contribute to a strategy of market leadership.Besides gross value added, labor productivity is also the medium of efficient use of labor.Growth achieved both national and regional level, may be related, in terms of human resource, or increase the number of employees, or a better use of existing employees work. That aecest aspect of a better use of existing staff employee makes labor productivity is a key element in the expression efficiency of economic performance. Understanding the forces governing labor productivity, and especially the accumulation of fixed capital, improving the institutional infrastructure to generate new technologies, is objectively necessary for the formulation of policies for economic growth.

  1. A quasi-static polynomial nodal method for nuclear reactor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehin, J.C.

    1992-09-01

    Modern nodal methods are currently available which can accurately and efficiently solve the static and transient neutron diffusion equations. Most of the methods, however, are limited to two energy groups for practical application. The objective of this research is the development of a static and transient, multidimensional nodal method which allows more than two energy groups and uses a non-linear iterative method for efficient solution of the nodal equations. For both the static and transient methods, finite-difference equations which are corrected by the use of discontinuity factors are derived. The discontinuity factors are computed from a polynomial nodal method using a non-linear iteration technique. The polynomial nodal method is based upon a quartic approximation and utilizes a quadratic transverse-leakage approximation. The solution of the time-dependent equations is performed by the use of a quasi-static method in which the node-averaged fluxes are factored into shape and amplitude functions. The application of the quasi-static polynomial method to several benchmark problems demonstrates that the accuracy is consistent with that of other nodal methods. The use of the quasi-static method is shown to substantially reduce the computation time over the traditional fully-implicit time-integration method. Problems involving thermal-hydraulic feedback are accurately, and efficiently, solved by performing several reactivity/thermal-hydraulic updates per shape calculation

  2. A quasi-static polynomial nodal method for nuclear reactor analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehin, Jess C. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1992-09-01

    Modern nodal methods are currently available which can accurately and efficiently solve the static and transient neutron diffusion equations. Most of the methods, however, are limited to two energy groups for practical application. The objective of this research is the development of a static and transient, multidimensional nodal method which allows more than two energy groups and uses a non-linear iterative method for efficient solution of the nodal equations. For both the static and transient methods, finite-difference equations which are corrected by the use of discontinuity factors are derived. The discontinuity factors are computed from a polynomial nodal method using a non-linear iteration technique. The polynomial nodal method is based upon a quartic approximation and utilizes a quadratic transverse-leakage approximation. The solution of the time-dependent equations is performed by the use of a quasi-static method in which the node-averaged fluxes are factored into shape and amplitude functions. The application of the quasi-static polynomial method to several benchmark problems demonstrates that the accuracy is consistent with that of other nodal methods. The use of the quasi-static method is shown to substantially reduce the computation time over the traditional fully-implicit time-integration method. Problems involving thermal-hydraulic feedback are accurately, and efficiently, solved by performing several reactivity/thermal-hydraulic updates per shape calculation.

  3. Martian Atmospheric Pressure Static Charge Elimination Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    A Martian pressure static charge elimination tool is currently in development in the Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory (ESPL) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. In standard Earth atmosphere conditions, static charge can be neutralized from an insulating surface using air ionizers. These air ionizers generate ions through corona breakdown. The Martian atmosphere is 7 Torr of mostly carbon dioxide, which makes it inherently difficult to use similar methods as those used for standard atmosphere static elimination tools. An initial prototype has been developed to show feasibility of static charge elimination at low pressure, using corona discharge. A needle point and thin wire loop are used as the corona generating electrodes. A photo of the test apparatus is shown below. Positive and negative high voltage pulses are sent to the needle point. This creates positive and negative ions that can be used for static charge neutralization. In a preliminary test, a floating metal plate was charged to approximately 600 volts under Martian atmospheric conditions. The static elimination tool was enabled and the voltage on the metal plate dropped rapidly to -100 volts. This test data is displayed below. Optimization is necessary to improve the electrostatic balance of the static elimination tool.

  4. Static potentials from an extended gauge symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, R.M.; Helayel Neto, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Static potentials derived from the inclusion of more than one vector field in a single simple group are calculated. A confinement mechanism including colourful unphysical particle is discussed. (Author) [pt

  5. European Utility Requirements: European nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komsi, M.; Patrakka, E.

    1997-01-01

    The work procedure and the content of the European Utility Requirements (EUR) concerning the future LWRs is described in the article. European Utility Requirements, produced by utilities in a number of European countries, is a document specifying the details relating to engineered safety, operating performance, reliability and economics of the reactors to be built by manufacturers for the European market

  6. Static Deadlock Detection in MPI Synchronization Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Xue, Liao; Xiao-Xin, He; Zhi-Hua, Fan

    2007-01-01

    It is very common to use dynamic methods to detect deadlocks in MPI programs for the reason that static methods have some restrictions. To guarantee high reliability of some important MPI-based application software, a model of MPI synchronization communication is abstracted and a type of static method is devised to examine deadlocks in such modes. The model has three forms with different complexity: sequential model, single-loop model and nested-loop model. Sequential model is a base for all ...

  7. Static quarks with improved statistical precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Morte, M.; Duerr, S.; Molke, H.; Heitger, J.

    2003-09-01

    We present a numerical study for different discretisations of the static action, concerning cut-off effects and the growth of statistical errors with Euclidean time. An error reduction by an order of magnitude can be obtained with respect to the Eichten-Hill action, for time separations up to 2 fm, keeping discretization errors small. The best actions lead to a big improvement on the precision of the quark mass M b and F B s in the static approximation. (orig.)

  8. Statics formulas and problems : engineering mechanics 1

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Dietmar; Wriggers, Peter; Schröder, Jörg; Müller, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    This book contains the most important formulas and more than 160 completely solved problems from Statics. It provides engineering students material to improve their skills and helps to gain experience in solving engineering problems. Particular emphasis is placed on finding the solution path and formulating the basic equations. Topics include: - Equilibrium - Center of Gravity, Center of Mass, Centroids - Support Reactions - Trusses - Beams, Frames, Arches - Cables - Work and Potential Energy - Static and Kinetic Friction - Moments of Inertia.

  9. Static Members of Classes in C#

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian LUPASC

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The C# language is object-oriented, which is why the declared member data must be part of a class. Thus, there is no possibility to declare certain variables that can be accessed from anywhere within the application, as it happens, for example, with global variables at the C language level. Making this work in C# is possible through static members of the class. Declaring a class implies defining some of its member data that later receive values when creating each object. A static member of the class can be interpreted as belonging only to the class, not to the objects subsequently created, which means that for the non-static data, there are as many children as there were objects created, while for the static ones there is only one copy, regardless of the number of created objects. In this regard, this paper presents the main aspects that characterize these abstract concepts of object oriented programming in general and C# language in particular, detailing how to develop an application that includes both static and non-static members. At the same time, particularities in the mirror for the two types of data, restrictions on use and potential limitations are presented.

  10. Small business life cycle: statics and dynamics (S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matejun Marek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is the presentation of theoretical foundations and the structure of original, 8-stage statics and dynamics model in the small business life cycle. Based on theoretical considerations, two hypotheses concerning the impact of dynamic and static nature of the life-cycle stages on selected determinants and effects of SMEs’ development were formulated. The hypotheses were verified based on the results of the survey conducted on a sample of 1,741 SMEs from 22 countries of the European Union. The results indicate that companies in the dynamic life-cycle stages are run by more enterprising owners, operate in more promising markets with a higher potential and make greater use of market niches thus limiting the level of competition. At the same time, such companies are characterised by higher levels of flexibility and involvement in innovative activities, which translates into obtaining a significantly higher level of business performance, in the area of quantitative as well as qualitative results.

  11. From Static Output Feedback to Structured Robust Static Output Feedback: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Sadabadi , Mahdieh ,; Peaucelle , Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the vast literature on static output feedback design for linear time-invariant systems including classical results and recent developments. In particular, we focus on static output feedback synthesis with performance specifications, structured static output feedback, and robustness. The paper provides a comprehensive review on existing design approaches including iterative linear matrix inequalities heuristics, linear matrix inequalities with rank constraints, methods with ...

  12. Capacity Utilization in European Railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khadem Sameni, Melody; Landex, Alex

    2013-01-01

    and unprecedented approach for this aim. Relative operational efficiency of 24 European railways in capacity utilization is studied for the first time by data envelopment analysis (DEA). It deviates from previous applications of DEA in the railway industry that are conducted to analyze cost efficiency of railways....... Six DEA models quantify various aspects of micro, macro and quality of railway capacity utilization in these countries. New inputs like gross domestic product, population and area of the country help to provide a better picture of the status of railways. Passenger satisfaction data about different...... aspects of railway services in European countries has recently been quantified by European commission and are used for the first time in the literature. Invaluable insights can be inferred from the results which can provide a ground basis for railway practitioners and policy makers....

  13. Static Analysis of Steel Fiber Concrete Beam With Heterosis Finite Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Haido

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Steel fiber is considered as the most commonly used constructional fibers in concrete structures. The formulation of new nonlinearities to predict the static performance of steel fiber concrete composite structures is considered essential. Present study is devoted to investigate the efficiency of utilizing heterosis finite elements analysis in static analysis of steel fibrous beams. New and simple material nonlinearities are proposed and used in the formulation of these elements. A computer program coded in FORTRAN was developed to perform current finite element static analysis with considering four cases of elements stiffness matrix determination. The results are compared with the experimental data available in literature in terms of central deflections, strains, and failure form, good agreement was found. Suitable outcomes have been observed in present static analysis with using of tangential stiffness matrix and stiffness matrix in second iteration of the load increment.

  14. Benchmarking European Gas Transmission System Operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter; Trinkner, Urs

    This is the final report for the pan-European efficiency benchmarking of gas transmission system operations commissioned by the Netherlands Authority for Consumers and Markets (ACM), Den Haag, on behalf of the Council of European Energy Regulators (CEER) under the supervision of the authors....

  15. Acceleration of a Static Observer Near the Event Horizon of a Static Isolated Black Hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Noel A.

    1981-01-01

    Compares the magnitude of the proper acceleration of a static observer in a static, isolated, spherically symmetric space-time region with the Newtonian result including the situation in the interior of a perfect-fluid star. This provides a simple physical interpretation of surface gravity and illustrates the global nature of the event horizon.…

  16. Static Load Balancing Algorithms In Cloud Computing Challenges amp Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Shah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cloud computing provides on-demand hosted computing resources and services over the Internet on a pay-per-use basis. It is currently becoming the favored method of communication and computation over scalable networks due to numerous attractive attributes such as high availability scalability fault tolerance simplicity of management and low cost of ownership. Due to the huge demand of cloud computing efficient load balancing becomes critical to ensure that computational tasks are evenly distributed across servers to prevent bottlenecks. The aim of this review paper is to understand the current challenges in cloud computing primarily in cloud load balancing using static algorithms and finding gaps to bridge for more efficient static cloud load balancing in the future. We believe the ideas suggested as new solution will allow researchers to redesign better algorithms for better functionalities and improved user experiences in simple cloud systems. This could assist small businesses that cannot afford infrastructure that supports complex amp dynamic load balancing algorithms.

  17. Interpreting Aerodynamics of a Transonic Impeller from Static Pressure Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangyuan Lou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the aerodynamics of a transonic impeller using static pressure measurements. The impeller is a high-speed, high-pressure-ratio wheel used in small gas turbine engines. The experiment was conducted on the single stage centrifugal compressor facility in the compressor research laboratory at Purdue University. Data were acquired from choke to near-surge at four different corrected speeds (Nc from 80% to 100% design speed, which covers both subsonic and supersonic inlet conditions. Details of the impeller flow field are discussed using data acquired from both steady and time-resolved static pressure measurements along the impeller shroud. The flow field is compared at different loading conditions, from subsonic to supersonic inlet conditions. The impeller performance was strongly dependent on the inducer, where the majority of relative diffusion occurs. The inducer diffuses flow more efficiently for inlet tip relative Mach numbers close to unity, and the performance diminishes at other Mach numbers. Shock waves emerging upstream of the impeller leading edge were observed from 90% to 100% corrected speed, and they move towards the impeller trailing edge as the inlet tip relative Mach number increases. There is no shock wave present in the inducer at 80% corrected speed. However, a high-loss region near the inducer throat was observed at 80% corrected speed resulting in a lower impeller efficiency at subsonic inlet conditions.

  18. Statics and rotational dynamics of composite beams

    CERN Document Server

    Ghorashi, Mehrdaad

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive study of the nonlinear statics and dynamics of composite beams and consists of solutions with and without active elements embedded in the beams. The static solution provides the initial conditions for the dynamic analysis. The dynamic problems considered include the analyses of clamped (hingeless) and articulated (hinged) accelerating rotating beams. Two independent numerical solutions for the steady state and the transient responses are presented. The author illustrates that the transient solution of the nonlinear formulation of accelerating rotating beam converges to the steady state solution obtained by the shooting method. Other key areas considered include calculation of the effect of perturbing the steady state solution, coupled nonlinear flap-lag dynamics of a rotating articulated beam with hinge offset and aerodynamic damping, and static and dynamic responses of nonlinear composite beams with embedded anisotropic piezo-composite actuators. The book is intended as a t...

  19. Extending and Enhancing SAS (Static Analysis Suite)

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, David

    2016-01-01

    The Static Analysis Suite (SAS) is an open-source software package used to perform static analysis on C and C++ code, helping to ensure safety, readability and maintainability. In this Summer Student project, SAS was enhanced to improve ease of use and user customisation. A straightforward method of integrating static analysis into a project at compilation time was provided using the automated build tool CMake. The process of adding checkers to the suite was streamlined and simplied by developing an automatic code generator. To make SAS more suitable for continuous integration, a reporting mechanism summarising results was added. This suitability has been demonstrated by inclusion of SAS in the Future Circular Collider Software nightly build system. Scalability of the improved package was demonstrated by using the tool to analyse the ROOT code base.

  20. Static Analysis for JavaScript

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Simon Holm

    . This dissertation describes the design and implementation of a static analysis for JavaScript that can assist programmers in finding bugs in code during development. We describe the design of a static analysis tool for JavaScript, built using the monotone framework. This analysis infers detailed type information......Web applications present unique challenges to designers of static analysis tools. One of these challenges is the language JavaScript used for client side scripting in the browser. JavaScript is a complex language with many pitfalls and poor tool support compared to other languages...... about programs. This information can be used to detect bugs such as null pointer dereferences and unintended type coercions. The analysis is sound, enabling it to prove the absence of certain program errors. JavaScript is usually run within the context of the browser and the DOM API. The major...

  1. On the geometric phenomenology of static friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shankar; Merin, A P; Nitsure, Nitin

    2017-09-06

    In this note we introduce a hierarchy of phase spaces for static friction, which give a graphical way to systematically quantify the directional dependence in static friction via subregions of the phase spaces. We experimentally plot these subregions to obtain phenomenological descriptions for static friction in various examples where the macroscopic shape of the object affects the frictional response. The phase spaces have the universal property that for any experiment in which a given object is put on a substrate fashioned from a chosen material with a specified nature of contact, the frictional behaviour can be read off from a uniquely determined classifying map on the control space of the experiment which takes values in the appropriate phase space.

  2. Pheromone Static Routing Strategy for Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mao-Bin; Henry, Y. K. Lau; Ling, Xiang; Jiang, Rui

    2012-12-01

    We adopt the concept of using pheromones to generate a set of static paths that can reach the performance of global dynamic routing strategy [Phys. Rev. E 81 (2010) 016113]. The path generation method consists of two stages. In the first stage, a pheromone is dropped to the nodes by packets forwarded according to the global dynamic routing strategy. In the second stage, pheromone static paths are generated according to the pheromone density. The output paths can greatly improve traffic systems' overall capacity on different network structures, including scale-free networks, small-world networks and random graphs. Because the paths are static, the system needs much less computational resources than the global dynamic routing strategy.

  3. Static Einstein--Maxwell field equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.

    1979-01-01

    The static Einstein--Maxwell field equations are investigated in the presence of both electric and magnetic fields. The sources or bodies are assumed to be of finite size and to not affect the connectivity of the associated space. Furthermore, electromagnetic and metric fields are assumed to have reasonable differentiabilities. It is then proved that the electric and magnetic field vectors are constant multiples of one another. Moreover, the static Einstein--Maxwell equations reduce to the static magnetovac case. If, furthermore, the variational derivation of the Einstein--Maxwell equations is assumed, then both the total electric and magnetic charge of each body must vanish. As a physical consequence it is pointed out that if a suspended magnet be electrically charged then it must experience a purely general relativistic torque

  4. Utility of the Static-99 and Static-99R With Latino Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leguízamo, Alejandro; Lee, Seung C; Jeglic, Elizabeth L; Calkins, Cynthia

    2017-12-01

    The predictive validity of the Static-99 measures with ethnic minorities in the United States has only recently been assessed with mixed results. We assessed the predictive validity of the Static-99 and Static-99R with a sample of Latino sex offenders ( N = 483) as well as with two subsamples (U.S.-born, including Puerto Rico, and non-U.S.-born). The overall sexual recidivism rate was very low (1.9%). Both the Static-99 measures were able to predict sexual recidivism for offenders born in the United States and Puerto Rico, but neither was effective in doing so for other Latino immigrants. Calibration analyses ( N = 303) of the Static-99R were consistent with the literature and provided support for the potential use of the measure with Latinos born in the United States and Puerto Rico. These findings and their implications are discussed as they pertain to the assessment of Latino sex offenders.

  5. Thermal effects in static friction: thermolubricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, A; Bortolani, V; Santoro, G; Brigazzi, M

    2008-10-01

    We present a molecular dynamics analysis of the static friction between two thick slabs. The upper block is formed by N2 molecules and the lower block by Pb atoms. We study the effects of the temperature as well as the effects produced by the structure of the surface of the lower block on the static friction. To put in evidence the temperature effects we will compare the results obtained with the lower block formed by still atoms with those obtained when the atoms are allowed to vibrate (e.g., with phonons). To investigate the importance of the geometry of the surface of the lower block we apply the external force in different directions, with respect to a chosen crystallographic direction of the substrate. We show that the interaction between the lattice dynamics of the two blocks is responsible for the strong dependence of the static friction on the temperature. The lattice dynamics interaction between the two blocks strongly reduces the static friction, with respect to the case of the rigid substrate. This is due to the large momentum transfer between atoms and the N2 molecules which disorders the molecules of the interface layer. A further disorder is introduced by the temperature. We perform calculations at T = 20K which is a temperature below the melting, which for our slab is at 50K . We found that because of the disorder the static friction becomes independent of the direction of the external applied force. The very low value of the static friction seems to indicate that we are in a regime of thermolubricity similar to that observed in dynamical friction.

  6. Determinants of European air traffic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav MIHETEC

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper elaborates main determinants of the strategic development as well as the key factors, which influence European air traffic dynamics. The problem of European airspace fragmentation should be solved by the comprehensive dynamic harmonization programmes, which can contribute to effective increase of airspace capacity and increase of air transport efficiency. The main objective of development strategy refers to the implementation of reformation processes of the European air traffic management system through functional ATM regionalization and adoption of Single European Sky legislation.

  7. Static measurements at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syed Nahar Bin Syed Hussin Shabuddin; Sharifuldin Bin Salleh, Mohd Amin; Harasawa, Susumu

    1985-06-01

    Static measurements at the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) were made to study the variation of its fuel temperature with reactor power. Some constants that relate power to fuel temperature behaviour were also determined. These constants are reflective of the coolling characteristics in the reactor core. Comparison was also made between the negative temperature coefficient of reactivity obtained from these measurements to those published in the Safety Analysis Report, SAR. The differences between these values are attributable to a delayed effect found in static measurements but not included in the SAR calculation which consider the prompt effect only.

  8. Static compensators (STATCOMs) in power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Shahnia, Farhad; Ghosh, Arindam

    2014-01-01

    A static compensator (STATCOM), also known as static synchronous compensator, is a member of the flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) devices. It is a power-electronics based regulating device which is composed of a voltage source converter (VSC) and is shunt-connected to alternating current electricity transmission and distribution networks. The voltage source is created from a DC capacitor and the STATCOM can exchange reactive power with the network. It can also supply some active power to the network, if a DC source of power is connected across the capacitor. A STATCOM

  9. MEMS linear and nonlinear statics and dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Younis, Mohammad I

    2011-01-01

    MEMS Linear and Nonlinear Statics and Dynamics presents the necessary analytical and computational tools for MEMS designers to model and simulate most known MEMS devices, structures, and phenomena. This book also provides an in-depth analysis and treatment of the most common static and dynamic phenomena in MEMS that are encountered by engineers. Coverage also includes nonlinear modeling approaches to modeling various MEMS phenomena of a nonlinear nature, such as those due to electrostatic forces, squeeze-film damping, and large deflection of structures. The book also: Includes examples of nume

  10. Static multiplicities in heterogeneous azeotropic distillation sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Klavs; Andersen, Torben Ravn; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the results of a bifurcation analysis on heterogeneous azeotropic distillation sequences are given. Two sequences suitable for ethanol dehydration are compared: The 'direct' and the 'indirect' sequence. It is shown, that the two sequences, despite their similarities, exhibit very...... different static behavior. The method of Petlyuk and Avet'yan (1971), Bekiaris et al. (1993), which assumes infinite reflux and infinite number of stages, is extended to and applied on heterogeneous azeotropic distillation sequences. The predictions are substantiated through simulations. The static sequence...

