WorldWideScience

Sample records for european economic community

  1. Strange Encounters on the Road to Lifelong Learning: The European Economic Community Meets Permanent Education in 1973

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hake, Barry J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines policy formation on education in the European Economic Community during the early 1970s surrounding the 1973 report For a "Community Policy on Education", known as the Janne Report. It examines Community policy-making processes that gave rise to the Janne Report. The text of the Janne Report is analysed with regard to…

  2. European Economic Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, James A.

    1971-01-01

    Recounts the history and problems of European Economic Integration from the first post World War II organization, the OEEC, to the EEC (Common Market) and the EFTA. Suggestions for further reading are included. (JB)

  3. The concept of economic and social cohesion in the treaty establishing the European Community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, E.J.Ph.

    2000-01-01

    This article is a diplomatic history of the development of the concept of Economic and Social Cohesion in the EC Treaty. The article was written in order to check on the span of commitment which the Member States undertook when inserting this concept in the EC Treaty by way of the Single European

  4. WETLANDS ECOLOGICAL-ECONOMIC MAPPING AT COMMUNITY-TRIBAL LANDS IN THE RUSSIAN EUROPEAN ARCTIC COAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Evseev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An economic-ecological map for Nenets community tribal lands at the Russian Arctic coast wetlands was compiled. Wetlands supply a large variety of ecosystem services beneficial to ecological stability and biological resources for indigenous population support. Ecosystem services assessed in this project were mainly regulating: carbon deposition by different ecosystems (climate regulation function due to CO2 consumption, water purification and “warming” effect of bogs. This list was limited by data and assessment methods availability. We used traditional methods for ecological services assessment, based on their existing and possible (virtual market prices. Mapping approaches were based on Target 2 Action 5 Mapping and Assessment of Ecosystems and their Services (MAES of the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. Proportional value regulating services of peat bogs appeared to be nearly the same as maximal existing lands value. Our assessment results enabled us to present spatial dimensions of ecosystem services of community-tribal lands, whose value appeared to be higher than compensatory sums for “lost profit” in case they are replaced by oil extraction infrastructure. Traditional nature management lands may be regarded as an alternative to further primarily industrial land use type and attribute ecological buffers role to them as well as indigenous population material and spiritual support functions.

  5. Methods for Health Economic Evaluation of Vaccines and Immunization Decision Frameworks : A Consensus Framework from a European Vaccine Economics Community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ultsch, Bernhard; Damm, Oliver; Beutels, Philippe; Bilcke, Joke; Brueggenjuergen, Bernd; Gerber-Grote, Andreas; Greiner, Wolfgang; Hanquet, Germaine; Hutubessy, Raymond; Jit, Mark; Knol, Mirjam; von Kries, Ruediger; Kuhlmann, Alexander; Levy-Bruhl, Daniel; Perleth, Matthias; Postma, Maarten; Salo, Heini; Siebert, Uwe; Wasem, Jurgen; Wichmann, Ole

    Incremental cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses [health economic evaluations (HEEs)] of vaccines are routinely considered in decision making on immunization in various industrialized countries. While guidelines advocating more standardization of such HEEs (mainly for curative drugs) exist,

  6. THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY PRIORITY - THE SOCIAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ignat

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available At the level of European Union, starting from the necessity of insurance economic growth, social community law gradually developed, benefitting by sinuous construction, extremely complex, beingcontinuously transformed. Familiarization with the model of social community law prescribed by European Union represents not only a forward step in the process of harmonization with community law, but also an alignment in settlement of European Union, which finally establishes the modernization of the whole domestic law system.

  7. European Integration through Economic Convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savoiu Gheorghe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The thematic topicality of the main issues of European integration through convergence, in the context subsequent to financial-inspired global recession, is relevant through both the ever more extended international impact of the inertiality of a number of integration processes, and the specific developments of convergence in the Eurozone or the European Monetary Union (EMU. The regionally structured system of the European economy, approached aggregatively from the micro-economic to the macro-economic level, like the physical system or molecularly investigated system, from economic transactions, as a major milestone, to the complexity of the transactions tissue or flows, or activities, similar to biological systems, is permanently faced with various specific disturbing factors. The European Union (EU has historically evolved in an alternative manner, sometimes divergently or towards differentiation through separation, and sometimes convergently or coherently towards unity, fusion, integrity, evincing divergence or convergence trends, with the latter eventually becoming prevalent in the contemporary world.

  8. FIGHTING ECONOMIC CRIME IN THE EUROPEAN ARENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anghel Cristian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper tries to put together a modest study on the actions taken at EU level in order to fight economic crime. A series of measures have been implemented at national and European level to create a framework for fighting criminality. The European institutions and the national authorities are improving their cooperation in order to fight the increasing number of economic crimes committed both in the private and public sector, while Member States are approximating their legislation to the provisions of the Community acquis. We have divided these efforts into five categories corresponding to the five main areas of economic crime identified at EU level: fight against fraud, which affects the financial interests of the European Union and mainly comprises fraudulent practices in the use of EU funds and in taxation, fight against piracy and counterfeiting, public and private corruption, money laundering and organised crime. In order to combat the negative influence criminality exerts on the development of the economy and of the overall society, for each of the above mentioned areas legislative, institutional, technical and administrative measures have been adopted. We have presented these measures considering their efficiency in meeting the targets set out and the role played in their implementation by the European and national institutions.

  9. GLOBALIZATION AND ECONOMIC CRISIS IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Marginean, Silvia; Orastean, Ramona

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes the relation between degree of economic globalization and the impact of economic crisis for developed and emerging European countries. We measure economic globalization through indexes based on share of external trade in GDP and FDI intensity (% of FDI inflows and outflows divided by GDP). The complexity of current economic and financial crisis could be evaluated through GDP growth rate, inflation rate, unemployment, public debt, budget deficit, balance of payments, exchang...

  10. Investment and Employment - Drivers of European Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina BURGHELEA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature and related specialty practice, the development of the European Economic Community along with the factors determining them (such investments and staff represents a topic that is of great notoriety. This paper shows the role and influence that direct investment in the economy and employment ratio can propagate in the growth of gross domestic product per capita to ensure increased economic sustainability of countries in the European Community. The most important economic effects of FDI on the host economy can be represented by labor productivity growth through knowledge transfer (know-how technology, management skills and marketing term in countries emerging favor progress technological and economic growth. To determine this goal, in the context of economic logic, this research shows the importance of gross domestic product, total and per capita, as a macroeconomic indicator synthetic, and encouraging and using the action of factors that can also provide political steps, organizational and financial, achieving levels attesting social progress and prosperity. The study highlights a Custom Analysis on gross domestic product per capita, direct investment and the proportion of people employed in total for 24 European Union countries in 2014 and also develop an econometric model multifactorial based on system statistics. Research shows utility in making decisions about investment growth in the European Community by attracting a workforce that is in full compliance with state investment policies and by providing a high living standard.

  11. Economic evaluation of HIV testing for men who have sex with men in community-based organizations - results from six European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelman, Julian; Rosado, Ricardo; Amri, Omar; Morel, Stéphane; Rojas Castro, Daniela; Chanos, Sophocles; Cigan, Bojan; Lobnik, Miha; Fuertes, Ricardo; Pichon, François; Kaye, Per Slaaen; Agustí, Cristina; Fernàndez-López, Laura; Lorente, Nicolas; Casabona, Jordi

    2017-08-01

    The non-decreasing incidence of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) has motivated the emergence of Community Based Voluntary Counselling and Testing (CBVCT) services specifically addressed to MSM. The CBVCT services are characterized by facilitated access and linkage to care, a staff largely constituted by voluntary peers, and private not-for-profit structures outside the formal health system institutions. Encouraging results have been measured about their effectiveness, but these favourable results may have been obtained at high costs, questioning the opportunity to expand the experience. We performed an economic evaluation of HIV testing for MSM at CBVCT services, and compared them across six European cities. We collected retrospective data for six CBVCT services from six cities (Copenhagen, Paris, Lyon, Athens, Lisbon, and Ljubljana), for the year 2014, on the number of HIV tests and HIV reactive tests, and on all expenditures to perform the testing activities. The total costs of CBVCTs varied from 54,390€ per year (Ljubljana) to 245,803€ per year (Athens). The cost per HIV test varied from to 41€ (Athens) to 113€ (Ljubljana). The cost per HIV reactive test varied from 1966€ (Athens) to 9065€ (Ljubljana). Our results show that the benefits of CBVCT services are obtained at an acceptable cost, in comparison with the literature (values, mostly from the USA, range from 1600$ to 16,985$ per HIV reactive test in clinical and non-clinical settings). This result was transversal to several European cities, highlighting that there is a common CBVCT model, the cost of which is comparable regardless of the epidemiological context and prices. The CBVCT services represent an effective and "worth it" experience, to be continued and expanded in future public health strategies towards HIV.

  12. Regional Economic Integration: The European Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Jacquet

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Regional initiatives have flourished since the end of the Cold War. Given the degree of integration it has achieved, the European Union is often cited as a model of regional integration. This article argues that European integration has been the product of very specific historical conditions, implying that the politics and dynamics of regional integration in Europe may not be appropriate for and replicable in other regions. It also discusses European monetary union (EMU and argues that integration within EMU is still incomplete in particular because economic policies are not sufficiently coordinated. Finally, it discusses the contribution of regional integration to global governance and suggests that the "European model" can be a source of inspiration for the rest of the world not as much as a process to emulate as for the lessons that can be learned from the dynamics and experience of European integration about some important issues in managing economic interdependence.

  13. ECONOMIC CRISIS AND ECONOMIC DISPARITIES IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica CRUDU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the economic and financial crisis is still being felt. It started as an acute crisis of the banking system, but then quickly affected the real economy, causing a substantial slump in business investment, household demand and output. The current economic crisis has affected almost all European countries but the countries of the European south and the former eastern socialist republics have suffered the most. The objective in this paper is to quantify economic disparities as expressed by several growth indicators, such as GDP per capita, employment/unemployment rates, labour productivity rates and use them to compare the economic performances before and after the crisis. EU took several measures to recover from the economic crisis. Nevertheless, its ability to adjust to widely diverse national and local contexts that have been impacted differently by the effects of the crisis, and to support the different patterns of economic growth that will result from it, is yet to be seen.

  14. Building dampness and mold in European homes in relation to climate, building characteristics and socio-economic status: The European Community Respiratory Health Survey ECRHS II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbäck, D; Zock, J-P; Plana, E; Heinrich, J; Tischer, C; Jacobsen Bertelsen, R; Sunyer, J; Künzli, N; Villani, S; Olivieri, M; Verlato, G; Soon, A; Schlünssen, V; Gunnbjörnsdottir, M I; Jarvis, D

    2017-09-01

    We studied dampness and mold in homes in relation to climate, building characteristics and socio-economic status (SES) across Europe, for 7127 homes in 22 centers. A subsample of 3118 homes was inspected. Multilevel analysis was applied, including age, gender, center, SES, climate, and building factors. Self-reported water damage (10%), damp spots (21%), and mold (16%) in past year were similar as observed data (19% dampness and 14% mold). Ambient temperature was associated with self-reported water damage (OR=1.63 per 10°C; 95% CI 1.02-2.63), damp spots (OR=2.95; 95% CI 1.98-4.39), and mold (OR=2.28; 95% CI 1.04-4.67). Precipitation was associated with water damage (OR=1.12 per 100 mm; 95% CI 1.02-1.23) and damp spots (OR=1.11; 95% CI 1.02-1.20). Ambient relative air humidity was not associated with indoor dampness and mold. Older buildings had more dampness and mold (Pbuilding age can be risk factors for dampness and mold in homes in Europe. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Community Colleges and Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Augustine

    This document argues that regions that sustain economic growth or recover rapidly from economic slumps are often the same communities that have aggressively developed and continue to strengthen collaborations with business and industry, universities, community colleges, high schools, and other key public and private sector entities. In San Diego…

  16. The ASEAN Economic Community Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juego, Bonn

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I attempt to unpack the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) Blueprint to reveal the project’s neoliberal capitalist strategy of ‘accumulation by dispossession’ whereby the drive for the acquisition of more wealth and power by the economically wealthy and politically powerful necessitate...

  17. Socio-economic segregation in European capital cities: East meets West

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tammaru, T.; Marcińczak, S.; van Ham, M.; Musterd, S.

    2016-01-01

    Growing inequalities in Europe are a major challenge threatening the sustainability of urban communities and the competiveness of European cities. While the levels of socio-economic segregation in European cities are still modest compared to some parts of the world, the poor are increasingly

  18. Economic and labor rights in the European Union after Lisbon: an institutional approach

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinos Margaritis

    2013-01-01

    Economic and labor rights belong to the core of business action, since they constitute the institutional framework for actors involved in business, employers and workers. Since the European integration is progressing, we may speak of a European environment for business, a common market in European legal terms, which became the main aim for the Communities since 1957. At the end of 2009, with the enforcement of the Lisbon Treaty amendments, important changes were brought in the fundamental rig...

  19. Economic Socialization, Saving and Assets in European Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webley, Paul; Nyhus, Ellen K.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the role economic socialization plays in the economic behavior and asset accumulation of young adults by parents using data from European young adults and teenagers. We study the role of four distinct strands of economic socialization (providing pocket money, jobs at home, work for others, and parental encouragement) using a Dutch…

  20. EUROPEAN SOCIAL MODEL.COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OR ECONOMIC HANDICAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iovitu Mariana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available “Corporative social responsibility” (CSR represents equally a very actual debate, but also an appraisal criteria of the dynamic of eco-social integration quality process at European level. Especially that the protection need is demanded by the current economic crisis. This concept is meant to combine the position, attitude and behaviour of the trade-unions with the interests of employer’s organisations in search of possible influential mechanisms of the competitive advantage at European level. Due to the current economic crisis, the implications on the labour force market are causing an explainable anxiety. The attention of the decision takers is oriented towards joining the objectives “social well being with economic well being” in view of an expected economic come back. This approach proves a significant change at the level of economic and social policies within the European Union.

  1. An Assessment of the Results of European Parliament Elections in Greece and European Union Under the Shadow of Economic Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanourgiakis, John; Kanoupakis, Emmanuel

    2016-10-01

    On January 1, 1981, Greece became the tenth member of the European Economic Community and, 20 years later, on January 1, 2001, joined the euro area. In May of 2010 and February of 2012, Greece signed the first and the second economic adjustment programs and adopted austerity policies throughout the public sector in order to avoid the economic collapse, affecting residents' income and health status. We studied the questionnaires of polls conducted in Greece before the elections of the European Parliament (May 25, 2014) and the "Europeans 2014" Eurobarometer's survey in March of 2014. The responses of Greek voters from the Greek polls were alarming, pointing out their declining personal economic situation and Greece's national economic situation, with a sense that the country was heading in the wrong direction, declaring themselves unsatisfied and insecure. The responses of Greek voters from the "Europeans 2014" survey were even more alarming. Health was the first priority for the voters. As the Greek polls and the Eurobarometer's survey forecasted, but more significantly as the results of the Euro-elections showed, Greek voters preferred to put their hopes in something new. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. INFLUENCE OF CULTURE ON EUROPEAN ECONOMIC CONCENTRATION LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia I. DOBRE

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will present in summary, in the first part of the paper, the European legislation on economic concentrations. The purpose of this work will be to analyze the intercultural aspects that affect the evolution of economic concentration operations at European level. The first step will be to determine the countries of the European Union that are most often involved in acquisitions and mergers in the last years. I will then analyze, taking into account the model of Geert Hofstede, whether or not there is a direct link between this evolution and the cultural particularities of each country.

  3. The European hadron therapy community touches base

    CERN Multimedia

    Audrey Ballantine, Manuela Cirilli, Evangelia Dimovasili, Manjit Dosanjh, Seamus Hegarty

    2010-01-01

    The European hadron therapy community gathered in Stockholm from 3 to 5 September for the annual ENLIGHT workshops. Three of the four EC-funded projects born under the umbrella of ENLIGHT (see box) were discussed in the prestigious Nobel Forum at the Karolinska Institutet.   Souvenir photo from the ENLIGHT workshops On its second birthday, the PARTNER Initial Training Network was especially under the spotlight, as the European Commission conducted a formal project review bringing together the institutes, companies and young researchers involved. The 21 PARTNER researchers experienced the thrill of presenting their work in this privileged setting. During the coffee breaks, they joked about this being their only chance in life to speak in the Nobel Forum – but who knows what these brilliant young minds will achieve! They certainly impressed the European Commission’s Project Officer Gianluca Coluccio and Expert Reviewer Kaisa Hellevuo, who stated that PARTNER is a showcase proj...

  4. Economic and labor rights in the European Union after Lisbon: an institutional approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos MARGARITIS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic and labor rights belong to the core of business action, since they constitute the institutional framework for actors involved in business, employers and workers. Since the European integration is progressing, we may speak of a European environment for business, a common market in European legal terms, which became the main aim for the Communities since 1957. At the end of 2009, with the enforcement of the Lisbon Treaty amendments, important changes were brought in the fundamental rights protection in EU, mainly with the enactment of the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights. For a better understanding of the framework of economic and labor rights in EU, the traditional economic freedoms and provisions of the Charter will be examined in this paper in order to draw conclusions on the level of protection of such rights and the modifications that the Lisbon Treaty have brought in EU legal order with reference to economic and labor rights.

  5. Economic freedoms and labour standards in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, J.

    2016-01-01

    The European Union internal market seeks to ensure the free movement of goods, services, capital and citizens. The primacy given to these economic freedoms has culminated in a socio-economic reasoning dominated by competition, bringing about side effects that may pose a threat to working conditions

  6. The Role of Regional Economic Communities in Africa's Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pledges such as Africa's Declaration of Economic Cooperation and Development (ADECD) and Lagos Plan of Action (LPA) were established to build consensus on the benefi ts of regional integration and to provide a formal rationale for the creation of Regional Economic Communities (RECs) by African states. Despite ...

  7. ACRYLAMIDE, FOOD AND EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES RECOMMENDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Carrabs

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The exposure, often deceitful, to the acrylamide has determined notable apprehension in many consumers, so much that the Committee of the European Communities has financed the project HEATOX and has emanated the recommendation 2007/331. It is ascertained that proposed strategies have not brought to great changes in the food process chains, and neither in the traditional catering and housewife, for which more incisive measures are wished.

  8. Economic Cooperation Between The European Union And Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drzymała Agnieszka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to show the history of economic relations between the European Union and Japan. This economy is very important to the EU and the countries of the EU are interested in further deepening areas of cooperation. Therefore it seems important to indicate the political will to continue mutual economic relations through the signing of contracts and bilateral agreements, as well as meetings at various levels, including SPA and EPA negotiations and summits. The course of the current economic cooperation will be shown through trade volume and foreign direct investment outflows from the European Union to Japan.

  9. Tuberculosis among migrant populations in the European Union and the European Economic Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odone, A.; Tillmann, T.; Sandgren, A.; Williams, G.; Rechel, B.; Ingleby, D.; Noori, T.; Mladovsky, P.; McKee, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although tuberculosis (TB) incidence has been decreasing in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) in the last decades, specific subgroups of the population, such as migrants, remain at high risk of TB. This study is based on the report ‘Key Infectious Diseases in Migrant

  10. The Balkans: Between Economic Crisis And European Integration

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    Andrei RĂDULESCU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Balkans region (also known as the „Powder keg of Europe” has always been an European question, a Western question, as underlined by Arnold Toynbee, in 1922. At present, European Union is confronted with the fifth enlargement, also known as the “post-conflict” enlargement – the integration of Balkan states. Bulgaria joined European Union in 2007. Croatia signed the Accession Treaty in 2011 and is expected to become an EU member in 2013. The other countries encounter in different stages of European integration. However, this process presents several challenges and dilemmas, either for European Union, or for the Balkan enclave. The main challenge in the case of this enlargement is to reconcile the nation-state building and the European integration. From the economic point of view, the Balkans region is underdeveloped. Several factors determined this stance of the region: the poor endowment in terms of natural resources, the political situation over the centuries (the military conflicts – impeding the economic development, the cultural factors. At present, the region is confronted with the consequences of the worst economic and financial crisis o global economy since the end of World War II.

  11. The Integrative Dimension of the Economic Globalization in European Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mariana Alexandrache

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We believe that globalization and its socio-economic implications of the world and world economic crisis is one of the most debated issues from several years. The publication "The Economist’’ named globalization as the most used word of the century. The most relevant dimension of globalization is the economy with the more dynamic factors: technological development, the hegemony of liberal conceptions (closely linked to the triumph of the ideology of market economy and explosive development of countries or regions. Economic globalization has manifested a series of visible effects such as: the emergence of new markets and foreign trade (interconnected at global level, the appearance of: transnational companies, multilateral agreements on trade, broadening the scope of WTO, transformation of multinational companies in transnational companies and the emergence of global economic markets. Regionally, we noticed that the trendof concentration of economic activity is more pronounced and advanced in the European continent. Expanding globalization in Europe was achieved because of the fall of communism, and the neoliberal reformation which took place in Western European countries. Events like the fall of the Berlin Wall, followed by the fall of communism eradicated many political, economic, religious or cultural barriers. There were born new relations between state and market, public and private. European Union is, in our view, a regional office ofglobalization, representing the best performing integrative system in the world (by creating free trade area, customs union, common market, the Economic and Monetary Union. In terms of the European Commission,European model is a third way towards globalization, a middle path between protectionism and uncontrolled economy. To understand why the EU is an advanced approximation of globalization, perhaps a regional model of globalization, we must first understand the link between globalization and regional

  12. Photovoltaic pilot projects in the European community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treble, F. C.; Grassi, G.; Schnell, W.

    The paper presents proposals received for the construction of photovoltaic pilot plants as part of the Commission of the European Communities' second 4-year solar energy R and D program. The proposed plants range from 30 to 300 kWp and cover a variety of applications including rural electrification, water pumping, desalination, dairy farming, factories, hospitals, schools and vacation centers. Fifteen projects will be accepted with a total generating capacity of 1 MWp, with preference given to those projects involving the development of new techniques, components and systems.

  13. EUROPEAN INVESTMENT BANK'S ROLE IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF ROMANIA AND EUROPE

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    HAGIU ALINA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available European Investment Bank is the European Union's financial institution. It finances investment projects to contribute to the balanced development of the Union. At the same time "bank" and "body" of the European Union, it contributes to the achievement of the European Union objectives by funding projects to promote European integration, balanced development, economic and social cohesion and the development of an economy based on innovation. Today, the EIB exists on the capital markets with the best quote, “Triple A”. This quote allows it to mobilize in highly competitive conditions, the most important financial volume required to support investments. As an institution, EIB continuously adapts its working mode to changes in EU policies. As a bank, it works closely with the banking community, both for loans on the capital markets as well as for financing investments.

  14. Fostering Local Economic Development through Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The skills included information system analysis and development, computing as well as web developing. The case study employed a Community Informatics approach which is the application of information and communications technologies (ICTs) to enable community processes such as local economic development.

  15. ROMANIAN VS. EUROPEAN SOCIO-ECONOMIC “IDEAS”

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    Serbanica Cristina

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the role of socio-economic research in the European Research Area, while putting focus on emerging trends in the field. In the meantime, the paper presents and analysis the projects that won the “Ideas” competition: ERC Advanced Inve

  16. Economic freedoms and labour standards in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Jan Cremers has contributed with a main article in Transfer: European Review of Labour and Research (Vol. 22-2). It was published by Sage ahead of print. His article examines the problematic relationship between economic freedoms and labour standards in the context of cross-border labour

  17. Economic Burden of Bladder Cancer Across the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leal, J.; Luengo-Fernandez, R.; Sullivan, R.; Witjes, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: More than 120000 people are diagnosed annually with bladder cancer in the 28 countries of the European Union (EU). With >40000 people dying of it each year, it is the sixth leading cause of cancer. However, to date, no systematic cost-of-illness study has assessed the economic impact

  18. Dividing united Europe. Stereotypes, prejudices and the European (economic) crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierp, Aline; Karner, Christian

    2017-01-01

    This special issue brings together scholars who examine the nexus between the (economic) crisis, national identities and the use of historical images, prejudices and stereotypes by focusing particularly on media and political discourses in different European countries. Pictures of Angela Merkel in a

  19. Europeanization and the Mechanics of Economic Policy Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien A. Schmidt

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available To explain divergence in member-state policy adjustment in response to the economic pressures of globalization and Europeanization (distinguished from European integration as the impact of EU level decisions on national level policies and institutions, this paper identifies five mediating factors: economic vulnerability, political institutional capacity, policy legacies, policy preferences, and discourse. In addition to these factors, it outlines four institutional adjustment pressures, including when an EU model is required, recommended, suggested, or not, to help explain the differential outcomes to Europeanization, whether policy inertia, absorption, or transformation. To illustrate, it focuses on the policy responses of three countries, France, Britain, and Germany, in such sectors as monetary policy, financial services, telecommunications, electricity, transport, the environment, and employment.

  20. Income Distribution and Economic Well-Being within European Families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens

    The article analyses the distribution of income within European families and the consequences for the spouses’ economic well-being. Thus, many studies have shown that women nowadays participate on the labour market in an increasing number resulting in a more equal distribution of income within...... is closer to the actual income distribution than in the Continental European and Liberal regimes, and in the Southern European regime the preferences are far away from being achieved. In The Netherlands and in Ireland the preferences are for a traditional bread-winner model, as there is found a u......-shaped relationship between the distribution of income and men and women’s economic well-being....

  1. European Socio-Economic Integration Challenges, Opportunities and Lessons Learned

    CERN Document Server

    Korres, George

    2013-01-01

    Economic integration is one of the most noteworthy issues in international economic policy at the end of the twentieth century. The recent examples of the European Union (EU) and the North American Free Trade Association (NAFTA) have raised important questions about the economic integration process and the possible establishment of economic unions in other parts of the world.  Against the backdrop of the financial crisis in Europe and prospects of increasing integration in Asia, this volume showcases research from an international array of researchers to provide a basic understanding of the current issues, problems, challenges, and opportunities for achieving integration, addressing both empirical and theoretical aspects of such topics as monetary union, social policy reform and social union, public finance and technology policy.  The chapters in Part 1 are focused primarily on economic issues, while Part 2 covers on social policy, the welfare state, and political reforms, with a particular emphasis on the ...

  2. The predictive value of different socio-economic indicators for overweight in nine European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Albert-Jan R; Kunst, Anton E

    2008-12-01

    To assess which socio-economic indicator best predicts overweight in the European Union: educational attainment, occupational class or household income. The prevalence of overweight is strongly related to socio-economic position. The relative importance of different socio-economic dimensions is uncertain, and might vary between countries. Cross-sectional self-report data of the European Community Household Panel were obtained from nine countries (n 52,855; age 25-64 years). Uni- and multivariate regression analyses were employed to predict overweight (BMI >or= 25 kg/m2) in relationship to socio-economic indicators. Occupational class was measured using the new European Socioeconomic Classification. Large socio-economic differences in overweight were observed in all countries, especially for women. For both sexes, a low educational attainment was the strongest predictor of overweight. After controlling for education, overweight was negatively related to household income in women, but positively in men. Similar patterns were found for occupational class. For women, but not for men, educational inequalities in overweight were generally greater in Southern European countries. A similar pattern of inequalities in overweight was observed for all ages between 25 and 64 years. Across Europe, overweight was more strongly and more consistently related to educational attainment than to occupational class or household income. People with lower educational attainment should be a specific target group for programmes and policies that aim to prevent overweight.

  3. The Role of European Union Funds in Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian PĂUN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Union project initially started as a peaceful solution for war reconstruction in Europe. European countries decided to cooperate rather than compete in an aggressive way. At the beginning, this project supposed (involved market liberalization, trade barriers removals, market access improvement (initially for coal, steel, energy and, later, for all goods, services, workforce and capital. Unfortunately, in the last decades, all these Single Market facilities have been backed by redistributive schemes, protectionist mechanisms, social engineering, subsidies and facilities packed in so-called ”EU policies”. New ”European” institutions have been created, more and more funds have been involved to financially support this very complex redistributive intervention. The political dimension of the European Union project enhanced the economic dimension and constantly suffocated private markets and the economy. The “incomes” of the European Union that fuel its financial support are coming from taxes and/or inflation (better administered after the introduction of a Single Currency – the Euro. This paper will discuss the relevance of European Funds for economic development, especially for new members in this project.

  4. Economic reasons for the expansion of ENP (European Neighborhood Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Merim Kasumovic

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available As a tool to promote democratization EU has set up the Copenhagen criteria which clearly define political, judicial and economic prerequisites for EU membership. The justification of implementation of such criteria can be found in high levels of corruption, autocracy and inefficient political systems in potential members and ENP countries. Potential candidates and ENP countries are looking up to EU and expecting financial aid which only becomes available after Copenhagen criteria have been met. It becomes clear than that it is necessary to establish a fertile political ground in ENP partner countries prior to economic cooperation with the EU members. Therefore, this paper will seek to examine if the European Neighborhood Policy (ENP promotes economic cooperation through establishment of synergy between political and economic policies? Is it equally beneficial for EU and partner countries? DOWNLOAD FILE

  5. Measles among migrants in the European Union and the European Economic Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, G.A.; Bacci, S.; Shadwick, R.; Tillmann, T.; Rechel, B.; Noori, T.; Suk, J.E.; Odone, A.; Ingleby, J.D.; Mladovsky, P.; McKee, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Progress towards meeting the goal of measles elimination in the EU and the European Economic Area (EEA) by 2015 is being obstructed, as some children are either not immunized on time or never immunized. One group thought to be at increased risk of measles is migrants; however, the extent to

  6. An economic analysis of the European commission’s proposal for a European account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Kyriakides

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper performs an economic analysis of the European Commission’s proposal for a European-wide preservation order. Bentham’s utilitarianism theory suggests that legislators must take into mind the pleasures and pains associated with any legislation and to form laws in order to create the greatest good for the greatest number. These ideas are reflected in the modern economic theories of welfare economics. But are these principles sufficient to create effective legal rules and achieve justice? Section 2 of this work analyzes the difficulties in obtaining a provisional measure to preserve another party’s assets in another Member State of the European Union (“EU”. Section 3 sets out the Commission’s proposal for a European Account Preservation Order (“EAPO”. Section 4 applies welfare economics principles in order to identify the effect of legal rules related to this proposal, while it proposes an alternative approach to these principles. Lastly, section 4 makes suggestions on the proposal based on this alternative approach.

  7. Connection between sport and economics within the European context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Mihai Jitaru

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The sport, in its capacity as a social and economic phenomenon, contributes to achieving the strategic objectives of solidarity and prosperity of the European Union. The sport is based on the notion that peace, tolerance, mutual understanding and education, which correspond to the European ideal. The sport is currently experiencing new phenomena, such as commercial pressure, trafficking in human beings, doping, racism, violence, corruption and money laundering. It has a huge social force. It can also be “a factor to promote integration, fair play and public health", said Wolfganag Schauble, federal Minister of the Interior of Germany, in the informal meeting of the Ministers of Sport in the European Union.

  8. Analysing the contribution of business services to European economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Kox, Henk L.M.; Rubalcaba, Luis

    2007-01-01

    The sector business services contributes directly and indirectly to aggregate economic growth in Europe. The direct contribution comes from the sector’s own dynamism. Though the business-services industry appears to be characterised by strong cyclical volatility, there was also a strong structural growth. Business services actually generated more than half of total net employment growth in the European Union since the second half of the 1990s. Apart from this direct growth contribution, t...

  9. Economic case for gender equality in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Elomäki, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Scholarship on gender and the European Union (EU) has consistently pointed out that EU gender equality policies have always been embedded in the logic of the market and that the economic framing has had negative impacts on the content and concepts of these policies. This article provides novel insights into this discussion by combining a discursive approach focused on framings with insights of feminist economists and examining how the relationship between gender equality and the economy has b...

  10. Fostering Local Economic Development through Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kamuzora

    contribution in rural development endeavours is usually undermined by leakage effects. However, when ... The community is known as Friends of Usambara Society (FoUS) which was formed in 1996 following a .... developing strategies and applications for using ICT to support local economic development, social justice ...

  11. The European Community and crisis adaptation: The impact of the 1973 oil crisis on European integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahurin, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    This study investigates relationships that emerged between European Economic Community and Arab League nations during the period 1970-1978, with special attention to the period immediately following the October 1973 Arab-Israeli war and the Arab oil embargo of 1973-74. The central argument is that European integration can be measured and understood from three different levels of analysis: not only the systems or supranational level (to which neofunctionalists and federalists have largely confined their investigations), but from the nation-state and the subnational levels also. This view is justified in the context of complex interdependencies in the work of Joseph Nye and Robert Keohane. From this perspective, nation-state and subnational-level data take on a new importance. This study collected data on the nature, level, and intensity of contracts between actors within each of these three levels. The study finds at all these levels strong evidence of increased collective and convergent activity which, in the context of complex interdependencies, points to a complex but clearly advancing process of European integration during the period under investigation.

  12. EXPERIENCES AND TENDENCIES TO DECENTRALIZE THE CAPABILITIES OF THE ECONOMIC POLICY AT THE EUROPEAN UNION LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodescu Anca

    2011-07-01

    , coordinator: Professor Dr. Valeriu Ioan Franc. The question we intend to answer, in the present phase of our research, based on the comparative analysis of the decentralisation systems of several Member States of European Union, respectively on the analysis of the regional disparities existing at the European Union level and of the effects of the economic integration, is- to what extent the capabilities of the regional policy should rather be concentrated in the hands of regional authorities or of the European Union than to be left individually to the Member States which should conceive their own regional policy? What we intend in this paper, based on the analysis of some experiences to decentralize the capabilities of economic policy at the European Union level, is to identify the regional implications of the interconnection of decentralization, centralization, respectively supra-nationalization tendencies and, implicitly, the analysis of the way to reconfigure the role of state in economy at the regional level, in the context of integration in the European model. The examination of the way to reconfigure the role of state in economy at regional level requires the review of the allocative, distributive, and regulating roles of the state from a regional perspective, the analysis, on one side, of the decentralization of economic policy capabilities from the national level to the regional level (for example, national level: pure public goods supply, for instance, national defence and the centralization of fiscal policy capabilities in order to achieve macroeconomic stability and revenue redistribution; regional level: mixed public goods supply, for instance, waste collection and community policy, on the other hand, the centralization/decentralization of regional capabilities at the European Union level.

  13. Macro-economic Aspects of the European Navigation Sytem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterlinck, René

    2002-01-01

    GALILEO is a European civilian satellite navigation system intended to offer worldwide services. Besides an open signal free of charge the system will provide a number of additional signals available on certain conditions. These signals comprise in particular commercial signals with added value elements and a public regulated signal. A number of economic studies have been performed and come all to the conclusion that GALILEO will result in substantial macro-economic benefits in particular for Europe. Recent studies have also confirmed the return of investment with respect to the deployment and operations of the system. The paper will present a synthesis of the identified and expected macro-economic benefits as well as potential mechanisms for attracting private investors to invest either in the infrastructure or the value added services and receiver equipment.

  14. ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF DEVELOPING INTERMODAL TRANSPORT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crisan Radu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Transport plays a crucial role in economic and social development and its contribution goes beyond what is normally captured in traditional cost-benefit analyses. Transportation investments can have large long-term economic, social and environmental impacts. The European Commission when developing transport policy, focuses on the intermodal transport, which is seen as a sustainable mobility solution, environmentally friendly and efficient in terms of resources, especially in terms of freight. European transport policies promote co-modality - combining different modes for a single supply chain - as a solution to the adverse effects of transport: pollution, traffic congestion, energy consumption. Intermodal transport is found to be consistently cheaper than all-road solutions, and its external costs significantly lower, thereby confirming the high potential of intermodal transport in increasing the sustainability of the transport sector. So, freight intermodality is increasingly considered as major potential contributor to solving the sustainability problems of the European transport sector. This paper addresses the pricing issues specifically related to intermodal transport. The focus in on the main economical advantages of developing intermodal transport, but also on the usage limits brought by particularities of transport modes. Special attention is given to intermodal transfer terminals with solutions for activity efficiency increase, with major implications on the quality and cost of transportation. The theme discussed in this paper is of great importance, many authors and specialists developed it in their studies. Some names are needed to be mentioned: Todd Litman, Dr. Yuri V. Yevdokimov, John J. Coyle, Kenneth D. Boyer and few more. But, a special attention for this subject is paid by the European Commission and its subordinated institutions, that are interested in developing sustainable strategies and promoting concrete solutions for

  15. ITER driver blanket, European Community design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbolotti, G. (EURATOM-ENEA Association on Fusion Research, C.R.E., Frascati (Italy)); Zampaglione, V. (EURATOM-ENEA Association on Fusion Research, C.R.E., Frascati (Italy)); Ferrari, M. (EURATOM-ENEA Association on Fusion Research, C.R.E., Frascati (Italy)); Gallina, M. (EURATOM-ENEA Association on Fusion Research, C.R.E., Frascati (Italy)); Mazzone, G. (EURATOM-ENEA Association on Fusion Research, C.R.E., Frascati (Italy)); Nardi, C. (EURATOM-ENEA Association on Fusion Research, C.R.E., Frascati (Italy)); Petrizzi, L. (EURATOM-ENEA Association on Fusion Research, C.R.E., Frascati (Italy)); Rado, V. (EURATOM-ENEA Association on Fusion Research, C.R.E., Frascati (Italy)); Violante, V. (EURATOM-ENEA Association on Fusion Research, C.R.E., Frascati (Italy)); Daenner, W. (NET Team, Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)); Lorenzetto, P. (NET Team, Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)); Gierszewski, P. (CFFTP, Mississauga, ON (Canada)); Gratt

    1993-07-01

    Depending on the final decision on the operation time of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), the Driver Blanket might become a basic component of the machine with the main function of producing a significant fraction (close to 0.8) of the tritium required for the ITER operation, the remaining fraction being available from external supplies. The Driver Blanket is not required to provide reactor relevant performance in terms of tritium self-sufficiency. However, reactor relevant reliability and safety are mandatory requirements for this component in order not to significantly afftect the overall plant availability and to allow the ITER experimental program to be safely and successfully carried out. With the framework of the ITER Conceptual Design Activities (CDA, 1988-1990), a conceptual design of the ITER Driver Blanket has been carried out by ENEA Fusion Dept., in collaboration with ANSALDO S.p.A. and SRS S.r.l., and in close consultation with the NET Team and CFFTP (Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project). Such a design has been selected as EC (European Community) reference design for the ITER Driver Blanket. The status of the design at the end of CDA is reported in the present paper. (orig.)

  16. Reduction in undiagnosed HIV infection in the European Union/European Economic Area, 2012 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sighem, Ard; Pharris, Anastasia; Quinten, Chantal; Noori, Teymur; Amato-Gauci, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    It is well-documented that early HIV diagnosis and linkage to care reduces morbidity and mortality as well as HIV transmission. We estimated the median time from HIV infection to diagnosis in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) at 2.9 years in 2016, with regional variation. Despite evidence of a decline in the number of people living with undiagnosed HIV in the EU/EEA, many remain undiagnosed, including 33% with more advanced HIV infection (CD4 < 350 cells/mm3). PMID:29208159

  17. Issues in space segment regulation in the european community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Paul

    A major restructuring of the satellite communications market in the European Community has been set in motion with the advent of the European Commission's Satellite Green Paper. The first detailed proposals for Community legislation however, address mainly ground segment issues, such as type-approval of satellite equipment and the mutual recognition of licences. Space segment issues remain an important area for further reflection. This paper presents some background to these space segment issues within the context of the Community satellite communications policy.

  18. THE ECONOMICS OF “BIG FIVE” EUROPEAN FOOTBALL LEAGUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor DIMA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available European football is a business with more and more attractive numbers for investors, shareholders or partners all over the planet. It has significantly changed especially over the last 20 years, following an intense procedure of acquisitions and marketing, a process that has brought important sums of money in this industry. This paper presents the overview of the “big five” European football leagues (England, Germany, Spain, Italy, France. The study is primarily focused on economics, but is also considering various social or cultural aspects (media, social media followers. The case-study on the five major leagues corroborates the theoretical underpinning. The paper investigates also the roots of financial regulation divergence in Europe and underlines the main issues regarding the UEFA financial fair-play rules.

  19. For or Against the Eurozone? Romanian Students’ Perspective on the Economic Crisis and Their Future as European Citizens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina-Daniela MIHALCEA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalization and of the aftermath of the economic crisis, the pillars on which the EU stands no longer satisfy the demands and necessities of the European citizens (Van Ham, 2005; Habermas, 2012.  The euro crisis has generated, on one hand, a gap between the “center” and the “periphery” that can be correlated with the fragmentation both of the EU’s spheres of influence and of the European financial market (Dobrescu & Palada, 2012; EFCR, 2013.  On the other hand, the euro crisis has generated a lack of solidarity and confidence in the European project. At this point, the major challenge for the European Union is not only the Euro-zone crisis, but also the level of confidence amongst young people. Recent polls (Gallup, 2013; Pew Research Center, 2013 indicate a dramatic rise in pessimism among Europe’s young people that have been labeled as “the Lost Generation” (European Commission, 2012. This paper explores the impact of the economic crisis on Romanian students’ attitudes towards the future of the European project and towards their European identity. The study aims at identifying the major concerns of Romanian students in terms of their future as European citizens. Our approach of this subject covers two perspectives: the first one is the utilitarian perspective, that is taking into consideration the actual advantages of the Europeanization process and the sustainability of the European social and economic model in the current national economic context; the second one is the identity perspective, that is taking into account the impact of the economic crisis on the Romanian students’ sense of belonging to the European community. The results of our study indicate that, overall, the Romanian youth holds an optimistic view concerning the EU, however they express some concerns in terms of lack of solidarity and fear of national identity loss.

  20. Economic benefits of the EU Ecodesign Directive. Improving European economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molenbroek, E.; Cuijpers, M.; Blok, K.

    2012-04-15

    The EU Ecodesign Directive aims at reducing the environmental impact of a number of products sold in the EU, with emphasis on their energy consumption. Ecofys investigated economic benefits related to the Directive. A correct implementation of the EU Ecodesign Directive would yield yearly savings of up to 600 TWh of electricity and 600 TWh of heat in 2020. In addition to these environmental benefits, this study identified important economic advantages like: Net savings for European consumers and businesses of 90 billion euro per year (1% of EU's current GDP) in the year 2020; Reinvesting these savings in other sectors of the economy would result in the creation of one million jobs; Dependency on imports of energy would be reduced by 23% and 37% for natural gas and coal, respectively. This means the EU could slash natural gas imports from Russia by more than half and imports of coal from Russia could be stopped altogether.

  1. Towards a European consensus on conducting and reporting health economic evaluations--a report from the ISPOR Inaugural European Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetghebeur, M M; Rindress, D

    1999-01-01

    This report is a summary of key issues in consensus development regarding the conduct and reporting of health economic research in the European context, presented and discussed at the ISPOR Inaugural European Conference in Cologne, Germany, December 1998. Recommendations of the Harmonization by Consensus of the Methodology for Economic Evaluation of Health Care Technologies in the European Union (HARMET) project were presented, as well as two instruments under development: software for Reporting Economic Evaluation Results (REER) and software for collecting and managing cost data called the Health Cost Database Software (HCDS). Working independently, but interrelated with the objectives of the HARMET initiative, preliminary results from the ongoing European Network on Methodology and Application of Economic Evaluation Techniques (EUROMET) project were presented. Each presentation was followed by an expert discussion panel with audience participation. Issues raised included the development of standards and related topics such as usefulness to European decision-makers, and education and training in health economics in Europe.

  2. Calculation, community and cues: public opinion on European integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooghe, E.A.E.B.; Marks, G.W.

    2005-01-01

    This article summarizes and extends the main lines of theorizing on public opinion on European integration. We test theories of economic calculus and communal identity in a multi-level analysis of Eurobarometer data. Both economic calculus and communal identity are influential, but the latter is

  3. Information Policy in the European Community: Balancing Protection and Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillince, J. A. A.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses European Community policy relating to information technology and the information industry. Topics addressed include the information services industry; transborder information flow, including electronic mail, data owner responsibility, and software piracy; digital data networks; electronic data interchange; telecommunications; information…

  4. Finnish Highly Skilled Migrants and the European Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koikkalainen Saara

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Europe is home to a globally unique area where the barriers of transnational migration have been largely removed. This article focuses on Finnish highly skilled, intra-European migrants and their labour market situation immediately following the economic crisis of 2008. Based on two consecutive online surveys (carried out in spring 2008 and summer 2010 of tertiary educated Finns living in other EU countries, the article examines the effects of the global economic downturn on the careers of these highly skilled migrants. Only 16 per cent of the respondents report that their labour market situation had worsened. A higher percentage (24% felt that their situation had improved and the majority (54% had either experienced no change in their situation or stated that their reasons for changing jobs or moving had nothing to do with the crisis. The article concludes that these migrants were protected from the full force of the crisis by their high human capital, flexibility of alternating between studying and work, employment in international workplaces and their intra-European migrant status.

  5. APPEARANCE ON EUROPEAN UNION POLICY ON FUNDING SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last years of the current European Union will be involved less in funding developing countries and geographic areas outside it, because we need to focus on eliminating disparities and balancing standards of living in member countries, how much more there is still big differences in this regard between Member States of the European Union. The objectives of economic growth, social to, throughout the European Union can only be achieved through the permanent coordination of macroeconomic and sectoral policies implemented in each Member State and at Community level. Track the means, firstly, the completion and operation of administrative structures, particularly in the public sector appropriate to the requirements of democratization, of establishing a fair competition between participants in economic and social life etc. The sums of EU funds to improve the construction and operation of government, most of the public sector, shows increasing levels from the previous financial programs, levels that diminiează making room for other community priorities.

  6. The Politics of the Economics of Education in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This article critically examines the work of the European Commission-sponsored network, the European Expert Network on Economics of Education (EENEE). The aim is to develop understanding of the context and significance of the mobilization of the economics of education research and policy paradigm within the European Union's Education and Training…

  7. Tuberculosis among migrant populations in the European Union and the European Economic Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odone, Anna; Tillmann, Taavi; Sandgren, Andreas; Williams, Gemma; Rechel, Bernd; Ingleby, David; Noori, Teymur; Mladovsky, Philipa; McKee, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Although tuberculosis (TB) incidence has been decreasing in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) in the last decades, specific subgroups of the population, such as migrants, remain at high risk of TB. This study is based on the report 'Key Infectious Diseases in Migrant Populations in the EU/EEA' commissioned by The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. We collected, critically appraised and summarized the available evidence on the TB burden in migrants in the EU/EEA. Data were collected through: (i) a comprehensive literature review; (ii) analysis of data from The European Surveillance System (TESSy) and (iii) evidence provided by TB experts during an infectious disease workshop in 2012. In 2010, of the 73,996 TB cases notified in the EU/EEA, 25% were of foreign origin. The overall decrease of TB cases observed in recent years has not been reflected in migrant populations. Foreign-born people with TB exhibit different socioeconomic and clinical characteristics than native sufferers. This is one of the first studies to use multiple data sources, including the largest available European database on infectious disease notifications, to assess the burden and provide a comprehensive description and analysis of specific TB features in migrants in the EU/EEA. Strengthened information about health determinants and factors for migrants' vulnerability is needed to plan, implement and evaluate targeted TB care and control interventions for migrants in the EU/EEA. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  8. Economic Burden of Bladder Cancer Across the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Jose; Luengo-Fernandez, Ramon; Sullivan, Richard; Witjes, J Alfred

    2016-03-01

    More than 120,000 people are diagnosed annually with bladder cancer in the 28 countries of the European Union (EU). With >40,000 people dying of it each year, it is the sixth leading cause of cancer. However, to date, no systematic cost-of-illness study has assessed the economic impact of bladder cancer in the EU. To estimate the annual economic costs of bladder cancer in the EU for 2012. Country-specific cancer cost data were estimated using aggregate data on morbidity, mortality, and health care resource use, obtained from numerous international and national sources. Health care costs were estimated from expenditures on primary, outpatient, emergency, and inpatient care, as well as medications. Costs of unpaid care and lost earnings due to morbidity and early death were estimated. Bladder cancer cost the EU €4.9 billion in 2012, with health care accounting for €2.9 billion (59%) and representing 5% of total health care cancer costs. Bladder cancer accounted for 3% of all cancer costs in the EU (€143 billion) in 2012 and represented an annual health care cost of €57 per 10 EU citizens, with costs varying >10 times between the country with the lowest cost, Bulgaria (€8 for every 10 citizens), and highest cost, Luxembourg (€93). Productivity losses and informal care represented 23% and 18% of bladder cancer costs, respectively. The quality and availability of comparable cancer-related data across the EU need further improvement. Our results add to essential public health and policy intelligence for delivering affordable bladder cancer care systems and prioritising the allocation of public research funds. We looked at the economic costs of bladder cancer across the European Union (EU). We found bladder cancer to cost €4.9 billion in 2012, with health care accounting for €2.9 billion. Our study provides data that can be used to inform affordable cancer care in the EU. Copyright © 2015 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  9. Impact Assessment of Public Innovation Support in European Economic Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantas Vilys

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is related to the public innovation support in Euro-pean Economic Area and its effectiveness assessment. Main aim of the re-search presented in this paper is to propose new model for public innovation support effectiveness assessment, which could be relevant to the contempo-rary needs and would be based on new explored practice of public innova-tion support developments. The methods of comparative, regression, model-ling analysis, multi-criteria evaluation, analogy search, logical abstraction and impact evaluation have been applied for the research presented in this paper. Proposed original system of quantitative and qualitative indicators that characterize any public innovation support system (public innovation support index enables creation and implementation of measures devoted to the public innovation support impact improvement at EU and national level.

  10. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF VAT EVOLUTION IN THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA ANDREEA STROE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study a comparative analysis of VAT in different states of the world. I made some observation on this theme because I believe that VAT is very important in carrying out transactions and the increase or decrease of this tax has a major impact upon national economies and also on the quality of life in developing countries. The papers has to pourpose to make a comparison between the American and European system of taxation with its advantages and disadvantages and, in the end to render an economic model and its statistics components. VAT is a value added tax which appeared about 50 years, initially with two purposes: one to replace certain indirect taxes, and another to reduce the budget deficit according to the faith of that time. The first country that has adopted this model was France, calling it today as value-added tax.

