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Sample records for european constitutional state

  1. Ritual Slaughter in the Modern Constitutional State: A Brief History of the European Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afsah, Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    In this proposed presentation I intend to give a historical overview of the political and constitutional debates in selected European countries – including Germany, France, Great Britain, Holland and Scandinavia – from the nineteenth century to the present day, paying special attention to the shi....... Similar in nature if not necessarily in intensity to questions of forced and/or underage marriage, male circumcision and female genital mutilation, the commitment of the secular state to animal welfare cannot summarily be rejected by demands for religious freedom....

  2. Habermas on European Constitution and European Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Biró-Kaszás

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For the last two decades or so philosophers have been reflecting on a set of practical and political concerns in connection with the new political structural arrangements beyond the nation-state. In this article two essays by Jürgen Habermas shall be examined. An attempt shall be made to tackle Habermas’ philosophical concepts of personal and collective identity as well as the role that a constitution may play in building the post-national constellation. It has been shown that Habermas has normative answers. Firstly, according to him, the fragile balance between the legal order and the particular cultures and traditions of a community has to be protected by the constitutional state. For that reason the political culture has to be “decoupled” from the majority culture. Secondly, the democratically structured attempt to achieve shared meaning has to find the delicate balance between the context-transcending universal normative claims and the claims of particular individual and collective life. Thirdly, it is possible to expand legally mediated civil solidarity trans-nationally, across Europe – we may recognize this development as the emergence of European identity –, since the process of democratic will-formation of citizens may get loose from the structures provided by the state if both shared democratic political cultures as well as a European-wide public sphere exist. The European Constitution may have a catalytic function in materialization of these conditions. It has been shown that in his deliberations Habermas tried to find a reflective equilibrium between the normative and the empirical.

  3. National constitutional courts in the European Constitutional Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komárek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This article critically assesses the transformation of national constitutional courts’ place in the law and politics of the EU and its member states. This process eliminates the difference between constitutional and ordinary national courts, which is crucial for the institutional implementation...... the EU and its member states, understood together as the European Constitutional Democracy—the central notion developed in this article in order to support an argument that should speak to both EU lawyers and national constitutionalists....... of the discourse theory of law and democracy. It also disrupts the symbiotic relationship between national constitutional democracies established after World War II and European integration. The article argues that maintaining the special place of national constitutional courts is in the vital interest of both...

  4. THE ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF ACCESSIBILITY IN CONSTITUTION OF STATE BUDGET REVENUE IN ROMANIA AND IN THE OTHER MEMBER STATES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The work is topical even though there have been many concerns over the time of the importance of revenues collected from excises at the level of the state budget in Romania and in other EU Member States. Due to the complex nature of the revenue generation to the state budget, the attempt to find the best modality of realizing the revenues to the state budget has not yet come to a solution. Regarding the objective of the paper, it is the exposition of the excise duty role in the constitution of the state budget revenues for the period 2010-2016 for Romania and for the period 2010-2015 for the European Union. The results of the excise tax analysis in establishing the state budget revenues in Romania for the period 2010- 2016 indicate that although in absolute terms the revenues realized to the state budget from excises increased by ROL 9,343.9 million, however, the influence generated in the gross domestic product If the level of excise duties in GDP was 317% at the level of 2016, this share was 3.37%. At European Union level, the share of excise tax in the average tax revenue is low (1.1%, but as it results from the content of the work in 2015 in Estonia there was a 13.2% level of the excise tax rate in the tax revenues, Well above the EU average, followed by Luxembourg (6.8% and Ireland (6.2%.

  5. The Bicentennial and State Constitutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Henry

    1988-01-01

    Illustrates how the Bicentennial of the U.S. Constitution provides an opportunity to teach about the broader concept of constitutionalism through study of the state constitutions. Presents an argument for teaching about state constitutions, their role in the federal system, and the values they convey. (LS)

  6. State Authorities’ Powers to Determine the Budget Deficit and Public Debt in the Light of the Articles of the Constitution and the Law of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Borodo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The issues of public debt and budget deficit are regulated by constitutions (e.g. of Poland, Germany, Spain as well as by the law of the European Union. The constitutional regulations concerning public debt and deficit are norms primarily directed at governments and parliaments. However, these regulations mainly have a preventive and auxiliary character and cannot by themselves stop the debt level of the state from increasing. Financial aims concerning debt and deficit can be achieved by non-financial methods, i.e. through the appropriate social and economic policies implemented by the authorities enjoying considerable social respect. The EU regulations regarding public debt and deficit can only be implemented with the instruments of the national law. The set of the EU regulations limiting the budgetary powers of member states, including the budgetary powers of governments and national parliaments, are questionable and undermine the authority of the state.

  7. Supplementary agreement prolonging the agreement constituting a council of representatives of European states for d planning an international laboratory and organizing other forms of co-operation in nuclear research; Paris, 30th June 1953

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    1953-01-01

    Supplementary agreement prolonging the agreement constituting a council of representatives of European states for d planning an international laboratory and organizing other forms of co-operation in nuclear research; Paris, 30th June 1953

  8. The Functions of Constitutional Identity Performed in the Context of Constitutionalization of the EU Order and Europeanization of the Legal Orders of EU Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belov Martin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an analysis of the functions performed by constitutional identity in constitutional discourses of both the EU and its Member States, in the context of emerging post-Westphalian and supranational constitutionalism. The analysis tries to demonstrate that constitutional identity may serve as one of the key normative ideologies, legitimation strategies and ordering schemes of EU constitutionalism. It reasserts through functional analysis the suitability of constitutional identity for organizing and explaining multiple constitutional orders in a non-hierarchical and inclusive way.

  9. A Federal Constitution for the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweeney, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    that the federal government loses legitimacy. It appears vital tohave trade policy at the European Union level; for euro countries, monetary policy is alreadyfederalized. It is not clear that common foreign and defense policies are needed; insisting oncommon foreign and defense policies may lead to conflicts...... that helps drain the reservoir of goodwill that the European Union will need fordealing with other conflicts amongst member states....... within and across member statesthat severely weaken the Union, conceivably contributing to eventual collapse. Insisting onharmonization of commercial codes does not have the destructive potential of attemptingcompletely to harmonize defense and foreign policies; it may, however, lead to needlessconflict...

  10. Ritual Slaughter in the Modern Constitutional State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afsah, Ebrahim

    In this proposed presentation I intend to give a historical overview of the political and constitutional debates in selected European countries – including Germany, France, Great Britain, Holland and Scandinavia – from the nineteenth century to the present day, paying special attention to the shi....... Similar in nature if not necessarily in intensity to questions of forced and/or underage marriage, male circumcision and female genital mutilation, the commitment of the secular state to animal welfare cannot summarily be rejected by demands for religious freedom....

  11. Territory in the Constitutional Standards of Unitary States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Markhgeym

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the analysis of the constitutions of seven European countries (Albania, Hungary, Greece, Spain, Malta, Poland, Sweden. The research allows to reveal general and specific approaches to consolidation of norms on territories in a state and give the characteristic of the corresponding constitutional norms. Given the authors ' comprehensive approach to the definition of the territory of the state declared constitutional norms were assessed from the perspective of the fundamental principles and constituent elements of the territory. Considering the specifics of the constitutional types of state territories authors suggest typical and variative models and determine the constitutions of unitary states, distinguished by their originality in the declared group of legal relations. The original constitutional language areas associated with the introduction at the state level, these types of areas that are not typical for other countries.

  12. Europeanization and transnational states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsson, Bengt; Lægreid, Per; Pedersen, Ove K.

    This work investigates what happens to an organized political unit when it becomes part of a larger entity and, in particular, how increased European integration and the tentative moves towards a transnational state will affect the European Union's nation state. Europeanization and the transforma......This work investigates what happens to an organized political unit when it becomes part of a larger entity and, in particular, how increased European integration and the tentative moves towards a transnational state will affect the European Union's nation state. Europeanization...... in central government agencies. It concludes that the consequences of Europeanization can be described as the growth of a transnational administration where identities as well as loyalties are created in processes that transcend the borders of states....

  13. European Crises of Legally-constituted Public Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2017-01-01

    . The dual (trans-)national re-constitution of Western Europe in the years immediately after the Second World War, which the European integration process was an integrated part of, successfully remedied this development. However, over the last decades, Europe has experienced a ‘turn to governance’, which...

  14. Conflicts by Convergence and Deep Disagreements in European Constitutional Law

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    Scarcello Orlando

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this essay the question of what kind of conflicts are at stake in the context of European pluralism will be considered, with special focus on the shift from “conflicts by divergence” to “conflicts by convergence” and on attempts to conceptualise these issues by means of the concept of “complex antinomy”. It will be argued that this analysis needs some refinement and the concept of “levels of disagreements” will be introduced as an alternative. A specific focus will be maintained on the impact of different interpretive methodologies: in this way it is possible to underline the structure of “deep” and “superficial” disagreements in the context of European law. In order to illustrate this point, some notes on the recent Taricco saga will be developed. Finally, the relevance for European constitutionalism of deep disagreements on interpretive methodologies will be underlined.

  15. The Causes of Failure of the European Constitution From the Perspective of the Constitution-Making Process

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    Robert Podolnjak

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic argument of the article is that the main causes of failure of the European Constitution stem from an inadequate preparation and implementation of a complex procedure of constitution-making for a federation of countries on a continental scale. This process includes the issues of temporal aspects of constitutionmaking, the subject of constitution-making, the text of the constitution, the strategy of constitutional ratifi cation and the constitution-makers themselves. The principal causes of failure of the European Constitution will be presented in the form of certain preliminary assumptions, which will then be examined in the light of certain comparative experiences of constitution-making in two federal systems – the American and the Swiss system. The primary mistakes of the European constitution-making are refl ected in the lack of an appropriate moment for making the constitution, in the vagueness of the document in terms of its constitutional or contractual quality, in the creation of a text of the Constitution which is completely incomprehensible to the average citizen, in the making of the Constitution without a vision or ambition, in the complete lack of any strategy of ratifi cation of the Constitution, in the insistence on the direct participation of the people in the adoption of the Constitution, which is legally and politically considered primarily an international treaty, and in badly managed media presentation and defence of the Constitution before the European public. The most important mistakes, crucial to the failure of the Constitution, are the ambivalent approach of the European constitutionmakers to the mode of ratifi cation of the Constitution, and their disregard of the constitution-making experience of other federal countries.

  16. State Constitutionalism: Completing the Interdisciplinary Study of Constitutional Law and Political Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    Argues that a complete and accurate understanding of constitutional history and constitutional law requires the study of state constitutions. Maintains that state constitutions contain a coherent political theory that is, in important respects, at variance with the concept of federalism. (CFR)

  17. The Implications of the European Integration Process of Kosovo's Constitutional Order

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    Flamur Hyseni

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article I have analyzed and studied on what are the implications of the European integration process of Kosovo’s constitutional order and how much of institutional order Kosovo has, also how much of the effects of the European integration process has used. I’ve made a brief analysis of the establishment of the constitutional order of Kosovo in the former federal state of Yugoslavia and establishment of Kosovo under international administration. However an analyze and more detailed study I’ve made on the first report of contracting between Kosovo and EU, Stabilization and Association Agreement which will be implemented in Kosovo through the National Program for the Implementation of the Stabilization and Association Agreement that was approved by the Government on 16 December 2015 and by the Assembly on 10 March 2016. The other aspect of the study and analysis in this article is the study of acts to protect the territorial integrity of Kosovo, which are: 12244/99 resolution of the UN Security Council, Constitutional Framework for Provisional Self- Government in Kosovo, 16 May 2001, Declaration of Independence, 17 February 2008 and the Constitution of the Republic of Kosovo, 09 April 2008.

  18. National parliaments and European constitutionalism: accountability beyond borders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jancic, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314130772

    2011-01-01

    The structure and quality of EU democracy is greatly determined by the status that the European Union accords both to the European Parliament and to national parliaments. The potential that national parliaments carry for providing political accountability and democratic legitimacy to the EU

  19. Achievement of Fundamental Rights by Individual Initiative: Brazil in Relation to European Paradigm of “Triangular Basis Constitutional Justice”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Angelica Moreira Ribeiro Lima

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The current legal and qualitative dogmatic study makes use of the deductive method, exploratory and descriptive focus, bibliographical and documentary survey and content analysis to compare forms of achievement of fundamental rights in the Brazilian and European contexts. It’s concluded that the European “triangular basis constitutional justice”, in which there are three judicial guardianship systems, the European Court of Human Rights, member states courts and the European Union courts, provides greater safekeeping to fundamental rights of individual protection because of their simplicity, accessibility and assertiveness, tasking propose alternatives of implementation and enforcement of such rights in the national legal order.

  20. CONSTITUTIONALISM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    1 Hilaire Barnett, Constitutional and Administrative Law 5 (London: Cavendish ... 3(2) Mizan Law Rev. NOTES ON CONSTITUTIONALISM. 359 independent judiciary, respect for individual rights and the right to self- determination as essential ..... “Our principle is the party commands the gun, and the gun must never be.

  1. New constraints on mobility in Europe: Policy response to European crises or constitutional ambiguity?

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    Izabela Jędrzejowska-Schiffauer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effectiveness of recent measures undertaken by the governments of some European Union Member States such as the United Kingdom, Germany and Poland as well as of non-EU European countries such as Switzerland in order to face growing concerns in the public opinion with the increase of transnational migration flows on European continent. The authors analyse selected legislative, regulatory and administrative measures motivated by objectives of migration policy or affecting the mobility of workers, taken in the aftermath of the economic and financial crisis. They argue that, albeit political discourse unfavourable on immigration and migrant workers has become the mainstream in some countries, the measures taken by national governments and legislators seldom involve direct constraints on the free movement of workers which is safeguarded by EU treaty provisions. However, concrete examples illustrate that access of such workers to social security benefits has been restricted through making use of certain derogations from the principle of equal treatment allowed under EU law. In some cases national legislators had to abandon plans to limit directly the free movement of workers, because the envisaged provisions were incompatible with the EU Treaties. With regard to social security, regulatory measures and administrative actions may have effectively implemented national policy concerns with large-scale migration movements. In general, it could be concluded that the European Union, while struggling against multiple crises, has taken a not fully favourable approach to free movement and migration of EU citizens. The present political climate unfavourable to intra-European migration may be understood, from the perspective of historical analysis, as an expression of constitutional ambiguity underlying the European Union’s normative framework, consisting in a gap between its formally recognised noble values and the mentalities

  2. The European State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    2003-01-01

    The article argues that the EU today shares so many common features with a 'state' that it is best analyzed as such.......The article argues that the EU today shares so many common features with a 'state' that it is best analyzed as such....

  3. Prospects of the Constitutional State of Indonesia: Ideas and Reality

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    Hamdan Zoelva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia since its inception has asserted itself as a constitutional state. It may be inferred through the clear regulation related to powers and functions of each state institution in the form of checks and balances system, the protection of human rights, the clarity of the principles of democratic mechanism, as well as the guarantee of an independent judiciary. Although the constitution has been set in such a way, efforts to achieve a constitutional state is not an easy road. Nowadays, it seems that the trip of the Indonesian as a constitutional state was still hobbled. A variety of legal issues that disturb the sense of justice continues to emerge one after another. The outcomes of the research indicate that over the last decade, Indonesia has made many changes to realize the ideal of a constitutional state. As it turns out in practice, however, legal development was still far short from the expectations. The success of building a constitutional state can not be measured by the ability to produce legislation and to create or revitalize legal institutions. Moreover, the success of a constitutional state must also be measured by the implementation and law enforcement which able to create justice for all people. Therefore, the main focus of various studies of law and legal policy, must be oriented in the judicial institutions and law enforcement.

  4. European Constitutionalism as the Metatheory of the Construction of Legal and Political Reality and the Challenges for its Development*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bieliauskaitė Jolanta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The latter European crisis reveals the fact that traditional agreements between governments of the Member States and supranational political and legal institutions of the European Union are not sufficient for the maintenance of European Union stability and integrity. Therefore, the political and legal sustainability of the European Union requires a certain metatheory as a methodology, which could essentially contribute to the coherent construction, interpretation and assessment of theoretical and practical issues of the European Union’s legal and political reality. This paper aims to explore two main questions: What is constitutionalism as a legal-political metatheory? What challenges are faced by this theory while addressing the specific EU legal-political reality construction problems?

  5. Constitutional Principles of State Control in the Republic of Armenia

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    Gabriel K. Balayan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article some of the provision of the RA Constitution’s basic principles of state control, which, in my opinion, should be guided by regulatory authorities during the inspection are discussed. These principles are considered by the author as the basis of the constitutionality of state control. Some of the control principles are divided by the author into positive and negative. Positive defines the principles that provide the freedom of action of man and citizen. Negative same principles are for government agencies, since they restrict their activities. A separate analysis is subject to the presidency on the basis of the principle of separation and balance of powers. In conclusion, author concludes that, based on the interpretation of the constitutional principles discussed, the term "law" applies only to natural and legal persons on the other hand can not be used as an analogue of the terms "authority" and "authority." According to the author, the fundamental constitutional principles of state control are expressed formally in a single system as defined in the first chapter of the Constitution of the Republic of Armenia. Compliance and reform of constitutional principles provide the synergy and the constitutionality of the process of governance.

  6. Criminal adjudication by state courts under the FDRE constitution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the introduction of federal arrangement with the FDRE Constitution, the issue of distribution of powers between the Federal Government and the states in general and that of criminal adjudicative jurisdiction between the Federal courts and state courts in particular has become a controversial point. This controversy has ...

  7. Political legitimacy and European monetary union: contracts, constitutionalism and the normative logic of two-level games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Richard; Weale, Albert

    2015-02-07

    The crisis of the euro area has severely tested the political authority of the European Union (EU). The crisis raises questions of normative legitimacy both because the EU is a normative order and because the construction of economic and monetary union (EMU) rested upon a theory that stressed the normative value of the depoliticization of money. However, this theory neglected the normative logic of the two-level game implicit in EMU. It also neglected the need for an impartial and publically acceptable constitutional order to acknowledge reasonable disagreements. By contrast, we contend that any reconstruction of the EU's economic constitution has to pay attention to reconciling a European monetary order with the legitimacy of member state governance. The EU requires a two-level contract to meet this standard. Member states must treat each other as equals and be representative of and accountable to their citizens on an equitable basis. These criteria entail that the EU's political legitimacy requires a form of demoi cracy that we call 'republican intergovernmentalism'. Only rules that could be acceptable as the product of a political constitution among the peoples of Europe can ultimately meet the required standards of political legitimacy. Such a political constitution could be brought about through empowering national parliaments in EU decision-making.

  8. Political legitimacy and European monetary union: contracts, constitutionalism and the normative logic of two-level games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Richard; Weale, Albert

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The crisis of the euro area has severely tested the political authority of the European Union (EU). The crisis raises questions of normative legitimacy both because the EU is a normative order and because the construction of economic and monetary union (EMU) rested upon a theory that stressed the normative value of the depoliticization of money. However, this theory neglected the normative logic of the two-level game implicit in EMU. It also neglected the need for an impartial and publically acceptable constitutional order to acknowledge reasonable disagreements. By contrast, we contend that any reconstruction of the EU's economic constitution has to pay attention to reconciling a European monetary order with the legitimacy of member state governance. The EU requires a two-level contract to meet this standard. Member states must treat each other as equals and be representative of and accountable to their citizens on an equitable basis. These criteria entail that the EU's political legitimacy requires a form of demoicracy that we call ‘republican intergovernmentalism’. Only rules that could be acceptable as the product of a political constitution among the peoples of Europe can ultimately meet the required standards of political legitimacy. Such a political constitution could be brought about through empowering national parliaments in EU decision-making. PMID:26924935

  9. Constituting the Social Basis of the EU: Reflections from the European Margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Sekulic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses significant aspects of the constitution of the European Union’s social basis from the broader perspective of a European space under construction. The specific point of view regards the process of Europeanization through enlargement to the post-socialist Eastern and South European countries, and conditionality as its main instrument. In the light of the five-year moratorium proposed by the Juncker Commission in 2015, the process is examined particularly from its margins by considering the case of Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH, i.e. the last country in the ‘Western Balkans’, together with Kosovo, that is not yet a candidate for EU membership. The analysis aims to shed light on two different and conflictual forms of agency: first, the institution building process through accession procedures; second, social dissent patterns and citizens’ mobilization in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The purpose is to analyze if and how these diverse agencies cross borders and soften boundaries to constitute an emerging European society. A constant methodological concern of this study is if and how an ethnography of the process may contribute to the analysis of European integration in its complex, non-linear and often contradictory nature (Kauppi 2013

  10. Designing Viable Republican Constitutions for Modern African States

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper I argue for the adoption of an unmitigated republican constitutional system by modern African nation states as a necessary condition for the realisation of their democratic aspirations. I identify the continued retention of the traditional kingship institution, even in a much whittled down form, as a major impediment ...

  11. Fundamental Laws of the State: The Spanish Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerio de Informacion y Turismo, Madrid (Spain).

    This political document is introduced by the head of the Spanish State, His Excellency Don Francisco Franco Bahamonde in a speech given on 22 November 1966 to the session of the Spanish Cores. The speech outlines in general terms the political and philosophical ideals of His Excellency. The Constitution is presented in several sections including:…

  12. CONSIDERATION REGARDING TO THE FISCAL REGULATIONS IN SOME EUROPEAN STATES

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    Ardeleanu-Popa Carmen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It can be observed, that the member states of the European Union were guided to implement some reforms in the domain of fiscal politics, the aim of which would constitute in fighting and eliminating the damaging fiscal competition, of the differences regarding to indirect fiscality, etc. Without this political fiscal instrument coordinated by the members of the European Union, the free traffic of capitals could be transformed into a determinant factor of the cross-border fraud.

  13. Constitutionalism, State and territory in the globalization context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Guillermo Jiménez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization shows that the national State is losing the monopoly in the production of law, and this generates changes concerning the environment of application of the state legal arrangements and the role of the territory as the limit thereof. The object of this work is to offer a panorama about of the law globalization impacts on the State, the constitutional theory and the territory. The study is performed by means of the documentary review technique by using the consultation of diverse sources. Our conclusion is that the Westphalian model of State-nation has been weakened; however, globalization needs the State to be able to operate. Law has been deterritorialized and the territory continues to be a fundamental element for the contemporary State.

  14. Critical state soil constitutive model for methane hydrate soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, S.; Soga, K.; Yamamoto, K.

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents a new constitutive model that simulates the mechanical behavior of methane hydrate-bearing soil based on the concept of critical state soil mechanics, referred to as the "Methane Hydrate Critical State (MHCS) model". Methane hydrate-bearing soil is, under certain geological conditions, known to exhibit greater stiffness, strength and dilatancy, which are often observed in dense soils and also in bonded soils such as cemented soil and unsaturated soil. Those soils tend to show greater resistance to compressive deformation but the tendency disappears when the soil is excessively compressed or the bonds are destroyed due to shearing. The proposed model represents these features by introducing five extra model parameters to the conventional critical state model. It is found that, for an accurate prediction of ground settlement, volumetric yielding plays an important role when hydrate soil undergoes a significant change in effective stresses and hydrate saturation, which are expected during depressurization for methane gas recovery.

  15. Gendering European welfare states and citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Borchorst, Anette

    2017-01-01

    on gender, class, ethnicity or race, and nationality. One issue is what has been the effect of the European emphasis on women’s wage work and gender equality policies for women in different European countries? Another issue concerns how multiple discrimination is tackled and institutionalized in European......The chapter revisits the feminist scholarship on gendering of European welfare states and European citizenship, and reflects on the effects of globalization, Europeanization and migration. It first presents feminist perspectives on the liberal, the conservative and the social democratic welfare...... welfare states. A third issue is to what extent the Nordic welfare states still represent an attractive alternative model of social and gender equality to neo-liberalism. The final part discusses feminist approaches to reframe gender equality and gender justice from the transnational European contexts....

  16. The Obligations on Government and Society in our Constitutional State to Respect and Support Independent Constitutional Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LWH Ackermann

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Constitutional democracy recognises the ancient democratic principle that government of a country is based on and legitimated by the will and consent of the governed, which is determined by regular multi-party elections based on universal adult franchise. Constitutional democracy limits this principle by subjecting the democratically elected government and the will of the majority subject to a written constitution and the norms embodied in it. Such constitution is enshrined as the supreme law of the country in question. An almost universal feature of modern constitutionalism is a Bill of Rights that forms part of the Constitution and which is designed to protect and enforce individual rights principally, although not exclusively, against the state. Constitutionalism also embodies the principle of the separation of powers. A competent and independent judiciary, with the power to review all legislative and executive conduct that is inconsistent with the Constitution, is regarded, almost universally, as the prime and most effective check on the legislative and executive branches of government. Recently it has come to be realised that for the truly effective and meaningful operation of constitutionalism, other independent state institutions are necessary. The collective objective of these institutions is to ensure that the Constitution in fact produces what it proclaims: that constitutionalism becomes a way of life in all institutional structures. The South African Constitution has clearly designated the judiciary as the prime upholder and enforcer of the Constitution. The Constitution has, however, gone further and makes provision for a variety of independent state institutions whose purpose is to "strengthen constitutional democracy in the Republic". Apart from these state institutions the Constitution also makes provision for other independent bodies designed to play an important checking and balancing role. The regular effective functioning of

  17. European Constitutional Identity “Inside Out”: Inherent Risks of the Pluralist Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cebulak, Pola Paula

    2012-01-01

    of the Polish and Czech constitutional courts. One might perceive a more general tendency in the process of EU integration to dominate the EU policies increasingly with national agendas. As a result, the EU policies might be held hostage by the interests of the stronger Member States. These tendencies enhance...... for fruitful interaction of competing visions of Europe. Single criticisable judgments do not put in question the viability of the whole framework, but it is important to be aware of the systemic risks....

  18. State Constitution Revision: An Exercise in Federalism and Sovereignty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses classroom activities designed to enhance student learning about federalism and sovereignty. Describes classroom discussions on jurisdiction, federalism, and sovereignty generated by asking students to clarify the constitutional section referring to the Writ of Habeas Corpus. Concludes that this exercise clarifies the concepts and…

  19. The State of Progressive Constitutional Theory: The Paradox of Constitutional Democracy and the Project of Political Justification

    OpenAIRE

    Sultany, Nimer

    2012-01-01

    Every time the Supreme Court strikes down a law enacted by Congress or a state legislature the age-old debate over the “counter-majoritarian difficulty” resurfaces. Theories of judicial review, new and old, are offered to answer this tension between constitutionalism and democracy. But what explains the persis- tence and contestability of this difficulty? Why has the existing wealth of schol- arship failed to resolve this difficulty? In this Article, I address such questions while contextuali...

  20. European welfare states beyond neoliberalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    . Social policies are no longer regarded as a burden on economies, but rather as investment in human capital. Hence, we are now beyond neo-liberalism. Secondly, the widespread welfare reforms in Europe must be distinguished according to welfare regime. Thus, the paper discusses welfare reform within five...... identifying retrenchment even if parts of the literature do argue for such a perspective. This seeming contradiction within the scholarly community calls for a more precise definition of all three import concepts: What should be understood by neo-liberal reform or a neo-liberal approach? Which welfare...... of benefits and an increase in risks and coverage. Therefore, the remainder of the paper discusses in more detail particular welfare reforms within each of the five welfare regimes. It is concluded that problems of welfare state development differ within the different regimes, but a strong commitment...

  1. the Mutual Constitutiveness of the Developmental State and Higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seeking to go beyond the pessimism and reification of contemporary analyses of the state in Africa, this article applies Migdal's State in Society (2001) approach to the field of higher education transformation in South Africa. It argues that the state is best understood through its actual practices, particularly at those points ...

  2. Students' Constitutional Right to a Sound Basic Education: New York State's Unfinished Agenda. Part 1. A Roadmap to Constitutional Compliance Ten Years after "CFE v. State"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebell, Michael A.; Wolff, Jessica R.

    2016-01-01

    Ten years have passed since New York's highest court ruled in the landmark school-funding and educational-rights case, "Campaign for Fiscal Equity (CFE) v. State of New York," that the state was violating students' constitutional right to the "opportunity for a sound basic education" and ordered significant reforms of the…

  3. We the People: Indiana and the United States Constitution. Lectures in Observance of the Bicentennial of the Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Partick J.; And Others

    These lectures, presented in observance of the U.S. Constitution bicentennial celebration, consider selected constitutionally significant law cases that occurred in Indiana. These cases are representative of U.S. constitutional development and of the relationship of Indiana to the U.S. Constitution. Patrick Furlong, in "The South Bend…

  4. Constituting Market Citizenship: Regulatory State, Market Making and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasuriya, Kanishka

    2015-01-01

    The paper makes three claims: first that regulatory state making and market making in higher education is intertwined through a project of market citizenship that shapes the "publicness" of higher education. Second, we argue that these projects of market citizenship are variegated and in Australia has taken the form of accommodation--via…

  5. The Liability of European States for Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger H J Cox

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available According to climate science and the 195 signatory States to the UN Climate Convention, every emission of anthropogenic greenhouse gases contributes to climate change. Furthermore, they hold that a two degree Celsius rise of Earth’s average temperature is to be considered as a dangerous climate change to mankind and all of the world’s ecosystems. Using the climate proceedings of Dutch citizens against the Dutch state as a starting point, the author of this case note explains why each European Member State’s contribution to dangerous climate change as a result of inadequate emission reduction policies constitutes a tort of negligence against its citizens and poses a real threat for its citizens’ effective enjoyment of human rights. The author argues that this makes individual European Nations severally liable for dangerous climate change and gives European citizens and non-governmental organisations the possibility to request their Nation State’s competent court to compel the Nation’s government to implement stricter emission reductions in accordance with what is deemed necessary to help avoid dangerous climate change and to protect their human rights.

  6. Human dignity after ten years of the constitutional state in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human dignity has been the marrow of our Constitution and our constitutional state since 1994. The inherent dignity of man is also a key principle of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948. The Kantian categorical imperatives continue to provide guidance regarding the meaning of human dignity. At the very ...

  7. Non-Religion-Based State Constitutional Challenges to Educational Voucher and Tax Credit Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Preston C., III

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of non-religion-based state constitutional challenges to educational voucher and tax credit/scholarship programs. The first section discusses litigation examining whether education voucher programs violate constitutional provisions requiring the legislature to provide an efficient system of public schools. The…

  8. IR. Theory Meets European Union Law. Constitutional Battles, Sovereign Choices & Institutional Contingencies in the Legacy of the European Integration Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Marlene

    From the point of departure of international relations theory it is not an easy task to come to grips with the European integration process. We are faced with a situation where some of the world's oldest and traditionally most sovereignty-loving nations have surrendered essential parts of their p......From the point of departure of international relations theory it is not an easy task to come to grips with the European integration process. We are faced with a situation where some of the world's oldest and traditionally most sovereignty-loving nations have surrendered essential parts...... of their power to a supranational institution. In order to make sense of this the book employs a constructivist framework. Empirically it focuses on the way in which the Community has transformed from a traditional international regime, based on classical international law, to a semi-federal polity where...

  9. Book Review: Michael Baun and Dan Marek (eds. The New Member States and the European Union. Foreign Policy and Europeanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelin Dumitru

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A radical decision at the time, the 2004 enlargement constituted a critical juncture for the Central and Eastern European Countries. Although a great deal of literature has been written in regard to other aspects of Europeanization, the effects of EU membership on the foreign policy of the new member states have been rarely discussed. This is what the volume coordinated by Michael Baun and Dan Marek seeks to accomplish, namely to fill a gap in the European Studies with a series of articles explaining the more or less significant institutional and behavioural changes which occurred at the level of the new member states’ political elites. Focusing on three main domains in which Europeanization purportedly occurred, namely national preferences and interests, institutions and procedures, foreign policy strategies and actions, the studies gathered in this volume provide a useful overview of the effects of EU membership on what was traditionally known as “foreign policy”.

  10. Amending America: Proposed Amendments to the United States Constitution, 1787 to 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — This dataset provides information about more than 11,000 proposed Constitutional amendments introduced in the United States Congress from 1787 to 2014. This dataset...

  11. The One and the Many: Translating Insights from Constitutional Pluralism to European Contract Law Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mak, C.

    2013-01-01

    While freedom of contract has generally been recognized as a leading principle of European contract law, national contract laws as well as EU measures show remarkable differences with respect to the limits they impose on contractual freedom in light of the public interest or common good. Whereas

  12. The constitution of a Common Frame of Reference for European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mak, C.

    2008-01-01

    This sectoral report is meant to sketch in broad lines the current views on the so-called ‘constitutionalisation’ of European contract law. To what extent does the application of fundamental rights in the regulation of contractual disputes refer or contribute to an underlying system of values of

  13. Freedom of Expression: Importing European & US Constitutional Models in Transitional Democracies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belavusau, U.

    2013-01-01

    This book considers the issue of free speech in transitional democracies focusing on the socio-legal developments in the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland. In showing how these Central and Eastern European countries have engaged with free speech models imported from the Council of Europe / EU and

  14. Constitution of the State of Illinois and United States: Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield.

    The study guide, intended for adults wishing to obtain a General Educational Development (GED) certificate in Illinois, discusses the U.S. Constitution, the Illinois Constitution, the Declaration of Independence, and rules for displaying the U.S. flag. The objective is to aid adults in passing the constitution component of the GED examination.…

  15. Aharon Barak’s Legal Ideology in the Context of European Constitutionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bieliauskaitė Jolanta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The EU lacks the legal ideology as a social instrument that could satisfy the spirit of liberal democracy and would help to consolidate different societies to a solid European demos. Although the existence of an ideological system alone does not guarantee social consensus, it helps to manage dissension within the limits of particular values and norms. It is because a legal ideology provides the structure for social thought that individuals and social groups are able to interpret the nature of emerging conflicts and the interests they support.

  16. The role of «The People» at Political Constitution in Hegel’s thinking of European Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Velasco Arias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to study the concept of «political constitution» as it is exposed in Hegel’s Elements of the Philosophy of Right (1821. In this work constitution is thought as an organismin permanent self-formation. After Hegel the «people» is a creation of abstract understanding that, as aconsequence, must be excluded of political constitution. We will interpret this exclusion in the contextof the movement from French Revolution to Conservative European Restoration as it is thought in Hegel’s system. For that goal, we will use the notion of «passive revolution» in order to discern if the historical deployment of Hegelian logic necessarily drives into a mere reform of hegemonical order or if, on thecontrary, allows the conceive the possibility of Revolution. Indeed, we will try to show than the revolutionary readings of Hegel’s philosophy, as Gramsci’s, finally are equally exclusive in relation to «people» politicalrole. Finally, we will try to point philosophical issues to this problem.

  17. The Constitutionality of a Federal Collective Bargaining Statute for State and Local Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaller, Elliot

    1978-01-01

    The spending clause of the Fourteenth Amendment would be the preferred basis for passage of a federal statute granting collective bargaining rights to state and municipal employees. It is the only constitutional provision under which the federal government would not be forcing a regulation on the state. (Author/IRT)

  18. State legislation on abortion after Roe v. Wade: selected constitutional issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, M D

    1976-01-01

    Over the past three years, a great volume of legislation on abortion has been produced by state legislatures in an attempt to fill the vacuum created by the United States Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade. This Article examines several of the most common types of statutory provisions and assesses their constitutionality in light of Roe v. Wade and other applicable federal and state legal standards.

  19. The Constitutional state in the developing world in the age of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that the individual herself or himself lost the liberty to make the choice. Despite detractions such as these, it is true that for about forty years govern- ments' right to intervene, manage and re-order socio-economic affairs within the law and for public good was a key feature of how the constitutional state was conceived.

  20. Small states and Constitution making: The causes of different outcomes in Philadelphia and Bruxelles

    OpenAIRE

    Podolnjak, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The theme of this article is the analysis of the possible causes of different outcomes regarding the conflict between large and small states in two constitutional conventions: the American Federal Convention held in Philadelphia in 1787 and the Convention on the Future of Europe held in Brussels in 2002-2003. In both conventions this was the central issue. This conflict was relevant in Philadelphia regarding the resolution of issues on the representation and voting power of the states in Cong...

  1. Specific Grants from the State Budget to Local Government Tasks in the Light of the Constitutional Rule of Adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ostrowska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The rule of adequacy of financial resources to the local government’s responsibilities is one of the basic rule of local government finance, which was expressed in Polish Constitution and in the European Charter on Local Self Government. Because of the fact, that the system of own resources of Polish local governments was not reformed since 2004 – any amendment causes decrease of their transferable resources (grants, subsidies should be regarded as the inconsistent with the rule of adequacy and therefore – unconstitutional. Such nature has the new 80% limit for the amount of the specific grant from the State Budget to local government own tasks, which was introduced by Article 128 of Public Finance Act. The paper presents argumentation proving the above thesis and also raises an increasing problem of inadequacy of subsidies for the central government’s task delegated to local authorities.

  2. Feasibility of assessing health state by detecting redox state of human body based on Chinese medicine constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling-Ru; Wang, Qi; Wang, Ji; Wang, Qian-Fei; Yang, Ling-Ling; Zheng, Lu-Yu; Zhang, Yan

    2016-08-01

    This article discussed the feasibility of assessing health state by detecting redox state of human body. Firstly, the balance of redox state is the basis of homeostasis, and the balance ability of redox can reflflect health state of human body. Secondly, the redox state of human body is a sensitive index of multiple risk factors of health such as age, external environment and psychological factors. It participates in the occurrence and development of multiple diseases involving metabolic diseases and nervous system diseases, and can serve as a cut-in point for treatment of these diseases. Detecting the redox state of high risk people is signifificantly important for early detection and treatment of disease. The blood plasma and urine could be selected to detect, which is convenient. It is pointed that the indexes not only involve oxidation product and antioxidant enzyme but also redox couple. Chinese medicine constitution reflflects the state of body itself and the ability of adapting to external environment, which is consistent with the connotation of health. It is found that there are nine basic types of constitution in Chinese population, which provides a theoretical basis of health preservation, preventive treatment of disease and personalized treatment. With the combination of redox state detection and the Chinese medicine constitution theory, the heath state can be systemically assessed by conducting large-scale epidemiological survey with classifified detection on redox state of human body.

  3. EU Energy Policy and Future European Energy Markets: Consequences for the Central and East European States

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita M. Balmaceda

    2002-01-01

    This working paper explores the European Union vector in the Central and East European (CEE) energy situation, in particular in terms of the CEE countries' energy relationship with Russia. Attention is paid not only to concrete EU energy policies but also to the larger question of European energy markets. EU policies impact the CEE states' energy relationship with Russia through specific EU requirements vis-à-vis the candidate countries, through the side-effects of other EU policies, through ...

  4. Thermo-mechanical constitutive modeling of unsaturated clays based on the critical state concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Tourchi; Amir Hamidi

    2015-01-01

    A thermo-mechanical constitutive model for unsaturated clays is constructed based on the existing model for saturated clays originally proposed by the authors. The saturated clays model was formulated in the framework of critical state soil mechanics and modified Cam-clay model. The existing model has been generalized to simulate the experimentally observed behavior of unsaturated clays by introducing Bishop's stress and suction as independent stress parameters and modifying the hardening rul...

  5. La Constitution économique parmi les Constitutions européennes

    OpenAIRE

    Kaarlo Tuori

    2011-01-01

    In the European context, the place of the revolutionary notions of constitutive power, demos and constitutional moment is occupied by the evolutionary concept of constitutionalisation. Economic constitution is merely one aspect in multi-dimensional European constitution (alisation). My tentative proposal is to distinguish between the following dimensions of constitution : economic constitution ; juridical constitution ; political constitution ; social constitution ; and security constitution....

  6. THE SEPARATION OF POWERS IN THE CONSTITUTIONS OF THE EU MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Gabriel BARBU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study consists of realizing and offering an overview of the manner in which the principle of separation of powers is consecrated in the constitutions of the EU member states. We thereby aim to prove that there is no direct relationship between the form of government of a state, the expressis verbis constitutional regulation of the principle of separation of powers in the state and its effective observance, for the existence of the last fact being necessary the simultaneous concurrence of more social, economic and political factors at the level of the society as a whole. Also, we aim to offer a perspective as realistic and comprehensive as possible regarding what does the principle of separation of powers imply, mostly from a legal point of view, as well as about the implications that its respecting or lack of it, as the case, does have at the level of a society. Eventually, we hope to provide a relevant academic study regarding the subject of both great topicality and theoretical and practical interest regarding the fundamentals and especially the operating mode of the principle of separation of powers, a study which could serve, if it shall be taken into consideration by the political plan of the state, to the substantiation of some responsible decisions in the ongoing act of exercising the power.