  11. de Sitter relativity in static charts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotaescu, Ion I. [West University of Timisoara, Timisoara (Romania)

    2018-02-15

    The relative geodesic motion in static (and spherically symmetric) local charts on the (1 + 3)-dimensional de Sitter spacetimes is studied in terms of conserved quantities. The Lorentzian isometries are derived, relating the coordinates of the local chart of a fixed observer with the coordinates of a mobile chart considered as the rest frame of a massive particle freely moving on a timelike geodesic. The time dilation and Lorentz contraction are discussed pointing out some notable features of the de Sitter relativity in static charts. (orig.)

  12. European nuclear education initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glatz, Jean-Paul

    2011-01-01

    international and bilateral information exchange on operating experience. Within the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA), academically recognised nuclear safeguards and non-proliferation courses are organised by the JRC. Those should in the future be part of a newly created European Nuclear Safety and Security School with the goal to make JRC's nuclear research facilities better accessible for graduate and post-graduate training and education programmes in Europe. Furthermore the JRC is running the Actinide User Laboratory (ACTUSLAB), offering researchers the possibility to use its unique facilities and associated expertise on basic research related to the actinides elements of both fundamental and applied interest. Similarly the JRC is pooling its facilities to the partners in the ACTINET network, to facilitate the efficient use of major nuclear research facilities by the scientific community. E and T is a key element in order to reach students and young scientists in the EU by organising summer schools and supporting students to attend international conferences, workshops, seminars or to participate in traineeships. (author)

  13. Static and dynamic modelling of gas turbines in advanced cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Jan-Olof

    1998-12-01

    Gas turbines have been in operation for at least 50 years. The engine is used for propulsion of aircraft and high speed ships. It is used for power production in remote locations and for peak load and emergency situations. Gas turbines have been used in combined cycles for 20 to 30 years. Highly efficient power plants based on gas turbines are a competitive option for the power industry today. The thermal efficiency of the simple cycle gas turbine has increased due to higher turbine inlet temperatures and improved compressor and expander designs. Equally important are the improved cycles in which the gas turbine operates. One example is the combined cycle that uses steam for turbine cooling. Steam is extracted from the bottoming cycle, then used as airfoil coolant in a closed loop and returned to the bottoming cycle. The Evaporative Gas Turbine (EvGT), also known as the Humid Air Turbine (HAT), is another advanced cycle. A mixture of air and water vapour is used as working media. Air from the compressor outlet is humidified and then preheated in a recuperator prior to combustion. The static and dynamic performance is changed when the gas turbine is introduced in an evaporative cycle. The cycle is gaining in popularity, but so far it has not been demonstrated. A Swedish joint program to develop the cycle has been in operation since 1993. As part of the program, a small pilot plant is being erected at the Lund Institute of Technology (LTH). The plant is based on a 600 kW gas turbine, and demonstration of the EvGT cycle started autumn 1998 and will continue, in the present phase, for one year. This thesis presents static and dynamic models for traditional gas turbine components, such as, the compressor, combustor, expander and recuperator. A static model for the humidifier is presented, based on common knowledge for atmospheric humidification. All models were developed for the pilot plant at LTH with the objective to support evaluation of the process and individual

  14. Application of static electricity radioisotope eliminators in oil-processing and petrochemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuravlev, V.S.; Evmenov, A.K.; Bondarev, L.M.; Kharlamov, O.V.

    1977-01-01

    Examples are discussed of the use of radioisotope eliminators of the static electricity on the basis of the 239 Pu apha radiation sources in the technological processes of the production and processing synthetic caoutchoucs, rubbers and film materials. The efficiency of different types of eliminators is testified; prospects of their application in the industry are outlined

  15. Static magnetic field reduced exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by spermatozoa using magnetic nanoparticle gene delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katebi, Samira; Esmaeili, Abolghasem; Ghaedi, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Spermatozoa could introduce exogenous oligonucleotides of interest to the oocyte. The most important reason of low efficiency of sperm mediated gene transfer (SMGT) is low uptake of exogenous DNA by spermatozoa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of static magnetic field on exogenous oligonucleotide uptake of spermatozoa using magnetofection method. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) associated with the labeled oligonucleotides were used to increase the efficiency of exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa. We used high-field/high-gradient magnet (NdFeB) to enhance and accelerate exogenous DNA sedimentation at the spermatozoa surface. Flow cytometry analysis was performed to measure viability and percentage of exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by sperm. Flow cytometry analysis showed a significant increase in exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa (P<0.001) when spermatozoa were incubated in exogenous oligonucleotide solution and MNPs. However, by applying static magnetic field during magnetofection method, a significant decrease in exogenous oligonucleotide uptake was observed (P<0.05). Findings of this study showed that MNPs were effective to increase exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa; however unlike others studies, static magnetic field, was not only ineffective to enhance exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa but also led to reduction in efficiency of magnetic nanoparticles in gene transfer. - Highlights: • Core/shell type Iron oxide nanoparticles were used as a novel and efficient method. • This method increases exogenous DNA uptake by rooster spermatozoa. • Static magnetic field decreased DNA uptake by rooster spermatozoa.

  16. Static magnetic field reduced exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by spermatozoa using magnetic nanoparticle gene delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katebi, Samira; Esmaeili, Abolghasem, E-mail: aesmaeili@sci.ui.ac.ir; Ghaedi, Kamran

    2016-03-15

    Spermatozoa could introduce exogenous oligonucleotides of interest to the oocyte. The most important reason of low efficiency of sperm mediated gene transfer (SMGT) is low uptake of exogenous DNA by spermatozoa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of static magnetic field on exogenous oligonucleotide uptake of spermatozoa using magnetofection method. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) associated with the labeled oligonucleotides were used to increase the efficiency of exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa. We used high-field/high-gradient magnet (NdFeB) to enhance and accelerate exogenous DNA sedimentation at the spermatozoa surface. Flow cytometry analysis was performed to measure viability and percentage of exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by sperm. Flow cytometry analysis showed a significant increase in exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa (P<0.001) when spermatozoa were incubated in exogenous oligonucleotide solution and MNPs. However, by applying static magnetic field during magnetofection method, a significant decrease in exogenous oligonucleotide uptake was observed (P<0.05). Findings of this study showed that MNPs were effective to increase exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa; however unlike others studies, static magnetic field, was not only ineffective to enhance exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa but also led to reduction in efficiency of magnetic nanoparticles in gene transfer. - Highlights: • Core/shell type Iron oxide nanoparticles were used as a novel and efficient method. • This method increases exogenous DNA uptake by rooster spermatozoa. • Static magnetic field decreased DNA uptake by rooster spermatozoa.

  17. Mapping of Reservoir Properties and Facies Through Integration of Static and Dynamic Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Albert C.; Oliver, Dean S.; Zhang, Fengjun; Dong, Yannong; Skjervheim, Jan Arild; Liu, Ning

    2003-03-10

    The goal of this project was to develop computationally efficient automatic history matching techniques for generating geologically plausible reservoir models which honor both static and dynamic data. Solution of this problem was necessary for the quantification of uncertainty in future reservoir performance predictions and for the optimization of reservoir management.

  18. Mapping of Reservoir Properties and Facies Through Integration of Static and Dynamic Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, Dean S.; Reynolds, Albert C.; Zhang, Fengjun; Li, Ruijian; Abacioglu, Yafes; Dong, Yannong

    2002-03-05

    The goal of this project was to develop computationally efficient automatic history matching techniques for generating geologically plausible reservoir models which honor both static and dynamic data. Solution of this problem is necessary for the quantification of uncertainty in future reservoir performance predictions and for the optimization of reservoir management.

  19. Strategies of development of European power producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heddebaut, D.

    2007-12-01

    This economical study answers the following questions: what is the dynamics of European power markets? What is the relative competitiveness of the different power production means? What are the determining factors of electricity wholesale prices? Who are the operators the most threatened by the rise of wholesale prices? To what extend power producers are impacted by the CO 2 constrain? Who are the most efficient producers? The analysis is based on 18 of the most representative groups of the European electric utilities. The first volume of the study presents the strategic perspectives of European power producers: dynamics and basic characteristics of European power markets, strategic options of European operators, typology and financial results of European power producers, scenarios of market reorganization according to Eurostaf (possible mega-mergers in the future, competition). Volume 2 makes a detailed analysis of the positioning and perspectives of the 18 selected groups: key figures, sourcing strategies, production means management, Eurostaf's diagnosis. (J.S.)

  20. INTRODUCTION AND STATIC ELECTRICITY, VOLUME 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KLAUS, DAVID J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS VOLUME, PART OF A TWO-VOLUME SET, PROVIDES AUTOINSTRUCTION IN PHYSICS. THE MATERIAL COVERS UNITS ON (1) STATIC ELECTRICITY AND ELECTRICAL CHARGES, (2) COULOMB'S LAW, (3) DISTRIBUTION OF CHARGE AND FLOW OF CURRENT, (4) DIFFERENCE OF POTENTIAL, (5) BATTERIES AND CIRCUITS, (6) RESISTANCE AND RESISTORS, (7) POTENTIAL DIVIDER AND WHEATSTONE…

  1. Static Analysis for Java Servlets and JSP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Christian; Møller, Anders

    2006-01-01

    We present an approach for statically reasoning about the behavior of Web applications that are developed using Java Servlets and JSP. Specifically, we attack the problems of guaranteeing that all output is well-formed and valid XML and ensuring consistency of XHTML form fields and session state...

  2. Static Analysis of XML Transformations in Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Christian; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael I.

    2004-01-01

    of XML documents to be defined, there are generally no automatic mechanisms for statically checking that a program transforms from one class to another as intended. We introduce Xact, a high-level approach for Java using XML templates as a first-class data type with operations for manipulating XML values...

  3. Static Typing for Object-Oriented Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1994-01-01

    We develop a theory of statically typed object-oriented languages. It represents classes as labeled, regular trees, types as finit sets of classes , and sub-classing as a partial order on trees. We show that our sub-classing order strictly generalizes inheritance, and that a novel genericity mech...

  4. Static, Lightweight Includes Resolution for PHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hills (Mark); P. Klint (Paul); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractDynamic languages include a number of features that are challenging to model properly in static analysis tools. In PHP, one of these features is the include expression, where an arbitrary expression provides the path of the file to include at runtime. In this paper we present two

  5. Static timing analysis for nanometer designs

    CERN Document Server

    Bhasker, J

    2009-01-01

    Covers topics such as cell timing and power modeling; interconnect modeling and analysis, delay calculation, crosstalk, noise and the chip timing verification using static timing analysis. For each of these topics, this book provides a theoretical background as well as detailed examples to elaborate the concepts.

  6. Device measures static friction of magnetic tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, P. T.

    1967-01-01

    Device measures the coefficient of static friction of magnetic tape over a range of temperatures and relative humidities. It uses a strain gage to measure the force of friction between a reference surface and the tape drawn at a constant velocity of approximately 0.0001 inch per second relative to the reference surface.

  7. The static gravitational field near spatial infinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beig, R.

    1980-01-01

    A static solution to Einstein's equations, which is asymptotically flat near spatial infinity, is shown to be asymptotically Schwarzschildian. As an application of this result a technical lemma on the existence of asymptotically flat harmonic coordinates near infinity is proved. (author)

  8. Static and evolutionary quantum public goods games

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao Zeyang; Qin Gan; Hu Lingzhi; Li Songjian; Xu Nanyang [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Du Jiangfeng [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany)], E-mail: djf@ustc.edu.cn

    2008-05-12

    We apply the continuous-variable quantization scheme to quantize public goods game and find that new pure strategy Nash equilibria emerge in the static case. Furthermore, in the evolutionary public goods game, entanglement can also contribute to the persistence of cooperation under various population structures without altruism, voluntary participation, and punishment.

  9. Static electromagnetic properties of giant resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, W.K.

    1986-03-01

    Static electric monopole and quadrupole matrix elements, which are related to the mean square radius and quadrupole moment respectively, are derived for giant resonances of arbitrary multipolarity. The results furnish information on the size and shape of the nucleus in the excited giant states. (author)

  10. A Progression of Static Equilibrium Laboratory Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, Mickey; Kutzner, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Although simple architectural structures like bridges, catwalks, cantilevers, and Stonehenge have been integral in human societies for millennia, as have levers and other simple tools, modern students of introductory physics continue to grapple with Newton's conditions for static equilibrium. As formulated in typical introductory physics…

  11. Automatic incrementalization of Prolog based static analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Michael; Kahl, Matthias; Saha, Diptikalyan

    2007-01-01

    Modem development environments integrate various static analyses into the build process. Analyses that analyze the whole project whenever the project changes are impractical in this context. We present an approach to automatic incrementalization of analyses that are specified as tabled logic prog...

  12. Model of the static universe within GR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbanovski, V. V.; Tarasova, A. S.; Salimova, A. S.; Bilinskaya, G. V.; Sumbulov, A. N.

    2011-01-01

    Within GR, the problems of the Robertson-Walker universe are discussed. The approach based on transition to a nondiagonal line element is suggested. Within the considered approach, the static universe model is investigated. The possibility of constructing scenarios without an initial singularity and “exotic” matter is discussed. Accordance of the given model to the properties of the observable universe is discussed.

  13. A scanning bi-static SODAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, P; Bradley, S [Physics Department, Auckland University, 38 Princes Street, Auckland (New Zealand); Hunerbein, S von [Acoustics Department, Newton Building, University of Salford, Greater Manchester M5 4WT (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-01

    Field results are given from a bi-static SODAR which uses a single central vertical transmission and three distributed microphone array receivers. Fourier transform delay methods are applied to data sampled from each microphone to retrospectively scan in angle and follow the transmitted pulse. Advantages of sampling a narrow atmospheric column, rather than distributed volumes are discussed.

  14. A scanning bi-static SODAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, P; Bradley, S; Hunerbein, S von

    2008-01-01

    Field results are given from a bi-static SODAR which uses a single central vertical transmission and three distributed microphone array receivers. Fourier transform delay methods are applied to data sampled from each microphone to retrospectively scan in angle and follow the transmitted pulse. Advantages of sampling a narrow atmospheric column, rather than distributed volumes are discussed

  15. Static Checking of Interrupt-driven Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brylow, Dennis; Damgaard, Niels; Palsberg, Jens

    2001-01-01

    at the assembly level. In this paper we present the design and implementation of a static checker for interrupt-driven Z86-based software with hard real-time requirements. For six commercial microcontrollers, our checker has produced upper bounds on interrupt latencies and stack sizes, as well as verified...

  16. Static Equilibrium Configurations of Charged Metallic Bodies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we developed a simple numerical scheme to determine the static equilibrium configuration of charged metallic bodies by minimizing the potential energy function. The method developed has some advantages; it combines the general theory and the physical meanings nested in the mathematical model and this ...

  17. European refining: evolution or revolution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuthbert, N.

    1999-01-01

    A recent detailed analysis of the refining business in Europe (by Purvin and Gurtz) was used to highlight some key issues facing the industry. The article was written under five sub-sections: (i) economic environment (assessment of the economic prospects for Europe), (ii) energy efficiency and global warming (lists the four points of the EU car makers' voluntary agreement), (iii) fuel quality and refinery investment (iv) refinery capacity and utilisation and (v) industry structure and development. Diagrams show GDP per capita for East and West, European road fuel demand to 2015 and European net trade and European refinery ownership by crude capacity. It was concluded that the future of refining in Europe is 'exciting and challenging' and there are likely to be more large joint venture refineries. (UK)

  18. Econometric analysis of the performance of cooperatives and investor owned firms in the European dairy industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soboh, R.A.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Cooperatives, IOFs, European dairy industry, logistic regression, stochastic frontier analysis, inter- and intra-firm efficiency, catch-up component, data envelopment analysis, hyperbolic technical efficiency, overall efficiency, scale efficiency, bootstrapping.

    In this study

  19. Static analysis of triple-effect adsorption refrigeration with compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumi Watanabe

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the efficiency of the adsorption refrigeration cycle, this study proposes a triple-effect adsorption refrigeration cycle equipped with a compressor. This cycle can run in order to create a large variation in adsorbent concentration range by the compressor, even if there is little temperature variation in the desorption and adsorption processes. The objective of this study is to clarify the effect that regulating adsorption pressure using a compressor has on the adsorption refrigeration cycle, and to that end cycle efficiency was calculated using a static analysis based on a state of equilibrium. As a results from the simulation, the triple-effect cycles can operate by regulating adsorption pressure. Both COP and exergy efficiency can be improved by a factor of 1.2 if the cycled is regulated the adsorption pressure of each cycle rather than using a shared adsorption pressure. For heat sources in the temperature range of 70–100 °C, this method is superior in terms of COP and exergy efficiency. COP values of approximately 1.7–1.8 can be obtained, which is three times higher than single-effect cycles. The triple-effect cycles have one-third the SCE of single-effect cycles but about the same SCE as double-effect cycles.

  20. EPR (European Pressurized Reactor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This document presents the EPR (European Pressurized Reactor), a modernised version of PWRs which uses nuclear fission. It indicates to which category it belongs (third generation). It briefly describes its operation: recalls on nuclear fission, electricity production in a nuclear reactor. It presents and comments its characteristics: power, thermal efficiency, redundant systems for safety control, double protective enclosure, expected lifetime, use of MOX fuel, modular design. It discusses economic stakes (expected higher nuclear electricity competitiveness, but high construction costs), and safety challenges (design characteristics, critics by nuclear safety authorities about the safety data processing system). It presents the main involved actors (Areva, EDF) and competitors in the field of advanced reactors (Rosatom with its VVER 1200, General Electric with its ABWR and its ESBWR, Mitsubishi with its APWR, Westinghouse with its AP100) while outlining the importance of certifications and delays to obtain them. After having evoked key data on EPR fuel consumption, it indicates reactors under construction, evokes potential markets and perspectives

  1. Static and Dynamic Verification of Critical Software for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, F.; Maia, R.; Costa, D.; Duro, N.; Rodríguez-Dapena, P.; Hjortnaes, K.

    Space technology is no longer used only for much specialised research activities or for sophisticated manned space missions. Modern society relies more and more on space technology and applications for every day activities. Worldwide telecommunications, Earth observation, navigation and remote sensing are only a few examples of space applications on which we rely daily. The European driven global navigation system Galileo and its associated applications, e.g. air traffic management, vessel and car navigation, will significantly expand the already stringent safety requirements for space based applications Apart from their usefulness and practical applications, every single piece of onboard software deployed into the space represents an enormous investment. With a long lifetime operation and being extremely difficult to maintain and upgrade, at least when comparing with "mainstream" software development, the importance of ensuring their correctness before deployment is immense. Verification &Validation techniques and technologies have a key role in ensuring that the onboard software is correct and error free, or at least free from errors that can potentially lead to catastrophic failures. Many RAMS techniques including both static criticality analysis and dynamic verification techniques have been used as a means to verify and validate critical software and to ensure its correctness. But, traditionally, these have been isolated applied. One of the main reasons is the immaturity of this field in what concerns to its application to the increasing software product(s) within space systems. This paper presents an innovative way of combining both static and dynamic techniques exploiting their synergy and complementarity for software fault removal. The methodology proposed is based on the combination of Software FMEA and FTA with Fault-injection techniques. The case study herein described is implemented with support from two tools: The SoftCare tool for the SFMEA and SFTA

  2. European vs. U.S. Airlines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. Georg; Josiassen, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This study measures and compares the efficiency and productivity of European and U.S. airlines, over the period from 2001 to 2008. We measure efficiency by estimating a Bayesian distance frontier model subject to regularity constraints. Productivity estimates are also derived parametrically, based...... growth and related market discussions are also provided....

  3. Dynamic versus static allocation policies in multipurpose multireservoir systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmant, A.; Goor, Q.; Pinte, D.; van der Zaag, P.