  11. Economic institutions and economic growth: Empirical evidence from the Economic Community of West African States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarus Z. Wanjuu

    2017-12-01

    Background: Economic institutions are considered as the fundamental cause of economic growth. Economic institutions affect economic growth through allocation of resources like physical and human capital. Unfortunately, there is dearth of empirical studies showing the impact of economic institutions on growth of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS. Aim: This study investigates the impact of economic institutions on economic growth of the ECOWAS. Setting and method: The study applied cause and effect relationship. The study used econometric research techniques of unit root and co-integration tests to establish the time series properties of the data; the vector error correction and co-integration regression models to estimate the population parameters. The research data comprised data obtained from the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD, the Transparency International (TI and Heritage Foundation databases. The variables employed were the real gross domestic product (GDP per capita (RGDPPC, corruption perception index (CPI, property rights protection (PROPRGT, private investment per capita (INVESPC, government expenditure per capita (GOEXPPC and trade openness (TRAOPN. Results: The results of the data analysed showed that economic institutions represented by the property rights index engender RGDPPC growth in ECOWAS. The CPI could not stimulate RGDPPC growth in ECOWAS. The results also show that all the other variables stimulated growth except trade openness. Conclusion: The study concludes that good economic institutions, private investments, and government intervention by providing security, economic and social infrastructural facilities are conducive for economic growth in the ECOWAS region. The study recommended that more efforts be made at curbing corruption in the region

  12. A Legal Analysis of Safeguard Measures in the European Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Ma

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, the European Community imposed its first safeguard measure since the establishment of the WTO. And in 2003, it introduced two new regulations on safeguard measures, namely the “Council Regulation on a transitional product- specific safeguard mechanism for imports originating in the People's Republic of China” and the “Council Regulation on measures that the Community may take in relation to the combined effect of anti-dumping or anti-subsidy measures with safeguard measures." In this article, the author analyzes these safeguard measures and the European Commission's practice of such measures. By comparing the safeguard laws and their practice, it is the author's intention to clarify whether the safeguard measures in thIn 2002, the European Community imposed its first safeguard measure since the establishment of the WTO. And in 2003, it introduced two new regulations on safeguard measures, namely the "Council Regulation on a transitional product- specific safeguard mechanism for imports originating in the People's Republic of China" and the "Council Regulation on measures that the Community may take in relation to the combined effect of anti-dumping or anti-subsidy measures with safeguard measures." In this article, the author analyzes these safeguard measures and the European Commission's practice of such measures. By comparing the safeguard laws and their practice, it is the author's intention to clarify whether the safeguard measures in the European Community comply with the WTO Agreement on Safeguards. In conclusion, based on the analysis of safeguard measures in the European Community's legal system and their practice in actual cases, it apparent that the European Community is making a serious effort to comply with the standards of the WTO Safeguards Agreement. In certain respects, the European Community has a comparatively higher level of standards than the WTO. Nevertheless, there continue to be challenges to WTO

  13. Health economics and the European Heart Rhythm Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardas, Panos; Boriani, Giuseppe

    2011-05-01

    The management of healthcare is becoming extremely complex in developed countries, as a result of increasing age of the population and increasing costs of care, coupled with diminishing resources due to global financial crisis. This situation threatens access to appropriate care, and a more or less explicit rationing of some types of treatment may occur in 'real world' clinical practice. This is particularly true for those treatments or interventions with a relatively high up-front cost, such as cardioverter defibrillators, devices for cardiac resynchronization therapy or ablation procedures for atrial fibrillation. The European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) is strongly convinced that the skills of electrophysiologists and cardiologists responsible for the management of rhythm disorders have to evolve, also embracing the knowledge of health economics, clinical epidemiology, health-care management and outcome research. These disciplines do not belong to what is considered as the conventional cultural background of physicians, but knowledge of comparative cost effectiveness and of other economic approaches nowadays appears fundamental for a dialogue with a series of stakeholders, such as policy makers, politicians, and administrators, involved in budgeting the activity of hospitals and health-care services, as well as in approaching health technology assessment.

  14. Changes in alcohol consumption in the 50- to 64-year-old European economically active population during an economic crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosque-Prous, Marina; Kunst, Anton E.; Brugal, M. Teresa; Espelt, Albert

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to compare alcohol drinking patterns in economically active people aged 50-64 years before the last economic crisis (2006) and during the crisis (2013). Cross-sectional study with data from 25 479 economically active people aged 50-64 years resident in 11 European countries who

  15. THE EUROPEAN POSITION OF DUTCH PLANT COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.M. JANSSEN

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is analyzed for which plant communities (alliances the Netherlands has an international responsibility. Data has been brought together on the range and distribution of alliances in Europe, the area of plant communities in the Netherlands and surrounding countries and the occurrence of endemic associations in the Netherlands. The analysis resulted in a list of 34 out of 93 alliances in the Netherlands which are important from an international point of view.

  16. Tax Shift by Economic Functions and Its Effect on Economic Growth in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Szarowská

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to examine effects of tax shift on economic growth and provide a direct empirical evidence in the European Union (EU. It is used the Eurostat’s definition to categorize tax burden by economic functions and implicit tax rates of consumption, labour and capital are investigated. First, paper summarizes main development of tax shift in a whole EU till 2014 and followed empirical analysis is based on annual panel data of 22 EU Member States in years 1995–2012 (time span is divided into a pre-crisis and a post-crisis period. Explanatory variables are not examined in individual regressions, but the study uses Generalized Method of Moments applied on dynamic panel data and estimations are based on Arellan-Bond estimator (1991. Results confirm positive and statistically significant impact of consumption taxes and weaker but negative effect of labour taxation on economic growth. In a post-crisis period, findings report raising labour taxes as the strongest and the only significant variable. It suggests that harmful effect of labour taxation is enlarging in a time of unfavorable economic conditions. A tax shift on capital taxation has negative but often statistically insignificant impact on economic growth.

  17. Alternative Forms of Resilience Confronting Hard Economic Times. A South European Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kousis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this special issue is to contribute to the study of alternative forms of resilience, visible in the economic and noneconomic activities of citizens confronting hard economic times and falling rights in Italy, Spain, Greece and Portugal, since the global financial crisis of 2008. It does so through a set of recent empirical studies which adopt recent theoretical approaches, such as Social Innovation or Sustainable Community Movement Organizations, and offer new evidence on solidarity oriented practices, including their links to social movement activism. The authors of this special issue contribute to the existing recent debates by highlighting key features of alternative forms of resilience, their links to social movements and theoretical orientations influenced by social movement and resilience studies in four Southern European countries and regions.

  18. The European Social Fund within the Context of the Economic Crisis from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina CACE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the positive traits of the European Social Fund proved by the history of this mechanism which has been applied in the European Community for almost half a century, as well as the measures adopted in order to improve the measures in the field of employment during the period of the economic crisis. The European Social Fund (ESF helps increasing the adaptability of the workforce and of the enterprises; it helps increasing the access to the labour market; it prevents unemployment and prolongs the active life; it increases the participation of women and of the immigrants to the labour market; it increases the social inclusion of the disadvantaged people and fights discrimination. In Romania, workforce employment is a priority goal, and POSDRU1 contributes to the implementation of the measures set by the European Strategy for Employment. The paper shows the need to identify solutions to the crisis of employment in Romania using the funds allocated to the Operational Program, Human Resources Development, which  produce measurable effects with regard to the unemployment rate in Romania.

  19. Pharmaco-economics of levosimendan in cardiology: a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, M S; Buerke, M; Parissis, J; Ben-Gal, T; Pollesello, P; Kivikko, M; Karavidas, A; Severino, P; Comín-Colet, J; Wikström, G; Fedele, F

    2015-11-15

    Heart failure places a significant economic burden on health care. Acute heart failure requires hospitalization and often frequent re-hospitalization in expensive wards where vasoactive rescue therapy is often added on top of standard medications. In these lean times, there is a growing need for cost-effective therapeutic options that supply superior support and in addition shorten the length of stay in hospital and reduce re-hospitalization rates. The inodilator levosimendan represents the latest addition to the vasoactive treatments of acute heart failure patients, and it appears to meet these expectations. Our aim was to answer the question whether the treatment efficacy of levosimendan - when selected as therapy for patients hospitalized for acute heart failure - brings savings to hospitals in various European countries representing different economies. We took a conservative approach and selected some a fortiori arguments to simplify the calculations. We selected seven European countries to represent different economies: Italy, Spain, Greece, Germany, Sweden, Finland and Israel. Data on the costs of medications and on the cost per day were collected and fed in a simple algorithm to detect savings. These saving varied from country to country, from a minimum of €0.50 in Germany to a maximum of €354.64 in Sweden. The use of levosimendan as a therapy for patients hospitalized for acute heart failure provides a net saving to hospitals driven by a reduction in the length of hospital stay. This finding is true in each of the countries considered in this study. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Methopedia - Pedagogical Design Community for European Educators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Niemczik, Christian; Brenstein, Elke

    2009-01-01

    .comble-project.eu). Methopedia is a wiki and social community aimed at facilitating knowledge transfer between trainers/educators from different institutions or countries through interactive peer-to-peer support, and sharing of learning practices.   We describe how Methopedia has been developed though engaging practitioners...

  1. Surveillance perspective on Lyme borreliosis across the European Union and European Economic Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Wijngaard, Cees C; Hofhuis, Agnetha; Simões, Mariana; Rood, Ente; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Zeller, Herve; Van Bortel, Wim

    2017-07-06

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in Europe. Erythema migrans (EM), an early, localised skin rash, is its most common presentation. Dissemination of the bacteria can lead to more severe manifestations including skin, neurological, cardiac, musculoskeletal and ocular manifestations. Comparison of LB incidence rates in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) and Balkan countries are difficult in the absence of standardised surveillance and reporting procedures. We explored six surveillance scenarios for LB surveillance in the EU/EEA, based on the following key indicators: (i) erythema migrans, (ii) neuroborreliosis, (iii) all human LB manifestations, (iv) seroprevalence, (v) tick bites, and (vi) infected ticks and reservoir hosts. In our opinion, neuroborreliosis seems most feasible and useful as the standard key indicator, being one of the most frequent severe LB manifestations, with the possibility of a specific case definition. Additional surveillance with erythema migrans as key indicator would add value to the surveillance of neuroborreliosis and lead to a more complete picture of LB epidemiology in the EU/EEA. The other scenarios have less value as a basis for EU-level surveillance, but can be considered periodically and locally, as they could supply complementary insights. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  2. Epidemiology of tuberculosis in big cities of the European Union and European Economic Area countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, G; Aldridge, R W; Cayla, J A; Haas, W H; Sandgren, A; van Hest, N A; Abubakar, I

    2014-03-06

    This cross-sectional survey aimed to examine the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) cities with populations greater than 500,000. National TB programme managers were asked to provide data on big city population size, total number of notified TB cases in big cities and national notification rate for 2009. A rate ratio was calculated using the big city TB notification rate as a numerator and country TB notification rate, excluding big city TB cases and population, as a denominator. Twenty of the 30 EU/EEA countries had at least one big city. Pooled rate ratios were 2.5, 1.0, and 0.7 in low-, intermediate- and high-incidence countries respectively. In 15 big cities, all in low-incidence countries, rate ratios were twice the national notification rate. These data illustrate the TB epidemiology transition, a situation whereby TB disease concentrates in big cities as national incidence falls, most likely as a result of the higher concentration of risk groups found there. This situation requires targeted interventions and we recommend that big city TB data, including information about patients' risk factors, are collected and analysed systematically, and that successful interventions are shared.

  3. Surveillance perspective on Lyme borreliosis across the European Union and European Economic Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Wijngaard, Cees C; Hofhuis, Agnetha; Simões, Mariana; Rood, Ente; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Zeller, Herve; Van Bortel, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in Europe. Erythema migrans (EM), an early, localised skin rash, is its most common presentation. Dissemination of the bacteria can lead to more severe manifestations including skin, neurological, cardiac, musculoskeletal and ocular manifestations. Comparison of LB incidence rates in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) and Balkan countries are difficult in the absence of standardised surveillance and reporting procedures. We explored six surveillance scenarios for LB surveillance in the EU/EEA, based on the following key indicators: (i) erythema migrans, (ii) neuroborreliosis, (iii) all human LB manifestations, (iv) seroprevalence, (v) tick bites, and (vi) infected ticks and reservoir hosts. In our opinion, neuroborreliosis seems most feasible and useful as the standard key indicator, being one of the most frequent severe LB manifestations, with the possibility of a specific case definition. Additional surveillance with erythema migrans as key indicator would add value to the surveillance of neuroborreliosis and lead to a more complete picture of LB epidemiology in the EU/EEA. The other scenarios have less value as a basis for EU-level surveillance, but can be considered periodically and locally, as they could supply complementary insights. PMID:28703098

  4. The Community Structure of the European Network of Interlocking Directorates 2005–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heemskerk, Eelke M.; Daolio, Fabio; Tomassini, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The boards of directors at large European companies overlap with each other to a sizable extent both within and across national borders. This could have important economic, political and management consequences. In this work we study in detail the topological structure of the networks that arise from this phenomenon. Using a comprehensive information database, we reconstruct the implicit networks of shared directorates among the top 300 European firms in 2005 and 2010, and suggest a number of novel ways to explore the trans-nationality of such business elite networks. Powerful community detection heuristics indicate that geography still plays an important role: there exist clear communities and they have a distinct national character. Nonetheless, from 2005 to 2010 we observe a densification of the boards interlocks network and a larger transnational orientation in its communities. Together with central actors and assortativity analyses, we provide statistical evidence that, at the level of corporate governance, Europe is getting closer. PMID:23894318

  5. The community structure of the European network of interlocking directorates 2005-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eelke M Heemskerk

    Full Text Available The boards of directors at large European companies overlap with each other to a sizable extent both within and across national borders. This could have important economic, political and management consequences. In this work we study in detail the topological structure of the networks that arise from this phenomenon. Using a comprehensive information database, we reconstruct the implicit networks of shared directorates among the top 300 European firms in 2005 and 2010, and suggest a number of novel ways to explore the trans-nationality of such business elite networks. Powerful community detection heuristics indicate that geography still plays an important role: there exist clear communities and they have a distinct national character. Nonetheless, from 2005 to 2010 we observe a densification of the boards interlocks network and a larger transnational orientation in its communities. Together with central actors and assortativity analyses, we provide statistical evidence that, at the level of corporate governance, Europe is getting closer.

  6. Relations between Mexico and the European Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Alonso

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Mexico-EC bilateral relations must be considered within the general relation ECLatin America which -as the author remarks, do not appear among EC's preferential relations.Latin America can benefit from the Generalized Preference System which is not discriminatory, without reciprocity and generalized, but has some restrictions: for some products as textile, leather or oil. This affects some Latin American countries and specifically Mexico.Mexico initiates its relation with the EC in 1960; in 1975 both parts sign the Agreement on Economic and Trade Cooperation which has been substituted by the new General Agreement on Cooperation signed on April26, 1991. A new factor that will condition this relation is the Free Trade Agreement recently signed between USA, Canada and Mexico.

  7. Cadmium mobility and accumulation in soils of the European Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraters B; van Beurden AUCJ

    1993-01-01

    In this overview of the effects of cadmium pollution on agricultural soils in the European Community, both the cadmium loads on agricultural land and the soil sensitivity to cadmium accumulation have been estimated. Cadmium loads have been estimated separately for arable land and grassland. The

  8. Macrophyte communities of European streams with altered physical habitat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Hare, M.; Baattrup-Pedersen, A.; Nijboer, R.C.; Szoszkiewicz, K.; Ferreira, T.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of altering hydro-morphology on three macrophyte community types was investigated at 107 European stream sites. Sites were surveyed using standard macrophyte and habitat survey techniques (Mean Trophic Rank Methodology and River Habitat Survey respectively). Principal Components Analysis

  9. Warming shelf seas drive the subtropicalization of European pelagic fish communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Serra, Ignasi; Edwards, Martin; Genner, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Pelagic fishes are among the most ecologically and economically important fish species in European seas. In principle, these pelagic fishes have potential to demonstrate rapid abundance and distribution shifts in response to climatic variability due to their high adult motility, planktonic larval stages, and low dependence on benthic habitat for food or shelter during their life histories. Here, we provide evidence of substantial climate-driven changes to the structure of pelagic fish communities in European shelf seas. We investigated the patterns of species-level change using catch records from 57,870 fisheries-independent survey trawls from across European continental shelf region between 1965 and 2012. We analysed changes in the distribution and rate of occurrence of the six most common species, and observed a strong subtropicalization of the North Sea and Baltic Sea assemblages. These areas have shifted away from cold-water assemblages typically characterized by Atlantic herring and European sprat from the 1960s to 1980s, to warmer-water assemblages including Atlantic mackerel, Atlantic horse mackerel, European pilchard and European anchovy from the 1990s onwards. We next investigated if warming sea temperatures have forced these changes using temporally comprehensive data from the North Sea region. Our models indicated the primary driver of change in these species has been sea surface temperatures in all cases. Together, these analyses highlight how individual species responses have combined to result in a dramatic subtropicalization of the pelagic fish assemblage of the European continental shelf. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Peculiarities of Future Finance and Economics Specialists' Training in Western European Countries and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homoniuk, Olena; Pokudina, Larysa

    2016-01-01

    The article touches on the peculiarities of future finance and economics specialists' training in educational establishments of Western Europe and Ukraine. The problem of higher economic education has been considered. The experience of higher economic education organization in developed European countries has been generalized. The peculiarities of…

  11. European seaweeds under pressure: Consequences for communities and ecosystem functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineur, Frédéric; Arenas, Francisco; Assis, Jorge; Davies, Andrew J.; Engelen, Aschwin H.; Fernandes, Francisco; Malta, Erik-jan; Thibaut, Thierry; Van Nguyen, Tu; Vaz-Pinto, Fátima; Vranken, Sofie; Serrão, Ester A.; De Clerck, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Seaweed assemblages represent the dominant autotrophic biomass in many coastal environments, playing a central structural and functional role in several ecosystems. In Europe, seaweed assemblages are highly diverse systems. The combined seaweed flora of different European regions hold around 1550 species (belonging to nearly 500 genera), with new species continuously uncovered, thanks to the emergence of molecular tools. In this manuscript we review the effects of global and local stressors on European seaweeds, their communities, and ecosystem functioning. Following a brief review on the present knowledge on European seaweed diversity and distribution, and the role of seaweed communities in biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, we discuss the effects of biotic homogenization (invasive species) and global climate change (shifts in bioclimatic zones and ocean acidification) on the distribution of individual species and their effect on the structure and functioning of seaweed communities. The arrival of new introduced species (that already account for 5-10% of the European seaweeds) and the regional extirpation of native species resulting from oceans' climate change are creating new diversity scenarios with undetermined functional consequences. Anthropogenic local stressors create additional disruption often altering dramatically assemblage's structure. Hence, we discuss ecosystem level effects of such stressors like harvesting, trampling, habitat modification, overgrazing and eutrophication that impact coastal communities at local scales. Last, we conclude by highlighting significant knowledge gaps that need to be addressed to anticipate the combined effects of global and local stressors on seaweed communities. With physical and biological changes occurring at unexpected pace, marine phycologists should now integrate and join their research efforts to be able to contribute efficiently for the conservation and management of coastal systems.

  12. Economic integration in North America: Learning from the experience of the European Union for the NAFTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón de Jesús Ramírez Acosta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this document we analyze, based on previous work from various authors, the degree of economic synchronization between Central and Eastern European countries and the European Union prior to the 2004 adhesion treaties. Then, we formally determine the degree of economic synchronization in North America for the nafta transitional period. In particular, we perform cointegration and common features tests for the gdps of Canada, Mexico and the US. We find that the economies of the region are highly integrated. Based on these results, and the facts identified for the European case, we discuss some possibilities for the evolution of nafta into a deeper form of economic integration.

  13. Survey of surveillance systems and select prevention activities for hepatitis B and C, European Union/European Economic Area, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffell, E F; van de Laar, M J

    2015-04-02

    Hepatitis B and C viral infections are leading causes of hepatic cirrhosis and cancer. The incidence and prevalence of both hepatitis B and C varies across European countries. European wide surveillance data help to understand the dynamic epidemiology of hepatitis B and C, which is important for the implementation and effectiveness of prevention and control activities.Comparison of surveillance data between countries in Europe is hampered by the differences in national healthcare and reporting systems. This report presents the results of a survey in 2009 which was undertaken to collect baseline information on surveillance systems and core prevention programmes for hepatitis B and C in individual European Union/ European Economic Area countries. The results provide key information to aid the interpretation of surveillance data, and while indicating heterogeneity in national surveillance systems and programmes, they highlight the potential of these systems. This resource has supported the implementation of a standardised European enhanced surveillance programme.

  14. Development of social responsibility In moldovan enterprises as a strategic objective of integration in the european community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sendrea Mariana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic integration of the Republic of Moldova into the European Community may be held by the companies to achieve concrete measures in order to ensure the effective functioning of the international standards of quality management, social responsibility and environmental management ISO 9000 series, SA 800 and ISO 14000.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN MOLDOVAN ENTERPRISES AS A STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE OF INTEGRATION IN THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia BUCIUSCAN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic integration of the Republic of Moldova into the European Community may be held by the companies to achieve concrete measures in order to ensure the effective functioning of the international standards of quality management, social responsibility and environmental management ISO 9000 series, SA 800 and ISO 14000.

  16. Patterns and Regularities in the European Marketing Academic Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Katrine; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Ormrod, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in the nature of scientific collaboration, as researchers have become interested in how knowledge is generated in research communities. The aim of the current paper is to provide insights into the structure of the European Marketing Academy (EMAC) and to ...... partners is socio-cultural and geographical proximity rather than marketing sub-discipline, pointing towards a very systematic tendency for EMAC members to be organised around institutions in the same or culturally related countries.......Recent years have seen a growing interest in the nature of scientific collaboration, as researchers have become interested in how knowledge is generated in research communities. The aim of the current paper is to provide insights into the structure of the European Marketing Academy (EMAC...

  17. Patterns and Regularities in the European Marketing Academic Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Ormrod, Robert P.; Christensen, Katrine

    2011-01-01

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in the nature of scientific collaboration, as researchers have become interested in how knowledge is generated in research communities. The aim of the current paper is to provide insights into the structure of the European Marketing Academy (EMAC) and to ...... partners is socio-cultural and geographical) proximity rather than marketing sub-discipline, pointing towards a very systematic tendency for EMAC members to be organised around institutions in the same or culturally related countries.......Recent years have seen a growing interest in the nature of scientific collaboration, as researchers have become interested in how knowledge is generated in research communities. The aim of the current paper is to provide insights into the structure of the European Marketing Academy (EMAC...

  18. The ASEAN economic community and medical qualification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittrakulrat, Jathurong; Jongjatuporn, Witthawin; Jurjai, Ravipol; Jarupanich, Nicha; Pongpirul, Krit

    2014-12-01

    Background In the regional movement toward ASEAN Economic Community (AEC), medical professions including physicians can be qualified to practice medicine in another country. Ensuring comparable, excellent medical qualification systems is crucial but the availability and analysis of relevant information has been lacking. Objective This study had the following aims: 1) to comparatively analyze information on Medical Licensing Examinations (MLE) across ASEAN countries and 2) to assess stakeholders' view on potential consequences of AEC on the medical profession from a Thai perspective. Design To search for relevant information on MLE, we started with each country's national body as the primary data source. In case of lack of available data, secondary data sources including official websites of medical universities, colleagues in international and national medical student organizations, and some other appropriate Internet sources were used. Feasibility and concerns about validity and reliability of these sources were discussed among investigators. Experts in the region invited through HealthSpace.Asia conducted the final data validation. For the second objective, in-depth interviews were conducted with 13 Thai stakeholders, purposely selected based on a maximum variation sampling technique to represent the points of view of the medical licensing authority, the medical profession, ethicists and economists. Results MLE systems exist in all ASEAN countries except Brunei, but vary greatly. Although the majority has a national MLE system, Singapore, Indonesia, and Vietnam accept results of MLE conducted at universities. Thailand adopted the USA's 3-step approach that aims to check pre-clinical knowledge, clinical knowledge, and clinical skills. Most countries, however, require only one step. A multiple choice question (MCQ) is the most commonly used method of assessment; a modified essay question (MEQ) is the next most common. Although both tests assess candidate

  19. The ASEAN economic community and medical qualification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jathurong Kittrakulrat

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the regional movement toward ASEAN Economic Community (AEC, medical professions including physicians can be qualified to practice medicine in another country. Ensuring comparable, excellent medical qualification systems is crucial but the availability and analysis of relevant information has been lacking. Objective: This study had the following aims: 1 to comparatively analyze information on Medical Licensing Examinations (MLE across ASEAN countries and 2 to assess stakeholders’ view on potential consequences of AEC on the medical profession from a Thai perspective. Design: To search for relevant information on MLE, we started with each country's national body as the primary data source. In case of lack of available data, secondary data sources including official websites of medical universities, colleagues in international and national medical student organizations, and some other appropriate Internet sources were used. Feasibility and concerns about validity and reliability of these sources were discussed among investigators. Experts in the region invited through HealthSpace.Asia conducted the final data validation. For the second objective, in-depth interviews were conducted with 13 Thai stakeholders, purposely selected based on a maximum variation sampling technique to represent the points of view of the medical licensing authority, the medical profession, ethicists and economists. Results: MLE systems exist in all ASEAN countries except Brunei, but vary greatly. Although the majority has a national MLE system, Singapore, Indonesia, and Vietnam accept results of MLE conducted at universities. Thailand adopted the USA's 3-step approach that aims to check pre-clinical knowledge, clinical knowledge, and clinical skills. Most countries, however, require only one step. A multiple choice question (MCQ is the most commonly used method of assessment; a modified essay question (MEQ is the next most common. Although both tests assess

  20. Tobacco industry strategies for influencing European Community tobacco advertising legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Mark; Bitton, Asaf; Glantz, Stanton

    2002-04-13

    Restrictions on tobacco company advertising and sponsorship are effective parts of tobacco control programmes worldwide. Through Council Directive 98/43/EC, the European Community (EC) sought to end all tobacco advertising and sponsorship in EC member states by 2006. Initially proposed in 1989, the directive was adopted in 1998, and was annulled by the European Court of Justice in 2000 following a protracted lobbying campaign against the directive by a number of interested organisations including European tobacco companies. A new advertising directive was proposed in May, 2001. We reviewed online collections of tobacco industry documents from US tobacco companies made public under the US Master Settlement Agreement of 1998. Documents reviewed dated from 1978 to 1994 and came from Philip Morris, R J Reynolds, and Brown and Williamson (British American Tobacco) collections. We also obtained approximately 15,000 pages of paper records related to British American Tobacco from its documents' depository in Guildford, UK. This information was supplemented with information in the published literature and consultations with European tobacco control experts. The tobacco industry lobbied against Directive 98/43/EC at the level of EC member state governments as well as on a pan-European level. The industry sought to prevent passage of the directive within the EC legislature, to substitute industry-authored proposals in place of the original directive, and if necessary to use litigation to prevent implementation of the directive after its passage. The tobacco industry sought to delay, and eventually defeat, the EC directive on tobacco advertising and sponsorship by seeking to enlist the aid of figures at the highest levels of European politics while at times attempting to conceal the industry's role. An understanding of these proposed strategies can help European health advocates to pass and implement effective future tobacco control legislation.

  1. The Impact of Extreme Temperatures on the Main European Economic Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Bălan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, the extreme temperatures had a severe impact on ecosystems and human societies, resulting in negative consequences for agriculture, biodiversity, water supply, industries, tourism, transportation, etc. and generating economic losses. However the amount of the economic losses caused by such extreme events and their impact on European economic sectors cannot be exactly quantified, given the multitude of factors that contribute to the events. The purpose of this article is to highlight the effects of climate change in general, and particularly of extreme temperatures – as they are identified in the academic literature related to climate change – on European economic sectors and government policies.

  2. MIGRATION PROCESSES "EAST-WEST" IN THE CONTEXT OF THE EUROPEAN SYSTEM OF ECONOMIC SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Ryazantsev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article refl ects the infl uence of the migration processes to the economic security of European Union. The article underlines most common economical risks in case if there is an increase of the volume of migration and describes the ways how to reduce those risks.The main conclusions obtained from the results of the study, can be structured as follows: trends and consequences of the migration crisis in the European Union are defi ned by the set of reasons that are due on the one hand the policy of transparency being implemented by individual countries, making the whole European Union is the center of attraction of immigrants (primarily from the MENA countries and other hand, the intense and growing fl ow of migrants creates regional threats, including the European Union's economic security; the problem of ensuring the economic security of the European Union in the context of the impact of the migration crisis is most actual issue at the moment and the main reason is that the accumulation of the fl ow of migrants to the strongest European economy – Germany. In this case, not only Germany, but also France (and until recently UK had to improve the economic and social consequences of migration and also to implement measures aimed to recover from fi nancial crisis of the last few years, the consequences of which to date are shown in the many social and economic areas of the European Union; addressing the problem with migration crisis in the European Union seems to use a special system of measures, in which on the one hand realized containment of migration fl ows and on the other hand held solutions aimed at the assimilation of migrants in multicultural environment with full adoption of the latest socio-economic, democratic and moral values specifi c to European societies.

  3. Economic separatism in the European Union member states as a factor of regional security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Shakhina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the examination of the economic separatism problem in the European Union member states. It considers specific of the regional separatist movements as exemplified by the conflicts in Scotland, Catalonia, Bavaria, Flanders. Various points of view on the relevance of the budgetary separatism for the European integration process are given in the article.

  4. THE ROLE OF SMALL BUSINESS IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF EUROPEAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Stan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Small businesses provide catalytic benefits to the economy. They contribute to national output, and to the society as a whole, beyond the spending and profit they generate. The role of SMEs is crucial for the European economic recovery – their number, employment capacity and value added constitute a large share of the European economy. Providing the right conditions in which SMEs can flourish is paramount for ensuring a sustained recovery and achieving prosperity for all EU citizens. There is no single agreed definition of an SME. Early definitions of ‘small’ businesses were largely qualitative. SMEs are generally considered to be non - subsidiary, independent firms which employ fewer than a given number of employees. For many small businesses, going global is no longer just an interesting to do – it is essential to the long – term health and performance of the company. Across the EU policies are being developed at regional, national and transnational government level that see SMEs as the only positive way of creating employment and generating increased local growth for the community.

  5. European Economic Policies at Work : the costs of Price Stability and Budget Consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Altavilla

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates whether the policy framework adopted by the EMU participating countries might create recessive tendencies. First, we check the existence of a deflationary bias by separately analysing monetary and fiscal policy. The analysis of monetary policy focuses on a backward- and a forward-looking monetary rule. The reaction functions are estimated to capture the criteria that a centralized monetary authority should use in setting short-term interest rate. Second, a comparative analysis is made of the ability of different central banks to stabilize output and inflation. Precisely, we compare the strategy followed by the European Central Bank, the Deutsche Bundesbank and the US Federal Reserve. Then, a measure of fiscal bias is retrieved by estimating the impact that a change in the primary surplus to GDP ratio has on the real economy. Finally, we search for a quantitative assessment of the recessive propensity of the European economic policies by estimating an overall policy bias. The results suggest the EU institutional set-up might create and/or amplify the recessive tendencies. The policy constraints the EMU members face were dreamt when the Community was struggling with an inflationary legacy. The danger nowadays is not inflation but rather its opposite, deflation. As a consequence, the EU institutions need to be at least partially reformed

  6. The Analysis and Evaluation of Trends in the Socio-Economic Development of European Union Countries and their Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroshenko Igor V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The modern development of Ukraine and its regions on the background of the ongoing European integration process requires a detailed study of the experience of forming the European regional policy, positive examples and trends that have contributed to economic growth of the territories and improvement of population welfare of EU countries with a view to their use in forming the own national policy in the country. The EU regional policy, which is called the “unification” policy, as part of the European structural policy is aimed at solving development problems of the territories, primarily, depressive, old industrial, underdeveloped ones reducing the existing imbalances in social and economic development of the regions and preventing the emergence of inter-regional imbalances in the European Union. Studies of the uneven development of a country’s territories are an important part of its government policy. Identification of the main features of the asymmetry makes it possible not only to reveal the current situation with imbalances in the regional potential for sustainable development but also to assess the government’s actions aimed at their elimination. For Ukraine, which sets a goal to integrate into the European community, a detailed study of the experience and analysis of the priority principles of EU countries’ regional policy are very feasible in the formation and implementation of its own regional policy with regard to the best European principles of organization of managing the regional and local development and local government reform. Using the best practices of the regional policy of EU countries in Central and Eastern Europe, which show stable positive change in the socio-economic development, can appear to be of a special value

  7. The European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP)--a sentinel approach in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteri, Gianfranco; Cole, Michelle; Unemo, Magnus; Hoffmann, Steen; Ison, Catherine; van de Laar, Marita

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is monitored in the European Union/European Economic Area through the European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme (Euro-GASP) coordinated by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Euro-GASP includes a sentinel surveillance programme which aims to detect in a timely manner changes in resistance patterns and inform treatment guidelines. The programme aims to test a representative number of isolates from each European Union/European Economic Area member state per year for a range of therapeutically relevant antimicrobials through a biannual hybrid centralised/decentralised system. Testing is supported by an External Quality Assurance programme and a laboratory training programme. Participation in the programme has increased to 21 countries in 2012. Euro-GASP has been able to detect the rapid spread of isolates with decreased susceptibility to cefixime across Europe in 2010 and 2011. Results from the programme have informed changes in European treatment guidelines for gonorrhoea and led to the development of the 'Response plan to control and manage the threat of multidrug resistant gonorrhoea in Europe'. Future challenges for Euro-GASP include supporting countries to participate in Euro-GASP through decentralised testing, improving timeliness and epidemiological data quality, and increasing participation from Eastern Europe.

  8. Can European socio-economic governance be social investment proof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Chapter on the European Semester in the a book "The Uses of Social Investment", which provides the first study of the welfare state, under the new post-crisis austerity context and associated crisis management politics, to take stock of the limits and potential of social investment. It surveys the

  9. Spatial Segregation and Socio-Economic Mobility in European Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ham, M.; Tammaru, T.; de Vuijst, E.; Zwiers, M.D.

    2016-01-01

    Income inequality is increasing in European cities and this rising inequality has a spatial footprint in cities and neighbourhoods. Poor and rich people are increasingly living separated and this can threaten the social sustainability of cities. Low income people, often with an ethnic minority

  10. Perceptions of Competence and the European Economic Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiozza, Giacomo; Manzetti, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    in evaluating incumbent leaders if they perceive the incumbent leader moving the country in the right direction. We test this argument with survey data from eight European countries in 2012, while controlling for potential alternative explanations associated with pocketbook, sociotropic, and clarity...

  11. Interest organizations across economic sectors: explaining interest group density in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, Joost; Carroll, Brendan; Braun, Caelesta; Chalmers, Adam; De Strooper, Tine; Lowery, David; Otjes, Simon; Rasmussen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The number of interest organizations (density) varies across policy domains, political issues and economic sectors. This shapes the nature and outcomes of interest representation. In this contribution, we explain the density of interest organizations per economic sector in the European Union on the

  12. Interest organizations across economic sectors : explaining interest group density in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, Joost; Carroll, Brendan J.; Braun, Caelesta; Chalmers, Adam W.; Destrooper, Tine; Lowery, David; Otjes, Simon; Rasmussen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The number of interest organizations (density) varies across policy domains, political issues and economic sectors. This shapes the nature and outcomes of interest representation. In this contribution, we explain the density of interest organizations per economic sector in the European Union on the

  13. THE RELATIONSHIP EUROPEAN UNION - BLACK SEA REGION FOLLOWING THE IMPACT OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusu Livia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper refers to the possible interaction between the European Union and the Black Sea region, following the consequences the international and financial crisis placed upon the Eastern neighbourhood of the Union. It provides a comprehensive picture on the economic situation in the Black Sea area, correlating the economic realities from the field with the required domains of policy actions. \\r\

  14. [Demographic and ideational change in the European Community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesthaeghe, R; Meekers, D

    1987-01-01

    "It is argued in this article that family formation is conditioned not only by economic factors (more particularly changes in opportunity structures for the two sexes), but also by ideational trends. The economic factors could be seen as responsible for period fluctuations that are superimposed on a long term ideationally driven trend with marked cohort contrasts. Value orientations are explored and compared across countries and age groups using the international data set of the European Values Studies. The analysis identifies a scale for the degree of tolerance towards non-conformism (e.g. divorce, abortion, one-parent family, rejection of marriage as an institution...) and the meaning of parenthood. Both are related to a set of other scales (religiosity, morality, leftism, nationalism, materialism, etc.). Theoretical links are also established with the theories of, respectively, Easterlin and Simons concerning the reasons for the recent fertility decline in the West." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) excerpt

  15. AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH OF SOCIAL IMPACT OF DEBT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH. EVIDENCE FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SMĂRĂNDOIU (SANDA LUANA ALEXANDRA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Today’s economic reality contains a certain degree of uncertainty that often prevail economic rationality, affecting economic growth. Recent European and political agendas put a robust emphasis on the importance of social dimension of growth and try to shift the focus from economic evidence to social outcomes. The debt is currently a sensitive issue for most European countries and ordinary individuals, thus creating significant imbalances regarding perceived economic wealth and wellbeing at national and individual level. But debt is also associated with fast money and short term prosperity that can engine business and support living, thus economic growth. The paper makes a repositioning evaluation of the social domain into European political agendas, towards a smart, sustainable and inclusive growth for the Europeans. It encompasses an evaluation of the relevance of European growth on its economic development and sustainability. Rebalancing finance and economic priorities with a strong commitment to social priorities is the main reorientation target of the political agenda. There’s a growing need for shifting the focus to qualitative facets of growth and European testimonials, for an ascending journey to smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, representing a continuing approach of EU’s root ideals. Thus, the paper proposes an analysis of GDP evolution in relation to debt to GDP ratio indicator and social factors, as an alternative impact evaluation played by the social system and debt for a country’s performance, representing an alternative way for assessing economic growth in relation to wellbeing. The results show a significant dependence of growth to debt to GDP ratio and social indicators such as population at risk to poverty rate, unemployment rate, life expectancy and expected years of schooling

  16. THE ROLE OF THE EUROPEAN FUNDING IN THE CONTEXT OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana – Victoria GHERMAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis from the last period significantly affected the business environment. Despite the progress registered by Romania in the last years, there are some important disparities in the field of competitiveness compared to the European Union member states. It is important to have adequate financial resources for the small and medium enterprises (SMEs and to increase the competitiveness.Companies may obtain European funds for investments in order to improve their activities, starting with the production facilities, procurement of IT equipment and modernization of the tourism infrastructure.The general objective of the Sectoral Operational Programme - “The Increase of Economic Competitiveness” (SOP IEC is to increase the productivity of the Romanian enterprises in order to comply with the European Union principles: long term development and decrease of the disparities.With the support of the European funds it can be reduced the negative impact of the economic crisis.

  17. Lobbying in the European union – regulation and public sector economics perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dvořáková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lobbying has become an inseparable companion of the decision-making process and firms but also other social actors (non-governmental organizations, individuals, private and civil sector are forced to reflect this fact, if they want to promote their interests effectively and if they want to avoid regulation that would harm their interests. The paper analyses the regulation of lobbying in European institutions and focuses on two major institutions which are under pressure of the lobbyists, the European Commission and the European Parliament. The paper discusses and presents the both ways of regulation which occur in the European institutions- the concept of self-regulation and the binding Code of Conduct under the Rules of Procedure in the European Parliament.The paper contains also possible economic consequences of lobbying based on the Public Sector Economics perspective and the methodology of the principal-agent relationship.

  18. Adoption of the Objectives of the Monetary and Economic Union and European Financial Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MĂDĂLINA RĂDOI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The European concerns, with old traditions in forming multinational financial markets, developed in the integration of the financial markets and of the European banking systems which allowed the investors from any European country to follow the orders on the best market, through the best beneficiary, benefitting from the most effective financial-banking services. This market offers sophisticated and modern financial tools, which cope with the needs of the invertors, portfolio managers, transnational companies and traders, having an impact over the balanced economic development of the European countries and unemployment reduction.

  19. NEW DOMINANT ECONOMIC LOGIC AND ITS IMPACT ON EUROPEAN LEVEL. AN ECONOMETRIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella-Cristiana, SIMA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The world is changing; a new dominant economic logic appears. What we can see now is that this change doesn’t seem to come from economic leaders, it comes from emergent economies like BRICS Group or the “4 Asian Tigers”. The European Union economic links with those groups are more and more obvious, so this thesis wants to be an analysis of how those dominant logical changes influence the European Union economy. In this way, we made an analysis of statistic dates and an econometric analysis using multiple regressions.

  20. Estimating HIV incidence and number of undiagnosed individuals living with HIV in the European Union/European Economic Area, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharris, Anastasia; Quinten, Chantal; Noori, Teymur; Amato-Gauci, Andrew J; van Sighem, Ard

    2016-12-01

    Since 2011, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence appears unchanged in the European Union/European Economic Area with between 29,000 and 33,000 new cases reported annually up to 2015. Despite evidence that HIV diagnosis is occurring earlier post-infection, the estimated number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) who were unaware of being infected in 2015 was 122,000, or 15% of all PLHIV (n=810,000). This is concerning as such individuals cannot benefit from highly effective treatment and may unknowingly sustain transmission. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  1. LAG, GAPS AND CONVERGENCES – FIVE CENTURIES OF EUROPEAN ECONOMIC EXPERIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Bogdan MURGESCU

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper entails the experience of different European countries in what concerns economic gaps storage, “economic lag” and “catching-up the lag time”, confronting economic theories regarding economic growth determinants. Taking into consideration the cases of Denmark and Ireland, which have managed, in different historical periods, to surpass the peripheral condition and relative economic under- development, and to be part of the most developed and prosper group countries; the study evaluates the chances of other countries to realize similar progresses.

  2. An Empirical Assessment of Economic and Political Challenges of European Union Accession

    OpenAIRE

    Melikyan, Davit N.; Tamazian, Artur

    2010-01-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union was an exceptional experiment in the economic history of the world, which made the post-socialist countries the subject of various economic studies. Different researchers and organizations tend to monitor the progress of economic and institutional reforms through inventing different indexes (indicators), apparently trying to understand how to detect the end of the transition process. The European Union, opening its door to accession candidates and starting neg...

  3. Genetic testing in the European Union: does economic evaluation matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoñanzas, Fernando; Rodríguez-Ibeas, R; Hutter, M F; Lorente, R; Juárez, C; Pinillos, M

    2012-10-01

    We review the published economic evaluation studies applied to genetic technologies in the EU to know the main diseases addressed by these studies, the ways the studies were conducted and to assess the efficiency of these new technologies. The final aim of this review was to understand the possibilities of the economic evaluations performed up to date as a tool to contribute to decision making in this area. We have reviewed a set of articles found in several databases until March 2010. Literature searches were made in the following databases: PubMed; Euronheed; Centre for Reviews and Dissemination of the University of York-Health Technology Assessment, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, NHS Economic Evaluation Database; and Scopus. The algorithm was "(screening or diagnosis) and genetic and (cost or economic) and (country EU27)". We included studies if they met the following criteria: (1) a genetic technology was analysed; (2) human DNA must be tested for; (3) the analysis was a real economic evaluation or a cost study, and (4) the articles had to be related to any EU Member State. We initially found 3,559 papers on genetic testing but only 92 articles of economic analysis referred to a wide range of genetic diseases matched the inclusion criteria. The most studied diseases were as follows: cystic fibrosis (12), breast and ovarian cancer (8), hereditary hemochromatosis (6), Down's syndrome (7), colorectal cancer (5), familial hypercholesterolaemia (5), prostate cancer (4), and thrombophilia (4). Genetic tests were mostly used for screening purposes, and cost-effectiveness analysis is the most common type of economic study. The analysed gene technologies are deemed to be efficient for some specific population groups and screening algorithms according to the values of their cost-effectiveness ratios that were below the commonly accepted threshold of 30,000€. Economic evaluation of genetic technologies matters but the number of published studies is still

  4. Good Governance Analysing Performance of Economic Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attention is drawn to a number of governance definitions and a plethora of good governance attributes not only to underline the diversity of opinion and ... Southern African Development Community (SADC) counterparts based on 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011 Mo Ibrahim Index of African Governance reports. The Index ...

  5. Community Empowerment via Economic and Technical Assistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty contact farmers directly involved in the project were selected. Primary and ... Results showed that implementation strategies and approaches were tailored towards overcoming constraints to the success of the project. ... Key words: Community empowerment; Hybrid Plantain/Bananas; Small-Scale Enterprise; Nigeria.

  6. The New Vocationalism: Community Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakes, Richard D.

    1996-01-01

    Conventional wisdom that non-college-bound students are deficient in employability skills fails to consider labor market instability and job accessibility for low-income youth. School-to-work transition, job creation, and community building in urban areas can be enhanced through entrepreneurship education. (SK)

  7. Lessons learnt to keep Europe polio-free: a review of outbreaks in the European Union, European Economic Area, and candidate countries, 1973 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrough, Tarik; Salekeen, Alexandra

    2016-04-21

    Between 1973 and 2013, 12 outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis with a cumulative total of 660 cases were reported in the European Union, European Economic Area and candidate countries. Outbreaks lasted seven to 90 weeks (median: 24 weeks) and were identified through the diagnosis of cases of acute flaccid paralysis, for which infection with wild poliovirus was subsequently identified. In two countries, environmental surveillance was in place before the outbreaks, but did not detect any wild strain before the occurrence of clinical cases. This surveillance nonetheless provided useful information to monitor the outbreaks and their geographical spread. Outbreaks were predominantly caused by poliovirus type 1 and typically involved unvaccinated or inadequately vaccinated groups within highly immunised communities. Oral polio vaccine was primarily used to respond to the outbreaks with catch-up campaigns implemented either nationwide or in restricted geographical areas or age groups. The introduction of supplementary immunisation contained the outbreaks. In 2002, the European region of the World Health Organization was declared polio-free and it has maintained this status since. However, as long as there are non-vaccinated or under-vaccinated groups in European countries and poliomyelitis is not eradicated, countries remain continuously at risk of reintroduction and establishment of the virus. Continued efforts to reach these groups are needed in order to ensure a uniform and high vaccination coverage.

  8. The economic makeup of the European Union and the difficult balance between economic freedoms and social rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Larrazabal Basañez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The author examines some basic contents of what has come to be known as the European Economic Constitution and the conflict raised between economic freedoms and social rights within the European Union. He also warns that in the latest trends in EU legislation and jurisprudence, the former seem to take excessive priority over the latter. This may jeopardise the consolidation of a genuine social Europe and the increasing indifference of citizens, who see how firm steps are being taken within the Economic and Monetary Union while social Europe is slowly moving forward, and often shows worrying signs of paralysis, or even some backward movement.Received: 16.06.10Accepted: 29.06.10

  9. Les débouchés énergétiques de l'agriculture de la Communauté Economique Européenne Energy Outlets for Agriculture in the European Economic Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker J. J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'agriculture de la Communauté Economique Européenne (CEE connaît une crise profonde au niveau de ses débouchés. Ainsi, même dans un contexte où l'indépendance énergétique n'est plus une préoccupation majeure, une production massive d'énergie par l'agriculture reste un projet à priori digne d'intérêt. Cette étude précise les modalités d'application concrètes d'une telle politique et tente une évaluation économique permettant d'apprécier la viabilité d'un tel schéma. Elle présente, en particulier, un positionnement par rapport aux solutions agricoles plus classiques actuellement mises en oeuvre et qui pourtant ne sont guère satisfaisantes. Agriculture in the EEC is in the midst of a deep crisis concerning its outlets. Even in a context where energy independence is no longer a major preoccupation, massive energy production by agriculture is still a problem worthy of interest, a priori. This article specifies concrete procedures for applying such a policy and tries to make an economic evaluation to assess the viability of such a scheme. In particular, it describes a position in relation to the most conventional agricultural solutions now being implemented and that are proving not to be very satisfactory.

  10. ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE OF COMMUNITY GARDEN IN ZIMBABWE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zivenge E.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Zimbabwe has experienced an unprecedented decline of nearly all human development indicators for the past ten years. Despite the introduction of community gardens in drought-prone areas of Zimbabwe, poverty persists amongst the vulnerable groups. The potential to improve household, community and national food and nutrition security through garden activities is high if issues of water availability cost and availability of inputs, marketing and farmer empowerment can be addressed. This paper seeks to assess the community garden's cost structure to sales volume and profitability and the land use efficiency. Primary data were collected through structured questionnaire. A two stage sampling techniques was used to select respondents. The study was conducted in Zaka district. Three major crops namely tomatoes, covo and onion were chosen for the study basing on size of land under that particular crop. Cost-Volume-Profit analysis employed for analysis of cost structure to sales volume and profitability. Land use efficiency was also employed to measure the ratio yield per acre of farm to average yield of locality. The results showed that although the farmers are able to break even the margin of safety is small especially for cove and onion. The study recommends farmers to increase the size of acreage under onion production whilst reduce acreage under production of covo. Farmers should adopt technology that would improve land use efficiency of onion. There is a need for the intervention by the Government and other stakeholders to improve the profitability and efficiency of the community gardeners. Stakeholders' collaboration especially, in terms of farmer training which can improve garden activities as participants lack knowhow.

  11. The hesitant European history of Denmark's accession to the European Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    2005-01-01

    This article outlines the history of Denmark's accession to the European Community on 1 January 1973. Two large historical trends shaped the Danish road to EC-membership. On the one hand, the fight for survival that the Danish Nation-State had experienced from 1864-1945 produced a particular Danish......-membership from day one without seriously threatening Danish welfare legislation or Nordic co-operation. Confronted with significant internal opposition, the Social Democratic Party leadership proved instrumental in formulating the vision that not only held the party together, but also won the referendum on 2...

  12. European Identity as Perceived by Others: the Portrayal of European Political, Cultural and Economic Issues in Ukrainian media

    OpenAIRE

    Ipatenko, Ielyzaveta

    2012-01-01

    The present thesis investigates how European identity is portrayed in Ukrainian media focusing on its political, economic, and cultural dimensions as case studies. Besides the comparative aspect, the thesis also pays attention to temporal changes in the 2002-2012 period. Theoretically, the thesis is based on the social identity theory developed by Tajfel (1981) and Turner (1979). Methodologically, qualitative content analysis is employed in the evaluation of 36 articles from web archives of t...

  13. Slowly, we are Growing together – European Economic Policy and Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Schubert

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last 20 years statistical data has become vastly more important for economic policy in Europe. Where as economic statistics once played a role in relatively marginal areas of European policy, the establishment of the macroeconomic convergence criteria for joining Economic and Monetary Union in the Maastricht Treaty in 1992–1993 sparked a quantum leap. Questions of comparability and harmonisation suddenly be- came increasingly relevant. The Stability and Growth Pact then made the calculation of the budget deficit and government debt even more important, including the measurement of GDP as denominator for the respective ratios. With the outbreak of the second Greek crisis in 2009–10 and the flaws that emerged in the quality of Greek economic statistics, statistical questions were suddenly at the centre of international media and political interest. At the same time the financial and economic crisis brought to the fore severe economic imbalances, both between European countries and within European countries. In order to prevent similar imbalances in the future, the EU has developed and adopted the "macroeconomic imbalance procedure", in which currently eleven macroeconomic indicators are used for on-going surveillance of countries ("alert mechanism". Thus more economic statistics have gained an important political function, particularly since sanctions can even be imposed on the basis of them. In parallel with this, the new European Supervisory Authorities use "dashboards" i.e. a range of statistics that are regularly watched and are intended to function as early warning indicators. The paper takes a look at this move towards more "evidence-based policy making" and its implications for European statistics and statisticians and discus ses the related challenges, paying particular attention to the role of the European Central Bank and its specific data needs.

  14. The European Network of Health Economic Evaluation Databases (EURO NHEED) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, John; Ulmann, Philippe; Glanville, Julie; Boulenger, Stéphanie; Drummond, Michael; de Pouvourville, Gérard

    2004-06-01

    This paper provides a first outline of the European Network of Health Economic Evaluation Databases (EURO NHEED) project. The project is funded by the European Commission and will implement, in 7 European centres based in France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom, databases on the economic evaluation of healthcare interventions. The network will be based on two existing and well-established resources, namely the UK's NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), and France's Connaissances et Décision en EConomie de la Santé (CODECS) database. EURO NHEED will initially cover 17 European countries and will provide its users with bibliographic records, detailing the main characteristics of all included studies. In addition, structured abstracts will be provided for articles identified as full economic evaluations (cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness or cost-utility), which will offer a detailed critique of the findings and the methodology used. These databases will be accessible free of charge on the Internet. The EURO NHEED project is the first attempt to develop such a resource on a multi-national basis. The project will bring together Health Economists and Information Scientists from the European Union and beyond and is anticipated to facilitate a number of benefits and advances in the field of Health Economics. These include harmonisation and increased understanding of the theory and methodology of economic evaluation in healthcare, the interpretation of the generalisability of studies to target settings, and the influence of healthcare system variations among the European countries. The project will therefore advance the state of the art in collecting, summarising, critiquing and disseminating economic evaluations of healthcare conducted within Europe.