  7. CONSTITUTION AND CONSTITUTIONALISM CONTEMPORARY ISSUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius ANDREESCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In a democratic society, the judicial legitimacy of the state and its power, of its institutions, but also the social and political grounds are generated and determined by the Constitution, defined as expressively as possible as being: “The fundamental political and judicial settlement of a people” (I. Deleanu. The supremacy of the Constitution has as main effect the conformity of the entire system of law with the constitutional norms. Guaranteeing the compliance with this principle, essential for the state of law, is first of all an attribution of the Constitutional Court, but also an obligation of the legislative power to receive, through the adopted normative acts, in content and in form, the constitutional norms. Altering the fundamental law of a state represents a political and judicial act extremely complex with major meanings and implications for the socio-political and national systems, but also for each individual. This is why such measure should be very well justified, to answer certain socio-political and legal needs well shaped and mainly to match the principles and rules specific to a democratic constitutional and state system, by insuring its stability and functionality. These are a few aspects of the Romanian contemporary constitutionalism that this study shall critically analyse in order to differentiate between the constitutional ideal and reality.

  8. Europeanization as a Means to Strengthening the Regions within the State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren; Halkier, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    The chapter concludes concerning Europeanization, that: a) passive Europeanization takes place in all Nordic states, b) that mental Europeanization also takes plase, but in a less homogeneous way, and c) that active Europeanization takes place, but in very different manners....

  9. European tools of conflict management in Central European states with Hungarian minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marácz, L.

    2010-01-01

    Due to twentieth century peace treaties extensive Hungarian minorities live in the Central-European states Slovakia (600.000), Serbia (400.000), Romania (1.5 million) and Ukraine (300.000). These states are deeply divided along ethnic-linguistic, religious and cultural lines between the Hungarian

  10. Governmental control of public expenditure in the constitutional State: thoughts regarding General Comptroller sanctioning powers approval on functional administrative responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika García Cobián Castro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Constitutional doctrine has little addressed on the General Comptroller of the Republic and its controlling function of public resources execution and management. Efforts have been made to explain this situation in other realities, regarding high budgetary, accounting and auditing content needed to carry out auditing activities constitutionally assigned to this kind of entities. Nevertheless, identifying competences of the General Comptroller of the Republic and its nature of autonomous constitutional body shapes an important expression of Constitutional State and the principle of powers division. This entity controls State’s Public Budget execution contributing to constitutional property protection, legality of budget implementation and the appropriate management of public resources, also the «efficiency» of social needs, proper functioning of public administration and prevention of corruption, among others duties. This article analyzes the constitutional mission of the General Comptroller in a Constitutional State promoting the process of given a constitutional status to the legal system in its area of influence, also optimizing constitutional properties protected. For such purpose, the 29622 recent law («Law that modifies the 27785 Organic Law of National Control System and the General Comptroller of the Republic extending powers in order to sanction in accordance of functional administrative responsibility» shall be used as object of constitutional analysis.

  11. From Civil Dialogue to Participatory Democracy: The Role of Civil Society Organisations in Shaping the Agenda in the Debates on the European Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Bouza Garcia

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article, based on ongoing research, explores the role of civil society organisations in the debate about participatory democracy in the European Constitution (TCE. The findings are based on the qualitative analysis of position papers and interviews in order to determine the ways in which civil society organisations contributed to shaping the model of participatory democracy (article 47 TCE. The article focuses on the debate on the role of civil society for democracy in the EU (Greenwood 2007b; Kohler-Koch 2007; Maloney and Van Deth 2008, by addressing its ability in fostering citizens’ participation. It considers firstly the place of civil society in the European public sphere. It then presents the role of civil society in shaping the agenda on participatory democracy before the debate on the European constitution. It particularly investigates the formation of coalitions of organisations which aimed to include these debates in the Convention’s agenda. It considers that although the Convention’s structure could have been appropriate for coalitions to voice demands from the general public, which is one of the expected functions for coalitions in the literature (Mahoney 2007: 375, this was not the case both because of the inability of European civil society organisations to mobilise the public and the high efficiency of insider strategies.

  12. State constitutional commitment to health and health care and population health outcomes: evidence from historical US data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Hiroaki

    2015-07-01

    I investigated whether the introduction of health and health care provisions in US state constitutions can make health systems more equitable and improve health outcomes by urging state policymakers and administrative agencies to uphold their human rights obligations at state level. I constructed a panel of infant mortality rates from 50 US states over the period 1929 through 2000 to examine their association with the timing and details of introducing a constitutional right to health and health care provisions. The introduction of a stronger constitutional commitment that obligates state legislature to provide health care was associated with a subsequent reduction in the infant mortality rate of approximately 7.8%. The introduction of provisions explicitly targeting the poor was also associated with a reduction in the infant mortality rate of 6.5%. These health benefits are primarily evident in non-White populations. This empirical result supports Elizabeth Leonard's view that although state constitutional rights have been poorly enforced through the judiciary, a constitutional expression of health care duties has fueled the political and social process, ultimately allowing states to identify the best way to address citizens' health inequality concerns.

  13. A Corporate Veto on Health Policy? Global Constitutionalism and Investor-State Dispute Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Benjamin; Holden, Chris

    2016-10-01

    The importance of trade and investment agreements for health is now widely acknowledged in the literature, with much attention now focused on the impact of investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) mechanisms. However, much of the analysis of such agreements in the health field remains largely descriptive. We theorize the implications of ISDS mechanisms for health policy by integrating the concept of global constitutionalism with veto point theory. It is argued that attempts to constitutionalize investment law, through a proliferation of International Investment Agreements (IIAs), has created a series of new veto points at which corporations may seek to block new policies aimed at protecting or enhancing public health. The multiplicity of new veto points in this global "spaghetti bowl" of IIAs creates opportunities for corporations to venue shop; that is, to exploit the agreements, and associated veto points, through which they are most likely to succeed in blocking or deterring new regulation. These concepts are illustrated with reference to two case studies of investor-state disputes involving a transnational tobacco company, but the implications of the analysis are of equal relevance for a range of other industries and health issues. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  14. Blurring Boundaries: From the Danish Welfare State to the European Social Model?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Ulla; Nielsen, Ruth

    and on the integration of welfare functions into EU law both from an internal market law and a constitutional law perspective. The main problem areas covered by the Blurring Boundaries project were studied in sub-projects on: 1) Internal market law and welfare services, 2) Fundamental rights and non-discrimination law......Abstract: This paper builds on the results obtained in the so-called Blurring Boundaries project which was undertaken at the Law Department, Copenhagen Business School, in the period from 2007 to 2009. It looks at the sustainability of the Danish welfare state in an EU law context...... aspects, and 3) Services of general interest. In the Blurring Boundaries project, three aspects of the European Social Model have been particularly highlighted: the constitutionalisation of the European Social Model, its multi-level legal character, and the clash between market access justice at EU level...

  15. THE EUROPEAN MODEL OF STATE REGULATION OF TOURISM ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Davydova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article the existing model of state regulation of the development of tourism. Expediency of the European model of state regulation of tourism development in Ukraine. It is noted that the European model of state regulation of tourism activities based on the coordination of marketing activities and the development of cooperation between the public and private sectors. The basic forms of public-private partnerships and the advantages of using cluster model of development of tourism, namely, contracts, production sharing agreement, lease, joint venture. Promising areas of application of the PPP identified the transport sector, housing and utilities, energy and tourism sector. The features of cluster formations in the country and the prospects for tourism clusters.

  16. Right Product, Wrong Packaging: Not 'Constitution', but 'Constitutional Charter'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Law

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to locate the principal cause of Europe’s prevailing ratification crisis in the inappropriate title arrived at in the European Convention, Treaty Establishing a Constitution for Europe. This over-ambitious styling led the media to characterise the text as simply an ‘EU Constitution’. Yet, the text was not a Constitution as we traditionally understand the term, i.e. the founding document of a State: scholars are agreed that the EU is not, and will not become upon ratification, a State.In terms of substance, whilst the text certainly strengthened some emerging constitutional aspects, it was not a major departure from the status quo like the Single European Act and Treaty on European Union had been; and it remained technically a treaty like all its predecessors. Arguably, therefore, it did not require referenda to ratify. However, confusion over the scale and importance of what was proposed, stemming from ambiguity in the title, pushed politicians down this unfortunate path.The article identifies a high level of consensus among commentators as to the true nature of the text: most are happy designating it a treaty (noun with constitutional (adjective aspects. The early proposed title Constitutional Treaty for Europe was arguably, therefore, the correct one; but it is now too late to choose this option, as the terms Constitution and Constitutional Treaty have already been muddled in debate. A more distinctive change is required. One idea could be to follow the principle employed elsewhere in the text of codifying the generally accepted but presently unwritten legal concepts of the European Court of Justice, as was done for example for ‘primacy’ and ‘direct effect’. The Court has characterised the EU treaties as a ‘constitutional charter’ for over twenty years now, and on this basis a modified title could read Treaty Establishing a Constitutional Charter for Europe. Importantly, the term ‘charter’ is recognised

  17. THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONCEPTS OF THE REFORM TREATY (THE LISBON TREATY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Ciongaru

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lisbon Treaty also known as the Reform Treaty provides only an amendment of the treaties considered as fundamental, namely the Treaty on the European Union and the Treaty on the functioning of the European Union and is the result of the constitutional process triggered by the Laeken Declaration adopted by the European Council. The Lisbon Treaty is still built on the content of the European Constitution from which they eliminated the most controversial provisions, first of all the title of Constitution that might produce concern and panic among the European Union population through the symbolic power it contained, and for Romania this new treaty was the first it signed in quality of a Union member state. Even if does not bear the name of European Constitution, the Lisbon Treaty is a European Constitution for the following reasons: first it is a Constitution because it gathers together most of the fundamental elements of the Constitutional Treaty, even if it does not have the structure or the name thereof, and second the treaties after the Lisbon reform have become small constitutions from the operational viewpoint, they develop the functions of a constitution, limit power and organize the operation of the organization.

  18. INDIRECT TAXATION TRENDS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS CRISTIAN MILOŞ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to outline the recent dynamics of the indirect taxation in the European Union member states, with a special focus on the Romanian case. We could notice that indirect taxation continues to play an important role for all the member states, in their attempt to recover from the global economic crisis. Morover, we have presented some of the recent changes in the legislative frameworks, which happened with a rather rapid pace, and contributed to a rather challenging business climate.

  19. Constitutive activation of Nrf2 induces a stable reductive state in the mouse myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobinath Shanmugam

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Redox homeostasis regulates key cellular signaling pathways in both physiology and pathology. The cell's antioxidant response provides a defense against oxidative stress and establishes a redox tone permissive for cell signaling. The molecular regulation of the well-known Keap1/Nrf2 system acts as sensor responding to changes in redox homeostasis and is poorly studied in the heart. Importantly, it is not yet known whether Nrf2 alone can serve as a master regulator of cellular redox homeostasis without compensation of the transcriptional regulation of antioxidant response element (ARE genes through alternate mechanisms. Here, we addressed this question using cardiac-specific transgenic expression at two different levels of constitutively active nuclear erythroid related factor 2 (caNrf2 functioning independently of Keap1. The caNrf2 mice showed augmentation of glutathione (GSH, the key regulator of the cellular thiol redox state. The Trans-AM assay for Nrf2-binding to the antioxidant response element (ARE showed a dose-dependent increase associated with upregulation of several major antioxidant genes and proteins. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in dihydroethidium staining and malondialdehyde (MDA in the caNrf2-TG mice myocardium. Interestingly, caNrf2 gene-dosage dependent redox changes were noted resulting in generation of a multi-stage model of pro-reductive and reductive conditions in the myocardium of TG-low and TG-high mice, respectively. These data clearly show that Nrf2 levels alone are capable of serving as the master regulator of the ARE. These models provide an important platform to investigate the impact of the Nrf2 system independent of the need to regulate the activity of Keap1 and the consequent exposure to pro-oxidants or electrophiles, which have numerous off-target effects.

  20. The European Drought Observatory (EDO): Current State and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Jürgen; Sepulcre, Guadalupe; Magni, Diego; Valentini, Luana; Singleton, Andrew; Micale, Fabio; Barbosa, Paulo

    2013-04-01

    Europe has repeatedly been affected by droughts, resulting in considerable ecological and economic damage and climate change studies indicate a trend towards increasing climate variability most likely resulting in more frequent drought occurrences also in Europe. Against this background, the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) is developing methods and tools for assessing, monitoring and forecasting droughts in Europe and develops a European Drought Observatory (EDO) to complement and integrate national activities with a European view. At the core of the European Drought Observatory (EDO) is a portal, including a map server, a metadata catalogue, a media-monitor and analysis tools. The map server presents Europe-wide up-to-date information on the occurrence and severity of droughts, which is complemented by more detailed information provided by regional, national and local observatories through OGC compliant web mapping and web coverage services. In addition, time series of historical maps as well as graphs of the temporal evolution of drought indices for individual grid cells and administrative regions in Europe can be retrieved and analysed. Current work is focusing on validating the available products, developing combined indicators, improving the functionalities, extending the linkage to additional national and regional drought information systems and testing options for medium-range probabilistic drought forecasting across Europe. Longer-term goals include the development of long-range drought forecasting products, the analysis of drought hazard and risk, the monitoring of drought impact and the integration of EDO in a global drought information system. The talk will provide an overview on the development and state of EDO, the different products, and the ways to include a wide range of stakeholders (i.e. European, national river basin, and local authorities) in the development of the system as well as an outlook on the future developments.

  1. European Welfare State in a Historical Perspective. A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marian ŞTEFAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the historical evolution of the European welfare state, especially after the second half of the nineteenth century. Even if one considers that social protection systems have their origins in the period of German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, various social problems have been treated in European countries before the Bismarck’s social legislation, beginning with the sixteenth century. In this article we presented mainly (i the origins of social policy systems in Europe, as shown in the literature covered, (ii the conceptual evolution of the so-called “welfare state” and (iii the development of social security schemes based on International Labour Organization typology.

  2. Constitutional Law--State Action--Golden v. Biscayne Bay Yacht Club: Preventing Discrimination by Private Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Michael W.

    1976-01-01

    Although the Supreme Court has refrained from answering whether the membership policies of private clubs can be attacked on state action grounds, the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals held in the affirmative in Golden v. Biscayne Bay Yacht Club. It ruled that leasing publicly owned bay bottom land to a yacht club constituted sufficient state…

  3. Constitutional and Judicial Language Protection in Multilingual States: A Brief Overview of South Africa and Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Bambust (Isabelle); A. Kruger (Albert); T. Kruger (Thalia)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The purpose of this contribution is to provide a very modest comparison of judicial language protection in South Africa and in Belgium. First of all, the authors sketch briefly the historical context and the constitutional status of languages in both countries. It is

  4. Constitutive Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Piccolo, Chiara; Heitzig, Martina

    2011-01-01

    This chapter presents various types of constitutive models and their applications. There are 3 aspects dealt with in this chapter, namely: creation and solution of property models, the application of parameter estimation and finally application examples of constitutive models. A systematic...... procedure is introduced for the analysis and solution of property models. Models that capture and represent the temperature dependent behaviour of physical properties are introduced, as well as equation of state models (EOS) such as the SRK EOS. Modelling of liquid phase activity coefficients are also...... covered, illustrating several models such as the Wilson equation and NRTL equation, along with their solution strategies. A section shows how to use experimental data to regress the property model parameters using a least squares approach. A full model analysis is applied in each example that discusses...

  5. European Criminal Law a! er the Lisbon Treaty, or Europeanization of European law, under the co-responsibility of the Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Riza

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Same as EU Law, that presents a new area of law and that it is still in progress, the EU Criminal Law is developing. The development of EU criminal law, of course, is dictated by the development of European Law itself, or the EU itself. Depending on it, the EU will be a supranational structure, or will undergo changes and become a Federal State, or another unified form. Taking into consideration the importance of this area of law, which is created for cooperation among states to combat organized crime, and especially terrorism, we can have a Criminal Code European and a European code of Criminal Procedure certainly in the near future, namely, a codification of European criminal field. This paper aims to discuss the development of European criminal law, until the Treaty of Lisbon.

  6. Constitutional changes and the dilemmas of constitutionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Bačić, Arsen

    2009-01-01

    The need to develop constitutional mechanisms whose aim is to resolve fundamental relations in society demands the widest possible inclusion of all of society’s active participants in the discussion on the need to adopt or revise the Constitution. The opening of every new round of constitutional changes is of great importance because it always unlocks certain new and important questions. The answers to those questions should be offered by state authority (policy) and civil society including s...

  7. Constitutively elevated salicylic acid levels alter photosynthesis and oxidative state but not growth in transgenic populus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Liang-Jiao; Guo, Wenbing; Yuan, Yinan; Anino, Edward O; Nyamdari, Batbayar; Wilson, Mark C; Frost, Christopher J; Chen, Han-Yi; Babst, Benjamin A; Harding, Scott A; Tsai, Chung-Jui

    2013-07-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) has long been implicated in plant responses to oxidative stress. SA overproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana leads to dwarfism, making in planta assessment of SA effects difficult in this model system. We report that transgenic Populus tremula × alba expressing a bacterial SA synthase hyperaccumulated SA and SA conjugates without negative growth consequences. In the absence of stress, endogenously elevated SA elicited widespread metabolic and transcriptional changes that resembled those of wild-type plants exposed to oxidative stress-promoting heat treatments. Potential signaling and oxidative stress markers azelaic and gluconic acids as well as antioxidant chlorogenic acids were strongly coregulated with SA, while soluble sugars and other phenylpropanoids were inversely correlated. Photosynthetic responses to heat were attenuated in SA-overproducing plants. Network analysis identified potential drivers of SA-mediated transcriptome rewiring, including receptor-like kinases and WRKY transcription factors. Orthologs of Arabidopsis SA signaling components NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 and thioredoxins were not represented. However, all members of the expanded Populus nucleoredoxin-1 family exhibited increased expression and increased network connectivity in SA-overproducing Populus, suggesting a previously undescribed role in SA-mediated redox regulation. The SA response in Populus involved a reprogramming of carbon uptake and partitioning during stress that is compatible with constitutive chemical defense and sustained growth, contrasting with the SA response in Arabidopsis, which is transient and compromises growth if sustained.

  8. A constitutive analysis of transient and steady-state elongational viscosities of bidisperse polystyrene blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Manfred H.; Rolon-Garrido, Victor H.; Nielsen, Jens Kromann

    2008-01-01

    The transient and steady-state elongational viscosity data of three bidisperse polystyrene blends were investigated recently by Nielsen et al. [J. Rheol. 50, 453-476 (2006)]. The blends contain a monodisperse high molar mass component (M-L= 390 kg/ mol) in a matrix of a monodisperse small molar......, and allowing (albeit by use of empirical linear-viscoelastic shift factors to correct the linear-viscoelastic predictions) for a quantitative description of the transient and steady-state elongational viscosities of the bidisperse polystyrene blends....

  9. Compressional sound velocity, equation of state, and constitutive response of shock-compressed magnesium oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Duffy, Thomas S.; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    Wave profile and equation of state (EOS) data are reported for low-porosity polycrystalline magnesium oxide under shock compression. The Hugoniot equation of state between 14 and 133 GPa is U_S = 6.87(10) + 1.24(4)u_p, where the numbers in parentheses are one standard deviation uncertainties in the last digit(s). Reverse-impact wave profiles constrain the compressional sound velocity, V_p, at 10–27 GPa to ±2%. Measured V_p values are consistent with ultrasonic data extrapolated from 3 GPa. By...

  10. The Constitutional state in the developing world in the age of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author argues that this trend has been the principal casualty of globalisation. Globalisation has redefined the role of the state in the developing world, weakening its mission of providing public goods and mediating social justice. In this context, it is suggested, democracy is reduced to little more than a ritual in electoral ...

  11. Role of constitutive behavior and tumor-host mechanical interactions in the state of stress and growth of solid tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrysovalantis Voutouri

    Full Text Available Mechanical forces play a crucial role in tumor patho-physiology. Compression of cancer cells inhibits their proliferation rate, induces apoptosis and enhances their invasive and metastatic potential. Additionally, compression of intratumor blood vessels reduces the supply of oxygen, nutrients and drugs, affecting tumor progression and treatment. Despite the great importance of the mechanical microenvironment to the pathology of cancer, there are limited studies for the constitutive modeling and the mechanical properties of tumors and on how these parameters affect tumor growth. Also, the contribution of the host tissue to the growth and state of stress of the tumor remains unclear. To this end, we performed unconfined compression experiments in two tumor types and found that the experimental stress-strain response is better fitted to an exponential constitutive equation compared to the widely used neo-Hookean and Blatz-Ko models. Subsequently, we incorporated the constitutive equations along with the corresponding values of the mechanical properties - calculated by the fit - to a biomechanical model of tumor growth. Interestingly, we found that the evolution of stress and the growth rate of the tumor are independent from the selection of the constitutive equation, but depend strongly on the mechanical interactions with the surrounding host tissue. Particularly, model predictions - in agreement with experimental studies - suggest that the stiffness of solid tumors should exceed a critical value compared with that of the surrounding tissue in order to be able to displace the tissue and grow in size. With the use of the model, we estimated this critical value to be on the order of 1.5. Our results suggest that the direct effect of solid stress on tumor growth involves not only the inhibitory effect of stress on cancer cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis, but also the resistance of the surrounding tissue to tumor expansion.

  12. The Constitution Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Schneider

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with certain questions and problems of the constitutionalization of the European Union which did not receive very much attention from the ‘Convention on the Future of Europe’ and from the observers of that Convention’s work, but which, nevertheless, may be relevant whenever the results of the Convention’s work are assessed and evaluated. The paper mainly deals with ‘background’ problems associated with traditions of political thought in general and with basic understandings of European integration in particular. The paper also expounds on how the more recent constitution discussion, initiated due to the founding of the European Union, manifests continuities with the debates that have taken place over the past decades (since the start of the integration policy based on the ‘Community method’. However, it shows that the discussion context has become more complex. In the last section of the paper, the relationship of ‘statics’ and ‘dynamics’ in relation to European constitutional conceptions is treated as a subject. The question arises as to whether and to what extent the constitution concept itself is in doubt and whether or not, in connection with this, important functions, whose very performance is expected of a constitution of the European Union, remain unfulfilled.

  13. The Constitution Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Schneider

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with certain questions and problems of the constitutionalization of the European Union which did not receive very much attention from the Convention on the Future of Europe and from the observers of that Conventions work, but which, nevertheless, may be relevant whenever the results of the Conventions work are assessed and evaluated. The paper mainly deals with background problems associated with traditions of political thought in general and with basic understandings of European integration in particular. The paper also expounds on how the more recent constitution discussion, initiated due to the founding of the European Union, manifests continuities with the debates that have taken place over the past decades (since the start of the integration policy based on the Community method. However, it shows that the discussion context has become more complex. In the last section of the paper, the relationship of statics and dynamics in relation to European constitutional conceptions is treated as a subject. The question arises as to whether and to what extent the constitution concept itself is in doubt and whether or not, in connection with this, important functions, whose very performance is expected of a constitution of the European Union, remain unfulfilled.

  14. Optimizing the Parameters of the Rate-and-State Constitutive Law in an Earthquake Clustering Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Console, R.; Murru, M.; Catalli, F.

    2004-12-01

    The phenomenon of earthquake clustering, i.e. the increase of occurrence probability for seismic events close in space and time to other previous earthquakes, has been modeled both by statistical and physical processes. From a statistical viewpoint, the so-called epidemic model (ETAS) introduced by Ogata in 1988 and its variations have become fairly well known in the seismological community. Tests on real seismicity and comparison with a plain time-independent Poissonian model through likelihood-based methods have reliably proved their validity. On the other hand, in the last decade many papers have been published on the so-called Coulomb stress change principle, based on the theory of elasticity, showing qualitatively that an increase of the Coulomb stress in a given area is usually associated with an increase of seismic activity. More specifically, the rate-and-state theory developed by Dieterich in the `90s has been able to give a physical justification to the phenomenon known as Omori law. According to this law, a mainshock is followed by a series of aftershocks whose frequency decreases in time as an inverse power law. In this study we give an outline of the above mentioned stochastic and physical models, and build up an approach by which these models can be merged in a single algorithm and statistically tested. The application to the seismicity of Japan from 1970 to 2003 shows that the new model incorporating the physical concept of the rate-and-state theory performs even better of the purely stochastic model with a smaller number of free parameters

  15. Authoritarian Constitutionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Tushnet, Mark V.

    2015-01-01

    Legal scholars and political theorists interested in constitutionalism as a normative concept tend to dichotomize the subject. There is liberal constitutionalism of the sort familiar in the modern West, with core commitments to human rights and self-governance implemented by means of varying institutional devices, and there is authoritarianism, rejecting human rights entirely and governed by unconstrained power-holders. This Article explores the possibility of forms of constitutionalism other...

  16. The Eurozone Crisis: A Constitutional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sting

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available “Every power comes through crisis” has long been a motif of European integration. The financial and sovereign debt crises, which have shaken the European Union (EU in recent years, are at first glance no different. Treaty reforms, intergovernmental treaties such as the Fiscal Compact and the Treaty Establishing a European Stability Mechanism (ESM Treaty have significantly altered the constitutional landscape of the EU and its Member States. The crisis has also inspired many European legal scholars to critically analyse the EU’s system of economic governance, as have other events throughout the history of the European Union, from the Empty Chair Crisis to the referenda in the aftermath of the Treaty of Maastricht and the failure of the Constitution for the European Union. What does seem to be different is the way in which scholars approach the issue of the Eurozone crisis. Instead of a purely legal perspective on economic governance, European legal scholars have realised that in order to understand and analyse the euro crisis, interdisciplinarity is the word of the moment.

  17. A Unified Constitutive Model for Subglacial Till, Part I: The Disturbed State Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenson, J. W.; Desai, C. S.; Clark, P. U.; Contractor, D. N.; Sane, S. M.; Carlson, A. E.

    2006-12-01

    Classical plasticity models such as Mohr-Coulomb may not adequately represent the full range of possible motion and failure in tills underlying ice sheets. Such models assume that deformations are initially elastic, and that when a peak or failure stress level is reached the system experiences sudden failure, after which the stress remains constant and the deformations can tend to infinite magnitudes. However, theory suggests that the actual behavior of deforming materials, including granular materials such as glacial till, can involve plastic or irreversible strains almost from the beginning, in which localized zones of microcracking and "failure" can be distributed over the material element. As the loading increases, and with associated plastic and creep deformations, the distributed failure zones coalesce. When the extent of such coalesced zones reaches critical values of stresses and strains, the critical condition (failure) can occur in the till, which would cause associated movements of the ice sheet. Failure or collapse then may occur at much larger strain levels. Classical models (e.g., Mohr-Coulomb) may therefore not be able to fully and realistically characterize deformation behavior and the gradual developments of localized failures tending to the global failure and movements. We present and propose the application of the Disturbed State Concept (DSC), a unified model that incorporates the actual pre- and post-failure behavior, for characterizing the behavior of subglacial tills. In this presentation (Part I), we describe the DSC and propose its application to subglacial till. Part II (Desai et al.) describes our application of the DSC with laboratory testing, model calibration, and validations to evaluate the mechanical properties of two regionally significant Pleistocene tills.

  18. The Scope of State Aid and Public Service Obligation for Airports and Air Carriers in the Light of European Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Zajac

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Public aid is the kind of advantage granted directly or indirectly for private companies from State resources. The European Commission prerogative to control the transfer of public resources by the public authorities (national or local for the benefit of private undertakings, as a general rule, there is an obligation of notification, as provided for in article 108 (3 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU. It should be noted in the beginning that State aid given to undertakings conducting economic activity is, in principle, incompatible with the European Union’ law, as provided for in article. 107 (1 of the TFEU. There are certain situations that the granting of public funds will not constitute “public aid” within the meaning of article 107 of the TFEU and, therefore, will not violate European rules in this field. One of them are activities related to the exercise of the prerogatives of the public authority (security, safety, customs, air traffic control. The other is related to the exercise of services in general economic interest. This could be an example of public service obligation (PSO. This service can be applied in the light of the provisions of European law on two types of action on air routes, and on airport managing body. The imposition of a PSO to the specified route is the support given by the State to the outermost regions that due to their unfavourable geographical position cannot fully develop economically, and no carrier had not been interested in performing air services to that region due to the lack of cost effectiveness. Some activities at the airport may be considered as activities of general economic interest.

  19. European Sitting Championship: Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Reported Sitting Time in the 28 European Union Member States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loyen, A; van der Ploeg, H.P.; Bauman, A.; Brug, J.; Lakerveld, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Sedentary behaviour is increasingly recognized as an important health risk, but comparable data across Europe are scarce. The objective of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of self-reported sitting time in adults across and within the 28 European Union Member States.

  20. Phosphorus flows and balances of the European Union Member States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijk, Kimo C. van, E-mail: kimo.vandijk@wur.nl [Department of Soil Quality, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands); Lesschen, Jan Peter, E-mail: janpeter.lesschen@wur.nl [Department of Soil Quality, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands); Oenema, Oene, E-mail: oene.oenema@wur.nl [Department of Soil Quality, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands); Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2016-01-15

    Global society faces serious “phosphorus challenges” given the scarcity, essentiality, unequal global distribution and, at the same time, regional excess of phosphorus (P). Phosphorus flow studies can be used to analyze these challenges, providing insight into how society (re)uses and loses phosphorus, identifying potential solutions. Phosphorus flows were analyzed in detail for EU-27 and its Member States. To quantify food system and non-food flows, country specific data and historical context were considered. The sectors covered were crop production (CP), animal production (AP), food processing (FP), non-food production (NF) and consumption (HC). The results show that the EU-27 imported 2392 Gg P in 2005, half of which accumulated in agricultural soils (924 Gg) and half was lost as waste (1217 Gg). Net accumulation was 4.9 kg P/ha/year ranging between + 23.2 (Belgium) and − 2.8 (Slovakia). From the system losses, 54% was lost from HC in diverse waste flows and 28% from FP, mainly through incinerated slaughter residues. The largest HC losses (655 Gg) were wastewater (55%), food waste (27%), and pet excreta (11%). Phosphorus recycling rates were 73% in AP, 29% in FP, 21% in HC and ~ 0% in NF. The phosphorus use efficiencies showed that, relative to sector input, about 70% was taken up by crops (CP), 24% was retained in animals (AP), 52% was contained in food products (FP), 76% was stored in non-food materials (NF), and 21% was recycled (HC). Although wide-ranging variation between countries, generally phosphorus use in EU-27 was characterized by relatively (1) large dependency on (primary) imports, (2) long-term accumulation in agricultural soils, especially in west European countries, (3) leaky losses throughout entire society, especially emissions to the environment and sequestered waste, (4) little recycling with the exception of manure, and (5) low use efficiencies, because of aforementioned issues, providing ample opportunities for improvement

  1. Reconciling work and poverty reduction: how successful are European welfare states?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantillon, B.; Vandenbroucke, F.

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the great recession, poverty has, not unexpectedly, increased in many Member States of the European Union. More worrying in view of its structural implications is the observation that in the years before the financial crisis, in most European countries poverty rates for the

  2. Economic separatism in the European Union member states as a factor of regional security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Shakhina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the examination of the economic separatism problem in the European Union member states. It considers specific of the regional separatist movements as exemplified by the conflicts in Scotland, Catalonia, Bavaria, Flanders. Various points of view on the relevance of the budgetary separatism for the European integration process are given in the article.

  3. National And European Law: Problem Of Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M. Mesheriakova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Present article is devoted to one of the main problems for all integration communities –problem of implementation of the integration law norms in the national legal system of member states. Author, on the example of certain member states of the European Union considers mechanism of the European Union law action in it's member states. In the article constitutional norms of the number of member states which set a ratio of the national and European laws are analyzed. According to the principle of competence giving, member states voluntary transfer part of the competence to the European Union. Competences which are transferred to the member states are the competences of the European Union. In the course of research author investigates opinions of scientists and analyze regulations. Author pays separate attention to the question of the European Union creation. For example, author notes that consideration by the Federal Constitutional Court in Karlsruhe of the question of compliance of the Treaty to the Constitution of Germany became neither more nor less a most important milestone on the way of Treaty on the European Union ratification by Germany. In the decision on this matter Court defined a number of reference points for the purpose of possible excise if the European integration elimination out of those limits which are set for the government of Germany by its Constitution. The decision of the Constitutional Court of Germany though meant approval of the Treaty on the European Union in the political sense, it was nevertheless unambiguously directed against broad interpretation and federalist vision of the European integration. It is obvious that states, on the basis of constitutional norms may leave contracts that are burdensome for them. It concerns not only international treaties, but also Treaties of the European Union.

  4. Thomas Jefferson and the Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Merrill D.

    1987-01-01

    Examines Thomas Jefferson's role in the making and interpretation of the United States Constitution. Discusses the dominant features of Jefferson's constitutional theory; the character of Jefferson's presidency; and Jefferson's ongoing concern about constitutional preservation and change. Lists important dates in the history of the constitution.…

  5. THE DILEMMA BETWEEN LEGITIMATE AND FUNCTIONAL LAW IN THE EUROPEAN UNION : How the Greeks and a Financial Crisis Undermine the European Regulatory State

    OpenAIRE

    Mckeighen, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Many scholars have advanced theories concerning the so-called democracy deficit in the European Union. The global financial crisis and the sovereign debt crisis in Europe has given a new perspective on how to view these theories, particularly the argument proffered by Giandomenico Majone that the European Union should be judged as a regulatory state. The two crises in Europe have cast doubt on the ability of the European Union as a regulatory state to legitimately engage in functional rule ...

  6. Current state of development of the European Drought Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, S.; de Jager, A.; Kurnik, B.; Laguardia, G.; Magni, D.; Nitcheva, O.; Rossi, S.; Weissteiner, C.

    2009-04-01

    The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (JRC) is developing the prototype of the European Drought Observatory (EDO) for drought forecasting, detection, and monitoring in Europe. EDO is conceived as a web-based information system (http://edo.jrc.ec.europa.eu), integrating information from various sources and disciplines relevant to monitor and detect droughts throughout Europe. The prototype is currently performing the pre-operational production of drought indices using meteorological information, modelled hydrological parameters, and remote sensing data. In particular, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) shows the general precipitation status according to the historical average in the predefined period. SPI in monthly step is calculated for the 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months averaging periods. Soil moisture estimations are produced daily by the LISFLOOD hydrological model, along with their anomalies and seven days forecasts. Two satellite remote sensing drought indicators are produced: Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetic Active Radiation (fAPAR) anomalies. NDWI 10-day composites are obtained daily from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, while fAPAR anomalies are calculated from 10-day composites delivered by the European Space Agency (ESA) and estimated from Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer Instrument (MERIS) data. All these drought indicators are made available online for visualization and querying by means of a map viewer based on University of Minnesota MapServer and Oracle. The tool generates maps of the different indicators and provides functionalities to browse the maps, query the data, produce graphs, and output the maps in various formats.

  7. Medical Device Regulation: A Comparison of the United States and the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maak, Travis G; Wylie, James D

    2016-08-01

    Medical device regulation is a controversial topic in both the United States and the European Union. Many physicians and innovators in the United States cite a restrictive US FDA regulatory process as the reason for earlier and more rapid clinical advances in Europe. The FDA approval process mandates that a device be proved efficacious compared with a control or be substantially equivalent to a predicate device, whereas the European Union approval process mandates that the device perform its intended function. Stringent, peer-reviewed safety data have not been reported. However, after recent high-profile device failures, political pressure in both the United States and the European Union has favored more restrictive approval processes. Substantial reforms of the European Union process within the next 5 to 10 years will result in a more stringent approach to device regulation, similar to that of the FDA. Changes in the FDA regulatory process have been suggested but are not imminent.

  8. European Criminal Law a! er the Lisbon Treaty, or Europeanization of European law, under the co-responsibility of the Member States

    OpenAIRE

    Arif Riza; Fatmir Halili

    2016-01-01

    Same as EU Law, that presents a new area of law and that it is still in progress, the EU Criminal Law is developing. The development of EU criminal law, of course, is dictated by the development of European Law itself, or the EU itself. Depending on it, the EU will be a supranational structure, or will undergo changes and become a Federal State, or another unified form. Taking into consideration the importance of this area of law, which is created for cooperation among states to combat organi...

  9. Balkan Ülkelerinin Anayasalarında Dil Kullanımı İle İlgili Düzenlemeler The Regulation As For Language Usage In The Constitutions Of Balkan States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgehan Atsız GÖKDAĞ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the regions of interest for multiculturalism andmultilingualism is the Balkans in southeastern Europe. Region includesGreece, Bulgaria, Albania, Romania, on the European side of Turkey asindependent states that emerged after the collapse of Yugoslavia,Macedonia, Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo, Serbia andMontenegro. System ruled by the Communist countries of the regionuntil 1990, except for Greece. The breakup of Yugoslavia and theemergence of new states created new constitutions. The constitution ofcountries which multi-ethnic and multi-lingual include freedom oflanguage use.Status of local languages in countries with ethnic diversity isalways a problem for the standard and established. Nations as a resultof partnerships formed by a long common law without nationalassociations is an important question how to solve this problem.Encountered this situation in many countries of the world, how theBalkan countries were effected. Especially in the Balkan region containsmany ethnic groups and languages. This is the most importantdeterminant of geography, religion, ethnic identity, then, has been thelanguage. The world's most well-known linguistic regions of the BalkanPeninsula. Ethnic diversity in the region from time to time in history,religion, and language differences have been exploited by some statesand using these features to their own interests, these countries incitedthe people of the region. This article examined the constitutions of theBalkan countries respond to the needs of its neighborhoods given instandard language, as well as other languages will be investigated.Some of these population groups, there are now in a minority in theirregions and countries are demanding the right language. However, thelanguage policies vary from country to country. For example, the formerYugoslavia, in time, many languages spoken in the country have legalequality, established new states constitutions created a special place forthe

  10. The Foreign Policies of European Union Member States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foreign Policies of EU Member States provides a clear and current overview of the motivations and outcomes of EU Member States regarding their foreign policy-making within and beyond the EU. It provides an in-depth analysis of intra-EU policy-making and sheds light, in an innovative...... and understandable way, on the lesser-known aspects of the inter-EU and extra-EU foreign policies of the twenty-eight Member States. The text has an innovative method of thematic organisation in which case study state profiles emerge via dominant foreign policy themes. The text examines the three main policy...... challenges currently faced by the twenty-eight Member States: • First, EU Member States must cooperate within the mechanisms of the EU, including the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). • Second, EU Member States continue to construct their own inter-EU foreign policies. • Third, the sovereign...

  11. NEW TENDENCIES REGARDING SAME-SEX MARRIAGE IN THE MEMBER STATES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION: – A BRIEF INSIDE AND OUTSIDE PERSPECTIVE –

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JONE-ITXARO ELIZONDO

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sexual orientation discrimination has been recently outlined within the Plenary Session of the European Parliament that took place in Brussels, on 24th May 2012 as a priority in the fight against discrimination of all kind, making a “call on EU member states to consider giving access to cohabitation, registered partnerships or marriage to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT people”. Taking this statement as a starting point, this paper aims first to briefly analyse the European Union’s legislation defending sexual orientation discrimination and its limits. After that, a comparison between the Spanish and Romanian legislations will be made, choosing thus two countries within the EU that have very different paths and views in this matter, finally assessing the recent Tribunal Constitucional judgment regarding the constitutionality of same-sex marriage. In the same line our analysis will also focus on giving an overview of the EU panorama focusing on those countries that have extreme and opposite views about the matter. This study would not be complete without taking into account the contrary situation that is taking place in certain non-Member States of EU such as: Ukraine, Russia or Moldova. This fact was also highlighted by the European Parliament in the last Plenary Session saying that “in the European Union [and in other European states, referring to the recent situations occurred in Ukraine, Russian Federation or Moldova], the fundamental rights of LGBT people are not yet fully upheld”.

  12. The European Welfare Model. Is Romania a Welfare State?!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop-Radu, I.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the various interpretations of the social model and welfare regime concepts. In order to observe Romania’s position within the European welfare regimes, the paper presents a short analysis of the main characteristics of the welfare regimes identified in Europe – i.e. the corporatist welfare regime, the liberal welfare regime and the social democratic/Scandinavian welfare system. We analyze the dynamics of several indicators relevant for establishing the performance of the Romanian welfare regime. Using the results of this study, the current research might offer a new approach on proving that Romania’s case is a particular one among the CEE countries and its sustainability could become a model for other countries.