    2007-12-01

    As the competition for water is likely to increase in the near future due to socioeconomic development and population growth, water resources managers will face hard choices when allocating water between competing users. Because water is a vital resource used in multiple sectors, including the environment, the allocation is inherently a political and social process, which is likely to become increasingly scrutinized as the competition grows between the different sectors. Since markets are usually absent or ineffective, the allocation of water between competing demands is achieved administratively taking into account key objectives such as economic efficiency, equity and maintaining the ecological integrity. When crop irrigation is involved, water is usually allocated by a system of annual rights to use a fixed, static, volume of water. In a fully-allocated basin, moving from a static to a dynamic allocation process, whereby the policies are regularly updated according to the hydrologic status of the river basin, is the first step towards the development of river basin management strategies that increase the productivity of water. More specifically, in a multipurpose multireservoir system, continuously adjusting release and withdrawal decisions based on the latest hydrologic information will increase the benefits derived from the system. However, the extent to which such an adjustment can be achieved results from complex spatial and temporal interactions between the physical characteristics of the water resources system (storage, natural flows), the economic and social consequences of rationing and the impacts on natural ecosystems. The complexity of the decision-making process, which requires the continuous evaluation of numerous trade-offs, calls for the use of integrated hydrologic-economic models. This paper compares static and dynamic management approaches for a cascade of hydropower-irrigation reservoirs using stochastic dual dynamic programming (SDDP

  4. Static devices with new permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavanne, J.; Laforest, J.; Pauthenet, R.

    1987-01-01

    The high remanence and coercivity of the new permanent magnet materials are of special interest in the static applications. High ordering temperature and are uniaxial anisotropy at the origin of their good permanent magnet properties are obtained in rare earth-transition metal compounds. Binary SmCo/sub 5/ and Sm/sub 2/Co/sub 17/ and ternary Nd/sub 2/Fe/sub 14/B compounds are the basis materials of the best permanent magnets. new concepts of calculations of static devices with these magnets can be applied: the magnetization can be considered as ridig, the density of the surface Amperian current is constant, the relative permeability is approximately 1 and the induction calculations are linear. Examples of hexapoles with Sm-Co and NdFeB magnets are described and the performances are compared. The problems of temperature behavior and corrosion resistance are underlined

  5. Quasi-Static Electric Field Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A generator for producing an electric field for with an inspection technology system is provided. The generator provides the required variable magnitude quasi-static electric fields for the "illumination" of objects, areas and volumes to be inspected by the system, and produces human-safe electric fields that are only visible to the system. The generator includes a casing, a driven, non-conducting and triboelectrically neutral rotation shaft mounted therein, an ungrounded electrostatic dipole element which works in the quasi-static range, and a non-conducting support for mounting the dipole element to the shaft. The dipole element has a wireless motor system and a charging system which are wholly contained within the dipole element and the support that uses an electrostatic approach to charge the dipole element.

  6. On static and radiative space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, H.

    1988-01-01

    The conformal constraint equations on space-like hypersurfaces are discussed near points which represent either time-like or spatial infinity for an asymptotically flat solution of Einstein's vacuum field equations. In the case of time-like infinity a certain 'radiativity condition' is derived which must be satisfied by the data at that point. The case of space-like infinity is analysed in detail for static space-times with non-vanishing mass. It is shown that the conformal structure implied here on a slice of constant Killing time, which extends analytically through infinity, satisfies at spatial infinity the radiativity condition. Thus to any static solution exists a certain 'radiative solution' which has a smooth structure at past null infinity and is regular at past time-like infinity. A characterization of these solutions by their 'free data' is given and non-symmetry properties are discussed. (orig.)

  7. Static magnetotherapy for the treatment of insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Yao Y; Tsai, Fong Y

    2008-01-01

    Magnets have been used for centuries to treat a number of physical disorders. The vast majority of research, however, on static magnet therapy for insomnia has been confined to the auricular type of therapy, with publications limited to Chinese journals. Most of these studies have depended on the subjective self-assessment of participants rather than objective scientific measurements. In this study, the authors report the positive preliminary results of insomnia treatment using pillows with embedded magnets, magnetic insoles and TriPhase bracelets. The analysis is based on objective actigraphic and polysomnographic data. A theory of accelerated transition from wakefulness to sleep is proposed to explain the process of insomnia relief through low-strength static magnetic fields. Analysis by functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is used to further investigate the theory.

  8. Comparing numerically exact and modelled static friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krengel Dominik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently there exists no mechanically consistent “numerically exact” implementation of static and dynamic Coulomb friction for general soft particle simulations with arbitrary contact situations in two or three dimension, but only along one dimension. We outline a differential-algebraic equation approach for a “numerically exact” computation of friction in two dimensions and compare its application to the Cundall-Strack model in some test cases.

  9. A Logical Characterisation of Static Equivalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Pedersen, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    -order logic for frames with quantification over environment knowledge which, under certain general conditions, characterizes static equivalence and is amenable to construction of characteristic formulae. The logic can be used to reason about environment knowledge and can be adapted to a particular application...... by defining a suitable signature and associated equational theory. The logic can furthermore be extended with modalities to yield a modal logic for e.g. the Applied Pi calculus....

  10. A field theoretic model for static friction

    OpenAIRE

    Mahyaeh, I.; Rouhani, S.

    2013-01-01

    We present a field theoretic model for friction, where the friction coefficient between two surfaces may be calculated based on elastic properties of the surfaces. We assume that the geometry of contact surface is not unusual. We verify Amonton's laws to hold that friction force is proportional to the normal load.This model gives the opportunity to calculate the static coefficient of friction for a few cases, and show that it is in agreement with observed values. Furthermore we show that the ...

  11. Calibration of a pitot-static rake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stump, H. P.

    1977-01-01

    A five-element pitot-static rake was tested to confirm its accuracy and determine its suitability for use at Langley during low-speed tunnel calibration primarily at full-scale tunnel. The rake was tested at one airspeed of 74 miles per hour (33 meters per second) and at pitch and yaw angles of 0 to + or - 20 degrees in 4 deg increments.

  12. Predicting environmental restoration activities through static simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, T.L.; King, D.A.; Wilkins, M.L.; Forward, M.F.

    1994-12-01

    This paper discusses a static simulation model that predicts several performance measures of environmental restoration activities over different remedial strategies. Basic model operation consists of manipulating and processing waste streams via selecting and applying remedial technologies according to the strategy. Performance measure prediction is possible for contaminated soil, solid waste, surface water, groundwater, storage tank, and facility sites. Simulations are performed for the U.S. Department of Energy in support of its Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

  13. Static nuclear polarisation and polarised targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeringa, W.

    1984-12-01

    Recent progress and status of statically polarised nuclear targets are reviewed. Special attention is given to polarised 1 H and 3 He. An important quantity in the determination of the target polarisation is the thermal gradient over the target sample. The dependence of this gradient on heat input, sample geometry, and thermal conductivity of the sample is discussed. Possibilities of performing experiments with proton beams are indicated. (orig.) [de

  14. Static Analysis Alert Audits: Lexicon and Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-04

    1 Audit Rules and Lexicon Date 00, 2016 © 2016 Carnegie Mellon University [DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A] This material has been approved for public...DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A] This material has been approved for public release and unlimited distribution. REV-03.18.2016.0 Static Analysis Alert Audits ...Lexicon And Rules William Snavely 2 Audit Rules and Lexicon Date 00, 2016 © 2016 Carnegie Mellon University [DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A] This material

  15. Static In-wheel Wireless Charging Systems for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirag Panchal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless charging is a popular upcoming technology with uses ranging from mobile phone charging through to electric vehicle EV charging. Large air gaps found in current EV wireless charging systems WCS pose a hurdle of its success. Air gaps in WCS cause issues in regards to efficiency power transfer and electromagnetic compatibility EMC leakage issues. A static In-Wheel WCS IW-WCS is presented which significantly reduces the issues associated with large air gaps. A small scale laboratory prototype utilizing a standard 10mm steel reinforced tyre has been created and compared to a typical 30mm air gap. The IW-WCS has been investigated by experimental and finite element method FEM based electro-magnetic field simulation methods to validate performance.

  16. Quasi-Static Condensation of Aeroelastic Suspension Bridge Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Randi N.; Krenk, Steen; N. Svendsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    For long span bridges the wind-induced dynamic response is a design driving factor and therefore continuously a subject for detailed analysis. Traditionally both buffeting and stability calculations have been considered in the frequency domain. However, this yields alimitation in accounting...... for turbulence when considering the stability limit and further it is not possible to account for non-linear effects. These limitations suggest to do simulations of the aeroelastic response of long span bridges in the time domain. For this it is of interest to have an efficient model while still maintaining...... sufficient accuracy. This contribution is on quasi-static reduction of an aeroelastic finite element model of a 3000m suspension bridge proposed for crossing Sulafjorden in Norway. The model is intended for stability limit calculation where the representation of higher modes is of less importance...

  17. Static models, recursive estimators and the zero-variance approach

    KAUST Repository

    Rubino, Gerardo

    2016-01-07

    When evaluating dependability aspects of complex systems, most models belong to the static world, where time is not an explicit variable. These models suffer from the same problems than dynamic ones (stochastic processes), such as the frequent combinatorial explosion of the state spaces. In the Monte Carlo domain, on of the most significant difficulties is the rare event situation. In this talk, we describe this context and a recent technique that appears to be at the top performance level in the area, where we combined ideas that lead to very fast estimation procedures with another approach called zero-variance approximation. Both ideas produced a very efficient method that has the right theoretical property concerning robustness, the Bounded Relative Error one. Some examples illustrate the results.

  18. Mobile robot navigation in unknown static environments using ANFIS controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Pandey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Navigation and obstacle avoidance are the most important task for any mobile robots. This article presents the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS controller for mobile robot navigation and obstacle avoidance in the unknown static environments. The different sensors such as ultrasonic range finder sensor and sharp infrared range sensor are used to detect the forward obstacles in the environments. The inputs of the ANFIS controller are obstacle distances obtained from the sensors, and the controller output is a robot steering angle. The primary objective of the present work is to use ANFIS controller to guide the mobile robot in the given environments. Computer simulations are conducted through MATLAB software and implemented in real time by using C/C++ language running Arduino microcontroller based mobile robot. Moreover, the successful experimental results on the actual mobile robot demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed controller.

  19. Power system static state estimation using Kalman filter algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikia Anupam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available State estimation of power system is an important tool for operation, analysis and forecasting of electric power system. In this paper, a Kalman filter algorithm is presented for static estimation of power system state variables. IEEE 14 bus system is employed to check the accuracy of this method. Newton Raphson load flow study is first carried out on our test system and a set of data from the output of load flow program is taken as measurement input. Measurement inputs are simulated by adding Gaussian noise of zero mean. The results of Kalman estimation are compared with traditional Weight Least Square (WLS method and it is observed that Kalman filter algorithm is numerically more efficient than traditional WLS method. Estimation accuracy is also tested for presence of parametric error in the system. In addition, numerical stability of Kalman filter algorithm is tested by considering inclusion of zero mean errors in the initial estimates.

  20. Extended Møller-Plesset perturbation theory for dynamical and static correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel method that appropriately handles both dynamical and static electron correlations in a balanced manner, using a perturbation theory on a spin-extended Hartree-Fock (EHF) wave function reference. While EHF is a suitable candidate for degenerate systems where static correlation is ubiquitous, it is known that most of dynamical correlation is neglected in EHF. In this work, we derive a perturbative correction to a fully spin-projected self-consistent wave function based on second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2). The proposed method efficiently captures the ability of EHF to describe static correlation in degeneracy, combined with MP2's ability to treat dynamical correlation effects. We demonstrate drastic improvements on molecular ground state and excited state potential energy curves and singlet-triplet splitting energies over both EHF and MP2 with similar computational effort to the latter

  1. Static magnetic field reduced exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by spermatozoa using magnetic nanoparticle gene delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katebi, Samira; Esmaeili, Abolghasem; Ghaedi, Kamran

    2016-03-01

    Spermatozoa could introduce exogenous oligonucleotides of interest to the oocyte. The most important reason of low efficiency of sperm mediated gene transfer (SMGT) is low uptake of exogenous DNA by spermatozoa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of static magnetic field on exogenous oligonucleotide uptake of spermatozoa using magnetofection method. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) associated with the labeled oligonucleotides were used to increase the efficiency of exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa. We used high-field/high-gradient magnet (NdFeB) to enhance and accelerate exogenous DNA sedimentation at the spermatozoa surface. Flow cytometry analysis was performed to measure viability and percentage of exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by sperm. Flow cytometry analysis showed a significant increase in exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa (Prooster spermatozoa; however unlike others studies, static magnetic field, was not only ineffective to enhance exogenous oligonucleotide uptake by rooster spermatozoa but also led to reduction in efficiency of magnetic nanoparticles in gene transfer.

  2. Non-local means filter for trim statics

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yunsong; Wang, Xin; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2014-01-01

    this problem, we propose a trim statics inspired by the non-local means algorithm originally developed for image denoising. This method differs from the conventional one in two fundamental respects. First, the trim statics are computed by comparing image

  3. Contagion processes on the static and activity-driven coupling networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yanjun; Jiang, Xin; Guo, Quantong; Ma, Yifang; Li, Meng; Zheng, Zhiming

    2016-03-01

    The evolution of network structure and the spreading of epidemic are common coexistent dynamical processes. In most cases, network structure is treated as either static or time-varying, supposing the whole network is observed in the same time window. In this paper, we consider the epidemics spreading on a network which has both static and time-varying structures. Meanwhile, the time-varying part and the epidemic spreading are supposed to be of the same time scale. We introduce a static and activity-driven coupling (SADC) network model to characterize the coupling between the static ("strong") structure and the dynamic ("weak") structure. Epidemic thresholds of the SIS and SIR models are studied using the SADC model both analytically and numerically under various coupling strategies, where the strong structure is of homogeneous or heterogeneous degree distribution. Theoretical thresholds obtained from the SADC model can both recover and generalize the classical results in static and time-varying networks. It is demonstrated that a weak structure might make the epidemic threshold low in homogeneous networks but high in heterogeneous cases. Furthermore, we show that the weak structure has a substantive effect on the outbreak of the epidemics. This result might be useful in designing some efficient control strategies for epidemics spreading in networks.

  4. The Static Ladder Problem with Two Sources of Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jonathan; Mauney, Alex

    2011-01-01

    The problem of a ladder leaning against a wall in static equilibrium is a classic example encountered in introductory mechanics texts. Most discussions of this problem assume that the static frictional force between the ladder and wall can be ignored. A few authors consider the case where the static friction coefficients between ladder/wall…

  5. The usefulness of cardiofocal collimator in static renal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evren, I.; Durak, H.; Degirmenci, B.; Derebek, E.; Oezbilek, E.; Capa, G.

    2001-01-01

    Static renal imaging is best performed using pinhole collimator. But this technique takes too much time and generally parallel hole collimators are preferred for static renal imaging in nuclear medicine departments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of the cardio-focal collimator used for myocardial perfusion imaging in static renal scintigraphy

  6. Comparison of pressure perception of static and dynamic two point ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the right and left index finger (p<0.05). Conclusion: Age and gender did not affect the perception of static and dynamic two point discrimination while the limb side (left or right) affected the perception of static and dynamic two point discrimination. The index finger is also more sensitive to moving rather static sensations.

  7. Static potential for a string with a topological term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaikov, R.P.; Zlatev, S.I.

    1991-01-01

    We study the static potential for a string in (2+1)-dimensional space-time with action including a topological term. An appropriate static solution is found and the corresponding potential is obtained. Such a solution does not exist beyond a critical distance between the ends of the string. The one-loop corrections to the static potential are calculated. (orig.)

  8. Energy efficient design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Solar Applications and Energy Efficiency in Building Design and Town Planning (RER/87/006) is a United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) project of the Governments of Albania, Bulgaria, Cyprus, The Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, France, Hungary, Malta, Poland, Turkey, United Kingdom and Yugoslavia. The project began in 1988 and comes to a conclusion at the end of 1991. It is to enhance the professional skills of practicing architects, engineers and town planners in European countries to design energy efficient buildings which reduce energy consumption and make greater use of passive solar heating and natural cooling techniques. The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) is the Executing Agency of the project which is implemented under the auspices of the Committee on Energy, General Energy Programme of Work for 1990-1994, sub-programme 5 Energy Conservation and Efficiency (ECE/ENERGY/15). The project has five main outputs or results: an international network of institutions for low energy building design; a state-of-the-art survey of energy use in the built environment of European IPF countries; a simple computer program for energy efficient building design; a design guide and computer program operators' manual; and a series of international training courses in participating European IPF countries. Energy Efficient Design is the fourth output of the project. It comprises the design guide for practicing architects and engineers, for use mainly in mid-career training courses, and the operators' manual for the project's computer program

  9. DISCIPLINAIRIE LIABILITIES OF THE EUROPEAN PUBLIC SERVANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Tofan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Work discipline is essential for the proper conduct of business within an organization with implications for productivity and efficiency. Disciplinary liability arises as a direct result of breach of service obligations and rules of behaviour. At EU level, disciplinary responsibility of community public servant is governed by the provisions of the Statute of the European Community published in the Official Journal of the European Community no. L 56 March 4, 1968 and amended on numerous occasions. This paper proposes an analysis of concrete conditions which require disciplinary liability of the European public servant, disciplinary sanctions and procedures for implementing them.

  10. A 3D inversion for all-space magnetotelluric data with static shift correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun

    2017-04-01

    Base on the previous studies on the static shift correction and 3D inversion algorithms, we improve the NLCG 3D inversion method and propose a new static shift correction method which work in the inversion. The static shift correction method is based on the 3D theory and real data. The static shift can be detected by the quantitative analysis of apparent parameters (apparent resistivity and impedance phase) of MT in high frequency range, and completed correction with inversion. The method is an automatic processing technology of computer with 0 cost, and avoids the additional field work and indoor processing with good results. The 3D inversion algorithm is improved (Zhang et al., 2013) base on the NLCG method of Newman & Alumbaugh (2000) and Rodi & Mackie (2001). For the algorithm, we added the parallel structure, improved the computational efficiency, reduced the memory of computer and added the topographic and marine factors. So the 3D inversion could work in general PC with high efficiency and accuracy. And all the MT data of surface stations, seabed stations and underground stations can be used in the inversion algorithm.

  11. The use of efficiency assessment tools : solutions to barriers : Workpackage 3 of the European research project ROSEBUD (Road Safety and Environmental Cost-Benefit and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis for Use in Decision-making).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakkert, A.S. & Wesemann, P. (eds.)

    2005-01-01

    In road safety, as in most other fields, efficiency is an important criterion in political and professional decision making. Efficiency Assessment Tools (EATs) like Cost Benefit Analysis and Cost Effectiveness Analysis are available to help choose the policy which gives the highest return on

  12. European Gas Market Liberalisation. Competition versus security of supply?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, N.

    2009-01-01

    of regulatory regime on performance indicators reflecting economic and political regulatory goals such as natural gas prices, tariffs, efficiency and investment in natural gas infrastructure. In doing so, we are effectively investigating the effect of layer 3 on layer 4 in Williamson's model. The third part comprises the qualitative case studies with which we aim to move from a static to a more dynamic perspective of the regulatory process. In two case studies, we investigate whether the distribution of energy policy priorities in a multi-authority structure does influence the regulatory outcome (hypothesis 3). Next, in chapter 10, the focus switches to the revision of incentive regulation in the Netherlands, which had the aim of reducing transmission tariffs. The case study seeks to explain the shift from a revenue-cap regulation to rate-of-return regulation taking place in 2007. In chapter 11, we examine the decision by UK regulatory authorities in 2006-07 not to compel the gas industry to provide additional gas storage, which would have reduced price volatility and enhanced security of gas supply. In the concluding chapter, we summarise our main findings and answer our research questions. To facilitate this we revisit our theoretical approach and evaluate the opportunities and limitations of New Institutional Economics in general and, more specifically, Williamson's transaction cost approach in the form of the four-layer model. Following this, the empirical results of the quantitative and qualitative analyses are discussed.

  13. QuickChecking Static Analysis Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Møller, Anders

    2015-01-01

    A static analysis can check programs for potential errors. A natural question that arises is therefore: who checks the checker? Researchers have given this question varying attention, ranging from basic testing techniques, informal monotonicity arguments, thorough pen-and-paper soundness proofs...... of a lattice. Moreover, we offer a number of generic, type-safe combinators to check transfer functions and operators on lattices, to help ensure that these are, e.g., monotone, strict, or invariant. We substantiate our claims by quickchecking a type analysis for the Lua programming language...

  14. QuickChecking static analysis properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Møller, Anders

    2017-01-01

    A static analysis can check programs for potential errors. A natural question that arises is therefore: who checks the checker? Researchers have given this question varying attention, ranging from basic testing techniques, informal monotonicity arguments, thorough pen-and-paper soundness proofs....... Moreover, we offer a number of generic, type-safe combinators to check transfer functions and operators on lattices, to help ensure that these are, eg, monotone, strict, or invariant. We substantiate our claims by quickchecking a type analysis for the Lua programming language....