  15. Contents of home economics education in the northern european countries

    OpenAIRE

    Krgović, Branka

    2017-01-01

    Every individual aspires for quality life, that is possible to achieve with suitable education. A person with nutritional, environmental and finance literacy, that is also moral, self-dependent, critical and creative, has all attributes to create quality life. Home economics is a subject that contains contents from all three fields of literacy (nutritional, environmental and financial), therefore it prepares pupils for life and teaches them, how to critical decide and evaluate own actions, th...

  16. The Economic Crisis and Labour Migration Policy in European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Kuptsch

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews changes in migration policies as a response to the 2008 financial and economic crisis and examines issues of migration governance. Countries in Europe opted to make new immigration more difficult, protected their labour markets for native born workers, encouraged the return of migrant workers and intensified efforts to curb irregular migration. Clear patterns or reasons for variation in policy responses are not discernible, but it is safe to say that only countries with a significant recent influx of migrants have taken high profile measures at all. The crisis has led to a shift in perspective of the State and its role in economics which is now seen as useful instead of undesired. Previously prevailing neo-liberal thought relegated the State to the “high politics” of sovereignty and security issues. The crisis has highlighted labour market issues, and migrants are now increasingly portrayed as economic agents instead of security threats. This offers room for the State to assert its protective role vis-à-vis migrant workers – a welcome development. The analysis has an International Relations/Political Economy perspective and is largely based on (official news releases and secondary sources.

  17. An Analysis of Economic Growth, Competitiveness and Macroeconomic Imbalances in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Hurduzeu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration the determinants of the economic crisis and of the sovereign debt crisis, we aim to analyze the dynamics of the European economies and discuss changes related to macroeconomic imbalances, as highlighted by the recent crises as an important factor of the unfavorable dynamics registered during the last years. In this respect we considered both internal and external imbalances, as specified in the macroeconomic imbalance procedure that was implemented for the European Union member states since 2012, as a response to the crises that affected all open economies of the world. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive analysis of economic imbalances in the European Union and to determine their influence on economic growth.

  18. Payloads development for European land mobile satellites: A technical and economical assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrotta, G.; Rispoli, F.; Sassorossi, T.; Spazio, Selenia

    1990-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has defined two payloads for Mobile Communication; one payload is for pre-operational use, the European Land Mobile System (EMS), and one payload is for promoting the development of technologies for future mobile communication systems, the L-band Land Mobile Payload (LLM). A summary of the two payloads and a description of their capabilities is provided. Additionally, an economic assessment of the potential mobile communication market in Europe is provided.

  19. Social Exclusion and Economic Growth: An Empirical Investigation in European Economies

    OpenAIRE

    AMENDOLA, Adalgiso; DELL'ANNO, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this article are to propose an overall index of social exclusion and to analyze its relationship with economic growth in European countries. We approach social exclusion as a multidimensional phenomenon by a three-mode principal components analysis (Tucker3 model). This method is applied to estimate an indicator of social exclusion for 28 European countries between 1995 and 2010. The empirical evidence shows that in short run (a) Granger causality runs one way from social exclusio...

  20. Economic efficiency versus social equality? The U.S. liberal model versus the European social model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Vicente; Schmitt, John

    2005-01-01

    This article begins by challenging the widely held view in neoliberal discourse that there is a necessary trade-off between higher efficiency and lower reduction of inequalities: the article empirically shows that the liberal, U.S. model has been less efficient economically (slower economic growth, higher unemployment) than the social model in existence in the European Union and in the majority of its member states. Based on the data presented, the authors criticize the adoption of features of the liberal model (such as deregulation of their labor markets, reduction of public social expenditures) by some European governments. The second section analyzes the causes for the slowdown of economic growth and the increase of unemployment in the European Union--that is, the application of monetarist and neoliberal policies in the institutional frame of the European Union, including the Stability Pact, the objectives and modus operandi of the European Central Bank, and the very limited resources available to the European Commission for stimulating and distributive functions. The third section details the reasons for these developments, including (besides historical considerations) the enormous influence of financial capital in the E.U. institutions and the very limited democracy. Proposals for change are included.

  1. MIGRATION INTEGRATION AS A FACTOR OF ECONOMIC AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Daniela FERARU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available International migration, together with economic and financial crisis or the different socio-economic development of Member States, is a serious threat to security in Europe. Population migration as a threatening factor, places the European Union in the face of a decision to establish clear policies for the establishment of a climate of external security, both for the migrant population and for the rest of the population. All in all, this study will centre on the following hypothesis: the better we know the challenges of international migration in the European Union and its Member States the more the European policies to mitigate negative effects of the world will be diminished. The aim is to highlight aspects pertaining to migration integration as a factor of economic, social and regional development in the European Union, and less as a factor of destabilization and insecurity. In other words, a good knowledge of the phenomenon leads to drawing up effective policies to reduce hazards, risks, threats and negative effects that happen today due to the increasing number of immigrants. Finally, the study will present a series of conclusions, including on the work hypothesis verification and some proposals related to migration integration efficiency as a factor of regional and economic development in the European Union.

  2. Economic issues and antibiotic resistance in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Shelby D; Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Black, Doug J; Sullivan, Sean D

    2002-01-01

    Inappropriate antibiotic use is generally considered to be the primary cause of antibiotic resistance in the community. Multiple economic factors, at the level of physicians, patients, healthcare organizations, and pharmaceutical companies, foster poor antibiotic use. To describe the influence of economic factors on the use and development of antibiotics and to evaluate the extent to which the cost of resistance is important in the economic evaluation of antibiotic products. Literature identified through MEDLINE (1966-May 2001), bibliographies from relevant articles, government reports, and proceedings from conferences about antibiotic resistance. Economic factors at all levels of the healthcare system contribute to the inappropriate use of antibiotics in the community setting. Relatively little economic research has been published on antibiotic resistance, and very few cost-effectiveness analyses of antibiotic treatment alternatives have explicitly included the cost of resistance. A better understanding of economic factors that influence the prescribing, marketing, and development of antibiotics could lead to more successful efforts at curtailing the growth of antibiotic resistance in the community setting.

  3. The diffusion of health economics knowledge in Europe : The EURONHEED (European Network of Health Economics Evaluation Database) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pouvourville, Gérard; Ulmann, Philippe; Nixon, John; Boulenger, Stéphanie; Glanville, Julie; Drummond, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This paper overviews the EURONHEED (EUROpean Network of Health Economics Evaluation Databases) project. Launched in 2003, this project is funded by the EU. Its aim is to create a network of national and international databases dedicated to health economic evaluation of health services and innovations. Seven centres (France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the UK) are involved covering 17 countries. The network is based on two existing databases, the French CODECS (COnnaissance et Decision en EConomie de la Sante) database, created in 2000 by the French Health Economists Association (College des Economistes de la Sante), and the UK NHS-EED (NHS Economic Electronic Database), run by the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York, York, England. The network will provide bibliographic records of published full health economic evaluation studies (cost-benefit, cost-utility and cost-effectiveness studies) as well as cost studies, methodological articles and review papers. Moreover, a structured abstract of full evaluation studies will be provided to users, allowing them access to a detailed description of each study and to a commentary stressing the implications and limits, for decision making, of the study. Access will be free of charge. The database features and its ease of access (via the internet: http://www.euronheed.org) should facilitate the diffusion of existing economic evidence on health services and the generalisation of common standards in the field at the European level, thereby improving the quality, generalisability and transferability of results across countries.

  4. THE ECONOMIC GOVERNANCE: CONCEPT, INSTRUMENTS OF MEASURMENT AND EVOLUTIONS ACROSS EUROPEAN UNION MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihuț Ioana-Sorina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The literature in the field identified over time a series of economic and non-economic factors that trigger the process of economic growth and convergence. Despite the fact that most of the theoretical as well as the empirical studies address the determinants of the economic growth process only from an economic perspective, a series of recent debates draw the attention upon a neglected category of factors until now, namely the quality of the economic growth process and the role of institutions as important tools in promoting convergence/divergence between economies. This new area of research, named institutional economics, highlights the role of institutions in protecting the property rights and the contracts (Han, X., et all 2014. Although these factors were often ignored as explicative variables of the economic growth process, in comparison to factors such as human capital, physical capital or technological progress, recently economists, researches or other participants in the market became highly aware of their importance. The primary objective of the current paper is to analyze the concept of economic governance as detailed within a series of studies in the field, or as perceived by international organizations. In addition to this objective we present some main indicators used to measure the quality and efficiency of the economic governance process with precise data and evolutions for the member states of the European Union. The main conclusions of our study reveal the fact that in order to achieve high levels of economic growth and convergence across European Union member states there is a strong need for enforcing the legal framework of EU along with the transfer of the power regarding the development, management and implementation of the economic stability policies from the national to the supra-national level. Also a harmonization of the institutional structure is required as a measure for supporting economic performance.

  5. INNOVATION THE CORNERSTONE OF ECONOMIC SUCCES AT EUROPEAN LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Maria Hristea

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In a world that is in a permanent change, in which the interdependencies between the states are more and more obvious and the rivalry and the inequalities between the nations deepen, one of the main objectives of the actual era wishes to be the growth of the competitivity and innovation degree at a microeconomic level and at a regional and international level. The innovation process means the conversion of new knowledge into economic and social benefits, as a result of some complex interactions between numerous actors in a system that is formed of an environement (local, regional and national that has productive firms, research institutes, and networks through which all these come into contact.

  6. Economic effects of bilateral trade agreements: China, United States, European Union and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Tobías, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Economic integration and international trade among different regions are analysed in this study. It describes recent history and explains a theoretical framework of economic integration. It focuses in Mega-Regional Trade Agreements, more specifically in the biggest ones, TTIP (Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership) and TPP (Trans-Pacific Partnership), both of them still under negotiation. These agreements involve the most important economies in the world such as the European Union (f...

  7. The economic consequences of deinstitutionalisation of mental health services: lessons from a systematic review of European experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Martin; Beecham, Jennifer; McDaid, David; Matosevic, Tihana; Smith, Monique

    2011-03-01

    Many European mental health systems are undergoing change as community-centred care replaces large-scale institutions. We review empirical evidence from three countries (UK, Germany, Italy) that have made good progress with this rebalancing of care. We focus particularly on the economic consequences of deinstitutionalisation. A systematic literature review was conducted using a broad search strategy in accordance with established guidelines. We searched the International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, Health Management Information Consortium, British Nursing Index and PUBMED/Medline to 2008. The on-line search was supplemented by advice and assistance from contacts with government departments, European Commission, professional networks and known local experts. Community-based models of care are not inherently more costly than institutions, once account is taken of individuals' needs and the quality of care. New community-based care arrangements could be more expensive than long-stay hospital care but may still be seen as more cost-effective because, when properly set up and managed, they deliver better outcomes. Understanding the economic consequences of deinstitutionalisation is fundamental to success. Local stakeholders and budget controllers need to be aware of the underlying policy and operational plan. Joint planning and commissioning or devolving certain powers and responsibilities to care managers may aid development of effective and cost-effective care. People's needs, preferences and circumstances vary, and so their service requirements and support costs also vary, opening up the possibility for purposive targeting of services on needs to improve the ability of a care system to improve well-being from constrained resources. As the institutional/community balance shifts, strategic planning should also ensure that the new care arrangements address the specific contexts of different patient groups. Decision-makers have to plan a dynamic community

  8. The photovoltaic pilot projects of the European Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, W.

    The Commission of the European Communities has started in 1980 a programme for the design and construction of a series of photovoltaic pilot projects in the range of 30-300 kWp. Virtually all important industries and other development organisations in Europe working on photovoltaic cells and systems are involved in this programme. The different technologies which are being developed concern the modules, the cabling of the array, structure design, storage strategy and power conditioning. The various applications include powering of an island, villages, recreation centres, water desalination and disinfection, powering of radio transmitters, emergency power plants, dairy farm, training school, cooling, water pumping, powering of a solar heated swimming pool and last but not least, hydrogen production.

  9. The Impact of Social Factors on Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence for Romania and European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Popa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationship between the social factors and the economic growth. A summary of social and economic environment is presented for Romania. As such, the paper analyzes the global evolution of social and economic environment over time and establishes a direct correlation between human development and economic welfare. An econometric model and a clustering model are tested for European Union countries. The results of the paper reveal the social factors that are positively correlated with the economic growth (i.e. the expected years of schooling and the life expectancy and, respectively, the factors that are negatively correlated with the economic growth (i.e. the population at risk of poverty and the unemployment rate.

  10. Macroeconomic thought at the European Commission in the 1970s: the first decade of the annual economic reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. MAES

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The work seeks to better understand how economic thought changes at policy institutions, as compared to academic institutions. The prevalence of academic economics during the 1970s introduced pronounced changes in the Annual Economic Reports of the European Commission. These changes, touted by economic analysts as a naturally complex process, focused primarily on the effect of evolving policy institutions on the economic well-being of the European Commission. One of the most dramatic changes that occurred during the period is the rise of Keynesian economics, which was eventually followed by the dominance of monetarism and supply-side economics.

  11. Peacekeeping in a bad neighbourhood: The Economic Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The case of the West African peacekeeping and conflict stabilisation interventions and regional deployments have been cited as a reflection of this development, despite its many problems and challenges. If this is the case, what has been the role and contribution of ECOWAS (the Economic Community of West African ...

  12. TAXATION IN THE CONTEXT OF EUROPEAN ECONOMIC GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu DURDUREANU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Through taxes, a significant proportion of gross domestic product is collected and concentrates to the state for financing public spending, giving direct expression of taxation as a set of processes for redistributing GDP. Thus, both in the political and economic, financial and social level it gains a particular importance the issue of dimensioning the part of GDP taken in the form of tax, for the state disposal and, implicitly, for its proportions of fiscal levies, which shows the relative level of taxation also called level of taxation. The amount of income tax, respectively of taxes collected don’t only result in taxable mass and its tax rate, but are also influenced by behavioral factors. In other words, tax revenues to the budget depend on the proportions propensity to evasion or tax for fiscal civism and some studies show that, generally, the greater the tax burden is, the more the tax will decrease fiscal civism (even if only in the spirit of conservation and increase the propensity to evasion.

  13. Exploring Integration of Care for Children Living with Complex Care Needs across the European Union and European Economic Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Maria; O'Shea, Miriam; J Larkin, Philip; Kamionka, Stine Lundstroem; Berry, Jay; Hiscock, Harriet; Rigby, Michael; Blair, Mitch

    2017-04-24

    The aim of this paper is to report on the development of surveys to explore integration of care for children living with complex care needs across the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA). Each survey consists of a vignette and questions adapted from the Standards for Systems of Care for Children and Youth with Special Health Care Needs and the Eurobarometer Survey . A Country Agent in each country, a local expert in child health services, will obtain data from indigenous sources. We identified 'in-principle' complex problems and adapted surveys to capture care integration. We expect to get rich data to understand perceptions and to inform actions for a number of complex health issues. The study has the potential to make a wide contribution to individual countries of the EU/EEA to understand their own integration of services mapped against responses from other member states. Early results are expected in Spring 2017.

  14. Economic Goals, Quality Discourse and the Narrowing of European State Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Quality management theory pervades education policy across Europe. In this article its prevalence is examined through analysis of policy texts drawn from 16 different state systems in Europe, as well as from the European Union and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The article argues that Quality discourse has…

  15. Varieties of European Economic Law and Regulation : Liber Amicorum for Hans Micklitz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purnhagen, K.; Rott, P.

    2014-01-01

    This is the first book to comprehensively analyze the work of Hans Micklitz, one of the leading scholars in the field of EU economic law. It brings together analysts, academic friends and critics of Hans Micklitz and results in a unique collection of essays that evaluate his work on European

  16. New market designs and their effect on economic performance in European Union's natural gas markets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haase, N.; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Arentsen, Maarten J.

    2008-01-01

    The European gas market reform triggered new market designs which aimed to achieve competitive natural gas prices, efficiency gains, and security of gas supply. The paper analyses to what extent the effects of regulation-for-competition on eco-nomic performance in the form of natural gas prices,

  17. The European Union's Role in International Economic Fora: The G20 : Study for the ECON Committee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Amtenbrink (Fabian); Blocker, (Niels); S. Van Den Bogaert (Stefaan); A. Cuyvers (Armin); K. Heine (Klaus); Hilion, (Christophe); J. Kantorowicz (Jarosław); Lenk, (Hannes); Repasi, (René)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractThis study provides factual background information about the G20, the European Union's role and representation therein, its accountability as well as the coordination and impact thereof. The G20 has played a key role in measure taken to overcome the economic and financial crisis

  18. Economic evaluation of vaccines : specificities and future challenges illustrated by recent European examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, M.J.; Westra, T.A.; Quilici, S.; Largeron, N.

    2013-01-01

    This study reviews the current challenges in the economic evaluation of vaccines with a focus on European countries. In particular, the type of clinical evidence generally available, the impact of discounting for time preference and the use of modeling to derive valid cost-effectiveness assessments

  19. Economic evaluation of vaccines : specificities and future challenges illustrated by recent European examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Maarten J; Westra, Tjalke A; Quilici, Sibilia; Largeron, Nathalie

    This study reviews the current challenges in the economic evaluation of vaccines with a focus on European countries. In particular, the type of clinical evidence generally available, the impact of discounting for time preference and the use of modeling to derive valid cost-effectiveness assessments

  20. Chicken or Egg: Global Economic Crisis or Ideological Retrenchment from Welfare in Three European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Aase Mygind; Judd, Dawn; Boeckh, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    As welfare states confront massive changes, these are often explained as inevitable by-products of the global economic crisis. However, many of the shifts in welfare ideology pre-date the crisis. As increasing numbers of European welfare states move towards neoliberal paradigms then this converge......As welfare states confront massive changes, these are often explained as inevitable by-products of the global economic crisis. However, many of the shifts in welfare ideology pre-date the crisis. As increasing numbers of European welfare states move towards neoliberal paradigms...... then this convergence is, in turn, having a marked impact on social work education and practice. Today it would appear that, to varying degrees, European social workers are driven by ever-growing managerialist objectives. Juxtaposed is the shift towards consumerism and individualism, which is manifested through various...

  1. Professor Gerschenkron goes to Brussels. Russian Catch-up Economics and the Common European Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hedlund

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing discussions between Russia and the EU on the formation of a Common European Economic Space bring back to mind Alexander Gerschenkron's classic essay on economic backwardness in historical perspective. This paper argues that the institutions that once produced a specific kind of catch-up economics in Czarist Russia still remain largely the same. Unless negotiations between Moscow and Brussels take into consideration such fundamental institutional incompatibility, attempts at harmonization, expressed by Brussels as an attempt tp spread Western values, will be doomed to fail. A cynical conlusion views potential convergence as adaptation by Brussels to traditional Russian institutional patterns of rule evasion, rather than a Westernization of Russia

  2. THE FISCAL FEDERALISM AND THE GOOD ECONOMIC GOVERNANCE IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Ligia Dumitrescu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The research objectives aim to analyze the advantages and the disadvantages of the fiscal federalism, in order to identify the model of economic governance that will increase the quality and efficiency in public intervention. The fiscal federalism could have an important impact on the economic and political level in EU, but mostly in member states, in order to obtain a better administration and more responsible governance for the resources allocation, income distribution and fiscal consolidation. Fiscal federalism can bring to Romania advantages towards accessing more European funds and achieving budgetary discipline, and the last but not the least for stimulating economic growth.

  3. Determinants of economic freedom of the Association of Southeast Asian Nation economic community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Debbie C. Magallon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the determinants of the well-being of people across the world is economic freedom. It is the freedom to choose the ways to produce, sell, and use your private resources, while respecting rights of the other to practice the same. The primordial intention of the study was to investigate the factors affecting economic freedom in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN Economic Community. Human Development Index (HDI, Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI and GDP per capita are dimensions considered to characterize the level of a country’s economic freedom. Trend performance of AEC in these indexes was also determined. The empirical estimate was based on a panel dataset covering 6 member-countries of the ASEAN Economic Community from 2001 to 2010. The model was estimated through Ordinary Least Squares (OLS multiple linear regression analysis. For the trend performance of the indexes, Singapore found to have a remarkable performance. The empirical result strongly suggests that CPI and GDP per capita foster economic freedom. For every 1% decrease in CPI would lead to an increase in economic freedom index by.121 % and for every 1% increase in GDP per capita, EFI will increase by .019%.

  4. Health Economics as Rhetoric: The Limited Impact of Health Economics on Funding Decisions in Four European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Margreet; Heintz, Emelie; Gerber-Grote, Andreas; Raftery, James

    2016-12-01

    A response to the challenge of high-cost treatments in health care has been economic evaluation. Cost-effectiveness analysis presented as cost per quality-adjusted life-years gained has been controversial, raising heated support and opposition. To assess the impact of economic evaluation in decisions on what to fund in four European countries and discuss the implications of our findings. We used a protocol to review the key features of the application of economic evaluation in reimbursement decision making in England, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden, reporting country-specific highlights. Although the institutions and processes vary by country, health economic evaluation has had limited impact on restricting access of controversial high-cost drugs. Even in those countries that have gone the furthest, ways have been found to avoid refusing to fund high-cost drugs for particular diseases including cancer, multiple sclerosis, and orphan diseases. Economic evaluation may, however, have helped some countries to negotiate price reductions for some drugs. It has also extended to the discussion of clinical effectiveness to include cost. The differences in approaches but similarities in outcomes suggest that health economic evaluation be viewed largely as rhetoric (in D.N. McCloskey's terms in The Rhetoric of Economics, 1985). This is not to imply that economics had no impact: rather that it usually contributed to the discourse in ways that differed by country. The reasons for this no doubt vary by perspective, from political science to ethics. Economic evaluation may have less to do with rationing or denial of medical treatments than to do with expanding the discourse used to discuss such issues. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. ARCHITECTURE OF EUROPEAN SYSTEM OF FINANCIAL SUPERVISION AFTER THE GLOBAL ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Muszyński

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper indicates how the last global financial crisis has affected the european financial system. As the depression evolved it brought all the weaknesses in the system of financial supervision to the surface. Then it became clear that deeper integration of the banking system was strongly needed. To mitigate systemic stability risk and improve the coordination process with international organizations, the European Commission decided to establish the European System of Financial Supervision. However, it seemed that it was not sufficient to prevent from further fragmentation of the financial market in Europe. As a result, in 2012 the European Commission initiated the banking union, a new form of political and economic integration.

  6. The advantages and impediments in fostering Republic of Moldova- the European Union economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica CRUDU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable efforts and funding, the reform implementation process in the Republic of Moldova meets important difficulties especially in the areas of strategic significance including the fields of public administration, justice and banking sectors. The initiatives implemented in these sectors by the Moldovan authorities under European supervision proved to be inefficient as they did not reach the expected results. This situation leads to dragging down the pace of European integration of the country, as the trust of the population and of foreign partners regarding European future of Moldova was negatively affected. Thus, this research intends to identify the most important impediments of bi-lateral cooperation between the Republic of Moldova and the European Union. Also, some recommendations are provided to increase the actual status-quo and are specified main Moldovan economic advantages which have been registered since the acceleration of cooperation with the EU.

  7. Community College Economics Instruction: Results from a National Science Foundation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Mark; Chi, W. Edward

    2016-01-01

    The principal investigator of a National Science Foundation project, "Economics at Community Colleges," surveyed community college economics faculty and organized workshops, webinars, and regional meetings to address community college faculty isolation from new ideas in economics and economics instruction. Survey results, combined with…

  8. Inequality and rising levels of socio-economic segregation: lessons from a pan-European comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcińczak, S.; Musterd, S.; van Ham, M.; Tammaru, T.; Tammaru, T.; Marcińczak, S.; van Ham, M.; Musterd, S.

    2016-01-01

    The Socio-Economic Segregation in European Capital Cities: East Meets West project investigates changing levels of socio-economic segregation in 13 major European cities: Amsterdam, Budapest, Vienna, Stockholm, Oslo, London, Vilnius, Tallinn, Prague, Madrid, Milan, Athens and Riga. The two main

  9. The Waqf of Money as a Community Economic Empowerment Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Farid

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Waqaf is basically seen as one of the religious institutions in Islam which is relevant and functionally efforts to solve socio-economic problems and humanity, such as poverty alleviation, human resource development, and economic empowerment. The endowments are absolutely an important role in achieving a just social order. From the perspective of shapes, endowment money is seen as one of the solutions that can make endowments to be more productive. Because the money here will no longer to be used as a means of exchange, but more than it, we can explore it as a commodity to produce in the terms of economic development. Therefore, the cash money in the form of waqaf of money can result any benefit for the community. Appearances distribution of endowments can be used to productive activity in the era of economic downturn of the Islamic community in Indonesia. Now it should become the primary choice. In another sense, it is a productive waqaf endowment that must be a priority and dedicated its efforts to more fruitful. Thus, the sizes of different paradigms are done by the consumptive waqaf, because it gives a new hope for the majority of the Muslim community. Endowments are not willing to lead in worship of mahdhah which is directed to the consumptive waqaf. Using the findings of waqaf has been prioritized to give benefit in a very broad, including for economic empowerment, such as public facilities and worship activities, social facilities and educational activities as well as health, aid to poor people, displaced children, orphans, scholarship, progress and economic improvement for the people who needs the advancement of public welfare other non-contrary to the sharia business law.

  10. The impact of macro-economic circumstances and social protection expenditure on economic deprivation in 25 European countries, 2007-2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Mark; Gesthuizen, M.J.W.; Scheepers, P.L.H.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigate to what extent macro-economic circumstances and social protection expenditure affect economic deprivation. We use three items from round five of the European Social Survey (2010-2011) to construct our latent outcome variable, which we label economic deprivation in the 3

  11. The effect of migration within the European Union/European Economic Area on the distribution of tuberculosis, 2007 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollo, Vahur; Kotila, Saara Magdalena; Ködmön, Csaba; Zucs, Phillip; van der Werf, Marieke Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Immigration from tuberculosis (TB) high-incidence countries is known to contribute notably to the TB burden in low-incidence countries. However, the effect of migration enabled by the free movement of persons within the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) on TB notification has not been analysed. We analysed TB surveillance data from 29 EU/EEA countries submitted for the years 2007-2013 to The European Surveillance System. We used place of birth and nationality as proxy indicators for native, other EU/EEA and non-EU/EEA origin of the TB cases and analysed the characteristics of the subgroups by origin. From 2007-2013, a total of 527,467 TB cases were reported, of which 129,781 (24.6%) were of foreign origin including 12,566 (2.4%) originating from EU/EEA countries other than the reporting country. The countries reporting most TB cases originating from other EU/EEA countries were Germany and Italy, and the largest proportion of TB cases in individuals came from Poland (n=1,562) and Romania (n=6,285). At EU/EEA level only a small proportion of foreign TB cases originated from other EU/EEA countries, however, the uneven distribution of this presumed importation may pose a challenge to TB programmes in some countries.

  12. A multi-factor approach to understanding socio-economic segregation in European capital cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tammaru, T.; Musterd, S.; van Ham, M.; Marcińczak, S.; Tammaru, T.; Marcińczak, S.; van Ham, M.; Musterd, S.

    2016-01-01

    Growing inequalities in Europe, even in the most egalitarian countries, are a major challenge threatening the sustainability of urban communities and the competiveness of European cities. Surprisingly, though, there is a lack of systematic and representative research on the spatial dimension of

  13. Illegal use of beta-adrenergic agonists: European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, H A; Noordam, M Y; van Dooren-Flipsen, M M; Schilt, R; Roos, A H

    1998-01-01

    The use of veterinary medicinal products within the European Community is governed by a series of directives and regulations that describe the requirements for safety, quality, and efficacy of these products. Veterinary therapeutic use of beta-agonists has only been approved in the case of clenbuterol for bronchodilatation in horses and calves and for tocolysis in cows. No beta-agonists have been permitted in the European Community for growth-promoting purposes in farm animals. Surveillance for the presence of residues of veterinary agents in food-producing animals and meat is regulated by the Directive 86/469/EEC containing specific guidelines for sampling procedures on farms and in slaughterhouses. The level and frequency of sampling is dependent on the category of compounds and animal species. When positive samples have been identified (above certain action levels), sampling intensity is increased. Results of monitoring programs in EU member states during 1992 and 1993 for the occurrence of residues of beta-agonists in food-producing animals vary substantially with respect to the percentages of positive samples, ranging from 0 to 7%. The variability is partly explained by differences in sampling strategies, detection methods, and action levels applied. Identification of the proper matrices for sampling and detection of beta-agonists is important. In the case of clenbuterol, hair and choroid retinal tissue are appropriate tissues because clenbuterol accumulates in these matrices. A clear decrease in the use of clenbuterol in cattle has been observed in The Netherlands, Germany, Northern Ireland, and Spanish Basque Country over the last 3 yr. This is partly due to intensified surveillance activities at farms and slaughterhouses by governmental agencies and production sector organizations. There are data on human intoxication following consumption of liver or meat from cattle treated with beta-agonists. At the concentrations of clenbuterol measured in contaminated

  14. Effect of the economic recession on pharmaceutical policy and medicine sales in eight European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Vogler, Sabine; Valkova, Silvia; de Joncheere, Kees; Leufkens, Hubert GM; Wagner, Anita K; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Laing, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify pharmaceutical policy changes during the economic recession in eight European countries and to determine whether policy measures resulted in lower sales of, and less expenditure on, pharmaceuticals. Methods Information on pharmaceutical policy changes between 2008 and 2011 in eight European countries was obtained from publications and pharmaceutical policy databases. Data on the volume and value of the quarterly sales of products between 2006 and 2011 in the 10 highest-selling therapeutic classes in each country were obtained from a pharmaceutical market research database. We compared these indicators in economically stable countries; Austria, Estonia and Finland, to those in economically less stable countries, Greece, Ireland, Portugal, Slovakia and Spain. Findings Economically stable countries implemented two to seven policy changes each, whereas less stable countries implemented 10 to 22 each. Of the 88 policy changes identified, 33 occurred in 2010 and 40 in 2011. They involved changing out-of-pocket payments for patients in 16 cases, price mark-up schemes in 13 and price cuts in 11. Sales volumes increased moderately in all countries except Greece and Portugal, which experienced slight declines after 2009. Sales values decreased in both groups of countries, but fell more in less stable countries. Conclusion Less economically stable countries implemented more pharmaceutical policy changes during the recession than economically stable countries. Unexpectedly, pharmaceutical sales volumes increased in almost all countries, whereas sales values declined, especially in less stable countries. PMID:25378754

  15. Effect of the economic recession on pharmaceutical policy and medicine sales in eight European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Christine; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Vogler, Sabine; Valkova, Silvia; de Joncheere, Kees; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Wagner, Anita K; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Laing, Richard

    2014-09-01

    To identify pharmaceutical policy changes during the economic recession in eight European countries and to determine whether policy measures resulted in lower sales of, and less expenditure on, pharmaceuticals. Information on pharmaceutical policy changes between 2008 and 2011 in eight European countries was obtained from publications and pharmaceutical policy databases. Data on the volume and value of the quarterly sales of products between 2006 and 2011 in the 10 highest-selling therapeutic classes in each country were obtained from a pharmaceutical market research database. We compared these indicators in economically stable countries; Austria, Estonia and Finland, to those in economically less stable countries, Greece, Ireland, Portugal, Slovakia and Spain. Economically stable countries implemented two to seven policy changes each, whereas less stable countries implemented 10 to 22 each. Of the 88 policy changes identified, 33 occurred in 2010 and 40 in 2011. They involved changing out-of-pocket payments for patients in 16 cases, price mark-up schemes in 13 and price cuts in 11. Sales volumes increased moderately in all countries except Greece and Portugal, which experienced slight declines after 2009. Sales values decreased in both groups of countries, but fell more in less stable countries. Less economically stable countries implemented more pharmaceutical policy changes during the recession than economically stable countries. Unexpectedly, pharmaceutical sales volumes increased in almost all countries, whereas sales values declined, especially in less stable countries.

  16. The British Position towards European Integration: A Different Economic and Political Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troitiño David Ramiro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The United Kingdom has had an important position in Europe for centuries. Often it is seen as an anti-European country, or as being anti-integration in Europe but it is just defending its own interests, which in many cases hare differed from other members of the European Communities. The UK policy towards European cooperation has been influenced by the particular interest of the country, but there has always been a strong relation between the British and Europe. Great Britain had the biggest empire in human history spread all over the globe, and hence its interest was global rather than limited to local European states. The UK was a victorious country in the Second World War, the only Western European state that participated actively in Nazi defeat. As an important consequence, British nationalism was seen as a positive force to unite all the British against an external threat. During centuries, the British economy has been based on trade, and internationally the government supported and expanded the free trade idea in the world economy to European trade relations. This paper analyzes the main issues that explain the special relations between the EU and the UK. The paper is developed from a historical point of view with a methodology’ based on the critical review of historical facts from a global perspective of the whole traditional approach of the UK towards European integration.

  17. Unemployment and health selection in diverging economic conditions: Compositional changes? Evidence from 28 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggebø, Kristian; Dahl, Espen

    2015-11-04

    Unemployment and health selection in diverging economic conditions: Compositional changes? Evidence from 28 european countries. People with ill health tend to be overrepresented among the unemployment population. The relationship between health and unemployment might, however, be sensitive to the overall economic condition. Specifically, the health composition of the unemployment population could change dramatically when the economy takes a turn for the worse. Using EU-SILC cross sectional data from 2007 (pre-crisis) and 2011 (during crisis) and linear regression models, this paper investigates the relationship between health and unemployment probabilities under differing economic conditions in 28 European countries. The countries are classified according to (i) the level of and (ii) increase in unemployment rate (i.e. >10 percent and doubling of unemployment rate = crisis country). Firstly, the unemployment likelihood for people with ill health is remarkably stable over time in Europe: the coefficients are very similar in pre-crisis and crisis years. Secondly, people with ill health have experienced unemployment to a lesser extent than those with good health status in the crisis year (when we pool the data and compare 2007 and 2011), but only in the countries with a high and rising unemployment rate. The health composition of the unemployment population changes significantly for the better, but only in those European countries that have been severely hit by the current economic crisis.

  18. Differentiation, Leaders and Fairness. Negotiating Climate Commitments in the European Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringius, Lasse

    1997-12-31

    This report shows that it is possible to negotiate and reach asymmetrical environmental agreements that take into account significant national dissimilarities. It is argued that analytical models and intuitively appealing model-based quantitative indicators of national circumstances can establish premises for negotiations leading to differentiated environmental agreements. While they cannot take the place of political negotiations, they help identify a formula that defines the problem in a resolvable fashion and prevent the bargaining space from expanding uncontrollably. Scholars arguing that symmetrical environmental measures are widely used because they simplify negotiations and prevent countries from pursuing extremist positions, and that salient focal points are significant in negotiation, overlook this argument. In pre-Kyoto European Community climate policy, which this report empirically examines, high transaction costs and EC member states` ability to block economically hurtful agreements were not essential issues. 54 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  19. A socio-economic impact assessment of the European launcher sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, Luca del; Scatteia, Luigi

    2017-08-01

    In a context where the economic strains are challenging European policies as well as the very fabric of governmental contributions to public life, innovation and efficacy of public policy in research are called upon to support growth in Europe and to sustain employment and entrepreneurial capacities. Governments need evidence that the investments in space, while providing strategic tools to implement sovereign policies, create jobs and build the competitive European economy of the future. This is particularly true when the decisions at stake have a potential bearing on the future of the European space sector for at least the next 30 years, as it has been the case for the ESA Council at ministerial level meeting in December 2014. On that occasion, Ministers took the decision to start the development of a new Ariane 6 launcher and Vega evolutions having a critical bearing on the Member States' strategic industrial capabilities and on the sustainability of the European guaranteed access to space. Given the importance of the subject, and following similar studies undertaken in the past for e.g. the Ariane 1-4 programme, the Agency has requested an independent consulting team to perform a dedicated study to assess ex-post the direct, indirect and induced socio-economic impacts of the Ariane 5 programme (mid-term evaluation) and of the Vega programme (early evaluation) globally, at European level, and within the economies and industries of each ESA Member State. This paper presents the assessment of the socio-economic impacts allowing the evaluation of the return on public investments in launchers through ESA in a wider perspective, going beyond the purely economic terms. The scope of the assessment covered in total approximately 25 ESA programmatic and activity lines and 30,000 commitments from 1986 to end 2012. In the framework of the study, the economic impact of the European launcher programmes is measured through a GDP impact defined as the straight economic

  20. Economic incentive in community nursing: attraction, rejection or indifference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingma Mireille

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is hard to imagine any period in time when economic issues were more visible in health sector decision-making. The search for measures that maximize available resources has never been greater than within the present decade. A staff payroll represents 60%-70% of budgeted health service funds. The cost-effective use of human resources is thus an objective of paramount importance. Using incentives and disincentives to direct individuals' energies and behaviour is common practice in all work settings, of which the health care system is no exception. The range and influence of economic incentives/disincentives affecting community nurses are the subject of this discussion paper. The tendency by nurses to disregard, and in many cases, deny a direct impact of economic incentives/disincentives on their motivation and professional conduct is of particular interest. The goal of recent research was to determine if economic incentives/disincentives in community nursing exist, whether they have a perceivable impact and in what areas. Conclusion Understanding the value system of community nurses and how they respond to economic incentives/disincentives facilitates the development of reward systems more likely to be relevant and strategic. If nurse rewards are to become more effective organizational tools, the data suggest that future initiatives should: • Improve nurses' salary/income relativities (e.g. comparable pay/rates; • Provide just compensation for job-related expenses (e.g. petrol, clothing; • Introduce promotional opportunities within the clinical area, rewarding skill and competence development; • Make available a range of financed rewards. - Direct (e.g. subsidized education, additional leave, insurance benefits; - Indirect (e.g. better working conditions, access to professional support network, greater participation in decision-making bodies.

  1. Economic incentive in community nursing: attraction, rejection or indifference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingma, Mireille

    2003-04-14

    BACKGROUND: It is hard to imagine any period in time when economic issues were more visible in health sector decision-making. The search for measures that maximize available resources has never been greater than within the present decade. A staff payroll represents 60%-70% of budgeted health service funds. The cost-effective use of human resources is thus an objective of paramount importance.Using incentives and disincentives to direct individuals' energies and behaviour is common practice in all work settings, of which the health care system is no exception. The range and influence of economic incentives/disincentives affecting community nurses are the subject of this discussion paper. The tendency by nurses to disregard, and in many cases, deny a direct impact of economic incentives/disincentives on their motivation and professional conduct is of particular interest. The goal of recent research was to determine if economic incentives/disincentives in community nursing exist, whether they have a perceivable impact and in what areas. CONCLUSION: Understanding the value system of community nurses and how they respond to economic incentives/disincentives facilitates the development of reward systems more likely to be relevant and strategic. If nurse rewards are to become more effective organizational tools, the data suggest that future initiatives should:bullet; Improve nurses' salary/income relativities (e.g. comparable pay/rates);bullet; Provide just compensation for job-related expenses (e.g. petrol, clothing);bullet; Introduce promotional opportunities within the clinical area, rewarding skill and competence development;bullet; Make available a range of financed rewards.- Direct (e.g. subsidized education, additional leave, insurance benefits);- Indirect (e.g. better working conditions, access to professional support network, greater participation in decision-making bodies).

  2. Population trends in the European Community, 1960-1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnais, J C

    1988-07-01

    Recent trends in fertility, marriage patterns and family formation in the 12 nations of the European Community are discussed. The total period fertility rate in this group of nations has dropped sharply (42%) since 1960, so that the annual growth was 0.15% in 1986. Immigration and the rate of mortality decline have also slowed. There are some variations in regional or national fertility, and in population growth as a result of age structure. The rate of population growth is slowing in all nations except Greece, Ireland and Portugal. The U.K., Belgium, Luxembourg and Denmark have experienced zero growth since 1980. Italy is close to zero growth. France, Netherlands and Spain have higher growth due to age structure. Ireland continues to grow at 1% yearly. In general, large families are disappearing, although different patterns are evident in various states. France shows high progression to the 1st child; many German couples choose to remain childless. People are marrying older, remaining unmarried, divorcing sooner, cohabiting before or after marriage. Non-marital births are common, especially in nordic countries, but still rare in Mediterranean countries. The restricted family norm, of 0, 1, or 2 children is becoming uniform, resulting in fertility well below, 15-40% of replacement.

  3. The global financial and economic crisis and the main priorities of the European Union for 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinescu, A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the global financial-economic crisis and the main priorities of the European Union for 2020. The duration of a financial economic crisis depends on the macroeconomic factors taken into account, because their representation can have multiple nuances, generated by subjective and political influences. The financial and economic crisis had a significant impact on public finances, business, jobs and families. At all levels, the decision makers in public policy will have to find ways of triggering economic dynamism, while the margin of manoeuvre in what concerns the budget is limited. As the recorded deficit in the public sector will be again under control, public expenditure will be such organized that the targets for 2020 are met.

  4. Public Governance and Economic Growth in the Transitional Economies of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz BAYAR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available According to new growth theories, public governance is an important determinant for sustained economic growth. This study examines the impact of six public governance indicators, including voice and accountability, political stability and the absence of violence/terrorism, government effectiveness, regulatory quality, rule of law and control of corruption, on the economic growth in the transitional economies of the European Union during the 2002-2013 period. The results show that all governance indicators except regulatory quality had a statistically significant positive impact on economic growth. Our findings also indicate that control of corruption and rule of law had the largest impact on economic growth, while political stability had the lowest impact.

  5. European economic policies, stock-flow relations and the great double crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Valli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2007-2015 crisis has been the most devastating economic depression in the last seven decades. It has struck in different ways and with different amplitude the US and most European countries. In most countries it has been a double crisis (financial and real, but in Eurozone's financially vulnerable countries it has also badly worsened public finance indicators. There was therefore in those countries, a complex perverse feedback between public finance weakness, the harsh application of austerity policy and a further increase in the depth and duration of real and financial crisis. The paper focus on the importance of stock-flow relations in worsening and prolonging economic depressions triggered by structural bubbles or other chronic imbalances. It also gives a critical assessment of some aspects of EU economic policies, outlining some elements for a possible alternative economic strategy.

  6. European social model and the harmonization of Macedonian labour legislation with the European Union community labour law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalamatiev Todor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The European integration process accompanied by the harmonization of the EU member states' legislation will inevitably lead to the establishment of a European social model which has a 'sui generis' legal nature. European social model forms a part of the common legal heritage of the European countries and it can be defined as a system of values that include democracy and individual rights, free collective bargaining, market economy, equal opportunities for all, and social protection and solidarity. Subject of analysis in this paper are both, the essential components of the European social model such as: the social 'acquis communautaire' and the European industrial relations. The social 'acquis communautaire' is an integral part of the general 'acquis communautaire' and it encompasses the regulations arising from the primary and secondary labour law legislation of the EU, decisions of the European Court of Justice and other legal measures of the European Union with a binding or non-binding legal nature. European industrial relations encompass the key features of the European trade union models as well as the types of social dialogue in different EU member states. This paper pays attention to a profound elaboration of the harmonization of two EU labour law directives with the Macedonian employment legislation. The first Directive (Directive 91/533/EEC of 14 October 1991 on an employers' obligation to inform employees of the conditions applicable to the contract or employment relationship may be classified in the field of individual employment relations, while the second one (Directive 2002/14/EC of 11 March 2002 establishing a general framework for informing and consulting employees in the European Community can be subsumed within the field of collective employment relations. Finally, the authors illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of the Macedonian labour legislation in the process of harmonization with the relevant EU directives

  7. Deutschland und die Europaische Gemeinschaft: Ein Landeskundliches Curriculum fur die 90er Jahre (Germany and the European Community: A Curriculum for the 1990's).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidheiser, James C.

    1990-01-01

    Information is provided for German teachers on the main aspects of the European Community (EC), and on how to integrate the EC into the classroom. The history of the EC is outlined, and political and economic features are highlighted. (Author/VWL)

  8. ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF PUBLIC DEBT. THE CASE OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina BILAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to empirically assess, using panel data estimation techniques, the effects of public indebtedness on economic growth for a group of 11 Central and Eastern European countries and over the period 1994-2013. Our hypothesis is that, although public indebtedness may fuel economic growth, once public debt breaches a certain threshold the effects are reversed and public indebtedness negatively affects GDP growth rates. The results of our study confirm this kind of relationship, with a maximum debt threshold for all countries of about 45-55% of GDP, lower for the less developed (like Romania and Bulgaria and higher for the more developed ones. Also, the threshold for Central and Eastern European countries is found to be lower than the one identified in other empirical studies for developed EU countries, as the former enjoy lower credibility, higher vulnerability to shocks and depend more on external capital transfers.

  9. Bologna process, more or less: nursing education in the European economic area: a discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palese, Alvisa; Zabalegui, Adelaida; Sigurdardottir, Arun K; Bergin, Michael; Dobrowolska, Beata; Gasser, Catherine; Pajnkihar, Majda; Jackson, Christine

    2014-04-02

    The Bologna Declaration and the subsequent processes is the single most important reform of higher education taking place in Europe in the last 30 years. Signed in 1999, it includes 46 European Union countries and aimed to create, a more coherent, compatible, comparable and competitive European Higher Education Area. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the Bologna Declaration achievements in nursing education at 2010 within eight countries that first signed the Declaration on 1999. Researchers primarily identified national laws, policy statements, guidelines and grey literature; then, a literature review on Bologna Declaration implementation in nursing was conducted on the Medline and CINAHL databases. Critical analyses of these documents were performed by expert nurse educators. Structural, organizational, functional and cultural obstacles are hindering full Bologna Process implementation in nursing education within European Economic Area. A call for action is offered in order to achieve a functionally unified system within nursing.

  10. Economic Discourse and European Market Integration: The Problem of Financial Market Infrastructures

    OpenAIRE

    Krarup, Troels

    2016-01-01

    European integration of financial markets appears to repeatedly encounter specific kinds of problems about the substance and limits of the notion of “the market” undergoing integration, and about the status and role of money, market infrastructures, and government within it. Moreover, these problems and the controversies around them parallel classical discussions in economic theory such as that between conceptions of the market as a frictionless space and as a process of competition. A “compe...

  11. The water framework directive: A new directive for a changing social, political and economic European Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Kaika, Maria

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the intricate process of developing the European Union's Water Framework Directive. It sees the Directive as a response to recent economic, political and social changes related to water management, including the shift from government to governance, the liberalization of water markets and the emergence of a new set of institutions, actors, etc. and their respective relations (i.e. social capital). The article focuses on the key points of disagreement between the Council o...

  12. ASPECTS REGARDING THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DETERMINISM – ANALYSIS AT THE EUROPEAN UNION LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floarea IORDACHE, PhD*

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Theoretically, the determinism represents a concept according to which the phenomena are generated by chains of causes and effects by conditionings and laws, by the necessary and repetitive interactions. As regards socio-economic determinism, it can be said that it shows the importance of the social factor in determining the economic development. Usually, paradoxically, although it is the key element in deciphering economic behaviour, the social factor, by its main representative - the man, is almost always excluded from analyses which regard the elements that contribute to the determination of economic development at national, regional or global level. For this reason, we consider ecessary a shift in current paradigms towards the social factor, at the same time, positioning social policy the centre of public policies. Today, in a highly globalized world, when the powerful turbulences are observed on the international markets, social policies development is conducted under the pressure of new constraints, with obvious implications on all aspects of economic, political and social life. Although European Union is the promoter of the welfare state values, it does not focus enough the attention to the theoretical and practical aspects related to the reform of social policies, to the development of human capital and to the improvement of social cohesion in order to meet the current challenges of the globalized world. Thus, this article brings as novelty a series of arguments on the roleand the place that the social factor should occupy in the economic sphere, it not being at this time an economic determinant.

  13. Europeanization of National Public Spheres? Cross-National Media Debates about the EU's Socio-Economic Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porte, Caroline de la; van Dalen, Arjen

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the Europeanization of media coverage of the European Union's (EU) socio-economic strategy, which is a crucial building block for developing a European Public Sphere. As the EU level increasingly influences public policy in member states, there should correspondingly be a more...... in terms of benchmarking and reporting on criticism and advice to member states. This criticism is more often diffuse than aimed at specific member states. Therefore, we conclude that media coverage of the EU's socio-economic strategy is Europeanized, but that it remains a debate by and for EU...

  14. Economic Evaluation of Community Water Fluoridation: A Community Guide Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Tao; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K

    2016-06-01

    A recently updated Community Guide systematic review of the effectiveness of community water fluoridation once again found evidence that it reduces dental caries. Although community water fluoridation was found to save money in a 2002 Community Guide systematic review, the conclusion was based on studies conducted before 1995. Given the update to the effectiveness review, re-examination of the benefit and cost of community water fluoridation is necessary. Using methods developed for Community Guide economic reviews, 564 studies were identified within a search period from January 1995 to November 2013. Ten studies were included in the current review, with four covering community fluoridation benefits only and another six providing both cost and benefit information. Additionally, two of the six studies analyzed the cost effectiveness of community water fluoridation. All currencies were converted to 2013 dollars. The analysis was conducted in 2014. The benefit-only studies used regression analysis, showing that different measures of dental costs were always lower in communities with water fluoridation. For the six cost-benefit studies, per capita annual intervention cost ranged from $0.11 to $4.92 for communities with at least 1,000 population, and per capita annual benefit ranged from $5.49 to $93.19. Benefit-cost ratios ranged from 1.12:1 to 135:1, and these ratios were positively associated with community population size. Recent evidence continues to indicate that the economic benefit of community water fluoridation exceeds the intervention cost. Further, the benefit-cost ratio increases with the community population size. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Surveillance and laboratory detection for non-polio enteroviruses in the European Union/European Economic Area, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvala, Heli; Jasir, Aftab; Penttinen, Pasi; Pastore Celentano, Lucia; Greco, Donato; Broberg, Eeva

    2017-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EVs) cause severe outbreaks of respiratory and neurological disease as illustrated by EV-D68 and EV-A71 outbreaks, respectively. We have mapped European laboratory capacity for identification and characterisation of non-polio EVs to improve preparedness to respond to (re)-emerging EVs linked to severe disease. An online questionnaire on non-polio EV surveillance and laboratory detection was submitted to all 30 European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) countries. Twenty-nine countries responded; 26 conducted laboratory-based non-polio EV surveillance, and 24 included neurological infections in their surveillance. Eleven countries have established specific surveillance for EV-D68 via sentinel influenza surveillance (n = 7), typing EV-positive respiratory samples (n = 10) and/or acute flaccid paralysis surveillance (n = 5). Of 26 countries performing non-polio EV characterisation/typing, 10 further characterised culture-positive EV isolates, whereas the remainder typed PCR-positive but culture-negative samples. Although 19 countries have introduced sequence-based EV typing, seven still rely entirely on virus isolation. Based on 2015 data, six countries typed over 300 specimens mostly by sequencing, whereas 11 countries characterised under 50 EV-positive samples. EV surveillance activity varied between EU/EEA countries, and did not always specifically target patients with neurological and/or respiratory infections. Introduction of sequence-based typing methods is needed throughout the EU/EEA to enhance laboratory capacity for the detection of EVs. PMID:29162204

  16. Exploring Integration of Care for Children Living with Complex Care Needs Across the European Union and European Economic Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Brenner

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this paper is to report on the development of surveys to explore integration of care for children living with complex care needs across the European Union (EU and European Economic Area (EEA.  Theory and methods: Each survey consists of a vignette and questions adapted from the 'Standards for Systems of Care for Children and Youth with Special Health Care Needs and the Eurobarometer Survey'. A Country Agent in each country, a local expert in child health services, will obtain data from indigenous sources.  Results: We identified ‘in-principle’ complex problems and adapted surveys to capture care integration. We expect to get rich data to understand perceptions and to inform actions for a number of complex health issues.  Conclusion: The study has the potential to make a wide contribution to individual countries of the EU/EEA to understand their own integration of services mapped against responses from other member states. Early results are expected in Spring 2017.