  13. Diminished States? National Power in European Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupfer, Antonia

    2008-01-01

    The increasing research on international organisations' education policy lacks analyses of the relation between international organisations and nation states. This paper aims to analyse the power of nation states in international education policy. Focusing on the new degree system in higher education in Europe, partly from Foucault's…

  14. DE FACTO STATES IN THE EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD: BETWEEN RUSSIAN DOMINATION AND EUROPEAN (DISENGAGEMENT. THE CASE OF ABKHAZIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian RELITZ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available With the ratification of the Association Agreements with Georgia and Moldova in 2014, the European Union (EU has been confronted in its integration policies with several post-Soviet de facto states (Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Transnistria. The paper clarifies the concept of the de facto state and discusses how non-recognition affects the sustainability and international position of these entities. It will be argued, that de facto states can be considered as a permanent part of the international system rather than just temporal anomalies and that they confront the EU with a serious action dilemma. Based on the Abkhazian case study, I will analyse the strategies and instruments the EU is implementing to achieve its policy objectives, identify key obstacles such as the growing Russian presence in the region and highlight the practical consequences of the action dilemma.

  15. The European influence on workers' compensation reform in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaDou Joseph

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Workers' compensation law in the United States is derived from European models of social insurance introduced in Germany and in England. These two concepts of workers' compensation are found today in the federal and state workers' compensation programs in the United States. All reform proposals in the United States are influenced by the European experience with workers' compensation. In 2006, a reform proposal termed the Public Health Model was made that would abolish the workers' compensation system, and in its place adopt a national disability insurance system for all injuries and illnesses. In the public health model, health and safety professionals would work primarily in public health agencies. The public health model eliminates the physician from any role other than that of privately consulting with the patient and offering advice solely to the patient. The Public Health Model is strongly influenced by the European success with physician consultation with industry and labor.

  16. The First Steps Towards Harmonizing Public Sector Accounting for European Union Member States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam; Alijarde, Isabel Brusca

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the process that led the European Commission to the decision to develop European Public Sector Accounting Standards (EPSAS) for harmonizing public sector accounting practices within the European Union. The paper finds that there was limited scope in terms of stakeholder partic...... participation in the public consultation that served as a basis for the decision. In addition, the decision to adopt EPSAS for EU member states raises questions on the relationship between regional and global governance in the area of public sector accounting....

  17. Presidential elections in the United States: implications for international and European security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Vonsovych

    2016-10-01

    In conclusion it should be noted that the full implementation of D. Trump’s plans for international and European security will depend on how the declared initiatives will correspond to his real actions. Perhaps this would require more than a year, but now the world and the European community must be ready for serious structural and geopolitical changes. The presence of a number of acute problems makes the role of the United States in the process of ensuring international and European security hardly predictable.

  18. Jurisdiction in international law : United States and European perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Ryngaert, Cedric

    2007-01-01

    This study starts with a quote by Professor Meessen: “The function of scholars of international law offers less opportunity for creative thinking [compared to scholars of conflict of laws]: they may compile and analyze state practice, but they cannot replace it with their own concepts.”[1] This study, which primarily looks at the phenomenon of jurisdiction through a (public) international law lens, rejects that limiting claim. While the current state of the international law of jurisdiction ...

  19. The successful transposition of European provisions by member states : application to the Framework Equality Directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhelyazkova, Asya; Torenvlied, Rene

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to explain variation between member states in compliance with provisions of a European Union (EU) law. Predictions are derived about the effects of technical fit, discretion, Commission warnings, and conflict in the Council on the probability of member-state transposition of

  20. Western Balkan States and the European Union Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelina Maliqi (Ramolli

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available For half a century, European Union-(EU has pursued ever-deeper integration while taking in new members. It’s marked as an important step in relationship deepening between EU and Western Balkans-(WBs where Albania is part of. In 2003, EU declared that the future of WBs is within EU. Initially it adopted a generous strategy that linked the timetable for accession to the pace of reform in WBs. The declaration contained a conditional promise; EU would consider WBs for membership only if they reached EU standards. The EU was motivated by usual economic considerations connected to enlargement and a desire to increase regional stability. The enlargement process regarding Albania will bring several reforms on different fields. Our country will benefit from a share of multibeneficiary funds for competitiveness, SMEs, energy efficiency and banking sector regulation. This presentation handles out these main issues: EU policy and the enlargement process regarding Albania inspecting the way and progress done up to now by our country, the main features of our national EUcoordination system, concluding in a SWOT Analysis of EU-coordination system in Albania. Eventually, I believe that Albania being part of WBs is at one time an opportunity and a challenge for the future of EU.

  1. Western Balkan States and the European Union Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelina Maliqi (Ramolli,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For half a century, European Union-(EU has pursued ever-deeper integration while takingin new members. It’s marked as an important step in relationship deepening between EU and WesternBalkans-(WBs where Albania is part of. In 2003, EU declared that the future of WBs is within EU.Initially it adopted a generous strategy that linked the timetable for accession to the pace of reform inWBs. The declaration contained a conditional promise; EU would consider WBs for membership onlyif they reached EU standards. The EU was motivated by usual economic considerations connected toenlargement and a desire to increase regional stability. The enlargement process regarding Albaniawill bring several reforms on different fields. Our country will benefit from a share of multibeneficiaryfunds for competitiveness, SMEs, energy efficiency and banking sector regulation. Thispresentation handles out these main issues: EU policy and the enlargement process regarding Albaniainspecting the way and progress done up to now by our country, the main features of our national EU coordinationsystem, concluding in a SWOT Analysis of EU-coordination system in Albania.Eventually, I believe that Albania being part of WBs is at one time an opportunity and a challenge forthe future of EU.

  2. Deciding when physicians are unfit to practise: an analysis of responsibilities, policy and practice in 11 European Union member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struckmann, Verena; Panteli, Dimitra; Legido-Quigley, Helena; Risso-Gill, Isabelle; McKee, Martin; Busse, Reinhard

    2015-08-01

    In 1974, the European Economic Community established mutual recognition of medical qualifications obtained in any of its member states. Subsequently, a series of directives has elaborated on the initial provisions, with the most recent enacted in 2013. However, greater movement of physicians across borders and some high-profile scandals have raised questions about how to prevent a physician sanctioned in one country from simply moving to another, without undermining the principle of free movement. A survey of key informants in 11 European Union (EU) member states was supplemented by a review of peer-reviewed and grey literature, with the results validated by independent reviewers. It examined processes, adjudicative and disciplinary measures that are in place to evaluate physicians about whom concerns arise, and related sanctions, along with other aspects of professional standards and regulation. Overall, responses varied greatly between participating countries, with respect to the institutions responsible for the regulation of medical professions, the investigation processes in place, and the terminology used in each member state. While the types of sanction (removal from the register of medical professionals and/or licence revocation, suspension, dismissal, reprimand, warnings, fines, as well as additional education and training) applied are similar, both the roles of the individuals involved and the level of public disclosure of information vary considerably. However, some key features, such as the involvement of professional peers in disciplinary panels and the involvement of courts in criminal cases, are similar in most member states studied. Given the variation in the regulatory context, individuals and processes involved that is illustrated by our findings, a common understanding of definitions of what constitutes competence to practise, its impairment and its potential impact on patient safety becomes particularly important. Public disclosure of

  3. European Sitting Championship: Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Reported Sitting Time in the 28 European Union Member States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Loyen

    Full Text Available Sedentary behaviour is increasingly recognized as an important health risk, but comparable data across Europe are scarce. The objective of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of self-reported sitting time in adults across and within the 28 European Union Member States.This study reports data from the Special Eurobarometer 412. In 2013, 27,919 randomly selected Europeans (approximately 1000 per Member State were interviewed face-to-face. Sitting time on a usual day was self-reported and dichotomised into sitting less- and more than 7.5 hours per day. Uni- and multivariate odds ratios of sitting more than 7.5 hours per day were assessed by country and socio-demographic variables using binary logistic regression analyses. The analyses were stratified by country to study the socio-demographic correlates of sitting time within the different countries.A total of 26,617 respondents were included in the analyses. Median sitting time was five hours per day. Across Europe, 18.5 percent of the respondents reported to sit more than 7.5 hours per day, with substantial variation between countries (ranging from 8.9 to 32.1 percent. In general, northern European countries reported more sitting than countries in the south of Europe. 'Current occupation' and 'age when stopped education' were found to be the strongest correlates of sitting time, both across Europe and within most Member States. Compared to manual workers, the odds ratio of sitting more than 7.5 hours per day was 5.00 for people with white collar occupations, 3.84 for students, and 3.65 for managers.There is substantial variation in self-reported sitting time among European adults across countries as well as socio-demographic groups. While regular surveillance of (objectively measured sedentary behaviour is needed, the results of this study provide entry points for developing targeted interventions aimed at highly sedentary populations, such as people with sedentary occupations.

  4. STATE SUPPORT OF INNOVATIVE ENTREPRENEURSHIP: EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Komissarov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The small innovative business state support in economically developed countries is realized through assistance both to the small business on the whole and to organizations immediately dealing with innovative activities. Technology commercialization process runs also with priority participation of the state. Models used in different countries to stimulate the small entrepreneurship development are discussed along with their merits and drawbacks. It would be most appropriate for Russia to use key elements of the highly effective American system based on activities of innovative entrepreneurship supporting institutions and on a set of distinct legislative documents.

  5. Democratic constitutions and education

    OpenAIRE

    Pinzani, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    This essay shall analyze the idea of the possibility of education to freedom through democratic institutions and the role of the constitution in this process. The question shall not be considered from an empirical perspective, but from a theoretical perspective. In the first part democratic institutions will be defined in such a way, that it is possible to speak of democratic habit as a necessary component of democracy. The second part shall introduce a concept of State constitution that take...

  6. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE EXPRESS REGULATION OF THE BONA FIDE PRINCIPLE IN THE CONSTITUTION OF ROMANIA AND IN THE NEW ROMANIAN CIVIL CODE AFTER THE MODEL OF ENCODINGS ON THE EUROPEAN LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOBRILĂ Mirela Carmen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the significance of the bona fide concept as a particularly complex notion and timely constant on both European regulation level and the national level, both in the Constitution of Romania and in the new Romanian Civil Code. The study hereby describes the way the new Romanian Civil Code comprehends to provide an express regulation of the bona fide principle, as a novelty and great interest for the Romanian civil law, this analysis aiming to be an opening study that would lead to new guidelines.

  7. Social inequalities in 'sickness': European welfare states and non-employment among the chronically ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wel, Kjetil A; Dahl, Espen; Thielen, Karsten

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine educational inequalities in the risk of non-employment among people with illnesses and how they vary between European countries with different welfare state characteristics. In doing so, the paper adds to the growing literature on welfare states and social inequalities in health by studying the often overlooked 'sickness'-dimension of health, namely employment behaviour among people with illnesses. We use European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) data from 2005 covering 26 European countries linked to country characteristics derived from Eurostat and OECD that include spending on active labour market policies, benefit generosity, income inequality, and employment protection. Using multilevel techniques we find that comprehensive welfare states have lower absolute and relative social inequalities in sickness, as well as more favourable general rates of non-employment. Hence, regarding sickness, welfare resources appear to trump welfare disincentives. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Medical research in emergency research in the European Union member states: tensions between theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompanje, Erwin J O; Maas, Andrew I R; Menon, David K; Kesecioglu, Jozef

    2014-04-01

    In almost all of the European Union member states, prior consent by a legal representative is used as a substitute for informed patient consent for non-urgent medical research. Deferred (patient and/or proxy) consent is accepted as a substitute in acute emergency research in approximately half of the member states. In 12 European Union member states emergency research is not mentioned in national law. Medical research in the European Union is covered by the Clinical Trial Directive 2001/20/EC. A proposal for a regulation by the European Commission is currently being examined by the European Parliament and the Council and will replace Directive 2001/20/EC. Deferred patient and/or proxy consent is allowed in the proposed regulation, but does not fit completely in the practice of emergency research. For example, deferred consent is only possible when legal representatives are not available. This criterion will delay inclusion of patients in acute life-threatening conditions in short time frames. As the regulation shall be binding in its entirety in all member states, emergency research in acute situations is still not possible as it should be.

  9. The impact of European Union law on the possibilities of European Union Member States to adapt international tax rules to the business models of multinational enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, S.; Kardachaki, A.

    2016-01-01

    European Union (EU) law has played a key role in enforcing the EU BEPS agenda, while also introducing limits to the application thereof. The European Commission (EC) sees a clear link between aggressive tax planning and competition law. Against this background, EU State aid law has been employed to

  10. STATE AID EVOLUTION OVERVIEW IN EUROPEAN UNION CONTEXT DURING THE PERIOD 2007-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca D.B., DODESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available According to the European Union point of view, the fundamental principle of state aid is to ensure that inside the single market, competition is not distorted. In this context, by exception state aid can be justified when they contribute to achieving EU's social and economic goals. This may take place when market forces obstruct the achieving of the proposed objectives or permit their achieving on unacceptable long terms and costs. This article is structured in four parts, focusing on European Union's vision regarding state aid measures. The first part of the article refers to the general context of state aid in EU. The second part of the article tries to define this concept according to European Commission point of view and also studies the state aid information provided by the EU, through its benchmarking instrument regarding state aid expenditure called State Aid Scoreboard. The third part of the article mainly presents the EU state aid evolution during the period 2007 - 2012 and establishes a methodological point of view in order to classify and divide state aid in two main categories: non-crisis state aid and crisis state aid, with the purpose of avoiding the distortion trends regarding state aid expenditure granted for the financial sector. This part of the article also presents different types of state aid at EU27 level and granted by the selected member states (Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria and Germany between 2007 and 2012 and also analysis horizontal aid, sectorial aid and state aid during the economic crisis 2008 - 2012, referring to recapitalization and asset relief measures and guarantees and liquidity measures. The last part of the article presents the conclusions and also states certain recommendations regarding EU state aid practices, based on the results obtained.

  11. AGEING POPULATION: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS AMONG EUROPEAN UNION STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura DIACONU (MAXIM

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aging population is a global phenomenon, which has affected almost all the EU states. The consequences are very important since it affects the socio-economic environment usually on the long run. Some of them could consist in increasing the public expenditure on pensions, social security and health services, which will raise the overall burden on the working population. Sometimes, a significant reduction of the labour force will even diminish the growth rate of an economy. Considering these aspects, the present paper intends to analyse the demographic situation from the EU states, the factors that have generated it and to identify the possible future trends. To determine the evolution of the ageing population phenomenon, we have analysed some demographic indicators included in various statistical reports and databases, such as the fertility rate, the median age, the percentage of population over a certain age and the age dependency ratio.

  12. The United States Strategic Bombing Surveys, (European War) (Pacific War)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    stage of full adolescence , a stage marked by rapid development in planes, armament, equipment, tactics and concepts of strategic employment, and by an...military cliques of Japan exerted a progressively tighter control over the foreign and domestic affairs of the nation . These cliques included groups...the disruption of the more basic elements of Japan’s social , economic, and political fabric . Certain of the United States commanders and the

  13. PROBLEMS AND COSTS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION EXPANSION WITH OVER 27 STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Zaharioaie

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Once on his way to enlargement, the European Union has taken a road of no return. History has shown that all candidate countries have become a point of EU Member States. The question thus is not where you go to the European Union enlargement, but how it will look after the enlargement of the Union politically, economically and socially. The objective of this paper is to analyze potential problems and costs of enlargement beyond the 27 states. Thus, we performed an analysis on the implications of enlargement to the Balkans to Asia Minor and even to the former Soviet bloc countries.

  14. Scientific collaboration between 'old' and 'new' member states: Did joining the European Union make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Mitze, Timo

    This paper provides new insights on the effects of the enlargement of the European Union (EU) and European integration by investigating the issue of scientific collaboration within the new EU member states vis - à - vis the old EU member states. The question addressed is whether the EU membership following the two enlargement waves 2004 and 2007 has significantly increased the co-publication intensity of the new member states with other member countries. The empirical results based on data collected from the Web of Science database and Difference-in-Difference estimations point towards a conclusion that joining the EU indeed has had an additional positive impact on the co-publication intensity between the new and old member states and, in particular, within the new member states themselves. These results give tentative support for the successfulness of the EU's science policies in achieving a common 'internal market' in research. We also find evidence for early anticipation effects of the consecutive EU accession.

  15. Transformation of Polish Energy Policy in the Context of Changes in European Union Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Szczerbowski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of the Polish energy system in the context of the changes taking place in the energy systems of other European Union Member States. Power system development plans in selected European countries were analysed, as well as their impact on the development of the national energy system. To be effective, an energy policy must affect the investment decisions of business entities. Poland is at the time when it should create the optimal energy mix concept and consistently strive for its implementation. This paper aims to show the real direction of growth in the electricity generation assets in Poland, as well as to indicate the possible impact of trends in the policies of European Union Member States on the electricity market in Poland.

  16. Start Of The French Constitutionalism: Constitution Of 1791

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Bochkarev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author analyzes questions of French constitutionalism origin. Author notes that in France, over the past two centuries, a state of law, which is based on the principles of popular sovereignty has been formed; observance of human rights and freedoms by the state; parliamentary democracy; supremacy of constitution in relation to all other laws and regulations; separation of powers and institute of authorities responsibility as an organizational framework for the legal state; independence of the judiciary; compliance with commitments taken by the State during international relations. These principles were laid down in the constitutional history of the country. In the present article an attempt to explore the beginning of the French constitutionalism through the prism of the Constitution of 1791 was made. Author makes concludes that in the Constitution of 1791 the fundamental principles of constitutional law were laid, some of which are reflected in the Constitution of the Fifth Republic in France and continue to operate. Constitution of the Fifth Republic proclaimed commitment to "human rights and principles of national sovereignty as defined by the Declaration of 1789, confirmed and complemented by the Preamble to the Constitution of 1946, and despite many disputes, Constitutional Council reaffirmed inviolability of the equality before the law principle, which exists in the Declaration.

  17. BUT IS IT SPEECH? MAKING CRITICAL SENSE OF THE DOMINANT CONSTITUTIONAL DISCOURSE ON PORNOGRAPHY, MORALITY AND HARM UNDER THE PERVASIVE INFLUENCE OF UNITED STATES FIRST AMENDMENT JURISPRUDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letetia van der Poll

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Under the pervasive influence of United States First Amendment jurisprudence, adult gender-specific sexually explicit (or “pornographic” material is conceptualized, and thus protected in the “marketplace of ideas”, as a particular mode of expression; to be viewed as part of the fabric of an open, free and democratic society. The values which free expression are seen to promote centre upon the advancement of political debate and promotion of personal self-fulfilment and autonomy. Attempts to conceptualise sexually explicit material within a gender-specific human rights framework present distinct challenges which, in a patriarchal legal and political design, appear to be near insurmountable. These challenges seem to be related to the enduring impact of the common law conception of obscenity (with its strong moralistic overtones on the jurisprudence of the United States Supreme Court, coupled with a subjective libertarian-inspired test, and the Supreme Court’s general reluctance (also echoed by the South African Constitutional Court to consider a gender-specific conception of harm emanating from feminist arguments premised upon women’s constitutional interests in human dignity, equality and bodily integrity. The social revolution of the 1960s, coupled with the women’s liberation movement, called for a distinct departure from the traditional conception of sexually explicit material as a mode of constitutionally defendable free speech and expression, a conception which unavoidably calls for a moralistic approach, separating acceptable forms of expression from those not deemed worthy of (constitutional protection (termed “obscenity”, specifically created to satisfy the “prurient interest”. The Supreme Court’s obscenity jurisprudence is characterised by two key features. First, the court subscribes to an abstract concept of free speech, which proceeds from the assumption that all speech is of equal value, and thereby surmises

  18. Myths of the state in the West European Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Ejerfeldt

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first centuries of the barbarian kingdoms the most striking feature is the gens, the tribe, as the principle of unity, even if the ethnic homogeneity often was missing. The myth of the Germanic State of the early Middle Ages was in the first place a myth of the common origin of the gens.These histories of tribal origins have some times been influenced by powerful Ancient literary patterns, especially the Trojan myth of Virgil. But the concern of presenting the origin of the gens in mythical form is no doubt Germanic. And it seems probable that the tribal origins are more ancient than the genealogies of royal families with alleged divine ancestors. The kingship among the Germanic tribes was secondary in relation to the tribe. The king was rex Francorum; the king of a certain country or geographic territory is a later conception. The power comes from below; the king is an exponent of the tribe. All the Germanic words for "king" are derivations from terms for "kin, people, tribe." The limitation of the power of the king is also indicated by institutions like the right to resistence, the possibility to depose the king, the participation by all free men in the judicial and criminal procedure through self-help and blood feud.

  19. Straddling the Columbia: a constitutional law professor's musings on circumventing Washington State's criminal prohibition on compensated surrogacy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nicolas, Peter

    2014-01-01

      The law in many states has long been hostile to gay parenting, with some states prohibiting adoption in the first instance by gay individuals or same-sex couples, and other states prohibiting so...

  20. THE INTELLECTUAL’S STATE IN THE CONTEXT OF THE ROMANIAN SOCIETY’S EUROPEANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Schifirnet

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the intellectual’s state in the Romanian society which is going through a complex, difficult and prolonged process of Europeanization. Romania’s adhesion to the European Union in 2007 should have been prepared by a vast intellectual movement. Its role would have been crucial in triggering the evaluation measures of the Europeanization phenomenon of a post-communist society that was facing major issues, such as the transition from the communist regime to democracy, the political instability, the privatization and its consequences and the economic underdevelopment. The current research acknowledges that one of the foremost factors of the Europeanization process is the intellectuals, a social category mainly focused on European and universal values. Another topic that I am targeting to bring into debate is the relationship between the Romanian intellectuals and the EU’s political power that is complementary to the domestic one. The country’s adhesion to the EU determined a series of relations between all social categories and the political power of the institutions from Brussels. In this context, the role played by the Romanian intellectuals in the Europeanization of the Romanian society and in promoting the interest of national citizens is shaped.

  1. Are European fiscal rules that bad? Discretionary fiscal policies in New Member States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fincke, B.; Wolski, M.

    2013-01-01

    There is no clear-cut evidence on how the adoption of the European fiscal standards influences discretionary fiscal policies within the Member States. This study investigates that phenomenon on the example of the 2004 enlargement. The results show that the effects of the adoption of EU fiscal rules

  2. Mobbing in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the member states of the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodic, V.

    2016-08-01

    Mobbing as a specific form of discrimination which applies only to the labor law, is a very young branch of labor law. It began to develop during the eighties of last century. This kind of psychoterror that appears in the workplace, was first spotted, formulated and diagnosed by the Swedish psychologist of German origin prof. Dr. Heinz Lejman (Heinz Leymann July 17, 1932.; Wolfenbuttel, Germany - 1999 Stockholm, Sweden). Today, the legal regulation of mobbing in terms of prevention, rules of behavior and sanctions is indispensable to every modern democratic state. I'll make a comparison of the legislative regulation provided by BiH with several European Union member states. I will compare the results of a survey conducted by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Condition, during the year 2000. In the European Union Member States, with the results of the questionnaire for employees, which I conducted in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The conclusion I came to in this paper is: Bosnia and Herzegovina is lagging behind a lot of European Union member states, both in terms of prevention of mobbing, as well as legislation, that is insufficient to regulate this complex issue. Results of the questionnaire for the employees that I conducted in Bosnia and Herzegovina are devastating and alarming.

  3. Economic Goals, Quality Discourse and the Narrowing of European State Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Quality management theory pervades education policy across Europe. In this article its prevalence is examined through analysis of policy texts drawn from 16 different state systems in Europe, as well as from the European Union and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The article argues that Quality discourse has…

  4. Thermal state of the Roer Valley Graben, part of the European Cenozoic Rift System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijendijk, E.; ter Voorde, M.; van Balen, R.T.; Verweij, H.; Simmelink, E.

    2010-01-01

    We performed a detailed analysis of the thermal state of the Cenozoic Roer Valley Graben, the north-western branch of the European Cenozoic Rift System, based on a new set of temperature data. We developed a numerical technique for correcting bottom hole temperatures, including an evaluation of the

  5. Thermal state of the Roer Valley Graben, part of the European Cenozoic Rift System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijendijk, E.; ter Voorde, M.; van Balen, R.T.; Verweij, H.; Simmelink, E.

    2011-01-01

    We performed a detailed analysis of the thermal state of the Cenozoic Roer Valley Graben, the north-western branch of the European Cenozoic Rift System, based on a new set of temperature data. We developed a numerical technique for correcting bottom hole temperatures, including an evaluation of the

  6. Censorship by European States of Views on Their Past as Colonizers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon; Martin, Laurent

    This essay tackles the question of whether European states censored views on their past as colonizers. Analyzing a wealth of cases, I argue that, after decolonization, most former colonizers began to perceive their colonial crimes as a source of shame. Often, the result was silence and censorship. I

  7. European Earwig, Forficula auricularia L. (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) at the Hanford Reach National Monument, Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    The European earwig, Forficula auricularia L., was surveyed using pitfall traps at three sites at the Hanford Reach National Monument in south central Washington state. Pitfall traps were collected weekly from April 2002 through April 2003. The earwig was consistently taken during all months of the...

  8. Democratic Governance and European Integration : Linking Societal and State Processes of Democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhacker, Ron; Albaek, Erik

    2007-01-01

    As the power and scope of the European Union moves further, beyond traditional forms of international cooperation between sovereign states, it is important to analyse how these developments are impacting upon national institutions and processes of democratic representation and legitimacy in the

  9. Steady-State Clozapine and Norclozapine Pharmacokinetics in Maori and European Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkes, David B; Glue, Paul; Gale, Christopher; Lam, Frederic; Hung, Cheung-Tak; Hung, Noelyn

    2017-12-13

    Clozapine is the most effective drug for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but its use is limited by toxicity. Because ethnicity has been reported to affect clozapine metabolism, we compared its steady state pharmacokinetics in New Zealand Maori and European patients. Clozapine and norclozapine steady state bioavailability was assessed over 24h under fasting and fed conditions in 12 Maori and 16 European patients treated for chronic psychotic illnesses with stable once-daily clozapine doses. Plasma clozapine and norclozapine concentrations were assessed using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry; pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using standard non-compartmental methods, and compared using unpaired t-tests. Mean pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC, Cmax and Cmin) for clozapine and norclozapine were virtually identical in Maori and European subjects, under both fed and fasted conditions. Clozapine bioavailability does not vary between Maori and European patients, and thus does not need to be considered in prescribing decisions. Additional studies are needed to identify if there are differences between Maori and European populations for drugs metabolized by other enzyme pathways. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Market manipulation challenges and responses in the United Kingdom, European Union and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Ryder, N.

    2017-01-01

    As a response to the financial crisis the European Union (EU), the United States of America (USA) and the United Kingdom (UK) have increasingly focused on the phenomenon of white-collar crime as one of the major causes of the financial crisis. While recent studies have mainly surveyed weak banking regulation, weak credit regulation, inappropriate lending practices and the economic policies of nation states, this paper seeks to investigate the impact of market abuse and insider trading – under...

  11. [Regulation of food supplements in the European Union and its member states. Part 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, A S; Ponomareva, M N; Sukhanov, B P

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses various aspects of the regional (the European Union) and national (European countries) regulation related to food supplements. The use of botanicals and minor bioactive substances in food supplements, and their labelling are studied. The EU principle of mutual recognition is described in the context of current challenges that exist in the regulatory harmonisation between the EU member states. The concept of novel foods and novel ingredients is also presented, and the procedure of their pre-market approval is described in detail. Basic principles of using claims for food supplements are also outlined.

  12. Damage modelling: the current state and the latest progress on the development of creep damage constitutive equations for high Cr steels

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Qiang; Lu, Zhongyu; Wang, Xue

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the fundamentals of the development of creep damage constitutive equations for high Cr steels including (1) a concise summary of the characteristics of creep deformation and creep damage evolution and their dependence on the stress level and the importance of cavitation for the final fracture; (2) a critical review of the state of art of creep damage equation for high Cr steels; (3) some discussion and comments on the various approaches; (4) consideration and suggestion for...

  13. Constitutive Retinal CD200 Expression Regulates Resident Microglia and Activation State of Inflammatory Cells during Experimental Autoimmune Uveoretinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Broderick, Cathryn; Hoek, Robert M.; Forrester, John V.; Liversidge, Janet; Sedgwick, Jonathon D.; Dick, Andrew D

    2002-01-01

    Recent evidence supports the notion that tissue OX2 (CD200) constitutively provides down-regulatory signals to myeloid-lineage cells via CD200-receptor (CD200R). Thus, mice lacking CD200 (CD200−/−) show increased susceptibility to and accelerated onset of tissue-specific autoimmunity. In the retina there is extensive expression of CD200 on neurons and retinal vascular endothelium. We show here that retinal microglia in CD200−/− mice display normal morphology, but unlike microglia from wild-ty...

  14. The European Union and the Member States: two different perceptions of border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cierco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article we analyze two different perceptions of border inside Europe. On the one hand, we have the perception idealized by the European Union as an international organization, which believes that states benefit more from cooperation and dilution of borders in a common space than from keeping its borders as a symbol of its sovereignty. On the other hand, we have the European member states, taken individually, with particular interests and goals that, given the threat of illegal immigration, which is currently felt in the large-scale Europe, adopt a realistic perception of the border, and look at each territory as a space that needs protection from external threats. Following this argument, we reason that the current construction of walls in several European countries reflects the rebirth of a realistic perception of the border, and this is one more challenge for Europe regarding its unity and solidarity. Is this the end of the Schengen Agreement? What is going to happen to the European project if each state unilaterally adopts a strategy to deal with illegal immigration and refugees that are coming to Europe? Can immigration lead to a retrocession of the EU idealist significance of border?

  15. The Place of Constitutional Courts in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komárek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    constitutional courts defend the scope for political autonomy – Against national constitutional courts' displacement – Simmenthal II – After the ‘Rights Revolution’ in Europe – National constitutional courts' references to the ECJ – Ordinary courts challenging national constitutional courts through......Going beyond ‘judicial dialogues’ and ‘conflict-and-power’ approaches to the analysis of national constitutional courts' role in the EU – The idea of European constitutional democracy – National constitutional courts constrain individual autonomy expanded by European integration – National...... the preliminar y reference procedure – Parallel references – National constitutional courts enforcing EU law – National constitutional courts challenging EU law...

  16. Urinary BPA measurements in children and mothers from six European member states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Covaci, Adrian; Hond, Elly Den; Geens, Tinne

    2015-01-01

    -mother pairs were recruited through schools or population registers from six European member states (Belgium, Denmark, Luxembourg, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden). Children (5-12y) and mothers donated a urine sample. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, life style, dietary habits, and educational...... level of the parents was provided by mothers. After exclusion of urine samples with creatinine values below 300mg/L or above 3000mg/L, 653 children and 639 mothers remained for which BPA was measured. The geometric mean (with 95% confidence intervals) and 90th percentile were calculated for BPA...... separately in children and in mothers and were named "European reference values". After adjustment for confounders (age and creatinine), average exposure values in each country were compared with the mean of the "European reference values" by means of a weighted analysis of variance. Overall geometric means...

  17. The challenges faced by the Constitutional Court of Lithuania during the global economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birmontienė Toma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Lithuania is forming a broad and distinctive doctrine on the possibility of limitation of social rights during an economic crisis. This doctrine is inter alia grounded upon the imperatives of a state under the rule of law, equality of rights, justice, proportionality, protection of legitimate expectations, social solidarity, the constitutional concept of the state budget and other constitutional imperatives. The Constitutional Court has also formulated certain general principles which must be followed when in a situation of an economic crisis the legislator may adopt decisions on reduction of social rights guarantees. This doctrine is also influenced by international law, inter alia the law of the European Convention on Human Rights. While considering the cases related to implementation of social rights, the Constitutional Court also takes account of the case-law of the constitutional courts of other states.

  18. The healthcare system and the provision of oral healthcare in European Union Member States. Part 6: Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkiewicz, K; Malkiewicz, E; Eaton, K A; Widström, E

    2016-10-21

    Poland is one of the largest European countries in terms of area and population. The country's economic situation does not allow for the allocation of sufficient public funds for healthcare in general and oral healthcare in particular. The health policy of the state focuses primarily on prophylaxis and treatment of diseases, directly threatening the health and lives of the inhabitants. Currently, expenditure on oral health accounts for only 2.7% of the public funds allocated to healthcare. In this context, providing oral care financed from public funds at an appropriate level constitutes a challenge for state institutions, centres providing medical and dental services and private practices. Despite difficult financial conditions in Poland, therapeutic and prophylactic programmes are implemented, aimed at improving the oral health of the society, especially children and adolescents, pregnant women and patients with disabilities or developmental disorders such as cleft palate. In Poland, apart from the oral care system financed by the state, there is also an extremely well developed system of private practices and clinics providing clinical services on a commercial basis. In 2014, oral services, financed by the state, were utilised by about 30% of the population of children and youths aged 0-18 years (2,212,792 patients) and about 15% of the adult population (5,026,383 patients). Training of Polish dentists is conducted in ten state-owned universities, from which 700 graduate each year. Dentists work mainly in private practices or medical centres, some of which provide services guaranteed by the public insurer - the National Health Fund. The other dentists find employment in state clinics, hospitals, and universities and their associated clinics. In Poland dentistry is a predominantly female profession and 75% of the just over 40,000 Polish dentists are female. Accession of Poland to the European Union meant that some Polish dentists have taken up employment abroad

  19. Constituting children's bodily integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, B Jessie

    2015-04-01

    Children have a constitutional right to bodily integrity. Courts do not hesitate to vindicate that right when children are abused by state actors. Moreover, in at least some cases, a child's right to bodily integrity applies within the family, giving the child the right to avoid unwanted physical intrusions regardless of the parents' wishes. Nonetheless, the scope of this right vis-à-vis the parents is unclear; the extent to which it applies beyond the narrow context of abortion and contraception has been almost entirely unexplored and untheorized. This Article is the first in the legal literature to analyze the constitutional right of minors to bodily integrity within the family by spanning traditionally disparate doctrinal categories such as abortion rights; corporal punishment; medical decisionmaking; and nontherapeutic physical interventions such as tattooing, piercing, and circumcision. However, the constitutional right of minors to bodily integrity raises complex philosophical questions concerning the proper relationship between family and state, as well as difficult doctrinal and theoretical issues concerning the ever-murky idea of state action. This Article canvasses those issues with the ultimate goal of delineating a constitutional right of bodily security and autonomy for children.

  20. The Role of the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph Eur in Quality Control of Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine in European Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to assure the safety and efficacy of the Chinese Medicines in Europe, the quality of TCM herbals should be guaranteed so that they can be freely imported in the European Union and other Western European Countries which are signatories of the European Pharmacopoeia Convention. Consequently, new Ph Eur TCM herbal drug Monographs should be elaborated, based on preexisting Monographs in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (ChP 2010.

  1. Of the consequences of the inferred constitutive nature of state of matter possibly characteristic of a class of strongly magnetized plasma in astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdichevsky, Daniel Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    We conjecture that the structure of a class of solar transients (magnetic cloud, MC) is constituted by matter coalescent to a super strong magnetic field, which high temperature manifests itself through the presence of a hot electron gas, possibly constituted by the halo-part of the e-distribution. We identify the presence of this state of matter in strongly magnetized transients in the solar wind beyond a few solar radii from the Sun and extending well beyond 1 AUa. We present a few constitutive properties resulting of a recent thermodynamic study identifying this state of matter. These main outcomes are evaluated for a case study, the June 2, 1998 MC observed with SC Wind. In our view the most relevant outcome is the estimation of its magnetic permeability, two orders of magnitude smaller than that of the vacuum. This implies a highly diamagnetic material. Other properties to be discussed are the anomalous adiabatic behavior of this conjectured e-gas. In addition, and with the help of a simple MHD 3-D evolutionary model of the structureb, we present estimate values to its: (a) acoustic speed, (b) free current density, (c) and low limit to the electrical permittivity.aBerdichevsky, D. B., and K. Schefers, under review (ApJ, 2014).bBerdichevsky, D. B., Sol Phys, 284, 245-259, 2013.

  2. CONSTITUTIONAL FOUNDATIONS OF JURISDICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Jamal Batista

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available At the current stage of our State of Law there is no way to separate the study of the civil procedural law from the Federal Constitution, especially the jurisdiction, because it is in the Constitution that there are the legitimizing foundations of the jurisdiction institute. In this article, we carry on about the constitutional foundations of jurisdiction, such as: the principle of natural justice, principle of access to justice, principle of impartiality, principle of publicity, principle of motivation and principle of submission to res judicata. The conclusion is, after all, that jurisdiction, as one of the bulwarks of the citizen, finds in the “Citizen Constitution” of 1988 its foundations and decisive bases.

  3. Essential Medicines in National Constitutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toebes, Brigit; Hogerzeil, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A constitutional guarantee of access to essential medicines has been identified as an important indicator of government commitment to the progressive realization of the right to the highest attainable standard of health. The objective of this study was to evaluate provisions on access to essential medicines in national constitutions, to identify comprehensive examples of constitutional text on medicines that can be used as a model for other countries, and to evaluate the evolution of constitutional medicines-related rights since 2008. Relevant articles were selected from an inventory of constitutional texts from WHO member states. References to states’ legal obligations under international human rights law were evaluated. Twenty-two constitutions worldwide now oblige governments to protect and/or to fulfill accessibility of, availability of, and/or quality of medicines. Since 2008, state responsibilities to fulfill access to essential medicines have expanded in five constitutions, been maintained in four constitutions, and have regressed in one constitution. Government commitments to essential medicines are an important foundation of health system equity and are included increasingly in state constitutions. PMID:27781006

  4. Hospital Exemption for Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products: Issue in Application in the European Union Member States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivaskiene, Tatjana; Mauricas, Mykolas; Ivaska, Justinas

    2017-01-01

    Regulation (EC) 1394/2007 of the European Parliament and the Council on advanced therapy medicinal products and amending Directive 2001/83/EC and Regulation (EC) No 726/2004 allowed the use of non - authorized advanced therapy medicinal products under the certain circumstances. This socalled hospital exemption rule needs to be applied in the each Member State of the European Union individually and for this purpose Member States should provide national procedures and control measures. The aim of this article is to clear up the criteria for hospital exemption listed in Regulation (EC) 1394/2007 and to contrast the difference in implementing hospital exemption rule into national legal regimes on examples of the United Kingdom, Lithuania and Poland.

  5. Delay and restricted access of new molecules in Turkey compared to the United States and European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Toros; Yeşil, Atakan; Topcu, Türker

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the performances of new-molecule (NM) launches in Turkey with those in the European Union and United States for the years 2007-2013. The Thomson Reuters Newport Horizon for Innovators Database is used to identify NMs with a launch date after January 1, 2007, worldwide and marketing authorization approval after January 1, 2007, in the European Union. The launch dates for the European Union, the United States, and Turkey were retrieved from the same database. Data for Turkey were confirmed via IMS and RxMedia. Out of 183 records identified that are launched in the European Union, the United States, or both, 44 of the NMs are launched in Turkey (24%). The results of this study show that 24% of the NMs that are launched in either the European Union or United States were able to be launched in Turkey with a mean delay of 821 days (2.25 years).

  6. State of the art on hydrogen passive auto-catalytic recombiner (european union Parsoar project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnould, F.; Bachellerie, E. [Technicatome, 13 - Aix en Provence (France); Auglaire, M. [Tractebel Energy Engineering, Brussels (Belgium); Boeck, B. de [Association Vincotte Nuclear, Brussels (Belgium); Braillard, O. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Eckardt, B. [Siemens AG, Offenbach am Main (Germany); Ferroni, F. [Electrowatt Engineering Limited, Zurich (Switzerland); Moffett, R. [Atomic Energy Canada Limited, Pinawa (Canada); Van Goethem, G. [European Commission, Brussels (Belgium)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of the European Union PARSOAR project, which consists in carrying out a state of the art on hydrogen passive auto-catalytic recombiner (PAR) and a handbook guide for implementing these devices in nuclear power plants. This work is performed in the area ''Operational Safety of Existing Installations'' of the key action ''Nuclear Fission'' of the fifth Euratom Framework Programme (1998-2002). (author)

  7. Reproductive state modulates testosterone-induced singing in adult female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)

    OpenAIRE

    Rouse, Melvin L.; Stevenson, Tyler J.; Fortune, Eric S.; Ball, Gregory F.