  15. Superconductor in a weak static gravitational field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ummarino, Giovanni Alberto [Dipartimento DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI-Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gallerati, Antonio [Dipartimento DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy)

    2017-08-15

    We provide the detailed calculation of a general form for Maxwell and London equations that takes into account gravitational corrections in linear approximation. We determine the possible alteration of a static gravitational field in a superconductor making use of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations, providing also an analytic solution in the weak field condition. Finally, we compare the behavior of a high-T{sub c} superconductor with a classical low-T{sub c} superconductor, analyzing the values of the parameters that can enhance the reduction of the gravitational field. (orig.)

  16. Pro-static Agents in Jet Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-08-16

    recent survey of jet fuels at 10 airports and 3 military bases in the United States [6]. Consequently , the results of the present study can be directly...as quickly as it is generated. Consequently , compounds that increase conductivity above 50 pS/m are not pro-static agents in the sense implied here...Additive Con, 1000 pPm CORROSION INHIBITORS UNiCOrn J COPIOCO T- 60 LU$RIZOL 541 TOLAD 245 OCI 4A] PRO ig ., NALCO 5400 TOLAD 244 , MALCO 5402 GULF 170 "Y2

  17. Static analysis of software the abstract interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Boulanger, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    The existing literature currently available to students and researchers is very general, covering only the formal techniques of static analysis. This book presents real examples of the formal techniques called ""abstract interpretation"" currently being used in various industrial fields: railway, aeronautics, space, automotive, etc. The purpose of this book is to present students and researchers, in a single book, with the wealth of experience of people who are intrinsically involved in the realization and evaluation of software-based safety critical systems. As the authors are people curr

  18. Monotone Comparative Statics for the Industry Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Anders Rosenstand; Bache, Peter Arendorf

    2015-01-01

    We let heterogeneous firms face decisions on a number of complementary activities in a monopolistically-competitive industry. The endogenous level of competition and selection regarding entry and exit of firms introduces a wedge between monotone comparative statics (MCS) at the firm level and MCS...... for the industry composition. The latter phenomenon is defined as first-order stochastic dominance shifts in the equilibrium distributions of all activities across active firms. We provide sufficient conditions for MCS at both levels of analysis and show that we may have either type of MCS without the other...

  19. Static validation of licence conformance policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rene Rydhof; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2008-01-01

    Policy conformance is a security property gaining importance due to commercial interest like Digital Rights Management. It is well known that static analysis can be used to validate a number of more classical security policies, such as discretionary and mandatory access control policies, as well...... as communication protocols using symmetric and asymmetric cryptography. In this work we show how to develop a Flow Logic for validating the conformance of client software with respect to a licence conformance policy. Our approach is sufficiently flexible that it extends to fully open systems that can admit new...

  20. Static solitons in more than one dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Raifeartaigh, L.

    1978-01-01

    The most important development of the last decade in particle physics and field theory has undoubtedly been the advent of hidden-symmetric gauge theories. One of the more interesting by-products of this development has been the discovery that hidden-symmetric gauge theories admit static solutions to the field equations which are regular everywhere and for which the energy is finite. Such solutions will be called solitons. The hidden-symmetric gauge solutions exist for n space dimensions, where 1 [de

  1. Mechanics of quasi-static crack growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, J R

    1978-10-01

    Results on the mechanics of quasi-static crack growth are reviewed. These include recent studies on the geometry and stability of crack paths in elastic-brittle solids, and on the thermodynamics of Griffith cracking, including environmental effects. The relation of crack growth criteria to non-elastic rheological models is considered and paradoxes with energy balance approaches, based on singular crack models, are discussed for visco-elastic, diffuso-elastic, and elastic-plastic materials. Also, recent approaches to prediction of stable crack growth in ductile, elastic-plastic solids are discussed.

  2. Static axisymmetric discs and gravitational collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamorro, A.; Gregory, R.; Stewart, J.M.

    1987-09-08

    Regular static axisymmetric vacuum solutions of Einstein's field equations representing the exterior field of a finite thin disc are found. These are used to describe the slow collapse of a disc-like object. If no conditions are placed on the matter, a naked singularity is formed and the cosmic censorship hypothesis would be violated. Imposition of the weak energy condition, however, prevents slow collapse to a singularity and preserves the validity of this hypothesis. The validity of the hoop conjecture is also discussed.

  3. European Vegetation Archive (EVA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chytrý, Milan; Hennekens, S.M.; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Schaminée, J.H.J.; Haveman, Rense; Janssen, J.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The European Vegetation Archive (EVA) is a centralized database of European vegetation plots developed by the IAVS Working Group European Vegetation Survey. It has been in development since 2012 and first made available for use in research projects in 2014. It stores copies of national and

  4. Globalization and Europeanization. A Projection on a European Model of Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Matei

    2008-04-01

    , also by standards. These assertions, to which we can add also others, are leading to a new model of public administration, whose area overlaps with the space of European Union, incorporating the effects of globalization under its European expression, Europeanization. Consequently, the proposed model, emphasizing the process of European Union construction will comprise transparency, accountability and participation of the interested parties to public decision. The new public administration aims to use efficiently the resources in order to create favourable conditions for its citizens to become more competitive on the world market and to reduce the gap between the poorest and the richest inhabitants of the world. The current paper aims to conceptualize and to describe a model of public administration. The architecture of this model will be that of a complex system, with a mixed architecture, emphasizing connections with different intensities among its various levels: European, regional, national etc. The feedback mechanisms will be different and specific for each level and they will be ensured by different institutions on compatible normative grounds(1.

  5. Boson-mediated interactions between static sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolsterli, M.

    1983-01-01

    The techniques are now available for doing accurate computations of static potentials arising from the exchange of virtual mesons. Such computations must take account of the fact that different approximation methods must be used in the regions where R is large and where R is small. In the asymptotic region, the distorted-field approximation provides an appropriate starting-point, but it must be improved before trustworthy results are obtained for all but the largest values of R. In the region of small R, accurate strong-coupling methods are based on the use of states with coherent meson pairs. For small R, it is also important to take account of the possibility of meson emission or near-emission. Current work is aimed at applying the techniques described to the case of static sources interacting via pion field. In particular, it will be interesting to see how sensitive the potential is to the value of the cutoff Λ. Other areas of application are the study of the effects of nonlinearity and models of quark-quark and quark-antiquark potentials. 17 references

  6. Static viscoelasticity of biomass polyethylene composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyan Yang

    Full Text Available The biomass polyethylene composites filled with poplar wood flour, rice husk, cotton stalk or corn stalk were prepared by extrusion molding. The static viscoelasticity of composites was investigated by the dynamic thermal mechanical analyzer (DMA. Through the stress-strain scanning, it is found that the linear viscoelasticity interval of composites gradually decreases as the temperature rises, and the critical stress and strain values are 0.8 MPa and 0.03% respectively. The experiment shows that as the temperature rises, the creep compliance of biomass polyethylene composites is increased; under the constant temperature, the creep compliance decreases with the increase of content of biomass and calcium carbonate. The biomass and calcium carbonate used to prepare composites as filler can improve damping vibration attenuation and reduce stress deformation of composites. The stress relaxation modulus of composites is reduced and the relaxation rate increases at the higher temperature. The biomass and calcium carbonate used to prepare composites as filler not only can reduce costs, but also can increase stress relaxation modulus and improve the size thermostability of composites. The corn stalk is a good kind of biomass raw material for composites since it can improve the creep resistance property and the stress relaxation resistance property of composites more effectively than other three kinds of biomass (poplar wood flour, rice husk and cotton stalk. Keywords: Biomass, Composites, Calcium carbonate, Static viscoelasticity, Creep, Stress relaxation

  7. Robot-Crawler: Statically Balanced Gaits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Parasuraman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new statically balanced walking technique for a robot-crawler. The gait design and the control of the robot crawler aim to achieve stability while walking. This statically balanced gait has to be designed in a different fashion to a wheeled robot, as there are discrete changes in the support of the robot when its legs are lifted or placed on the ground. The stability of the robot depends on how the legs are positioned relative to the body and also on the sequence and timing with which the legs are lifted and placed. In order to reduce the risk of stability loss while walking, a measure for the robot stability (so-called stability margin is typically used in the gait and motion planning. In this paper different biological behaviours of four-legged animals are studied and mapped on a quad-legrobot-crawler. Experiments were carried out on the forward walking gaits of lizards and horses. Based on these results, the stability margins of different gaits are discussed and compared.

  8. Stability of plasma in static equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krusiial, M D; Oberman, N R [Project Matterhorn, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1958-07-01

    Our purpose is to derive from the Boltzmann equation in the small m/e limit, criteria useful in the discussion of stability of plasmas in static equilibrium. At first we ignore collisions but later show their effects may be taken into account. Our approach yields a generalization of the usual energy principles for investigating the stability of hydromagnetic systems to situations where the effect of heat flow along magnetic lines is not negligible, and hence to situations where the strictly hydrodynamic approach is inapplicable. In the first two sections we characterize our general method of approach and delineate the properties of the small m/e limit which we use to determine the constants of the motion and the condition for static equilibrium. In the next two sections we calculate the first and second variations of the energy and conclude with a statement of the general stability criterion. In the final three sections we state several theorems which relate our stability criterion to those of ordinary hydromagnetic theory, we show how to take into account the effect of collisions, and briefly discuss the remaining problem of incorporating the charge neutrality condition into the present stability theory. (author)

  9. Static and Dynamic Criticality: Are They Different?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, D E; Clouse, C J; Procassini, R; Little, R C

    2003-01-01

    Let us start by stating that this paper does not contain anything new. It only contains material that has been known for decades, but which is periodically forgotten. As such this paper is intended merely to refresh people's memories. We will also mention that this paper is an example of the occasional discrepancy between textbook methodologies and real world applications, in the sense that the conclusions reached here contradict what it says in most textbooks, i.e., most textbooks incorrectly interpret the methods presented here, particularly with respect to the use of importance sampling to maintain population control. This paper is not intended as a general tutorial on criticality calculations. It is intended only to clarify the accuracy of various methods for solving criticality problems, such as a true time dependent dynamic calculation, versus an alpha or K static calculation. In particular, we address the long standing controversy between users of the TART code [1] with the dynamic method, and users of the MCNP code [2] with the alpha static method. In this paper we will prove which methods are accurate and inaccurate

  10. Static non-reciprocity in mechanical metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulais, Corentin; Sounas, Dimitrios; Alù, Andrea

    2017-02-23

    Reciprocity is a general, fundamental principle governing various physical systems, which ensures that the transfer function-the transmission of a physical quantity, say light intensity-between any two points in space is identical, regardless of geometrical or material asymmetries. Breaking this transmission symmetry offers enhanced control over signal transport, isolation and source protection. So far, devices that break reciprocity (and therefore show non-reciprocity) have been mostly considered in dynamic systems involving electromagnetic, acoustic and mechanical wave propagation associated with fields varying in space and time. Here we show that it is possible to break reciprocity in static systems, realizing mechanical metamaterials that exhibit vastly different output displacements under excitation from different sides, as well as one-way displacement amplification. This is achieved by combining large nonlinearities with suitable geometrical asymmetries and/or topological features. In addition to extending non-reciprocity and isolation to statics, our work sheds light on energy propagation in nonlinear materials with asymmetric crystalline structures and topological properties. We anticipate that breaking reciprocity will open avenues for energy absorption, conversion and harvesting, soft robotics, prosthetics and optomechanics.

  11. A European Research Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, R.

    2001-01-01

    This article is a summary of the presentation of the European Commissioner, Philippe Busquen, to the European Parliament (beginning of year 2000) with the proposal and method for a revival of the Research and Development in this wider sense in the European Union. The starting point of his thesis is that Europe performs less, and more disorderly, activities in this field that her main competitors. USA and Japan. His basic proposal is a larger coordination among the european research projects, with a previous phase of informatics intoxicator among the european research centres and the cross-linked participation, real of virtual in the experiments and projects. (Author)

  12. Development of general-purpose software to analyze the static thermal characteristic of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Yoshinobu; Koda, Eiichi; Takahashi, Toru

    2009-01-01

    We have developed the general-purpose software by which static thermal characteristic of the power generation system is analyzed easily. This software has the notable features as follows. It has the new algorithm to solve non-linear simultaneous equations to analyze the static thermal characteristics such as heat and mass balance, efficiencies, etc. of various power generation systems. It has the flexibility for setting calculation conditions. It is able to be executed on the personal computer easily and quickly. We ensured that it is able to construct heat and mass balance diagrams of main steam system of nuclear power plant and calculate the power output and efficiencies of the system. Furthermore, we evaluated various heat recovery measures of steam generator blowdown water and found that this software could be a useful operation aid for planning effective changes in support of power stretch. (author)

  13. RE-Shaping. Shaping an effective and efficient European renewable energy market. D20 Report. Consistency with other EU policies, System and Market integration. A Smart Power Market at the Centre of a Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhoff, K.; Boyd, R.; Grau, T. [Climate Policy Initiative, German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin), Berlin (Germany); Hobbs, B.; Newbery, D. [Electricity Policy Research Group, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Borggrefe, F. [University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Barquin, J.; Echavarren, F. [Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Madrid (Spain); Bialek, J.; Dent, C. [Durham University, Durham (United Kingdom); Con Hirschhausen, C. [Technical University of Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Kunz, F.; Weigt, H. [Technical University of Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Nabe, C.; Papaefthymiou, G. [Ecofys Germany, Berlin (Germany); Weber, C. [Duisberg-Essen University, Duisburg-Essen (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    The core objective of the RE-Shaping project is to assist Member State governments in preparing for the implementation of Directive 2009/28/EC (on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources) and to guide a European policy for RES (renewable energy sources) in the mid- to long term. The past and present success of policies for renewable energies will be evaluated and recommendations derived to improve future RES support schemes. The core content of this collaborative research activity comprises: Developing a comprehensive policy background for RES support instruments; Providing the European Commission and Member States with scientifically based and statistically robust indicators to measure the success of currently implemented RES policies; Proposing innovative financing schemes for lower costs and better capital availability in RES financing; Initiation of National Policy Processes which attempt to stimulate debate and offer key stakeholders a meeting place to set and implement RES targets as well as options to improve the national policies fostering RES market penetration; Assessing options to coordinate or even gradually harmonize national RES policy approaches. In the EU, at least 200 gigawatts (GWs) of new and additional renewable electricity sources may be needed by 2020. The aim of this report is to analyse whether the current electricity market and system design is consistent with such an ambitious target. Using an international comparison, we identify opportunities to improve the power market design currently in place across EU countries so as to support the large scale integration of renewable energy sources.

  14. Energy efficiency and behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Kunnasvirta, Annika; Kiviluoto, Katariina

    separate key aspects hinders strategic energy efficiency planning. For this reason, the PLEEC project – “Planning for Energy Efficient Cities” – funded by the EU Seventh Framework Programme uses an integrative approach to achieve the sus‐ tainable, energy– efficient, smart city. By coordinating strategies...... to conduct behavioural interventions, to be presented in Deliverable 5.5., the final report. This report will also provide valuable information for the WP6 general model for an Energy-Smart City. Altogether 38 behavioural interventions are analysed in this report. Each collected and analysed case study...... of the European Union’s 20‐20‐20 plan is to improve energy efficiency by 20% in 2020. However, holistic knowledge about energy efficiency potentials in cities is far from complete. Currently, a WP4 location in PLEEC project page 3 variety of individual strategies and approaches by different stakeholders tackling...

  15. Solution IMRT static of a radiotherapy treatment of breast cancer with lymphangitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puertolas Hernandez, J. R.; Iriondo Igerabide, U.; Urraca de la Serna, J. M.; Lozano Flores, F. J.; Pino Leon, C.; Larretxa Etxarri, R.

    2013-01-01

    In breast cancer, the planning of treatment with IMRT technique mode static MLC has been efficient to get a perfect union of doses in the skin between the lower limit of the supraclavicular fields and the upper limit of the tangential fields. The technique Planning requires the creation of auxiliary volumes that allow you to manage the particularities inherent to the tangential fields of breast. (Author)

  16. Evaluation of Aero Commander sidewall vibration and interior acoustic data: Static operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersol, A. G.; Wilby, E. G.; Wilby, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    Results for the vibration measured at five locations on the fuselage structure during static operations are presented. The analysis was concerned with the magnitude of the vibration and the relative phase between different locations, the frequency response (inertance) functions between the exterior pressure field and the vibration, and the coherent output power functions at interior microphone locations based on sidewall vibration. Fuselage skin panels near the plane of rotation of the propeller accept propeller noise excitation more efficiently than they do exhaust noise.

  17. Static and dynamic optimization of CAPE problems using a Model Testbed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This paper presents a new computer aided tool for setting up and solving CAPE related static and dynamic optimisation problems. The Model Testbed (MOT) offers an integrated environment for setting up and solving a very large range of CAPE problems, including complex optimisation problems...... and dynamic optimisation, and how interfacing of solvers and seamless information flow can lead to more efficient solution of process design problems....

  18. Granular flow in static mixers by coupled DEM/CFD approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pezo Lato; Pezo Milada; Jovanović Aca; Kosanić Nenad; Petrović Aleksandar; Lević Ljubinko

    2016-01-01

    The mixing process greatly influence the mixing efficiency, as well as the quality and the price of the intermediate and/or the final product. Static mixer is used for premixing action before the main mixing process, for significant reduction of mixing time and energy consumption. This type of premixing action is not investigated in detail in the open literature. In this article, the novel numerical approach called Discrete Element Method is used for modell...

  19. The Static Eccentricity Fault Diagnosis in Time Domain at Line Start Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

    OpenAIRE

    DOGAN, Zafer

    2016-01-01

    Recently, Line Start Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor have been commonly utilized in industrial areas because of their high efficiency. Motor faults during operation cause losses of production and high maintenance and repair expenditures. In this study, the effect of static eccentricity fault on line start permanent magnet synchronous motor was investigated. The simulation models of motor belonging to healthy and fault status were formed via Finite Elements Method. The analyses in time doma...

  20. Energy efficiency policies and measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document makes a review of the energy efficiency and demand side management (DSM) policies and measures in European Union countries and Norway in 1999: institutional changes, measures and programmes, budget, taxation, existence of a national DSM programme, national budgets for DSM programmes, electricity pricing: energy/environment tax, national efficiency standards and regulation for new electrical appliances, implementation of Commission directives, efficiency requirements, labelling, fiscal and economic incentives. (J.S.)

  1. Weyl curvature tensor in static spherical sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce de Leon, J.

    1988-01-01

    The role of the Weyl curvature tensor in static sources of the Schwarzschild field is studied. It is shown that in general the contribution from the Weyl curvature tensor (the ''purely gravitational field energy'') to the mass-energy inside the body may be positive, negative, or zero. It is proved that a positive (negative) contribution from the Weyl tensor tends to increase (decrease) the effective gravitational mass, the red-shift (from a point in the sphere to infinity), as well as the gravitational force which acts on a constituent matter element of a body. It is also proved that the contribution from the Weyl tensor always is negative in sources with surface gravitational potential larger than (4/9. It is pointed out that large negative contributions from the Weyl tensor could give rise to the phenomenon of gravitational repulsion. A simple example which illustrates the results is discussed

  2. Structural Encoding of Static Single Assignment Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, Andreas; Probst, Christian; Franz, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Static Single Assignment (SSA) form is often used as an intermediate representation during code optimization in Java Virtual Machines. Recently, SSA has successfully been used for bytecode verification. However, constructing SSA at the code consumer is costly. SSAbased mobile code transport formats...... Java bytecode. While the resulting bytecode sequence can still be directly executed by traditional Virtual Machines, our novel VM can infer SSA form and confirm its safety with virtually no overhead....... have been shown to eliminate this cost by shifting SSA creation to the code producer. These new formats, however, are not backward compatible with the established Java class-file format. We propose a novel approach to transport SSA information implicitly through structural code properties of standard...

  3. Construction of STACY (Static Experiment Critical Facility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Kiyonobu; Onodera, Seiji; Hirose, Hideyuki

    1998-08-01

    Two critical assemblies, STACY (Static Experiment Critical Facility) and TRACY (Transient Experiment Critical Facility), were constructed in NUCEF (Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility) to promote researches on the criticality safety at a reprocessing facility. STACY aims at providing critical data of uranium nitrate solution, plutonium nitrate solution and their mixture while varying concentration of solution fuel, core tank shape and size and neutron reflecting condition. STACY achieved first criticality in February 1995, and passed the licensing inspection by STA (Science and Technology Agency of Japan) in May. After that a series of critical experiments commenced with 10 w/o enriched uranium solution. This report describes the outline of STACY at the end of FY 1996. (author)

  4. Static Load Distribution in Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Mario

    2010-01-01

    A numerical procedure for computing the internal loading distribution in statically loaded, single-row, angular-contact ball bearings when subjected to a known combined radial and thrust load is presented. The combined radial and thrust load must be applied in order to avoid tilting between inner and outer rings. The numerical procedure requires the iterative solution of Z + 2 simultaneous nonlinear equations - where Z is the number of the balls - to yield an exact solution for axial and radial deflections, and contact angles. Numerical results for a 218 angular-contact ball bearing have been compared with those from the literature and show significant differences in the magnitudes of the ball loads, contact angles, and the extent of the loading zone.