  17. A test of the economic base hypothesis in the small forest communities of southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Recent harvest declines in the Western United States have focused attention on the question of economic impacts at the community level. The impact of changing timber-related economic activity in a given community on other local activity and the general economic health of the community at large has been a persistent and often contentious issue in debates surrounding...

  18. Economic valuation of the mortality benefits of a regulation on SO2 in 20 European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanel, Olivier; Henschel, Susann; Goodman, Patrick G; Analitis, Antonis; Atkinson, Richard W; Le Tertre, Alain; Zeka, Ariana; Medina, Sylvia

    2014-08-01

    Since the 1970s, legislation has led to progress in tackling several air pollutants. We quantify the annual monetary benefits resulting from reductions in mortality from the year 2000 onwards following the implementation of three European Commission regulations to reduce the sulphur content in liquid fuels for vehicles. We first compute premature deaths attributable to these implementations for 20 European cities in the Aphekom project by using a two-stage health impact assessment method. We then justify our choice to only consider mortality effects as short-term effects. We rely on European studies when selecting the central value of a life-year estimate (€ 2005 86 600) used to compute the monetary benefits for each of the cities. We also conduct an independent sensitivity analysis as well as an integrated uncertainty analysis that simultaneously accounts for uncertainties concerning epidemiology and economic valuation. The implementation of these regulations is estimated to have postponed 2212 (95% confidence interval: 772-3663) deaths per year attributable to reductions in sulphur dioxide for the 20 European cities, from the year 2000 onwards. We obtained annual mortality benefits related to the implementation of the European regulation on sulphur dioxide of € 2005 191.6 million (95% confidence interval: € 2005 66.9-€ 2005 317.2). Our approach is conservative in restricting to mortality effects and to short-term benefits only, thus only providing the lower-bound estimate. Our findings underline the health and monetary benefits to be obtained from implementing effective European policies on air pollution and ensuring compliance with them over time. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  19. A critique of recent economic evaluations of community water fluoridation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Lee; Thiessen, Kathleen M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although community water fluoridation (CWF) results in a range of potential contaminant exposures, little attention has been given to many of the possible impacts. A central argument for CWF is its cost-effectiveness. The U.S. Government states that $1 spent on CWF saves $38 in dental treatment costs. Objective: To examine the reported cost-effectiveness of CWF. Methods: Methods and underlying data from the primary U.S. economic evaluation of CWF are analyzed and corrected calculations are described. Other recent economic evaluations are also examined. Results: Recent economic evaluations of CWF contain defective estimations of both costs and benefits. Incorrect handling of dental treatment costs and flawed estimates of effectiveness lead to overestimated benefits. The real-world costs to water treatment plants and communities are not reflected. Conclusions: Minimal correction reduced the savings to $3 per person per year (PPPY) for a best-case scenario, but this savings is eliminated by the estimated cost of treating dental fluorosis. PMID:25471729

  20. Rich and Poor Cities in Europe. An Urban Scaling Approach to Mapping the European Economic Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano, Emanuele; Sood, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the urban science make broad use of the notion of scaling. We focus here on the important scaling relationship between the gross metropolitan product (GMP) of a city and its population (pop). It has been demonstrated that GMP ∝ Y Ypopβ with β always greater than 1 and close to 1.2. This fundamental finding highlights a universal rule that holds across countries and cultures and might explain the very nature of cities. However, in an increasingly connected world, the hypothesis that the economy of a city solely depends on its population might be questionable. Using data for 248 cities in the European Union between 2005 and 2010, we found a double GMP/pop scaling regime. For West EU cities, β = 1 over the whole the period, while for post-communist cities β > 1 and increases from ∼1.2 to ∼1.4. The evolution of the scaling exponent describes the convergence of post-communist European cities to open and liberal economies. We propose a simple model of economic convergence in which, under stable political conditions, a linear GMP/pop scaling is expected for all cities. The results suggest that the GMP/pop super-linear scaling represents a phase of economic growth rather than a steady, universal urban feature. The results also suggest that relationships between cities are embedded in their political and economic context and cannot be neglected in explanations of cities, urbanization and urban economics.

  1. Services of general economic interest – towards a european concept of public services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Kociubiński

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last three decades the interplay between Services of General Economic Interest and the EU law of competition and State aid has shifted from near anonymity to the centre stage of political and legal debate. This reflects the apparent reorientation of the European Union’s objectives from those of a purely economic nature to ones more social and cohesion-oriented. The inclusion of Article 14 TFEU in the ‘Principles’ part of the Treaty coupled with the evolution of the European Court of Justice’s approach towards the services in question places the issue beyond purely competition law. The paper examines the concept of Services of General Economic Interest in the light of the evolution of delimitation of vertical competences and responsibilities between Member States and EU. It addresses the dynamic evolution of the legal environment of Services of General Economic Interest and tackles the issue whether this process could be regarded as the birth and development of a communautaire concept of public services.

  2. Impact of economic crisis on earnings management in European listed companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Grabiński

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to investigate the impact of global economic crisis 2007–2009 on earnings man-agement in European listed companies. In the first section concepts of economic and financial crisis are explained from the perspective of economic theory. Then the concept of earnings management is present-ed. Hypothesis development constitutes the third part of the paper. The main hypothesis postulates that macroeconomic conditions of crisis restrain earnings management. The next section explains the meth-odology of empirical study. Using adapted Dechow model, earnings management is measured in more than 36 thousand firm-level observations from 27 European countries. Then using panel regression with fixed effects the magnitude of earnings management is investigated from the perspective of crisis and non-crisis period. The last section presents results of the study, which provide evidence that during the crisis period earnings management is curbed. Additionally, the analysis shows that macroeconomic con-ditions associated with economic crisis like GDP drop rates and increase of unemployment affect differ-ently the magnitude of earnings management.

  3. XXVI Annual Conference of the European Academy of Management and Business Economics (AEDEM)

    CERN Document Server

    Gil-Lafuente, Jaime; Merigó-Lindahl, José; Soft Computing in Management and Business Economics

    2012-01-01

    This book is a collection of selected papers presented at the Annual Meeting of the European Academy of Management and Business Economics (AEDEM), held at the Faculty of Economics and Business of the University of Barcelona, 05 – 07 June, 2012. This edition of the conference has been presented with the slogan “Creating new opportunities in an uncertain environment”. There are different ways for assessing uncertainty in management but this book mainly focused on soft computing theories and their role in assessing uncertainty in a complex world. The present book gives a comprehensive overview of general management topics and discusses some of the most recent developments in all the areas of business and management including management, marketing, business statistics, innovation and technology, finance, sports and tourism. This book might be of great interest for anyone working in the area of management and business economics and might be especially useful for scientists and graduate students doing researc...

  4. IMPACT OF TAX EVASION ON THE ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORIN BOȘTINĂ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the research topic emerges from the fact that an important part of the fiscal revenues is lost annually through activities of fiscal planning, fiscal circumvention and tax evasion, undertaken by the private sector. In this respect, the aim of the paper is to estimate, by using the econometric analysis, the impact of tax evasion on the economic growth in the European Union for the period 1997-2010 for which the data was available. For the tax evasion it have been used index as a proxy that optimizes by maximum. Thus the main hypothesis (that the index tax evasion positively influences the economic growth was not rejected, even after including some specific control variables in the regressive models. In other words, as tax evasion is increased the economic growth is likely to decrease.

  5. FDI in European Economic Architecture. The Case of Romania as an EU Member State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Burciu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The arrangements of regional economic integration have substantially reconfigured the patternof global economy after the Second World War, due to their structural effects, but especially to thenew forms of interdependence which they have created between economies. Our study is based onthe hypothesis that the economic integrated areas are more attractive to investors, especially to thelarge ones such as multinational corporations. Analyzing the flows, respectively the ratio of inwardstock of foreign direct investment to GDP in EU, and Romania, as well as the main indicatorsassessing the presence of multinational corporations in the Common Market and in our countrytoo, we have found that the creation of a larger market and deepening of economic integration hasfuelled a stimulus for investments, although the preference of investors, especially of the nonEuropeans,have been quite highly concentrated on certain locations/countries.

  6. Central and Eastern European Countries Focus on the Silk Road Economic Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGE CORNEL DUMITRESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Silk Road Economic Belt, a strategic priority of the Chinese foreign policy in 2015, draws the attention to the countries of Central and Eastern Europe through the multiple benefits that it displays (investments, economic growth, trade between the countries along its corridors, job creation, infrastructure development, the strategic importance of being part of a grandiose multi-continental project. Among these benefits an important one is represented by the opportunities of Chinese investments in infrastructure, since the EU is suffering from a credit restraint. Also, The Silk Road Economic Belt could lead to a potential increase in the bilateral trade. Analyzing the literature in the field and the various official information available online, this paper aims to depict the Chinese project form the Eastern European perspective, identifying local priorities, conflicting interests, possible infrastructure projects, routes, focusing on two strategic countries in the region: Romania and Serbia, both displaying advantages and disadvantages.

  7. Female ever-smoking, education, emancipation and economic development in 19 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaap, Maartje M; Kunst, Anton E; Leinsalu, Mall

    2009-01-01

    product (GDP) and the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) was explored. Less educated women aged 25-39 years were more likely to have ever smoked than more educated women in all countries, except Portugal. In the age groups 40-59 years the educational pattern differed between countries. Women aged 60+ years...... for more educated women. The association of ever-smoking rates with GEM was positive for less educated women, but negative for more educated women. The results are consistent with the idea that economic development and social-cultural processes related to gender empowerment have affected the diffusion......Large differences in ever-smoking rates among women are found between countries and socio-economic groups. This study examined the socio-economic inequalities in female ever-smoking rates in 19 European countries, and explored the association between cross-national differences in these inequalities...

  8. The economic-wide consequences of large-scale floods. How resilient is the European economy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koks, Elco; Thissen, Mark; De Moel, Hans; Aerts, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    For a successful adaptation strategy, it is necessary to have an in-depth understanding of the economic consequences of a flood. To assess the economic consequences of large-scale river floods in Europe, we introduce an integrated direct and indirect risk model for the European economy as a whole. The proposed methodology consists of multiple steps. First, a direct loss assessment is conducted for the 50 largest river basin districts in Europe, based on simulated floods for several return periods. Second, the direct losses in capital and labour are translated into the loss in production per sector. Third, the recovery of this production shock is modelled using a hybrid interregional input-output model, combining non-linear programming and input-output modelling. This combination makes it possible to find (1) the possible production losses in the affected regions and other European regions, (2) the required production in Europe to satisfy additional reconstruction demands from the affected regions and (3) the required production in other regions that is necessary to take over lost production in the affected region. Consequently, when knowing how much production is lost (or gained) in each region, the economic consequences can be assessed. Finally, the model outcome is loss estimation expressed in terms of expected annual damage. To assess these consequences, interregional supply and use tables are used, consisting of 256 different European NUTS2 regions. This data makes it possible to model the indirect losses for both the affected regions and the rest of Europe in detail. By combining the outcomes of all floods in all the river basin districts, it is possible to determine the flood risk of each region in Europe, even when a region is not directly hit by a flood. Consequently, the overall consequences for the European Union are found to be positive for small-scale floods and negative for large-scale floods.

  9. From Action to Insight: A Professional Learning Community's Experiences with the European Language Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristmanson, Paula Lee; Lafargue, Chantal; Culligan, Karla

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on an action research project set in the context of one professional learning community's (PLC's) exploration of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) and the European Language Portfolio (ELP). Teachers of second and foreign languages in a large urban high school examined the potential of principles and tools related…

  10. Economic considerations and patients' preferences affect treatment selection for patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a discrete choice experiment among European rheumatologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hifinger, M.; Hiligsmann, M.; Ramiro, S.; Watson, V.; Severens, J. L.; Fautrel, B.; Uhlig, T.; van Vollenhoven, R.; Jacques, P.; Detert, J.; Canas da Silva, J.; Scirè, C. A.; Berghea, F.; Carmona, L.; Péntek, M.; Keat, A.; Boonen, A.

    2017-01-01

    To compare the value that rheumatologists across Europe attach to patients' preferences and economic aspects when choosing treatments for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In a discrete choice experiment, European rheumatologists chose between two hypothetical drug treatments for a patient with

  11. Changes in alcohol consumption in the 50- to 64-year-old European economically active population during an economic crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosque-Prous, Marina; Kunst, Anton E; Brugal, M Teresa; Espelt, Albert

    2017-08-01

    The aim was to compare alcohol drinking patterns in economically active people aged 50-64 years before the last economic crisis (2006) and during the crisis (2013). Cross-sectional study with data from 25 479 economically active people aged 50-64 years resident in 11 European countries who participated in wave 2 or wave 5 of the SHARE project (2006 and 2013). The outcome variables were hazardous drinking, abstention in previous 3 months and the weekly average number of drinks per drinker. The prevalence ratios of hazardous drinking and abstention, comparing the prevalence in 2013 vs. 2006, were estimated with Poisson regression models with robust variance, and the changes in the number of drinks per week with Poisson regression models. The prevalence of hazardous drinking decreased among both men (PR = 0.75; 95%CI = 0.63-0.92) and women (PR = 0.91; 95%CI = 0.72-1.15), although the latter decrease was smaller and not statistically significant. The proportion of abstainers increased among both men (PR = 1.11; 95%CI = 0.99-1.29) and women (PR = 1.18; 95%CI = 1.07-1.30), although the former increase was smaller and not statistically significant. The weekly average number of drinks per drinker decreased in men and women. The decreases in consumption were larger in Italy and Spain. From 2006 to 2013, the amount of alcohol consumed by late working age drinkers decreased in Europe, with more pronounced declines in the countries hardest hit by the economic crisis.

  12. Geographic distance and mountain ranges structure freshwater protist communities on a European scalе

    OpenAIRE

    Boenigk,Jens; Wodniok,Sabina; Bock,Christina; Beisser,Daniela; Hempel,Christopher; Grossmann,Lars; Lange,Anja; Jensen,Manfred

    2018-01-01

    Protists influence ecosystems by modulating microbial population size, diversity, metabolic outputs and gene flow. In this study we used eukaryotic ribosomal amplicon diversity from 218 European freshwater lakes sampled in August 2012 to assess the effect of mountain ranges as biogeographic barriers on spatial patterns and microbial community structure in European freshwaters. The diversity of microbial communities as reflected by amplicon clusters suggested that the eukaryotic microbial inve...

  13. The centrality of community dynamics in the socio-economic recovery of devastated communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, A; Atallah, W; Bidaisee, S; Patel, C; Amuleru-Marshall, O

    2009-11-01

    To assess and explore the health and socio-economic outcomes of Jubilee, a community on the Caribbean island of Grenada hit by Hurricane Ivan in 2004 and to identify remaining barriers to recovery. The assessment consisted of a mixed methods approach employing observations, household surveys, in-depth interviews and focus groups. Eighty-five per cent of the residents live in a single-family home type dwelling which is occupied by multiple families. Twenty-seven per cent of the respondents depended on a river or stream for water and 83% utilized an outdoor pit latrine. Construction accounted for 28% of the employment while 16% reported having no occupation. Public and private transportation was limited and 48% of the residents lived on less than one United States of America (US) dollar per day. Access to healthcare was reported by 89% and the prevalence of diabetes and hypertension was identified by 13% and 30% of the residents respectively. Social fragmentation within the community represents a barrier that keeps the community from developing common goals leading to full economic recovery. Jubilee has not fully recovered from the effects of Hurricane Ivan, but progress has been made in the reconstruction effort. These efforts have addressed the most immediate and basic needs of the community, mainly utility service infrastructure and home repairs. However issues related to the community's economic recovery are still unresolved.

  14. The power of science economic research and European decision-making : the case of energy and environment policies

    CERN Document Server

    Rossetti di Valdalbero, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    This book highlights the interaction between science and politics and between research in economics and European Union policy-making. It focuses on the use of Quantitative tools, Top-down and Bottom-up models in up-stream European decision-making process through five EU policy case studies: energy taxation, climate change, energy efficiency, renewable energy, and internalisation of external costs.

  15. Seroprevalence and susceptibility to hepatitis A in the European Union and European Economic Area: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Santisteve, Paloma; Tavoschi, Lara; Severi, Ettore; Bonfigli, Sandro; Edelstein, Michael; Byström, Emma; Lopalco, Pierluigi

    2017-10-01

    Most of the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) is considered a region of very low hepatitis A virus (HAV) endemicity; however, geographical differences exist. We did a systematic review with the aim of describing seroprevalence and susceptibility in the general population or special groups in the EU and EEA. We searched databases and public health national institutes websites for HAV seroprevalence records published between Jan 1, 1975, and June 30, 2014, with no language restrictions. An updated search was done on Aug 10, 2016. We defined seroprevalence profiles (very low, low, and intermediate) as the proportion of the population with age-specific anti-HAV antibodies at age 15 and 30 years, and susceptibility profiles (low, moderate, high, and very high) as the proportion of susceptible individuals at age 30 and 50 years. We included 228 studies from 28 of 31 EU and EEA countries. For the period 2000-14, 24 countries had a very low seroprevalence profile, compared with five in 1975-89. The susceptibility among adults ranged between low and very high and had a geographical gradient, with three countries in the low susceptibility category. Since 1975, EU and EEA countries have shown decreasing seropositivity; however, considerable regional variability exists. The main limitations of this study are that the studies retrieved for analysis might not be representative of all EU and EEA publications about HAV and might have poor national representativeness. A large proportion of EU and EEA residents are now susceptible to HAV infection. Our Review supports the need to reconsider specific prevention and control measures, to further decrease HAV circulation while providing protection against the infection in the EU and EEA, and could be used to inform susceptible travellers visiting EU and EEA countries with different HAV endemicity levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. THE ROLE OF ECONOMIC POLICIES FOR EXTERNAL CROSSBORDER AREAS IN SHAPING THE NEW EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Șlusarciuc

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As history proves, any enlargement of an overstate structure produces disarticulation and an increase of pressure on the borders of it. On the other side the economy produces integrative effects along the border despite of the original significance of separation that a border has. The crossborder policies of the European Union as regional player are meant to contribute to the economic structure building and enhance the stability inside and outside the Union area. Setting up the normative framework for crossborder relations is a very present-day field, being subject of study and research in all Union bodies, in the Member States governments, candidate countries or beneficiaries of the relations with the Union as well. This normative framework is meant to propel the economic increase and the raise of the daily life conditions in the neighbor countries. Alongside the border there are happening complex phenomena, some of them easy to be quantified, such as economic ones, some of them more difficult that cannot be controlled but only sociologically researched, such as cultural-identity-emotional ones. The paper aims to draw the guiding marks of the European Union external crossborder areas and the crossborder cooperation frame for Romania, to identify already visible and potential effects of the enlargement on the external borders and to make an inventory of policies that should integrate the crossborder economy.

  17. NOx Emission Trading in a European Context: Discussion of the Economic, Legal, and Cultural Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris P.A. Dekkers

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Emission trading is a new instrument in environmental policy. It is an alien notion in most European countries and it is often viewed with hesitation. The paper discusses the economic, legal, and perhaps more importantly, the cultural aspects to consider when one tries to explore the prospects for trading emissions of NOX and other substances in Europe. Issues to be addressed are the present legal framework in Europe in relation to the national emission ceilings on NOX and other substances on the basis of relevant EU directives and UNECE protocols. The paper will discuss the extent to which the legal framework within the EU imposes constraints on the design of a national emission trading scheme, and what options are available to fit emission trading into that legislative structure. The NOX emission trading programme developed in the Netherlands will be used to demonstrate the various aspects in a European context.

  18. How economic, humanitarian, and religious concerns shape European attitudes toward asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansak, Kirk; Hainmueller, Jens; Hangartner, Dominik

    2016-10-14

    What types of asylum seekers are Europeans willing to accept? We conducted a conjoint experiment asking 18,000 eligible voters in 15 European countries to evaluate 180,000 profiles of asylum seekers that randomly varied on nine attributes. Asylum seekers who have higher employability, have more consistent asylum testimonies and severe vulnerabilities, and are Christian rather than Muslim received the greatest public support. These results suggest that public preferences over asylum seekers are shaped by sociotropic evaluations of their potential economic contributions, humanitarian concerns about the deservingness of their claims, and anti-Muslim bias. These preferences are similar across respondents of different ages, education levels, incomes, and political ideologies, as well as across the surveyed countries. This public consensus on what types of asylum seekers to accept has important implications for theory and policy. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Tracing the Interface Between Numerical Flexibility and Income Security for European Youth during the Economic Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leschke, Janine; Finn, Mairéad

    duration than adults. In a majority of EU countries youth are also disadvantaged with regard to unemployment benefits. Eligibility criteria require a certain minimum period in employment before unemployment insurance benefits can be accessed; and means-testing applies to unemployment and social assistance...... youth and access by youth to unemployment benefits as well as participation in short-time working. This is complemented by an institutional analysis charting changes in unemployment benefit criteria during the crisis. To frame this analysis, we employ a more dynamic version of the flexicurity matrix......This paper traces convergences in terms of flexibility and security with a focus on younger and older youth in European countries. Youth were one of the groups hardest hit by the economic crisis. Young people in most European countries are more likely to work on temporary contracts of limited...

  20. Economic evaluations in European reimbursement submission guidelines: current status and comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracco, Andrea; Krol, Marieke

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to review European national health-economic (HE) guidelines and to identify recent developments in guideline recommendations by comparing the findings with those of a review published in 2001. Guidelines were identified by searching websites of the Internal Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) and government health insurance agencies, and by a literature review. National guidelines showed broad consistency in ranking clinical data sources and choice of comparators for HE analysis, but varied in recommended costs to be included, methods related to cost calculation and discounting. Many European countries have developed or revised national HE guidelines. The recommendations in these guidelines differ in some key aspects, limiting transferability of outcomes of HE evaluations.

  1. Socio-economic factors and suicide rates in European Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Fabio; Coluccia, Anna

    2009-04-01

    Are socio-economic factors valid determinants of suicide? The modern sociological theory of suicide is based on Durkheim's studies. In addition to these fundamental social determinants, modern theorists have put more attention on economic factors. The purpose of the research is to determine the relationship between suicide rates and socio-economic factors, such as demography, economic development, education, healthcare systems, living conditions and labour market. All data were collected from a Eurostat publication and they concern 25 European Union countries. In order to test this relationship, a discriminant analysis was performed using an ordinal dependent variable and a set of independent variables concerning socio-economic factors. A dataset of 37 independent variables was used. We estimated a model with five variables: annual growth rates for industry, people working in S&T (% of total employment), at-risk-of-poverty rate, all accidents (standardized rates), and healthcare expenditures (% of GDP). Highly significant values of Wilk's Lambda assess a good discriminating power of the model. The accuracy too is very high: all cases are correctly classified by the model. Countries with high suicide rate levels are marked by high levels of at-risk-of-poverty rates, high annual growth rates for industry and low healthcare expenditures.

  2. Connection between the economic crisis and contractual circumstances in Hungary and in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekla PAPP

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With the conclusion of a contract of civil law, the parties may take some reasonably unforeseeable economic risks that might disrupt the synallagmatic character of the contract; therefore, disproportionate, unviable extra burden may appear in the contractual relations on the side of some parties. The sudden increase of inflation or prices, the intense reduction of the purchasing power of wages, the radical changes in the relations between supply and demand, the collapse of the product market, the insolvency of the economic actors (especially in case of a contractual party, the negative changes of the market and financial relations and the production and liquidity problems of the economic sector shall result in this incalculable risk. In case of maintaining the original contractual content, an economic crisis affecting the whole economy and society of one or more countries may cause any or all the parties to take inequitable and intolerable risks. In the following, we analyse those reasons in the Hungarian judicial practice that are based on the Hungarian Civil Code and referred by the parties in order to get rid of the contractual obligation in the name of economic/ business risk and finally, we make a conclusion with respect to the current European regulations.

  3. PROSPEK AHLI EKONOMI SYARIAH DI DALAM MENGHADAPI ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Wadud Nafis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kemunculan ilmu Islam ekonomi modern di panggung internasional, dimulai pada tahun 1970-an yang ditandai dengan kehadiran para pakar ekonomi Islam kontemporer, seperti Muhammad Abdul Mannan, M. Nejatullah Shiddiqy, Kursyid Ahmad, An-Naqvi, M. Umer Chapra, dll. Sejalan dengan itu berdiri Islamic Development Bank pada tahun 1975 dan selanjutnya diikuti pendirian lembaga-lembaga perbankan dan keuangan Islam lainnya di berbagai negara. Pada tahun 1976 para pakar ekonomi Islam dunia berkumpul untuk pertama kalinya dalam sejarah pada International Conference on Islamic Economics and Finance, di Jeddah. Di Indonesia, momentum kemunculan ekonomi Islam dimulai tahun 1990an, yang ditandai berdirinya Bank Muamalat Indoenesia tahun 1992, kendatipun benih-benih pemikiran ekonomi dan keuangan Islam telah muncul jauh sebelum masa tersebut. Sepanjang tahun 1990an perkembangan ekonomi syariah di Indonesia relatif lambat. Tetapi pada tahun 2000an terjadi gelombang perkembangan yang sangat pesat ditinjan dari sisi pertumbuhan asset, omzet dan jaringa kantor lembaga perbankan dan keuangan syariah. Pada saat yang bersamaan juga mulai muncul lembaga pendidikan tinggi yang mengajarkan ekonomi Islam, walaupun pada jumlah yang sangat terbatas, antara lain STIE Syariah di Yogyakarta (1997, D3 Manajemen Bank Syariah di IAIN-SU di Medan (1997, STEI SEBI (1999 , STIE Tazkia (2000, dan PSTTI UI yang membuka konsentrasi Ekonomi dan Keuangan Islam, pada tahun 2001. Para pemimpin ASEAN sepakat melakukan kerja sama dibidang ekonomi, yang disebut ASEAN Economic Community. Yang dimaksud ASEAN Economic Community adalah Kesepakatan bersama untuk mengintegrasikan berbagai negara Asean (Indonesia, Malaysia, Filipina, Singapura, Thailand, Brunai Darussalam, Kamboja, Vietnam, Laos dan Myanmar yang masing-masing memiliki latar-belakang sosial-budaya, ideologi politik, ekonomi dan kepentingan berbeda ke dalam suatu komunitas yang disebut Masyarakat Ekonomi ASEAN. Sebagai pasar tunggal

  4. Networks of European cities in worlds of global economic and environmental change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Derudder

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Geographers use a variety of economic, social, and demographic data to measure the importance of global cities and the linkages between cities. We analyze the importance and connectedness of European cities using hyperlinks, or the electronic information provided by the Google Search engine. Hyperlinks are Web sites representing information that is produced; they are especially useful in measuring the impact of contemporary crises. We use the phrases economic slowdown and global financial crisis to derive a Global Financial Score (GFS for 16 core, semiperiphery and peripheral European cities and global warming and climate change to derive a Global Environmental Score (GES. London and Paris are in the European core; Rome, Dublin, Madrid and Prague are in the semiperiphery; while Tallinn, Riga, and Belgrade are in the periphery. A strong positive relationship exists between the GES and GFS. We examine the linkages of the 16 cities to the 100 largest world cities and illustrate, with “clockgrams,” the linkages London, Brussels and Athens have with other world cities. We calculated the number of linkages each of the 16 cities had with other world cities to identify Europe’s urban cores, semiperipheries, peripheries, and deep peripheries. New York is in the core of both the economic and environmental maps. Some world cities are in the semiperiphery of one category and periphery of another. Milan, Istanbul, and Delhi are in the deep periphery for the GFS while Toronto and Athens are for the GES. Hyperlinks represent valuable databases to measure the impact of crises and regional and global urban linkages.

  5. Book Review: Thomas Risse, A Community of Europeans? Transnational Identities and Public Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Nicholas Romaniuk

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This book represents a multi-faceted and multi-dimensional exploration of Europe as an institutional and social conception. It systematically links understanding of the Europeanization of identities and public spheres with citizenship, nationalism, community and communication, EU (European Union enlargement, institution-building, and European democracy and politicization. As a hallmark of insightful and dynamic scholarship, Risse’s work draws inspiration from a variety of societal levels, including some of the most critical players in European political life today, and highly-praised and well-known political philosophers, and policymakers.

  6. The level of diversity in European electricity companies based on selected economic indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ulatowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article was to show variations in the electricity sector in the context of macro and micro-economic conditions with the use of discriminatory analysis. Using the STATISTICA programe to carry out the analysis of discrimination macroeconomic data has been used on the economies of the countries in which the parent companies of the energy companiesare established and the financial and economic results of individual concerns. Power companies: power plants, distribution companies and vendors of energy in Poland have been included as a single entity. An attempt to determine the factors of macro and micro-economic and financial data, which significantly affected the distinctionbetween the concerns was investigated. The results of the discriminatory analysis allowed for the submission of the following conclusions: selected on the basis of the following micro-economic factors distinguished the companies that had the largest share of variables: revenue per employee and long-term assets to long-term capital, and clearly distinguished EdF and electricity companies in Poland. This means that the dominant European companies show a similarity in implementation adopted by the owners of the economic-financial conditions for development. According to factors and the economic contribution to the largest macroeconomic identifying similar groups had the same variables: consumption of electricity in TWh and public debt in% of GDP, which correctly classified all concerns at 100%. It follows from this that the greatest contributions in distinguishing concerns have external factors and more specifically, the national macro-economic indicators in the countries in which the handquestors of the parent companies are found.

  7. PUBLIC POLICY, QUALITY OF INTITUTION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOGARU DORIN-MADALIN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between economic performance and institutional development in several Central and Eastern European Countries. Our meta-argument is that the structural transformations at the levels of the quantitative variables and mechanisms are only a part of the transition processes. In order to view the big picture, the qualitative aspects related to public policies and institutions should also be considered. We test the linkages between the quality of public policies and institutions for seven Central and Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovenia, Slovakia and Romania for a time span between 2001 and 2011. These countries are displaying a certain degree of heterogeneity in terms of economic performances and the design and implementation of public policies. We use for our analysis the World Bank indicators from World Wide Governance Indicators. In order to deal with the potential reverse causality issues, we employ Generalized Method of Moments Framework (GMM by using the lagged variables as instruments. The impact of governance indicators is statistically significant even if we use several control variables: exchange rate, unemployment, current account deficit, taxes burden and price stability. The corresponding Sargan and Arellano-Bond test for zero autocorrelation in first-differenced errors tests shows that the results display a corresponding robustness. The main policy implications for our findings may be synthesized by the thesis, according to which a proper design of public policies, a high degree of their effectiveness and accountability, a stable social and political environment together with the rule of law and efficient anticorruption mechanisms are critical determinants of economic growth even in emerging markets. The impact of the government “size , economic structure and markets” mechanisms , monetary policy and price stability , ownership structure and legal rights

  8. 7 CFR 2.45 - Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Economic and Community Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Under Secretary for Rural Development § 2.45 Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Economic and... Under Secretary for Rural Economic and Community Development, to be exercised only during the absence or... may hereafter be delegated to the Under Secretary for Rural Economic and Community Development. ...

  9. Techno-economic assessment of biofuel development by anaerobic digestion of European marine cold-water seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Ashok; Huang, Ye; Rezvani, Sina; McIlveen-Wright, David; Novaes, Marcio; Hewitt, Neil

    2013-05-01

    The techno-economic characteristics of macro-algae utilisation from European temperate zones was evaluated in a selected Anaerobic Digester (AD) using the chemical process modelling software ECLIPSE. The assessment covered the mass and energy balance of the entire process followed by the economic feasibility study, which included the total cost estimation, net present value calculation, and sensitivity analysis. The selected plant size corresponded to a community based AD of 1.6 MWth with a macro-algae feed rate of 8.64 tonnes per day (dry basis). The produced biogas was utilised in a combined heat and power plant generating 237 kWenet electricity and 367 kWth heat. The breakeven electricity-selling price in this study was estimated at around €120/MWh. On the ground of different national and regional policies, this study did not account for any government incentives. However, different support mechanisms such as Feed-in-Tariffs or Renewable Obligation Certificates can significantly improve the project viability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Future of the European Union is Closely Related to a Stronger Economic Cooperation between Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Drăgoi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the onset of the crisis in the euro area, the EU has implemented a series of measures to respond to the major economic challenges and support the efforts to boost growth and create jobs in the Member States. In October 2012, EU leaders have decided that in order to overcome the challenges brought by the sovereign debt crisis is necessary to establish a closer economic cooperation between European countries. Our paper aims to analyze the main measures taken at European level to converge toward this goal, aiming to highlight the extent to which they are "successful steps" leading to the creation of banking, fiscal and economic union in Europe.

  11. Health economics and European Renal Best Practice--is it time to bring health economics into evidence-based guideline production in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Maria C; Vanholder, Raymond; Oberbauer, Rainer; Zoccali, Carmine; Van Biesen, Wim

    2014-11-01

    Medical management of patients with kidney disease is complex and resource intensive. In times of limited health care budgets, economic evaluations have become more important over the past few years in identifying interventions with a beneficial cost-effectiveness to maximize the benefits served from the available resources. However, integrating evidence from health-economic evaluations into clinical practice guidelines remains a challenge. European Renal Best Practice (ERBP), the official guideline body of the European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA) herewith presents some lines of thought that need consideration in the discussion on incorporating health-economic considerations into clinical guideline development. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  12. Economic development in the European super-periphery: Evidence from the Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartlett Will

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the conflicts that afflicted the Western Balkan region in the 1990s pushed the countries into the European 'super-periphery', characterized by deindustrialization and high unemployment, ethnic and regional fragmentation, political turmoil, and instability. Integration into international trade has been disrupted, leading to chronic balance of payments deficits. Low inflows of international capital, due to high country risk, have hindered technological catch-up and weakened international competitiveness. An unattractive environment for productive entrepreneurship has created barriers to the entry of SMEs, and at the same time large informal economies. Several countries have become labour-export economies, with significant outflows of skilled labour. Economic development follows a low-skill growth path. The current global economic crisis is having a further deleterious effect as export revenues, foreign direct investment, and labour remittances all diminish. Furthermore, as transition has proceeded, disparities between capital cities and rural areas have increased, while weak administrative capacities have hindered the implementation of effective local development policies to counteract these effects. Endogenous local development cannot provide an alternative to greater engagement with the global economy. The conclusion is that the countries of the region have been left out of the most beneficial elements of the globalisation process, while simultaneously suffering from its main defects. Without a faster process of accession to the EU, local disparities are likely to widen, and the region may remain within the European super-periphery for the foreseeable future.

  13. Public Investment and Economic Growth in The European Union Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana DONATH

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of public investments becamea very challenging subject for public decisionmakerssince it incorporates the question of stateperformance, the quality of public finance and theireffects on growth. The quality of public finance is amultidimensional concept. It may be regarded asrepresenting all the arrangements and operationsregarding the financial politics that sustain themacroeconomic objectives, particularly the longtermeconomic growth. Financial policies atEuropean level highlight the fact that a concentrationof the public expenses in areas that stimulate theeconomic growth and a more efficient use of thepublic resources are key methods for sustainingthe economic growth. The empirical proofs seem tosupport the assumption according to which certaintypes of public expenses can supply incentivesand other can negatively influence the economicgrowth. The paper tries to reveal the effects ofcapital spending on economic growth (GDP percapita for the European Union member states.The GDP per capita and the capital expenses(functional classification of public expenses -“COFOG” have been obtained by consideringthe Eurostat statistics, the measurement unit forboth variables is Euro, while the period of analysisis of 7 years (2000-2006.

  14. Incidence of multiple sclerosis among European Economic Area populations, 1985-2009: the framework for monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde-Cabero, Enrique; Almazán-Isla, Javier; García-Merino, Antonio; de Sá, Joao; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús

    2013-06-12

    A debate surrounding multiple sclerosis epidemiology has centred on time-related incidence increases and the need of monitoring. The purpose of this study is to reassess multiple sclerosis incidence in the European Economic Area. We conducted a systematic review of literature from 1965 onwards and integrated elements of original research, including requested or completed data by surveys authors and specific analyses. The review of 5323 documents yielded ten studies for age- and sex-specific analyses, and 21 studies for time-trend analysis of single data sets. After 1985, the incidence of multiple sclerosis ranged from 1.12 to 6.96 per 100,000 population, was higher in females, tripled with latitude, and doubled with study midpoint year. The north registered increasing trends from the 1960s and 1970s, with a historic drop in the Faroe Islands, and fairly stable data in the period 1980-2000; incidence rose in Italian and French populations in the period 1970-2000, in Evros (Greece) in the 1980s, and in the French West Indies in around 2000. We conclude that the increase in multiple sclerosis incidence is only apparent, and that it is not specific to women. Monitoring of multiple sclerosis incidence might be appropriate for the European Economic Area.

  15. Pan-European Sarcoma Trials: Moving Forward in a Climate of Increasing Economic and Regulatory Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothe Carrle

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Advances in sarcoma treatment are largely based on investigator-initiated, multicentric and interdisciplinary clinical trials. The EU's Good Clinical Practice Directive 2001/20/EC, effective since 2004, was meant to harmonize the conditions for clinical trials across Europe, but, instead, the challenge of initiating and running multinational, noncommercial clinical trials has become greater than ever. Institutions participating in existing noncommercial Pan-European studies are struggling to cope with increased administrative and financial burdens, and few new studies are initiated any more. The aim of a conference entitled “Pan-European Sarcoma Trials: Moving Forward in a Climate of Increasing Economic and Regulatory Pressure,” held in Stuttgart, Germany, 30 November–2 December 2006 as part of the European Science Foundation's ECT-program, was not only to provide an overview of currently active and planned multinational studies on osteo-, Ewing's, and soft tissue sarcoma, but also to draw on areas of synergy between various established sarcoma groups in Europe to define plausible survival strategies for collaborative, interdisciplinary, patient-oriented research.

  16. Indonesian Comparative Advantage Entering the ASEAN Economic Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riandi .

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the comparative advantage of Indonesian commodities in order to enter the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC. This study uses the export data during the period of 2003-2013 among five ASEAN countries participating in the AEC, including Indonesia, Malaysia, The Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. All data obtained from the UN Comtrade database following the Harmonized System (HS at the two-digit classification level. This study applies dynamic revealed comparative advantage (DRCA index developed by Edwards and Schoer (2001 which is the development of revealed comparative advantage (RCA index by Balassa (1965. The results show that Indonesia is ready to enter the AEC. From this research, there are several Indonesian main commodities which have comparative advantage in ASEAN, including fish, crustaceans, molluscs, aquatic invertebrates ones (HS-03, edible fruit, nuts, peel of citrus fruit, melons (HS-08, oil seed, oleagic fruits, grain, seed, fruit, etc, nes (HS-12, lac, gums, resins, vegetable saps and extracts nes (HS-13, rubber and articles thereof (HS-40, paper & paperboard, articles of pulp, paper and board (HS-48, special woven or tufted fabric, lace, tapestry etc (HS-58, articles apparel, accessories, not knit or crochet (HS-62, and vehicles other than railway, tramway (HS-87. Those commodities are in line with Indonesian government export's strategy direction which mainly focuses on several sectors, including fishery, vegetable products, rubber, wood and wood products, textiles, and transportation. Therefore, Indonesian government should focus to improve those commodities in AEC. Keywords: Indonesian Comparative Advantage, Main Export Commodities, Export Strategy Direction, ASEAN Economic Community

  17. Alcohol taxation, economic recession, and mortality changes in five European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreeva, Tatiana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since 2008 some mortality decline is observed in several European countries including Latvia, Lithuania, and Ukraine. We hypothesized that this decline could be caused by decreased alcohol use facilitated by both economic recession and alcohol taxation. This study aimed to check this hypothesis.METHODS: Besides the abovementioned countries which suffered from the economic recession and have increased alcohol excise taxes, we considered data from the WHO-Euro mortality database for Poland which did not suffer from GDP decline and Ireland which decreased alcohol excise in 2009. Both per capita GDP growth change (from -18% in Latvia to +2% in Poland and alcohol excise change (from -20% in Ireland to +60% in Ukraine compared to 2008 rates were considered as independent variables. The outcome was percentage of real mortality decline compared to 2009 extrapolation of 2000-2008 trends, which were built using linear regression separately for major groups of death causes earlier shown to have changed in 2009. Population groups aged 30-59 were considered as those whose mortality declined most.RESULTS: Ten percent increase in alcohol excise taxes was associated with 9.4% decline in respiratory mortality from expected rate, 5.7% decline in causes of death related to nervous system, 4.9% decline in external causes of death, 4.8% decline in circulatory system deaths, 3.5% decline in infectious diseases as causes of death. Cardiovascular mortality decline was marginally associated with measurements of economic crisis (0.7% decline per 1% GDP fall.DISCUSSION: During the economic recession, the portion of all-causes mortality that has declined is most likely alcohol-related. Death causes that have mostly declined during the recession are more strongly associated with alcohol taxation than with GDP fall. Cardiovascular deaths decline related to the economic crisis could have been related to diet changes including smaller proportion of fatty and

  18. Scientific and Technological Cooperation between the European Community and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valesca Raizer Borges

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available The present article regarding scientific and technological cooperation between the European Community and Latin America can be placed in the context of the development aid and cooperation offered by the European Union in the framework of its foreign policy with the Latin American region. The main aim here consists in analyzing those cooperation programmes established by the European Community with thedeveloping countries of Latin America regarding science and technology, with the goal of identifying, both on the European Union as well as on the Latin American side, the mechanisms established for putting this into practice as well as the perspectives for success which these can generate in the framework of regional cooperation.

  19. Keynesianism vs. Classical Economic Theory: European Refugee Crisis and the Fall of Multiculturalism

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    Aliaksei Igor Patonia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Posing arguments against statistical evidence picturing the European Union as the key world economy, the research views the economic model of the EU through the prism of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, explaining its lower resistance towards the global economic crisis and comparing it to China – a country with authoritarian governmental methods – that suffered to a significantly lesser extent. Based on the example of these two entities, the paper views the topic of the current refugee crisis in Europe representing it as a new crucial trial for the EU that potentially checks classical economic theory for consistency. According to the author, if found effective, in the foreseeable future it will form a sound basis for further development, if not – it will likely be replaced by the Keynesian paradigm. Thus, with the current refugee crisis in Europe, the author juxtaposes liberal economy with the state-regulated one. This is done to give hints at the importance of the crisis per se, as it is believed to be capable of shattering some of the fundamental principles of the current world order.

  20. Four New England Communities Get EPA Assistance to Meet Environmental Goals and Foster Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two MA communities as well as a community in CT and one in RI will receive technical assistance from the USEPA to pursue development strategies that advance clean air, clean water, economic development and other local goals.

  1. Income, Economic Structure and Trade: Impacts on Recent Water Use Trends in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Duarte

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available From the mid-1990s to the recent international economic crisis, the European Union (EU27 experienced a significant economic growth and a flat population increase. During these years, the water resources directly used by the EU countries displayed a growing but smooth trend. However, European activities intensively demanded water resources throughout the whole global supply chain. The growth rate of embodied water use was three times higher than the growth in water directly used by these economies. This was mainly due to the large upsurge of virtual water imports in the EU (e.g., about 25% of the change in water imports in the world was directly linked to the increasing imports in the EU27 countries. In this context, we analyze water use changes in the EU27 from 1995 to 2009, combining the production and consumption perspectives. To that aim, we use the environmentally extended input-output approach to obtain the volume of water embodied in domestic production and in trade flows at the sector and country levels. In the empirical analysis, we utilize multi-regional input-output data from the World Input Output Database. In addition, by means of a structural decomposition analysis we identify and quantify the factors explaining changes in these trends. We focus both on the role of domestic production and trade and estimate the associated intensity, technology and scale effects. This analysis is done for different clusters, identifying singular patterns depending on income criteria. Our results confirm the boost of demand growth in that period, the positive but negligible effect of structural change, and the decline in water intensity which, however, was not enough to compensate the effects on water associated to the economic expansion in the period. These findings also point at a gradual substitution of domestic water use for virtual water imports. More concretely, in most countries the food industry tended to reduce its backward linkages with the

  2. State Power and the Acquis Communautaire in the European Community of the early 1970s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    2007-01-01

    This article analyses in a historical perspective the so-called acquis communautaire, i.e. the body of law, rules, including informal decisions/norms, taken by the European Community/European Union. In the first part of the article the early history of the concept from the establishment of the EC...... that even if national governments continued to play a leading role in European cooperation, the existence of a common body of law, rules and norms was difficult for single governments to set aside in their pursuance after of narrow national interest. This did not mean that laws could not be bent, or broken...

  3. A Systematic Review of Economic Evidence on Community Hypertension Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Donglan; Wang, Guijing; Joo, Heesoo

    2017-12-01

    Effective community-based interventions are available to control hypertension. It is important to determine the economics of these interventions. Peer-reviewed studies from January 1995 through December 2015 were screened. Interventions were categorized into educational interventions, self-monitoring interventions, and screening interventions. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were summarized by types of interventions. The review was conducted in 2016. Thirty-four articles were included in the review (16 from the U.S., 18 from other countries), including 25 on educational interventions, three on self-monitoring interventions, and six on screening interventions. In the U.S., five (31.3%) studies on educational interventions were cost saving. Among the studies that found the interventions cost effective, the median incremental costs were $62 (range, $40-$114) for 1-mmHg reduction in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and $13,986 (range, $6,683-$58,610) for 1 life-year gained. Outside the U.S., educational interventions cost from $0.62 (China) to $29 (Pakistan) for 1-mmHg reduction in SBP. Self-monitoring interventions, evaluated in the U.S. only, cost $727 for 1-mmHg reduction in SBP and $41,927 for 1 life-year gained. For 1 quality-adjusted life-year, screening interventions cost from $21,734 to $56,750 in the U.S., $613 to $5,637 in Australia, and $7,000 to $18,000 in China. Intervention costs to reduce 1 mmHg blood pressure or 1 quality-adjusted life-year were higher in the U.S. than in other countries. Most studies found that the three types of interventions were either cost effective or cost saving. Quality of economic studies should be improved to confirm the findings. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. DIVERSITY AND INTEGRATION OF EUROPEAN COMMUNITY BUSINESS LAW IN THE CONTEXT OF BUSINESS ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Filip GRZEGORCZYK

    2009-01-01

    In the future, European Union is to become a single economic zone. Achieving this goal requires creating good and unified legal grounds for business, which presently are lacking. This paper describes the main problems with conducting business across-borders, evaluates current EC business legislation and formulates some de lege ferenda ideas.

  5. ECONOMIC POTENTIAL RECOVERY – A EUROPEAN CHALLENGE IN THE MEDIUM TERM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rãdulescu Andrei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The waves of the worst global financial and economic crisis since World War II have seriously affected the economy of the Euro Area. The first wave of the global crisis determined the worst recession in decades for the member states of the region. At present, the Monetary Union is confronted with the second wave of the crisis – the public debt problem. Despite the efforts adopted and implemented by the European policymakers over the past quarters, the sovereign debt crisis is far from over. Spain has recently become the “favourite target” of the financial markets. Among the consequences of the waves of the crisis for the Euro Area one can mention the potential output decline and the economic divergence (asymmetric evolution of member countries. In this context, the potential output recovery and the relaunch of the real economic convergence process represent the main challenges for the policymakers in the medium run. This paper analyses the evolution of potential GDP of the member countries of European Monetary Union (12. I employ the Hodrick-Prescott methodology on data from the World Bank Database. According to the results, the economic potential of the member states of the Euro Area (12 decreased to the lowest level of the past decades. At the same time, the analysis presents the differences exiting across the member states in terms of potential output. Some countries suffered an important potential output loss over the past quarters (it seems that Greece and Portugal have become asymmetric shocks in the Monetary Union. For these countries, the first wave of the global crisis transformed in a permanent shock. The decline of investments and the depreciation of human capital over the past quarters express a huge probability that potential output is going to maintain at a low level in the Euro Area over the following years. The recovery of potential GDP towards the pre-crisis levels is dependent on a higher participation rate

  6. Economic impact of HIV/AIDS: a systematic review in five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapero-Bertran, Marta; Oliva-Moreno, Juan

    2014-12-01

    The HIV/AIDS disease represent a priority for all health authorities in all countries and it also represents serious added socioeconomic problems for societies over the world. The aim of this paper is to analize the economic impact associated to the HIV/AIDS in an European context. We conducted a systematic literature review for five different countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain and United Kingdom) and searched five databases. Three types of analyses were undertaken: descriptive statistics; quantitative analysis to calculate mean costs; and comparison across countries. 26 papers were included in this study containing seventy-six cost estimates. Most of the studies analyzed the health care cost of treatment of HIV/AIDS. Only 50% of the cost estimates provided mean lymphocyte count describing the patients' disease stage. Approximately thirty percent of cost estimates did not indicate the developmental stage of the illness in the patients included. There is a high degree of variability in the estimated annual cost per patient of the treatments across countries. There is also a great disparity in total healh care costs for patients with lymphocyte counts between 200CD4+/mm3 and 500 CD4/mm3, although the reason of variation is unclear. In spite of the potential economic impact in terms of productivity losses and cost of formal and informal care, few studies have set out to estimate the non-medical costs of HIV/AIDS in the countries selected. Another important result is that, despite the low HIV/AIDS prevalence, its economic burden is very relevant in terms of the total health care costs in this five countries. This study also shows that there are relatively few studies of HIV costs in European countries compared to other diseases. Finally, we conclude that the methodology used in many of the studies carried out leaves ample room for improvement and that there is a need for these studies to reflect the economic impact of HIV/AIDS beyond health care including other

  7. Environmental pressures from European consumption and production. A study in integrated environmental and economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D. [Copenhagen Resource Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Fernandez, J.A.; Wittmer, D. [Wuppertal Institute, Wuppertal (Germany); Gravgaerd Pedersen, O. [Statistics Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); European Topic Centre on Sustainable Consumption and Production, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-03-15

    Environmental pressures from European consumption and production shows how economic and environmental data can be integrated to analyse environmental performance and material efficiency of whole economies as well as their individual elements. The analyses presented in the report provide policy makers with a tool to target economic incentives and information campaigns, encouraging a shift to more sustainable production and consumption patterns in order to reduce Europe's global footprint. The report discusses two analytical approaches. The production-based method considers direct environmental pressures caused by European industries and service providers - for example, the extraction of material resources by the mining and quarrying sector, air pollutants from power stations, greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture and so on. The consumption-based method focuses on the indirect environmental pressures caused by European consumers. In this approach, the direct production-related pressures are attributed to broad groups of products and services, also taking into account pressures that are embodied in goods imported into the EU. Using Environmentally Extended Input Output Analysis (EE-IOA) it is possible to estimate the environmental pressures ultimately generated by individual product groups and also by European consumption as a whole. Four types of environmental pressures are considered by the report: raw material use, greenhouse gas emissions, acidifying air emissions, and air pollutants leading to harmful ground-level ozone. However, the method has the potential to assess many other types of environmental pressure including land use, water use, waste generation and energy use. Thanks to the conceptual consistency between the system of national economic accounts and environmental accounts, data on environmental pressures is directly comparable to economic expenditure. Policy makers can thus see which sectors have been most successful in decoupling

  8. Economic evaluation of vaccines: specificities and future challenges illustrated by recent European examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Maarten J; Westra, Tjalke A; Quilici, Sibilia; Largeron, Nathalie

    2013-05-01

    This study reviews the current challenges in the economic evaluation of vaccines with a focus on European countries. In particular, the type of clinical evidence generally available, the impact of discounting for time preference and the use of modeling to derive valid cost-effectiveness assessments are considered. First, the characteristics of evidence for vaccines are discussed, as well as potential difficulties faced when using evidence-based medicine applied to curative drugs to interpret vaccine evidence. Then, discounting is considered and specific examples illustrating issues with different types of discounting are described, taking HPV as the example. Finally, the need for sometimes complex dynamic models for vaccines is explored, and specific types of models are reviewed, keeping into consideration the adage "complex when needed, straightforward if allowed."