    2015-01-01

    European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) exhibit seasonal changes in singing and in the volumes of the neural substrate. Increases in song nuclei volume are mediated at least in part by increases in day length, which is also associated with increases in plasma testosterone (T), reproductive activity, and singing behavior in males. The correlations between photoperiod (i.e. daylength), T, reproductive state and singing hamper our ability to disentangle causal relationships. We investigated how ph...

  8. CORRUPTION AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT. EVIDENCE FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Mihaela Amarandei

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of corruption on foreign direct investment inflows for ten Central and Eastern European states. The paper attempts to answer the question: what is the role of corruption in attracting foreign direct investments? Using the data from UNCTAD for foreign direct investment and Corruption Perception Index from Transparency International, for a period of 12 years, 2000-2012, we evaluate the specific impact of corruptions on FDI using GDP as control variable. Our result...

  9. Constitutively Elevated Salicylic Acid Levels Alter Photosynthesis and Oxidative State but Not Growth in Transgenic Populus[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Liang-Jiao; Guo, Wenbing; Yuan, Yinan; Anino, Edward O.; Nyamdari, Batbayar; Wilson, Mark C.; Frost, Christopher J.; Chen, Han-Yi; Babst, Benjamin A.; Harding, Scott A.; Tsai, Chung-Jui

    2013-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) has long been implicated in plant responses to oxidative stress. SA overproduction in Arabidopsis thaliana leads to dwarfism, making in planta assessment of SA effects difficult in this model system. We report that transgenic Populus tremula × alba expressing a bacterial SA synthase hyperaccumulated SA and SA conjugates without negative growth consequences. In the absence of stress, endogenously elevated SA elicited widespread metabolic and transcriptional changes that resembled those of wild-type plants exposed to oxidative stress-promoting heat treatments. Potential signaling and oxidative stress markers azelaic and gluconic acids as well as antioxidant chlorogenic acids were strongly coregulated with SA, while soluble sugars and other phenylpropanoids were inversely correlated. Photosynthetic responses to heat were attenuated in SA-overproducing plants. Network analysis identified potential drivers of SA-mediated transcriptome rewiring, including receptor-like kinases and WRKY transcription factors. Orthologs of Arabidopsis SA signaling components NON-EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 and thioredoxins were not represented. However, all members of the expanded Populus nucleoredoxin-1 family exhibited increased expression and increased network connectivity in SA-overproducing Populus, suggesting a previously undescribed role in SA-mediated redox regulation. The SA response in Populus involved a reprogramming of carbon uptake and partitioning during stress that is compatible with constitutive chemical defense and sustained growth, contrasting with the SA response in Arabidopsis, which is transient and compromises growth if sustained. PMID:23903318

  10. METHOD OF SYSTEMATIZING THE EUROPEAN UNION STATES IN CATEGORIES ACCORDING TO THEIR ADMINISTRATIVE CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Bosie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available During times of severe budget reductions and limitations, it becomes necessary to conduct an evaluation of the ability of the States to carry out the administrative process and to provide useful solutions developed through common policies at European level, necessary for costs abatement, towards maintaing the productivity and the innovative potential of organizations and in order to secure employment. Evaluation at the European Union level is essential to the identification of the weak elements for each state and in order to effectively provide a broad palette of services focused towards the citizens. The idea of developing an evaluation system was instituted after the establishment of a common framework of quantitative assessment, Common Assessment Framework (CAF. CAF is a tool used to help public sector organizations in Europe in the use of quality management techniques sintended to improve performance. This tool wants to be a global tool for comparative analysis of administrative performance. As described on the official website of the program, the model is based on the premise that excellent results of organizational performance, of the citizens/customers and of the society are achieved through leadership and planning strategy, people, partnerships, resources and processes. At the end of the research, the analysis of the main components will confirm the results, shown by European Union States progress in sustainable development of public sector.

  11. An overview of Compassionate Use Programs in the European Union member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Gayathri; Morampudi, Suman; Chhabra, Pankdeep; Gowda, Arun; Zomorodi, Behsad

    2016-11-01

    The past decade witnessed rapid development of novel drugs and therapeutic biological agents. The marketing authorization for novel therapies is often time consuming and distressing for patients. Earlier clinical trials were the only way to access new drugs under development. However, not every patient meets the enrolment criteria, and participation is difficult for patients with life-threatening, long-lasting or seriously debilitating diseases like rare diseases. Early access programs like "Compassionate Use Program (CUP)" have generated alternative channels for such patients. The European Medical Agency provides regulations and recommendations for compassionate use, upon which every European Union (EU) member state has developed its own rules and regulations. Despite previous reviews and studies, the available information is limited and gaps exist. This literature review explores CUP in 28 EU member states. Data was collected through literature review and use of country-specific search terms from the healthcare domain. Data sources were not limited to databases and articles published in journals, but also included grey literature. The results implied that CUP was present in 20 EU member states (71%). Of 28 EU states, 18 (∼64%) had nationalized regulations and processes were well-defined. Overall, this review identified CUP and its current status and legislation in 28 EU member states. The established legislation for CUP in the EU member states suggest their willingness to adopt processes that facilitate earlier and better access to new medicines. Further research and periodic reviews are warranted to understand the contemporary and future regulatory trends in early access programs.

  12. Making european-style community wind power development work in theUnited States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark A.

    2004-04-26

    Once primarily a European phenomenon, community wind power development--defined here as one or more locally owned, utility-scale wind turbines interconnected on either the customer or utility side of the meter--is gaining a foothold in an increasing number of states throughout the United States. This article describes the various policies and incentives that Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Massachusetts are using to support community wind power development, and how state and federal support influences the types of projects and ownership structures that are being developed. Experience in these states demonstrates that, with an array of incentives and creative financing schemes targeted at community-scale projects, there are opportunities to make community wind work in the United States.

  13. An Enhanced Steady-State Constitutive Model for Semi-solid Forming of Al7075 Based on Cross Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkabadi, Ramin; Pouyafar, Vahid; Javdani, Akbar; Faraji, Ghader

    2017-09-01

    The parameters of the Cross model were determined in a wide range of shear rates close to industrial conditions using rapid compression tests and backward extrusion experiments. The Cross model fitted well with experimental results at low shear rates, but it almost broke down at high shear rates. In this paper, a new steady-state model was proposed for semi-solid forming of Al7075 considering the effects of the yield stress, entrapped liquid, and shear rate using the Cross model. The yield stress of the alloy was estimated in the semi-solid state by extrapolating the viscosity at the least applicable shear rates. The results showed that the new model eliminated the Cross model's deviations, and it can be used for accurate prediction of the steady-state flow behavior of the semi-solid alloy in a wide range of shear rates.

  14. Civil society and public health research in the European Union new member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Mark; Knabe, Agnese

    2012-05-01

    Civil society organisations (CSOs) are not-for-profit organisations working for the public interest with concerns complementary to public health. We investigated the contribution of CSOs in public health research. Within a European project STEPS (Strengthening Engagement with Public Health Research), CSOs with interests in health were identified in the new member states of the European Union (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Hungary, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Slovenia, Romania, Bulgaria, Malta, and Cyprus) and workshops organised, held in their own languages. The reports of the workshops were translated into English and drawn together through a framework analysis. CSOs can contribute in all stages of the research cycle, through championship, priority-setting, capacity building and generation of resources, sharing and application of the research results, and dissemination across their network of contacts. There have been successful CSO-researcher collaborations in public health fields. Funding is important, and ministries of health and public institutions should interact more with CSOs. Barriers include attitudes, technical understanding across public health fields. There is little European empirical literature linking health CSOs and research: our results indicate benefits and further opportunities. In contrast to biomedicine's link with industry, public health research can align with civil society in not-for-profit research. CSOs are important for European integration, and their contribution should be better recognised at international level.

  15. Some questions regarding the financing of health care in member states of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Totić Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Before you deal with the primary aim to show that regulated health care systems have contributed and still contribute to the health of citizens of member states of the European Union significantly improved. That is why the older member states of the European Union (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Netherlands, prepared to spend most of their gross domestic product (GDP on health care for its citizens. At the other member countries on the periphery of the European Union (Portugal, Italy, Ireland, Greece and Spain, better known as a group (PIIGS-svinje, due to falling into a debt crisis is not ready for such a step because of which their citizens are faced with big problems when using health care. The paper deals with problems of unequal access to health services and lack of health coverage that exist among individuals as well as in some social groups in many member countries of the European Union. Analysis of unequal access to health services was carried out based on the estimated level depending on its socio-economic status of user-nonusers of health care, are not bypassed with the right of the insured and their acquisition. The rights of the insured whose roots are in agidumu Hippocratic Oath: 'primum non nocere' - 'first do no harm to' vary from very narrow to very broad and diverse framework. The paper konstatovano to the conduct of public finances in the Member States of the European Union is not without problems, especially where contributions for health insurance funding mechanisms dominate. Health care financing in member countries of the European Union, more important than other functions affecting the quality of health of citizens, the mood to invest in access to health services and universal health insurance coverage. Financing of health care policy is not the only link of many of them in a long chain of global politics. However, it is indispensable to measure the effects of decisions made, the application of specific measures aimed

  16. Memorandum of a Conference with President Eisenhower after Sputnik. The Constitution Community: Postwar United States (1945 to Early 1970s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traill, David

    After World War II ended in 1945, the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR) emerged as the two dominant countries in the post-war world. An arms race began, and this constant pursuit for respect and supremacy was called the Cold War. On October 4, 1957, the USSR launched the world's first intercontinental ballistic missile, with the first…

  17. Photographs and Pamphlet about Nuclear Fallout. The Constitution Community: Postwar United States (1945 to Early 1970s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, John M., Jr.

    In August 1945, the United States unleashed an atomic weapon against the Japanese at Hiroshima and Nagasaki and brought an end to World War II. These bombs killed in two ways -- by the blast's magnitude and resulting firestorm, and by nuclear fallout. After the Soviet Union exploded its first atom bomb in 1949, the Cold War waged between the two…

  18. On Common Constitutional Ground: How Georgia's Scholarship Tax Credits Mirror Other State Programs and Expand Educational Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Dick M., II.; Erickson, Angela C.

    2016-01-01

    In 2008, Georgia launched a tax-credit scholarship program to expand educational opportunities for the state's pre-K through 12th-grade students by providing them scholarships to attend private schools. Georgia's scholarship tax credit program will help over 13,000 children get the best education for their needs at secular and religious private…

  19. Determinants of electoral support for anti-gay marriage constitutional amendments: an examination of 2006 votes on ballot measures in the states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Raymond Christopher; Salka, William M

    2009-01-01

    In the fall of 2006, seven states passed constitutional amendments banning gay marriage. This study examines the determinants of support for those measures, as expressed by the countywide vote in favor of each gay marriage ban. A number of hypotheses are explored that examine the urban/rural nature of each county, as well as the political and demographic characteristics of county residents. The findings indicate that countywide support for the Republican Party, and lower income and education levels, are associated with support for gay marriage bans.

  20. Access to state-held information as a fundamental right under the European Convention on Human Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hins, W.; Voorhoof, D.

    2007-01-01

    Access to state-held information essential in a democratic society - Traditional reluctance of the European Court of Human Rights to apply Article 10 European Convention on Human Rights in access to information cases - Positive obligations and new perspectives: initiatives within the Council of

  1. The State of Ethical Learning of Students in the Spanish University System: Considerations for the European Higher Education Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxarrais, Maria Rosa; Esteban, Francisco; Mellen, Teodor

    2015-01-01

    With the establishment of the European higher education area (EHEA), the ethical learning of students is a matter of central importance in European universities. This paper examines the current state of ethical learning of students in the Spanish university system. We present the results of a descriptive survey, which used a training model for…

  2. Differentiation of Municipalities in São Paulo State based on Constitutional Transferences and Income Tributary Taxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Gouvêa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of a large study that combines several groups of municipalities in São Paulo State that are analyzed through multivariate statistical techniques. This study is intended to indicate whether the variables per capita transfer amounts from the Municipalities Participation Fund [MPF], Product and Service Circulation Tax Quota [ICMS] and collected tributary income have different average values among the municipalities of São Paulo State that present different economic and social situations according to the social responsibility index. The evaluation was carried out by multivariate analysis of variance. The results show that the tributary income has the greater difference of average among the groups. It was also found that MPF distribution criteria are applied differently and contribute to the available income fairness, giving support to local governments in the development of public policy.

  3. Judicial control in the European Union: Standing of a member state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević-Predić Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The distinctive character of the European Union (EU is indisputable. May it be denoted as a supranational or as a sui generis organization (which is a preferred designation of the European Court of Justice, it is considered to be the result of particular features pertaining to the competences, structure and decision making-process of the EU. It is a truism that other international intergovernmental organizations do share some or all of these features. Almost all of them have at least one institution which is obliged to act independently of the member states; at least some of their decisions are rendered by majority voting, at least some of which are legally binding. What makes the EU truly and genuinely a unique phenomenon in the field of inter-state organization is a strong and independent judicial system, established to 'ensure that in the interpretation and application of this treaty the law is observed'. In effect, it implies establishing a strong and independent judicial system able to enforce the EU law against all those who are under its domain and, above all, to enforce it against the EU Member States. In order to enable the European Court of Justice (the Court of Justice, the General Court and specialized courts to perform this duty, the Court has been conferred a range of specific powers under the provisions of the Treaty on the European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union in particular. The Court is empowered to declare that a Member State has failed to comply with its obligation under the Treaties. The founding fathers of the EU designed three different procedures leading to that effect. The first one has proved to be fairly effective; on the grounds of an action brought by the Commission, it enables the Court to adjudge whether a Member State did comply with its obligations stemming from the EU law. The next one provides légitimation active for the other Member State but it has been very rarely used in the

  4. [Medical certification for diabetic drivers in the selected European Union member states].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkiewicz, Andrzej; Szosland, Dorota

    2007-01-01

    There is in Poland an urgent need to set criteria and recommendations for medical certification of individuals working or taking up the job involving public safety, in which diabetes could have a particularly important and dangerous impact. In Europe, many countries have restrictions for diabetic drivers. Diabetes is identified as one of the medical conditions that may impair driving ability and thus drivers with diabetes must meet certain medical standards. The European Union legislation states that diabetic patients taking insulin are excluded from driving trucks, heavy goods vehicles, and buses, except for small trucks in "very exceptional cases". This directive is interpreted differently throughout the European Union. Several aspects should be taken into account when evaluating the current status of the medical certification: e.g., duration of diabetes, type of diabetes treatment, diabetes stability, hypoglycemias in the past, and diabetes complications.

  5. Differentiated integration and disintegration in the European Union: State-of-the-art and ways for future research

    OpenAIRE

    Trondal, Jarle; Gänzle, Stefan; Leruth, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Following the United Kingdom (UK)’s vote to leave the European Union (EU) on 23 June 2016, the process of European integration is now at a critical juncture. Leaving aside Greenland’s departure from the European Community in 1983 – because of its political union with Denmark, Greenland has been recognized as one of the Overseas Countries and Territories of the EU –, the United Kingdom is the first member state in the history of European integration to engage in a process of disintegration whi...

  6. Family Benefits In Member States Of The European Union: A Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stănescu Simona Maria

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article intends to be a screening of family benefits in the 28 Member States of the European Union (EU and to contribute to the research of shared trends with respect to family approach in these countries. Four types of family benefits including eight distinctive categories are analysed: child-benefit, child care allowances, child-raising allowances, and other benefits (birth and adoption grants, allowance for single parents, special allowances for children with disabilities, advance payments for maintenance and other allowances. The paper is based on primary and secondary analysis of 28 sets of national data provided through the European Union's Mutual Information System on Social Protection (MISSOC. Three categories of member states are considered: founder member states of the EU, other “old” member states, and the new Central and Eastern ones. Chronological development of national regulations with impact on family benefits is analysed in connection with the moment of becoming a member state. Various forms of family benefits legislation and their main subjects of interest are further researched. The last part of the article looks at the coverage of family benefits. Seven member states operate in this respect based on regulations adopted before EU accession. Belgium, Finland, and Lithuania have the “most preserved” family regulations per category of member states. The first three topics of family regulations are: child, family, and allowance / benefit. The most frequently provided family benefits are: birth and adoption grants, and special allowance for children with disabilities. All eight family benefits are provided in France, Finland, Hungary, and Slovenia. Only two types of family benefits are available in Ireland, Spain, and Cyprus.

  7. utilizing constitutional values in constitutional comparison

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    COMPARISON. Francois Venter. 1. Constitutional comparison. We are living in an era in which constitutional law has become a comparative science. This is not true .... inevitably followed by a search for authoritative native interpretation. Such a ..... an approach of "colour-blind" interpretation of the Constitution, allowing for.

  8. The role of taxes in waste management in the European Union member states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjetković Cvjetana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive waste production is a serious ecological problem in the European Union member states. In order to solve that problem, the EU member states apply different forms of economic instruments, such as: deposit refund system, producer responsibility schemes for specific waste streams, taxes and charges. Taxes on waste provide an incentive to produce less waste and to recycle more by increasing the price of waste disposal. In the EU member states, the most important taxes in the field of waste management are the landfill tax, the incineration tax and different forms of the packaging tax. They cannot provide satisfactory effects without the application of preventive measures and other economic instruments; namely, their success in achieving environmental targets will depend on many factors, such as the existence of alternatives to landfill and incineration of waste, the existence of deposit refund system, the height of tax rates, the public support, the development of environmental awareness, etc.

  9. Who Is Afraid of European Constitutionalism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Marlene

    According to Ronald Dworkin, majoritarian democracies like the Nordic ones are founded upon the notion that parliamentary majorities are elevated above the other branches of government and that such majorities should not be subject to judicial review. The emergence of a powerful supranational jud...

  10. THE DEVELOPMENT OF LEGAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR A SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE BEHAVIOR FOR BUSINESS OPERATORS IN ROMANIA, MEMBER STATE OF EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura MURESAN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Legal responsibility represents an important component of social responsibility, together with ethical responsibility, ecological responsibility, economical responsibility and philanthropic responsibility. The integration of social responsibility into the activity of business operators in the Member states of European Union is pursued at European Union level. The article analyses the opinion of the Brasov city citizens, in the framework of a marketing research performed in 2015, as regards the possibility that legal instruments should influence a socially responsible behavior for public or private business operators. The aspects analysed for business operators in Romania can represent a model for other European Union states as well.

  11. Food packaging regulation in the United States and the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Jerome H

    2005-06-01

    The regulation of food packaging has, indeed, become a global subject as the world's commercial channels have broadened since World War II. The first comprehensive regulatory statute governing the area was the Food Additives Amendment of 1958 in the United States, a modification of the 1938 Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, and Belgium began regulatory activity in the early 1960s and the European Community set in motion its own work in this direction beginning in 1976. Companies in the United States and the Europe have been struggling with each of the laws since then. The regulatory systems employed on the two continents are superficially similar but this is far from the truth in actual practice. Each has its own special history and set of exemptions; they vary tremendously. Each has its cadre of supporters as well but a considerable lack of understanding afflicts regulators and the regulated on both sides of the Atlantic. This three part report first discusses the history of the United States system and its characteristics; Book II covers the history of European Union regulations and their salient features; and Book III highlights the commonalities and differences in the systems, discusses their scientific basing points, and makes some recommendations as to how they can be brought closer together in the interests of harmonization and the removal of unnecessary trade barriers.

  12. Civil society organisations and public health research--evidence from eight European union new member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knabe, Agnese; McCarthy, Mark

    2012-12-01

    Civil society organisations (CSO) are not-for-profit, non-governmental organisations operating in the public interest. They are the "third sector" that is strongly developed in Western European countries, ensuring the link between citizens and government and working as a counterbalance to the business sector. Their role in support of public health research deserves attention. Within a broader European study (STEPS--Strengthening Engagement in Public Health Research), public health organisations in eight European Union new member states (Cyprus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia) identified national CSOs with interests in health. A questionnaire was developed jointly, translated into national languages and sent by e-mail to 474 organisations, with 128 completed responses (27%). Most CSOs would like to be more involved in setting or advising on public-health research policy, and greater collaboration between CSOs, professional organisations and governmental institutions. Respondents did not see CSOs directly doing research, but recommended mobilizing researchers and organsations, supporting research themes, and lobbying to use public health evidence in policy and decision-making. They could receive more education for, and discussion of, public health research, and offer support in applying for research funding. Civil society organisations can contribute importantly,in setting public health research agendas. Research commissioning should give greater recognition of this role, improve links between CSOs, researchers and governmental institutions, and develop a stronger shared basis for public health policy and practice.

  13. LIBERALISATION OF THE ELECTRICITY SECTOR IN THE EUROPEAN UNION: PRESENT STATE AND SOME OPEN QUESTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, A.

    2007-07-01

    The liberalisation of the electricity sector started approximately 10 to 15 years ago, depending on the country. Nonetheless, there is still no general agreement on the liberalisation model this sector should follow, mainly because of the discussion of whether the liberalisation is an end in itself, or a means for -basically- lower energy prices. The complexity of the sector and the resilience of the incumbents' market power have currently placed the liberalisation process at a crossroad. In the EU, entrenched national interests are another obstacle to deal with. In this article, we first give an overview of the different liberalisation processes in the electricity sector and then summarize the pending challenges from an EU perspective. Next, we argue that the EU should focus on conditions aiming at implementing an effective liberalisation process, rather than on a formal liberalisation approach. We show how asymmetries between non-sector regulations in the European states and among companies create an uneven playing field, contrary to the European vision of an internal competitive energy market. We end the article studying the compatibility of the current European regulatory framework with the upcoming challenges in the energy sector. (auth)

  14. The contribution of national disparities to international differences in mortality between the United States and 7 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Van Hedel (Karen); M. Avendano Pabon (Mauricio); L.F. Berkman (Lisa); M. Bopp (Matthias); P. Deboosere (Patrick); O. Lundberg; P. Martikainen; G. Menvielle (Gwenn); F.J. van Lenthe (Frank); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjectives. This study examined to what extent the higher mortality in the United States compared to many European countries is explained by larger social disparities within the United States. We estimated the expected US mortality if educational disparities in the United States were

  15. European Values and Practices in Post-Communist Public Administration: The Baltic States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karin Hilmer; Johannsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    European countries were necessary in order to ‘return to Europe’. The reconstructions in the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania) have been remarkable successes. They have become members of EU and NATO and, with determination, have fought off several deep economic recessions without endangering...... democracy. Public administrations have undergone complete changes in their legal environment and deep structural reorganisation, combined with a high degree of turnover among staff. This has turned previous Soviet administrations into capable modern administrations. The question highlighted in this chapter...

  16. Morality and the Public Good in Post-Socialist European States

    OpenAIRE

    Inge Sieben; Loek Halman

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate morality in relation to the public good in post-socialist Europe. Public good morality is defined as the (non)acceptance of behaviour that contravenes the law and harms society and the greater good of the collective, such as cheating on taxes if one has the chance, paying cash to avoid taxes, not paying one’s fare in public transport, and claiming state benefits one is not entitled to. Using data from the European Values Study in 2008 on more than 30,000 responde...

  17. Regulating mobile advertising in the European Union and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix

    2008-01-01

    Mobile advertising is a gradually developing component of the marketing mix that includes advertisements directed to or accessed on consumers' mobile devices. Growing concerns about the protection of the consumers' personal data are being raised since mobile advertising may become an extremely...... intrusive practice in an intimate personal space. Approaches of protecting the consumers' personal information differ greatly throughout the world. This article contrasts the regulatory environment in the European Union and in the United States applicable to the consumer's privacy and personal data used...... for mobile advertising purposes while also examining the effectiveness of each of these approaches....

  18. CORRUPTION AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT. EVIDENCE FROM CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mihaela Amarandei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of corruption on foreign direct investment inflows for ten Central and Eastern European states. The paper attempts to answer the question: what is the role of corruption in attracting foreign direct investments? Using the data from UNCTAD for foreign direct investment and Corruption Perception Index from Transparency International, for a period of 12 years, 2000-2012, we evaluate the specific impact of corruptions on FDI using GDP as control variable. Our results confirm the majority of literature and show a negative significant relation between the variables analyzed, but at a lower intensity than expected.

  19. Priorities in national space strategies and governance of the member states of the European Space Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaensen, Maarten; Giannopapa, Christina; Sagath, Daniel; Papastefanou, Anastasia

    2015-12-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has twenty Member States with a variety of strategic priorities and governance structures regarding their space activities. A number of countries engage in space activities exclusively though ESA, while others have also their own national space programme. Some consider ESA as their prime space agency and others have additionally their own national agency with respective programmes. The main objective of this paper is to provide an up-to date overview and a holistic assessment of strategic priorities and the national space governance structures in 20 ESA Member States. This analysis and assessment has been conducted by analysing the Member States public documents, information provided at ESA workshop on this topic and though unstructured interviews. The paper is structured to include two main elements: priorities and trends in national space strategies and space governance in ESA Member States. The first part of this paper focuses on the content and analysis of the national space strategies and indicates the main priorities and trends in Member States. The priorities are categorised with regards to technology domains, the role of space in the areas of sustainability and the motivators that boost engagement in space. These vary from one Member State to another and include with different levels of engagement in technology domains amongst others: science and exploration, navigation, Earth observation, human space flight, launchers, telecommunications, and integrated applications. Member States allocate a different role of space as enabling tool adding to the advancement of sustainability areas including: security, resources, environment and climate change, transport and communication, energy, and knowledge and education. The motivators motivating reasoning which enhances or hinders space engagement also differs. The motivators identified are industrial competitiveness, job creation, technology development and transfer, social benefits

  20. Comparative Analysis of Minimum Income Guaranteed Schemes within the Member States of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Maria Stănescu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The commitment of the European Union (EU Member States towards accomplishing the commonly agreed goals (1997 European Employment Strategy, Lisbon 2000, and Europe 2020 is supported by a continuous assessment of domestic social policy tendencies. From this perspective, the main goal of the paper is to comparatively analyse the last safety net for the most vulnerable people. The screening of guaranteed minimum resources provides an overview of the applicable statutory basis, schemes in place, types of social benefits concerned, financing and organisation mechanisms, eligibility conditions, duration and time limits. As methodology, the article uses the MISSOC database, and due to the current lack of comparable information, recommendations for further harmonisation are included. 20 of the EU member states follow the minimum income guaranteed (MIG regulations adopted already during the pre-accession period and updated after the accession phase. Seven types of domestic regulations are in force, among which the most frequent ones are acts and laws (ten countries. Common concepts used are social, and assistance. Provided allowances are mainly focused on elderly people, unemployment benefits, pensions, allowances supporting various house related costs, and benefits for disabled people. In line with 2007, 2010, and 2014 data, the financing of guaranteed minimum resources continues to remain mainly central with a shift in 2014 towards mixed financing (both central and local. The management in 2014 continues to be mainly centrally organised but the local stakeholders are also empowered. The residency is the most frequent eligibility condition. No nationality is required in 24 EU member states, for all allowances (21 countries or for particular ones (three countries. 17 member states require no age conditions. Unlimited guaranteed minimum resources were provided in 2014 as long as the eligibility criteria were met in 23 EU member states.

  1. Innovative enterprises operating in the Member States of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Baruk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary enterprises should be innovative to survive on a competitive market. Innovations are the basic factor of development of each firm. They must be systematically developed and implemented in all areas of socio-economic activity. The base for the creation of such a system can be a complex diagnosis of the current state of the commonness of introduction of the innovations in particular enterprises. This diagnosis can be conducted on the base of results of the empirical researches, conducted in February 2016 by TNS Political & Social in 28 EU Member States, Switzerland and the United States. These researches, among other things, refered to commonness of introduction of innovations in enterprises. In this publication an attempt to achieve the following objectives is undertaken: 1. conducting of statistical-comparative analysis of the empirical researches on the commonness of introduction of specific types of innovations in enterprises operating in the Member States of the European Union and the United States, 2. verification of the thesis that the commonness of implementation of certain types of innovations in enterprises functioning in the EU Member States is relatively low and varied. The analysis of empirical material allowed to achieve these objectives.

  2. The genetic ancestry of African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryc, Katarzyna; Durand, Eric Y; Macpherson, J Michael; Reich, David; Mountain, Joanna L

    2015-01-08

    Over the past 500 years, North America has been the site of ongoing mixing of Native Americans, European settlers, and Africans (brought largely by the trans-Atlantic slave trade), shaping the early history of what became the United States. We studied the genetic ancestry of 5,269 self-described African Americans, 8,663 Latinos, and 148,789 European Americans who are 23andMe customers and show that the legacy of these historical interactions is visible in the genetic ancestry of present-day Americans. We document pervasive mixed ancestry and asymmetrical male and female ancestry contributions in all groups studied. We show that regional ancestry differences reflect historical events, such as early Spanish colonization, waves of immigration from many regions of Europe, and forced relocation of Native Americans within the US. This study sheds light on the fine-scale differences in ancestry within and across the United States and informs our understanding of the relationship between racial and ethnic identities and genetic ancestry. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Transnational Governance and Constitutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joerges, Christian; Sand, Inger-Johanne; Teubner, Gunther

    The term transnational governance designates untraditional types of international and regional collaboration among both public and private actors. These legally-structured or less formal arrangements link economic, scientific and technological spheres with political and legal processes. They are ......The term transnational governance designates untraditional types of international and regional collaboration among both public and private actors. These legally-structured or less formal arrangements link economic, scientific and technological spheres with political and legal processes....... They are challenging the type of governance which constitutional states were supposed to represent and ensure. They also provoke old questions: Who bears the responsibility for governance without a government? Can accountability be ensured? The term 'constitutionalism' is still widely identified with statal form...... of democratic governance. The book refers to this term as a yardstick to which then contributors feel committed even where they plead for a reconceptualisation of constitutionalism or a discussion of its functional equivalents. 'Transnational governance' is neither public nor private, nor purely international...

  4. An overview of the current plant biostimulant legislations in different European Member States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Torre, Anna; Battaglia, Valerio; Caradonia, Federica

    2016-02-01

    Plant biostimulants are borderline substances that play an intermediate role between plant protection products and fertilisers. At present, such substances are regulated by national laws and have different names in the various European Member States. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview on the activity of these substances and on the national laws that regulate them, as they vary considerably from one Member State to another. The greatest difficulty in terms of the correct regulatory framework for these substances is related to their heterogeneity. This situation creates uncertainties for operators, control authorities and bodies that certify and control the organic production, and strongly limits the growth of these substances. This problem will be overcome with the amendment of Regulation EC No 2003/2003 which will shortly extend its scope to the category of plant biostimulants included within the fertilising additives. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. An analysis of European shale gas policies: Why EU member states are pursuing divergent 'fracking' strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Ben

    The recent progression in hydraulic fracturing or 'fracking' has enabled energy companies to extract once-considered, inaccessible hydrocarbons. The United States has been at the forefront of this controversial industry, revolutionizing the energy market by becoming the world's largest oil and natural gas producer as a result of its vast shale deposits. Shale oil and gas deposits are not unique to North America, however. EU member states are faced with the dilemma of whether to permit fracking domestically or suspend operations. The United Kingdom and Romania have issued concessions for exploring their reserves, while France and Bulgaria have halted all drilling efforts, citing environmental concerns. This paper evaluates why these four European countries pursued divergent fracking policies, arguing that energy security and Russian-relations are more relevant and powerful explanatory factors than a country's commitment to protecting the environment.

  6. ÁRBOL GENEALÓGICO DEL CONSEJO DE ESTADO: EL CONSTITUCIONALISMO AUTORITARIO EN NUESTRA HISTORIA Genealogical tree of the council of state: authoritarian constitutionalism in chilean history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Muñoz León

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La apelación al prestigio y la experiencia crea una cierta continuidad histórica entre diversas instituciones: la Real Audiencia, el Consejo de Estado, y los senadores "institucionales" y por "derecho propio". Este trabajo se enfoca en el discurso que articula y unifica estas distintas formas institucionales a lo largo de buena parte de la historia de Chile, sugiriendo un contexto para el estudio del constitucionalismo autoritarismo chileno.An appeal to prestige and experience creates a historical continuity between various institutions: the Royal Audiencia, the Council of State, and the "institutional" and for-life senators. This work focuses on the discourse that articulates and unifies these various institutional forms throughout Chilean history, suggesting a context for the study of Chilean constitutional authoritarianism.

  7. The Globalizing Turn in the Relationship Between Constitutionalism and Democracy: Some Reiterations from the Perspective of Constitutional Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, Leonard F.M.

    2011-01-01

    This essay compliments Neil Walker's Constitutionalism and the Incompleteness of Democracy: An Iterative Relationshipon, with some historical and constitutional observations. It submits that Walker's analysis is based to a large extent on reasoning derived from a particular continental European

  8. SECURITY STRATEGIES OF MEMBER STATES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION FROM THE LISBON TREATY AND THE EUROPEAN SECURITY STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO RIVAS PARDO

    2017-09-01

    in mind, it is possible to study the variability of the Security Strategy in relation to four strategic guidelines: strategic self-perception, the necessity to tune these postulates with the common objectives of the European Union, the statement of threats and finally the actions projected by these strategies to face the changing environment of international security. This variability will seek the fact of the existence or nonexistence of tuning and consistency between the Security Strategies and the community positions in the matter of security and defense. The selected countries are those who have published their documents after the signing of the Treaty of Lisbon and the publication of the European Security Strategy, in other words, after2009: Austria, Bulgaria, Slovenia, Spain, Estonia, Holland, Hungary, Lithuania, UK and the Czech Republic.

  9. Trends in corpus uteri cancer mortality in member states of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiderpass, Elisabete; Antoine, Jerome; Bray, Freddie I; Oh, Jin-Kyoung; Arbyn, Marc

    2014-06-01

    The burden of corpus uteri cancer varies in the European Union (EU). We analysed trends in corpus uteri cancer mortality in 26 EU member states from 1970 onward. Population numbers and number of uterine cancer deaths were extracted from the World Health Organisation mortality database. Corpus uteri cancer mortality rates were corrected for certification problems using different reallocation rules for deaths registered as uterine cancer not otherwise specified, or using mixed disease codes. Join point regression was used to study the annual percentage change of age-standardised corpus uteri cancer mortality rates. Changes in corpus uteri cancer mortality rates by calendar period and standardised cohort mortality ratios were also estimated. In 2008, 12,903 women died from corpus uteri cancer in the EU. Corrected age-standardised corpus uteri cancer mortality rates have decreased significantly over the past decades in most member states, with exception of Malta and Bulgaria, where rates increased; Greece, where rates remained low but stable; and Sweden, where rates have been stable since 1970. Original member states showed a steeper decrease than newer member states. The standardised cohort mortality ratios indicated that corpus uteri cancer mortality does not decrease further, nor does it increase, among women born after 1940, although these birth cohorts may still be too young for corpus uteri cancer incidence to be fully evaluated. Our corrected corpus uteri cancer mortality rates showed a decrease in most EU member states among women born before 1940. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparing pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement policies in Croatia to the European Union Member States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; Habl, Claudia; Bogut, Martina; Vončina, Luka

    2011-01-01

    Aim To perform a comparative analysis of the pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement systems in Croatia and the 27 European Union (EU) Member States. Methods Knowledge about the pharmaceutical systems in Croatia and the 27 EU Member States was acquired by literature review and primary research with stakeholders. Results Pharmaceutical prices are controlled at all levels in Croatia, which is also the case in 21 EU Member States. Like many EU countries, Croatia also applies external price referencing, ie, compares prices with other countries. While the wholesale remuneration by a statutorily regulated linear mark-up is applied in Croatia and in several EU countries, the pharmacy compensation for dispensing reimbursable medicines in the form of a flat rate service fee in Croatia is rare among EU countries, which usually apply a linear or regressive pharmacy mark-up scheme. Like in most EU countries, the Croatian Social Insurance reimburses specific medicines at 100%, whereas patients are charged co-payments for other reimbursable medicines. Criteria for reimbursement include the medicine’s importance from the public health perspective, its therapeutic value, and relative effectiveness. In Croatia and in many EU Member States, reimbursement is based on a reference price system. Conclusion The Croatian pharmaceutical system is similar to those in the EU Member States. Key policies, like external price referencing and reference price systems, which have increasingly been introduced in EU countries are also applied in Croatia and serve the same purpose: to ensure access to medicines while containing public pharmaceutical expenditure. PMID:21495202

  11. Trends of cervical cancer mortality in the member states of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbyn, Marc; Raifu, Amidu O; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Bray, Freddie; Anttila, Ahti

    2009-10-01

    Cervical cancer mortality can be avoided to a large extent by screening and treatment of screen-detected cervical lesions. However, in 2004, more than 16,000 women died from cervical cancer in the European Union (EU). In the current paper, we analyse cervical cancer mortality trends in the 27 member states since 1970 and, subsequently, try to explain how screening and other factors have driven changes. Data on number of deaths from uterine cancers and overall female populations from EU member states were extracted from the World Health Organisation mortality database. Three different reallocation rules were applied to correct cervical cancer mortality for inaccuracies in certification of cause of death of not otherwise specified uterine cancer. Joinpoint regression was used to study annual variation of corrected cervical cancer mortality in all member states. We distinguished the 15 old from the 12 new member states, which acceded to the EU in 2004 or later. For Finland, France and Romania, age-specific trends by calendar period and the standardised cohort mortality ratios by birth cohort were analysed. Corrected age-standardised cervical cancer mortality rates have decreased significantly over the past decades in the old member states. Member states in Eastern Europe and also the Baltic states showed mortality rates that decreased at a lower intensity (Czech Republic, Poland), remained constant at a high rate (Estonia, Slovakia) or even increased (Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania). The standardised cohort mortality ratio indicated that mortality does not decrease further or even increase among women born after 1940. Remarkable contrasts were observed on cervical cancer mortality, in particular, between the old and new member states of the EU, which might probably be explained by differences in preventive strategies. This contrast might increase in the future, unless adequate preventive measures are adopted.

  12. The Spanish Constitution, the Constitutional Court and the Catalan Referendum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    politics in a concrete state, but they also represented the conquest of fundamental rights, liberties and the juridification of each new independent state. This epic and romantic aura helped the universal triumph of constitutionalism around the world. But at the same time, the conflict between demos...

  13. A Case Study of Personal Experiences of Undocumented Eastern European Immigrants Living in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titanilla KISS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Existing research on undocumented migration has focused predominantly on Latin American and Mexican immigrants and largely overlooked the experiences of immigrants originating from other parts of the world. As such, very few studies have considered how the lack of legal residency status can influence life opportunities of undocumented immigrants from Eastern Europe. The overarching aim of the present study was to explore the personal experiences of unauthorized Eastern European immigrants in the United States in order to: (a augment research on undocumented migration, and (b highlight the experiences of undocumented Eastern Europeans who remain an understudied group of the undocumented immigrants. Comprehensive personal interviews were conducted with a small group of unauthorized immigrants to explore: (1 reasons for immigration and prior expectations, and (2 psychosocial experiences (i.e., status related anxiety, experience with prejudice and discrimination, job satisfaction, sense of belonging, family relations, and future plans. Some of the results are presented in terms of similarity and differences between the current study's sample and the undocumented immigrants from other regions of the world, namely, Mexico and Latin America.

  14. Public Investment and Economic Growth in The European Union Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana DONATH

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of public investments becamea very challenging subject for public decisionmakerssince it incorporates the question of stateperformance, the quality of public finance and theireffects on growth. The quality of public finance is amultidimensional concept. It may be regarded asrepresenting all the arrangements and operationsregarding the financial politics that sustain themacroeconomic objectives, particularly the longtermeconomic growth. Financial policies atEuropean level highlight the fact that a concentrationof the public expenses in areas that stimulate theeconomic growth and a more efficient use of thepublic resources are key methods for sustainingthe economic growth. The empirical proofs seem tosupport the assumption according to which certaintypes of public expenses can supply incentivesand other can negatively influence the economicgrowth. The paper tries to reveal the effects ofcapital spending on economic growth (GDP percapita for the European Union member states.The GDP per capita and the capital expenses(functional classification of public expenses -“COFOG” have been obtained by consideringthe Eurostat statistics, the measurement unit forboth variables is Euro, while the period of analysisis of 7 years (2000-2006.