  5. Accelerated particle interaction with static gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hvelplund, P.

    1977-01-01

    This work describes experimental studies of stopping power and electron capture and loss associated with the passage of fast atomic particles through static gas targets. Most of the results, as well as a detailed description of the experimental procedures, have been reported in a series of articles. After an introduction to particle-gas collisions follows a short description of some theoretical approaches used in the field of stopping power and charge-changing collisions. The last part is concerned with a review of the experimental procedures employed in the papers. At the same time, the data reported in these papers are used as a starting point for further discussion of experimental studies of stopping power and charge-changing collisions. (Auth.)

  6. Static and dynamic friction of hierarchical surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costagliola, Gianluca; Bosia, Federico; Pugno, Nicola M

    2016-12-01

    Hierarchical structures are very common in nature, but only recently have they been systematically studied in materials science, in order to understand the specific effects they can have on the mechanical properties of various systems. Structural hierarchy provides a way to tune and optimize macroscopic mechanical properties starting from simple base constituents and new materials are nowadays designed exploiting this possibility. This can be true also in the field of tribology. In this paper we study the effect of hierarchical patterned surfaces on the static and dynamic friction coefficients of an elastic material. Our results are obtained by means of numerical simulations using a one-dimensional spring-block model, which has previously been used to investigate various aspects of friction. Despite the simplicity of the model, we highlight some possible mechanisms that explain how hierarchical structures can significantly modify the friction coefficients of a material, providing a means to achieve tunability.

  7. Orienting Paramecium with intense static magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles, James M., Jr.; Guevorkian, Karine; Quindel, Carl

    2004-03-01

    Recent experiments on cell division suggest the application of intense static magnetic fields as a novel tool for the manipulation of biological systems [1]. The magnetic field appears to couple to the intrinsic anisotropies in the diamagnetic components of the cells. Here, we present measurements of the intrinsic average diamagnetic anisotropy of the whole single celled ciliate, Paramecium Caudatum. Magnetic fields, 2.5 T Paramecium Caudatum that were suspended in a density matched medium. The organisms align with their long axis parallel to the applied magnetic field. Their intrinsic diamagnetic anisotropy is 3x10-11 in cgs units. We will discuss the implications of these results for employing magnetic fields to probe the behavior of swimming Paramecium. [1] J. M. Valles, Jr. et al., Expt. Cell Res.274, 112-118 (2002).

  8. FACET Tolerances for Static and Dynamic Misalignments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federico, Joel

    2012-07-13

    The Facility for AdvancedAccelerator and Experimental Tests (FACET) at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is designed to deliver a beam with a transverse spot size on the order of 10 {micro}m x 10 {micro}m in a new beamline constructed at the two kilometer point of the SLAC linac. Commissioning the beamline requires mitigating alignment errors and their effects, which can be significant and result in spot sizes orders of magnitude larger. Sextupole and quadrupole alignment errors in particular can introduce errors in focusing, steering, and dispersion which can result in spot size growth, beta mismatch, and waist movement. Alignment errors due to static misalignments, mechanical jitter, energy jitter, and other physical processes can be analyzed to determine the level of accuracy and precision that the beamline requires. It is important to recognize these effects and their tolerances in order to deliver a beam as designed.

  9. Static analysis of an office desk construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Novotný

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is a static analysis of a desk construction and the determination of its probable mechanical behaviour using Finite Element Method. The construction was modelled and numerically analysed in Autocad Inventor 2011 and the stability of the entire desk was calculated with the size and placement of the loading force based on the standards and cited literature. Possible locations and directions of the deformation were analysed and a solution for its prevention was proposed and the stability of the desk as well as the extreme position of the stand were calculated. The verification of the obtained results in an accredited furniture testing lab is planned using a prototype of the office desk.

  10. Static structure of active Brownian hard disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo Biniossek, N.; Löwen, H.; Voigtmann, Th; Smallenburg, F.

    2018-02-01

    We explore the changes in static structure of a two-dimensional system of active Brownian particles (ABP) with hard-disk interactions, using event-driven Brownian dynamics simulations. In particular, the effect of the self-propulsion velocity and the rotational diffusivity on the orientationally-averaged fluid structure factor is discussed. Typically activity increases structural ordering and generates a structure factor peak at zero wave vector which is a precursor of motility-induced phase separation. Our results provide reference data to test future statistical theories for the fluid structure of active Brownian systems. This manuscript was submitted for the special issue of the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter associated with the Liquid Matter Conference 2017.

  11. Network Completion for Static Gene Expression Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsu Nakajima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We tackle the problem of completing and inferring genetic networks under stationary conditions from static data, where network completion is to make the minimum amount of modifications to an initial network so that the completed network is most consistent with the expression data in which addition of edges and deletion of edges are basic modification operations. For this problem, we present a new method for network completion using dynamic programming and least-squares fitting. This method can find an optimal solution in polynomial time if the maximum indegree of the network is bounded by a constant. We evaluate the effectiveness of our method through computational experiments using synthetic data. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our proposed method can distinguish the differences between two types of genetic networks under stationary conditions from lung cancer and normal gene expression data.

  12. Canonical quantization of static spherically symmetric geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christodoulakis, T; Dimakis, N; Terzis, P A; Doulis, G; Grammenos, Th; Melas, E; Spanou, A

    2013-01-01

    The conditional symmetries of the reduced Einstein–Hilbert action emerging from a static, spherically symmetric geometry are used as supplementary conditions on the wave function. Based on their integrability conditions, only one of the three existing symmetries can be consistently imposed, while the unique Casimir invariant, being the product of the remaining two symmetries, is calculated as the only possible second condition on the wave function. This quadratic integral of motion is identified with the reparametrization generator, as an implication of the uniqueness of the dynamical evolution, by fixing a suitable parametrization of the r-lapse function. In this parametrization, the determinant of the supermetric plays the role of the mesure. The combined Wheeler – DeWitt and linear conditional symmetry equations are analytically solved. The solutions obtained depend on the product of the two ''scale factors''

  13. European energy policy: the green book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    Energy dependence, insecurity of supplies, rise of demand and prices, global warming: these are the characteristics of the energy situation of the 21. century. The new green book of the European Commission about 'a European strategy for a safe, competitive and durable energy' starts from this alarming status and proposes some suggestions for the building up of a new global European energy policy: realization of the European domestic energy markets (a European energy network, a priority interconnection plan for gas networks, a separation of transport and distribution activities for equitable rules, a reinforcement of the competitiveness of the European industry), a joint security of supplies between member states (redefining the EU position about strategic oil and gas reserves), a sustainable, efficient and diversified energy offer, an integrated approach to fight against global warming (improving energy efficiency, development of renewable energy sources, carbon sequestration), encouraging innovation, developing a consistent foreign policy of energy (a clear policy for the security and diversification of energy supplies, energy partnerships between producers, transit countries and other international actors). (J.S.)

  14. Quasi-static acoustic tweezing thromboelastometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, R G; Luo, D; Gruver, N; Khismatullin, D B

    2017-07-01

    Essentials Blood coagulation measurement during contact with an artificial surface leads to unreliable data. Acoustic tweezing thromboelastometry is a novel non-contact method for coagulation monitoring. This method detects differences in the blood coagulation state within 10 min. Coagulation data were obtained using a much smaller sample volume (4 μL) than currently used. Background Thromboelastography is widely used as a tool to assess the coagulation status of critical care patients. It allows observation of changes in material properties of whole blood, beginning with early stages of clot formation and ending with clot lysis. However, the contact activation of the coagulation cascade at surfaces of thromboelastographic systems leads to inherent variability and unreliability in predicting bleeding or thrombosis risks. Objectives To develop acoustic tweezing thromboelastometry as a non-contact method for perioperative assessment of blood coagulation. Methods Acoustic tweezing is used to levitate microliter drops of biopolymer and human blood samples. By quasi-statically changing the acoustic pressure we control the sample drop location and deformation. Sample size, deformation and location are determined by digital imaging at each pressure. Results Simple Newtonian liquid solutions maintain a constant, reversible location vs. deformation curve. In contrast, the location/deformation curves for gelatin, alginate, whole blood and blood plasma uniquely change as the samples solidify. Increasing elasticity causes the sample to deform less, leading to steeper stress/strain curves. By extracting a linear regime slope, we show that whole blood or blood plasma exhibits a unique slope profile as it begins to clot. By exposing blood samples to pro- or antithrombotic agents, the slope profile changes, allowing detection of hyper- or hypocoagulable states. Conclusions We demonstrate that quasi-static acoustic tweezing can yield information about clotting onset, maturation

  15. Assessing Static Performance of the Dashengguan Yangtze Bridge by Monitoring the Correlation between Temperature Field and Its Static Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao-Xin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking advantage of the structural health monitoring system installed on the steel truss arch girder of Dashengguan Yangtze Bridge, the temperature field data and static strain data are collected and analyzed for the static performance assessment of the bridge. Through analysis, it is found that the static strain changes are mainly caused by temperature field (temperature and temperature difference and train. After the train-induced static strains are removed, the correlation between the remaining static strains and the temperature field shows apparent linear characteristics, which can be mathematically modeled for the description of static performance. Therefore, multivariate linear regression function combined with principal component analysis is introduced to mathematically model the correlation. Furthermore, the residual static strains of mathematical model are adopted as assessment indicator and three kinds of degradation regulations of static performance are obtained after simulation of the residual static strains. Finally, it is concluded that the static performance of Dashengguan Yangtze Bridge was in a good condition during that period.

  16. Investigation of two pitot-static tubes at supersonic speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasel, Lowell E; Coletti, Donald E

    1948-01-01

    The results of tests at a Mach number of 1.94 of an ogives-nose cylindrical pitot-static tube and similar tests at Mach numbers of 1.93 and 1.62 of a service pitot-static tube to determine body static pressures and indicated Mach numbers are presented and discussed. The radial pressure distribution on the cylindrical bodies is compared with that calculated by an approximate theory.

  17. Static and Dynamic Path Planning Using Incremental Heuristic Search

    OpenAIRE

    Khattab, Asem

    2018-01-01

    Path planning is an important component in any highly automated vehicle system. In this report, the general problem of path planning is considered first in partially known static environments where only static obstacles are present but the layout of the environment is changing as the agent acquires new information. Attention is then given to the problem of path planning in dynamic environments where there are moving obstacles in addition to the static ones. Specifically, a 2D car-like agent t...

  18. On the efficiency of decentralised monitoring using mobile agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liotta, A.; Knight, G.; Pavlou, G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of improving the efficiency and scalability of current monitoring systems, which generally follow a centralised and static management model. Several alternative solutions based on Mobile Agents (MAs), specifically tailored to network monitoring are described. In

  19. Geomagnetic and strong static magnetic field effects on growth and chlorophyll a fluorescence in Lemna minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Luka; Fefer, Dušan; Košmelj, Katarina; Gaberščik, Alenka; Jerman, Igor

    2015-04-01

    The geomagnetic field (GMF) varies over Earth's surface and changes over time, but it is generally not considered as a factor that could influence plant growth. The effects of reduced and enhanced GMFs and a strong static magnetic field on growth and chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence of Lemna minor plants were investigated under controlled conditions. A standard 7 day test was conducted in extreme geomagnetic environments of 4 µT and 100 µT as well as in a strong static magnetic field environment of 150 mT. Specific growth rates as well as slow and fast Chl a fluorescence kinetics were measured after 7 days incubation. The results, compared to those of controls, showed that the reduced GMF significantly stimulated growth rate of the total frond area in the magnetically treated plants. However, the enhanced GMF pointed towards inhibition of growth rate in exposed plants in comparison to control, but the difference was not statistically significant. This trend was not observed in the case of treatments with strong static magnetic fields. Our measurements suggest that the efficiency of photosystem II is not affected by variations in GMF. In contrast, the strong static magnetic field seems to have the potential to increase initial Chl a fluorescence and energy dissipation in Lemna minor plants. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Extraction of Static and Dynamic Reservoir Operation Rules by Genetic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Akbari Alashti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering the necessity of desirable operation of limited water resources and assuming the significant role of dams in controlling and consuming the surface waters, highlights the advantageous of suitable operation rules for optimal and sustainable operation of dams. This study investigates the hydroelectric supply of a one-reservoir system of Karoon3 using nonlinear programming (NLP, genetic algorithm (GA, genetic programming (GP and fixed length gen GP (FLGGP in real-time operation of dam considering two approaches of static and dynamic operation rules. In static operation rule, only one rule curve is extracted for all months in a year whereas in dynamic operation rule, monthly rule curves (12 rules are extracted for each month of a year. In addition, nonlinear decision rule (NLDR curves are considered, and the total deficiency function as the target (objective function have been used for evaluating the performance of each method and approach. Results show appropriate efficiency of GP and FLGGP methods in extracting operation rules in both approaches. Superiority of these methods to operation methods yielded by GA and NLP is 5%. Moreover, according to the results, it can be remarked that, FLGGP method is an alternative for GP method, whereas the GP method cannot be used due to its limitations. Comparison of two approaches of static and dynamic operation rules demonstrated the superiority of dynamic operation rule to static operation rule (about 10% and therefore this method has more capabilities in real-time operation of the reservoirs systems.

  1. Fast static field CIPT mapping of unpatterned MRAM film stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Daniel; Hansen, Ole; Henrichsen, Henrik Hartmann

    2015-01-01

    Current In-Plane Tunneling (CIPT) method measures both RA and TMR, but the usefulness for uniformity mapping, e.g. for tool optimization, is limited by excessive measurement time. Thus, we develop and demonstrate a fast complementary static magnetic field method focused only on measurement of RA. We...... compare the static field method to the standard CIPT method and find perfect agreement between the extracted RA values and measurement repeatability while the static field method is several times faster. The static field CIPT method is demonstrated for 200 mm wafer mapping showing radial as well...

  2. From Flow Logic to static type systems for coordination languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Nicola, Rocco; Gorla, Daniele; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2010-01-01

    checks; therefore, the correctness properties cannot be statically enforced. By contrast, static analysis approaches based on Flow Logic usually guarantee properties statically. In this paper, we show how the insights from the Flow Logic approach can be used to construct a type system for statically......Coordination languages are often used to describe open-ended systems. This makes it challenging to develop tools for guaranteeing the security of the coordinated systems and the correctness of their interaction. Successful approaches to this problem have been based on type systems with dynamic...

  3. From Flow Logic to Static Type Systems in Coordination Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Nicola, Rocco; Gorla, Daniele; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2008-01-01

    ; therefore, the correctness properties cannot be statically enforced. By contrast, static analysis approaches based on Flow Logic usually guarantee properties statically. In this paper we show how to combine these two approaches to obtain a static type system for describing secure access to tuple spaces......Coordination languages are often used to describe open ended systems. This makes it challenging to develop tools for guaranteeing security of the coordinated systems and correctness of their interaction. Successful approaches to this problem have been based on type systems with dynamic checks...

  4. European nuclear education network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.; Moons, F.; Safieh, J.

    2005-01-01

    In most countries within the European Union that rely to a significant extent on nuclear power, neither undergraduate nor PhD education is producing a sufficient number of engineers and doctors to fill the needs of the industry. As a result of an EU-supported project, a new education organisation, European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN), has recently been established, with the aim to establish a European master's degree of nuclear engineering. Recently, a new EU project, Nuclear European Platform of Training and University Organisations (NEPTUNO), has been launched, aiming at the practical implementation of ENEN and harmonisation of training activities. (author)

  5. European mobility cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick

    2016-01-01

    More targeted European policies promoting green travel patterns require better knowledge on differing mobility cultures across European regions. As a basis for this, we clustered the EU population into eight mobility styles based on Eurobarometer data. The mobility styles - including, for example...... positions on the path towards sustainable mobility and therefore different requirements towards European platforms and support measures, e.g. for 'Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans'. The country clusters can provide a starting point for future communication and targeting of European efforts in sustainable...

  6. Competition and Profitability in European Financial Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Morten; Lierman, F.; Mullineux, A.

    Financial services firms play a key role in the European economy. The efficiency and profitability of these firms and the competition among them have an impact on allocation of savings, financing of investment, economic growth, the stability of the financial system and the transmission of monetary...... policy. This collection of research contributions includes evaluations of trends in the European financial service industry and examinations of the driving forces of efficiency, competition and profitability of financial firms and institutions in Europe. The papers have been written by leading academics...... and researchers in the field, who specialize in strategic, systematic and policy issues related to the European financial services industry. This edited collection will be will be essential reading for students and academics but will also be of interest to financial practitioners and government officials...

  7. Ultrafast static and diffusion-controlled electron transfer at Ag 29 nanocluster/molecular acceptor interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Aly, Shawkat Mohammede; AbdulHalim, Lina G.; Besong, Tabot M.D.; Soldan, Giada; Bakr, Osman; Mohammed, Omar F.

    2015-01-01

    Efficient absorption of visible light and a long-lived excited state lifetime of silver nanoclusters (Ag29 NCs) are integral properties for these new clusters to serve as light-harvesting materials. Upon optical excitation, electron injection at Ag29 NC/methyl viologen (MV2+) interfaces is very efficient and ultrafast. Interestingly, our femto- and nanosecond time-resolved results demonstrate clearly that both dynamic and static electron transfer mechanisms are involved in photoluminescence quenching of Ag29 NCs. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  8. Use of static picture prompts versus video modeling during simulation instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto, Paul A; Cihak, David F; Gama, Robert I

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of static picture prompts and video modeling as classroom simulation strategies in combination with in vivo community instruction. Students with moderate intellectual disabilities were instructed in the tasks of withdrawing money from an ATM and purchasing items using a debit card. Both simulation strategies were effective and efficient at teaching the skills. The two simulation strategies were not functionally different in terms of number of trials to acquisition, number of errors, and number of instructional sessions to criterion.

  9. Ultrafast static and diffusion-controlled electron transfer at Ag 29 nanocluster/molecular acceptor interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Aly, Shawkat Mohammede

    2015-10-29

    Efficient absorption of visible light and a long-lived excited state lifetime of silver nanoclusters (Ag29 NCs) are integral properties for these new clusters to serve as light-harvesting materials. Upon optical excitation, electron injection at Ag29 NC/methyl viologen (MV2+) interfaces is very efficient and ultrafast. Interestingly, our femto- and nanosecond time-resolved results demonstrate clearly that both dynamic and static electron transfer mechanisms are involved in photoluminescence quenching of Ag29 NCs. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. Transports and the environment: European comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    For different issues (freight transport, passenger transport, greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, fuel consumption in transport and energy efficiency), and illustrated by data tables and figures, this report proposes assessments and comments of the impact on the environment, an overview of the French situation, a comparison with European countries, and an analysis of French peculiarities

  11. Computational Fluid Dynamics and Experimental Studies of a New Mixing Element in a Static Mixer as a Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konopacki Maciej

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this work is to study the thermal efficiency of a new type of a static mixer and to analyse the flow and temperature patterns and heat transfer efficiency. The measurements were carried out for the static mixer equipped with a new mixing insert. The heat transfer enhancement was determined by measuring the temperature profiles on each side of the heating pipe as well as the temperature field inside the static mixer. All experiments were carried out with varying operating parameters for four liquids: water, glycerol, transformer oil and an aqueous solution of molasses. Numerical CFD simulations were carried out using the two-equation turbulence k-ω model, provided by ANSYS Workbench 14.5 software. The proposed CFD model was validated by comparing the predicted numerical results against experimental thermal database obtained from the investigations. Local and global convective heat transfer coefficients and Nusselt numbers were detrmined. The relationship between heat transfer process and hydrodynamics in the static mixer was also presented. Moreover, a comparison of the thermal performance between the tested static mixer and a conventional empty tube was carried out. The relative enhancement of heat transfer was characterised by the rate of relative heat transfer intensification.