  9. Economic Integration and National Identity in Northeast Asia: A European Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Pape

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The “Asian Paradox” in the Northeast of the continent appears to be particularly evident if seen through European eyes. While one of the tightest networks of intra-regional trade binds the economies of China, Taiwan, Korea and Japan, their political leaders hardly ever connect with each other in substantive exchanges. Cold images of frozen faces and of an “icy lady” seem to contrast with the warm embraces that businesspeople enjoy after successful deals over borders. However, is this the view only in the eyes of the European beholder, who is used to the myriad of regular institutionalised meetings at all political and bureaucratic levels of the EU? Northeast Asia comprises two of the three biggest national economies in the world and on the basis of its interdependence flourishes economically – with the exception of Japan – with GDP growth-rates above OECD average. At the same time, in view of unresolved historical legacies their leading politicians still feel forced to keep frozen faces because of voters’ gazes of self-instilled nationalisms back home. Homogeneous cultures of Confucianism and shame rather than guilt, notably on the islands and the peninsula, maintain a very high level of national identity, in spite of a growing awareness of economic interdependence and globalisation that even conservative schoolbooks and dominant mainstream media cannot refute anymore. Nevertheless, fledgeling attempts to facilitate the flow of goods and services across national borders through bilateral and plurilateral free trade agreements seem to advance, albeit only slowly. China, Japan and South Korea have managed to institutionalise at the level of rotating ambassadors at the tri-lateral secretariat in Seoul some forms of cooperation. “Hot-lines” of emergency communications have been installed at the highest level to fend off sudden misunderstandings related to still looming territorial disputes. This paper will explore the above issues

  10. Transport intermodal interchanges: Socio-economic impacts at Lille European metropolis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heddebaut, O.; Ciommo, F. di

    2016-07-01

    Within the framework of the “City-HUB” FP7 European research project 27 interchanges were studied in nine European countries. It investigated how transport interchanges work from the point of view of governance and the organization of facilities. On this basis a typology of interchanges has been defined for classifying the interchanges and selecting the key elements for improving the interchanges location, construction, and organization of an interchange. The paper focus on the implementation of the City-HUB interchange typology to the case study of Lille European Metropolis (MEL) where two contingent railways stations Lille Flandres and Lille Europe were analysed as a potential unique interchange. Indeed, the article is related to the creation of a joint interchanges able to attract more public transport users than private users such as it is now the case. These two main railways interchanges have different territorial and transport functions (i.e. one is oriented to regional traffic and the other one to national and international traffic). Urban planners and transport authorities would like to connect both stations creating a unique interchange. A key point of the Lille’s City-HUB analysis is related to the involvement of the stakeholders. Their involvement is at the origin of the interactions between City-HUB and its socio-economic and urban context. We demonstrate that combining transport and land use planning policies could boost commercial development, new business offices or housing. The urban City-Hub overcomes its role of transport infrastructure for being a “place”. (Author)

  11. Awareness of the implementation of the Falsified Medicines Directive among pharmaceutical companies’ professionals in the European Economic Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodarczak U

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Falsified Medicines Directive (FMD is a response of the European Union to the increasing number of falsified medicines present in the legal supply chain within the Member States of the community. Effective implementation of the new regulations will depend on the effective cooperation of all parties involved in the distribution of medicinal products including the managers of pharmaceutical companies. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine awareness of the Implementation of the FMD among pharmaceutical company professionals in the European Economic Area. Methods: Sampling was conducted using a method called purposive sampling. An appropriate research tool in the form of an original questionnaire was made available to the respondents in electronic form. During the period from January 2016 to June 2016, 1,496 e-mail messages were sent. The response rate was 17.37%. Results: The study included 99 women (39.3% and 153 men (60.7%. In the study group, 95.7% of people had heard of FMD. Doctors had rarely heard about the falsified medicine directive when compared to pharmacists (p=0.0063, people working in the pharmaceutical industry (p=0.0014, and respondents with a different professional profile (p=0.0114. In the study group, 89.6% of people were aware of the role of National Medicines Verification Organization in the process of implementing the provisions of FMD into the national system of distribution of medicinal products. The number of the respondents who knew the deadline for the implementation of FMD was significantly higher in the study population, i.e. 91.9% (p=0.0001. Both the younger respondents and those with lower level of education were less aware of the time requirements posed to national regulators (p=0.0003, p=0.0023, respectively. Conclusions: Awareness of the regulations related to the implementation of the FMD, although relatively high among pharmaceutical company professionals in the EEA, is still

  12. ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY IMPLEMENTATION AND INDONESIAN TEXTILE INDUSTRY COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuvensius Sri Susilo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study aims to analyze the impact of ASEAN Economic Community implementation in 2015 on the competitiveness of Indonesian textile and textile products industry. It uses simulations with the GTAP model to answer the proposed research questions. The GTAP simulation results suggest that Indonesian textile industry would gain the largest trade surplus followed by Thailand and Malaysia. For apparel, Vietnam would benefit the most, followed by Indonesia and Thailand. The ratio of domestic to import prices analysis suggests that Indonesian textile products have higher competitiveness than the other ASEAN’s. For the apparel products, Indonesia is as competitive as both Malaysia and the Philippines.Keywords: AEC 2015, Competitiveness, Textile dan Textile Products Industry, IndonesiaJEL Classification: C68, F15AbstrakPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis dampak penerapan Masyarakat Ekonomi ASEAN pada 2015 pada daya saing industri tekstil dan produk tekstil Indonesia. Alat analisis yang digunakan deskriptif dan simulasi dengan model GTAP. Hasil simulasi GTAP menyarankan bahwa industri tekstil Indonesia akan memperoleh surplus perdagangan terbesar, diikuti oleh Thailand dan Malaysia. Untuk produk pakaian, Vietnam memperoleh manfaat terbesar diikuti Indonesia dan Thailand. Berdasarkan rasio harga domestik terhadap harga impor, daya saing produk tekstil Indonesia relatif lebih tinggi dibandingkan negara-negara ASEAN lainnya. Untuk produk pakaian, Indonesia kompetitif, sejajar dengan Malaysia dan Filipina.Kata kunci: AEC 2015, Daya Saing, Tekstil dan Produk Tekstil JEL Classification: C68, F15

  13. The view of European experts regarding health economics for medical nutrition in disease-related malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freijer, K; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I; Russell, C A; Koopmanschap, M A; Kruizenga, H M; Lhachimi, S K; Norman, K; Nuijten, M J C; Schols, J M G A

    2015-05-01

    Health-care systems are currently facing tremendous budget constraints resulting in growing pressure on decision makers and health-care providers to obtain the maximum possible health benefits of the resources available. Choices have to be made, and health economics can help in allocating limited health-care resources among unlimited wants and needs. Attempts to achieve cost reductions often focus on severe pathologies and chronic diseases as they commonly represent high health-care expenditures. In this context, awareness of the considerable financial burden caused by disease-related malnutrition (DRM) is lacking. Possibilities of reducing costs by optimising the management of DRM through medical nutrition will mostly not even be taken into account. During a European expert meeting, the total evaluation of medical nutrition was viewed and discussed. The aim of this meeting was to gain an experts' outline of the key issues relating to the health economic assessment of the use of medical nutrition. This article provides a summary of the observations per discussed item and describes the next steps suggested.

  14. Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA 2006 - Opportunities, Trade Relation and Evolution of Macedonian Economic Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krum Efremov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Main activity in the foreign trade policy of the Republic of Macedonia during the past 10 years was the integration of the country on the Central European Free Trade Agreement – (CEFTA. The reason for this is the expectation that the membership of the Republic of Macedonia in CEFTA will significantly contribute to the continual efforts for strengthening the regional trade cooperation, further liberalisation of foreign trade exchange, and continuation of activities for harmonisation of trade rules with international standards. Additionally, CEFTA 2006 provides a much more comprehensive framework for development of mutual relations and economic cooperation among the countries of South Easte Europe. We will explain the concept of development of economic diplomacy in the Republic of Macedonia as a tool for supporting Macedonian economy. The purpose of these activities is to present the Republic of Macedonia as an attractive destination for foreign investments through the promotion of business advantages, and giving incentive to Macedonian export, as well as through strengthening of the country’s position as a attractive touristic destination.

  15. Incorporating economic valuation into fire prevention planning and management in Southern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Varela

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: This article describes and analyzes the links between the fire-based scientific knowledge, the social perception of fire prevention and forest fires and the economic valuation requirements to assess social preferences for fire prevention measures. Area of study: Southern European countries. Material and Methods: For that purpose, we develop a critical revision of the existing literature on economic valuation of social preferences for fire risk reduction and fire prevention in terms of its links with fire science and social perceptions and the applicability of these results in fire management policies. Research highlights: The assessment of social preferences for fire related issues is challenging due to the difficulty of setting sound valuation scenarios that can simultaneously be relevant for the respondents and derive conclusions useful for fire management. Most of the revised studies set up valuation scenarios focused on the final management outcome e.g. number of burnt hectares, what is easier for the respondents to evaluate but weakens the scientific relationship with fire management, making difficult reaching conclusions for sound management advice. A more recent set of valuation studies has been developed where risk perception of homeowners is further assessed as a key variable determining their preferences in valuation scenarios. These studies are relevant for mangers setting fire prevention programs in wildland urban interface areas as understanding the factors that may promote or hinder the enrolment of these homeowners in fire prevention activities may have direct implication in addressing communication programs to promote fire prevention management.

  16. A REGIONAL APPROACH TO THE METROPOLITAN ECONOMIC GROWTH: EVIDENCE FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Teodor Boldeanu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to contribute to metropolitan economic growth literature by carrying out an analysis for 271 areas located in the EU between 2000 and 2013. For this objective the study uses several panel data estimation techniques, namely the GMM, System GMM and the QML estimation. To check the robustness of the results, the time period is divided in two (post and ante economic crisis and by splitting the sample of metropolitan regions in two components, the Western more developed regions and the Central and South-Eastern (the formal communist states, except for Cyprus areas. The results indicate that the industrial, construction and wholesale and retail trade sectors are positively linked with metropolitan growth. The agricultural, fishery and forestry sector is negatively influencing growth. The manufacturing and ITC sectors and migration are not statistically significant. Furthermore population density and size is more important than population growth and European enlargement did not have a substantial positive impact on metropolitan growth for the Central and South-Eastern regions.

  17. Techno-economic assessment of biofuel production in the European Union. Working paper 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toro Chacon, F.A.

    2004-07-01

    Various environmentally negative effects reflected in an increase in air pollution, global warming, climate change, acid rain and ozone layer depletion among others have motivated researchers, scientists together with industry and government partnerships to search, develop and find alternatives and solutions to reduce adverse impacts in the short, middle and long term. Among the different choices in place, important efforts are aimed at finding feasible alternative fuels for transportation that could replace traditional fossil fuels, which are considered to contribute considerably to the estimated contamination levels. In regard to the short and middle term options, biofuels seem to have an important role in the European Union with increasing production levels during the last years. Moreover, at the end of 2003, a Directive for the Promotion of Alternative Fuels for Transportation was adopted in Europe and initial substitution targets for all EU-member states were established for 2005 and 2010. The purpose of this techno-economic assessment is to highlight the various technological possibilities and economic aspects involved in the production of biofuel in Europe. (orig.)

  18. 3 CFR - Eligibility of the Economic Community of Central African States To Receive Defense Articles and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility of the Economic Community of Central African States To Receive Defense Articles and Defense Services Under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961... Documents Presidential Determination No. 2009-26 of September 7, 2009 Eligibility of the Economic Community...

  19. The Relationship between Youth Unemployment and Economic Growth in Central and Eastern European Countries: An Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Erdal, Leman; İsmet GÖÇER

    2015-01-01

    The study has analyzed the relationship between youth unemployment and economic growth, in the context of Okun law, by using new generation panel data analysis and cointegration tests. In this study, 18 Central and Eastern European country have been selected as subject matter whose youth unemployment rate is above the EU-28 average (25 %) for the period 2006-2012. The results show that, if youth unemployment is quite severe; even an exclusive economic growth will not be enough to reduce the y...

  20. Assessment of the Impact of the Economic Partnership Agreement between the COMESA countries and the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Karingi, Stephen; Perez, Romain; Oulmane, Nassim; Lang, Rémi; Sadni Jallab, Mustapha

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study, is to evaluate possible economic repercussions of the trade facet, in Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs), currently being negotiated between countries of the Common Market in Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) and Member-States of European Union (EU). In so-doing, we have used two complementary models, the first one, based-on a general equilibrium approach, and the second, a partial equilibrium method. Indeed, multilateral trade agreements, will have implicati...

  1. THE ROLE OF PONDOK PESANTREN IN ENCOUNTERING ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY (AEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulin Nuha

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ASEAN Economic Community (AEC with characteristics of the economy and labour liberalization can be a blessing for Indonesian people when they are ready to deal with it, but it can also be disastrous if they do not prepare it. This requires the synergy of government and all elements of Indonesian society in facing the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC. Boarding school in the context of history has become an institution that is highly effective not only in the printing community deeply in the science of religion, but also in terms of the economy certainly cannot remain silent in facing the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC.

  2. HIV Infection in Migrant Populations in the European Union and European Economic Area in 2007-2012: An Epidemic on the Move.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, Victoria; Alvárez-del Arco, Débora; Alejos, Belén; Monge, Susana; Amato-Gauci, Andrew J; Noori, Teymur; Pharris, Anastasia; del Amo, Julia

    2015-10-01

    Migrants are considered a key group at risk for HIV infection. This study describes the epidemiology of HIV and the distribution of late HIV presentation among migrants within the European Union/European Economic Area during 2007-2012. HIV cases reported to European Surveillance System (TESSy) were analyzed. Migrants were defined as people whose geographical origin was different than the reporting country. Multiple logistic regression was used to model late HIV presentation. Overall, 156,817 HIV cases were reported, of which 60,446 (38%) were migrants. Of these, 53% were from Sub-Saharan Africa, 12% from Latin America, 9% from Western Europe, 7% from Central Europe, 5% from South and Southeast Asia, 4% from East Europe, 4% from Caribbean, and 3% from North Africa and Middle East. Male and female migrants from Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America had higher odds of late HIV presentation than native men and women. Migrants accounted for 40% of all HIV notifications in 2007 versus 35% in 2012. HIV cases in women from Sub-Saharan Africa decreased from 3725 in 2007 to 2354 in 2012. The number of HIV cases from Latin America peaked in 2010 to decrease thereafter. HIV diagnoses in migrant men who have sex with men increased from 1927 in 2007 to 2459 in 2012. Migrants represent two-fifths of the HIV cases reported and had higher late HIV presentation. HIV epidemic in migrant populations in European Union/European Economic Area member states is changing, probably reflecting the global changes in the HIV pandemic, the impact of large-scale ART implementation, and migration fluctuations secondary to the economic crisis in Europe.

  3. Indicator species and co-occurrence in communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi at the European scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouffaud, Marie Lara; Creamer, Rachel E.; Stone, Dote; Plassart, Pierre; Tuinen, van Diederik; Lemanceau, Philippe; Wipf, Daniel; Redecker, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing a European transect of 54 soil samples, comprising of grasslands, arable and forest sites, we analyzed community composition of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF, Glomeromycota) using pyrosequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacer region. We found a significant influence of

  4. Commission Memorandum on Vocational Training in the European Community in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission des Communautes Europeennes (Luxembourg).

    As new European Community (EC) objectives become prominent in the coming years, vocational training policy will assume increasing importance. The socioeconomic context of the 1990s will be characterized by an accelerating pace of change and the growing role of intangible capital. New forms of work organization with new requirements for…

  5. Changes in active and passive smoking in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janson, C; Kunzli, N; de Marco, R; Chinn, S; Jarvis, D; Svanes, C; Heinrich, J; Jogi, R; Gislason, T; Sunyer, J; Ackermann-Liebrich, U; Anto, JM; Cerveri, [No Value; Kerhof, M; Leynaert, B; Luczynska, C; Neukirch, F; Vermeire, P; Wjst, M; Burney, P

    The aim of the present investigation was to study changes and determinants for changes in active and passive smoking. The present study included 9,053 adults from 14 countries that participated in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II. The mean follow-up period was 8.8 yrs. Change in

  6. European Community Can Reduce CO2 Emissions by Sixty Percent : A Feasibility Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mot, E.; Bartelds, H.; Esser, P.M.; Huurdeman, A.J.M.; Laak, P.J.A. van de; Michon, S.G.L.; Nielen, R.J.; Baar, H.J.W. de

    1993-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the European Community (EC) can be reduced by roughly 60 percent. A great many measures need to be taken to reach this reduction, with a total annual cost of ECU 55 milliard. Fossil fuel use is the main cause of CO2 emissions into the atmosphere; CO2 emissions are

  7. Non-European traditional herbal medicines in Europe: a community herbal monograph perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Liping; Zou, Wenjun; Zhou, Zhenxiang; Zhang, Tingmo; Greef, JanVander; Wang, Mei

    2014-10-28

    The European Directive 2004/24/EC introducing a simplified registration procedure for traditional herbal medicinal products, plays an important role in harmonising the current legislation framework for all herbal medicinal products in the European Union (EU). Although substantial achievements have been made under the new scheme, only a limited number of herbal medicinal products from non-European traditions commonly used in Europe have been registered. Therefore, identification of the obstacles, and determination of appropriate means to overcome the major challenges in the registration of non-European traditional herbal medicinal products are of critical importance for the EU herbal medicinal product market. The primary aims of this study were to understand the key issues and obstacles to registration of non-European traditional herbal medicinal products within the EU. The findings may identify the need for more attention on the Community herbal monographs elaborated by the Herbal Medicinal Products Committee (HMPC), as well as further evidence based scientific research on non-European herbal substances/preparations by the scientific community. A systematic evaluation of the herbal substances and preparations included in Community herbal monographs and public statements has been carried out. The focus was herbal substances and preparations derived from non-European traditions. Of the 109 adopted Community herbal monographs, 10 are herbal substances used in Chinese traditional medicine. Where the HMPC issued a public statement because it was unable to elaborate a monograph more than half-involved herbal substances/preparations from non-European traditions. The main reasons herbal substances/preparations from non-European traditions were not accepted for inclusion in the Community herbal monographs have been identified as due to unfulfilled requirements of Directive 2004/24/EC. The most common reasons were the lack of evidence to demonstrate a 15-year minimum

  8. THE ROLE OF PONDOK PESANTREN IN ENCOUNTERING ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY (AEC)

    OpenAIRE

    Ulin Nuha

    2016-01-01

    ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) with characteristics of the economy and labour liberalization can be a blessing for Indonesian people when they are ready to deal with it, but it can also be disastrous if they do not prepare it. This requires the synergy of government and all elements of Indonesian society in facing the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC). Boarding school in the context of history has become an institution that is highly effective not only in the printing community deeply in the sci...

  9. Geography, Economic Education and Global Education: European and Austrian Aspects of the "Fifobi--Developing Business Competencies in School" Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The EU-funded research project "Fifobi--Fit for Business--developing business competencies in school" (2009-2012) focused on the implementation of economic education in seven European countries. The purpose of the project and this paper is to investigate the current programmes that exist within the final two years of compulsory…

  10. Economic Development Path of Poland: Innovation and Competitiveness in Light of the Situation of Southern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubacki Konrad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis of 2007 revealed structural weaknesses in many European countries, particularly in Southern Europe. The goal of this article is to identify the existing economic situation in the four main Southern European countries: Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain (GIPS, and in Poland, conduct a comparative analysis of the development paths and competitiveness levels of these countries using statistical data as well as existing scientific literature, and finally to formulate suggestions for a new development path of Poland. The results of the analysis suggest that Poland's development is currently on a turning point, portraying many similarities to Southern European economies after their EU accession, as well as before the crisis. The authors come to a conclusion that unless Poland undertakes crucial reforms, particularly in the field of its innovation system, business environment, implementation of EU funds, and overall strategic long-term planning, it is inevitable that its economic growth will slow down, possibly falling into a middle-income trap. Poland might not avoid the same mistakes of GIPS, that failed to implement adequate reforms in times of economic growth, what today results in suffering from serious consequences. T is paper presents a unique view on the future economic development of Poland in relation to the paths already undertaken by Southern European economies.

  11. The economical and environmental performance of miscanthus and switchgrass production and supply chains in a European setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, E.M.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311445217; Lewandowski, I.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse the economical and environmental performance of switchgrass and miscanthus production and supply chains in the European Union (EU25), for the years 2004 and 2030. The environmental performance refers to the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the primary fossil

  12. A RESEARCH OF E-BOOK MARKET TRENDS: NORTH AMERICA AND THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Zubac

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPurpose: The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of research on the presence of the electronic book on the book market, its trends and developments as well as point towards the difficulties faced by all professions related to it in the countries of the European Community.Methodology / approach: This paper analyzes the domestic and foreign literature and explores the websites of companies that operate with e-books in order to get an overview of the actual state of business operations in the states mentioned in the text.Results: The emergence of the first online bookstores in the United States in the 20th century paved the way for the electronic book to enter the online market. Today, the e-book is an integral part of publishing, book trade and library activities worldwide. Economic indicators testify to a constant growth of revenues from the sale of electronic books on the book market and technology in the U.S. and Europe. This paper provides an explanation of the term electronic book and indicates the interest of many countries for its acquisition and application in order to keep up with the technological demands of the market.Research restrictions: E-book trends and business operations related to them are constantly changing. In terms of librarianship, this is most visible in public libraries as both one of the customers and as later distributors of e-books to users. In their business, new models constantly emerge together with their combinations and approaches to offering these new media.The originality: The issue of business operations in relation to the e-book is interesting to young people, libraries, publishers, authors, booksellers, etc.Contribution: This paper provides an overview of the most recent situation on the e-book market and can serve as the basis of some future researches.

  13. Modeling the Economic Impacts of Large Deployments on Local Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Anselin, Luc and Rosina Moreno. “Properties of tests for spatial error components,” Regional Science and Urban Economics , 33:595-618 (January...Autocorrelation,” Regional Science and Urban Economics , 37:491-496 (2007). GlobalSecurity.org. Army Forts and Camps. 15 November 2007a. http...California Economy, Berkley: Institute of urban and Regional Development, Center for Real Estate and Urban Economics , University of California at Berkeley

  14. Experiential Learning and Sustainable Economic Development in Appalachian Communities: A Teaching Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonn, Bruce; Ezzell, Tim; Ogle, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a participative planning class held in economically dis-advantaged communities in east Tennessee. The class follows a structured method, which includes community workshops and project development, in dealing with the communities. Among many observations gained in eight years of running the class are that…

  15. Economic Development and Maryland Community Colleges: An Identification and Comparison of Stakeholders' Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Carolyn S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory survey research was to replicate a study designed to examine the perception of community college administrators and local stakeholders regarding the economic development strategies, but applied to Maryland community colleges. A Web-based survey was directed to community college leaders (32) and local leaders (100).…

  16. Is the Learning Community of Economics and Accounting Effective? Empirical Assessment of Class Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumph, Carolyn Fabian; Kim, Myeong Hwan; Han, Yongseung; Minke, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Learning communities are increasingly used at colleges and universities, as one of the goals of a learning community is to increase interaction among students and teach them how to apply knowledge. The goal of this research is to assess the learning community of the economics and accounting students in their class performance measured by class…

  17. Positioning Community Colleges via Economic Development. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiss, Anthony

    Community colleges, because of their late arrival in the development of American education, have suffered from an image and identity problem since their inception. To deal with this problem, community colleges should position themselves as unique community-based service-oriented colleges and market a specific focus to the general public. The first…

  18. Can "extreme poverty" protect against refoulement? : Economic refugees in the light of recent case law of the European Court of Human Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flegar, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    Economic refugees” largely remain outside the international protection regimes of refugee and human rights law. Nevertheless, recent case law of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) opens up limited possibilities for economic refugees to rely on Article 3 of the European Convention on Human

  19. Performance of European Industry of Logistics Services Before and After Economic Crises in the Years 2008/2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beti Godnič

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In this article we examined the impact of economic crises in the years 2008/2009 on the logistics industry in old member states EU-15 and the new EU member states. The emergence of the economic crisis in 2008/2009 when the states of the old members of EU-15 and new EU member states were the first time subjected to the effects of the crisis inside the single entity-the European Union. Research question: The basic research question is: Were implications of economic crises in the years 2008/2009 in logistics industry in heterogenic states of European Union; old member states EU-15 and the new EU member states different? Purpose:We wanted to determine how the logistics companys in old member States EU (15 and in the new EU member states adapt to the new circumstances caused by economic crises in the years 2008/2009. Method: Economic crises are complex multifunctional phenomenon. Analysing complexity of the changes of the state of economic system need to supplement the pure scientific approach with other types of research work, more holistic approach, which is commonly used in Comparative economics. In this article we combine both. In empirical part we used appropriate parametric and non-parametric tests of differences between old and new member states of the European Union. We used Pearson's chi-squared test (Pearson, 1900, p. 157-175. Results: In the article we studied changes ocured by economic crises in the years 2008/2009 in the European logistics industry. We found that the logistics companies in the old EU member states EU-15 and in the new EU member states differently adapt to the implications of economic crises in the years 2008/2009. EU hasn’t adopted and implemented the harmonised economic policy, which will solve the »North-South« problem in logistics industry and find a way to operate systemically in global environment. Organization: The findings can be used to support undestanding of changed bussines envirnment of the

  20. Agricultural Trade and Economic Growth in East African Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, whether there is any link between EAC's regional trade and the region's economic growth remain unknown. ... Impulse response analysis on trade and economic growth were performed using panel data from UNCOMTRADE, International Financial Statistics and World Development Indicators for the period 2000 ...

  1. Ukrainian Economic Reforms: Current Status and Perspectives in the Face of Competition on European Union Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Marianna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The conflict in Ukraine since the beginning of 2014 has been the important in the history of Ukraine as an independent state. Despite the danger of economic collapse, the loss of Crimea, and war in its most industrialized region, Ukraine is still trying to conduct reforms and implement Western standards. Through persistent work Ukraine has been moving forward, despite all the difficulties. The society is staying together with the government to save the economy and defend the integrity of the whole country. This article outlines key processes in the Ukrainian reforms during 2014 and describes the cooperation of Ukraine with the European Union and international organizations in the field of financial support and reforms. The main goal of the article is to present the situation in various spheres of the country’s development, but it is also an attempt to present a wider perspective on both the achievements and shortcomings in the process of reforms. The authors focus on those aspects having a significant impact on the Ukrainian economy after February 2014.

  2. TRUST, CORRUPTION, BRIBES AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Iolanda Voda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the Western world has drawn on theoretical structures of classical and neoclassical liberalism for its explanatory support and sources of inspiration for centuries. Against this ideological background, institutionalists aim at showing that growth is a process of transformation, a double change: an economic and an institutional one. In this analysis, our purpose is to highlight the importance of informal institutional arrangements and their quality in explaining the disparities of revenues and developments between countries. In our approach, we will consider several indicators meant to highlight various aspects of research. The approach proposed is a transversal-comparative one and static methods pertain to uni- and multivariate analysis. The results obtained suggest the existence of major differences within the Central and East European area as far as informal institutions are concerned; moreover, the analysis conducted confirms the existence of a significant relation between the level of development and the structure of informal arrangements such as: trust level, bribe culture and corruption control.

  3. Social Support, Socio-Economic Status, Health and Abuse among Older People in Seven European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Chiatti, Carlos; Lamura, Giovanni; Torres-Gonzales, Francisco; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Lindert, Jutta; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Barros, Henrique; Macassa, Gloria; Soares, Joaquim F. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Social support has a strong impact on individuals, not least on older individuals with health problems. A lack of support network and poor family or social relations may be crucial in later life, and represent risk factors for elder abuse. This study focused on the associations between social support, demographics/socio-economics, health variables and elder mistreatment. Methods The cross-sectional data was collected by means of interviews or interviews/self-response during January-July 2009, among a sample of 4,467 not demented individuals aged 60–84 years living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden). Results Multivariate analyses showed that women and persons living in large households and with a spouse/partner or other persons were more likely to experience high levels of social support. Moreover, frequent use of health care services and low scores on depression or discomfort due to physical complaints were indicators of high social support. Low levels of social support were related to older age and abuse, particularly psychological abuse. Conclusions High levels of social support may represent a protective factor in reducing both the vulnerability of older people and risk of elder mistreatment. On the basis of these results, policy makers, clinicians and researchers could act by developing intervention programmes that facilitate friendships and social activities in old age. PMID:23382989

  4. Social support, socio-economic status, health and abuse among older people in seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Chiatti, Carlos; Lamura, Giovanni; Torres-Gonzales, Francisco; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Lindert, Jutta; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Barros, Henrique; Macassa, Gloria; Soares, Joaquim F J

    2013-01-01

    Social support has a strong impact on individuals, not least on older individuals with health problems. A lack of support network and poor family or social relations may be crucial in later life, and represent risk factors for elder abuse. This study focused on the associations between social support, demographics/socio-economics, health variables and elder mistreatment. The cross-sectional data was collected by means of interviews or interviews/self-response during January-July 2009, among a sample of 4,467 not demented individuals aged 60-84 years living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden). Multivariate analyses showed that women and persons living in large households and with a spouse/partner or other persons were more likely to experience high levels of social support. Moreover, frequent use of health care services and low scores on depression or discomfort due to physical complaints were indicators of high social support. Low levels of social support were related to older age and abuse, particularly psychological abuse. High levels of social support may represent a protective factor in reducing both the vulnerability of older people and risk of elder mistreatment. On the basis of these results, policy makers, clinicians and researchers could act by developing intervention programmes that facilitate friendships and social activities in old age.

  5. Public Innovation Support index for Impact Assessment in the European Economic Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantas Vilys

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The object of this research is public innovation support in European Economic Area and its effectiveness assessment. The main aim is to propose a new model for public innovation support effectiveness assessment, adjusted to contemporary needs and based on practice of public innovation support development. Research Design & Methods: The methods of comparative, cluster, regression, modelling analysis, multi-criteria evaluation, analogy search, logical abstraction and impact evaluation have been applied for the research presented in this paper. Findings:  The paper conceptualizes a new model for the assessment of public innovation support. It is based on theoretical argumentation and practical verification. Its structure is based on new solutions and quantitative assessment methods. Implications & Recommendations: The analysis of the proposed model applicability revealed important patterns for the public innovation support impact assessment. Findings suggest that the increase of public innovation support index is a necessary but insufficient condition for the growth of the countries innovation index. The impact of public innovation support occurs only in the long run, as the delay of the effect exists. Contribution & Value Added: The proposed system of quantitative and qualitative indicators that characterize any public innovation support system (public innovation support index enables the creation and implementation of measures devoted to the public innovation support impact improvement at EU and national level. The practical application of the suggested model is significant for the effectiveness improvement of public innovation support at EU institutions.

  6. Economic and environmental implications of Turkish accession to the European Union: A CGE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, Levent, E-mail: laydin@pigm.gov.t [Ministry of Energy (Turkey); Acar, Mustafa, E-mail: acar70@gmail.co [Kirikkale University (Turkey)

    2010-11-15

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the economic and environmental implications of Turkey's possible accession to the European Union (EU). The paper focuses on the impacts of three main components of Turkey's possible EU membership: (i) the free movement of labor between the EU and Turkey, (ii) the free movement of capital, and (iii) the burden-sharing of Turkey in terms of the EU's environmental objectives in the horizon of 2020, that is, the reduction of carbon emissions. Among these, a particular focus is placed on the influence of the CO{sub 2} emission reduction targets in both regions and their consequences on the carbon price in 2020. We estimate the resource allocation effects of EU climate change policies on both regions by taking into account the likely labor movement from Turkey to the EU and capital movement in the reverse direction. The results show that different emission targets for the two regions bring about a change in comparative advantages and thus a change in interregional competitiveness.

  7. Economic and environmental implications of Turkish accession to the European Union. A CGE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, Levent [Ministry of Energy (Turkey); Acar, Mustafa [Kirikkale University (Turkey)

    2010-11-15

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the economic and environmental implications of Turkey's possible accession to the European Union (EU). The paper focuses on the impacts of three main components of Turkey's possible EU membership: (i) the free movement of labor between the EU and Turkey, (2) the free movement of capital, and (3) the burden-sharing of Turkey in terms of the EU's environmental objectives in the horizon of 2020, that is, the reduction of carbon emissions. Among these, a particular focus is placed on the influence of the CO{sub 2} emission reduction targets in both regions and their consequences on the carbon price in 2020. We estimate the resource allocation effects of EU climate change policies on both regions by taking into account the likely labor movement from Turkey to the EU and capital movement in the reverse direction. The results show that different emission targets for the two regions bring about a change in comparative advantages and thus a change in interregional competitiveness. (author)

  8. Bilinguismo e immigrazione: una nota sociolinguistica al piano europeo di mantenimento delle lingue nazionali nelle comunita di emigrati (Bilingualism and Immigration: A Sociolinguistic View of the European Plan for the Maintainance of National Languages in Immigrant Communities).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Arturo

    1979-01-01

    Outlines the European Economic Community's (EEC) plan for the maintainance of national languages among immigrants. Describes the variety of objectives behind the EEC's linguistic policy as incompatible with the creation of a unified instructional approach. Emphasizes that dialects spoken within immigrant families create additional problems in…

  9. The Impact of the 2008 Economic Crisis on Substance Use Patterns in the Countries of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geert Dom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: From 2008 on, a severe economic crisis (EC has characterized the European Union (E.U.. However, changes in substance use behavioral patterns as a result of the economic crisis in Europe, have been poorly reflected upon, and underlying mechanisms remain to be identified; Methods: In this review we explore and systematize the available data on the effect of the 2008 economic crisis on patterns of substance use and related disorders, within the E.U. countries; Results: The results show that effects of the recession need to be differentiated. A number of studies point to reductions in population’s overall substance use. In contrast, an increase in harmful use and negative effects is found within specific subgroups within the society. Risk factors include job-loss and long-term unemployment, and pre-existing vulnerabilities. Finally, our findings point to differences between types of substances in their response on economic crisis periods; Conclusions: the effects of the 2008 economic crisis on substance use patterns within countries of the European Union are two-sided. Next to a reduction in a population’s overall substance use, a number of vulnerable subgroups experience serious negative effects. These groups are in need of specific attention and support, given that there is a real risk that they will continue to suffer negative health effects long after the economic downfall has formally been ended.

  10. The Impact of the 2008 Economic Crisis on Substance Use Patterns in the Countries of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dom, Geert; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Van Hal, Guido; McDaid, David

    2016-01-13

    From 2008 on, a severe economic crisis (EC) has characterized the European Union (E.U.). However, changes in substance use behavioral patterns as a result of the economic crisis in Europe, have been poorly reflected upon, and underlying mechanisms remain to be identified; In this review we explore and systematize the available data on the effect of the 2008 economic crisis on patterns of substance use and related disorders, within the E.U. countries; The results show that effects of the recession need to be differentiated. A number of studies point to reductions in population's overall substance use. In contrast, an increase in harmful use and negative effects is found within specific subgroups within the society. Risk factors include job-loss and long-term unemployment, and pre-existing vulnerabilities. Finally, our findings point to differences between types of substances in their response on economic crisis periods; the effects of the 2008 economic crisis on substance use patterns within countries of the European Union are two-sided. Next to a reduction in a population's overall substance use, a number of vulnerable subgroups experience serious negative effects. These groups are in need of specific attention and support, given that there is a real risk that they will continue to suffer negative health effects long after the economic downfall has formally been ended.

  11. Demonstrating the Collective Economic Value of North Carolina Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina Community College System, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to assess the collective impact of North Carolina Community Colleges on the state economy and the benefits generated by the colleges for students, society, and taxpayers. The results of this study show that North Carolina Community Colleges create a positive net impact on the state economy and generate a positive…

  12. Changes in dentist and dental hygienist numbers in the European Union and economic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widström, E; Eaton, K A; Luciak-Donsberger, C

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the extent to which changes in the numbers of dental hygienists and dentists have occurred in the Member States of the European Union and Economic Area (EU/EEA) during the last ten years and discuss the changes in relation to the possibilities of sharing tasks between the two groups. Numbers for active dentists, registered hygienists and EU/EEA member state populations in 2007 were taken from the website of the Council of European Chief Dental Officers (CECDO) (www.cecdo.org) and from CECDO records for the EU/EEA member states in 1998 and for the new EU member states (who joined in 2004 and 2007) in 2000. From these data, population: active dentists, population: registered dental hygienist and active dentists: registered dental hygienist ratios were calculated together with percentage changes in the number of dentists and dental hygienists by member state, between 1998 and 2007 for the old and between 2000 and 2007 for the new EU member states. In 2007, there were a total of 343,922 active dentists and 30,963 registered dental hygienists in the 30 EU/EEA member states plus Switzerland. The mean population to dentist ratio was about 1500:1 and the mean population to dental hygienist ratio (in the 25 states where dental hygienists were registered) was 13,454:1. During the study period, the population of the EU/EEA plus Switzerland increased by less that 3%, the number of dentists increased by 13% and the number dental hygienists by 42%. The overall ratio of active dentists: dental hygienists changed from 18:1 to 11:1. In six of the 30 member states plus Switzerland the population to dental hygienist ratio was between 2000:1 and 6000:1 and the dentist: dental hygienist ratio less than 1:3. Although, most member states educate dental hygienists and their numbers in the EU/EEA during the last 10 years have risen more than the dentist numbers, there are still only a handful countries where the hygienist numbers are great enough to make a significant

  13. EPA Helps 22 Communities to Meet their Sustainability Goals and Foster Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) today announced that 22 communities will receive technical assistance to pursue development strategies that support smart growth and sustainability goals and encourage local economic develo

  14. Economic Investigation of Community-Scale Versus Building Scale Net-Zero Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Nicholas; Katipamula, Srinivas; Brambley, Michael R.; Reddy, T. A.

    2009-12-31

    The study presented in this report examines issues concerning whether achieving net-zero energy performance at the community scale provides economic and potentially overall efficiency advantages over strategies focused on individual buildings.

  15. Making european-style community wind power development work in theUnited States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark A.

    2004-04-26

    Once primarily a European phenomenon, community wind power development--defined here as one or more locally owned, utility-scale wind turbines interconnected on either the customer or utility side of the meter--is gaining a foothold in an increasing number of states throughout the United States. This article describes the various policies and incentives that Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Massachusetts are using to support community wind power development, and how state and federal support influences the types of projects and ownership structures that are being developed. Experience in these states demonstrates that, with an array of incentives and creative financing schemes targeted at community-scale projects, there are opportunities to make community wind work in the United States.

  16. The Effects of Environmental and Social Dimensions of Sustainability in Response to the Economic Crisis of European Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Nevado-Peña

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of sustainable development, which has emerged over the last few decades, has moved away from the global to the local level. The sustainability measurements at the global level use the triple bottom line, considering environmental, economic and social dimensions; however, the limited data available at the local level has driven what little research there is to use these optics when considering cities sustainability. In this paper, we use a sustainability city index based on the intellectual capital approach, which considers the three dimensions for European cities. Concretely, we use the environmental and social dimensions of this city index to analyze the effect of different levels of development in terms of sustainability over the main economic variables with available information. The results highlight the importance of the social and environmental dimensions of sustainability in cities economic recovery and show that cities with best positions in sustainability have better performance in economic terms.

  17. Social and economic value of Portuguese community pharmacies in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Jorge; Ferreira, Diana; Afonso-Silva, Marta; Gomes, Marta Vargas; Ferreira, César; Vandewalle, Björn; Marques, Sara; Mota, Melina; Costa, Suzete; Cary, Maria; Teixeira, Inês; Paulino, Ema; Macedo, Bruno; Barbosa, Carlos Maurício

    2017-08-29

    Community pharmacies are major contributors to health care systems across the world. Several studies have been conducted to evaluate community pharmacies services in health care. The purpose of this study was to estimate the social and economic benefits of current and potential future community pharmacies services provided by pharmacists in health care in Portugal. The social and economic value of community pharmacies services was estimated through a decision-model. Model inputs included effectiveness data, quality of life (QoL) and health resource consumption, obtained though literature review and adapted to Portuguese reality by an expert panel. The estimated economic value was the result of non-remunerated pharmaceutical services plus health resource consumption potentially avoided. Social and economic value of community pharmacies services derives from the comparison of two scenarios: "with service" versus "without service". It is estimated that current community pharmacies services in Portugal provide a gain in QoL of 8.3% and an economic value of 879.6 million euros (M€), including 342.1 M€ in non-remunerated pharmaceutical services and 448.1 M€ in avoided expense with health resource consumption. Potential future community pharmacies services may provide an additional increase of 6.9% in QoL and be associated with an economic value of 144.8 M€: 120.3 M€ in non-remunerated services and 24.5 M€ in potential savings with health resource consumption. Community pharmacies services provide considerable benefit in QoL and economic value. An increase range of services including a greater integration in primary and secondary care, among other transversal services, may add further social and economic value to the society.

  18. Tobacco control policy and socio-economic inequalities in smoking in 27 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosdriesz, Jizzo R; Willemsen, Marc C; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E

    2016-08-01

    Higher Tobacco Control Scale (TCS) scores, in the early 2000s were associated with higher smoking cessation rates across Europe, both among lower and higher educated people. We aimed to assess if this association held in recent years. Repeated cross-sectional Eurobarometer surveys were used, in 27 European countries from 2006 to 2012 (study sample=73,617 adults). We used multilevel regression to model associations between the TCS (ranging from 0 to 100, quantifying: tobacco price, smoke-free laws, mass-media campaigns, advertising bans, warning labels, and cessation support) and both smoking cessation and cigarettes smoked per day. We modelled associations according to respondents' education and occupation, with adjustment for age, sex, and survey-wave. We found no association between the TCS and smoking cessation for lower or middle educated respondents, but we did find an association for higher educated respondents (OR: 1.13, 95%CI: 1.08 to 1.19). For smoking intensity, we observed no associations with the TCS for lower educated respondents (beta: 0.04, 95%CI: -0.33 to 0.41) but we did observe significant associations for middle (beta: -0.25, 95%CI: -0.47 to -0.03) and higher educated respondents (beta: -0.27, 95%CI: -0.55 to -0.01). Associations were observed for both manual and non-manual classes, but not for those not working for pay. Of the TCS domains, none were associated with smoking cessation for lower educated respondents, but five were for higher educated respondents. Associations between tobacco control policies and smoking cessation were found mostly among higher socioeconomic groups. This underlines the need for specific tobacco control policies that explicitly focus on reaching low socio-economic groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Examining Extension's Capacity in Community Resource and Economic Development: Viewpoints of Extension Administrators on the Role of Community Resource and Economic Development in the Extension Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanowitz, Seth C.; Wilcox, Michael D., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The survey-based research reported here offers insights on community, resource, and economic development (CRED) Extension programming at the national and regional level. The results present a national picture of CRED programming, research, and potential future programming opportunities that Extension could capitalize on. The research shows that…

  20. Waste a necessary evil for economically impoverished communities in least developed countries (LCDc): a case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mvuma, G

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available ” for the economically impoverished communities particularly from a Least Developed Country (LCD) perspective. To illustrate the economic contribution of waste harvesters in terms of jobs creation and income generation, we examine a case of Lesotho as a least developed...

  1. Integration of environmental stewardship and local economic development to enhance community health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Jay F

    2011-01-01

    Environmental groups working to preserve natural ecosystems and groups working to enhance local economic development often find themselves on philosophically opposite sides of the negotiation table. Case histories of cooperative engagement are provided that serve as examples of how environmental stewardship is compatible with local economic development and community health.

  2. Pathway to Self-Sufficiency: Social and Economic Development Strategies of Native American Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Human Development Services (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    In fiscal year (FY) 1984 the Administration for Native Americans awarded 227 grants for social and economic development strategies (SEDS) which would help Native American communities move toward self-sufficiency. More than half the grants were primarily for economic development; approximately one-third were for improving tribal governments, and…

  3. THE IMPACT OF THE ECONOMIC CRISES FROM THE XXIST CENTURY ON THE EUROPEAN LOW-COST AIRLINES’ MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Laura DIACONU (MAXIM)

    2012-01-01

    Considering the fact that the airlines’ market is very sensitive to the economic fluctuation, in this paper, we will analyze the impact of the 2001 and 2007 crises on the evolution of the European low-cost carriers, in terms of annual revenues and profits, number of routes, of transported passengers and changes occurred in the implemented strategies. In order to reach up this objective, we have conducted a complex analysis of the secondary data included in various international statistical re...

  4. Interconnections between economic subsystems and the IT innovation in avoiding unpredictable effects of finance reforms in East-European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora ALECU

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The tax measures are rapidly changing in East-European countries. The permanence is a concept rarely put in practice. The changes of fiscal policy are usually important, affecting the whole finance system and the investors need to adapt to these various changes. Under such circumstances, the management of information of any kind regarding the activity of investors becomes very important, the information gathered represent a statistic proof of the effects of the economic and finance reforms.

  5. [An economic organisation analysis of the need for the exchange of information between the European health systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainzinger, F; Brüggenjürgen, B; Willich, S N

    2009-02-01

    Demographic development and technological progress are rapidly changing the existing health systems in Europe. As a result, increasingly more complex and heterogeneous structures are emerging, which clearly differ in each of the European member state. From a company's point of view these continuously changing frameworks are leading to an increasing non-transparency regarding the structures and processes within the healthcare systems themselves. The goal is to design a suitable solution to overcome the obstacles within the information exchange process between the individual European health systems. Theoretic-deductive analysis was used for the design of an organisational structure that enables information transparency between the individual European health systems. Incorporation of an economic perspective was implemented under consideration of the theory for the building of the new institutional economics. The operational organisation analysis proves that the matrix project organisation with a function- and project-related decision system is the theoretically optimal organisational form. The organisation model derived from the theoretical analysis offers an organisation variant that guarantees an optimal processing of tasks pertaining to European health systems. This could result in the closing of an existing supply gap in the knowledge market for health systems. The evaluation of enterprise practice and the comparison with existing departments in enterprises can be explored in further research work.

  6. Influence of parental socio-economic status on diet quality of European adolescents: results from the HELENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béghin, L; Dauchet, L; De Vriendt, Tineke; Cuenca-García, M; Manios, Y; Toti, E; Plada, M; Widhalm, K; Repasy, J; Huybrechts, I; Kersting, M; Moreno, L A; Dallongeville, J

    2014-04-14

    Diet quality is influenced by socio-economic and geographical factors. The present study sought to assess whether adolescents' diet quality is affected by their parents' socio-economic status and whether the relationship between these factors is similar in northern and southern Europe. Data collected in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study in eight European countries were analysed. Dietary intake data were recorded via repeated 24 h recalls (using specifically developed HELENA Dietary Intake Assessment Tool software) and converted into an adolescent-specific Diet Quality Index (DQI-AM). Socio-economic status was estimated through parental educational level (Par-Educ-Lev) and parental occupation level (Par-Occ-Lev) as reported by the adolescents in a specific questionnaire. The DQI-AM data were then analysed as a function of Par-Educ-Lev and Par-Occ-Lev in northern European countries (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden) and southern European countries (Greece, Italy and Spain). We studied a total of 1768 adolescents (age 14.7 (SD 1.3) years; percentage of girls: 52.8%; 1135 and 633 subjects from northern and southern Europe, respectively). On average, the DQI-AM score was higher in southern Europe than in northern Europe (69.1 (SD 0.1) v. 60.4 (SD 2.8), respectively; P adolescents in Europe. However, this association differs between northern Europe and southern Europe.

  7. Economic Security in an Agrarian Community | Mtika | Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Free-market capitalism creates great wealth but is disempowering and produces widespread poverty, inequality, and human despair; it generates economic insecurity for the masses. A main reason for this is that free market capitalism operates from an exogenous perspective; it is guided by marginal utility and marginal ...

  8. assessment of socio-economic characteristics of community based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    since planning has long taken ―top down‖ rather than ―bottle-top‖ planning system (World. Economic Forum for Africa ... are good creating network and relationship between local people, groups, private and voluntary ... Development, on the other hand, is an act of improvement, expansion, enlargement or refinement ...

  9. Agricultural Trade and Economic Growth in East African Community

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Kazungu

    populace depends on agriculture directly and indirectly for food, employment and income, ... Several bi-variate Vector Auto-Regressive (VAR) and Vector Error Correction .... a motivating factor of economic growth where the integrating states had ... separately to capture for the effect of the 2008/2009 financial global crisis.

  10. Socioeconomic Status of Farmers and Economic Development in Two Communities of Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Alzemiro E.; Riedl, Mario

    This paper is concerned with the problem of social inequalities and economic development in rural communities. Two ethnically different communities were chosen in the most southern state of Brazil: Garibaldi, of descendants from Italian immigrants, and Candelaria, of descendants from German immigrants. The data were gathered through application of…

  11. Environmental policy on the way to Brussels : the issue of acidicification between the Netherlands and the European community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefferink, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    The process of European integration is marked by a dynamic and often controversial balance between member state autonomy and supranational. decision making. Within the European Community (EC), enviromnental policy has in the past 25 years emerged as one of the major fields of activity. This

  12. A multi-factor approach to understanding socio-economic segregation in European capital cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tammaru, T.; Musterd, S.; Van Ham, M.; Marcinczak, S.

    2015-01-01

    The research leading to the results presented in this chapter has received funding from the Estonian Research Council (Institutional Research Grant IUT no. 2–17 on Spatial Population Mobility and Geographical Changes in Urban Regions); European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh

  13. Revitalizing the European ‘Neighbourhood Economic Community’: the case for legally binding sectoral multilateralism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blockmans, S.; van Vooren, B.

    2012-01-01

    The revolutionary upheaval in the southern Mediterranean and the slow reforms in most of the eastern neighbourhood have pushed the European Union to revise its approach to the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP). In May 2011, the Commission presented a full review of the ENP, introducing an enhanced

  14. Livestock-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among human MRSA isolates, European Union/European Economic Area countries, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinross, Pete; Petersen, Andreas; Skov, Robert; Van Hauwermeiren, Evelyn; Pantosti, Annalisa; Laurent, Frédéric; Voss, Andreas; Kluytmans, Jan; Struelens, Marc J; Heuer, Ole; Monnet, Dominique L

    2017-11-01

    Currently, surveillance of livestock-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) in humans in Europe is not systematic but mainly event-based. In September 2014, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) initiated a questionnaire to collect data on the number of LA-MRSA from human samples (one isolate per patient) from national/regional reference laboratories in European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries in 2013. Identification of LA-MRSA as clonal complex (CC) 398 by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was preferred, although surrogate methods such as spa-typing were also accepted. The questionnaire was returned by 28 laboratories in 27 EU/EEA countries. Overall, LA-MRSA represented 3.9% of 13,756 typed MRSA human isolates, but it represented ≥ 10% in five countries (Belgium, Denmark, Spain, the Netherlands and Slovenia). Seven of the reference laboratories did not type MRSA isolates in 2013. To monitor the dispersion of LA-MRSA and facilitate targeted control measures, we advocate periodic systematic surveys or integrated multi-sectorial surveillance.