  15. Effect of liraglutide and metformin on constitution, metabolism and micro-inflammatory state in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic mellitus patients with obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Ping Han

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the effect of liraglutide and metformin on the constitution, metabolism and micro-inflammatory state in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic mellitus patients with obesity. Methods: A total of 55 cases of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic mellitus patients with obesity were included for study and divided into observation group (n=30 and control group (n=25 according to different treatment plans. Control group received metformin treatment alone, observation group received liraglutide and metformin treatment, and levels of glucolipid metabolism indicators, body mass index and fibrinolytic activity-related indicators, microinflammation-related signaling pathways, illness-related indicators, etc of two groups were detected after one course of treatment. Results: FPG, GHbA1c, TC, TG and LDL-C values in venous blood of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group; waistline, hipline and waist-hip ratio of observation group decreased after treatment, TM value was lower than that of control group while t-PA value was higher than that of control group; TLR4-NF-毷B signaling pathway and DAG/PKC signaling pathway downstream TLR4, p-NF-毷B p65, DAG and PKC protein expression levels of observation group after treatment were significantly lower than those of control group; serum APN, Nesfatin-1 and ISI values of observation group after treatment were higher than those of control group while LP, Chemerin, RBP4 and FINS values were lower than those of control group. Conclusions: Combined therapy of liraglutide and metformin can significantly improve the constitution of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic mellitus patients with obesity, optimize the general condition and be expected to improve treatment outcome.

  16. Regional inequalities and convergence clubs in the European Union new member-states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris KALLIORAS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper assesses on empirical grounds the level and the evolution of regional inequalities in each European Union new member-state (EU NMS and examines the possibility for the emergence of regional convergence clubs. The experience of the EU NMS is a unique situation, where relatively closed economic systems opened, almost at once, to the world economy and, at the same time, market mechanisms replaced central planning. Thus, understanding the spatial pattern of regional growth in the EU NMS may provide valuable insight for theory and policy. The application of non linear econometric models, which transcend the “all or nothing” logic behind conventional convergence analysis, has shown the existence of regional convergence clubs in many EU NMS. The identification of regional convergence clubs, irrespective of the pattern that emerges in each EU NMS, highlights the heterogeneous spatial impact of the EU economic integration process.

  17. THE ECONOMIC GOVERNANCE: CONCEPT, INSTRUMENTS OF MEASURMENT AND EVOLUTIONS ACROSS EUROPEAN UNION MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihuț Ioana-Sorina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The literature in the field identified over time a series of economic and non-economic factors that trigger the process of economic growth and convergence. Despite the fact that most of the theoretical as well as the empirical studies address the determinants of the economic growth process only from an economic perspective, a series of recent debates draw the attention upon a neglected category of factors until now, namely the quality of the economic growth process and the role of institutions as important tools in promoting convergence/divergence between economies. This new area of research, named institutional economics, highlights the role of institutions in protecting the property rights and the contracts (Han, X., et all 2014. Although these factors were often ignored as explicative variables of the economic growth process, in comparison to factors such as human capital, physical capital or technological progress, recently economists, researches or other participants in the market became highly aware of their importance. The primary objective of the current paper is to analyze the concept of economic governance as detailed within a series of studies in the field, or as perceived by international organizations. In addition to this objective we present some main indicators used to measure the quality and efficiency of the economic governance process with precise data and evolutions for the member states of the European Union. The main conclusions of our study reveal the fact that in order to achieve high levels of economic growth and convergence across European Union member states there is a strong need for enforcing the legal framework of EU along with the transfer of the power regarding the development, management and implementation of the economic stability policies from the national to the supra-national level. Also a harmonization of the institutional structure is required as a measure for supporting economic performance.

  18. Classification of the European Union member states according to the relative level of sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, Bluszcz

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays methods of measurement and assessment of the level of sustained development at the international, national and regional level are a current research problem, which requires multi-dimensional analysis. The relative assessment of the sustainability level of the European Union member states and the comparative analysis of the position of Poland relative to other countries was the aim of the conducted studies in the article. EU member states were treated as objects in the multi-dimensional space. Dimensions of space were specified by ten diagnostic variables describing the sustainability level of UE countries in three dimensions, i.e., social, economic and environmental. Because the compiled statistical data were expressed in different units of measure, taxonomic methods were used for building an aggregated measure to assess the level of sustainable development of EU member states, which through normalisation of variables enabled the comparative analysis between countries. Methodology of studies consisted of eight stages, which included, among others: defining data matrices, calculating the variability coefficient for all variables, which variability coefficient was under 10 %, division of variables into stimulants and destimulants, selection of the method of variable normalisation, developing matrices of normalised data, selection of the formula and calculating the aggregated indicator of the relative level of sustainable development of the EU countries, calculating partial development indicators for three studies dimensions: social, economic and environmental and the classification of the EU countries according to the relative level of sustainable development. Statistical date were collected based on the Polish Central Statistical Office publication.

  19. The English Language Amendment. Hearing before the Subcommittee on the Constitution of the Committee on the Judiciary. Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on S.J. Res. 167, a Joint Resolution Proposing an Amendment to the Constitution of the United States with Respect to the English Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    The transcripts of the hearings on Senate Joint Resolution 167, proposing an amendment to the United States Constitution with regard to establishment of English as the country's official language includes: the statements of three committee members (Senators Orrin G. Hatch, Jeremiah Denton, and Dennis DeConcini); the text of the proposed…

  20. Antithetical Ethics: Kenneth Burke and the Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Virginia

    1995-01-01

    Shows how the textuality of the United States Constitution, the most venerable of classic democratic icons, might be exploited to nurture postmodern ethics. Shows how Kenneth Burke's reading of the Constitution accords with and augments the postmodern theories of J.-F. Lyotard and S. Jarratt. Discusses a postmodern Constitution and the…

  1. Constitutional Analysis of Intellectual Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJ van der Walt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the Constitutional Court’s treatment of property interests in the face of state regulation to gain an understanding of the type of state interference that is justifiable in terms of section 25(1 of the Bill of Rights. This is done by examining the Constitutional Court’s dicta relating to the meaning of deprivation and how these inform the meaning of property in the constitutional context. The methodology that the Constitutional Court has formulated to assess if state interference complies with the provisions of section 25 is explained to show the type of state regulation that has been found legitimate. We then consider how this understanding of constitutional property and the state’s legitimate exercise of its inherent police power interact in the setting of intellectual property by contrasting the various policy objectives underlying the different statutory regimes governing intellectual property. This theoretical analysis is then applied to two contemporary examples of feasible state interference with existing intellectual property interests, namely the proposed plain packaging measures which severely restrict the use of tobacco trade marks, and a fair dealing exception allowing the use of copyright works for the purpose of parody. These examples serve to illustrate the context and manner in which intellectual property interests may come before the Court and the necessary differentiation with which these interests should be treated. The appropriate judicial assessment of the true impact that state action could have on vested property interests is explained and contrasted with the balancing exercise that is employed at the earlier stage of policy making. This discussion is concluded by highlighting some of the interpretational issues that will arise and how some constitutional values could be curtailed in the absence of legislative intervention.

  2. Disparity in Dental Attendance Among Older Adult Populations: A Comparative Analysis Across Selected European Countries and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manski, Richard; Moeller, John; Chen, Haiyan; Widström, Eeva; Listl, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background The current study addresses the extent to which diversity in dental attendance across population subgroups exists within and between the United States and selected European countries. Method The analyses relied on 2006/2007 data from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and 2004–2006 data from of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) in the United States for respondents aged 51 years and older. Logistic regression models were estimated to identify impacts of dental care coverage and oral as well as general health status on dental care use. Results We were unable to discern significant differences in dental attendance across population subgroups in countries with and without social health insurance, between the USA and European countries, and between European countries classified by social welfare regime. Patterns of diverse dental use were found, but they did not appear predominately in countries classified by welfare state regime or by presence or absence of social health insurance. Conclusions Findings of this study suggest that income and education have stronger and more persistent correlation with dental use than the correlation between dental insurance and dental use across European countries. We conclude that (1) higher overall rates of coverage in most European countries, compared to relatively lower rates in the USA, contribute to this finding and that (2) policies targeted to improving the income of older persons and their awareness of the importance of oral health care in both Europe and the USA can contribute to improving the use of dental services. PMID:26465093

  3. Constitutive Modelling in Geomechanics Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Puzrin, Alexander M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to bridge the gap between the traditional Geomechanics and Numerical Geotechnical Modelling with applications in science and practice. Geomechanics is rarely taught within the rigorous context of Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics, while when it comes to Numerical Modelling, commercially available finite elements or finite differences software utilize constitutive relationships within the rigorous framework. As a result, young scientists and engineers have to learn the challenging subject of constitutive modelling from a program manual and often end up with using unrealistic models which violate the Laws of Thermodynamics.  The book is introductory, by no means does it claim any completeness and state of the art in such a dynamically developing field as numerical and constitutive modelling of soils. The author gives basic understanding of conventional continuum mechanics approaches to constitutive modelling, which can serve as a foundation for exploring more advanced theories....

  4. The significance of constitutional values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HN Nisihara

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the question of the meaning and legal significance of constitutional values in contemporary times. The article attends also to related questions namely, what constituteconstitutional values” and what are the limitations of the meaning afforded to this notion. Attention is paid in the particular, to freedom, equality and democracy as value-neutral criteria of fairness and government neutrality with reference to the South African and German contexts as well as to value-neutrality as a culturally conditioned value. The author concludes with a cosmopolitan view of freedom and the right to peace with reference to the constitutional texts of Japan and the United States.

  5. Variation in Inspection Efficacy by Member States of Wood Packaging Material Entering the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, Dominic; Macarthur, Roy; Haack, Robert A; Lu, Yi; Krehan, Hannes

    2018-01-20

    The use of wood packaging materials (WPMs) in international trade is recognized as a pathway for the movement of invasive pests and as the origin of most introductions of Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Europe and North America. Following several pest interceptions on WPM associated with stone imports from China, the European Union (EU) agreed to survey certain categories of imports based on the EU Combined Nomenclature Codes for imports, which are based on the international Harmonized System. Between April 2013 and March 2015, 72,263 relevant consignments were received from China in the EU and 26,008 were inspected. Harmful organisms were detected in 0.9% of the consignments, and 1.1% of the imports did not have markings compliant with the international standard for treating WPM, ISPM 15. There were significant differences between the detection rates of harmful organisms among EU member states. In member states that inspected at least 500 consignments, the rate of detection ranged from 6.9% in Austria and France to 0.0% in Spain and Poland. If this difference in detection rate is the result of differences in the methods and intensity of inspection in different member states then an approximate sevenfold increase in the interception of harmful organisms may be achieved if all states were to achieve detection rates achieved by Austria and France. The EU data from 1999 to 2014 indicated an increasing number of interceptions of Bostrichidae and Cerambycidae since 2010. This study demonstrates that there is an ongoing threat of non-native forest pests being imported on WPM. © Crown copyright 2018.

  6. Reproductive state modulates testosterone-induced singing in adult female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Melvin L; Stevenson, Tyler J; Fortune, Eric S; Ball, Gregory F

    2015-06-01

    European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) exhibit seasonal changes in singing and in the volumes of the neural substrate. Increases in song nuclei volume are mediated at least in part by increases in day length, which is also associated with increases in plasma testosterone (T), reproductive activity, and singing behavior in males. The correlations between photoperiod (i.e. daylength), T, reproductive state and singing hamper our ability to disentangle causal relationships. We investigated how photoperiodic-induced variation in reproductive state modulates the effects of T on singing behavior and song nuclei volumes in adult female starlings. Female starlings do not naturally produce measureable levels of circulating T but nevertheless respond to exogenous T, which induces male-like singing. We manipulated photoperiod by placing birds in a photosensitive or photorefractory state and then treated them with T-filled or empty silastic implants. We recorded morning singing behavior for 3 weeks, after which we assessed reproductive condition and measured song nuclei volumes. We found that T-treated photosensitive birds sang significantly more than all other groups including T-treated photorefractory birds. All T-treated birds had larger song nuclei volumes than with blank-treated birds (despite photorefractory T-treated birds not increasing song-rate). There was no effect of photoperiod on the song nuclei volumes of T-treated birds. These data show that the behavioral effects of exogenous T can be modulated by reproductive state in adult female songbirds. Furthermore, these data are consistent with other observations that increases in singing rate in response to T are not necessarily due to the direct effects of T on song nuclei volume. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Reported foodborne outbreaks due to fresh produce in the United States and European Union: trends and causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejón, Raquel M; Rodríguez-Naranjo, M Isabel; Ubeda, Cristina; Hornedo-Ortega, Ruth; Garcia-Parrilla, M Carmen; Troncoso, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of fruit and vegetables continues to rise in the United States and European Union due to healthy lifestyle recommendations. Meanwhile, the rate of foodborne illness caused by the consumption of these products remains high in both regions, representing a significant public health and financial issue. This study addresses the occurrence of reported foodborne outbreaks associated with fresh fruits and vegetables consumption in the United States and European Union during the period 2004-2012, where data are available. Special attention is paid to those pathogens responsible for these outbreaks, the mechanisms of contamination, and the fresh produce vehicles involved. Norovirus is shown to be responsible for most of the produce-related outbreaks, followed by Salmonella. Norovirus is mainly linked with the consumption of salad in the United States and of berries in the European Union, as demonstrated by the Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA). Salmonella was the leading cause of multistate produce outbreaks in the United States and was the pathogen involved in the majority of sprouts-associated outbreaks. As is reflected in the MCA, the pattern of fresh produce outbreaks differed in the United States and European Union by the type of microorganism and the food vehicle involved.

  8. Constitutive models in LAME.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Scherzinger, William Mark

    2007-09-01

    The Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering (LAME) provides a common repository for constitutive models that can be used in computational solid mechanics codes. A number of models including both hypoelastic (rate) and hyperelastic (total strain) constitutive forms have been implemented in LAME. The structure and testing of LAME is described in Scherzinger and Hammerand ([3] and [4]). The purpose of the present report is to describe the material models which have already been implemented into LAME. The descriptions are designed to give useful information to both analysts and code developers. Thus far, 33 non-ITAR/non-CRADA protected material models have been incorporated. These include everything from the simple isotropic linear elastic models to a number of elastic-plastic models for metals to models for honeycomb, foams, potting epoxies and rubber. A complete description of each model is outside the scope of the current report. Rather, the aim here is to delineate the properties, state variables, functions, and methods for each model. However, a brief description of some of the constitutive details is provided for a number of the material models. Where appropriate, the SAND reports available for each model have been cited. Many models have state variable aliases for some or all of their state variables. These alias names can be used for outputting desired quantities. The state variable aliases available for results output have been listed in this report. However, not all models use these aliases. For those models, no state variable names are listed. Nevertheless, the number of state variables employed by each model is always given. Currently, there are four possible functions for a material model. This report lists which of these four methods are employed in each material model. As far as analysts are concerned, this information is included only for the awareness purposes. The analyst can take confidence in the fact that model has been properly implemented

  9. AGRICULTURAL SECTOR, RURAL ENVIRONMENT AND BIODIVERSITY IN THE CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN EU MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAAN LIIRA

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available During the second half of the 20th century, agriculture and the rural environment diverged in Western and Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC. CEE countries itself are heterogeneous in the respect of land use intensity and history. In the current review we focus on the comparison of the agricultural sector and threats on biodiversities of EU new-member countries from Central and Eastern Europe and the old EU(15 member states. The clustering of countries revealed groups distinguished according to the level of their economic productivity, discriminating mostly among eastern and western European countries. CEE countries sub-divided according to geographic region, including also some old members of the EU. Within the western cluster, two large sub-clusters became evident according to economy affected by altitudinal and climatic differences. Partly because there are still areas where the intensity of land use remained low, the biological diversity in many regions of Central and Eastern Europe has remained high. However, loss of extensively used habitats, the restoration on intensive agriculture, reforestation with exotic species and urbanization are major threats to nature in CEE countries. The estimated variability among CEE countries is caused by different historical and cultural backgrounds of those countries. Due to the complexity and geographical diversity of driving forces, there remains much uncertainty in the possible impacts of particular factors on land use. This complexity and diversity have to be considered when planningeconomic as well as ecological means for developing the agricultural sector and conserving biodiversity in the future of CEE countries.

  10. The impact of TTIP agreement on the European Union-United States coal trade potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olkuski Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to assess the impact of currently negotiated TTIP agreement (Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership on the use of hard coal in the EU and the US. Hard coal is the most important fuel in global electricity generation. This also applies to the United States, a leading manufacturer and exporter of this energy source. The US coal is exported to the EU market. The article presents the estimated exports of hard coal from the US to the EU. Due to the fact that price has a major impact on the size of exports, the paper presents the estimated prices, including freight costs, of power coal for the analyzed scenarios. According to one scenario, the US and European prices will be equalized (including freight costs by 2020, while from 2025 on the comparative advantage and competitiveness of the US hard coal will decrease. Taking into account the fact that the export of coal from the United States is free from customs duties, the acceptance of TIPP should not affect the currently existing trade between the two continents and the amount of exported coal. Nevertheless, the question of hard coal economy cannot be separated from other sectors of the energy market, which can be significantly affected by the future agreement.

  11. Synthetic biology regulation and governance: Lessons from TAPIC for the United States, European Union, and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Benjamin D

    2017-11-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging technology with potential benefits to various fields, yet also contains potential risks to human and environmental health. The field remains in an emerging state with limited quantitative guidance and a small but growing population of international researchers that conduct work within this field. Given the uncertain nature of this technology, an adaptive and anticipatory governance framework may be necessary to balance the potential benefits that may accrue from the technology's continued research alongside a desire to reduce or eliminate potential risks that may arise. However, such developments must account for the unique political and institutional factors that form a government's risk culture - something that can facilitate or impede the development of adaptive synthetic biology governance moving forward. The TAPIC framework helps illustrate those factors that are essential to develop good governance for emerging technologies like synthetic biology. Specifically, an application of TAPIC to synthetic biology governance indicates that the factors of accountability, participation, and integrity must be bolstered to improve technology governance in governments like with the United States, European Union, and Singapore. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Yoghurt and probiotic bacteria in dietary guidelines of the member states of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smug, L N; Salminen, S; Sanders, M E; Ebner, S

    2014-03-01

    Beneficial microbes enter the food supply primarily through fermented foods (largely milks) and addition of probiotics. Fermented milks are a significant component of the diet of some geographical regions, including Europe. The fermentation process serves to preserve safety, nutritional quality and palatability of milk. In addition, the microbes associated with fermented milks and probiotics are associated with human health benefits. However, in the area of health claims only one claim for beneficial microbes has been approved in the European Union, that is for yoghurt to improve lactose tolerance. We searched for health messages that include probiotics or fermented milks in nutrition guidelines and recommendations in thirteen countries of the EU plus Switzerland. Such messages are allowed when they are made by non-commercial government bodies. Our analysis revealed that five EU member states have national nutrition guidelines or recommendations that include either probiotics or fermented milks with live bacteria. This supports that some EU member states recognise health benefits associated with consumption of live microbes, even if commercial marketing claims are not authorised. Harmonisation between recommendations and approved health-claims would benefit consumers and public health.

  13. [Genetically modified plants and food safety. State of the art and discussion in the European Union].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauzu, M

    2004-09-01

    Placing genetically modified (GM) plants and derived products on the European Union's (EU) market has been regulated by a Community Directive since 1990. This directive was complemented by a regulation specific for genetically modified and other novel foods in 1997. Specific labelling requirements have been applicable for GM foods since 1998. The law requires a pre-market safety assessment for which criteria have been elaborated and continuously adapted in accordance with the state of the art by national and international bodies and organisations. Consequently, only genetically modified products that have been demonstrated to be as safe as their conventional counterparts can be commercialized. However, the poor acceptance of genetically modified foods has led to a de facto moratorium since 1998. It is based on the lack of a qualified majority of EU member states necessary for authorization to place genetically modified plants and derived foods on the market. New Community Regulations are intended to end this moratorium by providing a harmonized and transparent safety assessment, a centralised authorization procedure, extended labelling provisions and a traceability system for genetically modified organisms (GMO) and derived food and feed.

  14. [Body mass index and other anthropometric parameters of the physical state in relation with age and individual-typological specific of women constitution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikityuk, D B; Nikolenko, V N; Klochkova, S V; Minnibaev, T Sh

    2015-01-01

    The physical state of body construction of 651 practically health women 20-55 years old were studied by using a complex of anthropometric and bioelectric methods (conditional norm, slavonians, inhabitants of Moscow region). The leptosome constitutional group was established in 152 cases (23.3%), mesosome group was exposes in 259 cases (39.8%), megalosome group was revealed in 189 cases (29.0%) and indeterminate group was fixed in 78 cases (8.0%). Women of mesoplastic somatotype were established in 26.9%, sthenoplastic somatotype--in 16.7%, picnic somatotype--in 13.7%, subathletic somatorype--in 11.5%, euriplastic somatotype--in 12.3%, athletic somatotype--in 5.2% and asthenic somatotype--in 1.7%. Sizes and weight parameters were depending on type of women body construction. Norm of body mass index for asthenic women was fixed as 16.9; for sthenoplastic somatotype--20.3; for athletic somatotype--23.1; for subathletic somatotype--24.2; for mesoplastic somatotype--24.6; for euriplastic somatotype--24.7; for picnic somatotype--26.2. The length of women body was varied from 158.2 +/- 0.5 (152.0-165.0) cm for sthenoplastic somatotype and 159.6 +/- 0.4 (152.0- 164.8) cm for mesoplastic somatotype to 169.4 +/- 1.7 (162.2-187.4) cm for athletic somatotype. Body weight was also in correspondence with type of constitution. It was 47.8 +/- 0.6 (44.2-54.6) kg for asthenic somatotype, 50.6 +/- 0.4 (42.6-54.2) kg for sthenoplastic somatotype, 62.2 +/- 0.2 (56.3-64.9) kg for mesoplastic somatotype, 68.6 +/- 0.7 (64.5-82.7) kg for picnic somatotype, 66.2 +/- 1.0 (62.0-76.5) kg for athletic somatotype, 68.2 +/- 1.0 (63.4-76.5) kg for subathletic somatotype and 75.0 +/- 1.0 (68.4-92.5) kg for euriplastic somatotype. Mass of bone component was minimal for women of picnic somatotype (6.4 +/- 0.1 kg) as well as asthenic somatotype (7.3 +/- 0.3 kg) and maximal for subathletic (9.3 +/- 0.1 kg) and euriplastic (9.4 +/- 0.1 kg) somatotypes. Skeletal muscles mass was varied from 18.7 +/- 0

  15. State of Play of CME in Europe in 2013: Proceedings from the Sixth Annual Meeting of the European CME Forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Pozniak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available European CME Forum is a not-for-profit organisation that is dedicated to bringing together all stakeholder groups with an interest in European Continuing Medical Education (CME in order to promote multi-channel discussion in an independent and neutral environment. This report summarises the presentations and discussions that took place at the Sixth Annual Meeting of the European CME Forum, held in London on the 14th and 15th November 2013, which was preceded by a series of ‘Day 0’ meetings as pre-meeting sessions for delegates from specific interest groups. The predominant target audience comprised people with an interest in European CME including the accreditation bodies, scientific societies, education providers, industry and European medical communications agencies. The year prior to the meeting saw the introduction of new accreditation standards from UEMS-EACCME, with other accreditors examining how they should be evolving their own; the introduction of the US Physicians’ Payment Sunshine Act and its rather unexpected ramifications in Europe; pharmaceutical companies also starting to employ the grant process for funding CME, and their own increasing insistence on being hands-off from CME programmes. This in turn has led to education providers needing to be more knowledgeable and accountable and looking for their own guidance to help them navigate these evermore complicated waters. Against this back-drop, session themes for the sixth annual meeting were focused on sharing best practices and identifying what constitutes good CME in practice, discussing the role of industry in CME, summarising the latest trends relating to accreditation in Europe, discussing the current legal and regulatory frameworks impacting on CME, and communicating new innovative CME ideas (e.g. relating to e-learning.

  16. Morality and the Public Good in Post-Socialist European States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Sieben

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate morality in relation to the public good in post-socialist Europe. Public good morality is defined as the (nonacceptance of behaviour that contravenes the law and harms society and the greater good of the collective, such as cheating on taxes if one has the chance, paying cash to avoid taxes, not paying one’s fare in public transport, and claiming state benefits one is not entitled to. Using data from the European Values Study in 2008 on more than 30,000 respondents in 23 post-socialist states, we find that on average the level of public good morality is quite high: 8.4 on a ten-point scale. However, there are marked differences between individuals and between countries, which we attempt to explain by looking at the legacy of communist rule, processes of democratization and compliance attitudes. We find that individuals living in former Soviet states are more ‘lenient’ when it comes to actions that harm the collective. However, those who lived under communist rule for a longer time display higher (and not lower levels of public good morality. The level of democracy in a country does not seem to add any explanatory power, but individuals who hold more democratic values appear to be morally less strict. Finally, compliance attitudes such as interpersonal trust and confidence in government do not seem to mediate the observed relationships between communist rule and democracy on the one hand and public good morality on the other hand.

  17. Euthanasia and assisted suicide in selected European countries and US states: systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Nicole; Egger, Matthias; Maessen, Maud; Reisch, Thomas; Zwahlen, Marcel

    2013-10-01

    Legal in some European countries and US states, physician-assisted suicide and voluntary active euthanasia remain under debate in these and other countries. The aim of the study was to examine numbers, characteristics, and trends over time for assisted dying in regions where these practices are legal: Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Oregon, Washington, and Montana. This was a systematic review of journal articles and official reports. Medline and Embase databases were searched for relevant studies, from inception to end of 2012. We searched the websites of the health authorities of all eligible countries and states for reports on physician-assisted suicide or euthanasia and included publications that reported on cases of physician-assisted suicide or euthanasia. We extracted information on the total number of assisted deaths, its proportion in relation to all deaths, and socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of individuals assisted to die. A total of 1043 publications were identified; 25 articles and reports were retained, including series of reported cases, physician surveys, and reviews of death certificates. The percentage of physician-assisted deaths among all deaths ranged from 0.1%-0.2% in the US states and Luxembourg to 1.8%-2.9% in the Netherlands. Percentages of cases reported to the authorities increased in most countries over time. The typical person who died with assistance was a well-educated male cancer patient, aged 60-85 years. Despite some common characteristics between countries, we found wide variation in the extent and specific characteristics of those who died an assisted death.

  18. What factors influence smoking prevalence and smoke free policy enactment across the European Union Member States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovica, Ilze; McNeill, Ann; Murray, Rachael; Britton, John

    2011-01-01

    Smoking prevention should be a primary public health priority for all governments, and effective preventive policies have been identified for decades. The heterogeneity of smoking prevalence between European Union (EU) Member States therefore reflects, at least in part, a failure by governments to prioritise public health over tobacco industry or possibly other financial interests, and hence potentially government corruption. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that smoking prevalence is higher in countries with high levels of public sector corruption, and explore the ecological association between smoking prevalence and a range of other national characteristics in current EU Member States. Ecological data from 27 EU Member States were used to estimate univariate and multivariate correlations between smoking prevalence and the Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index, and a range of other national characteristics including economic development, social inclusion, quality of life and importance of religion. We also explored the association between the Corruption Perceptions Index and measures of the extent to which smoke-free policies have been enacted and are enforced. In univariate analysis, smoking prevalence was significantly higher in countries with higher scores for corruption, material deprivation, and gender inequality; and lower in countries with higher per capita Gross Domestic Product, social spending, life satisfaction and human development scores. In multivariate analysis, only the corruption perception index was independently related to smoking prevalence. Exposure to tobacco smoke in the workplace was also correlated with corruption, independently from smoking prevalence, but not with the measures of national smoke-free policy implementation. Corruption appears to be an important risk factor for failure of national tobacco control activity in EU countries, and the extent to which key tobacco control policies have been

  19. What factors influence smoking prevalence and smoke free policy enactment across the European Union Member States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilze Bogdanovica

    Full Text Available Smoking prevention should be a primary public health priority for all governments, and effective preventive policies have been identified for decades. The heterogeneity of smoking prevalence between European Union (EU Member States therefore reflects, at least in part, a failure by governments to prioritise public health over tobacco industry or possibly other financial interests, and hence potentially government corruption. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that smoking prevalence is higher in countries with high levels of public sector corruption, and explore the ecological association between smoking prevalence and a range of other national characteristics in current EU Member States.Ecological data from 27 EU Member States were used to estimate univariate and multivariate correlations between smoking prevalence and the Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index, and a range of other national characteristics including economic development, social inclusion, quality of life and importance of religion. We also explored the association between the Corruption Perceptions Index and measures of the extent to which smoke-free policies have been enacted and are enforced.In univariate analysis, smoking prevalence was significantly higher in countries with higher scores for corruption, material deprivation, and gender inequality; and lower in countries with higher per capita Gross Domestic Product, social spending, life satisfaction and human development scores. In multivariate analysis, only the corruption perception index was independently related to smoking prevalence. Exposure to tobacco smoke in the workplace was also correlated with corruption, independently from smoking prevalence, but not with the measures of national smoke-free policy implementation.Corruption appears to be an important risk factor for failure of national tobacco control activity in EU countries, and the extent to which key tobacco control

  20. Biology of the European oak borer in Michigan, United States of America, with comparisons to the native twolined chestnut borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toby R. Petrice; Robert A. Haack

    2014-01-01

    In 2010-2011, we studied the European oak borer (EOB), Agrilus sulcicollis Lacordaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in Michigan, United States of America, and made comparisons with the native twolined chestnut borer (TLCB), Agrilus bilineatus (Weber). EOB adult flight began and peaked before TLCB. More EOB females were captured on...

  1. European feelings of deprivation amidst the financial crisis : Effects of welfare state effort and informal social relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeskens, T.; van Oorschot, W.J.H.

    As European governments have embraced the credo of austerity, the perennial discussion whether welfare states erode the quality of social networks has taken on a more prominent position on political and social science research agendas. While non-believers of this so-called ‘crowding out’ thesis

  2. More pernicious course of bipolar disorder in the United States than in many European countries: Implications for policy and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, R.M.; Altshuler, L.; Kupka, R.W.; McElroy, S.; Frye, M.A.; Rowe, M.; Leverich, G.S.; Grunze, H.; Suppes, T.; Keck, P.E.; Nolen, W.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is some controversy but growing evidence that childhood onset bipolar disorder may be more prevalent and run a more difficult course in the United States than some European countries. Methods We update and synthesize course of illness data from more than 960 outpatients with bipolar

  3. Maternal Discussions of Mental States and Behaviors: Relations to Emotion Situation Knowledge in European American and Immigrant Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Stacey N.; Wang, Qi

    2010-01-01

    This study examined in a cross-cultural context mothers' discussions of mental states and external behaviors in a story-telling task with their 3-year-old children and the relations of such discussions to children's emotion situation knowledge (ESK). The participants were 71 European American and 60 Chinese immigrant mother-child pairs in the…

  4. Description of the national situation of cervical cancer screening in the member states of the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anttila, Ahti; Ronco, Guglielmo; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2009-01-01

    This report up-dates information on the national situation of cervical cancer screening in the member states of the European Union. There is yet high diversity in the status of cervical screening, and rapid changes expected to occur in the situation in many countries. It is important to underline...

  5. Comparative studies on the administrative convergence revealed by national strategies of administrative reform in some South-Eastern European states

    OpenAIRE

    Matei, Lucica; Matei, Ani; Zanovschi, Diana; Stoian, Oana

    2010-01-01

    The paper has as main topic the administrative convergence and its reflection in the national strategies of administrative reform in some states in South Eastern Europe. Having a complex content, sometimes even ambigous, the administrative convergence will have as finality the integration in the European Administrative Space and the administrative reforms as support. From this prospect, the South-Eastern Europe has a certain specificity emphasised by: different positions of the states under d...

  6. Educational inequalities in health in European welfare states: a social expenditure approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Espen; van der Wel, Kjetil A

    2013-03-01

    A puzzle in comparative health inequality research is the finding that egalitarian welfare states do not necessarily demonstrate narrow health inequalities. This paper interrogates into this puzzle by moving beyond welfare regimes to examine how welfare spending affect inequalities in self-rated across Europe. We operationalise welfare spending in four different ways and compare both absolute and relative health inequalities, as well as the level of poor self-rated health in the low education group across varying levels of social spending. The paper employs data from the EU Statistics of Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) and includes a sample of approximately 245,000 individuals aged 25-80+ years from 18 European countries. The data were examined by means of gender stratified multilevel logistic regression analyses. The results show that social expenditures are associated with lower health inequalities among women and, to a lesser degree, among men. Especially those with primary education benefit from high social transfers as compared with those who have tertiary education. This means that lower educational inequalities in health - in absolute and relative terms- are linked to higher social spending. The four different operationalisations of social spending produce similar patterns. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The current state of midwifery and development of midwifery research in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyben, Ans G; Wijnen, Hennie A A; Oblasser, Claudia; Perrenoud, Patricia; Gross, Mechthild M

    2013-05-01

    to describe the current state of midwifery and explore the development of midwifery research during the last two decades in four non-English speaking European countries in order to understand what factors influenced the course of establishing research as a professional activity. qualitative collective case study. Germany, Austria, Switzerland and the Netherlands. with the ICM Workshop in Germany in 1989 as a central starting point for midwifery research in all four countries, different courses, in timing as well as content, characterised its development in the individual countries. Major factors contributing to this development during the last decades involved the history and character of midwifery, initiatives of individual midwifery researchers, alliances with other professions and the transition of midwifery programmes into higher education. Whereas midwifery research is currently established as a professional role in all countries, future challenges involve the creation of its own profile and identity, while building up its own academic workforce and strengthening the role of midwifery in multidisciplinary alliances. although a common vision was shared between the four countries in 1989, midwifery research developed as a context-specific phenomenon related to the character of midwifery and education in each country. These factors have to be taken into account in the further development of midwifery as an academic discipline at a national as well as at an international level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. European Culture in a State of Crisis: Joseph Ratzinger’s Diagnosis / Kultura europejska w stanie kryzysu: diagnoza Josepha Ratzingera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Rojek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available European culture, according to Joseph Ratzinger, is seriously undermined by a modernist (rationalistic and postmodernist (irrationalistic way of thinking which deeply penetrates it. Europe undergoes a state of crisis which can be compared to the last, declining phase of the Roman Empire’s existence. Ratzinger does not lose hope, however, and points out a way out, and that is a return to the roots of the European culture, to the realistic philosophy that pursues the truth about God and the human person. This requires an “extension of the reason” which would recognize that, as reasonably constructed, it must have its rational cause—God.

  9. The Future of the European Union is Closely Related to a Stronger Economic Cooperation between Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Drăgoi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the onset of the crisis in the euro area, the EU has implemented a series of measures to respond to the major economic challenges and support the efforts to boost growth and create jobs in the Member States. In October 2012, EU leaders have decided that in order to overcome the challenges brought by the sovereign debt crisis is necessary to establish a closer economic cooperation between European countries. Our paper aims to analyze the main measures taken at European level to converge toward this goal, aiming to highlight the extent to which they are "successful steps" leading to the creation of banking, fiscal and economic union in Europe.

  10. Socioeconomic inequalities in oral health in different European welfare state regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnizo-Herreño, Carol C; Watt, Richard G; Pikhart, Hynek; Sheiham, Aubrey; Tsakos, Georgios

    2013-09-01

    There is very little information about the relationship between welfare regimes and oral health inequalities. We compared socioeconomic inequalities in adults' oral health in five European welfare-state regimes: Scandinavian, Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, Southern and Eastern. Using data from the oral health module of the Eurobarometer 72.3 survey, we assessed inequalities in two self-reported oral health measures: no functional dentition (less than 20 natural teeth) and edentulousness (no natural teeth). Occupational social class, education and subjective social status (SSS) were included as socioeconomic position indicators. We estimated age-standardised prevalence rates, ORs, the Relative Index of Inequality (RII) and the Slope Index of Inequality (SII). The Scandinavian regime showed the lowest prevalence rates of the two oral health measures while the Eastern showed the highest. In all welfare regimes there was a general pattern of social gradients by occupational social class and education. Relative educational inequalities in no functional dentition were largest in the Scandinavian welfare regime (RII=3.81; 95% CI 2.68 to 5.42). The Scandinavian and Southern regimes showed the largest relative inequalities in edentulousness by occupation and education, respectively. There were larger absolute inequalities in no functional dentition in the Eastern regime by occupation (SII=42.16; 95% CI 31.42 to 52.89) and in the Southern by SSS (SII=27.92; 95% CI 17.36 to 38.47). Oral health inequalities in adults exist in all welfare-state regimes, but contrary to what may be expected from theory, they are not smaller in the Scandinavian regime. Future work should examine the potential mechanisms linking welfare provision and oral health inequalities.

  11. The Influence of Globalization, Integration and Regionalization Processes on the European States and Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T V Bazarenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the impact of globalization, regionalization and integration in European countries and regions. It discusses the distinctive features and factors of influence of each of these processes on the European countries and sub national entities.

  12. Change of position of constitutional judiciary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Slobodan P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Constitutional judiciary is the youngest branch of authority in the horizontal level of state power. Constitutional judiciary has, during its existence - during two centuries as an ordinary court and during one century as a special authority, changed its position, role and importance. Those characteristics of constitutional judiciary had an increasing way - the position became better, in political and law sense, its role has expanded and the importance has increased. Today, constitutional judiciary is an inevitable subject of constitutional regimes in huge number of states (between them are almost all federations but, in the same time, constitutional judiciary is an authority which is at least limited by the constitution. The constitution is "soft" to the constitutional judiciary because the judiciary interpreted the constitution in accordance to its political and law attitudes, hidden by the guise of protection. Different separation of power, a rise of executive power, requests for better protections of fundamental human rights, a changed role of state and executive power, altogether, have influenced to change of position of constitutional judiciary.

  13. Assessment of collection schemes for packaging and other recyclable waste in European Union-28 Member States and capital cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyring, Nicole; Dollhofer, Marie; Weißenbacher, Jakob; Bakas, Ioannis; McKinnon, David

    2016-09-01

    The Waste Framework Directive obliged European Union Member States to set up separate collection systems to promote high quality recycling for at least paper, metal, plastic and glass by 2015. As implementation of the requirement varies across European Union Member States, the European Commission contracted BiPRO GmbH/Copenhagen Resource Institute to assess the separate collection schemes in the 28 European Union Member States, focusing on capital cities and on metal, plastic, glass (with packaging as the main source), paper/cardboard and bio-waste. The study includes an assessment of the legal framework for, and the practical implementation of, collection systems in the European Union-28 Member States and an in depth-analysis of systems applied in all capital cities. It covers collection systems that collect one or more of the five waste streams separately from residual waste/mixed municipal waste at source (including strict separation, co-mingled systems, door-to-door, bring-point collection and civic amenity sites). A scoreboard including 13 indicators is elaborated in order to measure the performance of the systems with the capture rates as key indicators to identify best performers. Best performance are by the cities of Ljubljana, Helsinki and Tallinn, leading to the key conclusion that door-to-door collection, at least for paper and bio-waste, and the implementation of pay-as-you-throw schemes results in high capture and thus high recycling rates of packaging and other municipal waste. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Understanding the Role of Bureaucracy in the European Security and Defence Policy: The State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurer Heidi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP in 1999 has led to the creation of a whole range of bureaucratic bodies in Brussels and the national capitals. These bodies support the crisis management operations of the European Union. This review article presents the state of the art of academic research on the role of bureaucracy in this recent policy area. It argues that the growing institutional complexity and the constant interaction between actors at the national and European level require scholars to go beyond the dominant approaches of International Relations. Using insights from comparative politics, public administration and multi-level governance, this article considers four important questions: who these civil servants are, why they matter, how they interact, and how they are controlled politically and democratically.

  15. Renewable energy and greenhouse gas emissions from the waste sectors of European Union member states: a panel data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Hélde Araujo; De Melo Faria, Alexandre Magno; Fuinhas, José Alberto; Marques, António Cardoso

    2017-08-01

    In the last two decades, there has been a rich debate about the environmental degradation that results from exposure to solid urban waste. Growing public concern with environmental issues has led to the implementation of various strategic plans for waste management in several developed countries, especially in the European Union. In this paper, the relationships were assessed between economic growth, renewable energy extraction and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the waste sector. The Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis was analysed for the member states of the European Union, in the presence of electricity generation, landfill and GHG emissions for the period 1995 to 2012. The results revealed that there is no inverted-U-shaped relationship between income and GHG emissions in European Union countries. The renewable fuel extracted from waste contributes to a reduction in GHG, and although the electricity produced also increases emissions somewhat, they would be far greater if the waste-based generation of renewable energy did not take place. The waste sector needs to strengthen its political, economic, institutional and social communication instruments to meet its aims for mitigating the levels of pollutants generated by European economies. To achieve the objectives of the Horizon 2020 programme, currently in force in the countries of the European Union, it will be necessary to increase the share of renewable energy in the energy mix.