  12. Static Posturography in Aging and Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guntram W. Ickenstein

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In clinical practise, evaluation of postural control is based on the neurological examination, including Romberg’s test, examination of gait and performance of pull test as part of the Unified Parkinson´s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS. The goal of our study was to identify posturographic parameters since quantitative technical methods for the measurement of postural control are not established in clinical routine yet. Methods: In this cross-sectional study design we examined patients with Parkinson's disease (Hoehn & Yahr <3; PD n=12 on a static posturographic platform (eyes open and eyes closed, performing a standard Romberg’s test during neurological examination and compared the results with an age-matched control group (healthy adult control; HAC n=10 and a healthy young control (HYC n=21.Results: In the platform Romberg’s test with open eyes, the patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD showed a significantly greater mean sway (PD: 14.98 vs. HAC: 8.77 [mm], p<0.003 vs. HYC 7.80 [mm], greater mean radius (PD: 28.31 vs. HAC: 16.36 [mm], p<0.008 vs. HYC: 14.19 [mm] and greater marked area (PD: 2.38 vs. HAC: 0.88 [cm2], p<0.016 vs. HYC: 0.78 [cm2] compared to the healthy adult control (HAC. The Romberg’s test with closed eyes revealed a significantly greater mean sway (PD: 13.83 vs. HAC: 10.12 [mm], p<0.033 vs. HYC: 5.82 [mm] and greater mean radius (PD: 25.03 vs. HAC: 18.15 [mm], p<0.045 vs. HYC: 9.11 [mm] compared to both groups.Conclusions: The platform Romberg test with closed eyes detected significant differences in elderly people and patients with Parkinson's disease, which could be objectively quantified with static posturography testing. Age alone showed significant changes, only detectable with closed eyes. Therefore balance testing with a new computerized approach could help to identify balance problems in a geriatric assessment in clinical routine, especially with the parameters marked area and mean sway.

  13. Spirometry, Static Lung Volumes, and Diffusing Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz Fragoso, Carlos A; Cain, Hilary C; Casaburi, Richard; Lee, Patty J; Iannone, Lynne; Leo-Summers, Linda S; Van Ness, Peter H

    2017-09-01

    Spirometric Z-scores from the Global Lung Initiative (GLI) rigorously account for age-related changes in lung function and are thus age-appropriate when establishing spirometric impairments, including a restrictive pattern and air-flow obstruction. However, GLI-defined spirometric impairments have not yet been evaluated regarding associations with static lung volumes (total lung capacity [TLC], functional residual capacity [FRC], and residual volume [RV]) and gas exchange (diffusing capacity). We performed a retrospective review of pulmonary function tests in subjects ≥40 y old (mean age 64.6 y), including pre-bronchodilator measures for: spirometry ( n = 2,586), static lung volumes by helium dilution with inspiratory capacity maneuver ( n = 2,586), and hemoglobin-adjusted single-breath diffusing capacity ( n = 2,508). Using multivariable linear regression, adjusted least-squares means (adj LS Means) were calculated for TLC, FRC, RV, and hemoglobin-adjusted single-breath diffusing capacity. The adj LS Means were expressed with and without height-cubed standardization and stratified by GLI-defined spirometry, including normal ( n = 1,251), restrictive pattern ( n = 663), and air-flow obstruction (mild, [ n = 128]; moderate, [ n = 150]; and severe, [ n = 394]). Relative to normal spirometry, restrictive-pattern had lower adj LS Means for TLC, FRC, RV, and hemoglobin-adjusted single-breath diffusing capacity ( P ≤ .001). Conversely, relative to normal spirometry, mild, moderate, and severe air-flow obstruction had higher adj LS Means for FRC and RV ( P < .001). However, only mild and moderate air-flow obstruction had higher adj LS Means for TLC ( P < .001), while only moderate and severe air-flow obstruction had higher adj LS Means for RV/TLC ( P < .001) and lower adj LS Means for hemoglobin-adjusted single-breath diffusing capacity ( P < .001). Notably, TLC (calculated as FRC + inspiratory capacity) was not increased in severe air-flow obstruction ( P ≥ .11

  14. Which is the most efficient agent for the diffusion of a high-performance technology? Study of the gas-burning condensing boilers'market in four European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauret, L.; Adnot, J.; Haug, J.; Weber, Ch.

    1999-01-01

    The diffusion of technology is often confronted to numerous barriers (market, economical, social...). The combination of strategies along the partners' chain - equipment manufacturer, utility, government, retailer, installer and customer - contributes to the success or the failure of a diffusion. For a given technology, the comparison of different national markets can help to understand why diffusion programs are successful in a country and not in another one. The gas-burning condensing boilers is a good example. It is theoretically the post efficient boiler with LHV efficiency above 100 %, which guarantee an attractive pay-back period for an individual unit (below 10 years) or for a collective equipment (below 5 years). It also induces lower CO 2 and NO x emissions. But the success on the market of this highly-efficient technology, designed in the seventies, has been dramatically different according to the country. The authors reconstitute these market evolutions for the four countries (France, Germany, Great Britain and Netherlands). Furthermore, the link between sales and strategy of main parties involved ( equipment maker, utility, government, retailer, installer and customer - is analysed throughout the past and current promoting methods implemented for their development (R and D supports by utility, subsidies to customers, subsidies to installers...). Finally, the authors prove the role of the involved partners' chain and of the management of subsidies as determining factors for any market development. (authors)

  15. ATLAS OF EUROPEAN VALUES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M Ed Uwe Krause

    2008-01-01

    Uwe Krause: Atlas of Eurpean Values De Atlas of European Values is een samenwerkingsproject met bijbehorende website van de Universiteit van Tilburg en Fontys Lerarenopleiding in Tilburg, waarbij de wetenschappelijke data van de European Values Study (EVS) voor het onderwijs toegankelijk worden

  16. European media law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castendyk, O.; Dommering, E.; Scheuer, A.

    2008-01-01

    European Union legislation concerning electronic communications media is firmly established as an essential part of the law in the field in Europe. From relevant provisions of the European Convention of Human Rights and the EC Treaty to numerous directives, the most recent being the Audiovisual

  17. European Industry, 1700 - 1870

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broadberry, Stephen; Fremdling, Rainer; Solar, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of the development of European industry between 1700 and 1870, drawing in particular on the recent literature that has emerged following the formation of the European Historical Economics Society in 1991. The approach thus makes use of economic analysis and quantitative

  18. European Stars and Stripes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hendricks, Nancy

    1994-01-01

    The European Stars and Stripes (ES&S) organization publishes a daily newspaper, The Stars and Stripes, for DoD personnel stationed in Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, and other DoD activities in the U.S. European Command...

  19. Introduction: European climate leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurzel, R.K.W.; Liefferink, J.D.; Connelly, J.; Wurzel, R.K.W.; Connelly, J.; Liefferink, D.

    2017-01-01

    There is no shortage of would-be leaders in EU climate change politics. The EU institutions (e.g. European Council, Council of the EU, Commission and the European Parliament (EP)), member states and societal actors have all, though to varying degrees and at different time periods, tried to offer

  20. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2004-01-01

    The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  1. The European Programme Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Anne; Bergman, E.; Ehlers, S.

    The publication is a result of a cooperation between organisations in six European countries with the aim to develop a common European education for programme managers. It contains of a description of the different elements of the education together with a number of case-studies from the counties...

  2. European Analytical Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, B.; Grasserbauer, M.; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    for European analytical chemistry. During the period 2002–07, Professor Grasserbauer was Director of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (EC), Ispra, Italy. There is no doubt that many challenges exist at the present time for all of us representing...

  3. Static Memory Deduplication for Performance Optimization in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangyong Jia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In a cloud computing environment, the number of virtual machines (VMs on a single physical server and the number of applications running on each VM are continuously growing. This has led to an enormous increase in the demand of memory capacity and subsequent increase in the energy consumption in the cloud. Lack of enough memory has become a major bottleneck for scalability and performance of virtualization interfaces in cloud computing. To address this problem, memory deduplication techniques which reduce memory demand through page sharing are being adopted. However, such techniques suffer from overheads in terms of number of online comparisons required for the memory deduplication. In this paper, we propose a static memory deduplication (SMD technique which can reduce memory capacity requirement and provide performance optimization in cloud computing. The main innovation of SMD is that the process of page detection is performed offline, thus potentially reducing the performance cost, especially in terms of response time. In SMD, page comparisons are restricted to the code segment, which has the highest shared content. Our experimental results show that SMD efficiently reduces memory capacity requirement and improves performance. We demonstrate that, compared to other approaches, the cost in terms of the response time is negligible.

  4. Pythran: enabling static optimization of scientific Python programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelton, Serge; Brunet, Pierrick; Amini, Mehdi; Merlini, Adrien; Corbillon, Xavier; Raynaud, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Pythran is an open source static compiler that turns modules written in a subset of Python language into native ones. Assuming that scientific modules do not rely much on the dynamic features of the language, it trades them for powerful, possibly inter-procedural, optimizations. These optimizations include detection of pure functions, temporary allocation removal, constant folding, Numpy ufunc fusion and parallelization, explicit thread-level parallelism through OpenMP annotations, false variable polymorphism pruning, and automatic vector instruction generation such as AVX or SSE. In addition to these compilation steps, Pythran provides a C++ runtime library that leverages the C++ STL to provide generic containers, and the Numeric Template Toolbox for Numpy support. It takes advantage of modern C++11 features such as variadic templates, type inference, move semantics and perfect forwarding, as well as classical idioms such as expression templates. Unlike the Cython approach, Pythran input code remains compatible with the Python interpreter. Output code is generally as efficient as the annotated Cython equivalent, if not more, but without the backward compatibility loss.

  5. Scalable Static and Dynamic Community Detection Using Grappolo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Lu, Hao; Kalyanaraman, Anantharaman; Tumeo, Antonino

    2017-09-12

    Graph clustering, popularly known as community detection, is a fundamental kernel for several applications of relevance to the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency’s (DARPA) Hierarchical Identify Verify Exploit (HIVE) Pro- gram. Clusters or communities represent natural divisions within a network that are densely connected within a cluster and sparsely connected to the rest of the network. The need to compute clustering on large scale data necessitates the development of efficient algorithms that can exploit modern architectures that are fundamentally parallel in nature. How- ever, due to their irregular and inherently sequential nature, many of the current algorithms for community detection are challenging to parallelize. In response to the HIVE Graph Challenge, we present several parallelization heuristics for fast community detection using the Louvain method as the serial template. We implement all the heuristics in a software library called Grappolo. Using the inputs from the HIVE Challenge, we demonstrate superior performance and high quality solutions based on four parallelization heuristics. We use Grappolo on static graphs as the first step towards community detection on streaming graphs.

  6. Static Memory Deduplication for Performance Optimization in Cloud Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Gangyong; Han, Guangjie; Wang, Hao; Yang, Xuan

    2017-04-27

    In a cloud computing environment, the number of virtual machines (VMs) on a single physical server and the number of applications running on each VM are continuously growing. This has led to an enormous increase in the demand of memory capacity and subsequent increase in the energy consumption in the cloud. Lack of enough memory has become a major bottleneck for scalability and performance of virtualization interfaces in cloud computing. To address this problem, memory deduplication techniques which reduce memory demand through page sharing are being adopted. However, such techniques suffer from overheads in terms of number of online comparisons required for the memory deduplication. In this paper, we propose a static memory deduplication (SMD) technique which can reduce memory capacity requirement and provide performance optimization in cloud computing. The main innovation of SMD is that the process of page detection is performed offline, thus potentially reducing the performance cost, especially in terms of response time. In SMD, page comparisons are restricted to the code segment, which has the highest shared content. Our experimental results show that SMD efficiently reduces memory capacity requirement and improves performance. We demonstrate that, compared to other approaches, the cost in terms of the response time is negligible.

  7. Artificial neural networks for static security assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niebur, D.; Fischl, R.

    1997-12-31

    A reliable, continuous supply of electric energy is essential for the functioning of today`s complex societies. Due to a combination of increasing energy consumption and impediments of various kinds to the extension of existing electric transmission networks, these power systems are operated closer and closer to their limits. This situation requires a significantly less conservative power system operation and control regime which, in turn, is possible only by monitoring the system state in much more detail than was necessary previously. Fortunately, the large quantity of information required can be provided in many cases through recent advances in telecommunications and computing techniques. There is, however, a lack of evaluation techniques required to extract the salient information and to use it for higher-order processing. Whilst the sheer quantity of available information is always a problem, this situation is aggravated in emergency situations when rapid decisions are required. Furthermore, the behaviour of power systems is highly non-linear. Monitoring and control involves several hundred variables which are only partly available by measurements. Load demands and dynamic loads are difficult to model. Therefore models appropriate for normal situations might become invalid in emergency situations. These problems provide important motivation to explore novel data processing and programming techniques from the vast pool of artificial intelligence techniques. The following section gives a short introduction to static security assessment. (Author)

  8. The influence of music on static posturography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forti, Stella; Filipponi, Eliana; Di Berardino, Federica; Barozzi, Stefania; Cesarani, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that high intensity sounds modify balance by activating the saccule, which is sensitive to both vestibular and acoustic stimuli. Few studies have examined the effects of music on the postural responses in healthy subjects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different types of music (Mozart, Köhler, Köhler with a carrier of 12 KHz and subjects' favourite music) on twelve healthy subjects standing on a stabilometric platform. With each type of music, all subjects underwent static posturography with eyes opened and eyes closed, and with and without foam pads. We evaluated the length and the surface of body sway and the correlation between them, and we analyzed the visual, vestibular and somatosensory sub-components. Listening to different types of music did not significantly change the stabilometric variables, with the exception of listening to Mozart's Jupiter, which caused a significant reduction in the visual component with a consequent increase in both the vestibular and somatosensory inputs. Further studies are needed to determine the effect of Mozart's music in modifying the sensory strategy in the rehabilitation of patients with vestibular impairments.

  9. Static speckle experiments using white synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sant, Tushar; Panzner, Tobias; Pietsch, Ullrich [Solid State Physics Group, University of Siegen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Static speckle experiments were performed using coherent white X-ray radiation from a bending magnet at BESSYII. Semiconductor and polymer surfaces were investigated under incidence condition smaller than the critical angle of total external reflection. The scattering pattern of the sample results from the illumination function modified by the surface undulations. The periodic oscillations are caused by the illumination function whereas other irregular features are associated with sample surface. The speckle map of reflection from a laterally periodic structure like GaAs grating is studied. Under coherent illumination the grating peaks split into speckles because of fluctuations on the sample surface. It is important to understand which length scales on the sample surface are responsible for the oscillations in reflectivity map. To investigate this experiments are done with a triangular shaped sample. Different parts of the sample are illuminated with the footprint on the sample larger or smaller than the actual sample length. This gives prior information about total illuminated area on the sample. Using this additional information a detailed surface profile of the sample is reconstructed.

  10. Constitutive equation of butter at static loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the constitutive modelling of finite deformation in the commercially obtained butter (composition is 83 % of milk fat at the temperature 17–20 °C. The specimens from the butter (height L0=14.6 mm and diameter 20 mm have been compressed between two parallel metal plates at a fixed crosshead speed 20 mm/min using of the testing device TIRA TEST. The force F and the deformation ∆L are measured during compression and both quantities are recorded. The experimental records force F – displacement (deformation were obtained. These records have been transformed into stress–strain dependences and into true stress–true strain. The basic data on the strain behaviour of a butter under low strain rates have been obtained. Experimental results show that the behaviour of butter can be described by a hyperelastic material model. In this model, the quasi–static response is defined by compressible hyperelasticity, whereby the strain energy potential is assumed to be representable by a newly proposed polynomial series with three independent parameters. The material parameters in the constitutive model are determined from compression test. A comparison of predictions based on the proposed constitutive equation with experiments shows that the model is able to describe the strain behaviour of the butter examined.

  11. A multinuclear static NMR study of geopolymerisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favier, Aurélie, E-mail: aurelie.favier@epfl.ch [Univ Paris-Est, IFSTTAR, Materials Department, 14-20 bd Newton, F-77447 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 (France); Habert, Guillaume [Institute for Construction and Infrastructure Management, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Roussel, Nicolas [Univ Paris-Est, IFSTTAR, Materials Department, 14-20 bd Newton, F-77447 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 (France); D' Espinose de Lacaillerie, Jean-Baptiste [Ecole Supérieure de Physique et de Chimie Indusrtrielles de la Ville de Paris (ESPCI), ParisTech, PSL Research University, Soft Matter Sciences and Engineering Laboratory SIMM, CNRS UMR 7615, 10 rue Vauquelin, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2015-09-15

    Geopolymers are inorganic binders obtained by alkali activation of aluminosilicates. While the structure of geopolymers is now well understood, the details of the geopolymerisation reaction and their impact on the rheology of the paste remain uncertain. In this work, we follow the elastic properties of a paste made with metakaolin and sodium silicate solution. After the first sharp increase of elastic modulus occurring a few hundred of seconds after mixing and related to the heterogeneous formation of an alumina–silicate gel with a molar ratio Si/Al < 4 located at the grains boundaries, we focus on the progressive increase in elastic modulus on a period of few hours during the setting of the geopolymer. In this study, we combine the study of rheological properties of the paste with {sup 23}Na, {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si static NMR measurement in order to better understand the origin of this second increase in elastic modulus. Our results show that, after a few hours, Al and Na evolution in the liquid phase are concomitant. This suggests the precipitation of an aluminosilicate phase where Al is in tetrahedral position and Na compensates the charge. Furthermore, Si speciation confirms this result and allows us to identify the precipitation of a product, which has a chemical composition close to the final composition of geopolymer. This study provides strong evidence for a heterogeneous formation of an aluminosilicate glass directly from the first gel and the silicate solution without the need for a reorganisation of Gel 1 into Gel 2.

  12. European Union and oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillard, Christophe Alexandre

    2004-01-01

    In a context of oil price increase, problems about a Russian oil company (Loukos), and uncertainties in the Middle-East, the possibility of a new oil shock is a threat for Europe, and raises the issue of a true European energy policy which would encompass, not only grid development, environmental issues or market regulation issues, but also strategic issues related to energy supply security. This article proposes an overview of the European policy: first steps for a future European energy and oil policy in the green paper of the European Commission published in November 2000, issues of pollution and safety for hydrocarbon maritime transport. The article then examines the possibility of a third oil shock due to a crisis in the Middle East, and discusses whether European must have strategic stocks to face an outage of oil supplies

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS BASED ON THE BIPOLAR WITH STATIC INDUCTION TRANSISTORS (BSIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. I. Bukashev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study is to develop one of the most perspective semiconductor device suitable for creation and improvement of controlled rectifiers, bipolar static induction transistor.Methods. Considered are the structural and schematic circuit controlled rectifier based on bipolar static induction transistor (BSIT, and the criterion of effectiveness controlled rectifiers - equivalent to the voltage drop.Results. Presented are the study results of controlled rectifier layout on BSIT KT698I. It sets the layout operation at an input voltage of 2.0 V at a frequency up to 750 kHz. The efficiency of the studied layouts at moderate current densities as high as 90 % .Offered is optimization of technological route microelectronic controlled rectifier manufacturing including BSIT and integrated bipolar elements of the scheme management.Conclusion. It is proved that the most efficient use of the bipolar static induction transistor occurs at the low voltage controlled rectifiers 350-400 kHz, at frequencies in conjunction with a low-voltage control circuit.It is proved that the increase of the functional characteristics of the converters is connected to the expansion of the input voltage and output current ranges

  14. Slipping and Tipping: Measuring Static Friction with a Straightedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Eric; Aguilar, Isaac

    2012-01-01

    Following a discussion of forces, torques, and the conditions for static equilibrium, I tell my introductory mechanics class that I will show them how to measure the coefficient of static friction, us, between the surfaces of a block and the front bench using "nothing but a straightedge". After a few seconds of hushed anticipation, I nudge the…

  15. Survey of approaches for handling static analysis alarms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muske, T.; Serebrenik, A.

    2016-01-01

    Static analysis tools have showcased their importance and usefulness in automated detection of code anomalies and defects. However, the large number of alarms reported and cost incurred in their manual inspections have been the major concerns with the usage of static analysis tools. Existing studies

  16. Navigating on handheld displays: Dynamic versus Static Keyhole Navigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehra, S.; Werkhoven, P.; Worring, M.

    2006-01-01

    Handheld displays leave little space for the visualization and navigation of spatial layouts representing rich information spaces. The most common navigation method for handheld displays is static peephole navigation: The peephole is static and we move the spatial layout behind it (scrolling). A

  17. Static and dynamical properties of light hadrons in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    The review of QCD determination of static and dynamical properties of hadrons is given. Hadron masses, their transition constants into quark currents, meson formfactors at intermediate momentum transfers, mesonic partial widths and structure functions at small x are considered. A special attention is paid to calculation of static paramaters of hadrons in external fields (nucleon and hyperon magnetic moments, interaction constants with axial currents)

  18. 14 CFR 25.1325 - Static pressure systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... installation of the static pressure system must be such that— (1) Positive drainage of moisture is provided..., the other is blocked off; and (2) Both sources cannot be blocked off simultaneously. (h) For... other static pressure source being open or blocked. [Doc. No. 5066, 29 FR 18291, Dec. 24, 1964, as...