  15. Livestock-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among human MRSA isolates, European Union/European Economic Area countries, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinross, Pete; Petersen, Andreas; Skov, Robert; Van Hauwermeiren, Evelyn; Pantosti, Annalisa; Laurent, Frédéric; Voss, Andreas; Kluytmans, Jan; Struelens, Marc J; Heuer, Ole; Monnet, Dominique L

    2017-01-01

    Currently, surveillance of livestock-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) in humans in Europe is not systematic but mainly event-based. In September 2014, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) initiated a questionnaire to collect data on the number of LA-MRSA from human samples (one isolate per patient) from national/regional reference laboratories in European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries in 2013. Identification of LA-MRSA as clonal complex (CC) 398 by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was preferred, although surrogate methods such as spa-typing were also accepted. The questionnaire was returned by 28 laboratories in 27 EU/EEA countries. Overall, LA-MRSA represented 3.9% of 13,756 typed MRSA human isolates, but it represented ≥ 10% in five countries (Belgium, Denmark, Spain, the Netherlands and Slovenia). Seven of the reference laboratories did not type MRSA isolates in 2013. To monitor the dispersion of LA-MRSA and facilitate targeted control measures, we advocate periodic systematic surveys or integrated multi-sectorial surveillance. PMID:29113628

  16. CURRENT TRENDS OF THE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION. THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMPETITIVE ECONOMIC AGGLOMERATIONS OF CLUSTER TYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURA CISMAŞ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of economic agents’ behaviour, whose nowadays tendency is togroup themselves in space as clusters, has an important place in the field of localizing industrialactivities. This is due to domestic scale economies, known as agglomerations economies.According to Edgar M. Hoover (Hoover, 1948, domestic scale economies are specific tocompanies; the economies of localizing - to a certain branch, whose companies form clusters incertain geographical arias, and the urbanization economies are specific to cities, where thereare clusters of companies from different branches. The specialty literature regarding localeconomic development, based on the idea of cluster starts from well-known economic theories,such as: agglomeration theory (Alfred Marshall, the theory of spatial localizing of industrialunits (Alfred Weber, the theory of interdependence of locations (Harold Hotelling, the diamondtheory (Michael Porter, the theory of entrepreneurship (Joseph Schumpeter, the theory ofgeographical concentration. Basically, the common point which links them are the conceptswhich occur in these theories, such as: industrial district, industrial agglomeration, spatialinterdependence, concepts which lie at the basis of the cluster idea. Clusters represent animportant instrument for promoting industrial development, innovation, competitiveness andeconomic growth. If, at the beginning, the effort to develop clusters belonged to private personsand companies, nowadays, the actors involved in their development are the governments andpublic institutions of national or regional level.The objective established within the Lisbon Strategy (2000, to make the EuropeanUnion “the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy”, is tightly linked to thenew approaches of the European economic policy, to competitiveness. One of the policies isfocused on developing at the European Union level clusters in the high competitiveness fields. with an innovative character

  17. High School Completion Programs: A Community Guide Systematic Economic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Shuli; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K; Hahn, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    On-time high school graduation rate is among the 26 leading health indicators for Healthy People 2020. High school completion (HSC) programs aim to increase the likelihood that students finish high school and receive a high school diploma or complete a GED (General Educational Development) program. This systematic review was conducted to determine the economic impact of HSC interventions, assess variability in cost-effectiveness of different types of programs, and compare the lifetime benefit of completing high school with the cost of intervention. Forty-seven included studies were identified from 5303 articles published in English from January 1985 to December 2012. The economic evidence was summarized by type of HSC program. All monetary values were expressed in 2012 US dollars. The data were analyzed in 2013. Thirty-seven studies provided estimates of incremental cost per additional high school graduate, with a median cost for HSC programs of $69 800 (interquartile interval = $35 900-$130 300). Cost-effectiveness ratios varied depending on intervention type, study settings, student populations, and costing methodologies. Ten studies estimated the lifetime difference of economic benefits between high school nongraduates and graduates; 4 used a governmental perspective and reported benefit per additional high school to range from $187 000 to $240 000; 6 used a societal perspective and reported a range of $347 000 to $718 000. Benefits exceeded costs in most studies from a governmental perspective and in all studies from a societal perspective. Interventions to increase HSC rates produce substantial economic benefits to government and society including averted health care costs. From a societal perspective, the benefits also exceed costs, implying a positive rate of return from investment in HSC programs.

  18. The process of adoption of the principle of subsidiarity in the European Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Lluís Piñol

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available In disregarding the treatment that the European media offers the subject, the author sets out with the statement that the Principle of Subsidiarity is a procedural principle recently inserted in the logic of the attribution of competence and in the process of Community decision-making. Used as it is as a legal-political instrument,reinforcing the principle of democratic legitibility and closely connected to the principle of solidarity, the Principle of Subsidiarity favours the assumption of competence by the European Cornmunity as much as its decentralization.In order to understand the adoption of this principle in the Treaty on European Union, the author proceeds, in the first place, with a relatively abstract analysis about the ambiguous, multi-faceted and various interpretations that this principle has repeatedly received. Secondly, equal reference is made to the political debate concerning the inclusion or exclusion of the PS in the Community treaties, as to the specific meaning of the PS in the different Councils of Europe.The Edinburgh meeting deserves special treatment as the author considers it a model of analysis of Community decision-making in which the classic actors of the EC (its institutions and its member states have participated as well as other actors: organized political forces in the Europe of Twelve and, from 1986, the nationalparliaments of such countries. By way of a change, the author includes an analysis of the performance of those forces that existed before, but that were relatively poorly organized with respect to the theme of Community integration: the so-called regions, at individual level (lander, Catalonia or the Basque Country or organizationally in the CPLRE and the ARE and also looks at those actions taken by certain personalites such as Spinelli, Giscard dlEstaing or the very same Jacques Delors.

  19. Economic impact assessment of invasive plant pests in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soliman, T.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    According to the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures (SPS Agreement) of the World Trade Organization (WTO), phytosanitary measures should be economically justifiable. The economic impact assessments within a

  20. Economic performance of community based bean seed production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    seed multiplication and marketing enterprises (CBSME) model, as an alternative to the formal seed systems, in order to increase ... This, however, makes the marketing of seed reliant on big buyers for redistribution among remote farming communities. ... This growth in bean demand provides trade opportunities for small ...

  1. The Economics of Community College Labor Markets: A Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Hirschel

    2009-01-01

    The community college has many roles and constituents: academic, professional, and vocational. Its curriculum may be distinguished from that of other institutions of higher education by its many courses designed to enhance students' immediate career opportunities, especially with nearby employers. This article focuses on the job markets for…

  2. Cool Community Colleges: Creative Approaches to Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    Community colleges have long been recognized for their success in providing affordable access to higher education for all and for serving the nation's workforce needs. Their substantial civic and cultural contributions are now also capturing the attention of businesses and of policymakers at the highest levels of government. Why? Because research…

  3. The Socio–economic Characteristics of Communities at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About 5% of the houses in each of the villages have been displaced and the value of land has also depreciated by 20%. Farming and fishing in various communities have been affected due to land appropriation, flooding and soil erosion. Only Gungu and Gana are connected to electricity supply while road accessibility is ...

  4. Discipline Identity in Economic History: Reflecting on an Interdisciplinary Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The article by Aileen Fyfe (this issue) raises a number of important issues about academic identity and the importance of the disciplinary community in the creation and maintenance of that identity. It also discusses some of the additional difficulties faced by interdisciplinary disciplines; lack of recognition (and thus institutional support),…

  5. Economic performance of community based bean seed production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Limited access to seed of improved varieties is an impediment to agricultural productivity in sub-Saharan Africa. Researchers in the national and international agricultural research systems have been piloting a community based seed multiplication and marketing enterprises (CBSME) model, as an alternative to the formal ...

  6. European Union and Romanian Tourism – ß and σ Convergence in the Economic Development Regions of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ionela Butnaru

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available At present, both in Romania and in Europe, tourism tends to become one of the biggest industries, with great development possibilities in the future. The economic development of Romania including tourism benefits from the support of the European Union, and has the purpose to reduce the gaps in this concern, compared to both the European Union average and more developed countries. The purpose of this paper is to analyse β and σ convergence in the 8 Economic Development Regions of Romania by a tourism approach. The concept of β-convergence represents the process of quicker development of poor regions than the rich ones, and σ-convergence is evaluating the process of decrease of regional economic disparities in time. The analysis based on β-convergence was performed using econometric modelling techniques of linear correlation. For σ-convergence, we measured the dispersion of real GDPT per in habitant by the use of the variation coefficient t  . The purpose is to check the hypothesis according to which the β-convergence approach and the σ- convergence concept can lead to different results for the Economic Development Regions of Romania. The period analysed is between 2007 and 2013.

  7. The environmental associations and the European Communities. Umweltverbaende und EG; Strategien, politische Kulturen und Organisationsformen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hey, C. (EURES - Inst. fuer Regionale Studien in Europa e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)); Brendle, U. (KATALYSE Institut fuer Angewandte Umweltforschung e.V., Koeln (Germany)); Weinber, C.; Grove-White, R.; Heijden, A. van der; Woischnik, A.; Roeder, S.; Krohberger, K.; Berkel, L. van; Heimer, F.A.

    1994-01-01

    The ecology movements in Europe currently change into strategical associations. This change into institutions is the reaction on three developments in the eighties, i.e. the growth of large associations (over 10 million members throughout the European Communities), the political career of pollution abatement and the resulting changed requriements, and the internationalization of environmental policy which requires coordinate action at different levels. The pace and complexity of this change in the European countries are different. The environmental associations have developed their own national answers to the national basic conditions. The international comparison reveals the national character of their political strategies. Five case studies (environment and internal market, energy taxes, environmental labels, florafauna habitat protection regulations, environmental standardization) show that the different national political styles impede the development of common European activities. An intercultural desire to learn is prerequisite for the environmental associations' successful action at the European level. A desire to learn is also postulated by the political institutions and administrative authorities. (orig./HSCH)

  8. Paradigm of universalistic particularism to reform the Indonesian economic law in the framework of establishing the 2015 ASEAN Economic Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H., M. Hum. TAUFIQURRAHMAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A reality that cannot be denied that the laws of Indonesia applicable today, especially regarding international trade transactions, are less conducive to the changes. This can be understood because the law that in fact is a legacy of the Dutch colonial government has not been changed at all, but the dynamics of the community continue to run endlessly. Changes in society increasingly run quickly along with the progress achieved in the field of Science and Technology, particularly Information and Communication. Such an objective conditions will in turn lead to new legal issues in the community, namely the absence of law and the emergence of the legal gap between what the law in book with what the law in action. The increasingly complex legal issues in related to be the establishment of an ASEAN Economic Community (AEC of 2015. The theory used to analyze is the Jeremy Bentham’s Legislation Theory and the Theory of Legal Development from Mochtar Kusumaatmadja. While the research method applied is normative legal research methods with the statute, and conceptual approaches. The analysis shows that the convergence paradigm namely universalistic particularism is appropriate used in law reform in Indonesia. In addition, in order to provide a clear direction of Indonesian economic law reform efforts in the context of the establishment of 2015 AEC, it is necessary to establish the Indonesian Economic System in the national legislation.

  9. A comparison of national economic diplomacy systems of the leading European Union countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman O. Raynkhardt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article provides a comparative analysis of the leading EU-countries’ (Germany, France, Great Britain and Italy national economic diplomacy systems in line with the following criteria: role and functions of key economic diplomacy agents; competences of subnational regions as independent foreign economic actors; practice and mechanisms of ‘inward’ and ‘outward’ economic diplomacy (attraction of foreign investments and export promotion respectively; HR-policy as well as the role of country leaders in economic diplomacy measures. The author outlines the country-specifi c features of the aforementioned systems alongside treats common to all of them.

  10. Hard times and European youth. The effect of economic insecurity on human values, social attitudes and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeskens, Tim; Vandecasteele, Leen

    2017-02-01

    While economic downturns have adverse effects on young people's life chances, empirical studies examining whether and to what extent human values, social attitudes and well-being indicators respond to sudden economic shocks are scarce. To assess the claim that human values are less affected by economic shocks than social attitudes and well-being, two distinct yet related studies based on the European Social Survey (ESS) are conducted. The first employs a fixed effects pseudo-panel analysis of the 2008-2014 ESS-waves to detect whether changes over time in the socio-demographic group's unemployment risk and national youth unemployment affect individual dispositions to varying degrees. The second study captures micro- and cross-national effects in the 2010 ESS cross-section. Unique for this set-up is that we can test whether the findings hold for over-time changes in youth unemployment within countries (pseudo-panel), as well as for cross-country differences in youth unemployment (multilevel). Both studies indicate that political trust, satisfaction with the economy and subjective well-being are lowered by economic risk and hardship, while social trust and self-rated health are less affected by changes in youth unemployment. Secondly, human values are immune to economic risk, underscoring that values transcend specific situations and are therefore resistant against sudden economic shocks. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Union of Psychological Science.

  11. Empowering European communities to improve natural resource management for human well-being: the OPPLA web portal & communities of practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, M.; Brown, C.; Pérez-Soba, M.; Rounsevell, M.; Verweij, P.; Delbaere, B.; Cojocaru, G.; Saarikoski, H.; Harrison, P.; Zellmer, K.

    2014-12-01

    The ecosystem services concept is seen by many as a useful paradigm to support decision-making at the complex interface between science, policy and practice. However, to be successful, it requires a strong willingness for collaboration and joint understanding. In support of this aspiration, OPPLA is being developed as a web portal to enable European communities to better manage ecosystems for human well-being and livelihoods. OPPLA will provide access to a variety of online resources such as tools, case studies, lessons learned, videos, manuals and training and educational materials. It will also provide expert forums and spaces for discussions between researchers, practitioners and decision makers. Hence a critical aspect of the success of OPPLA is the co-evolution of communities of practice. An example of a community of practice is the recently launched Ecosystem Services Community - Scotland (ESCom-Scotland; escomscotland.wordpress.com). ESCom-Scotland aims to support better management of Scotland's natural resources by helping to establish a community of practice between individuals and groups involved in the science, policy and practice behind sustainable ecosystem management. It aspires to encourage the sharing of ideas, increase collaboration and to initiate a support network for those engaging with the ecosystem services concept and it will use the OPPLA resources to support these activities. OPPLA is currently at the developmental stage and was instigated by two large European Commission funded research projects: OPERAs (www.operas-project.eu) and OpenNESS (www.openness-project.eu), with a combined budget of ca. €24m. These projects aim to improve understanding of how ecosystem services contribute to human well-being in different social-ecological systems. Research will establish whether, how and under what conditions the ecosystem services concept can move beyond the academic domain towards practical implementation in support of sustainable ecosystem

  12. Economic Transformation of European Union in the Context of Kondratieff Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Marinas

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The global economy of the twenty-first century is characterised by rapid changes which create both threats and opportunities. The biggest challenge for the european economy is to become sufficiently flexible so as to avail of the opportunities and surmount the threats. This requires, above all, reforming labour market and social policies. In this paper we analyse the evolutions of the european economy in relation with Kondratieff cycles, aspects tied to the influences between the objectives of the EU agenda and those supposed by the real Kondratieff cycle, perceptible at the global economy level. Particulary, we are concerned about the chances of an european construction to consolidate specific values corresponding to the strategic options of Lisabona Agenda, as a possible compatibility with the essential lines of the current Kondratieff cycle. Analysing the european economy by submodels seemed to us relevant to define the previsible directions of the evolution.

  13. Socio-economic impact of European singel market on Lithuanian companies: Methodology manual

    OpenAIRE

    Hernesniemi, Hannu; Lindroos, Pekka

    2000-01-01

    This report has been written within the framework of the Phare SEIL (Support for European Integration in Lithuania) project supporting the Government of Lithuania in preparations for the accession to the European Union. The manual summarises the method used and developed when drafting separate impact studies for the most important industries of Lithuania. The industries examined are the wood, foodstuffs, textile and clothing and road transport industries. Reports were drafted by Lithuanian ex...

  14. BREXIT: THE ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL IMPACT OF A POSSIBLE WITHDRAWAL OF GREAT BRITAIN’S FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONA MOAGĂR - POLADIAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Great Britain’s withdrawal from the European Union would not only change the internal political climate, but it could have important political repercussions within the EU and also on its relations with other European Community’s countries. Also, it could stimulate the other EU Member States to re-evaluate the terms and conditions of their membership. The same applies if Great Britain fails to renegotiate these terms and conditions while keeping the status of EU member. A priority for the UK is to maintain close trade relations with the EU, even if politically it would opt for withdrawal. In the event of possible withdrawal from the EU, Great Britain could conclude an agreement with the EU following the example of a customs union (after Turkey’s model. In this case, it would not be obliged to contribute to the EU budget or accept immigration from the EU member states. Last but not least, from a geopolitical point of view, Great Britain's exit from the EU could be seen externally as a sign of decline, EU losing its financial, economic, political and military powerhouse. From this point of view, the European Union itself have a significant political and economic interest to conclude a mutually beneficial agreement with Great Britain considering that it could terminate its EU membership.

  15. Upadlosc konsumencka w wybranych krajach Unii Europejskiej a kryzys gospodarczy. (Consumer bankruptcy in selected European Union Member Countries in relation to the economic crisis.)

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Szymanska

    2013-01-01

    The article is aimed at the examination of the relation between the economic crisis and the number of consumer bankruptcies declared in the selected European Union member countries, including Poland. It describes the institution of consumer bankruptcy and presents the most essential differences between the bankruptcy solutions applied in particular legal systems. The economic indicators of the selected European Union member countries are confronted with the number of declared bankruptcies. Th...

  16. European Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry Working Group on Accreditation: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, W

    2001-07-20

    During the past 10 years, many activities have taken place in the field of quality systems and accreditation in medical laboratories. Each country in Europe has a slightly different approach. The Working Group on Accreditation of the European Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry (EC4) tries to support harmonisation of these efforts. For this purpose, they edited the Essential Criteria for quality systems of medical laboratories and supported the forthcoming International ISO standard "Quality management for the medical laboratory". At this moment, a Model Quality Manual is nearly ready for publication. The next items are setting up criteria for auditing the quality system and criteria for the accreditation process.

  17. A RESEARCH OF E-BOOK MARKET TRENDS: NORTH AMERICA AND THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY

    OpenAIRE

    Andreja Zubac; Andreja Tominac

    2014-01-01

    AbstractPurpose: The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of research on the presence of the electronic book on the book market, its trends and developments as well as point towards the difficulties faced by all professions related to it in the countries of the European Community.Methodology / approach: This paper analyzes the domestic and foreign literature and explores the websites of companies that operate with e-books in order to get an overview of the actual state of business oper...

  18. Synthetic Biology: The Response of the Commission of the (Catholic) Bishops' Conferences of the European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavey, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    The Commission of the (Catholic) Bishops' Conferences of the European Community (COMECE) has issued an opinion on the ethics of synthetic biology (synbio). Examining synbio from religious and more general ethical perspectives, it examines synbio's potential pros and cons, as well as whether it is ethical in and of itself. Its conclusions mirror those of the ethical mainstream; namely, that synbio may present humanity with opportunities for both great advancement and great destruction. It suggests a prudent approach, and calls for regulation to be used to encourage positive outcomes while reducing the likelihood of negative ones.

  19. Communities, households and animals. Convergent developments in Central Anatolian and Central European Neolithic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Marciniak

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to scrutinize striking similarities in cultural developments and social transformations in Neolithic communities in the North European Plain of Central Europe and Central Anatolia in the early phase of their development and in the following post-Eearly Neolithic period. They will be explored through evidence pertaining to architecture and the organization of space, alongside changes in settlement pattern, as well as animal bone assemblages and zoomorphic representations. Social changes, in particular a transition from communal arrangements of local groups in the Early Neolithic to autonomous household organization in the following period, will be debated.

  20. Risks, regulation responsibilities and costs in nuclear waste management: A preliminary survey in the European Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlowski, S.

    The use of nuclear energy produces radioactive waste which may present risks of pollution for man and his environment. Their protection must be ensured by technical or institutional controls. The report examines the second, i.e., the administrative, legal and financial measures, dealing with the management of radioactive waste in existence or under consideration within the Member States of the European Community. The following aspects are studied: laws and regulations, authorities concerned, costs and financing of radioactive waste management, civil liability, national policies, international aspects of radioactive waste management.

  1. Prospective Associations Between Socio-economic Status and Dietary Patterns in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenandez-Alviraa, Juan Miguel; Börnhorst, Claudia; Bammann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Exploring changes in children's diet over time and the relationship between these changes and socio-economic status (SES) may help to understand the impact of social inequalities on dietary patterns. The aim of the present study was to describe dietary patterns by applying a cluster analysis...... from a lower socio-economic background presenting persistently unhealthier dietary profiles. This finding reflects the need for healthy eating interventions specifically targeting children from lower socio-economic backgrounds....

  2. European Union Antitrust Enforcement against Cartels – Priorities in the Context of Globalisation of Business and Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iordache Lucia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalisation and EU member states’ efforts to overcome the difficulties of the economic crisis, realising the full potential of the Single Market is the main component of a credible plan for higher and sustainable growth in the EU. Competition policy is the central pillar of the Single Market. A strong antitrust enforcement, especially fighting cartels and preventing the creation of new ones, is at the core of open and fair pan-European markets, higher productivity and growth across Europe. This article summarizes the activities of the European Commission for the investigation and sanctioning of companies involved in cartels, focusing on the effectiveness of preventive policy of the Commission in antitrust enforcement, reflected in particular by the evolution of the fines imposed in cartel cases. The analysis outlines how antitrust policy contributes to strengthening the single market and the EU economic growth and examines the challenges for the implementation of antitrust policy caused by the changes in the dynamics and complexity of the economic environment, at the national and international level.

  3. Towards the actual implementation of ecodesign in industry - the `haves` and `needs` viewed by the European ecodesign community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bey, N.; Boks, C.; Ernzer, M.

    2002-01-01

    for further activities to foster the implementation of ecodesign in industry. In this elaboration, the paper defines a number of research ave-nues that, so far, have not been part of common research approaches in the European Ecodesign Community, and are of great validity for the research community....

  4. A European community pharmacy-based survey to investigate patterns of prescription fraud through identification of falsified prescriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Gony, Mireille; Carvajal, Alfonso; Macias, Diego; Conforti, Anita; D'incau, Paola; Heerdink, Rob; Van Der Stichele, Robert; Bergman, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To identify prescription drugs involved in falsified prescriptions in community pharmacies in 6 European countries. Methods: A cross-sectional survey among 2,105 community pharmacies in Belgium, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and Sweden was carried out to collect all suspect prescription

  5. The Adoption of European Standards in the Sphere of Economic Law and (Anticipated Cultural Change in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Milenković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Serbian society has undergone significant changes over the last ten years. The transformation of the legal system has taken place mostly through the process of European integrations and harmonization of legislation with the EU legal order. The primary focus of the paper is on the study of (anticiapted cultural change which is brought about by changes in economic law. By studying changing attitudes to business operation, the paper seeks to answer the questions of whether we can learn something about cultural change by analyzing economic law and whether we are witnessing the transformation of Serbian citizens into "European citizens", consumers, businessmen, farmers, bureaucrats or politicians. Some of these changes are already in evidence, and it can be said that considerable progress has already been made. Nevertheless, in most areas reforms have yet to be enacted, and therefore this transformation along with its outcome and results can only be anticipated. Following an overview of the Stabilization and Association Process, the signing of the Stabilization and Association Agreement (SAA, and the process of harmonization of legislation and monitored reforms, the paper goes on to analyze whether and to what extent the following have taken place: 1 the opening up of the Serbian economy to foreign competition (primarily European, 2 the implementation of reforms and the introduction of competition rights and government subsidy control, 3 changes in rural Serbia as part of the process of preparation for accession to the EU. It can be concluded that European integrations and the adoption of a series of different standards represent an instrumental framework for significant cultural change in Serbian society. The change will be fundamental and will take long to bring about. For this reason it can only be partially anticipated what its effects will be and whether and to what extent changes will be accopmlished in each of the areas mentioned.

  6. A fuzzy set approach to economic crisis, austerity and public health. Part I. European countries' conformity to ideal types during the economic downturn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltkjel, Therese; Ingelsrud, Mari Holm; Dahl, Espen; Halvorsen, Knut

    2017-08-01

    This is the first part of a two-part paper that takes an explorative approach to assess crisis and austerity in European countries during the Great Recession. The ultimate aim of this two-part paper is to explore the "crisis-austerity" thesis by Stuckler and Basu and assess whether it is the interplay between austerity and crisis, rather than the current economic crisis per se, that can led to deterioration in population health. In Part I of this paper we offer one way of operationalizing crisis severity and austerity. We examine countries as specific configurations of crisis and policy responses and classify European countries into "ideal types." Cases included were 29 countries participating in the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) surveys. Based on fuzzy set methodology, we constructed two fuzzy sets, "austerity" and "severe crisis." Austerity was measured by changes in welfare generosity; severe crisis was measured by changes in gross domestic product (GDP) per capita growth. In the initial phase of the Great Recession, most countries faced severe crisis combined with no austerity. From 2010-2011 onward, there was a divide between countries. Some countries consistently showed signs of austerity policies (with or without severe crisis); others consistently did not. The fuzzy set ideal-type analysis shows that the European countries position themselves, by and large, in configurations of crisis and austerity in meaningful ways that allow us to explore the "crisis-austerity" thesis by Stuckler and Basu. This exploration is the undertaking of Part II of this paper.

  7. The Elitism Dispositif: Hierarchization, Discourses of Excellence and Organizational Change in European Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maesse, Jens

    2017-01-01

    From the 1990s onwards, economics departments in Europe have changed toward a culture of "excellence." Strong academic hierarchies and new forms of academic organization replace "institutes" and "colleges" by fully equipped "economics departments." This article seeks to demonstrate how and why…

  8. European Economic Integration and the Fate of Lesser-Used Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grin, Francois

    1993-01-01

    The consequences of economic integration for Europe's lesser-used languages are examined. Applying theoretical predictions to a set of 12 minority languages, this paper shows that 5 will likely be in a more favorable position, 4 may lose as a result of economic integration, and no clear effect can be predicted for the remaining 3. (18 references)…

  9. Can the Yield Spread predict economic growth? An assessment for European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, Rubens Guimarães Togeiro de

    2014-01-01

    Double Degree. A Work Project presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Economics from the NOVA- School of Business and Economics and a Masters Degree in Management from Louvain School of Management NSBE - UNL

  10. 2012 National Park visitor spending effects: economic contributions to local communities, states, and the nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Huber, Christopher C.; Koontz, Lynne

    2014-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) manages the nation's most iconic destinations that attract millions of visitors from across the nation and around the world. Trip-related spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway communities. This economic effects analysis measures how NPS visitor spending cycles through local economies, generating business sales and supporting jobs and income.

  11. 2013 National Park visitor spending effects: economic contributions to local communities, states, and the nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane Thomas, Catherine M.; Huber, Christopher C.; Koontz, Lynne

    2014-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) manages the nation's most iconic destinations that attract millions of visitors form across the nation and around the world. Trip-related spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway communities. This economic effects analysis measures how NPS visitor spending cycles through local economies, generating business sales and supporting jobs and income.

  12. The business cycles and the influence of economic confidence indicators in the European region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Constantinescu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic confidence level is expressed by managers that are active in significant economic sectors. The financial markets consider these economic confidence indicators as leading instruments that can point the direction of the real economy. The level of trust in the economy is important because, similar with the stock investors behavior, the private sector managers or the consumers can act and carry a restrictive or a euphoric business policy, actions that could in fact affect the environment in a negative way and could unbalance the economic equilibrium.The role of this study is to propose a methodology of analyzing the influence of the economic confidence indicators over the stock market, an industry that can be overlooked as a transmission environment for the investment sentiment. We plan to study and comment the relation between these indicators, the stock market and future macroeconomic results like the GDP, the industrial production or the unemployment rate.

  13. ENERGY ECONOMICS AND POLICY OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadim Strielkowski

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available European Union adapted the policy of reducing its carbon footprint and embarked on the journey to shift to renewable energy sources in the early 1990s. The whole process started with implementations of binding rules that set up indicative targets for the EU Member States. However, this process had to go hand in hand with high energy costs charged to the consumers. This paper defines various types of renewable sources in the EU and analyses European legislation on renewable energy sources. In addition, it deals with the current situation regarding the energy policies in the European Union and outlines its main criticisms and prospects. The results and conclusions might be of some value for EU main energy providers as well as for the EU partners in the world.

  14. The model of localized business community economic development under limited financial resources: computer model and experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berg Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization processes now affect and are affected by most of organizations, different type resources, and the natural environment. One of the main restrictions initiated by these processes is the financial one: money turnover in global markets leads to its concentration in the certain financial centers, and local business communities suffer from the money lack. This work discusses the advantages of complementary currency introduction into a local economics. By the computer simulation with the engineered program model and the real economic experiment it was proved that the complementary currency does not compete with the traditional currency, furthermore, it acts in compliance with it, providing conditions for the sustainable business community development.

  15. Sharia Banking’s Profit Loss Finance in the Context of ASEAN Economic Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardhiyatur Rosita Ningsih

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyze the problems of profit and loss sharing financing is conducted through literature and interviews with funding customers, islamic bankers and entrepreneurs. The result show that profit oriented, lack of trust in the abilities of partners, moral hazard, mismanagement and lack of syariah product information. So, give Incentive for funding customers, incentive compatible constraint, involved effort in spiritual and intellectual expected may help small and medium enterprises to face ASEAN Economic Community.   Keywords: ASEAN Economic Community, profit and loss sharing financing, small and medium enterprises

  16. Evaluating the economic impact of large cultural events: a case-study of Sibiu, European capital of culture 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Vasiliu, Florica; Dragoman, Dragoș

    2009-01-01

    This article intends to describe and analyze the impact of a cultural mega-event on a specific city context in post-communist Romania. Our case-study of Sibiu European Capital of Culture 2007 shows that cultural events have not only undeniable cultural and social value, but also an important economic impact. The cultural event in Sibiu managed not only to enhance the city's image and to promote Romania worldwide, yet it largely helped local and regional economy by direct, indirect and induced...

  17. Towards a Circular Economy in the European Union - A Solution For the Economic Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Câmpeanu

    2016-01-01

    In order to achieve the resource efficiency agenda set by the Europe 2020 Strategy, the European Union is on its way of transition from the linear economy to a circular economy model. A first step was achieved in 2014 by the European Commission Communication “Towards a circular economy: a zero waste programme for Europe”, recently followed by the Circular economy package, which includes an Action Plan for the Circular economy and a time-bound implementation of the initiatives. In this researc...

  18. The Portrait of Kuta village Community Economic Activities and Its Application as Economic Learning Source Based on Cultural Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Fitriana Afriza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to improve students’ knowledge and understanding on pattern development of economic activity on community that retain its local wisdom. Kuta village is located at Karangpaningal Village, Tambaksari District, Ciamis Regency. It is one of traditional villages which still maintains its traditions in harmony with nature. The research was a qualitative study and data were collected by using interviews, observation, and literature study. Findings show that there is a development of the community’s livelihood at Kuta Village. The scope of economic activity is still in micro scale. Then, there is a technological transformation in natural resource management. Therefore, it is very clear that local wisdom is very suitable for subject materials in the form of narratives, stories, posters, or comics.

  19. General Principles of the WTO and European Community Laws in Building International Competition Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Mo Chung

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The World Trade Organization (WTO established a Working Group on the interaction between trade and competition policy in 1996. By the Doha Ministerial Declaration, it recognized the case for international competition policy framework and agreed that the relevant negotiations take place after the Fifth Session of the Ministerial Conference. The Working Group is meant to focus on the clarification of: core principles, including transparency, non-discrimination and procedural fairness among others in the period until the Fifth Session. This article attempts to clarify the implications of the core (WTO principles to the would-be international competition laws and practices. It further tries to get lessons from competition law and practices of the European Community. Protection of fundamental rights, proportionality, non-discrimination, transparency, supremacy, subsidiarity and direct effect are the general principles of the European Community law to be discussed in relation to the competition law and policy. It concludes that the general principles of the WTO and EC laws provide guiding principles for the future international competition norms, and makes some preliminary assessment of the present Korean competition law and policy in the light of those principles.

  20. The Relationship between Youth Unemployment and Economic Growth in Central and Eastern European Countries: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman ERDAL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study has analyzed the relationship between youth unemployment and economic growth, in the context of Okun law, by using new generation panel data analysis and cointegration tests. In this study, 18 Central and Eastern European country have been selected as subject matter whose youth unemployment rate is above the EU-28 average (25 % for the period 2006-2012. The results show that, if youth unemployment is quite severe; even an exclusive economic growth will not be enough to reduce the youth unemployment rate in the country. It is recommended that the global and country-specific policies which are effective, result-driven on youth (Un employment and labour market issues, should be developed. This study is expected to make a significant contribution to the literature on unemployment and social conflict.

  1. Sovereignty and the Shaping of Economic Governance in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, A.; van Rossem, J.W.C.

    2015-01-01

    In her view on the Pringle case, Advocate General Kokott unfolded an interesting analysis with regard to the scope of Article 125 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), the no bail-out clause. In order to sustain her argument that this provision did not preclude the euro

  2. Climate change may cause severe loss in the economic value European forest land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanewinkel, M.; Cullman, D.A.; Schelhaas, M.J.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Zimmerman, N.

    2013-01-01

    European forests, covering more than 2¿million¿km2 or 32% of the land surface1, are to a large extent intensively managed and support an important timber industry. Climate change is expected to strongly affect tree species distribution within these forests2, 3. Climate and land use are undergoing

  3. A functional method for classifying European grasslands for use in joint ecological and economic studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodgson, J.G.; Montserrat-Marti, G.; Cerabolini, B.; Seriani, R.M.; Maestro-Martinez, M.; Peco, B.; Wilson, P.J.; Thompson, K.; Grime, J.P.; Band, S.R.; Bogard, A.; Castro-Diez, P.; Charles, M.; Jones, G.; Perez-Rontome, M.C.; Caccianiga, M.; Allard, D.; Bakker, J.P.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Dutoit, T.; Grootjans, A.P.; Guerrero-Campo, J.; Gupta, P.L.; Hynd, A.; Kahmen, S.; Poschlod, P.; Romo-Diez, A.; Rorison, I.H.; Rosen, E.; Schreiber, K.F.; Tallowin, J.; De Torres Espuny, L.; Villar-Salvador, P.

    2005-01-01

    A simple protocol is presented for a functional classification of European grassland species using attributes that can be quickly and easily measured. These attributes relate to habitat fertility, intensity of grazing and disturbance. As a surrogate for habitat fertility we use leaf nitrogen

  4. A functional method for classifying European grasslands for use in joint ecological and economic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodgson, JG; Montserrat-Marti, G; Cerabolini, B; Ceriani, RM; Maestro-Martinez, M; Peco, B; Wilson, PJ; Thompson, K; Grime, JP; Band, SR; Bogard, A; Castro-Diez, P; Charles, M; Jones, G; Perez-Rontome, MC; Caccianiga, M; Alard, D; Bakker, JP; Cornelissen, JHC; Dutoit, T; Grootjans, AP; Guerrero-Campo, J; Gupta, PL; Hynd, A; Kahmen, S; Poschlod, P; Romo-Diez, A; Rorison, IH; Rosen, E; Schreiber, KF; Tallowin, J; Espuny, LD; Villar-Salvador, P

    2005-01-01

    A simple protocol is presented for a functional classification of European grassland species using attributes that can be quickly and easily measured. These attributes relate to habitat fertility, intensity of grazing and disturbance. As a surrogate for habitat fertility we use leaf nitrogen

  5. Towards a Circular Economy in the European Union - A Solution For the Economic Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Câmpeanu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve the resource efficiency agenda set by the Europe 2020 Strategy, the European Union is on its way of transition from the linear economy to a circular economy model. A first step was achieved in 2014 by the European Commission Communication “Towards a circular economy: a zero waste programme for Europe”, recently followed by the Circular economy package, which includes an Action Plan for the Circular economy and a time-bound implementation of the initiatives. In this research paper, we analyze the reasons for the paradigm shift from the linear model to the circular economy model, and the European Union Strategy for the circular economy, with the benefits and risks involved. As the European Union Member States and regions have a direct participation in the achievement of the circular economy, our work summarizes the concrete programme of action, with measures covering the whole cycle: from production and consumption to waste management and the market for secondary raw materials.

  6. The common fisheries policy of the European Union and fisheries economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Hans; Andersen, Peder

    2006-01-01

    The revision of the Common Fisheries Policy of the European Union in 2003 was communicated in a ‘Roadmap’, including the opinion of the EU Commission on how to reform the fisheries policy. This paper reviews the Roadmap and confronts the opinion and initiatives proposed by the Commission with the...

  7. European integration and the supervision of local and regional authorities
    Experiences in the Netherlands with requirements of European Community law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Hessel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of increasing European integration, local and regional authorities are having to deal with European law more and more intensively. As Member States (read: central government are responsible vis-à-vis the Community for the errors of local and regional authorities, the question arises within Member States whether the central government possesses sufficient supervisory instruments for complying with their obligations under Community law: they must ensure that the errors of local and regional authorities are rectified in time, and national law must provide for sufficient possibilities to do so. Although Community law is neutral towards the internal relations between the various tiers of government within the Member States, this responsibility of the central government may, as a result of European integration, lead to a need for more powerful supervisory instruments in relation to local and regional authorities. In the past five years there has been some debate on this subject within the Netherlands and after a long delay the Dutch cabinet in 2004 decided that the existing supervisory instruments in the decentralized unitary state of the Netherlands should be expanded. The legislation intended to realize this expansion is being prepared. This discussion and its results would seem of interest to other Member States of the Community facing similar problems.

  8. Incentives for Developing Resilient Agritourism Entrepreneurship in Rural Communities in Romania in a European Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Cristina Drăgoi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In a global setting where the requirements for development equally address the economic viability but also social and environmental sustainability, the healthy and efficient growth of rural communities poses substantial challenges. Our paper focuses on specific conditions and constraints that influence the progress of agritourism business initiatives as viable entrepreneurial solutions for self-sustainable rural communities in Romania. To assess the impact of economic, social and tourism-related factors on agritourism entrepreneurship for Romanian counties during 2010–2015 periods, we conducted several Ordinary Least Square regression models. The results emphasize that economic indicators like regional GDP and kilometers of national roads have a positive influence on the number of agritourism business units; also, a positive impact on agritourism entrepreneurship was identified for tourism-related factors like: number of employees and corresponding salaries in tourism, total tourists, share of tourism firms and their turnover in total firms and turnover of the region, as well as preference of tourists for agritourism. The conclusions highlight the direct link between resilient agritourism entrepreneurship and sustainable development of the region and open further research directions.

  9. THE IMPLICATIONS OF STATE AID TO RnD ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacila Nicolae

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In economic terms, the importance of state aid policy refers to the maintaining of an undistorted competition and the correction of inherent “market failures” which may occur in the economy, aiming at increasing economic efficiency, based on the traditional assumption that an effective competition will have a positive impact on economic development. The main objective of the present paper is to establish a possible correlation between state aid to research and development (RnD and GDP level in the EU. Our research hypothesis relates to considering state aid as a significant contribution to the economic development, measured by GDP level, which will be estimated as a function of state aid. Consequently, the main variables of this study are state aid to RnD and GDP level, considered in both relative and absolute terms. The relationship between technological change and economic development has been at the centre of the interest in both theoretical and empirical literature. The role of institutions and government policies in stimulating technological change has been provided mainly by the evolutionary theory, which considers economic development as a technological change driven process featured by a complex pattern which includes both uniformity and idiosyncrasy across time and countries. The relationship between these variables was estimated through a panel model which used seemly unrelated regression (SUR and ordinary least squares estimation (OLS. Taking into account that the economic value is likely to be realized after the innovation process took place we have interpreted this economic aspect in an econometric sense by using time lags. In analysing the relative importance of state aid to RnD, we have proposed an index which evaluates the relation between state aid and the relative size of the Member State’s economy. The relationship between state aid and GDP level was found to be positive and

  10. THE FISCAL FEDERALISM AND THE GOOD ECONOMIC GOVERNANCE IN EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Ligia Dumitrescu

    2013-01-01

    The research objectives aim to analyze the advantages and the disadvantages of the fiscal federalism, in order to identify the model of economic governance that will increase the quality and efficiency in public intervention. The fiscal federalism could have an important impact on the economic and political level in EU, but mostly in member states, in order to obtain a better administration and more responsible governance for the resources allocation, income distribution and fiscal consolidat...

  11. Microeconomic surplus in health care: applied economic theory in health care in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, S; Nuijten, M; Wiesner, C; Kaier, K; Johansson, P-O; Oertel, S

    2013-01-01

    In economic theory economic surplus refers to two related quantities: Consumer and producer surplus. Applying this theory to health care "convenience" could be one way how consumer benefits might manifest itself. Various areas of economic surplus were identified and subsequently screened and analyzed in Germany, Spain, The Netherlands, and the UK: Cesarean births, emergency room visits (nights or weekends), drug availability after test results, and response surplus. A targeted literature search was being conducted to identify the associated costs. Finally the economic surplus (convenience value) was calculated. The economic surplus for different health care areas was being calculated. The highest economic surplus was obtained for the example of response surplus IVF-treatments in The Netherlands. The analyzed examples in this article support the underlying hypothesis for this research: "Value of convenience defined as the consumer surplus in health care can be shown in different health care settings." Again, this hypothesis should be accepted as a starting point in this research area and hence further primary research is strongly recommended in order to fully proof this concept.

  12. The formal-informal patient payment mix in European countries. Governance, economics, culture or all of these?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambor, Marzena; Pavlova, Milena; Golinowska, Stanisława; Sowada, Christoph; Groot, Wim

    2013-12-01

    Cost-sharing for health care is high on the policy agenda in many European countries that struggle with deficits in their public budget. However, such policy often meets with public opposition, which might delay or even prevent its implementation. Increased reliance on patient payments may also have adverse equity effects, especially in countries where informal patient payments are widespread. The factors which might influence the presence of both, formal and informal payments can be found in economic, governance and cultural differences between countries. The aim of this paper is to review the formal-informal payment mix in Europe and to outline factors associated with this mix. We use quantitative analyses of macro-data for 35 European countries and a qualitative description of selected country experiences. The results suggest that the presence of obligatory cost-sharing for health care services is associated with governance factors, while informal patient payments are a multi-cause phenomenon. A consensus-based policy, supported by evidence and stakeholders' engagement, might contribute to a more sustainable patient payment policy. In some European countries, the implementation of cost-sharing requires policy actions to reduce other patient payment obligations, including measures to eliminate informal payments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Higher Prevalence of Retinopathy in Diabetic Patients of South Asian Ethnicity Compared With White Europeans in the Community

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond, Neil T.; Varadhan, Lakshminarayanan; Reynold, Dilini R.; Bush, Kate; Sankaranarayanan, Sailesh; Bellary, Srikanth; Barnett, Anthony H.; Kumar, Sudhesh; O'Hare, J. Paul

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE?The purpose of this study was to compare prevalence and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy among U.K. residents of South Asian or white European ethnicity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS?This was a community-based cross-sectional study involving 10 general practices; 1,035 patients with type 2 diabetes were studied: 421 of South Asian and 614 of white European ethnicity. Diabetic retinopathy, sight-threatening retinopathy, maculopathy, and previous laser photocoagulation therapy wer...

  14. Whose Knowledge Counts in International Student Assessments: Examining the AHELO Epistemic Community of Economics Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, David J.

    2016-01-01

    International student assessments have become the "lifeblood" of the accountability movement in educational policy contexts. Drawing upon Stuart Hall's concept of representation, I critically examined who comprises epistemic communities responsible for developing the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's Assessment of…

  15. Economic Returns of the Occupational Education Experience Based on Two Missouri Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Dianna

    2011-01-01

    A commonly held belief is that formal education has a strong positive association with earnings (Sanchez, 1998). The motivation for individuals to pursue and complete an education beyond high school is likely founded in the hopes of higher paying jobs or a higher position. The "economic benefits" of a community college education can be…

  16. A Theoretical Framework for Analysis of Community Economic Development Policy Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulver, Glen C.

    For many years, developers have placed near total reliance on increased productivity in agriculture, greater exploitation of natural resources, and the addition of new manufacturing industries as strategies for community economic development in nonmetropolitan areas. The concentration on expanding goods producing industries is unnecessarily…

  17. The efficacy of economic-development programs in forest-dependent communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rory Fraser

    1997-01-01

    West Virginia is one of the poorest states in the nation and its rural communities are more hard pressed than their urban counterparts. At the same time, West Virginia is one of the most densely forested states in the USA. The combination of poverty amidst a wealth of forest suggest that economic development based on the forest resource could provide solutions for poor...

  18. The Relationship Between Renewable Energy Production and Energy Imports Among Countries in the European Economic Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unbehaun, Sarah J.

    Most European countries must import fossil fuels due to a lack of domestic supplies but, in the interest of having a secure energy supply that is not susceptible to disruptions, would like to decrease their dependence on imports. It is possible that increasing renewable energy production could achieve this objective, in addition to providing environmental benefits. This analysis examines whether there is a relationship between renewable energy production and non-renewable energy imports, using data on European Union member countries and Norway from 1990-2014. Previous literature on the relationship between renewables and imports is scarce but provides suggestive evidence that production of renewables could lower import dependence, even if it cannot fully substitute for fossil fuels. However, the results of this analysis provide no evidence to support this position. Instead, I find that as renewable energy production increases, fossil fuel imports also increase.

  19. Regional GDP Convergence in the European Regions in the light of the Economic Recession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nils Karl; Cornett, Andreas P.

    2014-01-01

    . No countries have gone directly from regional convergence to regional divergence. With a few exceptions a more gradual process is observed form convergence to no determined pattern to divergence. This overall pattern is a challenge to the regional development policy of the European Union.......This article investigates the implications of the slowdown of the European economies since 2007 on the process of GDP convergence at the regional NUTS 2 level. We use a nominal data set on GPD per capita divided into the periods 1995-2006 and 2007-2010. Using the notion of β-convergence we find...... that a pattern of regional divergence is present. We do not observe a pattern of regional convergence in any of the nations considered for the period from 2007. Out of the 19 countries analyzed divergence is present in 6 countries whereas the pattern is not determinable in any of the remaining countries...

  20. Sparks in the Fog: Social and Economic Mechanisms as Enablers for Community Network Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Amin KHAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Internet and communication technologies have lowered the costs of enabling individuals and communities to collaborate together. This collaboration has provided new services like user-generated content and social computing, as evident from success stories like Wikipedia. Through collaboration, collectively built infrastructures like community wireless mesh networks where users provide the communication network, have also emerged. Community networks have demonstrated successful bandwidth sharing, but have not been able to extend their collective effort to other computing resources like storage and processing. The success of cloud computing has been enabled by economies of scale and the need for elastic, flexible and on-demand provisioning of computing services. The consolidation of today’s cloud technologies offers now the possibility of collectively built community clouds, building upon user-generated content and user-provided networks towards an ecosystem of cloud services. We explore in this paper how social and economic mechanisms can play a role in overcoming the barriers of voluntary resource provisioning in such community clouds, by analysing the costs involved in building these services and how they give value to the participants. We indicate socio-economic policies and how they can be implemented in community networks, to ease the uptake and ensure the sustainability of community clouds.

  1. Sense of community, fatalism and participation in socio-economic crisis contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Vallejo-Martín

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the relationship among sense of community, fatalism and participation in the context of the current socio-economic crisis. In order to do this, it establishes differences in these variables according to certain socio-economic factors: having a job, perceived social class and monthly income. A distinction is made between two types of participation: community participation; and socio-political participation. Based on a sample of 759 people, the results revealed an average level of sense of community, a medium-low level of fatalism and low levels of both types of participation. Significant correlations between the variables were obtained: the two dimensions of participation are positively correlated with sense of community and negatively correlated with fatalism. Regression analysis showed that sense of community and fatalism are predictors for participatory behaviour. Thus, the feeling of belonging to a community fuels participation in it, either through community behaviour or through behaviour that seeks a social change. However, the belief that the future is already written inhibits both types of participation. Perception of socioeconomic status also has influence in this fact.

  2. 2016 National Park visitor spending effects: Economic contributions to local communities, states, and the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Koontz, Lynne

    2017-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) manages the Nation’s most iconic destinations that attract millions of visitors from across the Nation and around the world. Trip-related spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway communities. This economic effects analysis measures how NPS visitor spending cycles through local economies, generating business sales and supporting jobs and income. In 2016, the National Park System received an estimated 330,971,689 recreation visits. Visitors to National Parks spent an estimated $18.4 billion in local gateway regions (defined as communities within 60 miles of a park). The contribution of this spending to the national economy was 318 thousand jobs, $12.0 billion in labor income, $19.9 billion in value added, and $34.9 billion in economic output. The lodging sector saw the highest direct contributions with $5.7 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally. The sector with the next greatest direct contributions was the restaurants and bars sector, with $3.7 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally. Results from the Visitor Spending Effects report series are available online via an interactive tool. Users can view year-by-year trend data and explore current year visitor spending, jobs, labor income, value added, and economic output effects by sector for national, state, and local economies. This interactive tool is available at https://www.nps.gov/subjects/socialscience/vse.htm.

  3. 2015 National Park visitor spending effects: Economic contributions to local communities, states, and the nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane Thomas, Catherine M.; Koontz, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) manages the Nation’s most iconic destinations that attract millions of visitors from across the Nation and around the world. Trip-related spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway communities. This economic effects analysis measures how NPS visitor spending cycles through local economies, generating business sales and supporting jobs and income.In 2015, the National Park System received over 307.2 million recreation visits. NPS visitors spent \\$16.9 billion in local gateway regions (defined as communities within 60 miles of a park). The contribution of this spending to the national economy was 295 thousand jobs, \\$11.1 billion in labor income, \\$18.4 billion in value added, and \\$32.0 billion in economic output. The lodging sector saw the highest direct contributions with \\$5.2 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally. The sector with the next greatest direct contributions was the restaurants and bar sector, with \\$3.4 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally.Results from the Visitor Spending Effects report series are available online via an interactive tool. Users can view year-by-year trend data and explore current year visitor spending, jobs, labor income, value added, and economic output effects by sector for national, state, and local economies. This interactive tool is available at http://go.nps.gov/vse.

  4. Reviving Community Spirit: Furthering the Sustainable, Historical and Economic Role of Fish Weirs and Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Bill

    2013-06-01

    Stone wall fish weirs and traps were once an important means for inland and coastal communities to catch fish. In many places the weirs and traps have been left to deteriorate and other more productive but less sustainable practices have taken their place. It was considered that they have fulfilled their historical and economic role and it was the loss of community spirit that has contributed to their decline. A recent survey in Yap, Federated States of Micronesia found a diverse and extensive number of fish weirs and traps, and a community keen to restore and reinvigorate their associated cultural practices and community spirit. The paper draws on comparative data from other places of the world to investigate weirs and traps, and to see if a similar revival could be observed. Of importance was a need to highlight the value of pursuing this type of research for contemporary communities and maritime archaeological practitioners in the current international management framework for underwater cultural heritage.

  5. Comparing the Community Composition of European and Eastern Chinese Waterbirds and the Influence of Human Factors on the China Waterbird Community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de W.F.; Cao, L.; Barter, M.; Wang, X.; Sun, M.; Oeveren, van H.; Leeuw, de J.; Barzen, J.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2011-01-01

    We compared the European and eastern Chinese waterbird assemblages and checked whether the effects of human disturbance could be detected in the assemblages’ composition. For the different Chinese provinces, we expected to find a negative effect of economic development on the mean bird species mass

  6. The Political Economy of the European Union: Institutions, Policy and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    the current institutional set-up of the EU will determine future economic performance and will adversely affect policy outcomes. He looks at whether fundamental EU policies, such as the CAP, are consistent with economic growth or whether these policies will instead distort markets, leading to economic decline....... Focusing in detail on international climate negotiations and wind energy, the author explores the way in which the design of a policy proposal can be affected by the interactions between interest groups and the institutions and bureaucrats of the EU. The case of greenhouse gas emissions trading is a unique......' may be avoided by strengthening the power of the EU Parliament at the expense of the EU Commission. The book also discusses issues surrounding policy design, international negotiations on climate change and renewable energy sources. Using an interdisciplinary framework, the author examines how...