  16. State Power and the Acquis Communautaire in the European Community of the early 1970s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    2007-01-01

    This article analyses in a historical perspective the so-called acquis communautaire, i.e. the body of law, rules, including informal decisions/norms, taken by the European Community/European Union. In the first part of the article the early history of the concept from the establishment of the EC...... that even if national governments continued to play a leading role in European cooperation, the existence of a common body of law, rules and norms was difficult for single governments to set aside in their pursuance after of narrow national interest. This did not mean that laws could not be bent, or broken...

  17. The open method of co-ordination and the European welfare state

    OpenAIRE

    Damian Chalmers; Martin Lodge

    2003-01-01

    Open Method Co-ordination (OMC) has been treated in the literature as the Lazarus of European integration. Developed at the Lisbon Summit, it has led to the reincarnation of the European Union, both in terms of what it does and how it does it. No longer is the European Union to be centred around the Classic Community Method (CCM) of supranational management of regulation. Instead, it is to be a decentred participatory process, in which national governments are no longer controlled and command...

  18. COPERNICUS - The European Union Earth Observation Programme - State of play and way ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Astrid-Christina

    2015-04-01

    Copernicus is the new name of the European Earth Observation Programme, GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security). Copernicus or rather its predecessor was established as an EU programme. It covers all the activities for ensuring an uninterrupted provision of accurate and reliable data and information on environmental issues and security matters to users in charge of policy making, implementation and monitoring, in the EU and its Member States. Copernicus aims at providing Europe with a continuous, independent and reliable access to observation data and information. The EU investment aims at filling the observation gaps, providing access to existing assets and developing operational services. The data policy of the Copernicus programme supports an open, full and free of charge data access that is in line with the data sharing principles of the Group for Earth Observation (GEO). Copernicus is structured in six Services: Marine, Atmosphere, Land and Climate change monitoring as well as support to Emergency and Security. Copernicus uses data from satellites and in-situ sensors such as buoys, balloons or air sensors to provide timely and reliable added-value information and forecasting to support for example, agriculture and fisheries, land use and urban planning, the fight against forest fires, disaster response, maritime transport or air pollution monitoring. The need for continuing such observations is becoming critical, considering the increasing political pressure on public authorities to take informed decisions in the field of environment, security and climate change and the need to respect international agreements. Copernicus also contributes to economic stability and growth by boosting commercial applications (the so-called downstream services) in many different sectors through a full and open access to Copernicus observation data and information products. KEY WORDS: Sentinels, big data, data access, Emergency, Marine, Atmosphere.

  19. Security Policy in the European Union and the United States through the issue of their Defence Expenditures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Theodore Metaxas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to clarify how the level of defence expenditures affected security poli-cy in the post-World War II Europe and the United States till the present day. We first analyze theoretically the issue of a nation’s power through its defence outlays. We then proceed to the examination of how security policy was formulated during Cold War and afterwards for both Europe and the United States through their defence ex-penditures. By comparing European to United States defence budgets ceilings we found that the European military capabilities are undermined by the low level of the defence budget which is provided by the European Union member states as a whole, as well as by the lack of homogeneity in military means. By contrast, we noticed that the historically large US defence expenditures were one of the major reasons for the US global hegemony during Cold war and afterwards. We also examine the implica-tions that defence expenditures have on military industry, macroeconomic perfor-mance and geopolitics and the correlation that arises among them.

  20. The Constitution by Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhut, Stephanie; Jones, Megan

    2010-01-01

    On their visit to the National Archives Experience in Washington, D.C., students in Jenni Ashley and Gay Brock's U.S. history classes at the Potomac School in McLean, Virginia, participated in a pilot program called "The Constitution by Cell." Armed with their cell phones, a basic understanding of the Constitution, and a willingness to…

  1. Interpreting the Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, William J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

  2. Communication policy of the EU member-states concerning the support of the European integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpchuk Natalia Petrivna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To support the European integration process the countries, candidates for the accession to the European Union, developed the communication policy and carried out the large-scale nationwide campaign, which was directed at the public and its interests. The experience of Sweden, Austria and Finland, the fourth wave of accession countries, is of specific interest as they decided to hold nation-wide referendums, and therefore were in need of awareness and support of their citizens.

  3. The challenges of organising cervical screening programmes in the 15 old member states of the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arbyn, Marc; Rebolj, Matejka; De Kok, Inge M C M

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer incidence and mortality can be reduced substantially by organised cytological screening at 3 to 5 year intervals, as was demonstrated in the Nordic countries, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and parts of Italy. Opportunistic screening, often proposed at yearly schedules, has...... also reduced the burden of cervical cancer in some, but not all, of the other old member states (belonging to the European Union since 1995) but at a cost that is several times greater. Well organised screening programmes have the potential to achieve greater participation of the target population...... at regular intervals, equity of access and high quality. Despite the consistent evidence that organised screening is more efficient than non-organised screening, and in spite of the Cancer Screening Recommendations of the European Council, health authorities of eight old member states (Austria, Belgium...

  4. Is there still a place for gene patents in Australia? Implications of recent United States and European case law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Alexandra; Nicol, Dianne

    2011-12-01

    This article considers the ramifications of recent United States and European litigation relating to patents claiming rights to genes associated with hereditary forms of breast cancer (the so-called BRCA genes) for recently commenced Australian litigation relating to the same subject matter. The article is contextualised with brief summaries of the relevant patent law, the science of genetics, the history of the BRCA genes and an overview of the activities of the patent holder. The analysis of first instance and appeal decisions on the validity of the United States BRCA patents shows the final outcome is still highly uncertain in that jurisdiction, while the European litigation provides little assistance in predicting the outcome of the Australian action. This article concludes that the outcome of the Australian litigation is an issue that cannot be determined with any certainty due to the lack of specific, relevant precedents both in Australia and in other jurisdictions.

  5. FULFILMENT OF GOALS OF THE INTEGRATED PRODUCT POLICY IN POLAND IN COMPARISON TO OTHER EUROPEAN UNION MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna SŁONIMIEC

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the progress of implementation of the Integrated Product Policy in Poland in comparison to other European Union member states. It provides a detailed evaluation of certain IPP instruments, i.e. taxes and green premi-ums, EMAS scheme, eco-labeling and green public procurements. The paper also provides an assessment of the progress of implementation activities and requests further studies in this respect.

  6. Comparative Analysis of the Consumer Protection, Considering the Globalisation and Technological Changes, within Member States of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Viorel Braşoveanu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent globalization and technological changes have produced significant changes in consumption patterns, shopping online becoming increasingly more important. Under these conditions, in this article we analyze the most important issues relating to the level and quality of consumer protection in the European Union countries for the period 2008-2012 . In this article we aimed to analyze the most important issues related to the level and quality of consumer protection in European Union 27 countries in the period 2008-2012. For this scope, we have chosen the most important five consumer indicators, which are the components of the Consumer Conditions Index, which provide information on both the level and the quality of consumer protection: the protection perceived by consumers (feeling protected as a consumer, illicit commercial practices, the product safety, the consumer complaints, and the redress measures. Initial data were collected from the European Commission for each Member State of the European Union 27, for the last five years, from 2008 to 2012. We have used statistical and econometric methods. For the year 2012, using the selected indicators, we have presented the descriptive statistics in order to observe their caracteristics, we have analysed the correlation matrix and we have determined the structure of four clusters, which reveals common features of countries in each cluster. In order to capture the impact of the variables illegal commercial practices and redress measures on the dependent variable protection perceived by the consumers, we have realized panel regressions with cross-section fixed effects, using data for the period 2008-2012. Also for this period, comparative statistical analyzes were performed (average, minimum, maximum, trend between Member States. The results reflect the correlations between the analyzed indicators during the period 2008-2012, and a comprehensive scan of how these indicators developed in territorial

  7. 25 years of European Union (EU) quality schemes for agricultural products and foodstuffs across EU Member States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Tânia G; Oliveira, M Beatriz Pp; Costa, Helena S

    2017-12-06

    Consumers are increasingly turning their attention to the quality and origin of products that they consume. European Union (EU) quality schemes are associated with a label, which was introduced to allow consumers to perform an informed choice and to protect producers from unfair practices. This present study provides an overview of the last 25 years of EU quality schemes [Protected Designations of Origin (PDO), Protected Geographical Indications (PGI) and Traditional Specialities Guaranteed (TSG)] on agricultural products and foodstuffs across the 28 EU Member States. According to the results, it was possible to conclude that Southern European countries have the highest number of registered products. The most used EU quality scheme is PGI, followed by PDO. Concerning the analysis of the evolution in the last 25 years, the number of registered products among EU Member States has increased significantly. The fruit, vegetables and cereals (fresh or processed) category is the one that accounts for the highest percentage (26.8%) of registered products, followed by cheeses and meat products (cooked, salted, smoked) categories, with 17.2% and 13.5%, respectively. Further investigations should address consumer preferences, knowledge and attitudes, especially Northern European countries with a lower number of registered products. Moreover, the investigation and registration of products should be encouraged among all EU Member States to allow the maintenance of important elements of the history, culture and heritage of the local areas, regions and countries. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Status of implementation and organization of cancer screening in The European Union Member States-Summary results from the second European screening report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Partha; Ponti, Antonio; Anttila, Ahti; Ronco, Guglielmo; Senore, Carlo; Vale, Diama Bhadra; Segnan, Nereo; Tomatis, Mariano; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Primic Žakelj, Maja; Dillner, Joakim; Elfström, Klara Miriam; Lönnberg, Stefan; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2018-01-01

    The second report on the implementation status of cancer screening in European Union (EU) was published in 2017. The report described the implementation status, protocols and organization (updated till 2016) and invitation coverage (for index year 2013) of breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening in the EU. Experts in screening programme monitoring (N = 80) from the EU Member States having access to requisite information in their respective countries provided data on breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening through online questionnaires. Data was collected for screening performed in the framework of publicly mandated programmes only. Filled in questionnaires were received from 26 Member States for all three sites and from one Member State for breast cancer only. Substantial improvement in screening implementation using population-based approach was documented. Among the age-eligible women, 94.7% were residents of Member States implementing or planning population-based breast cancer screening in 2016, compared to 91.6% in 2007. The corresponding figures for cervical cancer screening were 72.3 and 51.3% in 2016 and 2007, respectively. Most significant improvement was documented for colorectal cancer screening with roll-out ongoing or completed in 17 Member States in 2016, compared to only five in 2007. So the access to population-based screening increased to 72.4% of the age-eligible populations in 2016 as opposed to only 42.6% in 2007. The invitation coverage was highly variable, ranging from 0.2-111% for breast cancer, 7.6-105% for cervical cancer and 1.8-127% for colorectal cancer in the target populations. In spite of the considerable progress, much work remains to be done to achieve optimal effectiveness. Continued monitoring, regular feedbacks and periodic reporting are needed to ensure the desired impacts of the programmes. © 2017 UICC.

  9. Discrepancies in cancer incidence and mortality and its relationship to health expenditure in the 27 European Union member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ades, F; Senterre, C; de Azambuja, E; Sullivan, R; Popescu, R; Parent, F; Piccart, M

    2013-11-01

    The European Union (EU) is a confederation of 27 member states, the institutions of which work according to negotiated decisions. The EU has implemented similar legislation and a common market, and has adopted the same currency in most of its member states. Although financing health systems is a responsibility of the national governments, the EU has enacted the Charter of Fundamental Rights to standardize public health policies. However, for historical reasons, health policy and health expenditure is not uniform across the 27 EU member states (EU-27). We hypothesized that increased health expenditure would be associated with better cancer outcome and that this would be most apparent in breast cancer, because of the availability of effective screening methods and treatments. Using publically available data from the World Health Organization, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank, we assessed associations between cancer indicators and wealth and health indicators. To do so, we constructed scatter plots and used the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. A marked difference in wealth and health expenditure indicators was observed between Eastern and Western European countries, with Western European being the higher. Higher wealth and higher health expenditures were associated both with increased cancer incidence and decreased cancer mortality. In breast cancer, the association with incidence was stronger. We created mortality/incidence ratios and observed that the more spent on health, the fewer the deaths after a cancer diagnosis. Despite the initiatives to standardize public health policies of the EU-27, health expenditure continues to be higher in Western European countries and this is associated with better cancer outcome in these countries.

  10. [Regulation of food supplements in the European Union and its member states. Part I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, A S; Ponomareva, M N; Sukhanov, B P

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses aspects of the regional (the European Union) and national (European countries) regulation of food supplements. The definition of the supplement category is given. The contemporary issues of nutrition in developed countries are discussed, and the essential role of food supplements in the diet is emphasized. In particular, the use of vitamins, minerals, botanicals and their chemical constituents in food supplements as well as the issue of setting maximum daily limits are discussed. The positive lists of vitamins, minerals and their chemical modifications are presented. The paper also outlines aspects of supplement safety, requirements for their labelling and pre-market notification procedure.

  11. Constitutional collisions of criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey M. Inshakov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify and resolve conflicts between the norms of constitutional and criminal law which regulate the issue of legal liability of senior officials of the state. Methods formallogical systematic comparativelegal. Results the article analyzes the embodiment of the principle of citizensrsquo equality under the law regarding the criminal responsibility of the President of the Russian Federation as one of the segments of the elite right other criminal and legal conflicts are considered associated with the creation of conditions for derogation from the principle of equality. Basing on this analysis the means of overcoming collisions between the norms of constitutional and criminal law are formulated. Scientific novelty in the article for the first time it has been shown that in the Russian criminal law there are exceptions to the principle of citizensrsquo equality under the law relating to the President of the Russian Federation the conflicts are identified between the norms of constitutional and criminal law regulating the issue of legal liability of senior officials of the state ways of overcoming conflicts are suggested. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in research and teaching in the consideration of issues of senior state officialsrsquo criminal liability.

  12. Does Europe Matter? A Comparative Study of Young People's Identifications with Europe at a State School and a European School in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvides, Nicola; Faas, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the extent to which young people in predominantly middle-class environments identify with Europe and considers the influence of European education policy, school ethos and curricula. We compare data drawn from individual and focus group interviews with students aged 15-17 at a state school and a European School in England.…

  13. Health differences between populations of the United States of America and the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, Emil; Simko, Vladimir

    2010-12-01

    This review documents health care outcome in relation to health expenditure in the US and in the European Union (EU) and it attempts to interpret the root cause of observed differences. In comparison with the US where the per capita expenditure for health care is close to 8,000 international dollars, health expenditure in the Western European Countries (WEC) (France, Germany, Britain, Italy) is approximately only half of that in the US. In the Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC) it is 20 per cent or less of the US health care budget. Infant mortality in the US is much higher than in the WEC and some CEEC (Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary and Slovakia) countries are even better off in infant mortality than the US. Concerning the male life expectancy, Caucasian Americans rank the lowest of the WEC, representing a statistical boundary between the WEC and the CEEC. Like the American caucasian males, the American Caucasian females rank at the lowest range of the WEC. Afro-American females have values substantially worse, almost along the lowest ranking CEEC. European societies have been established for centuries, cherishing strong social values. The US is a much younger rapidly developing multi-ethnic community that derived its progress from adhering to traditions and principles of free choice. Witness to the rate at which the US society can resolve difficult social problems is the enormous progress in eliminating racial discrimination during the past fifty years.

  14. THE JOINT EUROPEAN-UNITED STATES NDEA INSTITUTE FOR ADVANCED STUDY, MANNHEIM-HEIDELBERG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN TESLAAR, A.P.

    THE EUROPEAN COORDINATOR AND RESIDENT CO-DIRECTOR OF THE MANNHEIM-HEIDELBERG BRANCH OF THE SUMMER 1966 LANGUAGE INSTITUTE IN FRANCE AND GERMANY PREPARED THIS EVALUATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL VENTURE. DESIGNED TO ANALYZE THE INNOVATIONAL ASPECTS OF THE 1966 INSTITUTE WITH THE IDEA OF STRENGTHENING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THIS AND SIMILAR PROGRAMS, THE…

  15. Catching up: the state and potential of historical catch data from Svalbard in the European Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, Frigga

    2016-01-01

    Svalbard in the European Arctic has a well-documented history of natural-resource exploitation. Since its discovery in 1596, the archipelago has witnessed phases of commercial whaling, sealing, fur-hunting, and fishing. Scientific expeditions, mass tourism, and mining have also added to the

  16. Distinguishing Limitation on Constitutional Rights from Their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suspension of and limitation on fundamental rights and freedoms are justified violations of constitutional rights. Temporary suspension of some fundamental rights and freedoms can be made on the ground of a state of emergency. Since most constitutional rights are not absolute, they can be limited on basis of national ...

  17. Constitutional Government: The Soul of Modern Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Harvey C., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the dilemma faced by constitutionalism today: limited, constitutional government requires that people and society be independent and distrustful of the state, but if the people are too independent and capable of ruling, they may wish to extend their powers and attempt to rule over others. (PS)

  18. The Meaning of Religion: A Constitutional Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, Edward R.

    The problems of formulating a legal definition of religion as used in the U.S. Constitution may be traced through the Supreme Court's interpretation of the word. According to the U.S. Constitution, religious tests cannot be required for any office or public trust under the central government. The Bill of Rights states that the national government…

  19. Community incidence of pathogen-specific gastroenteritis: reconstructing the surveillance pyramid for seven pathogens in seven European Union member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagsma, J A; Geenen, P L; Ethelberg, S; Fetsch, A; Hansdotter, F; Jansen, A; Korsgaard, H; O'Brien, S J; Scavia, G; Spitznagel, H; Stefanoff, P; Tam, C C; Havelaar, A H

    2013-08-01

    By building reconstruction models for a case of gastroenteritis in the general population moving through different steps of the surveillance pyramid we estimated that millions of illnesses occur annually in the European population, leading to thousands of hospitalizations. We used data on the healthcare system in seven European Union member states in relation to pathogen characteristics that influence healthcare seeking. Data on healthcare usage were obtained by harmonized cross-sectional surveys. The degree of under-diagnosis and underreporting varied by pathogen and country. Overall, underreporting and under-diagnosis were estimated to be lowest for Germany and Sweden, followed by Denmark, The Netherlands, UK, Italy and Poland. Across all countries, the incidence rate was highest for Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. Incidence estimates resulting from the pyramid reconstruction approach are adjusted for biases due to different surveillance systems and are therefore a better basis for international comparisons than reported data.

  20. Joint United States-European Union Theoretical and Practical Course on Molecular Approaches for In Situ Biogradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suflita, Joseph M.; Duncan, Kathleen E.

    2010-08-14

    The Joint United States - European Union Theoretical and Practical Course on Molecular Approaches for in situ Biodegradation was held May 24 through June 7 at The University of Oklahoma. Twenty-four graduate and postgraduate students from both the United States and the European Union attended the course. Nine states and ten European countries were represented. Students were assigned living quarters and laboratory partners to maximize interactions between US and EU participants as well as to mix people with different technical backgrounds together. The students used the latest methods in molecular biology to characterize beneficial microorganisms and genes involved in the biodegradation of pollutants at a nearby landfill as well as an active hydrocarbon-producing site, part of which is undergoing bioremediation. Seminars by distinguished scientists were organized to expose the students to the breadth of the environmental field, including field assay and engineering applications, laboratory scale bioreactors, microbiology, genetics, regulation, pathway analysis, design of recombinant bacteria, and application of the associated techniques to the field. Lectures were given by various OU faculty on the principles behind the techniques to be used in the laboratory. These lectures included troubleshooting hints and encouraged questions and comments from the audience. The laboratory experiments covered chemical, microbiological, and molecular genetic analyses of soils; bioavailability of contaminants; enrichment cultures; gene probing; PCR amplification of known genes and gene families; identification of microbes based traditional and nontraditional approaches, nutritional capabilities, and 16S rRNA sequence; mRNA detection; and enzyme assays. Field trips were made to the USGS landfill field sampling site, and to the Tall Grass Prairie Preserve, a Nature Conservancy site which also featured long-term studies of bioremediation of crude oil and brine spills by one of the

  1. Wind Technology, Cost, and Performance Trends in Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, the European Union, and the United States: 2007 - 2012; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, Maureen

    2015-06-15

    This presentation provides a summary of IEA Wind Task 26 report on Wind Technology, Cost, and Performance Trends in Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, the European Union, and the United States: 2007-2012

  2. The macroeconomic effects of migration from the new European Union member states to the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Iakova, Dora

    2015-01-01

    The United Kingdom allowed workers from the ten new European Union member countries immediate access to its labor market after the accession in 2004. This paper uses a general equilibrium framework to explore the dynamic adjustment of the UK economy to the postaccession surge in immigration. Simulations show that immigration is likely to have positive effects on economic growth, capital accumulation, consumption, and the public finances.

  3. Using Informational and Communicational Technologies when Training State Authority Specialists within Cooperation with European Partners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Byelorusov

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article basic problem questions and tasks on the use of information-communication technologies in public authority’s activity and at preparation of government employee are expounded. A sequence on introduction of information-communication technologies in administrative activity and examples of computer literacy acquirement in accordance with the ECDL standards within the framework of collaboration with the European partners is resulted.

  4. Economic effects of bilateral trade agreements: China, United States, European Union and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Tobías, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Economic integration and international trade among different regions are analysed in this study. It describes recent history and explains a theoretical framework of economic integration. It focuses in Mega-Regional Trade Agreements, more specifically in the biggest ones, TTIP (Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership) and TPP (Trans-Pacific Partnership), both of them still under negotiation. These agreements involve the most important economies in the world such as the European Union (f...

  5. Activity Of The Moderate And Radical Islamic Organizations In The European States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina V. Volodina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author examines various aspects of Islamic organizations functioning in modern European countries. In the world the dangerous situation due to the spread of radical Islamic views, this is directly related to safety arose. Author researches some aspects of Islamic organizations in Europe functioning and their division into "moderate" and "radical". Author notes that the concept of "moderate Islam" is actively used in the western countries. In the article it is emphasized that supporters of such division believe that it is the "moderate Islamists" may help deal with the terrorist threat. Author gives definition of "religious extremism" and analyzes activities of Islamic organizations in Germany and France, as well as other European countries at the present stage of their development. In the process of study author pays enough attention to the notion of "spreading radicalism within the law", analyze existing legal acts. In the article problems of financing extremist organizations is pointed out and the need to create a set of joint measures to counter extremism and terrorism by Russian Federation and European countries, further improvement of law-enforcement is identified.

  6. Analysis of greenhouse gas emissions in the European Union member states with the use of an agglomeration algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kijewska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of fossil fuels as sources of energy is related to the emission of pollutants into the atmosphere. The implementation of international commitments on reducing emissions requires their continuous monitoring. The main energy resources for electricity production in the world include fossil fuels, i.e. oil, coal and natural gas, and according to projections their dominant role in the market of energy resources will persist for at least the next two decades. The aim of this article is to analyse the level of differentiation of European Union member states in terms of emissions of four greenhouse gases and to identify groups of similar countries based on these criteria. Such studies will provide information that will enrich our knowledge about the contribution of each European Union country to the emissions of greenhouse gases. This article uses a taxonomic method - cluster analysis, namely the agglomerative algorithm, which enables the extraction of objects that are similar to each other from the data and then to merge them into groups. In this way, a number of homogeneous subsets can be obtained from one heterogeneous set of objects. European Union countries make up the objects of segmentation. Each of them are described by their level of greenhouse gas emissions, such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen oxides and nitrous oxides. Groups of homogeneous countries are distinguished due to total emissions and due to the level of their emissions per capita. Analysis is based on annual Eurostat reports concerning greenhouse gas emissions.

  7. Gender and the Constitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Ruth Bader

    1975-01-01

    In discussing the constitutional aspects of the sex-role debate in the U.S. the author traces the tradition, compares the present criterion of equal protection to the equal rights argument, and analyzes the equality principle with reference to affirmative action and to childbearing and childrearing, supporting the proposed equal rights amendment.…

  8. Communicative Constitution of Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeneborn, Dennis; Vasquez, Consuelo

    2017-01-01

    The notion of the communicative constitution of organizations (CCO) is at the center of a growing theoretical development within organizational communication studies. CCO scholarship is based on the idea that organization emerges in and is sustained and transformed by communication. This entry...

  9. The new architecture of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lisbon Treaty has brought significant changes into the architecture of the European Union. The most important novelty, however, is the establishment of a full unity of the Union structure achieved by creating new and strengthening the existing elements. The new elements of this unity are the disappearance of the European Community, the 'independence' of the European Atomic Energy Community, constituting the European Union as a single entity and the introduction of EU values. At the same time, the Lisbon Treaty has strengthened the existing elements of the common institutional mechanisms, rules on amending the founding treaties and EU membership. However, constituting the Union as a single entity which has replaced and succeeded the European Communities has not abolished the EU elements of diversity. In the areas that differed, even before the adoption of the Lisbon Treaty, from the community pillar, there remain significant differences in the nature and the scope of competences of the Union institutions. This mainly regards the common foreign and security policy, which now includes the defense policy, where the existing model of inter-state cooperation has been only slightly interfered with. In contrast, in the field of police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters, which has become part of a larger Area of Freedom, Security and Justice, the inter-state model of cooperation has been abandoned in some of its most important elements. However, the implementation of some of the important elements of the supranational model has been postponed.

  10. [The right to health. Constitutional dimensions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestalozza, C

    2007-09-01

    A fundamental "right to health" is expressly guaranteed by the constitutions of several Bundesländer, but unknown to the German Federal Constitution. Instead the Federal Constitutional Court has - especially on the basis of related human rights - developed the obligation of the State to protect everybody's life and physical integrity, which in some respects comes near to a "right to health". The State's autonomy in financial matters, the scarcity of its financial resources and the individual's natural responsibility for his own health though advise against exaggerated hopes set in a "right to health".

  11. "The Concept of Sovereignty of Thomas Hobbes and Samuel Pufendorf and its Role in the Constitution of Modern Concept of State".

    OpenAIRE

    Belling, Vojtěch

    2014-01-01

    It is a topos of postmodern law and political philosophy to speak about the "change" of the concept of sovereignty, and to put the current forms of state existence in opposition to the "classical" theory of sovereignty. The theoretical content of this "classical" doctrine is too easy identified with the empirical reality of the Westphalian state system and understood as an apotheosis of the autonomous, independent states and legal systems. In this thesis I have therefore tried to investigate ...

  12. Characteristics of Migration Flows and Integration of New Immigrant Groups in the Labour Market in Southern European EU Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Gregurović

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the early 1990s, and especially after the accession to the European Union, southern European countries were faced with an increased influx of immigration, particularly by third country citizens. The majority of migration flows refers to illegal migration. In this paper, the integration of new immigrant groups in the labour market has been analysed by using the theory of the segmented labour market. A high degree of labour market segmentation and irregularities in the analyzed countries is particularly present in the construction, agricultural and service sectors (households, hotels and catering. Illegal recruitment is an important attractive factor for illegal migrants, and encourages the development of illegal migration. Frequent implementation of control programmes solves the problem of illegal migrants only partially while, at the same time, an increasing number of new immigrants is being “attracted”. Due to special features of more recent migration flows in southern European countries, it is possible to apply the “South European immigration model” by King and Ribas-Mateos, portraying these flows triangularly. In this model the mass influx of immigration is connected to a high level of irregularities in the economic sector and a weak welfare state. The uneven economic development of sending and receiving countries, as well as the perception of new immigrants (third country citizens exclusively through the prism of homo economicus, does not inspire too much optimism that their position in the labour market and in society will significantly improve in the foreseeable future. On behalf of more equitable treatment of new immigrant groups, their greater recognition should be demanded from receiving countries’ governments as well as the regulation of their position by introducing new and different norms and standards, based in the first place on universal human rights.

  13. "Brexit": A constitutional, diplomatic and democratic crisis. A view ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A discussion of the recent referendum in the United Kingdom (UK) on membership of the European Union (EU) and, in particular, to consider the immediate aftermath and longer-term implications of the decision to leave. Keywords: Brexit; referendum; European Union; constitutional law; international law ...

  14. Welfare State Regimes and Attitudes Towards Redistribution in 15 Western European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads

    Social Survey and the third wave of the European Values Study, and by means of an ordered mixed probit model with concomitant variables, we find strong evidence that structural characteristics affect mass opinion in a manner consistent with regime theory. For example, public support for redistribution...... increases with total social expenditure relative to GDP, family benefits, and active labour market policies. Furthermore, we find that institutionalised left-wing political power as measured by left-wing government seats and neo-corporatism are significant predictors of support for redistribution.- See more...

  15. The uneven impact of the European Employment Strategy on member states' employment policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Mikkel Mailand

    2008-01-01

    policies to varying degrees, but that the impact, generally speaking, has been limited. In the article, the author examines the impact of the strategy as a result of peer pressure and key actors' strategic use of the strategy and shows how these mechanisms work. Factors that can explain why greater impact...... is found in Poland and Spain than is found in Denmark and the United Kingdom include: non-compliance with the EES predating the introduction of the strategy; relatively weak labour market performance; lack of consensus among the main actors in the labour market; Europeanization; and strong economic...

  16. Beyond the Economic Constitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    The ongoing crisis of Europe, so the core argument runs, is, in its core, a crisis of legallyconstituted public power. Although this form of power became codified in the wake of the American and French Revolutions it was, in most (West) European settings, only feebly realised before the mid-twent...

  17. The brazilian constitution as third generation product: convergence and differences between the latin american constitutionalism and legal garantism theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Urquhart Cademartori

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the phenomenon of the latinamerican constitutionalism, its characteristics, critical issues and its challenges facing the European constitutional models, such as the legal garantism and neoconstitutionalism. That being said, this work compares the recent theoretical proposals within the Latin American constitutional theory with the European tradition. In this way, we delimit the aspects of main Latin American constitutionalism theory and contrast European constitutional theories, such as Ferrajoli’s legal garantism and representatives of neoconstitutionalism such as Dworkin, Alexy, Müller and Haberle. In this work, we seek to understand and explain the so-called "third generation constitutions”, in order to think properly of the Brazilian constitutionalism and the influence of the new legal institutions and procedural safeguards contained in our Constitution which give means to make possible fundamental and social rights. After that, we examine the affinities that Latin American constitutionalism has found in the legal garantism theory, which enables fundamental and social rights, and which has been largely accepted in countries similar to Brazil despite of its European origins.

  18. The European Union’s Role in the Palestinian Territory after the Oslo Accords: Stillborn State-building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Bouris

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to shed light on the debate about the European Union (EU’s role as a state-builder in the case of the Palestinian Territory and in particular the extent to which EU policies and programmes in the area have been able to assist the process of state-building in Palestine in the aftermath of the 1993 Oslo Accords. By analysing the liberal peace and liberal democracy debate on the one hand and the EU’s state-building and conflict resolution policies on the other hand, the paper aims to evaluate the distinctive role of the EU as a state-builder in the case of the Palestinian Territory. Moreover, by focusing on state-building initiatives such as police and security reform, institution-building, judicial reform, as well as support for the health and education sectors, the paper aims to answer the following questions: why have the EU’s state-building strategies employed after the Oslo Accords in Palestine had so little impact? Can this tell us anything that we do not know about the high politics of the conflict? Does this represent a failure of the whole liberal peace-building model (or not?

  19. Black carbon physical properties and mixing state in the European megacity Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Laborde

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol hygroscopicity and refractory black carbon (rBC properties were characterised during wintertime at a suburban site in Paris, one of the biggest European cities. Hygroscopic growth factor (GF frequency distributions, characterised by distinct modes of more-hygroscopic background aerosol and non- or slightly hygroscopic aerosol of local (or regional origin, revealed an increase of the relative contribution of the local sources compared to the background aerosol with decreasing particle size. BC-containing particles in Paris were mainly originating from fresh traffic emissions, whereas biomass burning only gave a minor contribution. The mass size distribution of the rBC cores peaked on average at an rBC core mass equivalent diameter of DMEV ~ 150 nm. The BC-containing particles were moderately coated (coating thickness Δcoat ~ 33 nm on average for rBC cores with DMEV = 180–280 nm and an average mass absorption coefficient (MAC of ~ 8.6 m2 g−1 at the wavelength λ = 880 nm was observed. Different time periods were selected to investigate the properties of BC-containing particles as a function of source and air mass type. The traffic emissions were found to be non-hygroscopic (GF ≈ 1.0, and essentially all particles with a dry mobility diameter (D0 larger than D0 = 110 nm contained an rBC core. rBC from traffic emissions was further observed to be uncoated within experimental uncertainty (Δcoat ~ 2 nm ± 10 nm, to have the smallest BC core sizes (maximum of the rBC core mass size distribution at DMEV ~ 100 nm and to have the smallest MAC (~ 7.3 m2g−1 at λ = 880 nm. The biomass burning aerosol was slightly more hygroscopic than the traffic emissions (with a distinct slightly-hygroscopic mode peaking at GF ≈ 1.1–1.2. Furthermore, only a minor fraction (≤ 10% of the slightly-hygroscopic particles with 1.1 ≤ GF ≤ 1.2 (and D0 = 265 nm contained a detectable rBC core. The BC-containing particles from biomass burning were

  20. Judiciary on Russian Constitutional System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Arkhipov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is about new constitutional order in Russia emphasizing fundamental areas as the role of judiciary in the Russian Constitutional System from 1993 Constitution, the one which replaced the 1978 Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Constitution based on communist ideology. Therefore, it is intended to examine the principle of separation of powers, constitutionally recognized human rights and liberties, relationship between international bodies’ case law of human rights and the Russian Constitutional Court, among others issues.

  1. State-of-the-art of waste wood supply chain in Germany and selected European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Carlos A; Hora, Guido

    2017-12-01

    According to the statistic office of the European Union (Eurostat), Germany is the main producer of waste wood in Europe followed by France, United Kingdom, Italy and Finland. Based on the characteristics of the waste wood, it can be classified in four (4) categories: A I, A II, A III and A IV. This paper focuses in the A I waste wood since is the only category able to be used directly for both material and energy purposes without a previously pre-treatment. Currently, most of this waste wood is used for direct energy production due to the previous government legislation that promoted its use directly in incineration facilities. However, the newest Renewable Energy Act (EEG 2017) may promote the cascade-use of A I waste wood prior to be intended for energy purposes. Nonetheless, the government incentives to the energy sector is not the only bottleneck that the use of A I waste wood as raw material in the wood-based industry has to overcome. The peak availability, collection logistics (collection centers and transportation) and recycling facility location are some of the parameters that must be considered in order to design the "best" supply chain network for A I waste wood. This work presents a detailed description of the effect of the hierarchical strategic decision in the proper design of the waste wood supply chain. Additionally, the global picture of waste wood recycling in different European countries (UK, Italy and Finland) is briefly presented. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Physical culture in life of Eastern-European region students: modern state and prospects of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iermakov S.S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: analysis of researches on physical culture problems among students in countries of Easter-European region (2013-2015. Material: As sources of information we chose data base of Russia, Poland and Ukraine. Besides, we used sites of the most known journals of Easter-European region. When choosing journals we based on rating of Russia (RISC, Poland (Index Copernicus and Ukraine (bibliometryka of Ukrainian science data bases. Results: thematic focus of researches on different physical education, sports and students health aspects was determined. The promising directions of researches are as follows: re-organization of system of students’ physical education; interconnection of life quality and organism’s resistance to environmental impacts; dependence of students’ motor functioning on bad habits’ presence; determination of factors, facilitating motivation for sport games in system of students’ health related trainings; perceiving of life quality by disabled students; competence and professional skillfulness of specialists in physical culture and sports. Conclusions: it is recommended to use new, attractive forms of students’ motor functioning. It is necessary to regulate students’ motor functioning, considering motivation for success and for avoiding failures as well as to increase students’ psycho-physiological stresses’ resistance and to form students’ culture of health.

  3. Labour Market Trends and Problems in the EU’s Central and Eastern European Member States: Is Flexicurity the Answer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lothar Funk

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the 1990s, international organisations, such as the International Monetary Fund mainly based their policy proposals for transition economies and the high unemployment, low growth countries in Western Europe, on economic “orthodoxy”. This approach predominantly followed neoclassical economics in which market liberal solutions predominate. These suggestions were controversial; the early results of these policies appeared to be disappointing. Policymakers sought alternative reform proposals and the idea of “flexicurity” has gradually emerged to the political buzzword. Flexicurity combines flexibility with security and suggests that rather generous unemployment benefits and spending on active labour market policies can be aligned with a flexible, employment-friendly labour market. Originating in Denmark, the European Commission and the International Labour Organisation have promoted flexicurity more or less independent of specific single country cases, and based their approach on more abstract, generalised relationships between flexibility and security. These bodies argue for an alternative policy to pure orthodox deregulation and liberalisation for the member states of the European Union (EU and the former transition economies that joined the EU since 2004. After a review of common labour market-related characteristics and problems of the EU’s central and eastern European members, the article summarises and critically evaluates the main elements of flexicurity suggestions. It further compares them to the relevant policy proposals based primarily on more orthodox economic analysis. The analysis shows that several preconditions for a successful flexicurity strategy are still lacking across the new member states. Moreover, the article demonstrates that current proposals by the critics of a single-minded flexicurity approach by no means always disregard potentially positive effects of improving the supposed trade-offs between

  4. What constitutes information integrity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Flowerday

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information security is not achievable and the notion that adequate security is the goal, using appropriate countermeasures. The main contribution of this article is to illustrate the importance of and provide a macro view of what constitutes information integrity. The findings are in harmony with Samuel Johnson's words (1751: 'Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful.'

  5. What constitutes information integrity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Flowerday

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information security is not achievable and the notion that adequate security is the goal, using appropriate countermeasures. The main contribution of this article is to illustrate the importance of and provide a macro view of what constitutes information integrity. The findings are in harmony with Samuel Johnson's words (1751: 'Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful.'

  6. The Economy of Healthcare: Disparity of Insured/Uninsured Profiles among European Immigrants in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohitha Goonatilake

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Immigration over the last seven years has been the highest for any seven-year period in the history of the United States (US, totaling 10.3 million immigrants. Of which, it is estimated that more than 50% are accounted as immigrants without legal status, according to the Center for Immigration Studies in Washington (Camarota, 2002. Data gathered in early 2000 provides a glimpse of the situation to bring in the disparity of insured and uninsured among European immigrants in the United States as the 9/11 attacks, the Obama care (the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA, or Affordable Care Act (ACA for short, and the (DREAM Act of 2010 the Development, Relief and Education for Alien Minors Act have significantly changed the patterns and profiles of this phenomenon as someone would shed light on the situation. This paper compares and contrasts the extent of health insurance coverage for the citizens, naturalized citizens, and non-citizens as identified in terms of the world regions of birth, of course, for the European descendants. Finally, the analysis is concluded by examining the extent of health insurance coverage among all foreign born population based on race, educational attainment, and family income in 2005.

  7. The Participation of National Minorities in the Political Life of European States: A Variety of Juridical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xabier Deop Madinabeitia

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Without aiming to be an exhaustive study on comparative law, this work is an examination of the different systems in existence in European states responsible for assuring the participation of national minorities in political life. The European models designed to guarantee this participation – which are not mutually exclusive – have been clarified as follows: First, to concede minorities the capacity of autonomy either over a territorial base (federalism,regionalism etc. or over certain, mainly cultural matters, which is called the principle of personality, also known as cultural autonomy or national-cultural autonomy. Second, to facilitate the participation of minorities in decision making processes, which can be achieved through three main systems: one, by using regulations of parliamentary and electoral law to assure their presence in state bodies of differing nature (legislative, executive, and judicial and at different levels (central, regional, local; two, by creating special mechanisms to defend the interests of minorities against possibly detrimental regulations; and three, by creating consultative bodies on matters affecting minorities.

  8. Constitutionality of CEPA challenged

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attaran, A.

    1997-02-24

    The Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) was challenged by Hydro-Quebec in the Supreme Court of Canada. Hydro-Quebec argued that in the absence of any explicit jurisdiction, federal environmental law must be rooted in either the Constitution`s criminal law power, or in its power to legislate for the peace, order and good government of Canada. When accused under CEPA of dumping PCBs into the the St. Maurice River in 1990, Hydro-Quebec, joined in its case by the Attorney Generals of Quebec and Saskatchewan, and IPSCO Inc., argued that the law failed to meet these criteria, and is, therefore unconstitutional and invalid. The Supreme Court case focused primarily on the validity of the Federal Government`s right to declare substances toxic in its pursuit of protecting the environment from immediate or long-term harm, in as much as the criminal law power is understood to protect human life and health, but heretofore, not the environment. Although the Justices were anxious to circumscribe the limits of federal environmental jurisdiction, they also appeared disinclined to explode all of Canada`s toxic waste laws. The most likely outcome is that the CEPA will be allowed to stand, but will be severed of the environmental protection purpose, while preserving the Federal Government`s jurisdiction over toxic substances under the protection of human life and health provisions of the Constitution.