  19. Non-static vacuum strings: exterior and interior solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein-Schabes, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    New non-static cylindrically symmetric solutions of Einsteins's equations are presented. Some of these solutions represent string-like objects. An exterior vacuum solution is matched to a non-vacuum interior solution for different forms of the energy-momentum tensor. They generalize the standard static string. 12 refs

  20. 14 CFR 27.610 - Lightning and static electricity protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lightning and static electricity protection....610 Lightning and static electricity protection. (a) The rotorcraft must be protected against catastrophic effects from lightning. (b) For metallic components, compliance with paragraph (a) of this section...

  1. 14 CFR 29.610 - Lightning and static electricity protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lightning and static electricity protection... § 29.610 Lightning and static electricity protection. (a) The rotorcraft structure must be protected against catastrophic effects from lightning. (b) For metallic components, compliance with paragraph (a) of...

  2. 14 CFR 25.173 - Static longitudinal stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Static longitudinal stability. 25.173... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Stability § 25.173 Static... forces (including friction) must be as follows: (a) A pull must be required to obtain and maintain speeds...

  3. 14 CFR 23.173 - Static longitudinal stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Static longitudinal stability. 23.173... Stability § 23.173 Static longitudinal stability. Under the conditions specified in § 23.175 and with the airplane trimmed as indicated, the characteristics of the elevator control forces and the friction within...

  4. Multiple histogram method and static Monte Carlo sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inda, M.A.; Frenkel, D.

    2004-01-01

    We describe an approach to use multiple-histogram methods in combination with static, biased Monte Carlo simulations. To illustrate this, we computed the force-extension curve of an athermal polymer from multiple histograms constructed in a series of static Rosenbluth Monte Carlo simulations. From

  5. 40 CFR 53.64 - Test procedure: Static fractionator test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test procedure: Static fractionator test. 53.64 Section 53.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Performance Characteristics of Class II Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 § 53.64 Test procedure: Static...

  6. Static friction of stainless steel wire rope–rubber contacts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeve, A.J.; Krijger, T.; Mugge, W.; Breedveld, P.; Dodou, D.; Dankelman, J.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about static friction of stainless-steel wire ropes ('cables') in contact with soft rubbers, an interface of potential importance for rigidifiable medical instruments. Although friction theories imply that the size and profile of the cables affect static friction, there are no

  7. On the relationship between ontogenetic and static allometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélabon, Christophe; Bolstad, Geir H; Egset, Camilla K; Cheverud, James M; Pavlicev, Mihaela; Rosenqvist, Gunilla

    2013-02-01

    Ontogenetic and static allometries describe how a character changes in size when the size of the organism changes during ontogeny and among individuals measured at the same developmental stage, respectively. Understanding the relationship between these two types of allometry is crucial to understanding the evolution of allometry and, more generally, the evolution of shape. However, the effects of ontogenetic allometry on static allometry remain largely unexplored. Here, we first show analytically how individual variation in ontogenetic allometry and body size affect static allometry. Using two longitudinal data sets on ontogenetic and static allometry, we then estimate variances and covariances for the different parameters of the ontogenetic allometry defined in our model and assess their relative contribution to the static allometric slope. The mean ontogenetic allometry is the main parameter that determines the static allometric slope, while the covariance between the ontogenetic allometric slope and body size generates most of the discrepancies between ontogenetic and static allometry. These results suggest that the apparent evolutionary stasis of the static allometric slope is not generated by internal (developmental) constraints but more likely results from external constraints imposed by selection.

  8. CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION OF HYDROXYPROPYL STARCH IN A STATIC MIXER REACTOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LAMMERS, G; STAMHUIS, EJ; BEENACKERS, AACM

    A novel type of reactor for the chemical derivatization of starch pastes is presented. The design is based on the application of static mixers. The reactor shows excellent plug flow behaviour with a Peclet number of about 100. The viscosity behaviour of concentrated starch pastes in the static mixer

  9. Hanging an Airplane: A Case Study in Static Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Debora M.

    2009-01-01

    Our classrooms are filled with engineering majors who take a semester-long course in static equilibrium. Many students find this class too challenging and drop their engineering major. In our introductory physics class, we often breeze through static equilibrium; to physicists equilibrium is just a special case of Newton's second law. While it is…

  10. Failure mechanism and coupled static-dynamic loading theory in deep hard rock mining: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xibing Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rock failure phenomena, such as rockburst, slabbing (or spalling and zonal disintegration, related to deep underground excavation of hard rocks are frequently reported and pose a great threat to deep mining. Currently, the explanation for these failure phenomena using existing dynamic or static rock mechanics theory is not straightforward. In this study, new theory and testing method for deep underground rock mass under coupled static-dynamic loading are introduced. Two types of coupled loading modes, i.e. “critical static stress + slight disturbance” and “elastic static stress + impact disturbance”, are proposed, and associated test devices are developed. Rockburst phenomena of hard rocks under coupled static-dynamic loading are successfully reproduced in the laboratory, and the rockburst mechanism and related criteria are demonstrated. The results of true triaxial unloading compression tests on granite and red sandstone indicate that the unloading can induce slabbing when the confining pressure exceeds a certain threshold, and the slabbing failure strength is lower than the shear failure strength according to the conventional Mohr-Column criterion. Numerical results indicate that the rock unloading failure response under different in situ stresses and unloading rates can be characterized by an equivalent strain energy density. In addition, we present a new microseismic source location method without premeasuring the sound wave velocity in rock mass, which can efficiently and accurately locate the rock failure in hard rock mines. Also, a new idea for deep hard rock mining using a non-explosive continuous mining method is briefly introduced.

  11. Static and dynamic load-balancing strategies for parallel reservoir simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anguille, L.; Killough, J.E.; Li, T.M.C.; Toepfer, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Accurate simulation of the complex phenomena that occur in flow in porous media can tax even the most powerful serial computers. Emergence of new parallel computer architectures as a future efficient tool in reservoir simulation may overcome this difficulty. Unfortunately, major problems remain to be solved before using parallel computers commercially: production serial programs must be rewritten to be efficient in parallel environments and load balancing methods must be explored to evenly distribute the workload on each processor during the simulation. This study implements both a static load-balancing algorithm and a receiver-initiated dynamic load-sharing algorithm to achieve high parallel efficiencies on both the IBM SP2 and Intel IPSC/860 parallel computers. Significant speedup improvement was recorded for both methods. Further optimization of these algorithms yielded a technique with efficiencies as high as 90% and 70% on 8 and 32 nodes, respectively. The increased performance was the result of the minimization of message-passing overhead

  12. Defence electro-optics: European perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartikainen, Jari

    2011-11-01

    In 2009 the United States invested in defence R&T 3,6 times and in defence research and development 6,8 times as much as all member states of the European Defence Agency (EDA) combined while the ratio in the total defence expenditure was 2,6 in the US' favour. The European lack of investments in defence research and development has a negative impact on the competitiveness of European defence industry and on the European non-dependence. In addition, the efficiency of investment is reduced due to duplication of work in different member states. The Lisbon Treaty tasks EDA to support defence technology research, and coordinate and plan joint research activities and the study of technical solutions meeting future operational needs. This paper gives an overview how EDA meets the challenge of improving the efficiency of European defence R&T investment with an emphasis on electro-optics and describes shortly the ways that governmental and industrial partners can participate in the EDA cooperation. Examples of joint R&T projects addressing electro-optics are presented.

  13. USE Efficiency -- Universities and Students for Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melandri, Daniela

    2010-09-15

    Universities and Student for Energy Efficiency is a European Project within the Intelligent Energy Programme. It intends to create a common stream for energy efficiency systems in university buildings. Universities and students are proposed as shining examples for energy efficiency solutions and behaviour. The Project involves 10 countries and has the aim to improve energy efficiency in university buildings. Students are the main actors of the project together with professors and technicians. To act on students means to act on direct future market players in diffusion of public opinions. A strong communication action supports the succeeding of the action.

  14. Static analysis: from theory to practice; Static analysis of large-scale embedded code, generation of abstract domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monniaux, D.

    2009-06-01

    Software operating critical systems (aircraft, nuclear power plants) should not fail - whereas most computerised systems of daily life (personal computer, ticket vending machines, cell phone) fail from time to time. This is not a simple engineering problem: it is known, since the works of Turing and Cook, that proving that programs work correctly is intrinsically hard. In order to solve this problem, one needs methods that are, at the same time, efficient (moderate costs in time and memory), safe (all possible failures should be found), and precise (few warnings about nonexistent failures). In order to reach a satisfactory compromise between these goals, one can research fields as diverse as formal logic, numerical analysis or 'classical' algorithmics. From 2002 to 2007 I participated in the development of the Astree static analyser. This suggested to me a number of side projects, both theoretical and practical (use of formal proof techniques, analysis of numerical filters...). More recently, I became interested in modular analysis of numerical property and in the applications to program analysis of constraint solving techniques (semi-definite programming, SAT and SAT modulo theory). (author)

  15. Analytical general solutions for static wormholes in f(R,T) gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, P. H. R. S.; Correa, R. A. C.; Lobato, R. V.

    2017-07-01

    Originally proposed as a tool for teaching the general theory of relativity, wormholes are today approached in many different ways and are seeing as an efficient alternative for interstellar and time travel. Attempts to achieve observational signatures of wormholes have been growing as the subject has become more and more popular. In this article we investigate some f(R,T) theoretical predictions for static wormholes, i.e., wormholes whose throat radius can be considered a constant. Since the T-dependence in f(R,T) gravity is due to the consideration of quantum effects, a further investigation of wormholes in such a theory is well motivated. We obtain the energy conditions of static wormholes in f(R,T) gravity and apply an analytical approach to find their physical and geometrical solutions. We highlight that our results are in agreement with previous solutions and assumptions presented in the literature.

  16. Analytical general solutions for static wormholes in f ( R , T ) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, P.H.R.S.; Correa, R.A.C.; Lobato, R.V., E-mail: moraes.phrs@gmail.com, E-mail: fis04132@gmail.com, E-mail: ronaldo.lobato@icranet.org [ITA-Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, 12228-900, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Originally proposed as a tool for teaching the general theory of relativity, wormholes are today approached in many different ways and are seeing as an efficient alternative for interstellar and time travel. Attempts to achieve observational signatures of wormholes have been growing as the subject has become more and more popular. In this article we investigate some f ( R , T ) theoretical predictions for static wormholes, i.e., wormholes whose throat radius can be considered a constant. Since the T -dependence in f ( R , T ) gravity is due to the consideration of quantum effects, a further investigation of wormholes in such a theory is well motivated. We obtain the energy conditions of static wormholes in f ( R , T ) gravity and apply an analytical approach to find their physical and geometrical solutions. We highlight that our results are in agreement with previous solutions and assumptions presented in the literature.

  17. New Systematic CFD Methods to Calculate Static and Single Dynamic Stability Derivatives of Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai-gang Mi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several new systematic methods for high fidelity and reliability calculation of static and single dynamic derivatives are proposed in this paper. Angle of attack step response is used to obtain static derivative directly; then translation acceleration dynamic derivative and rotary dynamic derivative can be calculated by employing the step response motion of rate of the angle of attack and unsteady motion of pitching angular velocity step response, respectively. Longitudinal stability derivative calculations of SACCON UCAV are taken as test cases for validation. Numerical results of all cases achieve good agreement with reference values or experiments data from wind tunnel, which indicate that the proposed methods can be considered as new tools in the process of design and production of advanced aircrafts for their high efficiency and precision.

  18. Literature review Quasi-static and Dynamic pile load tests : Primarily report on non-static pile load tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huy, N.Q.

    2010-01-01

    Pile testing, which plays an importance role in the field of deep foundation design, is performed by static and non-static methods to provide information about the following issues: (Poulos, 1998) - The ultimate capacity of a single pile. - The load-displacement behavior of a pile. - The performance

  19. A PSP-based small-signal MOSFET model for both quasi-static and nonquasi-static operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, A.C.T.; Smit, G.D.J.; Scholten, A.J.; Klaassen, D.B.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a small-signal MOSFET model is described, which takes the local effects of both velocity saturation and transverse mobility reduction into account. The model is based on the PSP model and is valid for both quasi-static and nonquasi-static (NQS) operations. Recently, it has been found

  20. Static mechanical properties of buffer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaji, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Hideaki

    1999-11-01

    The buffer material is expected to maintain its low water permeability, self-sealing properties, radionuclides adsorption and retardation properties, thermal conductivity, chemical buffering properties, overpack supporting properties, stress buffering properties, etc. over a long period of time. Natural clay is mentioned as a material that can relatively satisfy above. Among the kinds of natural clay, bentonite when compacted is superior because (i) it has exceptionally low water permeability and properties to control the movement of water in buffer, (ii) it fills void spaces in the buffer and fractures in the host rock as it swells upon water uptake, (iii) it has the ability to exchange cations and to adsorb cationic radioelements. In order to confirm these functions for the purpose of safety assessment, it is necessary to evaluate buffer properties through laboratory tests and engineering-scale tests, and to make assessments based on the ranges in the data obtained. This report describes the procedures, test conditions, results and examinations on the buffer material of unconfined compression tests, one-dimensional consolidation tests, consolidated-undrained triaxial compression tests and consolidated-undrained triaxial creep tests that aim at getting hold of static mechanical properties. We can get hold of the relationship between the dry density and tensile stress etc. by Brazilian tests, between the dry density and unconfined compressive strength etc. by unconfined compression tests, between the consolidation stress and void ratio etc. by one-dimensional consolidation tests, the stress pass of each effective confining pressure etc. by consolidated-undrained triaxial compression tests and the axial strain rate with time of each axial stress etc. by consolidated-undrained triaxial creep tests. (author)

  1. A game theoretic model of the Northwestern European electricity market-market power and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lise, W.; Linderhof, V.G.M.; Kuik, O.; Kemfert, C.; Ostling, R.; Heinzow, T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper develops a static computational game theoretic model. Illustrative results for the liberalising European electricity market are given to demonstrate the type of economic and environmental results that can be generated with the model. The model is empirically calibrated to eight

  2. Quantitative assessment of selected policy instruments using the Western European MARKAL model. Phase III EU SAVE White and Green Project: Comparison of market-based instruments to promote energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundaca, Luis; Santi, Federico

    2004-01-01

    This report summarises the modelling exercise carried out in order to assess the implications of selected policy instruments using the energy model of Western Europe (WEU) generated by the Market Allocation (MARKAL) modelling tool. The chosen methodology was the usage of the WEU MARKAL model for analysing the response of this energy system to the following policy instruments: White Certificates, Green Certificates, and Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions trading. Results show that the order of magnitude of the effects of the analysed instruments depends on the target/cap that is applied. For the case of White Certificates, it can be observed that up to certain level (i.e., around 15% of cumulated energy savings by 2020 compared to the base case) energy savings are obtained at negative costs. Major savings occur in the residential sector for all the applied targets. Results for CO 2 emissions appear to be robust for the years 2015 and 2020, but it should also be observed that these emission trends are less robust for the years 2005 and 2010. Energy efficiency improvements for the WEU economy that are policy-induced around 6%, 9% and 15% for the low, medium and high target scenarios respectively. For the case of Green Certificates, results show that the sustained penetration of renewable energy sources is dominated by wind and biomass. By examining the autonomous fossil fuel intensity of the WEU economy, energy efficiency improvements that are policy induced account for around 1%, 4% and 6% for each scenario respectively. All the targets are technically possible. For the case of CO 2 emissions trading, due to the fact that these results address just the power sector, they must be seen as complementary of other modelling works that deal with a wider industrial coverage. In our case, the more ambitious the cap is, the lower the share of fossil fuels in electricity production becomes. The different trends for the electricity production seem to be less robust. Compared to

  3. Update of European bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an update of the research on European bioethics undertaken by the author together with Professor Peter Kemp since the 1990s, on Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. In this European approach to basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw......, the principles of autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability are proposed as the most important ethical principles for respect for the human person in biomedical and biotechnological development. This approach to bioethics and biolaw is presented here in a short updated version that integrates the earlier...... research in a presentation of the present understanding of the basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw....

  4. Transnational European Television Drama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib; Redvall, Eva Novrup; Helles, Rasmus

    This book deals with the role of television drama in Europe as enabler of transnational, cultural encounters for audiences and the creative community. It demonstrates that the diversity of national cultures is a challenge for European TV drama but also a potential richness and source of creative...... variation. Based on data on the production, distribution and reception of recent TV drama from several European countries, the book presents a new picture of the transnational European television culture. The authors analyse main tendencies in television policy and challenges for national broadcasters...

  5. European [Security] Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    The past 20 years, since the 1992 Treaty on European Union, have seen the gradual creation of both an “Area of Freedom, Security and Justice” and a “Common Foreign and Security Policy”. More recent is the development of a “European Neighbourhood Policy” over the past 10 years. All three...... of these policies involved the navigation and negotiation of security, borders and governance in and by the European Union (EU). This article analyses these practices of bordering and governance through a five-fold security framework. The article argues that a richer understanding of EU security discourses can...

  6. Democratic Citizenship: European referents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María PUIG GUTIÉRREZ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Let’s sense beforehand in this article a tour concerning the educational European policies that favors the development of a democratic citizenship. The aim that we chase is to understand the way in which nowadays it is being interpreted and stimulated the Citizenship education from European Union. for it we offer a conceptual delimiting of «Citizenship education» and later, we show an analysis of the principal documents and materials elaborated principally by the Council of Europe that mark the way followed by European Union as for education for Democratic Citizenship (EDC.

  7. Symbolism in European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Ernst Haas observed over fifty years ago that ‘United Europe' is a resilient, adaptable, unifying, and yet unspecified symbol'. It is precisely this adaptability and ambiguity that has ensures the continuing importance of European studies as a means of understanding ‘the remarkable social...... of social transformation involved' (Calhoun 2003: 18). This article will consider the role of symbolism in European integration as part of answering Craig Calhoun's call for a means of transcending specific regimes of analysis in order to advance European studies....

  8. More efficient policy of energy and regional electricity supply by the directive 96/92/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 10 december 1996 concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity; Effizientere Energiepolitik und regionale Elektrizitaetsversorgung durch die EU-Elektrizitaetsrichtlinie 1996. Politikfeldanalyse der europaeischen, deutschen und bayerischen Energiepolitik und Elektrizitaetswirtschaft im Zusammenhang mit der Entstehung und Umsetzung der EU-Richtlinie 96 sowie der Veraenderung der Effizienz in der traditionellen Elektrizitaetsversorgung unter supranationalem EU-Einfluss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtner, Franz

    2006-07-01

    The German energy policy and its main addressees, the regional electricity companies (EVU), are going through a critical phase at the beginning of the 21st century. The increasing complexity and inconsistency of energy issues have, in Germany and in other countries, led to decisions which again have produced extensive, but not yet foreseeable developments, as, for example, the liberalisation of the electricity and gas market within the European Union. The first objective of this paper is an empirical analysis of the regional electricity supply industry in Germany and particularly in Bavaria in so far as it is relevant for energy politics, as well as an introduction to the German energy policy up to approximately the time when the Directive 96/92/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 19 December 1996 concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity, was passed. Moreover, findings for the definition of energy efficiency in electricity supply and of the policy analysis are outlined. The second objective of this paper is the analysis and evaluation of the European Union energy policy, in particular of the Directive 96/92/EC, its formation and how it has been put into action by the German and Bavarian electricity supply industry. Energy efficiency of the electricity supply serves as a yardstick, the research method employed is the policy analysis. The main part of this paper, by comparing objectives to effects and by evaluating interviews with energy experts, examines the questions if, in what ways and to what extent the Directive 96/92/EC has led to an increase of energy efficiency in the narrow as well as in the boarder sense, within the EU, Germany and Bavaria. Additionally, three hypotheses are tested: firstly the significance of energy efficiency (in the narrow sense), secondly the alignment of European energy supply, and thirdly the importance of supranational control through EU politics. The results are presented in tabular form, and the

  9. Pre-exposure to moving form enhances static form sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S A Wallis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Motion-defined form can seem to persist briefly after motion ceases, before seeming to gradually disappear into the background. Here we investigate if this subjective persistence reflects a signal capable of improving objective measures of sensitivity to static form. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We presented a sinusoidal modulation of luminance, masked by a background noise pattern. The sinusoidal luminance modulation was usually subjectively invisible when static, but visible when moving. We found that drifting then stopping the waveform resulted in a transient subjective persistence of the waveform in the static display. Observers' objective sensitivity to the position of the static waveform was also improved after viewing moving waveforms, compared to viewing static waveforms for a matched duration. This facilitation did not occur simply because movement provided more perspectives of the waveform, since performance following pre-exposure to scrambled animations did not match that following pre-exposure to smooth motion. Observers did not simply remember waveform positions at motion offset, since removing the waveform before testing reduced performance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Motion processing therefore interacts with subsequent static visual inputs in a way that can improve performance in objective sensitivity measures. We suggest that the brief subjective persistence of motion-defined forms that can occur after motion offsets is a consequence of the decay of a static form signal that has been transiently enhanced by motion processing.