  7. The impact and determinants of the energy paradigm on economic growth in European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, Jean Vasile; Mieila, Mihai; Panait, Mirela

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary economies are strongly reliant on energy and analyzing the determining factors that trigger the changes in energy paradigm and their impact upon economic growth is a topical research subject. Our contention is that energy paradigm plays a major role in achieving the sustainable development of contemporary economies. In order to prove this the panel data methodology of research was employed, namely four panel unit root tests (LLC, IPS, F-ADF and F-PP) aiming to reveal the connections and relevance among 17 variables denoting energy influence on economic development. Moreover, it was introduced a specific indicator to express energy consumption per capita. Our findings extend the classical approach of the changes in energy paradigm and their impact upon economic growth and offer a comprehensive analysis which surpasses the practices and policy decisions in the field.

  8. THE EUROPEAN UNION CONVERGENCE IN TERMS OF ECONOMIC AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Andreea BUCUR

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the context of EU enlargement there is no universal model which should offer a unique solution for diminishing the disparities in the development of a country. An approach only from the point of view of economic growth is not enough, so we extend the analysis towards the social development. Considering the level of GDP per capita and of HDI registered by EU states during 1995-2012, we test the hypothesis of real σ and β-convergence in terms of economic and social development. The estimated results indicate a tendency in reducing the divergence in both economic and social degree of development. A relatively strong process of real σ-convergence became evident while real β-convergence testing supports the hypothesis among EU countries, but the results indicate a slower process for HDI convergence compared with GDP per capita.

  9. The impact and determinants of the energy paradigm on economic growth in European Union.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Vasile Andrei

    Full Text Available Contemporary economies are strongly reliant on energy and analyzing the determining factors that trigger the changes in energy paradigm and their impact upon economic growth is a topical research subject. Our contention is that energy paradigm plays a major role in achieving the sustainable development of contemporary economies. In order to prove this the panel data methodology of research was employed, namely four panel unit root tests (LLC, IPS, F-ADF and F-PP aiming to reveal the connections and relevance among 17 variables denoting energy influence on economic development. Moreover, it was introduced a specific indicator to express energy consumption per capita. Our findings extend the classical approach of the changes in energy paradigm and their impact upon economic growth and offer a comprehensive analysis which surpasses the practices and policy decisions in the field.

  10. Book reviews: Miroslav N. Jovanovic – Evolutionary Economic Geography. Location of Production in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca G. Popescu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The book tries to answer the problem of locating production of a company in the geographic space analyzing what determines productivity differences between regions using the theory of evolutionary economic geography. Evolutionary economics studies “the origin, change, direction and speed in the spatial distribution and organization of as well as production and consumption in a certain period of time.” The studied problem is relevant in order to know not only what will be the future location of jobs, their quality and quantity but also where will take place the maximization of profits, the collection of taxes, the public spending, etc.

  11. The effect of institutions on European housing markets : an economic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mora Sanguinetti, Juan Sebastián

    2009-01-01

    Durante el siglo XX y en especial en su segunda mitad, el mercado de alquiler ha ido perdiendo peso a favor de la vivienda en propiedad tanto en la economía española como en la del resto de países europeos. El gráfico R.1 muestra esta tendencia negativa en el peso del mercado del alquiler sobre el total de viviendas principales1 para algunas economías europeas en los años más recientes. En este contexto y si bien la reducción en el peso del mercado de alquiler (a favor del m...

  12. Physical and rehabilitation medicine section and board of the European Union of Medical Specialists. Community context; history of European medical organizations; actions under way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Korvin, G; Delarque, A

    2009-01-01

    The European Community is based on a series of treaties and legal decisions, which result from preliminary documents prepared long before by different organizations and lobbies. The European union of medical specialists (Union européenne des médecins specialists [UEMS]) came into being in order to address the questions raised by European directives (e.g., free circulation of people and services, reciprocal recognition of diplomas, medical training, quality improvements). The specialty sections of the UEMS contribute actively to this work. The physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) section is composed of three committees: the PRM board is devoted to initial and continuing education and has published a harmonized teaching programme and organized a certification procedure, which can be considered as a European seal of quality; the Clinical Affairs Committee is concerned with the quality of PRM care, and it has set up a European accreditation system for PRM programs of care, which will help to describe PRM clinical activity more concretely; and the Professional Practice Committee works on the fields of competence in our specialty. This third committee has already published a White Book, and further documents are being prepared, based on both the International classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) and reference texts developed by the French Federation of PRM.

  13. Childhood multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in the European Union and European Economic Area: an analysis of tuberculosis surveillance data from 2007 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ködmön, Csaba; van den Boom, Martin; Zucs, Phillip; van der Werf, Marieke Johanna

    2017-11-01

    BackgroundConfirming tuberculosis (TB) in children and obtaining information on drug susceptibility is essential to ensure adequate treatment. We assessed whether there are gaps in diagnosis and treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB in children in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA), quantified the burden of MDR TB in children and characterised cases. Methods: We analysed surveillance data from 2007 to 2015 for paediatric cases younger than 15 years. Results: In that period, 26 EU/EEA countries reported 18,826 paediatric TB cases of whom 4,129 (21.9%) were laboratory-confirmed. Drug susceptibility testing results were available for 3,378 (17.9%), representing 81.8% of the confirmed cases. The majority (n = 2,967; 87.8%) had drug-sensitive TB, 249 (7.4%) mono-resistant TB, 64 (1.9%) poly-resistant TB, 90 (2.7%) MDR TB and eight (0.2%) had extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB. MDR TB was more frequently reported among paediatric cases with foreign background (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.73; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.12-2.67) or previous TB treatment (aOR: 6.42; 95% CI: 3.24-12.75). Successful treatment outcome was reported for 58 of 74 paediatric MDR TB cases with outcome reported from 2007 to 2013; only the group of 5-9 years-olds was significantly associated with unsuccessful treatment outcome (crude odds ratio (cOR) = 11.45; 95% CI: 1.24-106.04). Conclusions: The burden of MDR TB in children in the EU/EEA appears low, but may be underestimated owing to challenges in laboratory confirmation. Diagnostic improvements are needed for early detection and adequate treatment of MDR TB. Children previously treated for TB or of foreign origin may warrant higher attention.

  14. The Biofuels Revolution: Understanding the Social, Cultural and Economic Impacts of Biofuels Development on Rural Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selfa, Theresa L; Goe, Richard; Kulcsar, Laszlo; Middendorf, Gerad; Bain, Carmen

    2013-02-11

    The aim of this research was an in-depth analysis of the impacts of biofuels industry and ethanol plants on six rural communities in the Midwestern states of Kansas and Iowa. The goal was to provide a better understanding of the social, cultural, and economic implications of biofuels development, and to contribute to more informed policy development regarding bioenergy.Specific project objectives were: 1. To understand how the growth of biofuel production has affected and will affect Midwestern farmers and rural communities in terms of economic, demographic, and socio-cultural impacts; 2. To determine how state agencies, groundwater management districts, local governments and policy makers evaluate or manage bioenergy development in relation to competing demands for economic growth, diminishing water resources, and social considerations; 3. To determine the factors that influence the water management practices of agricultural producers in Kansas and Iowa (e.g. geographic setting, water management institutions, competing water-use demands as well as producers attitudes, beliefs, and values) and how these influences relate to bioenergy feedstock production and biofuel processing; 4. To determine the relative importance of social-cultural, environmental and/or economic factors in the promotion of biofuels development and expansion in rural communities; The research objectives were met through the completion of six detailed case studies of rural communities that are current or planned locations for ethanol biorefineries. Of the six case studies, two will be conducted on rural communities in Iowa and four will be conducted on rural communities in Kansas. A multi-method or mixed method research methodology was employed for each case study.

  15. A systematic review of economic evaluations of seasonal influenza vaccination for the elderly population in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Gemma E; Elvidge, Jamie; Davies, Linda M

    2017-06-10

    The Council of the European Union (EU) has recommended that action should be taken to increase influenza vaccination in the elderly population. The aims were to systematically review and critically appraise economic evaluations for influenza vaccination in the elderly population in the EU. Electronic searches of the NHS Economic Evaluation, Health Technology Assessment, MEDLINE and Embase databases were run to identify full economic evaluations. Two levels of screening were used, with explicit inclusion criteria applied by two independent reviewers at each stage. Prespecified data extraction and critical appraisal were performed on identified studies. Results were summarised qualitatively. Of the 326 search results, screening identified eight relevant studies. Results varied widely, with the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio ranging from being both more effective and cheaper than no intervention to costing €4 59 350 per life-year gained. Cost-effectiveness was most sensitive to variations in influenza strain, vaccination type and strategy, population and modelling characteristics. Most studies suggest that vaccination is cost-effective (seven of eight studies identified at least one cost-effective scenario). All but one study used economic models to synthesise data from different sources. The results are uncertain due to the methods used and the relevance and robustness of the data used. Sensitivity analysis to explore these aspects was limited. Integrated, controlled prospective clinical and economic evaluations and surveillance data are needed to improve the evidence base. This would allow more advanced modelling techniques to characterise the epidemiology of influenza more accurately and improve the robustness of cost-effectiveness estimates. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. The Economic Efficiency of European Football Clubs--Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatunin, Aleksey V.; Vishnyakova, Angelina B.; Sherstneva, Natalia L.; Mironova, Svetlana P.; Dneprov, Sergey A.; Grabozdin, Yuriy P.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of this paper lies in the fact that football business has grown significantly in the past 20 years and football clubs have become large companies, which in an effort to be profitable and successful on the field need to improve the efficiency of their business. The aim of this article is to measure economic efficiency of 48 big…

  17. The Geography of Entrepreneurial Activity and Regional Economic Development : Multilevel Analyses for Dutch and European Regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, N.S.

    2009-01-01

    Countries and regions are committed to stimulating entrepreneurship by opening doors to (potential) entrepreneurs. The commonly held belief is that a variety of entrepreneurs would lead to an enriched dynamic environment and as such lies at the root of economic prosperity. Over the past 25 years,

  18. Economic vulnerability among low-educated Europeans: Resource, composition, labour market and welfare state influences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gesthuizen, M.J.W.; Scheepers, P.L.H.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we pose the question: To what extent does a lack of individual resources and of access to high quality resources in one's core social network explain why low-educated people are likely to experience economic vulnerability? Additionally, we explain cross-national differences in the

  19. Company Tax Integration in the European Union During Economic Crisis – Why and How?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Sting (Anna)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Company tax integration in the EU is yet to be realised. This article first outlines the main benefits of company tax integration for the Economic and Monetary Union, and also discusses the main legal obstacles the EU Treaties pose for harmonisation of company tax.

  20. Gender Achievement and Social, Political and Economic Equality: A European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireson, Gren

    2017-01-01

    Differences in gender equality based on social, political and economic factors is cited, by some writers, as a contributory factor in the differentially greater achievement of boys in STEM subjects through the concept of gender stratification. Gender differences, especially in mathematics, have been linked directly to gender parity in wider…

  1. Assessing European Capacity for Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide. DSS and economic evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neele, F.P.; Hendriks, C.; Brandsma, R.; Blomen, E.

    2009-01-01

    A Decision Support System (DSS) has been developed to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of CO2 storage in the subsurface. The system can be used to define CO2 capture, transport and storage systems, consisting of a selection of CO2 sources and sinks and the connecting pipeline network.

  2. Africa : Economic Partnership Agreements between Africa and the European Union, What to do Now? Summary Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    This report addresses the question raised in its title - now that 18 interim Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) have been initialed and negotiations of full EPAs have been launched, what should African countries and regional EPA-groups do? Part two of the report analyzes the outcome of the EPA negotiations thus far, the interim EPAs' implications for the trade and related policies of p...

  3. Collective dose to the European Community from nuclear industry effluents discharge in 1978

    CERN Document Server

    Camplin, W C

    1983-01-01

    The results are presented of a study to evaluate the collective dose commitment to the population of the European Community from effluents released by the nuclear industry within the EC in 1978. Airborne and liquid effluent discharge data have been taken from published sources, and computer modelling techniques have been used to predict the transfer of radioactivity through the environment to man. The collective dose commitments due to discharges from each nuclear installation have been evaluated and the comparative significance of individual radionuclides and their pathways to man have been considered. Airborne releases resulted in an estimated collective effective dose equivalent commitment of 95 man Sv, the major part of which is due to carbon-14 from both power stations and reprocessing plants. The collective effective dose equivalent commitment from liquid effluents is estimated to be 408 man Sv, mostly due to caesium-137 and other radionuclides from the Sellafield (formerly Windscale) reprocessing plant...

  4. How to reconcile environmental and economic performance to improve corporate sustainability: corporate environmental strategies in the European paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Marcus

    2005-07-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between environmental and economic performance and the influence of corporate strategies with regard to sustainability and the environment. After formulating a theoretical model, results are reported from an empirical analysis of the European paper manufacturing industry. New data are used to test hypotheses derived from the theoretical model, using environmental performance indices representing different corporate environmental strategy orientations. In particular, an emissions-based index largely reflecting end-of-pipe strategies and an inputs-based index reflecting integrated pollution prevention are distinguished. For the emissions-based index, a predominantly negative relationship between environmental and economic performance is found, whereas for the inputs-based index no significant link is found. This is consistent with the theoretical model, which predicts the possibility of different relationships. The results also show that for firms with pollution prevention-oriented corporate environmental strategies, the relationship between environmental and economic performance is more positive, thus making improvements in corporate sustainability more likely. Based on this last insight, managerial implications of this are discussed with regard to strategy choices, investment decisions and operations management.

  5. "Rekindle and Recapture the Love": Establishing System-Wide Indicators of Progress in Community Engagement and Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Emily M.

    2014-01-01

    In May 2012, University of North Carolina (UNC) President Tom Ross simultaneously commissioned two task forces to develop indicators that all UNC campuses could use to measure "progress in community engagement and economic development." The charge to the Community Engagement Task Force and the Economic Development Task Force was to…

  6. Integration of marine transport into the European Emissions Trading System. Environmental, economic and legal analysis of different options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeuerle, Tim [Rechtsanwaelte Zimmermann - Gretz - Trautmann - Baeuerle, Heidelberg (Germany); Graichen, Jakob; Meyer, Kristin; Seum, Stefan [Oeko-Institut e.V., Berlin (Germany); Kulessa, Margareta [Mainz Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany); Oschinski, Matthias

    2010-05-15

    Marine vessels globally contribute to carbon dioxide emissions with approximately 3.3% (IMO 2009). Interna-tional ocean shipping has been growing significantly over recent years. To date international marine emissions are not part of the Kyoto obligations and the member states at IMO have not implemented instruments that would have limited or reduced the amount of greenhouse gas emissions from ships. The European Union has announced that if no international agreement including reduction targets for seaborne emissions has been approved by the UNFCCC by December 31, 2011, the EC is tasked to submit a proposal for including international marine transport in Euro-pean reduction targets and policy measures. An inclusion of international marine transport in the European Emis-sions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is a likely scenario. The study investigates three options for integrating international ocean shipping into the EU ETS based on: a last period; the last distance travelled and the distance the cargo has travelled. Basing the system on a last period is superior to basing it on last trip or cargo in terms of environmental effectiveness. However, the system would cover vessel activities in international waters, even potentially between two non-European ports, and thus the legal feasi-bility of this challenge is discussed. Another element of the study is the analysis of the economic effects of the inte-gration of international seaborne greenhouse gas emissions into the EU ETS. Overall it can be concluded that the integration of international ocean shipping into the EU ETS is a legally and technically feasible option with no significantly negative or even beneficial economic effects. The extension to vessel activity in international waters secures adequate coverage and environmental effectiveness. This extension to vessel activity in international waters is not only a prerequisite for adequate emissions coverage, but is also associated with the least legal obstacles, is

  7. Rich and Poor Cities in Europe. Urban Scaling to Mapping European Economic Convergence

    CERN Document Server

    Strano, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the urban science make broad use of the notion of scaling. We focus here on the important scaling relationship between the gross metropolitan product (GMP) of a city and its population (pop). It has been demonstrated that GMP $\\propto$ Y pop $^{\\beta}$ with $\\beta$ always greater than 1 and close to 1.2. This fundamental finding highlights a universal rule that holds across countries and cultures and might explain the very nature of cities. However, in an increasingly connected world, the hypothesis that the economy of a city solely depends on its population might be questionable. Using data for 248 cities in the European Union between 2005 and 2010, we found a double GMP/pop scaling regime. For West EU cities, $\\beta$ = 1 over the whole the period, while for post-communist cities $\\beta >$1 and increases from $\\sim$1.2 to $\\sim$1.4. The evolution of the scaling exponent describes the convergence of post-communist European cities to open and liberal economies. We propose a simple model of e...

  8. Domestic dog health worsens with socio-economic deprivation of their home communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, H L; Calzada, J; Saldaña, A; Santamaria, A M; Pineda, V; Gonzalez, K; Chaves, L F; Garner, B; Gottdenker, N

    2014-07-01

    Dogs play an important role in infectious disease transmission as reservoir hosts of many zoonotic and wildlife pathogens. Nevertheless, unlike wildlife species involved in the life cycle of pathogens, whose health status might be a direct reflection of their fitness and competitive abilities, dog health condition could be sensitive to socio-economic factors impacting the well-being of their owners. Here, we compare several dog health indicators in three rural communities of Panama with different degrees of socio-economic deprivation. From a total of 78 individuals, we collected blood and fecal samples, and assessed their body condition. With the blood samples, we performed routine hematologic evaluation (complete blood counts) and measured cytokine levels (Interferon-γ and Interleukin-10) through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. With the fecal samples we diagnosed helminthiases. Dogs were also serologically tested for exposure to Trypanosoma cruzi and canine distemper virus, and molecular tests were done to assess T. cruzi infection status. We found significant differences between dog health measurements, pathogen prevalence, parasite richness, and economic status of the human communities where the dogs lived. We found dogs that were less healthy, more likely to be infected with zoonotic pathogens, and more likely to be seropositive to canine distemper virus in the communities with lower economic status. This study concludes that isolated communities of lower economic status in Panama may have less healthy dogs that could become major reservoirs in the transmission of diseases to humans and sympatric wildlife. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Public Libraries and Community Economic Development: Partnering for Success. Rural Research Report. Volume 18, Issue 10, Winter 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton-Pennell, Christine

    2008-01-01

    In the past decade, economic development experts have moved away from traditional approaches to economic development that have relied upon recruiting or attracting large businesses with offers of tax breaks, financial incentives, and other subsidies. Increasingly, communities are focusing their economic development resources on supporting the…

  10. Economic burden of non-cervical cancers attributable to human papillomavirus: a European scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Préaud, Emmanuelle; Largeron, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has an important role in the aetiology of a range of diseases, including cervical, other anogenital, and head and neck cancers, genital warts and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. This literature review was conducted to identify the available cost data for non-cervical HPV-related cancers (anal, penile, vulvar, vaginal, head and neck) in Europe and to inform discussion of methodological challenges for future economic research. The literature search was conducted using Medline and key words to identify papers published in English or French between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2011. Abstracts of major conferences were searched to identify relevant information. Structured methods were used to select references that focused on overall disease management for inclusion in the review. A total of 21 references from seven countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, The Netherlands, Portugal, and the UK) were selected, including 11 references relating to head and neck cancers, five to anogenital cancers, and five to more than one HPV-related disease. Non-cervical cancers accounted for a substantial proportion of the economic burden of HPV-related cancers, and this burden was mainly driven by men (∼70%). A wide range of costs were reported for each disease, particularly head and neck cancers, predominantly due to disease complexity and variation in study design. The main limitation of this study was in the search strategy, which was constrained by the key words, the database searched, and the restriction on language (English/French). Non-cervical cancers attributable to HPV impose a substantial economic burden in Europe, and the burden is greater in men than in women. This review provides useful information for future health-economic studies assessing the impact of HPV vaccination on all HPV-related diseases.

  11. Community support and participation among persons with disabilities. A study in three European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Wilken

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Community support and participation among persons with disabilities. A study in three European countriesThis article describes a European project which was aimed at improving the situation of persons with psychiatric or learning disabilities with regard to social participation and citizenship. The project took place in three countries (Estonia, Hungary and the Netherlands and four cities (Tallinn, Budapest, Amersfoort and Maastricht. The project included research and actions at the policy level, the organizational level and the practice level. At the policy level, the framework of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (United Nations, 2006 and the European Disability Strategy (European Commission, 2010 were used to look at national and local policies, at the reality of the lives of those with disabilities and at the support that professional services offer with regard to participation and inclusion. The project generated a number of insights, recommendations and methods by which to improve the quality of service and increase the number of opportunities for community engagement. In this article, we present some of the lessons learned from the meta-analysis. Although the circumstances in each country are quite different with regard to policy, culture and service systems, it is remarkable that people with disabilities face many of the same problems.The study shows that in all three countries, access to services could be improved. Barriers include bureaucratic procedures and a lack of services. The research identified that in every country and city there are considerable barriers regarding equal participation in the field of housing, work and leisure activities. In addition to financial barriers, there are the barriers of stigma and self-stigmatization. Marginalization keeps people in an unequal position and hinders their recovery and participation. In all countries, professionals need to develop a stronger focus

  12. LEGAL REVIEW ON E-COMMERCE AND THE BLUEPRINT OF THE ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ikbal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Revolution and development of Information and Transactions Elektrnik indirectly helped change the way of trading or buying and selling activities, using the virtual world (online or better known as electronic transactions (e-commerce. In the framework of ASEAN Trade Integration and Liberalization it has been agreed that the Blueprint ASEAN Economic Community (AEC with one of its pillars is ASEAN as a region with high economic competitiveness, with elements of competition rules, consumer protection, intellectual property rights, infrastructure development, taxation and E-commerce. Blueprint is a guide for ASEAN member countries to achieve a strategic timetable and timing of achievement of each pillar that has been agreed.

  13. Finding Their Voice: Country Music Television and Appalachian Community Colleges Empower Communities to Overcome Economic Hardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, Heather

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how out-of-work miners are engaged in the Empowering Education Initiative, a unique alliance between Country Music Television (CMT) and community colleges in Appalachia. The initiative, which includes a website and a series of country music concerts, is changing the conversation in the Appalachian region, giving hope to…

  14. The Phenomenon of the Marina Development to Support the European Model of Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kizielewicz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of marinas on the seas, rivers, lakes and canals of Europe occurs in two different forms: (1 as a private investment project, and (2 as an urban municipal investment. Both forms of investment and development of marinas satisfy the criteria of entrepreneurship, which is important for each global and European economy. The purpose of this research is explanation of the possibilities for development of marinas and their immediate and distant destination which supports the development of the local economy. The scientific and research achievements were applied and, for the purpose of transparency, a case study showing several marinas and the examples of two basic models of development are presented. Structurally, this research consists of two parts, namely (1 a theoretical part, where a definition of nautical tourism and its classification are presented and (2 the development of specific indicators of marinas in Europe are explored.

  15. The Importance of Enviroment European Funds Implementation towards Ensuring Durable Economic Development in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Marian Antohi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Protecting and safeguarding the environment has an important role in close connection with Romania's sustainable development, which is seriously conditioned by environmental protection. Sustainable development cannot be achieved without protecting the environment. The environment should be one of the population�s top priorities, because it is the result of the interference between natural elements - earth, air, water, climate, and biosphere � and the elements created by human activity. The interaction between natural and man-made elements has a big influence on favorable conditions and the possibilities of future generations� development. Another important part in the implementation of the European Union's environmental policy is represented by the financial elements created in order to enhance environmental performances.

  16. The structure and economic significance of government guarantees in Croatia and the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Primorac

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the financial crisis, when countries are facing difficulties in raising the amounts of revenue needed to cover the expenditure side of the budget, fiscal risks can pose a significant threat to the sustainability of public finance. This became particularly evident in the case of public enterprises and their liabilities, which often increased public debt because of difficulties in meeting their financial obligations. The aim of this paper is to evaluate fiscal risks from government guarantees in Croatia and the European Union in general. Moreover, the paper aims to analyse the dynamics of the value and structure of government guarantees in Croatia in the period from 2009 to first half of 2015. Particular emphasis is placed on the impact of government guarantees on direct public debt in the context of methodological changes in the registration of public debt.

  17. Economic Growth and Environmental Quality in the European Union Countries – Is there Evidence for the Environmental Kuznets Curve?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazur Anna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This research empirically explores the relation between carbon dioxide emission and economic growth during the period 1992-2010, using panel data on the European Union countries. Both fixed and random effect models are employed to test the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC relationship between CO2 emissions and GDP per capita. While no U-shaped EKC was confirmed empirically for all 28 current EU member states, the graphical analysis demonstrates a justified turning point for CO2 emissions as GDP per capita reaches the level of 23,000 USD. Furthermore, there is a firm empirical ground for the EKC hypothesis based on data from 16 older, relatively high-income EU states. Thus, though not empirically confirmed, there is ample data verifying the existence of the EKC in EU economies.

  18. [Socio-economic factors associated with preterm delivery. Results of the European project in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribà-Agüir, V; Clemente, I; Saurel-Cubizolles, M

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this paper were to analyse the effect of social, personal and medical risk factors on preterm birth (moderate versus very preterm) or on two preterm birth groups (spontaneous versus indicated). Results from the Spanish collaborating centre of the European multicentre case-control study EUROPOP (European Program of Occupational Risks and Pregnancy Outcome) are presented. All preterm births (529) between 22 and 36 completed weeks of amenorrhea and 788 births of 37 or more completed weeks of amenorrhea (control group) are included. Explicative variables are divided in social, personal and medical factors. A univariate and multivariate analysis by means of a logistic regression were carried out. Very preterm birth risk was higher for women over 34 years, adjusted OR: 2.53 (1.42-4.52), with lower educational level, adjusted OR: 1.79 (1.07-2.98), for primigravid women or multigravid women with only first trimestre abortion, adjusted OR: 1.86 (1.13-3.04), and for multigravid women with previous preterm birth or second trimestre abortion, adjusted OR: 5.53 (2.97-10.35). A similar trend was observed for moderate preterm birth. Probability of spontaneous preterm birth was higher for mother over 34 years, adjusted OR: 1.51 (1.01-2.26), with lower income, adjusted OR: 1.75 (1.07-2.88) and for multigravid women with previous preterm birth or second trimestre abortion, adjusted OR: 2.96 (1.86-4.71). Results were similar for indicated preterm birth. Social differences were found to be related to moderate and very preterm birth. No differences were observed between risk factors and kind of preterm birth: spontaneous or indicated.

  19. Characterization of patients in the European Forsteo Observational Study (EFOS): postmenopausal women entering teriparatide treatment in a community setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajzbaum, Gerald; Jakob, Franz; Karras, Dimitrios

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The European Forsteo Observational Study (EFOS) study was primarily designed to assess fracture incidence, degree of pain, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and compliance in women prescribed teriparatide in a community setting. This report describes the design of the study...

  20. Species-specific effects of Asian and European earthworms on microbial communities in Mid-Atlantic deciduous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earthworm species with different feeding, burrowing, and/or casting behaviors can lead to distinct microbial communities through complex direct and indirect processes. European earthworm invasion into temperate deciduous forests in North America has been shown to alter microbial biomass in the soil ...

  1. British Efforts To Upgrade Business Foreign Language Skills: Preparing for Participation in the Single Market of the European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, James Calvert

    The need for British businesses to be able to communicate with their customers in their own languages is discussed in this analysis of British preparation for doing business in the European Community (EC). The EC now accounts for half of all exports from the United Kingdom (UK). This paper summarizes five major types of resources available to…

  2. Report on a Survey of Sign Language Interpreter Training and Provision within the Member Nations of the European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woll, Bencie

    1988-01-01

    Presents results of a survey of sign language interpreter training and provision in European Community countries. The questionnaire addressed such areas as: language forms used by deaf people and interpreters; training funding and priorities; interpreter evaluation, registration, availability, and salaries; and societal acceptance of sign language…

  3. Imaginary Worlds: The European Network for Health Technology Assessment (EUnetHTA Recommendations for Health Economic Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Langley

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The European Network for Health Technology Assessment (EUnetHTA guidelines for health economic evaluations represent a consolidated view of non-binding recommendations for assessments of the relative effectiveness of pharmaceuticals or other health technologies. EUnetHTA views itself as the scientific and technological backbone of the development of health technology assessment in the European Union and among its member states and other partners. Unfortunately, the standards for health technology assessment proposed by EUnetHTA do not meet the standards of normal science. They do not support credible claims for the clinical and comparative cost-effectiveness of pharmaceuticals. In rejecting the standards of normal science the guidelines put to one side the opportunity not only to re-assess and replicate clinical and cost-effectiveness claims but to provide meaningful feedback on claims assessment to health care decision makers. The purpose of this review is to make the case that, in failing to support standards for experimentation, EUnetHTA is advocating its partners support the creation of modeled or simulated imaginary or false worlds. While EUnetHTA is not alone in recommending the construction of imaginary worlds to support formulary decisions, there is still the opportunity to revisit these recommendations and decide whether or not to encourage a scientifically rigorous approach to health technology assessments - to abandon a commitment to intelligent design in favor of natural selection.  Conflict of Interest None   Type: Commentary  

  4. Livestock Development Based on Local Resources to Decreasing of Dependency Level and Improve of Community Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Hartoko, Hartoko

    2001-01-01

    To decrease the level of dependency on import goods, it is necessary to develop local based animal husbandry. This action has an important meaning in order to improve community economics in Indonesia.  Some ideas to motivate the development of the local based animal husbandry, are: first, mapping of the local resources, including specific superior local animals. Second, to support the continuity of feedstuffs production. Third, germ plasm / genuine animal conservation. Fourth, publication  of...

  5. Community ash densities and economic impact potential of emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) in four midwestern states

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Davis Sydnor; Matthew Bumgardner; Sakthi. Subburayalu

    2011-01-01

    A survey of 586 community representatives with urban tree canopy responsibilities was conducted to provide data on ash density within four states in the Midwestern U.S., and to examine potential economic losses should emerald ash borer (EAB) become established in their communities. One hundred twenty-three responses were received from communities of various sizes. Data...

  6. The financial and economic feasibility of rural household biodigesters for poor communities in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael T; Goebel, Jessica Schroenn; Blignaut, James N

    2014-02-01

    Given the persistence of systemic poverty in, most notably, the rural parts of South Africa, the question is whether the use of biodigesters as a source of energy offers potential solutions to some of the difficulties and development needs faced by people in these areas. At the core, this translates into whether this technology would be financially and economically feasible for installation and use by rural households. Here we conduct both a financial and an economic cost-benefit analysis in one such community based on survey data from 120 households. Analysis of these data and supporting literature reveals that a biodigester is not a financially feasible investment for a rural household. Substantial economic benefits are, however, found to make a biodigester a worthwhile investment from a broader societal perspective. This is a compelling argument for further study and the consideration of government support in the light of broader economy-wide benefits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. CIM-EARTH: Community integrated model of economic and resource trajectories for humankind.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, J.; Foster, I.; Judd, K.; Moyer, E.; Munson, T.; Univ. of Chicago; Hoover Inst.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is a global problem with local climatic and economic impacts. Mitigation policies can be applied on large geographic scales, such as a carbon cap-and-trade program for the entire U.S., on medium geographic scales, such as the NOx program for the northeastern U.S., or on smaller scales, such as statewide renewable portfolio standards and local gasoline taxes. To enable study of the environmental benefits, transition costs, capitalization effects, and other consequences of mitigation policies, we are developing dynamic general equilibrium models capable of incorporating important climate impacts. This report describes the economic framework we have developed and the current Community Integrated Model of Economic and Resource Trajectories for Humankind (CIM-EARTH) instance.

  8. MUSYARAKAH FINANCE PROSPECT IN ISLAMIC BANK IN THE FACE OF ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY (MEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Supriyadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the era of Dutch colonial, the majority of entrepreneurs in Central Java and Yogyakarta come from the students. But after Indonesian independence, the students did not show up in the business world because of political policy. Nowadays the entrepreneur students bounced back with Islamic banks that one of its products is a Musharakah finance. Musharakah finance deal with the birth of the free market, namely the ASEAN Economic Community so that the question arises how the prospect Musharakah finance in Indonesian Islamic banks of facing the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC. This paper aims to describe the prospect of Musharakah finance to face AEC. The results showed that the Musharakah finance has a lot of prospects such as financing products that can be performed well and have a competitive value because it has a solid legal basis. From the network side, Islamic banks have been supported by a network offices that much better at home and abroad with excellent quality customer service. In addition, the presence Bank Indonesia blueprint of the Islamic banking institution can strengthen the Musharakah finance products so that can be applied in the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC.

  9. Economics and attitudes regarding spectacles in daily life: a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuma, Antoine; Laurendeau, Caroline; Lamerain, Emannuelle; Berdeaux, Gilles

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this survey were to collect data from five European countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom) on the societal costs of spectacle dependence and respondents' willingness to pay (WTP) for freedom from spectacles. Samples of citizens age >or=45 years and currently wearing spectacles were selected according to a quota method (age, gender, occupation) and interviewed (22 questions) using a Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing system. In total, 4,157 respondents were interviewed across the 5 countries; 38.4% were age >or=65 years and 55.8% female. Most prescribed lenses were monofocal (49.7-72.8%) in all countries, except in France (29.8%). The most frequent replacement interval (70.4%) was >or=2 years and the average cost was > euro 145 per pair (62.9%). Replacements were most frequent in the UK and expenditure was highest in France. The three most common everyday tasks requiring spectacles were reading (60.4%), watching TV (33.6%) and shopping (28.8%). Willingness to pay varied across countries, the UK subjects expressing the lowest values; this was especially true for men and persons aged spectacles while Italians acquired the least expensive eyeglasses. The spectacle frequency of replacement rate is inversely related to prices. About half of all respondents expressed a WTP, at least partially, for freedom from spectacles.

  10. European freshwater vulnerability under high rates of global warming and plausible socio-economic narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutroulis, Aristeidis; Papadimitriou, Lamprini; Grillakis, Manolis; Tsanis, Ioannis

    2017-04-01

    Recent developments could postpone climate actions in the frame of the global climate deal of the Paris Agreement, making higher-end global warming increasingly plausible. Although not clear in the COP21 water security is fundamental to achieving low-carbon ambitions, thus climate and water policies are closely related. The projection of the relationship between global warming, water availability and water stress through their complex interactions among different sectors, along with the synergies and trade-offs between adaptation and mitigation actions, is a rather challenging task under the prism of climate change. Here we try to develop and apply a simple, transparent conceptual framework describing European vulnerability to hydrological drought of current hydro-climatic and socioeconomic status as well as projected vulnerability at specific levels of global warming (1.5oC, 2oC and 4oC) following highly rates of climatic change (RCP8.5) and considering different levels of adaptation associated to specific socioeconomic pathways (SSP2, SSP3 and SSP5).

  11. Health, work and working conditions: a review of the European economic literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnay, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Economists have traditionally been very cautious when studying the interaction between employment and health because of the two-way causal relationship between these two variables: health status influences the probability of being employed and, at the same time, working affects the health status. Because these two variables are determined simultaneously, researchers control endogeneity skews (e.g., reverse causality, omitted variables) when conducting empirical analysis. With these caveats in mind, the literature finds that a favourable work environment and high job security lead to better health conditions. Being employed with appropriate working conditions plays a protective role on physical health and psychiatric disorders. By contrast, non-employment and retirement are generally worse for mental health than employment, and overemployment has a negative effect on health. These findings stress the importance of employment and of adequate working conditions for the health of workers. In this context, it is a concern that a significant proportion of European workers (29 %) would like to work fewer hours because unwanted long hours are likely to signal a poor level of job satisfaction and inadequate working conditions, with detrimental effects on health. Thus, in Europe, labour-market policy has increasingly paid attention to job sustainability and job satisfaction. The literature clearly invites employers to take better account of the worker preferences when setting the number of hours worked. Overall, a specific "flexicurity" (combination of high employment protection, job satisfaction and active labour-market policies) is likely to have a positive effect on health.

  12. The Reflection of the Current Crisis on the Economic Growth in the European Union New Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Criste

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the economic growth evolution in the European Unionnew member states, being part of a more comprehensive research regarding the euro adoptionchallenges, taking as benchmark Slovakia and Slovenia, countries that already entered the euro zone.The research underlines the fact that, starting with the mid-September 2008, the macroeconomiclandscape of the analyzed countries changed radically, registering a decrease of the economicactivities determined both by a diminished export activity and by a reduced internal demand, witheffects on the firms’ profitability and on the deterioration of the labour market situation. The resultsshow that the severity of the financial global crisis effects was different in the analyzed countries, as aresponse to various “paths” of economic development, with less or more important vulnerabilities,with differences in the extent to which the economies are based on external demand and on creditactivity induced from abroad. The countries that are suffering the deepest recessions are those thatregistered not only a decline of exports, but also a collapse of the internal demand, as a result ofstopping the credit activities that were a support for the internal demand.

  13. [Occupational injury in foreign workers by economic activity and autonomous community (Spain 2005)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jacob, Ma José; Ahonen, Emily; García, Ana M; Gil, Angel; Benavides, Fernando G

    2008-01-01

    While the immigrant collective in Spain has grown considerably in recent years, little is known about working conditions and their corresponding effects on occupational injury in this group. The objective of this study was to compare the incidences for both fatal and non-fatal injuries in foreign workers to that of Spanish workers in 2005, by autonomous community and economic activity. injury data came from the accident registry of the ministry of labor and social issues, and denominators were taken from available social security affiliation statistics from general and coal mining social security system. Incidence indices for fatal and non-fatal occupational injuries for foreign and spanish workers were calculated. In addition, relative risks and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by autonomous community and economic activity, using spanish workers as the reference group. Overall, relative risk for occupational injury in foreign workers in 2005 was superior to base risk for both fatal (1.34; 95% CI: 1.11-1.62) and non-fatal injury (1.13; 95% CI: 1.13-1.14), though there were important differences by autonomous community and activity sectors. Compared with Spanish workers, risk for occupational injury was higher for foreign workers in industrial activities, while it was lower in construction, commerce and restaurants and hotels. By autonomous community, Aragón and Catalonia showed the highest risks for foreign workers. A higher risk for occupational injury among foreign workers is confirmed, and may be higher than that observed. The differences in risk among economic activities and autonomous communities require more detailed analysis.

  14. Societal Economics of the European Union Liquid Fuel Consumption for Road Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Wong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In order for the EU to achieve its goal of 10% biofuel for all EU motor vehicles by 2020, a substantial amount of biofuel as well as a biofuel feedstock would need to be imported largely from developing countries where the climate is warm and labor is inexpensive. But there may never be sufficient supply to fulfill the evergrowing demand for biofuel for road transportation in the EU, even as motor vehicles are increasingly becoming more fuel-efficient. The constraint to realizing an effective and equitable reduction in greenhousegas emission is the overbearing political economics of neoliberalism. A different remedial strategy is needed to address the dual problems of the excessive uses of motor fuels and greenhouse-gas emission.

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF ECONOMIC CRISIS ON THE LABOUR IN THE EUROPEAN UNION’S MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina MĂRCUȚĂ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis is far to an end. After a recursion of the recession in 2012 and a continuance in 2013, its’ effects are increasingly stronger and the most tangible effect is the poverty increase among the active population. It is due to the revenues decrease, to poverty and exclusion’s risks, the attenuation of protection effects which are socially and initially carried out by the decrement of tax incomes and by the increase of expenditures level for social performances. These effects are being acutely experienced, particularly by the member states in the Southern and Eastern Europe. Therefore, at the E.U. point, one performed studies, one determined the causes and it is trying to find solutions. This scientific paper aims to analyze the main parameters onto one must interfere in and the actions that should be considered in order to increase population’s standard of living.

  16. The Economic and Touristic Regeneration of Local Communities through the Long Tail of Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Calabrese

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to demonstrate, in the light of new technologies, the importance of the “long tail” of events for the development of local communities from the economic and tourism standpoint. From the management perspective, an event represents a relevant touristic driver, especially when oriented to small communities. The methodology used, albeit referring to the positive method, incorporates the concept of Chris Anderson’s “long tail” and recent conceptualizations of the Viable Systems Approach. Thus, it refers to literature review method and theory development. Findings of this study emphasize a new perspective of creating value for the development of local communities, based on the evolution of the concept of event (from the mass event to the mass of events. The existing literature on the subject has generally deepened the organizational implications arising from the standardization of events rather than those of customization. Therefore, referring to the originality and value of the present research, it considers the pure customization, which provides even a custom design of the event, a decisive factor for the economic and touristic development of local communities. The study presents also practical implications related with the possibility, thanks to new technologies, to convey to the user/citizen an event that is differentiated and personalized.

  17. Socio-economic dimensions of community vulnerability to Mountain Pine Beetle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKendrick, N.; Parkins, J. [Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents a framework for evaluating the vulnerability of rural and resource-based communities as a result of the mountain pine beetle epidemic in British Columbia and the imminent social and economic consequences of this climate-related phenomenon. The project included an assessment of sensitivity and exposure to climate change threats and an assessment of adaptive capacity within these communities. The presentation consisted of a framework for vulnerability assessment that draws on literature related to international climate change, natural hazards, health promotion, risk analysis, and forest sociology. It also included a vulnerability assessment for eleven pilot-study communities in British Columbia. The assessment combines measures of physical exposure and sensitivity to the epidemic as well as measures of adaptive capacity that include social, economic, political, and institutional factors. Results are presented as composite indices and are spatially represented in a GIS mapping format to identify zones of risk. One of the policy implications from this assessment include the need to enhance capacity in rural and resource-based communities using more targeted local and state-level responses. figs., tabs.

  18. Security of energy supply under the laws of the European Union / European Community; Energieversorgungssicherheit im Recht der Europaeischen Union, Europaeischen Gemeinschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proefrock, M.C.

    2007-07-01

    Security of supply is defined as the availability and reliability of energy supply at acceptable prices. By security of energy supply we mean a globally large supply of reliable, affordable, clean energy. By virtue of its nature security of supply in the energy sector primarily requires making provisions for the future through exploration, innovation, research, diversification and investments in technology. Energy politics takes place in a tension field defined by the goals of economic efficiency, sustainability and security of supply. In the past there have been repeated shifts within this triad of goals. The task for a rational energy policy is to reconciliate these goals in a meaningful way. European energy policy is understood to comprise all sovereign measures taken by the European Union in the energy sector, in particular measures that impact on the supply and demand for energy resources. Energy law serves, or should serve, to bring energy policy to realisation and therefore presupposes the existence of the latter. Energy policy means the figuration of an economy's energy sector in such a manner that the present and future demand of the economic region is covered.

  19. The benefit of the European User Community from transnational access to national radiation facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrier, Elise; Manuel Braz Fernandes, Francisco; Bujan, Maya

    2014-01-01

    Transnational access (TNA) to national radiation sources is presently provided via programmes of the European Commission by BIOSTRUCT-X and CALIPSO with a major benefit for scientists from European countries. Entirely based on scientific merit, TNA allows all European scientists to realise synchr...

  20. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of economics, and presents educational resources for teaching basics to children. Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources, as well as activities which focus on economics are described. Includes short features on related topics, and the subtopics of trade, money and banking, and…

  1. The evolution of public policies for the promotion of SMEs in the Andean Community of Nations and the European Union: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Heredia Rodríguez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the policies designed to promote SMEs implemented in the Andean Community of Nations (ACN and the European Union (EU in the past few decades. Based on an analytical and comparative methodology, it is set out that, with regard to synchronous or sequential adoption hypotheses, public policies that support SMEs respond to an independent adoption model and are determined by their own historical and political context, according to the different arenas in which the economic integration process of both regions is found. The paper also highlights that in the ACN, in contrast to the EU, it is difficult to find abiding lines of action in the design of these public policies.

  2. Interconnectivity vs. isolation of prokaryotic communities in European deep-sea mud volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachiadaki, M. G.; Kormas, K. A.

    2013-05-01

    During the past two decades, European cold seep ecosystems have attracted the scientific interest and to date there are several studies which have investigated the community structure and biodiversity of individual sites. In order to gain a better insight into the biology, biodiversity, and biogeography of seep-associated microbial communities along Europe's continental margins, a comparative approach was applied in the present work. By exploiting the publicly available data on 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from sediments of the Håkon Mosby mud volcano, Gulf of Cádiz and the eastern Mediterranean mud volcanoes/pockmarks (Anaximander area and Nile Fan), we investigated the prokaryotic biological components connecting these geographically isolated systems. The construction of interaction networks for both archaeal and bacterial shared operational taxonomic units (OTUs) among the different sites, revealed the presence of persistent OTUs, which can be considered as "key-players". One archaeal OTU (HQ588641) belonging to the ANME-3 group and one δ-Proteobacteria (HQ588562) were found in all five investigated areas. Other Archaea OTUs shared between four sites or less, belonged to the ANME-2c, -2a, MBG-D, -B and Thaumarchaeota. All other shared Bacteria belonged to the δ- and γ-Proteobacteria, with the exception of one JS1 affiliate OTU. The distribution of the majority of the shared OTUs seems to be restricted in cold seeps, mud volcanoes and other marine methane-rich environments. Although the investigated sites were connected through a small number of OTUs, these microorganisms hold central ecophysiological roles in these sediments, namely methane- and sulfur-mediated mineralization.

  3. Interconnectivity vs. isolation of prokaryotic communities in European deep-sea mud volcanoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Pachiadaki

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, European cold seep ecosystems have attracted the scientific interest and to date there are several studies which have investigated the community structure and biodiversity of individual sites. In order to gain a better insight into the biology, biodiversity, and biogeography of seep-associated microbial communities along Europe's continental margins, a comparative approach was applied in the present work. By exploiting the publicly available data on 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from sediments of the Håkon Mosby mud volcano, Gulf of Cádiz and the eastern Mediterranean mud volcanoes/pockmarks (Anaximander area and Nile Fan, we investigated the prokaryotic biological components connecting these geographically isolated systems. The construction of interaction networks for both archaeal and bacterial shared operational taxonomic units (OTUs among the different sites, revealed the presence of persistent OTUs, which can be considered as "key-players". One archaeal OTU (HQ588641 belonging to the ANME-3 group and one δ-Proteobacteria (HQ588562 were found in all five investigated areas. Other Archaea OTUs shared between four sites or less, belonged to the ANME-2c, -2a, MBG-D, -B and Thaumarchaeota. All other shared Bacteria belonged to the δ- and γ-Proteobacteria, with the exception of one JS1 affiliate OTU. The distribution of the majority of the shared OTUs seems to be restricted in cold seeps, mud volcanoes and other marine methane-rich environments. Although the investigated sites were connected through a small number of OTUs, these microorganisms hold central ecophysiological roles in these sediments, namely methane- and sulfur-mediated mineralization.

  4. Libertades económicas y derechos fundamentales. La libertad de empresa en el ordenamiento multinivel europeo || Economic Freedom and Fundamental Rights. Freedom to Conduct Business in the Multilevel European Legal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Mercado Pacheco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN   La libertad de empresa es utilizada como pretexto para ilustrar las relaciones y jerarquías entre libertades económicas comunitarias y derechos fundamentales en el ordenamiento multinivel europeo. Su estrecha relación con las libertades económicas comunitarias y con el objetivo del mercado interior, han dotado a la libertad de empresa de una especial fortaleza a la hora de dirimir sus eventuales conflictos con otros derechos acogidos aparentemente en pie de igualdad en la reciente redefinición de los objetivos de la UE. Por otro lado, cuando esta primacía se transplanta al ordenamiento interno  se corre el riesgo de alterar los equilibrios del sistema de derechos de los Estados, anclados en el constitucionalismo del Estado social. ABSTRACT Freedom to conduct a business is used as a pretext to illustrate the relationships and hierarchies between Community economic freedoms and fundamental rights in the European multilevel legal system. The close relationship of this with the EU objective of the internal market and with Community economic freedoms, have provided it with a special strength when settling the possible conflicts with other rights recently welcomed into the redefinition of the objectives of the European Union on an equal footing. Furthermore, when this primacy is transplanted into national law it runs the risk of upsetting the balance of the system of states rights, anchored in the constitutionalism of the social state.

  5. Effects of microplastics on European flat oysters, Ostrea edulis and their associated benthic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Dannielle Senga

    2016-09-01

    Plastic pollution is recognised as an emerging threat to aquatic ecosystems, with microplastics now the most abundant type of marine debris. Health effects caused by microplastics have been demonstrated at the species level, but impacts on ecological communities remain unknown. In this study, impacts of microplastics on the health and biological functioning of European flat oysters (Ostrea edulis) and on the structure of associated macrofaunal assemblages were assessed in an outdoor mesocosm experiment using intact sediment cores. Biodegradable and conventional microplastics were added at low (0.8 μg L(-1)) and high (80 μg L(-1)) doses in the water column repeatedly for 60 days. Effects on the oysters were minimal, but benthic assemblage structures differed and species richness and the total number of organisms were ∼1.2 and 1.5 times greater in control mesocosms than in those exposed to high doses of microplastics. Notably, abundances of juvenile Littorina sp. (periwinkles) and Idotea balthica (an isopod) were ∼2 and 8 times greater in controls than in mesocosms with the high dose of either type of microplastic. In addition, the biomass of Scrobicularia plana (peppery furrow shell clam) was ∼1.5 times greater in controls than in mesocosms with the high dose of microplastics. This work indicates that repeated exposure to high concentrations of microplastics could alter assemblages in an important marine habitat by reducing the abundance of benthic fauna. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evidence based policy making in the European Union: the role of the scientific community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majcen, Špela

    2017-03-01

    In the times when the acquis of the European Union (EU) has developed so far as to reach a high level of technical complexity, in particular in certain policy fields such as environmental legislation, it is important to look at what kind of information and data policy decisions are based on. This position paper looks at the extent to which evidence-based decision-making process is being considered in the EU institutions when it comes to adopting legislation in the field of environment at the EU level. The paper calls for closer collaboration between scientists and decision-makers in view of ensuring that correct data is understood and taken into consideration when drafting, amending, negotiating and adopting new legal texts at all levels of the EU decision-making process. It concludes that better awareness of the need for such collaboration among the decision-makers as well as the scientific community would benefit the process and quality of the final outcomes (legislation).

  7. Inhalation Incidents and Respiratory Health: Results From the European Community Respiratory Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabelli, Maria C.; Olivieri, Mario; Kromhout, Hans; Norbäck, Dan; Radon, Katja; Torén, Kjell; van Sprundel, Marc; Villani, Simona; Zock, Jan-Paul

    2009-01-01

    Background Inhalation incidents are an important cause of acute respiratory symptoms, but little is known about how these incidents affect chronic respiratory health. Methods We assessed reported inhalation incidents among 3,763 European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) participants with and without cough, phlegm, asthma, wheezing or bronchial hyperresponsiveness. We then examined whether inhalation incidents during the 9-year ECRHS follow-up period were associated with a new onset of any of these respiratory outcomes among 2,809 participants who were free of all five outcomes at the time of the baseline ECRHS survey. Results Inhalation incidents were reported by 5% of participants, with higher percentages reported among individuals with asthma-related outcomes at the time of the baseline survey. Among participants without symptoms at baseline, our analyses generated non-statistically significant elevated estimates of the risk of cough, phlegm, asthma and wheezing and a non-statistically significant inverse estimate of the risk of bronchial hyperresponsiveness among participants who reported an inhalation incident compared to those without such an event reported. Discussion Our findings provide limited evidence of an association between inhalation incidents and asthma-related symptoms. These data could be affected by differences in the reporting of inhalation incidents according to symptom status at the time of the baseline survey; they should thus be interpreted with caution. PMID:18942122

  8. Next generation capacity building for the GEOSS community - an European approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, B. L.