  9. Constitutionalism and Development in Nigeria: The 1999 Constitution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    IKPEZE: Constitutionalism and Development in Nigeria: The 1999 Constitution and Role of Lawyers. Modern Constitutional concepts, which were based on Constitution as a social contract, were originated by philosophers like Thomas Hobbes who also was an English Scientist, (1588-. 1679), John Locke in English (1632 ...

  10. THE IMPLICATIONS OF STATE AID TO RnD ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacila Nicolae

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In economic terms, the importance of state aid policy refers to the maintaining of an undistorted competition and the correction of inherent “market failures” which may occur in the economy, aiming at increasing economic efficiency, based on the traditional assumption that an effective competition will have a positive impact on economic development. The main objective of the present paper is to establish a possible correlation between state aid to research and development (RnD and GDP level in the EU. Our research hypothesis relates to considering state aid as a significant contribution to the economic development, measured by GDP level, which will be estimated as a function of state aid. Consequently, the main variables of this study are state aid to RnD and GDP level, considered in both relative and absolute terms. The relationship between technological change and economic development has been at the centre of the interest in both theoretical and empirical literature. The role of institutions and government policies in stimulating technological change has been provided mainly by the evolutionary theory, which considers economic development as a technological change driven process featured by a complex pattern which includes both uniformity and idiosyncrasy across time and countries. The relationship between these variables was estimated through a panel model which used seemly unrelated regression (SUR and ordinary least squares estimation (OLS. Taking into account that the economic value is likely to be realized after the innovation process took place we have interpreted this economic aspect in an econometric sense by using time lags. In analysing the relative importance of state aid to RnD, we have proposed an index which evaluates the relation between state aid and the relative size of the Member State’s economy. The relationship between state aid and GDP level was found to be positive and

  11. Constitutional Fundamentals of Conscription and Some Aspects of the Ordinary Legal Regulation of Constitutionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenstavičienė Kristina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Article 139 of the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania is one of the constitutional fundamentals of state defense and stipulates the defense of the state as the right of citizens on the one hand and the duty on the other. This article of the Constitution gives the legislative power the right of discretion to detail by law the order of the implementation of citizens’ duty to perform military or alternative country defense service. Due to the reorganization of the armed forces into a professional and volunteer army, the issue of some ordinary regulation rules concerning the constitutionality of nationwide conscription, though at present suspended but not abolished, is becoming urgent. Though the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Lithuania presented their ruling on the constitutionality of the suspension of military conscription, it does not mean that all problems related to conscription have been settled. The aim of this article is to analyze the constitutional basis of nationwide conscription as well as the constitutionality of some ordinary regulation provisions related to nationwide conscription. Therefore, the issue to be analyzed is whether nationwide conscription, if it were to be implemented, complies with the constitutional principles of human equality and military justice1. Consequently, the question is posed how the constitutional objective of ensuring the defense of the state determines conscription. Because of the growing employment of the army abroad, yet the dwindling demand for conscripts, it should be explored whether the suspension of the nationwide conscription as a part of the defense reform is further feasible in order to guarantee the defense of the state. In answering the raised questions, the author will analyze the abundant and long-lasting constitutional doctrine of Germany which provides clarifications of the Basic Law, as the legal act of the establishing power, which can doubtless be of assistance in

  12. Homo habitus: agency, structure and the transformation of tradition in the constitution of the TRB foraging-farming communities in the North European plain (ca 4500–2000 BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Zvelebil

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The current generally accepted view of the dispersal of farming into Europe is that farming groups in the eastern Mediterranean colonised selectively optimal farming areas. The role of contact between indigenous hunter-gatherers and incoming farmers was very important to the operation of this process. This general view of the spread of farming at a broad inter-regional scale gives us our understanding of the origins of the Neolithic but merits closer examination at the local and regional level, as increasingly it is becoming apparent that the causes and motivations may have differed. In this paper, Mesolithic to Neolithic communities with evidence of the transition from hunter-gatherer to farmer will be examined at a regional scale, in the central part of the north European plain, focussing on Kujavia. Additionally, the theory of structuration will be applied in order to elucidate the transition process at this level.

  13. When Culture Hampers European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Petersen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    This article deals with Denmark’s skeptical attitude towards the EU cooperation. From a hermeneutical-institutional approach the aim of this article is to analyze why Denmark has been rejecting several initiatives from the EU. It illustrates how different democratic understandings hamper European...... integration. Based on Ronald Dworkin’s theoretical framework the article discusses two different perceptions on democracy: majoritarian democracy and constitutional democracy. It is shown when and why EU’s member states prefer to handle EU-related judicial disputes without involving supranational institutions....... In addition, the article provides tentative comparisons to Britain and the Nordic countries since they show similar attitudes to supranational institutions. The article concludes that Denmark’s majoritarian democracy provides political cultures incompatible with the EU’s constitutional democracy and this can...

  14. FDI in European Economic Architecture. The Case of Romania as an EU Member State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Burciu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The arrangements of regional economic integration have substantially reconfigured the patternof global economy after the Second World War, due to their structural effects, but especially to thenew forms of interdependence which they have created between economies. Our study is based onthe hypothesis that the economic integrated areas are more attractive to investors, especially to thelarge ones such as multinational corporations. Analyzing the flows, respectively the ratio of inwardstock of foreign direct investment to GDP in EU, and Romania, as well as the main indicatorsassessing the presence of multinational corporations in the Common Market and in our countrytoo, we have found that the creation of a larger market and deepening of economic integration hasfuelled a stimulus for investments, although the preference of investors, especially of the nonEuropeans,have been quite highly concentrated on certain locations/countries.

  15. The multidimensionality of welfare state attitudes : A European cross-national study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosma, F.; Gelissen, J.P.T.M.; van Oorschot, W.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    When evaluating the various aspects of the welfare state, people assess some aspects more positively than others. Following a multidimensional approach, this study systematically argues for a framework composed of seven dimensions of the welfare state, which are subject to the opinions of the

  16. Cultural Diplomacy of Slavic European Union Member States: A Cross-country Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udovič Boštjan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the role of cultural diplomacy in Slavic EU Member States. Its basic idea is to present the main characteristics of cultural diplomacy as a field of possible cooperation between the Slavic EU member countries. The conclusions of the research are three: firstly, the cultural diplomacy of the Slavic EU Member States is fragmented and diversified. Secondly, each country promotes its own cultural diplomacy and there is almost no cooperation between countries in the cultural field. Finally, cultural diplomacy is still an omitted instrument of Slavic EU Member States and a fertile ground for future collaboration within the EU and in the region of Central Europe.

  17. The Constitutional Court and the Imperative of its Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gilia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent debates on the upcoming review of the Constitution have determined us to pay close attention to the basic institution in a democratic state, that is the Constitutional Court. Being caught in the crossfire between power and opposition, the Constitutional Court had a hard time lately, facing severe attacks. The aim of our study is to analyze the evolution of the Constitutional Court within the inland constitutional system, particularly bringing up the flaws describing the Court’s activity. We have also analyzed the proposals put forth by several bodies or experts regarding the constitutional contentious court. At the end of our study, following an analysis of different constitutional types of constitutional review, used by a number of states in Europe, we introduced several resolutions that may improve the role, the course and, last but not least, the activity of the Romanian Constitutional Court.

  18. The constitutive sofa cushion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanghøj, Sara

    2009-01-01

    personal values materialize through a hand-made everyday artefact, and how can the artefact constitute action and self-perception? The empirical research and analysis concerns how a former textile crafts teacher's subjective values and professional identity materialize through a hand-woven sofa cushion...... body, space and artefact, thereby revealing the materialization process. Based on results of the analysis, ANT (Actor-Network- Theory) is used in order to discuss how The Danish Folk High School's conception of simplicity as an aesthetic and gendered ideal in the formal education of female handcraft-teachers...

  19. Comparative analysis of government debt in the European Union's member states, 2000-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talpoş Ioan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a detailed comparative analysis of the evolution of government debt stocks in the E.U. Member States at the end of the period 31.12.2000-31.12.2013 from the point of view of the share of these debts in the GDP, with a focus on six groups of the E.U. Member States (E.U.-28 countries, E.U.-27 countries, Euro area-18 countries, Euro area-17 countries, Non Euro area-10 countries, Non Euro area-11 countries, on the E.U. Member States with a government debt stock share above or below 60% of the GDP at 31.12.2013, on the Member States which recorded very large deviations of the government debt stocks and of those stocks' shares in PIB in the analyzed period or which recorded a decrease in government debt stock shares in PIB - and, separately, on Romania as well.

  20. NEW TENDENCIES REGARDING SAME-SEX MARRIAGE IN THE MEMBER STATES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION: – A BRIEF INSIDE AND OUTSIDE PERSPECTIVE –

    OpenAIRE

    Jone-Itxaro ELIZONDO URRESTARAZU; Oana-Mariuca PETRESCU

    2013-01-01

    Sexual orientation discrimination has been recently outlined within the Plenary Session of the European Parliament that took place in Brussels, on 24th May 2012 as a priority in the fight against discrimination of all kind, making a 'call on EU member states to consider giving access to cohabitation, registered partnerships or marriage to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people'. Taking this statement as a starting point, this paper aims first to briefly analyse the European Unio...

  1. Losses of ammonia and nitrate from agriculture and their effect on nitrogen recovery in the European Union and the United States between 1900 and 2050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Grinsven, Hans J.M.; Bouwman, Lex; Cassman, Kenneth G.; van Es, Harold M.; McCrackin, Michelle L.; Beusen, Arthur H.W.

    2015-01-01

    Historical trends and levels of nitrogen (N) budgets and emissions to air and water in the European Union and the United States are markedly different. Agro-environmental policy approaches also differ, with emphasis on voluntary or incentive-based schemes in the United States versus a more

  2. The European Union, China, and the United States in the top-1% and top-10% layers of most-frequently cited publications: competition and collaborations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Wagner, C.S.; Bornmann, L.

    2014-01-01

    The percentages of shares of world publications of the European Union and its member states, China, and the United States have been represented differently as a result of using different databases. An analytical variant of the Web-of-Science (of Thomson Reuters) enables us to study the dynamics in

  3. Legal theology in imposed constitutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2018-01-01

    discusses both the imposition of a constitution and constitutionalism. The examples that the drafters of the Kazanistan´s constitution analysed are “successful” imposed texts such as in Germany and Japan, where both constitutions were made by elites under the humiliating supervision of foreign occupiers....... On the theme of imposed constitutionalism, the paper reflects on; the inconsistency of the idealistic discourse that permeates a constitutional text; the inability of an imposed text to be enveloped by principles that reflect the nation’s fundamental concepts; and finally, the denaturalisation...... of the understanding of a constitution as the juridification of the People or Nation. Related to the topic of imposed constitutionalism, the paper focuses on the systemic inconsistencies that imposed constitutionalism generates, such as the unviability of the idea of an implicit constitutional text (invisible ink...

  4. The constitutional control system in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Javier Moreno Ortiz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The system of constitutional control in Colombia designed in the Legislative Act n.º 3 of 1910 is a milestone in a long and fruitful political and constitutional tradition owes much to his Hispanic roots and its American developments. Both the public action of unconstitutionality as the plea of unconstitutionality have clear precedents in the constitutionalism of Spain and the Colony were prepared by a Constituent Assembly acted with knowledge and faithfulness to that tradition and have been and are institutions of our capital social and democratic state of law.

  5. IMPLEMENTATION OF STATE AID POLICY FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina BALDAN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, the Competition Council's activity regarding the state aid field has considered Romania's obligations as a member state, and the fulfillment of some specific tasks by the competition authority acquired after January 1, 2007. In this regard, the Competition Council has encouraged the collaboration between institutions to develop projects of state aid schemes. In 2010 there were six major investment projects approved, four of them being in the photovoltaic sector in which three are in Germany, one is in Spain and the rest concern the mechanical industry in Germany and Italy. Also, there were approved five ad hoc aid measures in favor of individual enterprises, for investments in areas that are on the regional aid maps for the period 2007-2013, and ten aid schemes, of which five related to the outermost regions. In accordance with the guidelines on national regional aids for 2007-2013, the Commission developed a statistical evaluation of the situation of state aid and regional aid ceiling which received a transitional assisted area status under Article 107 paragraph 3 letters (a by the end of 2010. The Commission accepted the changes introduced by the three member states (France, Ireland and Italy in state aid maps for certain regions eligible for regional aid under Article 107 paragraph 3letter (c.

  6. Age of diagnosis of breast cancer in china: almost 10 years earlier than in the United States and the European union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qing-Kun; Li, Jing; Huang, Rong; Fan, Jin-Hu; Zheng, Rong-Shou; Zhang, Bao-Ning; Zhang, Bin; Tang, Zhong-Hua; Xie, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Hong-Jian; He, Jian-Jun; Li, Hui; Li, Jia-Yuan; Qiao, You-Lin; Chen, Wan-Qing

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to describe the age distribution of breast cancer diagnosis among Chinese females for comparison with the United States and the European Union, and provide evidence for the screening target population in China. Median age was estimated from hospital databases from 7 tertiary hospitals in China. Population-based data in China, United States and European Union was extracted from the National Central Cancer Registry, SEER program and GLOBOCAN 2008, respectively. Age-standardized distribution of breast cancer at diagnosis in the 3 areas was estimated based on the World Standard Population 2000. The median age of breast cancer at diagnosis was around 50 in China, nearly 10 years earlier than United States and European Union. The diagnosis age in China did not vary between subgroups of calendar year, region and pathological characteristics. With adjustment for population structure, median age of breast cancer at diagnosis was 50~54 in China, but 55~59 in United States and European Union. The median diagnosis age of female breast cancer is much earlier in China than in the United States and the European Union pointing to racial differences in genetics and lifestyle. Screening programs should start at an earlier age for Chinese women and age disparities between Chinese and Western women warrant further studies.

  7. Future intelligent power grids: Analysis of the vision in the European Union and the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coll-Mayor, Debora [Department of Physics, University of Balearic Islands, Ctra. Valldemossa 7.5, Palma E-07122 (Spain)]. E-mail: debora.coll@uib.es; Paget, Mia [Energy Science and Technology Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, MSIN: K6-05, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Lightner, Eric [United States Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (United States)

    2007-04-15

    The future of power grids is expected to involve an increasing level of intelligence and integration of new information and communication technologies in every aspect of the electricity system, from demand-side devices to wide-scale distributed generation to a variety of energy markets. This paper provides a general outlook of the definition of this future in the US and the European Union and compares two approaches-GridWise{sup TM} and SmartGrid. It describes the contexts in both the worlds, as they influence the two visions of the future intelligent power grid, and as they form foundations at each respective federal level for supporting research in this field. The similarities and complementarities of the two research programs are examined. Within the framework of a solid precedence for trans-Atlantic co-operation in energy research, the time would seem optimal to set in motion active collaboration and educational exchange on GridWise and SmartGrid research. This paper will help energy policy makers to better understand the key issues determining the two different approaches and the two different policies derived from them; as well as a comparison of the solution provided in each case. This work will also be useful for researchers and industry decision makers to be aware of trans-Atlantic approaches, opportunities, and resources looking toward future, more intelligent and interconnected power grids.

  8. Pharmaceuticals Licensing and Reimbursement in the European Union, United States, and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oye, K A; Eichler, H G; Hoos, A; Mori, Y; Mullin, T M; Pearson, M

    2016-12-01

    This article describes recent developments in licensing and reimbursement policies in the EU, US, and Japan, examines causes of changes and compares differences and projects trends. With respect to licensing, the European Medicines Agency (EMA), US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and Japan's Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) are committed to rigorous evaluation of pharmaceuticals in advance of market access with feedback from postmarket experience. The EMA is exploring integrated adaptive pathways for licensing, with formal pilot tests to provide a practical proof of concept. The FDA is augmenting traditional licensing procedures through reforms including Breakthrough Product Designation. The PMDA is implementing reforms to foster innovation and earlier patient access through its Sakigake strategy and licensing reforms on regenerative medicines. With respect to reimbursement, several generalizations emerge. Relative to US counterparts, EU payers typically set higher standards for evidence of effectiveness as a condition of reimbursement, impose tougher limits on reimbursement by indication, and drive harder deals in negotiations over prices. © 2016 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  9. Central and Eastern European Spring Pollen Allergens and Their Expression Analysis—State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Žiarovská

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Spring pollinosis has become a part of life for many people throughout the world. A wide range of knowledge about the allergenic potential of individual pollen allergen types is documented well, but the starting point of the pollen allergens expression regulation in plants itself is still not fully answered. Expression analysis of pollen allergens does not yet have any specific protocols or methods developed, despite a very good sequence background available in public bioinformatics databases. However, research in this area of interest has a great application potential for breeding and biotechnology of allergenic plants that may benefit from the knowledge of the expression of allergen coding genes in individual varieties or genotypes. Here, a brief review of up-to-date knowledge about the coding sequences of central and eastern European spring pollen allergens is introduced together with real-time based analysis of the expression of two of the main pollen allergens–PR protein type and profilin type of birch and hazelnut.

  10. European Citizenship between Past and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Modiga

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Union, an organization built on the ruins of the Second World War the desire to curb the war on the continent once and for all, was doomed from the beginning to end in one day political contours, so Europe is now united policy at the core of the future of Europe. This aspiration has become increasingly manifest in the adoption in 1992 of the Treaty of Maastricht, culminating today with the debate on the European Constitution. “Europe” today was forged from the beginning of the ruling political elites and not the citizens. Is it possible to continue this course today? Talking about European citizenship is part of the broader theory and political philosophy, legal and sociological. East European citizenship a recent concept (established by the Treaty of Maastricht in 1992 born of an old idea (dating approximately from the 40s that refers to a reality uncertain and inconsistent. Holders of European citizenship are nationals of Member States of the European Union. Citizenship as a concept has a content both political (the right of citizenship Fortress defining an individual's personal status and legal (on the set of subjective rights that an individual may invoke. Existential condition of citizenship is the ability to have rights (individual rights as positive theory of law and be able to implement them. As a consequence, European citizenship exists to the extent that its holders can enjoy rights derived from this status.

  11. The electoral feedback effects of welfare reform in mature European welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The electoral hazard of welfare state reforms in mature welfare states has been a widely acknowledged feedback effect in the literature. However, the literature does typically no distinct between party families when it comes to the electoral consequences of welfare state reforms and treats...... electorates as unity. This paper analysis the feedback effects of social policy retrenchment under Third Way social democracy since 1994. The paper argues that Third Way reforms resulted in lasting electoral setback for social democracy since these reforms went against the social policy preferences of social...... democracy’s core constituency. Using survey data and election studies, the empirical analysis shows that the reforms have been particularly unpopular among social democracy’s core constituency and that these voters now align with competitors that defend core welfare schemes in a credible manner...

  12. Could less be more? : small state influence on European Foreign Policies

    OpenAIRE

    L'Orange, Sara

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis I have found that Sweden has had influence on the Euro-Med Partnership. Size, side payments, or threats to veto or form alternative alliances can not explain the how influence was possible. Instead, Sweden s reputation for value-added foreign policies and lack of colonial past seems to have given them a status that facilitates influence both in relation to EU states and the partner states on the other shore of the Mediterranean. In chapter one, I presented a matrix that cou...

  13. [Health state in women engaged in professional military service in European North].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myznikov, I L; Ustimenko, L I; Askerko, N V; Bourtsev, N N; Miloshevsky, A V; Volkova, L V

    2015-01-01

    The authors analysed health state and morbidity of women engaged into professional navy service in North Fleet, age features of health state in these servicewomen, and results of medical stationary examination and checkup results, regular medical examination results and the servicewomen morbidity over 12 years (about 15.5 thousand cases), and 697 reports on the servicewomen diseases according to military medical (navy) commission. The article covers causes of changes in navy fitness category for the servicewomen, analysis of comorbidity, suggestions of new approaches to comorbidity analysis.

  14. Losses of Ammonia and Nitrate from Agriculture and Their Effect on Nitrogen Recovery in the European Union and the United States between 1900 and 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grinsven, Hans J M; Bouwman, Lex; Cassman, Kenneth G; van Es, Harold M; McCrackin, Michelle L; Beusen, Arthur H W

    2015-03-01

    Historical trends and levels of nitrogen (N) budgets and emissions to air and water in the European Union and the United States are markedly different. Agro-environmental policy approaches also differ, with emphasis on voluntary or incentive-based schemes in the United States versus a more regulatory approach in the European Union. This paper explores the implications of these differences for attaining long-term policy targets for air and water quality. Nutrient surplus problems were more severe in the European Union than in the United States during the 1970s and 1980s. The EU Nitrates and National Emission Ceilings directives contributed to decreases in fertilizer use, N surplus, and ammonia (NH) emissions, whereas in the United States they stabilized, although NH emissions are still increasing. These differences were analyzed using statistical data for 1900-2005 and the global IMAGE model. IMAGE could reproduce NH emissions and soil N surpluses at different scales (European Union and United States, country and state) and N loads in the Rhine and Mississippi. The regulation-driven changes during the past 25 yr in the European Union have reduced public concerns and have brought agricultural N loads to the aquatic environment closer to US levels. Despite differences in agro-environmental policies and agricultural structure (more N-fixing soybean and more spatially separated feed and livestock production in the United States than in the European Union), current N use efficiency in US and EU crop production is similar. IMAGE projections for the IAASTD-baseline scenario indicate that N loading to the environment in 2050 will be similar to current levels. In the United States, environmental N loads will remain substantially smaller than in the European Union, whereas agricultural production in 2050 in the United States will increase by 30% relative to 2005, as compared with an increase of 8% in the European Union. However, in the United States, even rigorous mitigation

  15. Interfacing of Science, Medicine and Law: The Stem Cell Patent Controversy in the United States and the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Sonya; Davey, Neil; Gu, Qian; Xu, Na; Vatsa, Rajet; Devalaraja, Samir; Harris, Paul; Gannavaram, Sreenivas; Dave, Raj; Chakrabarty, Ananda

    2015-01-01

    The patent eligibility of stem cells-particularly those derived from human embryos-has long been under debate in both the scientific and legal communities. On the basis of moral grounds, the European Patent Office (EPO) has refrained from granting patents for stem cells obtained through the destruction of human embryos. On the contrary, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) has historically granted patents regarding the isolation and use of human embryonic and other stem cells. To date, these US patents remain valid despite an increasing onslaught of challenges in court. However, recent precedents established in US courts significantly narrow the scope of patent eligibility within biotechnology. This article compares the implications of recent legal changes on stem cell patent eligibility between the EU and US.

  16. RESOURCES AND LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY OF FOOD INDUSTRY IN MEMBER STATES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION IN THE CONTEXT OF COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Łukiewska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Labour resources are an important factor in competitiveness of the sector. The aim of the study was to evaluate the spatial concentration of labour resources, performance advantages and cost-price advantages that are associated with the work factor in the food industry in the European Union in 2010–2012. The results indicate that the greatest concentration of labour resources exists in Germany, France, Italy and Poland. The biggest performance advantage was observed in the old EU countries, mainly in Ireland, the Netherlands, Belgium and Denmark. Diff erences in labour productivity in the food industry, the new EU countries, in relation to the old member states, are getting smaller. The most signifi cant cost-price advantage was observed in Ireland and the Netherlands, and many of the new EU countries, which compensated for the lack of performance advantages of lower labour costs. These include Poland, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary and Romania.

  17. [Health protection of workers occupationally exposed to effects of electromagnetic fields in Poland and in the European Union member states].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagrowska-Koski, Ewa

    2003-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields, one of potentially harmful physical agents present in the work environment in Poland, are under a constant surveillance regulated by the law. Among others, the surveillance involves periodical measurements of electromagnetic field (EMF) intensities in the work environment and medical prophylactic examination of workers at the employers' expense. The introduction of new MAC values imposes extra responsibilities on occupational health services, resulting from the need to verify the number of workers exposed to EMF at frequency bands corresponding with protection zones, and the need to set an appropriate range of prophylactic examinations, taking account of the current body of knowledge of biological effects of EMF and their hazards to workers' health. The suggestions how to change the range and frequency of medical prophylactic examinations are presented. The differences in occupational health care between Poland and the European Union members states, as well as changes in legal regulations on occupational diseases are discussed.

  18. Interfacing of science, medicine and law: The stem cell patent controversy in the United States and the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya eDavey

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The patent eligibility of stem cells – particularly those derived from human embryos – has long been under debate in both the scientific and legal communities. On the basis of moral grounds, the European Patent Office (EPO has refrained from granting patents for stem cells obtained through the destruction of human embryos. On the contrary, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO has historically granted patents regarding the isolation and use of human embryonic and other stem cells. To date, these US patents remain valid despite an increasing onslaught of challenges in court. However, recent precedents established in US courts significantly narrow the scope of patent eligibility within biotechnology. This article compares the implications of recent legal changes on stem cell patent eligibility between the EU and US.

  19. Criminalization of stalking in Italy: one of the last among the current European member states' anti-stalking laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fazio, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates the state of knowledge on stalking in Italy from the first scientific review published in 2001 to the recent anti-stalking law, which became effective in February 2009, introducing a new article in the existing Italian Penal Code. In recent years the interest in stalking has increased progressively, such that it is now possible to find official data on the prevalence of the phenomenon in Italy. At the same time, European research activity has moved from the recognition of the phenomenon to analysis of pathways for a victim's assessment of stalking risk and enactment of legal regulation. The new law is described and analyzed. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Adriaan Kluit’s Statistics and the Future of the Dutch State from a European perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stapelbroek, K.; Stamhuis, I.H.; Klep, P.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the early history of academic statistics in the Netherlands in relation to the reform challenges of the Dutch state. Statistics, before it developed into a predominantly quantitative social science, was adopted around 1800 by Adriaan Kluit as a method for shaping and

  1. Controversies and Generational Differences: Young People’s Identities in Some European States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair Ross

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores how young people (aged 12–18 in the four Visegrad states of Poland, Slovakia, Hungary and the Czech Republic are constructing their identities, particularly their sense of attachment to their country and to Europe. This generation is of particular significance, in that they are the first generation for many years to have been born and socialised in wholly independent states that are in a relatively peaceful and stable state. Data was collected through 41 focus groups, conducted in 11 different locations in the different states, and were analysed in terms of the degree of enthusiasm expressed for civic institutions and cultural practices related to the country and to Europe. Two particular areas were identified: the sense of generational difference and the ways in which different groups created “other” communities, within and without their country’s borders. These parameters allow us to distinguish the significant communities that these young people are creating in order to make sense of their social and political worlds.

  2. Poland’s Role in European and World System of States 1979-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    March 2003, http://www.msz.gov.pl/12, marca ,2003r [Accessed March 21, 2008]. 207 Ibid. 56 State in the Polish MoD, Andrzej Towpik. On 23 March 2003 in...Future of the CFSP”, Friedrich Ebert Foundation, Berlin, 12 March 2003. http://www.msz.gov.pl/12, marca ,2003r. [Accessed March 21, 2008] 72

  3. Environmental policy in the European Union: Community competence vs member state competence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, H.; Jeppesen, T.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper Member States' possibilities to implement a higher level of environmental protection than the harmonized EU level are examined
    In the environmental federalism literature it is argued that the optimal level of environmental quality varies widely across jurisdictions and that welfare

  4. Participation, responsibility and choice: summoning the active citizen in Western European welfare states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newman, J.; Tonkens, E.

    2011-01-01

    Responsibility, participation and choice are key policy framings of active citizenship, summoning the citizen to take on new roles in welfare state reform. This volume traces the emergence of new discourses and the ways in which they take up and rework struggles of social movements for greater

  5. Controversies and Generational Differences: Young People's Identities in Some European States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alistair

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how young people (aged 12-18) in the four Visegrad states of Poland, Slovakia, Hungary and the Czech Republic are constructing their identities, particularly their sense of attachment to their country and to Europe. This generation is of particular significance, in that they are the first generation for many years to have…

  6. [Models of workers' health and safety insurance in the selected European Union member states: certain economic problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydlewska-Liszkowska, Izabela

    2007-01-01

    The project entitled "An analysis of insurance models in the selected European Union (EU) member States" has recently been accomplished in the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in the section concerning the health and safety of the working population. One of the aims of the project was to identify differences between EU and Polish models, which may provide the basis for a possible involvement of insurance providers (existing and/or created on purpose) in the implementation of tasks in the area of the workers' health protection in Poland. Documents and publications issued in Poland and elaborated by international organizations were used in the analysis. Of the existing models, those which differ in the solutions concerning the limitation of growing costs of insurance systems, the level of centralization of insurance system management, and the range of cooperation between public and private insurance providers were selected for the analysis. The results of the analysis show that the functioning of insurance systems in the countries under study has been the subject of constant modifications and improvements. Their major aims are to limit the growth of costs of social insurance systems, to shape new qualitative relations between private and public insurance institutions, and to take account of new forms of work regarded as a factor contributing to changes in insurance systems. The conclusions arising from the analysis of European insurance systems in the area of workplace accidents and occupational diseases, as well as a possible direction of insurance system transformation in Poland address the following issues: the scope of centralization of insurance system management and the role of the state, the degree of independence of insurance institutions and their priority actions for prevention, motivation mechanisms targeted at employers, participation of employers in the consequences of occupational diseases and workplace accidents, as well as the role of

  7. Solid State Ionics: from Michael Faraday to green energy—the European dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Funke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid State Ionics has its roots essentially in Europe. First foundations were laid by Michael Faraday who discovered the solid electrolytes Ag2S and PbF2 and coined terms such as cation and anion, electrode and electrolyte. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, the main lines of development toward Solid State Ionics, pursued in Europe, concerned the linear laws of transport, structural analysis, disorder and entropy and the electrochemical storage and conversion of energy. Fundamental contributions were then made by Walther Nernst, who derived the Nernst equation and detected ionic conduction in heterovalently doped zirconia, which he utilized in his Nernst lamp. Another big step forward was the discovery of the extraordinary properties of alpha silver iodide in 1914. In the late 1920s and early 1930s, the concept of point defects was established by Yakov Il'ich Frenkel, Walter Schottky and Carl Wagner, including the development of point-defect thermodynamics by Schottky and Wagner. In terms of point defects, ionic (and electronic transport in ionic crystals became easy to visualize. In an 'evolving scheme of materials science', point disorder precedes structural disorder, as displayed by the AgI-type solid electrolytes (and other ionic crystals, by ion-conducting glasses, polymer electrolytes and nano-composites. During the last few decades, much progress has been made in finding and investigating novel solid electrolytes and in using them for the preservation of our environment, in particular in advanced solid state battery systems, fuel cells and sensors. Since 1972, international conferences have been held in the field of Solid State Ionics, and the International Society for Solid State Ionics was founded at one of them, held at Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, in 1987.

  8. The Constitution of Partnering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer

    The constitution of partnering. Afhandlingen behandler konstitueringen af ledelseskonceptet partnering og dets anvendelse i dansk byggeri. Partnering er et udbredt koncept i byggeriet som betoner samarbejde, tillid og gensidighed mellem de deltagende parter, og konceptet har de senere år har været...... om, hvordan partnering som koncept er fremkommet og har udviklet sig og hvilke konstitutive effekter partnering har på byggeriets praksis. Det teoretiske udgangspunkt i Foucault begrundes i behovet for at fastholde en mangefacetteret og historisk analyse af partnering i modsætning til de...... ledelseskoncept (partnering) medvirker til at strukturere byggeprocesser ved at skabe bestemte muligheder for handling samtidig med at der opretholdes en betydelig stabilitet. Afhandlingen har en række praktiske implikationer ved at identificere de dispositiver eller sociale teknologier som en forandring af...

  9. The Sustanability of Public Finance in New Members States of European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian INCEU

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The issue of public finance sustainability is very important for all EU member states in the actual context after the economic crisis. This article makes an analysis of the sustainability of public finances for the new member states (which joined EU in 2004 and 2007. Firstly, we try to analyze the impact of the economic crisis on public finances sustainability. The sustainability of public finances can be reflected through the level of public debt and budget deficit for a country. For this reason the article presents the evolution of budget deficits for NMS 12 before and after the recent economic crisis. Based on the econometric regression the correlation between economic growth rate (indicator used for measuring the economic evolution and the budget deficit is revealed. Results for Romania and NMS 12 are quite similar; fact that tells us that the status of public finances is following the same trend in Romania as in the NMS 12.

  10. The Impact of the Equal Rights Amendment. Part 1. Hearings before the Subcommittee on the Constitution of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First and Second Sessions (May 26, September 13, November 1, 1983; January 24, February 21, March 20, April 23, and May 23, 1984).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    Presented are eight congressional hearings on a joint resolution proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States relative to equal rights for women and men. The hearings focus on a constitutional overview; the impact of the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) on private and parochial education, military law and policy, abortion policy,…

  11. Mobile device use while driving--United States and seven European countries, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Road traffic crashes are a global public health problem, contributing to an estimated 1.3 million deaths annually. Known risk factors for road traffic crashes and related injuries and deaths include speed, alcohol, nonuse of restraints, and nonuse of helmets. More recently, driver distraction has become an emerging concern. To assess the prevalence of mobile device use while driving in Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, the United Kingdom (UK), and the United States, CDC analyzed data from the 2011 EuroPNStyles and HealthStyles surveys. Prevalence estimates for self-reported talking on a cell phone while driving and reading or sending text or e-mail messages while driving were calculated. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, among drivers ages 18-64 years, the prevalence of talking on a cell phone while driving at least once in the past 30 days ranged from 21% in the UK to 69% in the United States, and the prevalence of drivers who had read or sent text or e-mail messages while driving at least once in the past 30 days ranged from 15% in Spain to 31% in Portugal and the United States. Lessons learned from successful road safety efforts aimed at reducing other risky driving behaviors, such as seat belt nonuse and alcohol-impaired driving, could be helpful to the United States and other countries in addressing this issue. Strategies such as legislation combined with high-visibility enforcement and public education campaigns deserve further research to determine their effectiveness in reducing mobile device use while driving. Additionally, the role of emerging vehicle and mobile communication technologies in reducing distracted driving-related crashes should be explored.

  12. COMPARING EUROPEAN MEMBER STATE ELECTRIC VEHICLE UPTAKE INCENTIVES AND CHARGING INFRASTRUCTURE PROVISION

    OpenAIRE

    HARRISON GILLIAN; THIEL CHRISTIAN

    2015-01-01

    A complex system dynamics model of the EU light duty vehicle sector has been employed to assess policy options for electric (e) - mobility. The focus in this research is on passenger cars, and investigating the implications for individual member states, who are currently tasked with designing national uptake incentives and policy frameworks for alternative fuels and their infrastructure. The model encompasses the market agents of User, Automobile Manufacturer, Infrastructure Provider and Auth...

  13. Education and the Constitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubenreich, John E.

    2012-01-01

    The last 50 years have seen a massive increase in the federal role in public education in the United States and a marked increase in the tension between the federal government and the states with respect to control over education. This article investigates the history of education in America, particularly with respect to federal versus state…

  14. Avoiding Mazibuko : water security and constitutional rights in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 2009 judgment by the Constitutional Court of South Africa in Mazibuko v City of Johannesburg is seen by many as a watershed in the interpretation of the fundamental constitutional right of access to water. The Constitutional Court ruled that the right of access to sufficient water does not require that the state provide ...

  15. 27 Member States. Effects on reporting of the BFS to the European Commission on environmental radioactivity; 27 Mitgliedstaaten. Auswirkungen auf die Berichterstattung ueber Umweltradioaktivitaet der Europaeischen Kommission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, J.; Trugenberger-Schnabel, A. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2014-01-20

    According to EURATOM treaty of 1957 all Member States shall carry out continuous monitoring of the level of radioactivity in the environment. For Germany, the BfS is responsible for collecting all the relevant measurement values for radioactivity in air, water, milk and diet. Results are published by the European Commission in a series of reports ''Environmental Radioactivity in the European Community''. Due to the increased number of member states the time and effort for compiling the reports has increased accordingly. Therefore in the future quality control will be laid in the responsibility of the individual collaborating organisation.

  16. Urgency of Attorney Governed by the Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rommy Patra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Attorney existence in the Indonesian constitutional structure has a dilemma for this position. On one side is the Prosecutor’s law enforcement agencies to exercise power independently prosecution while on the other hand is part of a government institution under Law No. 16 of 2004 regarding the Attorney. The position of Attorney as an institution of government has been led to the independence of the Prosecutor is not optimal so that it appears stigma that the Prosecutor merely as a tool of the ruling power. In addition the terms of the arrangement just under the Act, the Attorney General has no legal standing as a constitutional organ that has the constitutional authority so that the current position does not reflect the urgency of its duties and functions. In an effort to organize the next Attorney institutions should be regulated directly by the Constitution. It is intended to make the Attorney as part of the main state organs have the same legal standing as other law enforcement agencies, the police and the courts (Supreme Court and Constitutional Court. As well as to strengthen and clarify the position as a state institution, prosecution authorities are focusing on the Attorney as central of authority, to fix the institutional relations between the members of law enforcement and related agencies and strengthen the independence of the Prosecutor in performing the function of prosecution in the constitutional structure of Indonesia.

  17. La costituzione dell’INA e il monopolio statale delle assicurazioni (1912-1922 = The constitution of INA and the state monopoly of insurance (1912-1922

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Potito

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio –basato principalmente su documenti attualmente conservati presso l’Archivio Storico dell’INA, a Roma– esamina le vicende legate alla nascita dell’Istituto, costituito in un regime transitorio di monopolio relativo nel settore delle assicurazioni sulla vita.A causa del suo significato economico e politico, questa speciale forma di monopolio statale diede luogo a molte reazioni nell’ambito finanziario e politico nazionale, pertanto l’INA iniziò i primi anni di attività in una situazione conflittuale ed incerta.Il saggio inoltre approfondisce le ripercussioni sul mercato assicurativo internazionale in seguito alla nascita dell’INA.Durante il decennio di monopolio parziale dell’Istituto nel settore delle assicurazioni sulla vita (1912-1922, le compagnie di assicurazione straniere ritennero compromessi i loro interessi finanziari nel mercato italiano, e lo osteggiarono fino al 1923, quando una nuova legge riformò il mercato assicurativo sulla vita, abolendo il regime di monopolio.The essay –mainly based on documents actually preserved in the Historical Archives of INA, in Rome– examines the events connected with the foundation of the Institute, established in a transient condition of partial monopoly system in life insurance sector. Because of its economic and political meaning, this special form of state monopoly gave rise to many reactions in the financial and political national context, and so INA started its first years of activity in a troubled and unstable situation. The essay also discusses about the repercussions on international insurance market in consequence of the foundation of INA.During the ten-year perior of partial monopoly of the Institute in life insurance sector (1912-1922, foreign insurance companies deemed their financial interest in Italian market jeopardized, and contrasted with it until 1923, when a new act reformed life insurance market, abrogating monopoly system. 

  18. Body mass index and overweight in adolescents in 13 European countries, Israel, and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissau, Inge; Overpeck, Mary D; Ruan, W June

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the body mass index (BMI) (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) and the prevalence of BMI at or above the 85th centile and 95th centile (overweight) in adolescents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, nationally representative school-based surveys...... in 1997-1998 by means of identical data collection methods. SETTING: Austria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Flemish Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Lithuania, Ireland, Israel, Portugal, Slovakia, Sweden, and the United States. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 29 242 boys and girls, aged 13 and 15 years...

  19. Climate remains an important driver of post-European vegetation change in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil Pederson,; Anthony W. D’Amato,; James M. Dyer,; Foster, David R.; Goldblum, David; Hart, Justin L.; Hessl, Amy E.; Iverson, Louis R.; Jackson, Stephen T.; Martin-Benito, Dario; McCarthy, Brian C.; McEwan, Ryan W.; Mladenoff, David J.; Parker, Albert J.; Shuman, Bryan; Williams, John W.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of climate on forest change during the past century in the eastern United States was evaluated in a recent paper (Nowacki & Abrams, 2014) that centers on an increase in ‘highly competitive mesophytic hardwoods’ (Nowacki & Abrams, 2008) and a concomitant decrease in the more xerophytic Quercus species. Nowacki & Abrams (2014) concluded that climate change has not contributed significantly to observed changes in forest composition. However, the authors restrict their focus to a single element of climate: increasing temperature since the end of the Little Ice Age ca. 150 years ago. In their study, species were binned into four classifications (e.g., Acer saccharum – ‘cool-adapted’, Acer rubrum – ‘warm-adapted’) based on average annual temperature within each species range in the United States, reducing the multifaceted character of climate into a single, categorical measure. The broad temperature classes not only veil the many biologically relevant aspects of temperature (e.g., seasonal and extreme temperatures) but they may also mask other influences, both climatic (e.g., moisture sensitivity) and nonclimatic (e.g., competition).