  10. Comparison of the quasi-static method and the dynamic method for simulating fracture processes in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J. X.; Deng, S. C.; Liang, N. G.

    2008-02-01

    Concrete is heterogeneous and usually described as a three-phase material, where matrix, aggregate and interface are distinguished. To take this heterogeneity into consideration, the Generalized Beam (GB) lattice model is adopted. The GB lattice model is much more computationally efficient than the beam lattice model. Numerical procedures of both quasi-static method and dynamic method are developed to simulate fracture processes in uniaxial tensile tests conducted on a concrete panel. Cases of different loading rates are compared with the quasi-static case. It is found that the inertia effect due to load increasing becomes less important and can be ignored with the loading rate decreasing, but the inertia effect due to unstable crack propagation remains considerable no matter how low the loading rate is. Therefore, an unrealistic result will be obtained if a fracture process including unstable cracking is simulated by the quasi-static procedure.

  11. European Southern Observatory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1970-01-01

    Professor A. Blaauw, Director general of the European Southern Observatory, with George Hampton on his right, signs the Agreement covering collaboration with CERN in the construction of the large telescope to be installed at the ESO Observatory in Chile.

  12. Causality in Europeanization Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet

    2012-01-01

    to develop discursive institutional analytical frameworks and something that comes close to the formulation of hypothesis on the effects of European Union (EU) policies and institutions on domestic change. Even if these efforts so far do not necessarily amount to substantive theories or claims of causality......Discourse analysis as a methodology is perhaps not readily associated with substantive causality claims. At the same time the study of discourses is very much the study of conceptions of causal relations among a set, or sets, of agents. Within Europeanization research we have seen endeavours......, it suggests that discourse analysis and the study of causality are by no means opposites. The study of Europeanization discourses may even be seen as an essential step in the move towards claims of causality in Europeanization research. This chapter deals with the question of how we may move from the study...

  13. European Molecular Biology Laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    On 10 May an Agreement was signed at CERN setting up a new European Laboratory. It will be concerned with research in molecularbiology and will be located at Heidelberg in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  14. European 'Stabilisation through Association'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    In 2012 the Nobel Committee awarded the European Union (EU) its Peace Prize. It commemorated the building and sustaining of peace between Europeans, a process in which the Nobel Committee proposed that the EU and its predecessors had played an important part. It explicitly commen-ded the Union......’s success in repeatedly reconciling a divided continent and complemented its efforts to build peace beyond its borders. But does the EU (continue to) deserve such praise? This contribution examines European peacebuilding from the early inte-gration of post-World War Two economies, through the uniting...... of Europe after the Cold War to contemporary conflict management efforts in the Western Balkans and the Eastern neighbourhood. The purpose of this endeavour is to examine whether lessons from the European experience can be observed that may facilitate future regional stabilisation processes – within...

  15. CERN welcomes European science

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    On 3 and 4 October CERN will host a special workshop for Marie Curie fellows. This programme is a key plank in the EU's strategy for creating a European research area.     With thousands of scientists from all over the continent working together, CERN is already an exemplary European science showcase. On 3 and 4 October, the Laboratory will contribute further to unifying all European science by hosting a special workshop for EU-funded Marie Curie fellows. This scheme gives young researchers from around the continent the mobility to go to wherever Europe's best facilities in their chosen field happen to be. The event that will take place at CERN, entitled 'Special workshop of Marie Curie Fellows on research and training in physics and technology', organised together with the European Commission, is a continuation of a series of workshops with the aim, among others, of promoting young researchers, supporting their training and mobility, and facilitating the interdisciplinary dissemination of knowledge. Dur...

  16. European Economic Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, James A.

    1971-01-01

    Recounts the history and problems of European Economic Integration from the first post World War II organization, the OEEC, to the EEC (Common Market) and the EFTA. Suggestions for further reading are included. (JB)

  17. Ethics and European security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paskins, B.

    1986-01-01

    The alliance between the United States and her NATO partners has been strained severely in the last few years. American perceptions of European disloyalty and European impressions of American assertiveness and lack of judgment have played a large part in generating tensions between the allies and emphasising the new peace movements. This book is an attempt to develop a broader understanding of the problem of European security based on Christian ethics. There are disagreements and differences of emphasis among the contributors but they have in common the view that an exclusive preoccupation with the military dimension is damagingly one-sided. Instead the contributors argue that moral and theological concerns are a vital part of the politics and mechanics of European security and must be incorporated in any effort to devise new policies for security in Europe and the West.

  18. The European XFEL project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floettmann, K.

    2005-01-01

    The European XFEL project is a 4th generation synchrotron radiation facility based on the SASE FEL concept and the superconducting TESLA technology for a linear accelerator. In February 2003 the German government decided that the XFEL should be realized as a European project and be located at DESY in Hamburg. The paper will give an overview of the overall layout and parameters of the facility, with emphasis on the accelerator design, technology and physics. (author)

  19. Contagion processes on the static and activity driven coupling networks

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Yanjun; Jiang, Xin; Guo, Quantong; Ma, Yifang; Li, Meng; Zheng, Zhiming

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of network structure and the spreading of epidemic are common coexistent dynamical processes. In most cases, network structure is treated either static or time-varying, supposing the whole network is observed in a same time window. In this paper, we consider the epidemic spreading on a network consisting of both static and time-varying structures. At meanwhile, the time-varying part and the epidemic spreading are supposed to be of the same time scale. We introduce a static and a...

  20. Towards a formal definition of static and dynamic electronic correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides-Riveros, Carlos L; Lathiotakis, Nektarios N; Marques, Miguel A L

    2017-05-24

    Some of the most spectacular failures of density-functional and Hartree-Fock theories are related to an incorrect description of the so-called static electron correlation. Motivated by recent progress in the N-representability problem of the one-body density matrix for pure states, we propose a method to quantify the static contribution to the electronic correlation. By studying several molecular systems we show that our proposal correlates well with our intuition of static and dynamic electron correlation. Our results bring out the paramount importance of the occupancy of the highest occupied natural spin-orbital in such quantification.

  1. Static Compression of Hydrous Komatiite Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agee, C. B.

    2005-12-01

    High pressure sink/float experiments have been performed on komatiite with 3 and 10 wt% added H2O in order to investigate the effect of water on magma density at high pressure and to determine if density crossovers between equilibrium olivine and hydrous komatiite can exist in the upper mantle. The starting composition komatiite, from Munro Township, with MgO=28 wt%, has been previously studied using sink/float experiments under anhydrous conditions up to 9.3 GPa (Agee and Walker, 1988, 1993). In the present study the starting material mechanical mixtures consisted of powdered komatiite, brucite, fayalite, and reagent oxides of SiO2, Al203, and CaO. Samples were contained in compression-sealed molybdenum capsules. Sink/float marker spheres implemented were gem quality synthetic forsterite (Fo100) and San Carlos olivine (Fo90). Experimental run times were 30 seconds, thus minimizing sphere-liquid reactions and liquid reaction with capsule and pressure media. All experiments were carried out in a Walker multi-anvil apparatus at the Institute of Meteoritics, University of New Mexico. The komatiite + 3 wt% H2O liquid density was bracketed at 1900-1950°C by a float of Fo100 at 7 GPa and a sink at 6 GPa. Neutral buoyancy of Fo100 was observed at 6.4 GPa. An additional neutral buoyancy of Fo90 was observed at 9 GPa. These preliminary results suggest that a density crossover between equilibrium olivine (Fo93) and hydrous komatiite with up to 3 wt% H2O can exist in the mantle, thus lending support to the water filter hypothesis for the region above the 410 km discontinuity (Bercovici and Karato, 2003). Our results for static compression of komatiite + 3 wt% H2O are in good agreement with diamond sink/float observations by Sakamaki et al.(2005) on MORB + 2 wt% H2O. Our komatiite + 10 wt% H2O liquid density measurements are still in progress; however, flotation of Fo100 has not been observed in these experiments up to 9.2 GPa.

  2. Static sampling of dynamic processes - a paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mälicke, Mirko; Neuper, Malte; Jackisch, Conrad; Hassler, Sibylle; Zehe, Erwin

    2017-04-01

    Environmental systems monitoring aims at its core at the detection of spatio-temporal patterns of processes and system states, which is a pre-requisite for understanding and explaining their baffling heterogeneity. Most observation networks rely on distributed point sampling of states and fluxes of interest, which is combined with proxy-variables from either remote sensing or near surface geophysics. The cardinal question on the appropriate experimental design of such a monitoring network has up to now been answered in many different ways. Suggested approaches range from sampling in a dense regular grid using for the so-called green machine, transects along typical catenas, clustering of several observations sensors in presumed functional units or HRUs, arrangements of those cluster along presumed lateral flow paths to last not least a nested, randomized stratified arrangement of sensors or samples. Common to all these approaches is that they provide a rather static spatial sampling, while state variables and their spatial covariance structure dynamically change in time. It is hence of key interest how much of our still incomplete understanding stems from inappropriate sampling and how much needs to be attributed to an inappropriate analysis of spatial data sets. We suggest that it is much more promising to analyze the spatial variability of processes, for instance changes in soil moisture values, than to investigate the spatial variability of soil moisture states themselves. This is because wetting of the soil, reflected in a soil moisture increase, is causes by a totally different meteorological driver - rainfall - than drying of the soil. We hence propose that the rising and the falling limbs of soil moisture time series belong essentially to different ensembles, as they are influenced by different drivers. Positive and negative temporal changes in soil moisture need, hence, to be analyzed separately. We test this idea using the CAOS data set as a benchmark

  3. ELSY. European LFR activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alemberti, Alessandro; Carlsson, Johan; Malambu, Edouard; Orden, Alfredo; Cinotti, Luciano; Struwe, Dankward; Agostini, Pietro; Monti, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    The European Lead Fast Reactor has been developed in the frame of the European lead system (ELSY) project funded by the Sixth Framework Programme of EURATOM. The project, coordinated by Ansaldo Nucleare, involved a wide consortium of European organizations. The ELSY reference design is a 600 MWe pool-type reactor cooled by pure lead. The project demonstrates the possibility of designing a competitive and safe fast critical reactor using simple engineered technical features, whilst fully complying with the Generation IV goals. The paper focuses on the main aspects of the proposed design for the European lead fast reactor highlighting the innovation of this reactor concept and overall objectives. Special attention has been dedicated to safety starting from the first step of the design development taking into account other important aspects, such as the investment protection, the compactness of the primary system as well as sustainability. The main safety features of the proposed innovative decay heat removal (DHR) systems are presented. From the beginning of 2010, and for a duration of three years, the European Commission (EC) is financing the new project Lead European Advanced Demonstration Reactor (LEADER) as part of the 7th Framework Program. This paper highlights the main objectives of the LEADER project. (author)

  4. EYES -- Energy Efficient Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Etalle, Sandro; Karl, Holger; Petrioli, Chiara; Zorzi, Michele; Kip, Harry; Lentsch, Thomas; Conti, M.; Giordano, S.; Gregori, E.; Olariu, S.

    The EYES project (IST-2001-34734) is a three years European research project on self-organizing and collaborative energy-efficient sensor networks. It will address the convergence of distributed information processing, wireless communications, and mobile computing. The goal of the project is to

  5. WAYS OF INCREASING THE EFFICIENCY OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN THE COMMERCIAL COMPANIES UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE ROMANIAN LOCAL COUNCIL IN THE POST-ACCESSION PERIOD TO THE EUROPEAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Pendiuc

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available More and more companies under the authority of the Local Council are interested in implementing a quality management system following the quality assurance models proposed by the ISO9000 type international standards. Almost 200 organizations have in place a quality management system certified based on these standards. These organizatios requested certification in order to enjoy a number of advantages, especially as regards their position on the market towards competition, by establishing new contractual relationships, foreseeing customers' demands, creating products and services to better fulfill these demands, at better prices. According to some surveys, many commercial companies under the authority of the Loal Council managed to obtain these advantages to gether with other ones such as: a better working structure, motivation of the workers, improvement of the product quality, an increase in the efficiency, productivity and market quota. As more and more similar products manufactured using the same technologies emerge on the market, quality becomes the main selection factor of the commercial companies under the authority of the Local Council on the market, thus the main mean of competitiveness. Thus, lately, in our county we witness an increasingly intense concern in this field, the change of quality-related aspects, this being the main motivation for drafting this article.

  6. RENEWABLE ENERGY STRATEGIES: WHERE EUROPEAN UNION HEADED?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADULESCU IRINA GABRIELA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The states from European Union must take advantage from renewable energy sources in order to revive the economy. Climate change creates new jobs and could reduce energy imports which would stimulate the economy of those states. The European Union should support research in the field, apply more efficient policies in energy, and create economies of scale to get an integrated European energy market in which the main actors can reduce the cost of production of renewable energy. In addition, it is possible to use the comparative advantages of the Member States and not only, like Greece, through solar energy, Southern Mediterranean, through distribution networks interconnections with EU, Russia and Ukraine, through biomass and the North Sea, through wind energy. This paper refers to the evolution and trends of the renewable energy sources and presents some scenarios of it.

  7. Habermas on European Constitution and European Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Biró-Kaszás

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For the last two decades or so philosophers have been reflecting on a set of practical and political concerns in connection with the new political structural arrangements beyond the nation-state. In this article two essays by Jürgen Habermas shall be examined. An attempt shall be made to tackle Habermas’ philosophical concepts of personal and collective identity as well as the role that a constitution may play in building the post-national constellation. It has been shown that Habermas has normative answers. Firstly, according to him, the fragile balance between the legal order and the particular cultures and traditions of a community has to be protected by the constitutional state. For that reason the political culture has to be “decoupled” from the majority culture. Secondly, the democratically structured attempt to achieve shared meaning has to find the delicate balance between the context-transcending universal normative claims and the claims of particular individual and collective life. Thirdly, it is possible to expand legally mediated civil solidarity trans-nationally, across Europe – we may recognize this development as the emergence of European identity –, since the process of democratic will-formation of citizens may get loose from the structures provided by the state if both shared democratic political cultures as well as a European-wide public sphere exist. The European Constitution may have a catalytic function in materialization of these conditions. It has been shown that in his deliberations Habermas tried to find a reflective equilibrium between the normative and the empirical.

  8. A European Navy: Can it Complete European Political and Economic Integration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    would enjoy a comprehensive and complete defense structure, perhaps even more effective and cost-efficient than is possible with the current lineup ...malfunctions or operator error. A unified and unifying European Navy would standardize basic equipment and procedures , facilitating effective exercises

  9. Energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After a speech of the CEA's (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) general administrator about energy efficiency as a first rank challenge for the planet and for France, this publications proposes several contributions: a discussion of the efficiency of nuclear energy, an economic analysis of R and D's value in the field of fourth generation fast reactors, discussions about biofuels and the relationship between energy efficiency and economic competitiveness, and a discussion about solar photovoltaic efficiency

  10. Static models, recursive estimators and the zero-variance approach

    KAUST Repository

    Rubino, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    When evaluating dependability aspects of complex systems, most models belong to the static world, where time is not an explicit variable. These models suffer from the same problems than dynamic ones (stochastic processes), such as the frequent

  11. Interaction mechanisms and biological effects of static magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1994-06-01

    Mechanisms through which static magnetic fields interact with living systems are described and illustrated by selected experimental observations. These mechanisms include electrodynamic interactions with moving, ionic charges (blood flow and nerve impulse conduction), magnetomechanical interactions (orientation and translation of molecules structures and magnetic particles), and interactions with electronic spin states in charge transfer reactions (photo-induced electron transfer in photosynthesis). A general summary is also presented of the biological effects of static magnetic fields. There is convincing experimental evidence for magnetoreception mechanisms in several classes of lower organisms, including bacteria and marine organisms. However, in more highly evolved species of animals, there is no evidence that the interactions of static magnetic fields with flux densities up to 2 Tesla (1 Tesla [T] = 10{sup 4} Gauss) produce either behavioral or physiolocical alterations. These results, based on controlled studies with laboratory animals, are consistent with the outcome of recent epidemiological surveys on human populations exposed occupationally to static magnetic fields.

  12. Passive elimination of static electricity in oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaćanović Mićo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explains the existing and real conditions of a possible passive elimination of static electricity when loading oil and oil derivatives. We are considering the formation and survival of gas bubbles both in the volume of oil in its depth, but also at the surface of oil and oil derivatives of the partly filled reservoir, and formation of both volume and surface electric charge in oil and oil derivatives. The study presents the research of formation and survival of static electricity in both reservoirs and tank trucks of different geometric shapes partly filled with oil and oil derivatives. We are proposing a new original possibility of passive elimination of static electricity when loading oil and oil derivatives in reservoirs and tank trucks. The proposed passive device for elimination of static electricity is protected at the international level in the domain of intellectual property (with a patent, model and distinctive mark.

  13. Gene expression programming for power system static security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Keywords: static security, gene expression programming, probabilistic neural network ... Hence digital computers are usually installed in operations control centers to gather ...... power system protection, and applications of AI in power systems.

  14. Toward the Static Detection of Deadlock in Java Software

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fadul, Jose E

    2006-01-01

    ... from continuing while each waits for resources to be freed by the continuation of the other. This thesis proposes a flow-insensitive interprocedural static analysis that detects the possibility that a program can deadlock at runtime...

  15. Static delectric behavior of charged fluids near freezing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasolino, A.; Parrinello, M.; Tosi, M.P.

    1978-01-01

    The wavenumber-dependent, static dielectric function of classical charged fluids near freezing is obtained from structural data based on computer simulation or neutron diffraction, and its behavior is connected with the freezing process. (Auth.)

  16. Static Extraction of Object-Oriented Runtime Architectures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abi-Antoun, Marwan; Aldrich, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    .... But it is hard to statically extract runtime object graphs that provide architectural abstraction from an arbitrary program written in a general purpose language that follows common design idioms...

  17. Stability of the Einstein static universe in open cosmological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canonico, Rosangela; Parisi, Luca

    2010-01-01

    The stability properties of the Einstein static solution of general relativity are altered when corrective terms arising from modification of the underlying gravitational theory appear in the cosmological equations. In this paper the existence and stability of static solutions are considered in the framework of two recently proposed quantum gravity models. The previously known analysis of the Einstein static solutions in the semiclassical regime of loop quantum cosmology with modifications to the gravitational sector is extended to open cosmological models where a static neutrally stable solution is found. A similar analysis is also performed in the framework of Horava-Lifshitz gravity under detailed balance and projectability conditions. In the case of open cosmological models the two solutions found can be either unstable or neutrally stable according to the admitted values of the parameters.

  18. Effects of Static Stretching and Playing Soccer on Knee Laxity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgart, Christian; Gokeler, Alli; Donath, Lars; Hoppe, Matthias W.; Freiwald, Juergen

    Objective: This study investigated exercise-induced effects of static stretching and playing soccer on anterior tibial translation (ATT) of the knee joint. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: University biomechanics laboratory. Participants: Thirty-one athletes were randomly assigned into

  19. A Transformational Approach to Parametric Accumulated-Cost Static Profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haemmerlé, Rémy; López García, Pedro; Liqat, Umer

    2016-01-01

    Traditional static resource analyses estimate the total resource usage of a program, without executing it. In this paper we present a novel resource analysis whose aim is instead the static profiling of accumulated cost, i.e., to discover, for selected parts of the program, an estimate or bound...... of the resource usage accumulated in each of those parts. Traditional resource analyses are parametric in the sense that the results can be functions on input data sizes. Our static profiling is also parametric, i.e., our accumulated cost estimates are also parameterized by input data sizes. Our proposal is based...... on the concept of cost centers and a program transformation that allows the static inference of functions that return bounds on these accumulated costs depending on input data sizes, for each cost center of interest. Such information is much more useful to the software developer than the traditional resource...

  20. Einstein's conversion from his static to an expanding universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaumer, Harry

    2014-02-01

    In 1917 Einstein initiated modern cosmology by postulating, based on general relativity, a homogenous, static, spatially curved universe. To counteract gravitational contraction he introduced the cosmological constant. In 1922 Alexander Friedman showed that Albert Einstein's fundamental equations also allow dynamical worlds, and in 1927 Georges Lemaître, backed by observational evidence, concluded that our universe was expanding. Einstein impetuously rejected Friedman's as well as Lemaître's findings. However, in 1931 he retracted his former static model in favour of a dynamic solution. This investigation follows Einstein on his hesitating path from a static to the expanding universe. Contrary to an often advocated belief the primary motive for his switch was not observational evidence, but the realisation that his static model was unstable.