    2016-12-01

    The Group on Earth observation embarked on the next 10 year phase with an ambition to streamline and futher develop its achievements in building the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS). The NextGEOSS project evolves the European vision of GEOSS data exploitation for innovation and business, relying on the three main pillars of engaging communities, delivering technological developments and advocating the use of GEOSS, in order to support the creation and deployment of Earth observation based innovative research activities and commercial services. In this presentation we will present the new integrated approach to capacity building engaging the various actors involved in the entire value-chain from data providers to decision-makers. A presentation of the general approach together with concrete pilot cases will be included.In this work it will be shown how we integrate new technological development and societial change enabling GEO and GEOSS to adapt to the current environment. The result is important for better decision-making and better use of our limited resources to manage our planet.

  9. Are Physical Activity Interventions Equally Effective in Adolescents of Low and High Socio-Economic Status (SES): Results from the European Teenage Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Simon, C.; De Meester, F.; Van Lenthe, F.; Spittaels, H.; Lien, N.; Faggiano, F.; Mercken, L.; Moore, L.; Haerens, L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to study whether physical activity (PA) interventions in European teenagers are equally effective in adolescents of low versus high socio-economic status (SES). Based on a systematic review (Project TEENAGE), three school-based studies for secondary analyses were selected. SES stratified analyses were run in: (i) a Belgian…

  10. Household and community income, economic shocks and risky sexual behavior of young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkelman, Taryn; Lam, David; Leibbrandt, Murray

    2008-01-01

    Objective We describe recent trends in adolescent sexual behavior in Cape Town, South Africa. We ask whether household and community poverty and negative economic shocks predict risky sexual behavior. Data Matched survey data on 2,993 African and Coloured youth from the Cape Area Panel Study 2002 and 2005. Main outcome measures Sexual debut, multiple sexual partners in past year, condom use at last sex, measured in 2002 and 2005. Methods We test for changes over time in reported sexual behavior and estimate multivariate probit models to measure the association between 2002 individual, household and community characteristics and 2005 sexual behavior. Results There is a statistically significant increase in condom use and decrease in the incidence of multiple sexual partners between 2002 and 2005 for females aged 17-22. Females in households with 10% higher income are 0.53 percentage points less likely to sexually debut by 2005; males in communities with a 10% higher poverty rate are 5 percentage points less likely to report condom use at last sex. Negative economic shocks are associated with a 0.04 percentage point increase in the probability of multiple partnerships for females. Education is positively correlated with sexual debut for females and with multiple partnerships for both sexes. Conclusions Trends in sexual behavior between 2002 and 2005 indicate significant shifts towards safer practices. There is little evidence of a relationship between negative economic shocks, household and community poverty, and risky behavior. We hypothesize that the unexpected positive relationship between education and sexual debut may be driven by peer effects in schools with substantial age mixing. PMID:18040164

  11. The economic contribution of the Northern Ontario School of Medicine to communities participating in distributed medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenbirk, John C; Robinson, David R; Hill, Mary Ellen; Pong, Raymond W; Minore, Bruce; Adams, Ken; Strasser, Roger P; Lipinski, Joe

    2015-01-01

    The economic contribution of medical schools to major urban centres can be substantial, but there is little information on the contribution to the economy of participating communities made by schools that provide education and training away from major cities and academic health science centres. We sought to assess the economic contribution of the Northern Ontario School of Medicine (NOSM) to northern Ontario communities participating in NOSM's distributed medical education programs. We developed a local economic model and used actual expenditures from 2007/08 to assess the economic contribution of NOSM to communities in northern Ontario. We also estimated the economic contribution of medical students or residents participating in different programs in communities away from the university campuses. To explore broader economic effects, we conducted semistructured interviews with leaders in education, health care and politics in northern Ontario. The total economic contribution to northern Ontario was $67.1 million based on $36.3 million in spending by NOSM and $1.0 million spent by students. Economic contributions were greatest in the university campus cities of Thunder Bay ($26.7 million) and Sudbury ($30.4 million), and $0.8-$1.2 million accrued to the next 3 largest population centres. Communities might realize an economic contribution of $7300-$103 900 per pair of medical learners per placement. Several of the 59 interviewees remarked that the dollar amount could be small to moderate but had broader economic implications. Distributed medical education at the NOSM resulted in a substantial economic contribution to participating communities.

  12. Medical and economic burden of influenza in the elderly population in central and eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Gábor; Kaló, Zoltán; Jahnz-Rozyk, Karina; Kyncl, Jan; Csohan, Agnes; Pistol, Adriana; Leleka, Mariya; Kipshakbaev, Rafail; Durand, Laure; Macabeo, Bérengère

    2014-01-01

    Influenza affects 5-15% of the population during an epidemic. In Western Europe, vaccination of at-risk groups forms the cornerstone of influenza prevention. However, vaccination coverage of the elderly (> 65 y) is often low in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE); potentially because a paucity of country-specific data limits evidence-based policy making. Therefore the medical and economic burden of influenza were estimated in elderly populations in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Poland, Romania, and Ukraine. Data covering national influenza vaccination policies, surveillance and reporting, healthcare costs, populations, and epidemiology were obtained via literature review, open-access websites and databases, and interviews with experts. A simplified model of patient treatment flow incorporating cost, population, and incidence/prevalence data was used to calculate the influenza burden per country. In the elderly, influenza represented a large burden on the assessed healthcare systems, with yearly excess hospitalization rates of ~30/100,000. Burden varied between countries and was likely influenced by population size, surveillance system, healthcare provision, and vaccine coverage. The greatest burden was found in Poland, where direct costs were over EUR 5 million. Substantial differences in data availability and quality were identified, and to fully quantify the burden of influenza in CEE, influenza reporting systems should be standardized. This study most probably underestimates the real burden of influenza, however the public health problem is recognized worldwide, and will further increase with population aging. Extending influenza vaccination of the elderly may be a cost-effective way to reduce the burden of influenza in CEE.

  13. Economic evaluation of human papilloma virus vaccination in the European Union: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, Daniela; De Compadri, Paola; Padula, Anna; Garattini, Livio

    2011-04-01

    The human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine is a new and expensive vaccine potentially effective in the prevention of a cancer. We reviewed the economic evaluations (EEs) on the vaccine in the EU to assess their potential contribution to public decision-making in a fairly homogeneous setting where HPV vaccination has been widely adopted. A literature search on PubMed selected EEs on HPV vaccines in the EU for the period 2007-2010 using the terms "HPV vaccines" and "Costs and cost analysis." Fifteen articles were eventually selected. All studies were based on modelling techniques, either "cohort" or "dynamic transmission": three were cost utility, three cost-effectiveness, and the remainder included both. The ten studies explicitly assessing one of the two vaccines were all sponsored by their manufacturer, while the five studies unrelated to the vaccine type were funded by public agencies. Apart from two studies, utility estimates were always obtained from three US sources. Direct costs were always vaccination, diagnosis and treatment of related pathologies. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) results were less favourable when life years gained were valued rather than quality-adjusted life years, genital warts were excluded, and booster doses and extension of vaccination to men were included in the base-case analysis. All but one of the sponsored EEs recommend in favour of the vaccination strategy, which is dominant in one English study. The ICER results were very sensitive to discount rates, followed by duration of protection and vaccine price. At such an early stage, when the vaccines' efficacy have been demonstrated by well-designed studies, it is not possible (and not even reasonable) to wait for several years to measure their effectiveness; public decision-makers might benefit more from EEs designed to indicate sustainable prices using realistic estimates of crucial variables like coverage rates, rather than referring to a large number of assumptions in

  14. [From the Nuremberg Alliance Against Depression to a European network (EAAD)--extending community-based awareness-campaigns on national and European level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegerl, Ulrich; Schäfer, Rita

    2007-09-01

    With the aim to improve the care of depressed patients and to reduce suicidality, the Nuremberg Alliance Against Depression was initiated 2001 in the framework of the German Research Network on Depression and Suicidality (funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research). The Alliance's concept is based on an intervention on four levels: Co-operation with GPs, an information- and awareness-campaign for the broad public, educational training for multipliers such as teachers, priests or geriatric care-givers as well as the support and initiative of self-help-activities. After two years of intervention the number of suicidal acts, the study's main outcome criteria, was significantly reduced by 24 percent compared to the baseline and to a representative control region. Since 2002 the successful four-level-intervention, its concepts and materials have been adapted by other regions within Germany. Nearly 40 community-based local campaigns are forming the German Alliance Against Depression (GAD) and many more regions are interested. On international level the European Alliance Against Depression (EAAD) was established 2004. Funded by the European Commission the four-level-programme is implemented in 17 European countries.

  15. The Case-Law of the Court of Justice of the European Communities Concerning the Law of the World Trade Organization and the Autonomy of the European Community in the Implementation of Its Common Commercial Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Cepillo Galvín

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last years some authors have questioned the autonomy of the European Community when implementing its commercial policy, due to the amount of trade agreements signed by it and especially because of the commitments acquired in the WTO. There is no doubt that the compulsory fulfilment of these commitments is a conditioning factor with regard to the implementation of the Common Commercial Policy, but that doesn’t make the autonomy of the EU disappear in order to put its model of commercial policy into practice. In this respect, it’s necessary to underline the ample discretionary margin in the management of the commercial policy that the Court of Justice of the European Communities recognizes in favour of the EU institutions within the framework of its case-law related to the denial of the direct effect of the WTO agreements, as we analyze in this paper.

  16. Introducing Modern Energy Services into Developing Countries: The Role of Local Community Socio-Economic Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willington Ortiz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable energy technologies are widely sought-after as essential elements in facing global challenges such as energy security, global warming and poverty reduction. However, in spite of their promising advantages, sustainable energy technologies make only a marginal contribution to meeting energy related needs in both industrialised and developing countries, in comparison to the widespread use of unsustainable technologies. One of the most significant constraints to their adoption and broad diffusion is the socio-economic context in which sustainable energy technologies are supposed to operate. The same holds true for community-based energy projects in developing countries supported by the WISIONS initiative. Practical strategies dealing with these socio-economic challenges are crucial elements for project design and, particularly, for the implementation of project activities. In this paper experiences from implementing community-based projects are reviewed in order to identify the practical elements that are relevant to overcome socio-economic challenges. In order to systematise the findings, an analytical framework is proposed, which combines analytical tools from the socio-technical transition framework and insights from participative approaches to development.

  17. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  18. Customs tariffs and the policy of custom tariffs in the function of the realization of regional economic integrations: The example of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vranješ Mile

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Custom tariffs and the policy of custom tariffs have always been important instruments in the protection of domestic production from foreign competition, though the more in the past, the less in today's global economic environment. The idea of protectionism in international trade hasn't evaded the European Union either. The European Union has a common protectionist policy against countries that are not member to it. The agricultural production and the policy of administrative levies on the import of agricultural products pertain to the area that enjoys the highest degree of protection. The realization of such protectionist policy makes the international trade less free, while the free movement of goods is quintessential to the economic growth of the European Union, other regional economic integrations, individual countries and the society as such. The World Trade Organization, which imposes its own rules on the international trade, the creation of regional economic organizations in today's environment of international trade and free-trade agreements between individual states shrank to minimal the diapason of various protectionist measures and instruments. The decline of the idea of protectionism in international trade is evidenced by data on the share of the customs tariffs in the total fiscal revenues of the European Union and of the GDP of the member states. Namely, the fiscal impact of custom tariffs for some years shows a descending tendency, above all due to the process of globalization in foreign trade and liberalization at the scale of global economy. The European Union will be able to facilitate the development of the regional economic integrations only through the liberalization of foreign trade, because the idea of protectionism in international trade doesn't have perspectives on the long run.

  19. Strategy of Developing Tomini Bay for Economic Growth of Coastal Community in Central Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzakir Muzakir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the potential and the strategy of developing Tomini Bay to improve the economic growth of the coastal community in Central Sulawesi. The research is located in four regencies in Central Sulawesi. The method uses the descriptive analysis using SWOT analysis. The research result shows that the potential of fisheries resources in Poso Regency, Parigi Moutong Regency, Tojo Una-Una Regency, and Banggai Regency can support the development of Tomini Bay region based on fisheries in order to accelerate the economic growth of coastal communities in Central Sulawesi. The potential fishery resources that can support the development of Tomini Bay area are the potential of fisheries, marine and coastal infrastructure, social economy and geographic conditions in four regencies. The strategies are building the marketing network for fishery products both the catching and cultivation, improving the fishery human resouce capacity, controlling the fishery product quality, and increasing the social awareness to maintain the ecosystem sustainability. To optimize the utilization of Tomini Bay, it is suggested to improve the involvement of the regional government, the central government, and also the private sector and the whole community.

  20. Economic burden of inadequate management of allergic diseases in the European Union: a GA(2) LEN review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuberbier, T; Lötvall, J; Simoens, S; Subramanian, S V; Church, M K

    2014-10-01

    In the European Union (EU), between 44 and 76 million individuals of the 217 million EU employees suffer from allergic disease of the airways or the skin. Up to 90% of these persons are untreated or insufficiently treated. This has major socio-economic consequences such as absence from work (absenteeism), particularly reduced productivity at work (presenteeism). We used published literature and online statistical information from Eurostat and Eurofound to assess the costs of allergic disease to society. Allergies have an impact on direct, indirect, intangible and opportunity costs. Most importantly, for the EU, avoidable indirect costs per patient insufficiently treated for allergy range between €55 and €151 billion per annum due to absenteeism and presenteeism, that is, €2405 per untreated patient per year. On the other hand, appropriate therapy for allergic diseases is available at comparatively low costs at an average of €125 per patient annually, equalling only 5% of the costs of untreated disease, allowing potential savings of up to €142 billion. A better care for allergies based on guideline-based treatment would allow Europe's economy substantial savings. In addition, allergies have an impact on learning and performance at school and university, leading to opportunity costs for society. This cannot be calculated moneywise but will have an impact in a modern knowledge-based society. Still allergies are trivialized in society, noting that the costs of therapy are paid by patients and healthcare services, whereas economic savings are made by employers and society. A change of this mindset is urgently needed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. 2014 National Park visitor spending effects: economic contributions to local communities, states, and the nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Huber, Christopher; Koontz, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    The National Park System covers more than 84 million acres and is comprised of more than 401 sites across the Nation. These lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS) serve as recreational destinations for visitors from across the Nation and around the world. On vacations or on day trips, NPS visitors spend time and money in the gateway communities surrounding NPS sites. Spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway economies. The NPS has been measuring and reporting visitor spending and economic effects for the past 25 years. The 2012 analysis marked a major revision to the NPS visitor spending effects analyses, with the development of the Visitor Spending Effects model (VSE model) which replaced the previous Money Generation Model (see Cullinane Thomas et al. (2014) for a description of how the VSE model differs from the previous model). This report provides updated VSE estimates associated with 2014 NPS visitation.

  2. Energy 2000. A reference projection and alternative outlooks for the European Community and the world to the year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilmot, J.-F.; McGlue, D.; Valette, P.; Waeterloos, C.

    1986-01-01

    This book represents the first output from the energy systems analysis and modelling research programme funded by the Commission of the European Communities. It provides detailed and consistent energy projections on a country basis and at the level of the EC as a whole using the same methodological approach and harmonized energy data. Results are presented for each country in terms of primary energy source and energy demand by sector.

  3. REVEALING THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT EQUILIBRIUM THROUGH CATASTROPHE BONDS, SOCIAL CORPORATE ENGAGEMENT AND ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE FOR THE EUROPEAN REINSURANCE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANTIN LAURA-GABRIELA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our paper investigates the equilibrium for the three components of corporate sustainable development (SD by focusing on a sample of EU-based reinsurance companies, for the 2010-2013 period, while proposing, to our knowledge, an innovative approach from the perspective of the environmental and social components. In order to represent these two edges, two indexes are developed. The index representing the environmental component mirrors the presence on the catastrophe bonds market of the analysed companies. The second index revolves around the social component and concentrates on those achievements regarding the corporate support for the general community social advance. In methodological terms, the analysis is developed by considering both a static and a dynamic outline. The dynamic analysis is developed within a comparative framework for analysing the SD equilibrium, both at the level of the two indices and at the level of their main components. The static outline considers the cluster analysis in order to capture the SD balanced by grouping the companies in line with their social and environmental accomplishments and comparing the outcomes according to their economic performance. The main results reveal good social development equilibrium at the level of the analysed companies reflected through the association between better environmental and social achievements and higher economic performance

  4. REVEALING THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT EQUILIBRIUM THROUGH CATASTROPHE BONDS, SOCIAL CORPORATE ENGAGEMENT AND ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE FOR THE EUROPEAN REINSURANCE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANTIN LAURA-GABRIELA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our paper investigates the equilibrium for the three components of corporate sustainable development (SD by focusing on a sample of EU-based reinsurance companies, for the 2010-2013 period, while proposing, to our knowledge, an innovative approach from the perspective of the environmental and social components. In order to represent these two edges, two indexes are developed. The index representing the environmental component mirrors the presence on the catastrophe bonds market of the analysed companies. The second index revolves around the social component and concentrates on those achievements regarding the corporate support for the general community social advance. In methodological terms, the analysis is developed by considering both a static and a dynamic outline. The dynamic analysis is developed within a comparative framework for analysing the SD equilibrium, both at the level of the two indices and at the level of their main components. The static outline considers the cluster analysis in order to capture the SD balanced by grouping the companies in line with their social and environmental accomplishments and comparing the outcomes according to their economic performance. The main results reveal good social development equilibrium at the level of the analysed companies reflected through the association between better environmental and social achievements and higher economic performance.

  5. Housing characteristics, reported mold exposure, and asthma in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zock, Jan-Paul; Jarvis, Deborah; Luczynska, Christina; Sunyer, Jordi; Burney, Peter

    2002-08-01

    The effects of home dampness and mold exposure on adult asthma are not clear. We aimed to investigate the associations between housing characteristics related to dampness, mold exposure, and house dust mite levels and adult asthma in 38 study centers from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Data about the present home, heating and ventilation systems, double glazing, floor covers, recent water damage, and mold exposure were obtained by means of an interviewer-led questionnaire. The associations between these factors and asthma, as defined on the basis of symptoms in the last year, and of bronchial responsiveness, as determined with methacholine challenge, were evaluated. Odds ratios (ORs) were obtained by using random-effects meta-analyses adjusted within study centers for sex, age group, and smoking status. Fitted carpets and rugs in the bedroom were related to fewer asthma symptoms and bronchial responsiveness (OR range, 0.69-0.91). This effect was consistent across centers and more pronounced among house dust mite-sensitized individuals. Reported mold exposure in the last year was associated with asthma symptoms and bronchial responsiveness (OR range, 1.14-1.44). This effect was homogeneous among centers and stronger in subjects sensitized to Cladosporium species. In centers with a higher prevalence of asthma, the prevalence of reported indoor mold exposure was also high. This association was observed for reported mold exposure by asthmatic subjects (Spearman r (s) = 0.46), as well as reported mold exposure by nonasthmatic subjects (r (s) = 0.54). Reported mold exposure was highest in older houses with recent water damage. We conclude that indoor mold growth has an adverse effect on adult asthma.

  6. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the food and drink industries of the European community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passant, Neil R.; Richardson, Stephen J.; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Gibson, N.; Woodfield, M. J.; van der Lugt, Jan Pieter; Wolsink, Johan H.; Hesselink, Paul G. M.

    Estimates were made of the amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released into the atmosphere as a result of the industrial manufacture and processing of food and drink in the European Community. The estimates were based on a review of literature sources, industrial and government contacts and recent measurements. Data were found on seven food manufacturing sectors (baking, vegetable oil extraction, solid fat processing, animal rendering, fish meal processing, coffee production and sugar beet processing) and three drink manufacturing sectors (brewing, spirit production and wine making). The principle of a data quality label is advocated to illustrate the authors' confidence in the data, and to highlight areas for further research. Emissions of ethanol from bread baking and spirit maturation were found to be the principle sources. However, significant losses of hexane and large quantities of an ill-defined mixture of partially oxidized hydrocarbons were noted principally from seed oil extraction and the drying of plant material, respectively. This latter mixture included low molecular weight aldehydes, carboxylic acids, ketones, amines and esters. However, the precise composition of many emissions were found to be poorly understood. The total emission from the food and drink industry in the EC was calculated as 260 kt yr -1. However, many processes within the target industry were found to be completely uncharacterized and therefore not included in the overall estimate (e.g. soft drink manufacture, production of animal food, flavourings, vinegar, tea, crisps and other fried snacks). Moreover, the use of data quality labels illustrated the fact that many of our estimates were based on limited data. Hence, further emissions monitoring is recommended from identified sources (e.g. processing of sugar beet, solid fat and fish meal) and from uncharacterized sources.

  7. Economically and ecologically important plant communities in high altitude coniferous forest of Malam Jabba, Swat, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Hassan; Al Yemeni, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    A study on the economically important plant communities was carried out during summer 2008 in various parts of Malam Jabba valley, Swat. The principal aim of the study was phytosociological evaluation with special reference to the occurrence of commercially important medicinal plant species in coniferous forest of the study area. Secondly to prepare ethnobotanical inventory of the plant resources of the area, as well as to evaluate the conservation status of important medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) through rapid vulnerable assessment (RVA) procedure. The study documented 90 species of ethnobotanical importance, out of these 71 spp used as medicinal plant, 20 spp fodder plant, 10 spp vegetables, 14 spp wild fruit, 18 spp fuel wood, 9 spp furniture and agricultural tools, 9 spp thatching, fencing and hedges, 4 spp honey bee, 2 spp evil eyes, 2 spp religious and 3 spp as poison. Phytosociologically six plant communities were found, comprising five herbs-shrubs-trees communities and one meadow community. Further study is, therefore, required to quantify the availability of species and to suggest suitable method for their production and conservation. Recommendations are also given in the spheres of training in identification, sustainable collection, value addition, trade monitoring and cooperative system of marketing.

  8. Declining Innovation Performance of the Hungarian Economy: Special Focus on Organizational Innovation. The Example of the European Community Innovation Survey (CIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csaba Makó

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors intend to examine the innovation performance of the Hungarian firms before and following the period of the global financial crisis and economic downturn. Contrary to the mainstream approach non-technological innovation, more precisely workplace innovation is put into the focus of the analysis. The authors argue that this is a neglected dimension of firms’ innovation activities which may become an important source of competitiveness at company level and thus it deserves more attention. The analysis of empirical data of the various waves of the European Community Innovation Survey (CIS on non-technological innovation shows that the innovation performance of the Hungarian firms is declining. The authors complement this statistical analysis with the results of the European Working Conditions Survey demonstrating that there are significant differences in the innovation performance of such country groups as the EU-27, the Nordic and the Post-Socialist countries. Beside the country-specific comparison, the authors evaluate the performance of the Hungarian and Slovakian knowledge-intensive business service sector identified as a driver playing a “benchmark” role in speeding up workplace innovations. Finally, some key lessons are drawn indicating the need for a map on the distribution of different work organization forms in order to better understand the companies’ innovation activity and skill requirements.

  9. Wspolnoty Europejskie wobec problemow jezykowych (Addressing Language Problems in the European Communities).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelazny, Walter

    2003-01-01

    Raises questions about the a European Union commissioned report titled "Les Europeens et les langues," which was prepared in accordance with the customary routine used for a series of report on European public opinion. Issues discussed include the omission of several languages, the use of Esperanto, the languages reportedly used by…

  10. The benefit of the European User Community from transnational access to national radiation facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrier, Elise; Braz Fernandes, Francisco Manuel; Bujan, Maya; Feiters, Martin C; Froideval, Annick; Ghijsen, Jacques; Hase, Thomas; Hough, Michael A; Jergel, Matej; Jimenez, Ignacio; Kajander, Tommi; Kikas, Arvo; Kokkinidis, Michael; Kover, Laszlo; Larsen, Helge B; Lawson, David Mark; Lawniczak-Jablonska, Krystyna; Mariani, Carlo; Mikulik, Petr; Monnier, Judith; Morera, Solange; McGuinness, Cormac; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Meedom Nielson, Martin; Pietsch, Ullrich; Tromp, Moniek; Simon, Marc; Stangl, Julian; Zanotti, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    Transnational access (TNA) to national radiation sources is presently provided via programmes of the European Commission by BIOSTRUCT-X and CALIPSO with a major benefit for scientists from European countries. Entirely based on scientific merit, TNA allows all European scientists to realise synchrotron radiation experiments for addressing the Societal Challenges promoted in HORIZON2020. In addition, by TNA all European users directly take part in the development of the research infrastructure of facilities. The mutual interconnection of users and facilities is a strong prerequisite for future development of the research infrastructure of photon science. Taking into account the present programme structure of HORIZON2020, the European Synchrotron User Organization (ESUO) sees considerable dangers for the continuation of this successful collaboration in the future.

  11. Economic justification for quarantine status – the case study of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soliman, T.A.A.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Werf, van der W.

    2013-01-01

    International agreements on plant health and trade require that regulating a pest should be justified by economic impact assessment. Economic impact assessments are usually qualitative, weakening the objective and transparency of the regulation decision. This study assessed the potential economic

  12. The Economic Contribution of Canada's Community Colleges and Technical Institutes: An Analysis of Investment Effectiveness and Economic Growth. Volume 1: Main Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, M. Henry; Christophersen, Kjell A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the economic benefits generated by Canada's Community Colleges and Technical Institutes. Of the approximately 150 such colleges, the authors have completed detailed studies on roughly a third of these, or some 48 individual colleges. For the purposes of the present study, the results from this sub-sample…

  13. The European Economic Area (EEA) agreement and the Norwegian energy policy; EOES-avtalen og norsk energipolitikk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar; Claes, Dag Harald

    2011-07-01

    The Norwegian energy policy has a long tradition of strong public management. Already in the early 1900s the state ensured the right of first refusal to any new power stations and ensured that the privately owned power plant should go without charge back to the state after 60 years. The development of the petroleum sector Since 1970 the number of the corresponding manner largely been controlled by the state through public companies and stronger regulations, which (in conjunction with Norwegian and foreign private companies) to ensure employment, skills and added value would get 'the whole nation as a whole.' The goals were national and the funding were interventionistic from the public side. EU internal market represents in turn a far more liberal ideology, and promotes neutral nation competition for the benefit of the whole of the European Economic cooperation area (EEA). In the internal market the state's role is largely limited to being regulator of economic activities undertaken by private actors. Here are the goal European and the the funds are regulatory. The two models are met through the EEA agreement, both in terms of who the policy is going to work for and how it should be exercised. On the energy policy area these two major challenges creates for Norway: firstly, as a producer and exporter of oil and gas, economic and political interests are not always in line with the EU's interests as a consumer and importer of energy, for the second we have a tradition of a stronger governance of the energy sector than the EU internal market calls for. While not exist EEA Agreement in a vacuum.The changes in the petroleum regime in 2001-2002 through partial privatization of Statoil, the first gas directive and the case against the Gas Negotiating Committee (GFU) must be seen in context. Change is due to the mature of the petroleum sector, market development,development of the infrastructure and general international liberal economic trends that EEA

  14. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, The Council, The European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: Strategy for equality between women and men 2010-2015

    OpenAIRE

    European Commission

    2010-01-01

    The European Commission’s Strategy for Gender Equality lays down its programme in this area for 2010-15. The Strategy sets out priorities including equal economic independence, pay, labour market opportunities and access to decision-making positions. It also stresses the need to promote women’s dignity and stop gender-based violence. The Strategy outlines EU efforts to integrate gender equality into its external actions regarding policies such as enlargement and development. Finally, it addre...

  15. Modelling the socio-economic impacts of modern bioenergy in rural communities in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemausuor, Francis; Bolwig, Simon; Miller, Shelie

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses ex-ante socio-economic impacts of biogas systems using a remote rural community in Ghana as a case study. An analysis was performed for a 300 m3 bio-digester that relies on crop residue and animal manure as feedstock to produce methane gas for cooking using selected bioenergy...... economic and social indicators. With a 10% discount rate, a 30 year bio-digester lifetime and methane tariff starting at US$ 0.7/m3, the project will have a Net Present Value of approximately US$ 22,000, 16 year payback and an Internal Rate of Return of 11%. The project will create 4 full time unskilled...... labour positions during the investment year and 3 positions during operation years. Using methane from the bio-digester for cooking will displace approximately 170 tonnes of firewood per year and save the women in the community a total of 3400 hours per year not fetching firewood. However, only 5...

  16. Theoretical Review on Indonesian Academic Legal Education in Conjunction with ASEAN Economic Community Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariawan Gunandi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia will be welcoming the ASEAN Economic Community in 2015 as a multilateral agreement to create integrated regions such as: (a a single market and production base, (b a highly competitive economic region, (c a region of equitable economic development, and (d a region fully integrated into the global economy. These characteristics are interrelated and mutually reinforcing in a sense that overall development would not be complete without total completion of the previous sector. This article discusses the participation of Indonesia as part of ASEAN as a single market and production base, through free flow of services which targets higher education in law. The author researched that Indonesian higher education system still faces issues, especially in legal education. Compared to other states that manages higher education in a relatively guided term, Indonesian legal education is still regulated generally by the government, operated by state and private educational entity, and further trained by profession organization. Indonesian legal education standard has not been supported by proper accreditation bureaucracy from BAN-PT or fair treatment from the government between state and private university. As a result, the quality of Indonesian law graduate still varies. Indonesian legal education is special in nature since it is considered profession and regulated by code of ethic. According to the author, legal education should be integrated with profession organization so that upon graduation, law graduates can directly conduct internship according to their desired profession and compete against ASEAN law graduates.

  17. Continuation or Reorientation - What Future for European Integration?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Amtenbrink (Fabian)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractOn the 25th of March the European Union celebrates the 50th anniversary of the Treaty of Rome by which the European Economic Community was established; the Netherlands being one of the founding members. Until this very day, albeit in revised form, this Treaty still constitutes the

  18. Linking an economic model for European agriculture with a mechanistic model to estimate nitrogen and carbon losses from arable soils in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Leip

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive assessment of policy impact on greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from agricultural soils requires careful consideration of both socio-economic aspects and the environmental heterogeneity of the landscape. We developed a modelling framework that links the large-scale economic model for agriculture CAPRI (Common Agricultural Policy Regional Impact assessment with the biogeochemistry model DNDC (DeNitrification DeComposition to simulate GHG fluxes, carbon stock changes and the nitrogen budget of agricultural soils in Europe. The framework allows the ex-ante simulation of agricultural or agri-environmental policy impacts on a wide range of environmental problems such as climate change (GHG emissions, air pollution and groundwater pollution. Those environmental impacts can be analyzed in the context of economic and social indicators as calculated by the economic model. The methodology consists of four steps: (i definition of appropriate calculation units that can be considered as homogeneous in terms of economic behaviour and environmental response; (ii downscaling of regional agricultural statistics and farm management information from a CAPRI simulation run into the spatial calculation units; (iii designing environmental model scenarios and model runs; and finally (iv aggregating results for interpretation. We show the first results of the nitrogen budget in croplands in fourteen countries of the European Union and discuss possibilities to improve the detailed assessment of nitrogen and carbon fluxes from European arable soils.

  19. Association between individual-level and community-level socio-economic status and blood pressure among Inuit in Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mylène Riva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite abundant evidence that socio-economic status (SES is a fundamental determinant of health, there is a dearth of research examining association between SES, measured at the individual and community levels, and cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity among indigenous populations. Objectives: To examine the influence of individual-level and community-level SES on systolic and diastolic blood pressure among Greenlandic Inuit. Methods: Multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data from the Inuit Health in Transition – Greenland Survey, to which 3,108 Greenlandic Inuit aged 18 years and older participated. Blood pressure is measured using an automatic device, according to standardized protocol. Individual SES is measured by education. Community socio-economic conditions are measured using combined information on average disposable household income and settlement type. Results: Education was not significantly associated with blood pressure. There was an inverse U-shape association between community socio-economic conditions and blood pressure with significantly lower SBP and DBP among participants living in remote traditional villages characterized by lower average disposable household income and in affluent more urbanized towns. Sex-stratified analyses demonstrate the salience of community conditions for men. Conclusions: The association observed between blood pressure and community-level socio-economic conditions suggests that public health and social policies, programmes and interventions aiming to improve living conditions might improve cardiovascular health in Greenland. Studies are required to further examine social gradients in cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity among indigenous populations using different measures of SES.

  20. Inequality and rising levels of socio-economic segregation : Lessons from a pan-European comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcinczak, S.; Musterd, S.; Van Ham, M.; Tammaru, T.

    2015-01-01

    The research leading to these results has received funding from the Estonian Research Council (Institutional Research Grant IUT no. 2–17 on Spatial Population Mobility and Geographical Changes in Urban Regions); the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme

  1. Corruption, Political Instability and Economic Development in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS: Is There a Causal Relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurudeen Abu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the abundant research on economic development, corruption and political instability, little research has attempted to examine whether there is a causal relationship among them. This paper examines the causal relationship among corruption, political instability and economic development in the ECOWAS using the Granger causality test within a multivariate cointegration and error-correction framework for the 1996-2012 period. The findings indicate that political instability Granger-causes economic development in the short term, while political instability and economic development Granger-cause corruption in the long term. In addition, we employed the forecast error variance decomposition and impulse response function analyses to investigate the dynamic interaction between the variables. The results demonstrate positive unidirectional Granger causality from political instability to economic development in the short term and positive unidirectional Granger causality from political instability and economic development to corruption in the long term in ECOWAS countries. Thus, ECOWAS governments should employ policies to promote political stability in the region.

  2. Association between individual-level and community-level socio-economic status and blood pressure among Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riva, Mylène; Larsen, C. V. L.; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background. Despite abundant evidence that socio-economic status (SES) is a fundamental determinant of health, there is a dearth of research examining association between SES, measured at the individual and community levels, and cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity among indigenous populations...... and older participated. Blood pressure is measured using an automatic device, according to standardized protocol. Individual SES is measured by education. Community socio-economic conditions are measured using combined information on average disposable household income and settlement type. Results....... Education was not significantly associated with blood pressure. There was an inverse U-shape association between community socio-economic conditions and blood pressure with significantly lower SBP and DBP among participants living in remote traditional villages characterized by lower average disposable...

  3. DISSEMINATION OF SALMONELLA ENTERICA SEQUENCE TYPES AMONG ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY COUNTRIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchanee, Prapas; Boonkhot, Phacharaporn; Kittiwan, Nattinee; Tadee, Pakpoom; Chotinun, Suwit

    2015-07-01

    Food-borne illness caused by Salmonella enterica remains a public health problem and results in economic loss worldwide. With the up-coming establish- ment of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) allowing unrestricted move- ment of labor and goods, there is a higher risk of pathogen transmission among the AEC countries. This study characterized and investigated the spatial and temporal associations of S. enterica strains isolated in AEC countries during 1940- 2012 compared with those isolated in northern-Thailand during 2011-2013. Of the 173 S. enterica strains examined, 68 sequence types (STs) and 32 clonal complexes (CCs) were identified by multi loci sequence typing. Twenty-one strains belonged to four sequence types new to AEC countries, and they constituted only two CCs. A number of strains originated from various countries with multiple hosts, were highlighted. There was evidence of strains circulating in the AEC region well over a decade. Such information will be important in formulating biosecurity measures, as well as in educating regarding the risk of disease transmission in AEC.

  4. European „C” quest: community, competitiveness, convergence, cohesion. what should the “eu new comer romanians” aim for?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jora Octavian-Dragomir

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The analyses carried out both at the centre (Brussels and at the destination (member states (abuse of the principle that in public expenditure terms “spent money means well-spent money” and consider that absorption capacity equals economic performance (equated quite disputably with disparity reduction. The aggregate Keynesian perspective provides the main argument in favour of this interpretation: EU funds lead to GDP growth (economic growth. This vision overlooks the crucial importance of resource allocation micro-processes, private property and business activity. Therewith, the process of making European funds profitable and, consequently, the EU convergence feasible depends on the extent to which the absorption environment is structurally reformed. The “cohesion paradox,” which can be formulated like “least underdeveloped regions have relatively higher chances to attract European funds, while disparities compared to relatively less developed regions might even intensify”, can be broken only through multi-dimensional reform, immaterial to whether we speak about Romania, or Ireland, or Portugal, or Spain, or Greece.

  5. Migration-related tuberculosis: epidemiology and characteristics of tuberculosis cases originating outside the European Union and European Economic Area, 2007 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ködmön, Csaba; Zucs, Phillip; van der Werf, Marieke J

    2016-01-01

    Migrants arriving from high tuberculosis (TB)-incidence countries may pose a significant challenge to TB control programmes in the host country. TB surveillance data for 2007-2013 submitted to the European Surveillance System were analysed. Notified TB cases were stratified by origin and reporting country. The contribution of migrant TB cases to the TB epidemiology in EU/EEA countries was analysed. Migrant TB cases accounted for 17.4% (n = 92,039) of all TB cases reported in the EU/EEA in 2007-2013, continuously increasing from 13.6% in 2007 to 21.8% in 2013. Of 91,925 migrant cases with known country of origin, 29.3% were from the Eastern Mediterranean, 23.0% from south-east Asia, 21.4% from Africa, 13.4% from the World Health Organization European Region (excluding EU/EEA), and 12.9% from other regions. Of 46,499 migrant cases with known drug-susceptibility test results, 2.9% had multidrug-resistant TB, mainly (51.7%) originating from the European Region. The increasing contribution of TB in migrants from outside the EU/EEA to the TB burden in the EU/EEA is mainly due to a decrease in native TB cases. Especially in countries with a high proportion of TB cases in non-EU/EEA migrants, targeted prevention and control initiatives may be needed to progress towards TB elimination.

  6. A basis of settlement: Economic foundations of permanent pioneer communities. [Lunar settlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    High transport costs will dominate the pattern of lunar development. During the earliest phases, when lunar facilities consist of a research and resource development complex with staff serving tours of a few months, transport costs will encourage local production of food, fuel, and building materials. Once these capabilities are in place and the number of personnel grows to a few hundred, staff rotation might well dominate transport budgets. At that point it would make economic sense to encourage some members of staff to become permanent residents. By analogy with early British settlement in Australia, a vigorous private sector economy could emerge if the lunar organization provided quasi-export earning through its role as the community's major employer and as the major buyer of locally-produced goods. By providing such a market for goods and services, the lunar organization would not only provide a means whereby permanent residents would support themselves but could also accelerate the process of replacing imported goods with local manufactures, thereby reducing the cost of operations. By analogy with recent Alaskan experience, if the resource development activity started making money from sales to orbital customers, severance taxes and/or royalty payments could also provide means by which a lunar community could support itself.

  7. Elevated Behavioral Economic Demand for Alcohol in a Community Sample of Heavy Drinking Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amlung, Michael; MacKillop, James; Monti, Peter M; Miranda, Robert

    2017-05-01

    Cigarette smokers are more likely to consume alcohol at higher levels and experience poorer response to treatment for alcohol problems than are nonsmokers. One previous study in university students suggests that a potential reason for the high overlap between alcohol and tobacco use is that concurrent smoking is associated with overvaluation of alcohol, as reflected in elevated behavioral economic demand. The present study sought to extend these initial findings in a community sample with heavier levels of alcohol and tobacco use. Participants were 111 non-treatment-seeking heavy drinkers(defined as 18+/14+ drinks per week for men/women) from a larger study on alcohol pharmacotherapy mechanisms. Forty-nine participants (44%) reported regular smoking (≥5 cigarettes/day). Participants completed a hypothetical alcohol purchase task assessing alcohol consumption at escalating levels of price. Covariates included demographics, drinking quantity, alcohol use disorder severity, depression, and delay discounting. In covariate-adjusted models, smokers reported significantly higher maximum alcohol expenditures (Omax) and breakpoint price (first price suppressing consumption to zero) compared with nonsmokers. Elevated alcohol demand correlated with drinking quantity and severity in the entire sample, but not with smoking frequency or nicotine dependence among smokers only. This study offers further evidence of increased reinforcing value of alcohol among smokers in a sample of heavy drinkers from the community. Clinical implications and potential mechanisms underlying this relationship are discussed.

  8. Socio-economic vulnerability of coastal communities in southern Thailand: the development of adaptation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Willroth

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The tsunami of December 2004 impacted large areas of Thailand's coastline and caused severe human and economic losses. The recovery period revealed differences in the vulnerabilities of communities affected. An understanding of the causal factors of vulnerability is crucial for minimising the negative effects of future threats and developing adaptive capacities. This paper analyses the vulnerabilities and the development of adaptation strategies in the booming tourist area of Khao Lak and in the predominantly fishing and agricultural area of Ban Nam Khem through a comprehensive vulnerability framework. The results show that social networks played a crucial role in coping with the disaster. Social cohesion is important for strengthening the community and developing successful adaptation strategies. The development of tourism and the turning away from traditional activities have a significant positive influence on the income situation, but create a dependency on a single business sector. It could be shown that households generating their income in the tourism sector were vulnerable unless they had diversified their income previously. Income diversification decreased the vulnerability in the study areas. Adaptation strategies and processes developed in the aftermath clearly address these issues.

  9. Socio-economic vulnerability of coastal communities in southern Thailand: the development of adaptation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willroth, P.; Massmann, F.; Wehrhahn, R.; Revilla Diez, J.

    2012-08-01

    The tsunami of December 2004 impacted large areas of Thailand's coastline and caused severe human and economic losses. The recovery period revealed differences in the vulnerabilities of communities affected. An understanding of the causal factors of vulnerability is crucial for minimising the negative effects of future threats and developing adaptive capacities. This paper analyses the vulnerabilities and the development of adaptation strategies in the booming tourist area of Khao Lak and in the predominantly fishing and agricultural area of Ban Nam Khem through a comprehensive vulnerability framework. The results show that social networks played a crucial role in coping with the disaster. Social cohesion is important for strengthening the community and developing successful adaptation strategies. The development of tourism and the turning away from traditional activities have a significant positive influence on the income situation, but create a dependency on a single business sector. It could be shown that households generating their income in the tourism sector were vulnerable unless they had diversified their income previously. Income diversification decreased the vulnerability in the study areas. Adaptation strategies and processes developed in the aftermath clearly address these issues.

  10. TINJAUAN DALAM RENCANA PEMBERLAKUAN GREEN TAX ATAU ECO TAX DI INDONESIA UNTUK MENGHADAPI ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Eva Mustika Pratiwi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available ASEAN Economic Community (AEC is a community of nations in Southeast Asia who are members of ASEAN. In addition to cooperation in the economic field, the ASEAN Economics Community is also working in the field of defense and security as well as social and cultural. In the socio-cultural cooperation, ASEAN Community is also concerned about environmental decline. One of the policies that can be used to overcome this problem is Green Tax or Eco Tax while the instrument can be used for environmental management ISO 14000. This study uses descriptive qualitative research methods research by studying the symptoms, then the problem interpret or infer meaning a combination of various problems as presented by the situation based on the relevant studies. This research aims to analyze the benefits of the imposition of the Green Tax or Eco Tax in Indonesia and analyze the implementation of the Green Tax or Tax Eco good so it can accommodate  entrepreneurs interested and the environment in the face of ASEAN Economic Community 2015.

  11. A reference case for economic evaluations in osteoarthritis: an expert consensus article from the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Cooper, Cyrus; Guillemin, Francis; Hochberg, Marc C; Tugwell, Peter; Arden, Nigel; Berenbaum, Francis; Boers, Maarten; Boonen, Annelies; Branco, Jaime C; Maria-Luisa, Brandi; Bruyère, Olivier; Gasparik, Andrea; Kanis, John A; Kvien, Tore K; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Pinedo-Villanueva, Rafael; Pinto, Daniel; Reiter-Niesert, Susanne; Rizzoli, René; Rovati, Lucio C; Severens, Johan L; Silverman, Stuart; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2014-12-01

    General recommendations for a reference case for economic studies in rheumatic diseases were published in 2002 in an initiative to improve the comparability of cost-effectiveness studies in the field. Since then, economic evaluations in osteoarthritis (OA) continue to show considerable heterogeneity in methodological approach. To develop a reference case specific for economic studies in OA, including the standard optimal care, with which to judge new pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions. Four subgroups of an ESCEO expert working group on economic assessments (13 experts representing diverse aspects of clinical research and/or economic evaluations) were charged with producing lists of recommendations that would potentially improve the comparability of economic analyses in OA: outcome measures, comparators, costs and methodology. These proposals were discussed and refined during a face-to-face meeting in 2013. They are presented here in the format of the recommendations of the recently published Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement, so that an initiative on economic analysis methodology might be consolidated with an initiative on reporting standards. Overall, three distinct reference cases are proposed, one for each hand, knee and hip OA; with diagnostic variations in the first two, giving rise to different treatment options: interphalangeal or thumb-based disease for hand OA and the presence or absence of joint malalignment for knee OA. A set of management strategies is proposed, which should be further evaluated to help establish a consensus on the "standard optimal care" in each proposed reference case. The recommendations on outcome measures, cost itemisation and methodological approaches are also provided. The ESCEO group proposes a set of disease-specific recommendations on the conduct and reporting of economic evaluations in OA that could help the standardisation and comparability of studies that evaluate

  12. Regulation of medicinal plants for public health--European community monographs on herbal substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöss, Werner; Chinou, Ioanna

    2012-08-01

    The European legislation on medicinal products also addresses the medicinal use of products originating from plants. The objective of the legislation is to ensure the future existence of such products and to consider particular characteristics when assessing quality, efficacy, and safety. Two categories are defined: i) herbal medicinal products can be granted a marketing authorisation; and ii) traditional herbal medicinal products can be granted a registration based on their longstanding use if they are complying with a set of provisions ensuring their safe use. The Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC) was established at the European Medicines Agency (EMA) to provide monographs and list entries on herbal substances and preparations thereof. Meanwhile, approx. 100 monographs have been published, which define a current scientific and regulatory standard for efficacy and safety of herbal substances and herbal preparations used in medicinal products. This harmonised European standard will facilitate the availability and adequate use of traditional herbal medicinal products and herbal medicinal products within the European Union. Consequent labelling shall also enable patients and health care professionals to differentiate medicinal products from other product categories like cosmetics, food supplements, and medical devices. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Laboratories of Community : How Digital Humanities Can Further New European Integration History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bos, Maarten; Coll Ardanuy, Mariona; Sporleder, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    It has been said that media is an important but mostly overlooked player in European integration history. Now, the mass digitisation of newspapers and the introduction of new digital techniques promise great potential to remedy this inattention. With the conjecture that people are drivers and

  14. Community support and participation among persons with diabilities. A study in three European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prof. dr. Jean Pierre Wilken; Frans Leenders; Marju Medar; Zsolt Bugarszki

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a European project which was aimed at improving the situation of persons with psychiatric or learning disabilities with regard to social participation and citizenship. The project took place in three countries (Estonia, Hungary and the Netherlands) and four cities (Tallinn,

  15. The Modern University as an Imagined Community: European Dreams and Belarusian Realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark S.; Tereshkovich, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    This article explores various aspects of modern Belarusian national identity through an analysis of two connected case studies, the development of the flagship national university, Belarusian State University (BSU) in Minsk and of the European Humanities University (EHU), a private institution founded in Minsk in 1992 with international funding.…

  16. Towns in the Alps: Urbanization Processes, Economic Structure, and Demarcation of European Functional Urban Areas (EFUAs) in the Alps

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manfred Perlik; Paul Messerli; Werner Bätzing

    2001-01-01

    .... Instead, it is necessary to demarcate urbanized zones according to functional criteria. This article presents a demarcation of urbanized zones in the Alps based on the French method of European functional urban areas (EFUAs...

  17. Intentional communities : Methods for reviewing the rise of citizens’ housing initiatives in a European perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tummers, L.

    2011-01-01

    Intentional communities, Cooperatives de logement, Genossenschaften or Co-housing are types of collaborative housing in which residents actively participate in the design and operation of their own neighbourhoods. Cohousing residents are consciously committed to living as a community, and to

  18. [Geographical pattern of plant affinity to different communities and its causes (by the example of North-European forests)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherov, I B

    2003-01-01

    The same vascular plant species occur in communities of different types in different parts of their ranges. This phenomenon can be traced in both the latitudinal and the longitudinal directions. Changes in plant affinity to communities of different types are viewed by the example of the North-European forest studied in 1993-2001. Species occurring near their range limits, prefer habitats with smoothed amplitudes of minimum factors ("the law of preference for non-varying environments"). That's why Oxalis acetosella and other boreal-nemoral species demonstrate affinity to riparian forests of the middle-boreal subzone. Another cases of latitudinal change in ecological behavior may be caused by decrease in competitive ability (in Milium effusum), respective changes in the regeneration niche (in Cystopteris fragilis), or behavior of birds dispersing seeds (in Lonicera xylosteum). The longitudinal variation in plant behavior, as viewed by the example of the European-Siberian riparian-subalpine tall-herb synusia, is connected with the post-glacial plant migration in the European North. There is a lot of evidence for the individualistic character of the process, but it looks coherent in the historical retrospective. The possible role of refugia and long-distance dispersal in the process of formation of the present-day ranges of species is briefly reviewed. Conditions for plant dispersal in the past seemingly differ from those nowadays observed. The principal factor, which governs the dispersal rate, is that of interspecific competition level. Plant dispersal could be rather fast in the course of the corresponding primary succession following the glacier retreat or the marine retrogression (the "impulse" hypothesis). Since the climax pattern is established running waters and disturbed lands serve as "migration channels" for plants.

  19. The future of European mining: What should our mining industry learn from the Skouries and Rosia Montana community gold conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Liam; Heller, Shaun; Faltyn, Rowan; Stefanaki, Anna; Economidou, Romina; Savin, Irina; Hood, Leo; Conway, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    The popular image of mining portrayed by media and by a majority of public opinion is a dominantly negative one. From worker's rights to environmental damages, disasters such as the Copiapó mine collapse (Chile), the acid mine drainage at Lousal (Portugal) and the Pb contamination of waters around the Tyndrum mines (Scotland) overshadow initiatives like the ICMM. Some companies receive little praise despite creating active community education and investment projects, while others simply build higher barbed wire fences and attempt to weather the protests, budgeting them into mine life assessments. This image problem, combined with the decentralised political segregation of Europe and the increased power of grass-roots protest initiatives (such as Antigold in Greece), has resulted in mining companies joining a long list of industries effected by the 'auto-protest' reaction in face of development, regardless of potential regional and national benefits, there is a pre-existing lack of trust in corporate and government powers to protect community interests. The poor management of existing licences is thus becoming a significant danger to future operations and the wider industry. Here we report on the Rosia Montana dispute (Romania) and the ongoing Skouries conflict (Greece). We then discuss how the European mining industry may need to significantly adapt its exploration and community engagement strategies to avoid future conflicts and, present a recent example of how effective suitably organised community engagement projects can be for local mining initiatives from Southern Portugal.

  20. Globalization and Europeanization. A Projection on a European Model of Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Matei

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The specialized studies and literature present moreover and insistently the connection between globalization and Europeanization, more precisely between globalization and a European model of integration, whose features aim to set up a global-type European society. The development of the European model of integration starts with economic elements, it reveals nowadays the Economic and Monetary Union and in perspective it will be structured within a sui generis system of transnational governance. The values of the European model of integration become fundamental values of a social process, with powerful economic and political determinations, aiming the multi-causal interference between individual, community and European construction. This process, remarked increasingly in the specialized literature, being assigned with the name of Europeanization, has got original, functional features in the spectrum of significations of the globalization paradigm. As essential global-type formula, within Europeanization, we shall find models with economic, political or social finality, integrating also a model of administration among the latter ones. When we say administration, we refer to its up dated and adequate contents to the new European developments. This assertion derives from a less economic modality to conceptualize the relationship between globalization and Europeanization, presenting Europeanization more as a political adaptation to globalization and even a political expression of globalization. In this context, the development of a system for European governance on several levels (local, regional, national, intergovernmental and supranational suggests its evolution towards globalization. In fact, the literature specific for Europeanization asserts the fact that the European model has also features with integrative nature related to the supranational and trans-governmental dimensions, as well as features with normative nature in view of harmonization