  20. CONSTITUTIONAL LANDMARKS OF POLITICAL PLURALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERHARD NICULESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order for democracy to result from freedom, the citizens’ participation in the creation and exercise of democratic power must be structured in a pluralist way. Art. 8(1 of the Romanian Constitution firstly imposes the organization of the company in parallel with the State’s organic structure as an indispensable requisite for the existence of democracy. In other words, there is no democracy without a civil society, distinct from the State. The organization of the civil society is necessary because the individual alone cannot determine a certain attitude of the political power: structuring gives weight to the action; the organization of citizens contributes to rendering their political participation more efficient. But the organization, structuring limits the freedom of people adhering to the structure.

  1. Assessing the quality of corporate social responsibility reports: the case of reporting practices in selected European Union member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hąbek, Patrycja; Wolniak, Radosław

    The organization may communicate its engagement in sustainability and may presents results achieved in this field by creating and publishing corporate social responsibility (CSR) reports. Today, we can observe a growing number of companies issuing such reports as a part of their annual reports or as stand-alone CSR reports. Despite the increase in the number of such reports their quality is different. CSR reports do not always provide complete data that readers desire, which in turn intensifies the problem with the evaluation and comparison of the organization's results achieved in this scope. Differences also occur between reporting models used in different EU countries caused by, inter alia, differently applied EU legislation on the disclosure of non-financial information in different Member States. This paper is one of the first attempts to perform a quantitative and qualitative analysis of corporate sustainability reporting practices in several European Union countries. The purpose of this article is to present the current state of CSR reporting practices in selected EU Member States and identify the differences in the quality and level of this kind of practices, taking into account the mandatory and voluntary model of disclosure. The study included separate CSR reports as well as annual reports with CSR sections and integrated reports published in 2012 in six selected EU Member States. The authors have used a specific evaluation tool in the examination of the individual reports. The assessment questionnaire consists of seventeen criteria grouped into two categories (relevance and credibility of information). In order to assess the quality of examined reports, the authors aggregated the indicators related with the reporting practices. The findings show that the quality level of the studied reports is generally low. Referring to its components, the relevance of the information provided in the assessed reports is at the higher level than its credibility. The

  2. Ontoteleological Constitution of Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Luiz Teixeira Boava

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is a pluri-disciplinary phenomenon, object of research in several areas of knowledge. However, studies on this theme present approaches that start to consider entrepreneurship as a field of private knowledge in the phase of epistemological construction. In this context, the aim of this investigation is to contribute to the discussions on the theme, through studies on the ontoteleological constitution of entrepreneurship, in propaedeutic character, deflagrating new approaches. Thus, there is a presentation concerning the study of entrepreneurship, which may emphasize its ontical and ontological aspects. In addition, the reason why it is complex to define entrepreneurship is investigated. Subjects regarding the philosophy of entrepreneurship are introduced, seeking to present the bases for an ontoteleological approach to the phenomenon. Such an approach assumes that the finality of the entrepreneurial act relates to the main principles and transformations required into the organization. Finally, it is concluded that man is an entrepreneurial being, the meta-entrepreneur, and his entrepreneurial actions are not determined by external factors, but rather by the condition of his potentiality.

  3. The Impact of Strong Climate Change on Inter-state Balancing in a Fully-renewable Simplified European Electricity System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohland, Jan; Witthaut, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    Electricity systems with a high penetration of renewables are strongly affected by weather patterns. Due to the variability of the climate system, a substantial fraction of energy supply needs to be provided by dispatchable power plants even if the consumption is on average balanced by renewables (e.g. Rodriguez et al. [2014]). In an interconnected system like the European electricity grid, benefits can arise from balancing generation mismatches spatially as long as overproduction in one region coincides with lack of generation in another region. These benefits might change as the climate changes and we thus investigate alterations of correlations between wind timeseries and Backup energy requirements. Our analysis is based on a five member model-ensemble from the EUROCORDEX initiative and we focus on onshore wind energy. We use the highest temporal (3h) and spatial (0.11°) resolution available to capture the intermittent and spatially diverse nature of renewable generation. In view of inter-model spread and other uncertainties, we use the strong climate change scenario rcp8.5 in order to obtain a high signal-to-noise ratio. We argue that rcp8.5 is best suited to reveal interesting interactions between climate change and renewable electricity system despite the fact that is in contradiction to the UNFCCC temperature goals (e.g. Schleussner et al. [2016]). We report spatially inhomogeneous alterations of correlations. In particular, we find increasing correlations between central and northern European states and decreasing correlations at the south-western and south-eastern margins of Europe. This hints to a lowering of balancing potentials within central and northern Europe due to climate change. A possible explanation might be associated to polar amplification and increasing frequencies of blocking events (Coumou [2015]). Moreover, we compute wind energy generation using a single-turbine model and a semi-random deployment procedure as developed in Monforti et al

  4. The diffusion of constitutional rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goderis, B.V.G.; Versteeg, M.

    Constitutions are commonly regarded as uniquely national products, shaped by domestic ideals and politics. This paper develops and empirically investigates a novel hypothesis, which is that constitutions are also shaped by transnational influence, or “diffusion.” Constitutional rights can diffuse

  5. VALUATION IN THE CONSTITUTIONAL ERA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brimer

    VALUATION IN THE CONSTITUTIONAL ERA. WJ du Plessis *. Which way you ought to go depends on where you want to get to... - Lewis Carroll, Alice in Wonderland1. 1. Introduction. The Constitution established a single system of law shaped by the Constitution itself.2 It protected certain existing rights but it also initiated ...

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF ECONOMIC CRISIS ON THE LABOUR IN THE EUROPEAN UNION’S MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina MĂRCUȚĂ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis is far to an end. After a recursion of the recession in 2012 and a continuance in 2013, its’ effects are increasingly stronger and the most tangible effect is the poverty increase among the active population. It is due to the revenues decrease, to poverty and exclusion’s risks, the attenuation of protection effects which are socially and initially carried out by the decrement of tax incomes and by the increase of expenditures level for social performances. These effects are being acutely experienced, particularly by the member states in the Southern and Eastern Europe. Therefore, at the E.U. point, one performed studies, one determined the causes and it is trying to find solutions. This scientific paper aims to analyze the main parameters onto one must interfere in and the actions that should be considered in order to increase population’s standard of living.

  7. Does culture affect divorce? evidence from European immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Delia; Marcén, Miriam; Sevilla, Almudena

    2013-06-01

    This article explores the role of culture in determining divorce by examining country-of-origin differences in divorce rates of immigrants in the United States. Because childhood-arriving immigrants are all exposed to a common set of U.S. laws and institutions, we interpret relationships between their divorce tendencies and home-country divorce rates as evidence of the effect of culture. Our results are robust to controlling for several home-country variables, including average church attendance and gross domestic product (GDP). Moreover, specifications with country-of-origin fixed effects suggest that immigrants from countries with low divorce rates are especially less likely to be divorced if they reside among a large number of coethnics. Supplemental analyses indicate that divorce culture has a stronger impact on the divorce decisions of females than of males, pointing to a potentially gendered nature of divorce taboos.

  8. [Case report: Porcine circovirus type 2 infection in an European wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the state of Brandenburg, Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, C; Neumann, G; Grütze, I; Engelhardt, A; Mirle, C; Ehlert, F; Hlinak, A

    2003-10-01

    This case represents the first case of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV-2)--infection in a free living European wild boar associated with morphological lesions, which are regarded as characteristic for Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS) in domestic pigs. The animal, an approximately 10 month old male, was found dead in a rural area within the state of Brandenburg, Germany. The closest commercial pig farm is located in 3 km distance from the spot where the carcass was found. At necropsy, the animal was found to be in a runted condition. Morphological investigation revealed two lesion complexes. Firstly, lymphatic depletion was present in different organs. Mainly the white pulp of the spleen was affected, where lymph follicles and periarteriolar lymphatic sheaths were nearly completely depleted of lymphoid cells. The former lymphatic areas could only be identified by the presence of histiocytic cells. Secondly, there were widely distributed lesions indicative of a bacterial septicemia i.e. purulent-necrotizing lymphadenitis, pulpous hyperplasia of the spleen, miliary lytic liver necroses and foci of fibrinous pneumonia. Within the lesions, bacterial colonies were found (short Gram-negative rods). Bacteriology revealed a septicemic Salmonella choleraesuis var. Kunzendorf--infection. Virologically, the animal was tested with negative results for Classical Swine Fever Virus and PRRSV. The unusual depletion of the lymphatic tissue mainly in the spleen led to the suspicion of a PCV-2 infection. Typical circoviral particles were found by negative-contrast electron microscopy in samples from spleen and lymph nodes. Using a commercial antiserum against Porcine Circovirus, positive staining was found by fluorescence microscopy in tonsils, spleen and lymph nodes. Finally, the virus was identified to be PCV-2 by species-specific PCR. The presented case rises the questions if PCV-2 is endemic in the European wild boar population at least in certain areas, if it is

  9. Estradiol differentially affects auditory recognition and learning according to photoperiodic state in the adult male songbird, European starling (Sturnus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Calisi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in hormones can affect many types of learning in vertebrates. Adults experience fluctuations in a multitude of hormones over a temporal scale, from local, rapid action to more long-term, seasonal changes. Endocrine changes during development can affect behavioral outcomes in adulthood, but how learning is affected in adults by hormone fluctuations experienced during adulthood is less understood. Previous reports have implicated the sex steroid hormone estradiol (E2 in both male and female vertebrate cognitive functioning. Here, we examined the effects of E2 on auditory recognition and learning in male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris. European starlings are photoperiodic, seasonally breeding songbirds that undergo different periods of reproductive activity according to annual changes in day length. We simulated these reproductive periods, specifically 1. photosensitivity, 2. photostimulation, and 3. photorefractoriness in captive birds by altering day length. During each period, we manipulated circulating E2 and examined multiple measures of learning. To manipulate circulating E2, we used subcutaneous implants containing either 17-β E2 and/or fadrozole (FAD, a highly specific aromatase inhibitor that suppresses E2 production in the body and the brain, and measured the latency for birds to learn and respond to short, male conspecific song segments (motifs. We report that photostimulated birds given E2 had higher response rates and responded with better accuracy than those given saline controls or FAD. Conversely, photosensitive, animals treated with E2 responded with less accuracy than those given FAD. These results demonstrate how circulating E2 and photoperiod can interact to shape auditory recognition and learning in adults, driving it in opposite directions in different states.

  10. Effects of European land use on contemporary tree-climate relationships in the northeastern United States: Implications for predictive models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goring, S. J.; Cogbill, C. V.; Dawson, A.; Hooten, M.; McLachlan, J. S.; Mladenoff, D. J.; Paciorek, C. J.; Ruid, M.; Tipton, J.; Williams, J. W.; Record, S.; Matthes, J. H.; Dietze, M.

    2014-12-01

    Much of our understanding of the climatic controls on tree species distributions is based on contemporary observational datasets. For example, forest inventory analysis (FIA) and other spatial datasets are used to build correlative models of climate suitability for plant taxa for use in environmental niche models. More complex dynamic models rely on species interactions, physiological processes, and competition, among other processes, that are also parameterized against contemporary data. However, as much as a quarter of the forested region in the upper Midwestern United States may be considered novel relative to pre-settlement baselines (Goring et al. submitted). Hence, modern surveys or even long-term datasets may represent only a portion of the ecological or climate space taxa might occupy. Using gridded datasets of pre-settlement vegetation for the northeastern United States from Town Propritor Suveys and the Public Land Survey, we examine the effects of European land-use conversion - logging, agricultural conversion and re-establishment - on climate-vegetation relationships. We show that in regions where land-use change is climatically biased, such as conversion to agriculture along the prairie-forest boundary, impacts on the realized climatic niches for various tree taxa can be significant. Improving predicted distributions of taxa is critical for planning and mitigating the effects of widespread shifts in forest composition resulting from climate change. Using pre-settlement data can improve our understanding of the potential niches occupied by major forest taxa, improving the predictive abilities of environmental niche and mechanistic models.

  11. European Integration and the Transition of Eastern European States. The New Central Europe and Romania's Interest in Regional Cooperation in the Black Sea - Danube Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flore POP

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This short article presents the most important directions of the evolution of Central and Eastern Europe during the second half of the 20th century during the period marked by the coming into power and then the downfall of the communism. One could also note that the Central and Eastern European countries have undergone several political and economic transitions- and for Romania’s case- the burdening heritage of the austerity economic policy that has been implemented during the years will affect the economic development of the countries on the long term. The transition towards market economy was realized upon the political decision of political accession to the free market principle. The new beginning of the regional integration process made the countries in the Danube-Black Sea region, sign new agreements for political and economic cooperation. The emergence of new countries on European and Asian maps opens new opportunities for regional cooperation, especially for environmental issues, which brings new dimensions for the global process of European integration and of the integration of the regional economies into the global economies.

  12. In quest of constitutional principles of "neurolaw".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzetti, Federico Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    The growing use of brain imaging technology and the developing of cognitive neuroscience pose unaccustomed challenges to legal systems. Until now, the fields of Law much affected are the civil and criminal law and procedure, but the constitutional dimension of "neurolaw" cannot be easily underestimated. As the capacity to investigate and to trace brain mechanisms and functional neural activities increases, it becomes urgent the recognition and definition of the unalienable rights and fundamental values in respect of this new techno-scientific power, that must be protected and safeguard at "constitutional level" of norms such as: human dignity, personal identity, authenticity and the pursuit of individual "happiness". As the same as for the law regulating research and experimentation on human genome adopted in the past years, one may also argue if the above mentioned fundamental principles of "neurolaw" must be fixed and disciplined also at European and International level.

  13. A Tensão entre Constitucionalismo e Exceção: a Ordem Estatal sobreposta aos Direitos Fundamentais / The Tension between Constitutionalism and Exception: when the State Order Prevails over Fundamental Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Smidt Simon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Cada vez mais o poder público limita direitos e aumenta a repressão, sem corrigir as falhas que levam ao conflito. Isso indica o uso do direito como garantidor de ordem, não de liberdade. O intento deste artigo é mostrar, discutindo as noções de estado e constituição, o conflito entre liberdade e ordem e como o direito serve para proteger a primeira. Assim, relaciona-se a legalidade no estado contemporâneo com a limitação do poder. Faz-se, então, a relação com a ideia de nação e a prevalência da vontade do estado. Após, trabalha-se o estado de exceção e como a ordem e a coerção estatal são postas acima dos direitos e garantias constitucionais. A prevalência da ordem sobre a proteção constitucional pode ser vista nas manifestações de junho de 2013; nos rolezinhos e na situação do presídio de Pedrinhas, exemplos da lógica do estado de exceção incorporada à vida política brasileira, o que responde à discussão teórica que os antecede. Ademais, o estado brasileiro aumenta seu poder de repressão com estratégias jurídicas que diminuem seus limites ou seu controle. O texto defende a necessidade de retomar as lógicas da legalidade e do constitucionalismo para combater a naturalização do estado de exceção.   Abstract: Nowadays is getting usual for the government to limit rights and expand its capacity of repression without correcting the flaws that cause conflicts. This indicates the use of the law as a way to grant order, not liberty. The aim of this article is to show, discussing the ideas of state and constitution, the tension between liberty and order and how the law should work to protect the former. Thus, the contemporaneous state is related to legality, understood as a mean to limit the state power. Then, the concept of state of exception is presented and is shown as the state order and coercion overlap constitutional rights. This overlapping can be seen in the “June 2013” protests; in

  14. Impact of Contemporary Crisis on the European Union's and United States of America’s Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela NECULITA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is a complex set of processes with the purpose of achieving an international integration at economic, military, political, socio-cultural and security level, aiming to equalize the standards of living and develop on a global scale. Just because of globalization, the effects of a global crisis can propagate extremely fast at planetary level, and countries must find the resources to cope with the shocks that may arise. The contemporary phenomenon of globalization, which has widened the global area of economies, sectors and firms confrontation, has laid an emphasis on their competitiveness importance for their favorable position in the international competition. In the same time, has obliged to take proper and concerted measures to stimulate the determining factors of action and to take better advantage of their effects. The purpose of the paper is to determine whether an increase in integration could reduce the disparities between countries. The States and regions need significant financial help to solve various problems and achieve their potential of growth.

  15. Selected effects of financing of agricultural holdings in new member states of the european union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Kołoszko-Chomentowska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of financing of agricultural holdings in new member states of the EU and the development of these holdings are assessed. The income of a family-owned agricultural holding was accepted as the basic measure of a holding’s capability for extended reproduction and development. Selected elements of financial analysis were also applied. The level of family farm income and reinvestment of fixed assets was varied in EU-10 agricultural holdings over the years 2004-2009. The level of family farm income was mainly dependent on subsidies and subventions. A low dependence between the value of family farm income and net investment value was observed (R2=0.243, and a high dependence between labour productivity and labour profitability was observed (R2=0.734.Positive changes took place in the equipping of agricultural holdings with fixed assets. Growth of capital saturation of land was observed in all countries. Holdings taking advantage of external sources of financing had greater developmental capabilities. The net investment value was positively correlated with the debt ratio, although this dependence was low.

  16. EUROPEAN AUSTERITY WITHOUT GROWTH? EUROPEAN GROWTH WITHOUT EUROPEAN DEMOCRACY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montani Guido

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The European project is facing a crisis. Citizens no longer understand what the EU is about. Young people and the new ruling class have forgotten the clear message of the European project launched just after the Second World War "No wars ever again among Europeans." The founding fathers of the European Union are mentioned in history textbooks, but today Europe is felt as an irritating bureaucracy. In Europe, peace and economic stability are considered as a natural state, a gift from above. Why keep a useless EU alive? The state of the European Union is swiftly degenerating. In almost all the member states, the anti-European forces are gaining ground. Populism is not a new ideology and is not necessarily European: let's recall Peronism. In today's Europe populism is the new manifestation of nationalism. In Italy the Lega Nord is in Berlusconi's eurosceptic government. In France, the National Front is endangering UMP's hegemony. In Belgium the rows between the Flemish and the Walloons threatens the state's unity. In the Netherlands, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Austria and Finland, populist forces are either in the government or strongly influencing the government. National-populism is different from the nationalism of the past. De Gaulle's nationalism was an ideology founded on the "grandeur" of France's history and on a certain idea of Europe, which was "l'Europe de patrie", a kind of European unity accepting French leadership in world politics. Today national-populism is a form of micro-nationalism: it opposes the European project but without having a serious alternative. This is why populism is dangerous. Its real goal is not only the breaking down of the European Union but also the disintegration of the old nation states into micro-ethnic states, as what happened in former Yugoslavia.

  17. Local state method applied on the formulation of damage constitutive models for concrete/Metodo do estado local aplicado na formulacao de modelos constitutivos de dano para o concreto

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pituba, Jose Julio de Cerqueira

    2009-01-01

    .... In a general way, this paper intends to show the efficiency of constitutive models based on Thermodynamics principles, presenting a constitutive model applied to the analysis of reinforced concrete structures...

  18. [Socioeconomic Costs of Asthma in the European Union, United States and Canada: A Systematic Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Junoy, Jaume; Pascual-Argenté, Natàlia

    2017-03-09

    Asthma is responsible for a large number of doctor and emergency visits due to exacerbations and inadequate control of the disease, which give rise to very high associated economic costs. The social cost of asthma comprises both the healthcare and non-healthcare costs. The purpose of this study was to analyse up-to-date estimates of the social cost of asthma, with special reference to the influence of level of severity and degree of control. A systematic review of original cost-of-illness studies of asthma published in English or Spanish between January 2004 and December 2014 and indexed in PubMed, IBECS or IME was conducted. 29 cost-of-illness studies of asthma were identified, 21 of which used the societal perspective. Only 10 studies estimated the incremental cost of asthma with a control group, and none of them refers to EU countries. Of these 10, only 4 were regarded as high-quality evidence, insofar as they combined a matched control with regression models. The annual incremental cost of asthma in adults ranged from €416 to €5,317. The incremental healthcare cost of asthma increased with level of severity, from €964 for intermittent asthma to €11,703 for severe persistent asthma in adults. In adults, the incremental non-healthcare cost of asthma ranged from €136 to €3,461. Selected studies in this review show great heterogeneity due to different population characteristics, study designs and valuation methods, which limits their comparability. However, it can be concluded that incremental healthcare costs of asthma, compared to people without asthma, exceeds seven hundred Euros (valued in 2013) in most of the reviwed estimation for several countries. This figure is greater for studies from the United States. The incremental cost per patient increases very rapidly with level of severity and decreases with asthma patient control.

  19. Tax cooperation among member states of European Union and Directive on administrative cooperation in the field of taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimovski Aleksandar G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries have possibility to choose between several alternatives for cooperation in international tax matters at global level. They can decide not to cooperate or provide some form of tax cooperation. Because of harmful tax competition among countries and efforts of international organizations, all countries in the world are oblidged to comply with one of multiple alternatives for tax cooperation. Situation in European Union (hereinafter EU is specific. EU is not country or classic international organization. By the reason of its successful functioning, EU has need for tax cooperation. EU has attempted to harmonise tax policies of member states, but member states did not approve that. Only indirect taxes are harmonized on EU level, direct taxes are harmonized only to the point necessarily for functioning of single market. That is why tax cooperation instruments are so important. Object of this paper are procedures and measures, stipulated by the most important instrument in the field of tax cooperation enacted by institutions of EU, its development and status in international tax law. Regulatives and directives in field of tax cooperation in the EU are 'pioneers' in tax matters. EU instruments provide standards which are subsequently accepted by several international organizations - Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD and United Nations (UN. Our purpose is to present positive and negative aspects of tax cooperation in the EU. In time of crisis efficient tax cooperation provides higher revenues for the member states, on the other hand, taxpayers and tax administrations have increased expenses as result of tax cooperation which are not fairly distributed.

  20. constitutional adjudication in ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    2000-01-25

    Jan 25, 2000 ... personal background of the Chief Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States, indicating very rich experience in other branches of the government before assum- ing judicial position, indeed one was even a. President of the country see William. Rehnquist, "Lecture: Remarks of the Chief. Justice: My ...

  1. A Comparative Analysis of E-Learning Policy Formulation in the European Union and the United States: Discursive Convergence and Divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erichsen, Elizabeth Roumell; Salajan, Florin D.

    2014-01-01

    This study developed a framework that compares the content and purposes of "federal" level European Union (EU) and United States (US) e-learning policy to ascertain trends, patterns, and points of convergence and divergence across the years 1994-2010. It reveals that the EU and US are applying similar rhetoric for policy framing,…

  2. State of the art report on risk and exposure data. SafetyNet, Building the European Road Safety Observatory, Workpackage 2, Deliverable D2.1.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yannis, G. Papadimitriou, E. Lejeune, P. Treny, V. Hemdorff, S. Bergel, R. Haddak, M. Holló, P. Cardoso, J. Bijleveld, F. Houwing, S. & Bjørnskau, T.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this Report is the analysis of the state-of-the-art in risk and exposure data availability, collection methodologies and use in the European Union. More specifically, the analysis aims to explore the concepts of exposure and risk, as well as the theoretical properties of the various

  3. Standard Setting in Relation to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: The Case of the State Examination of Dutch as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechger, Timo M.; Kuijper, Henk; Maris, Gunter

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on two related studies carried out to link the State examination of Dutch as a second language to the Common European Framework of Reference for languages (CEFR). In the first study, key persons from institutions for higher education were asked to determine the minimally required language level of beginning students. In the…

  4. Differentiated integration and disintegration in the European Union: State-of-the-art and ways for future research

    OpenAIRE

    Trondal, Jarle; Gänzle, Stefan; Leruth, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Presentation on department page: http://www.uia.no/no/portaler/om_universitetet/oekonomi_og_samfunnsvitenskap/statsvitenskap_og_ledelsesfag/ forskning_isl/isl_working_papers_series Following the United Kingdom (UK)’s vote to leave the European Union (EU) on 23 June 2016, the process of European integration is now at a critical juncture. Leaving aside Greenland’s departure from the European Community in 1983 – because of its political union with Denmark, Greenland has been recognized as one...

  5. REASONS CONCERNING THE RESTRICTION OF SOME RIGHTS IN COMPLIANCE WITH THE PROVISIONS OF ART. 53 OF CONSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius ANDREESCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available An essential dimension of the lawful state is represented by the consecration and guaranteeing of the fundamental rights and liberties, the ensuring of the optimum conditions for their exercising. The state authorities have the negative obligation to restrain from any arbitrary or excessive requirement that may restrict or condition the exercise of the constitutional right. In order to be legitimate and constitutional, any restriction of the exercise of the fundamental rights and liberties through the measures prescribed by the state’s authorities, needs to have the character of exemption, not to affect the substance of the law and to fulfill all conditions stipulated by article 53 of Constitution. In relation to these premises we analyze in this study the constitutional institution of restraining some rights’ exercising and the relevant aspects of jurisprudence. The observance of the principle of proportionality is one of the constitutional requirements in order that such a restrictive measure be legitimate. The main particularities of the principle of proportionality applied in the matter of restraining some rights’ exercising are analyzed with reference to the jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court and the European Court of Human’s Rights.

  6. Constitutional judges (guarantee of the Constitution and responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Ansuátegui Roig

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available My aim in this paper is to propose a reflection on the position and the importance that the constitutional judge has in the legal systems of contemporary constitutionalism. The figure of the judge responsible of protecting the Constitution is a key institution, without which we cannot understand the laws of constitutional democracies, their current lines of development, and the guarantee of rights and freedoms that constitute the normative core of these systems. Moreover, the reflection on the exercise of the powers of the judge, its scope and its justification is an important part of contemporary legal discussion, still relevant, albeit not exclusively - in the field of legal philosophy. The object of attention of my reflection is the judge who has the power of judicial review, in a scheme of defense of the Constitution, regardless the specific ways of this defense.

  7. Constitutionalism and Constitutional Anomie in the New Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Blokker, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The recent (re-)establishment of constitutional democracies in Central and Eastern Europe is affected by a paradoxical situation: while modern constitutionalism was significantly strenghtened by the ‘new constitutionalism’ in the region, it is itself increasingly seen as out of touch with (pluralist) reality. In the paper, I explore to what extent it can be claimed that the new constitutionalism adopted in the former communist countries is a reinvigorated version of ‘traditional’ modern const...

  8. Sources and mixing state of size-resolved elemental carbon particles in a European megacity: Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Healy

    2012-02-01

    mass was apportioned to fossil fuel and biomass burning respectively using the ATOFMS data compared with 85% and 15% respectively for BC estimated from the aethalometer model. On average, the mass size distribution for EC particles is bimodal; the smaller mode is attributed to locally emitted, mostly externally mixed EC particles, while the larger mode is dominated by aged, internally mixed ECOCNOx particles associated with continental transport events. Periods of continental influence were identified using the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM "FLEXPART". A consistent minimum between the two EC mass size modes was observed at approximately 400 nm for the measurement period. EC particles below this size are attributed to local emissions using chemical mixing state information and contribute 79% of the scaled ATOFMS EC particle mass, while particles above this size are attributed to continental transport events and contribute 21% of the EC particle mass. These results clearly demonstrate the potential benefit of monitoring size-resolved mass concentrations for the separation of local and continental EC emissions. Knowledge of the relative input of these emissions is essential for assessing the effectiveness of local abatement strategies.

  9. Institutional independence and the constitutionality of legislation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The independence of the judiciary is the bedrock of the democratic system of government. Judicial independence is the gateway to the proper performance of the courts of their role of keeping all organs of state within the boundaries of their powers under the Constitution. The test for determining whether judicial ...

  10. Constitutional provisions regarding juristic persons | Pienaar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The circumstances where juristic persons act as organs of state are discussed with reference to case law. Difference of opinion exists regarding the horizontal application of the Bill of Rights, that is the application of the Bill of Rights to private law relationships. In terms of the interim Constitution the Bill of Rights was applied ...

  11. Legitimacy of the Vidovdan Constitution and relationships established thereby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksić Sava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Vidovdan Constitution (1921 was the first constitution of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenians. Serbian ruling parties advocated that the constitution should be adopted in Parliament by a simple majority vote of Serbs, Croats and Slovenians all together, considering that it was to be the constitution of 'one nation with three names'. On the other hand, Croatian and Slovenian parties took the position that the constitution should be approved by a majority vote of each of the three nations (Serbs, Croats and Slovenians separately. The Constitution was adopted on Vidovdan (St. Vitus Day, on 28th June 1921, by the Serbian and Muslim majority. However, this constitution was not legitimate, because the provisions it rested on were not approved by the parliamentary majority of each nation separately but by the parliamentary majority of all nations together, where the three nations had unequal number of representative. Under the Vidovdan Constitution, the territory of the state was centralized, church authorities did not have the status of state authority, and the Church was only acknowledged the status of an autonomous organization. This Constitution established constitutional monarchy as a form of government. It further envisaged that the King did not have any authorities outside the Constitution, and that there were no authorities that could not be taken away from him under the Constitution.

  12. The Reflection of the Current Crisis on the Economic Growth in the European Union New Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Criste

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the economic growth evolution in the European Unionnew member states, being part of a more comprehensive research regarding the euro adoptionchallenges, taking as benchmark Slovakia and Slovenia, countries that already entered the euro zone.The research underlines the fact that, starting with the mid-September 2008, the macroeconomiclandscape of the analyzed countries changed radically, registering a decrease of the economicactivities determined both by a diminished export activity and by a reduced internal demand, witheffects on the firms’ profitability and on the deterioration of the labour market situation. The resultsshow that the severity of the financial global crisis effects was different in the analyzed countries, as aresponse to various “paths” of economic development, with less or more important vulnerabilities,with differences in the extent to which the economies are based on external demand and on creditactivity induced from abroad. The countries that are suffering the deepest recessions are those thatregistered not only a decline of exports, but also a collapse of the internal demand, as a result ofstopping the credit activities that were a support for the internal demand.

  13. Labour Market Performance in the New Member States of the European Union in the Context of the Current Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Georgeta Ailincă

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The global economic and financial crisis has generated a series of adjustments both in terms ofmacroeconomic policies and especially in terms of real economies developments. One field with majorimpact on the economies development, especially in this period, is the labour market. Referring to the labourmarket, the results at the global, regional and local levels appear extremely negative. Thus, only in theEuropean Union (EU27 approximately 23.248 million men and women were unemployed in November2010, of which 15.924 million people in the euro area, according to Eurostat. At the end of 2010, the EU27unemployment rate was 9.6% and in the euro area it reached no less than 10%. Lately, in the labour market,although one can observe some temporary improvements, from month to month, the situation remains criticaldue to the delay in creating new jobs. In this context, the paper aims to capture, through a case study, thedevelopments of EU New Member States (NMS labour market, before and after the emergence of the crisis.The obvious and immediate implications of the crisis on the labour market are the increase of unemployment,especially the long-term unemployment, and the more difficult recovery of the NMS labour market,compared with euro area countries.

  14. Leaders And Followers In The Effectiveness Of Public Safety Services In European States – A Spatial Frontier Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żółtaszek Agata

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Public safety is an important factor in both public and private life. Simultaneously it is one of the most regionally diverse sectors, due to historical, cultural, social, legal, and financial differences.Therefore, it is very difficult to compare public safety policies and facilities directly. However, assessment and comparison are crucial factors for defining the best practices and implementing the “learning-from-the-best” policy, which is important in the process of regional development and globalization. Fortunately some quantitative methods, such as DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis enable this kind of research. DEA allows for analyzing relative effectiveness based on inputs and outputs, without incorporating procedural specifics of public safety. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to perform a regional analysis of the technical effectiveness of public safety systems in European states in 2003 and 2012 by utilizing an optimization method of DEA. Based on the results of this research countries are divided into two groups - effective and ineffective. Countries with effective systems are considered leaders. They present best practices which should be treated as benchmarks for the countries with ineffective systems, i.e. followers.

  15. The Paris Climate Agreement and the Three Largest Emitters: China, the United States, and the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda A. Schreurs

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Paris Agreement would not have come into being had China, the United States (US, and the European Union (EU, which together contribute more than half of all global greenhouse gas emissions, not signaled their intent to take major steps to reduce their domestic emissions. The EU has been at the forefront of global climate change measures for years having issued binding domestic emission reduction targets for 2020 and 2030. For many years, China refused to announce a target date for when it might begin reducing its greenhouse gas emissions, and the US Congress blocked action on climate change.  In the lead up to the Paris climate negotiations, however, there were major shifts in China’s and the US’s climate positions. This commentary examines the climate policies of the three largest emitters and the factors motivating the positions they took in the Paris negotiations. Given that the commitments made in Paris are most likely insufficient to keep global temperature from rising 2 °C above pre-industrial levels, the commentary also considers what the likelihood is that these three major economies will strengthen their emission reduction targets in the near future.

  16. Correlates of self-reported exposure to advertising of tobacco products and electronic cigarettes across 28 European Union member states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippidis, Filippos T; Laverty, Anthony A; Fernandez, Esteve; Mons, Ute; Tigova, Olena; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite advertising bans in most European Union (EU) member states, outlets for promotion of tobacco products and especially e-cigarettes still exist. This study aimed to assess the correlates of self-reported exposure to tobacco products and e-cigarettee advertising in the EU. Methods We analysed data from wave 82.4 of the Eurobarometer survey (November–December 2014), collected through interviews in 28 EU member states (n=27 801 aged ≥15 years) and data on bans of tobacco advertising extracted from the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS, 2013). We used multilevel logistic regression to assess sociodemographic correlates of self-reported exposure to any tobacco and e-cigarette advertisements. Results 40% and 41.5% of the respondents reported having seen any e-cigarette and tobacco product advertisement respectively within the past year. Current smokers, males, younger respondents, those with financial difficulties, people who had tried e-cigarettes and daily internet users were more likely to report having seen an e-cigarette and a tobacco product advertisement. Respondents in countries with more comprehensive advertising bans were less likely to self-report exposure to any tobacco advertisements (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.79 to 0.96 for one-unit increase in TCS advertising score), but not e-cigarette advertisements (OR 1.08; 95% CI 0.95 to 1.22). Conclusion Ten years after ratification of the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, self-reported exposure to tobacco and e-cigarette advertising in the EU is higher in e-cigarette and tobacco users, as well as those with internet access. The implementation of the Tobacco Products Directive may result in significant changes in e-cigarette advertising, therefore improved monitoring of advertising exposure is required in the coming years. PMID:28607098

  17. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF THE CURRENCY REGIME CHANGE SHOCK ON THE EXTERNAL EQUILIBRIUM OF SOME NEW EUROPEAN UNION MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMELIA MILEA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalization and regionalization, we consider to be important an analysis of the asymmetries from the balances of payments of the member states of the European Union (EU. The propagation of a shock determines different effects in the member states of the European Union, due to the existence of some heterogeneous elements in the structure of these economies. Such a situation implies the risk of occurrence of divergences between the member states regarding the joint decisions with impact on the economic development and the external equilibrium. The article aims at providing a theoretical analysis of the way a shock considered by the authors as being representative affects the current account balance of some countries with different economic characteristics, at least in terms of the foreign exchange regime. The theoretical analysis is followed by an empirical analysis of two European Union countries that have undergone the shock of the exchange rate regime shift generated by the entry into ERM II (Exchange Rate Mechanism II. Our research aims at showing the way in which this shock has been reflected upon the balance of the current account, and if the change of the exchange rate regime has been beneficial or not for the economies analysed. The article is based on wider research studies concerning the matters of external equilibrium, asymmetric shocks and European integration, and which have been developed by the authors during the last three years.

  18. Sub-National Constitutions in Ethiopia: Towards Entrenching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4 Thus this paper offers an overview of state constitutions in Ethiopia with a view to highlighting their significance in the public life of Ethiopians. It also provides an analysis of how we can deepen and entrench constitutionalism in the states of ...

  19. Essential Medicines in National Constitutions: Progress Since 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrina Perehudoff, S; Toebes, Brigit; Hogerzeil, Hans

    2016-06-01

    A constitutional guarantee of access to essential medicines has been identified as an important indicator of government commitment to the progressive realization of the right to the highest attainable standard of health. The objective of this study was to evaluate provisions on access to essential medicines in national constitutions, to identify comprehensive examples of constitutional text on medicines that can be used as a model for other countries, and to evaluate the evolution of constitutional medicines-related rights since 2008. Relevant articles were selected from an inventory of constitutional texts from WHO member states. References to states' legal obligations under international human rights law were evaluated. Twenty-two constitutions worldwide now oblige governments to protect and/or to fulfill accessibility of, availability of, and/or quality of medicines. Since 2008, state responsibilities to fulfill access to essential medicines have expanded in five constitutions, been maintained in four constitutions, and have regressed in one constitution. Government commitments to essential medicines are an important foundation of health system equity and are included increasingly in state constitutions.

  20. Constitutions compared. An introduction to comparative constitutional law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heringa, A.W.; Kiiver, P.

    2012-01-01

    This handbook provides a user-friendly introduction to comparative constitutional law. For each area of constitutional law, a general introduction and a comparative overview is provided, which is then followed by more detailed country chapters on that specific area. The subjects covered are the

  1. Constitutions compared : An introduction to comparative constitutional law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heringa, Aalt Willem

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a user-friendly introduction to comparative constitutional law. For each area of constitutional law, a general introduction and a comparative overview is provided, which is then followed by more detailed country chapters on that specific area. The subjects covered are the origins

  2. Método do estado local aplicado na formulação de modelos constitutivos de dano para o concreto = Local state method applied on the formulation of damage constitutive models for concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Julio de Cerqueira Pituba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda alguns fundamentos da Termodinâmica com relação aosmeios contínuos particularizados para o Método do Estado Local aplicado na formulação de modelos de dano. Inicialmente, são apresentados alguns aspectos da Mecânica do Dano Contínuo, que se constitui numa ferramenta de grande aplicabilidade na modelagemmacroscópica de materiais. Em seguida, o trabalho trata dos princípios da Termodinâmica dos Processos Irreversíveis. De maneira geral, o objetivo do trabalho é demonstrar a eficiência de modelos constitutivos formulados pelos fundamentos da Termodinâmica.Como exemplo da formulação abordada, é derivado um modelo constitutivo aplicado à análise de estruturas de concreto armado. As respostas numéricas obtidas com a aplicação do modelo são comparadas com uma série de respostas experimentais de vigas (biapoiadas ecom diferentes taxas de armadura.This work deals with some Thermodynamics principles related to continuum media that are particularized to the Local State Methodused in the formulation of damage models. Initially, some aspects of Continuum Damage Mechanics (CDM are discussed, which is an applicable tool for macroscopic modelling of materials. In a general way, this paper intends to show the efficiency of constitutive modelsbased on Thermodynamics principles, presenting a constitutive model applied to the analysis of reinforced concrete structures. To show the accuracy of the proposed formulation, the numerical results of a simply supported beam with different reinforcement rates are compared with its experimental data.

  3. 118 CONSTITUTIONALISM AND GOOD GOVERNANCE IN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    3 J.A Sokefun, et. al., Human Right Law, (Lagos, National Open University of Nigeria, 2008), p.14. I am not ... of the organs of government of a state and declares the principle governing the operation of ... By this he meant The Magna Carta, the Bill of Rights of 1689, the Parliament Acts of 1911 and 1949, the European.

  4. Correlates of self-reported exposure to advertising of tobacco products and electronic cigarettes across 28 European Union member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippidis, Filippos T; Laverty, Anthony A; Fernandez, Esteve; Mons, Ute; Tigova, Olena; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2017-12-01

    Despite advertising bans in most European Union (EU) member states, outlets for promotion of tobacco products and especially e-cigarettes still exist. This study aimed to assess the correlates of self-reported exposure to tobacco products and e-cigarettee advertising in the EU. We analysed data from wave 82.4 of the Eurobarometer survey (November-December 2014), collected through interviews in 28 EU member states (n=27 801 aged ≥15 years) and data on bans of tobacco advertising extracted from the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS, 2013). We used multilevel logistic regression to assess sociodemographic correlates of self-reported exposure to any tobacco and e-cigarette advertisements. 40% and 41.5% of the respondents reported having seen any e-cigarette and tobacco product advertisement respectively within the past year. Current smokers, males, younger respondents, those with financial difficulties, people who had tried e-cigarettes and daily internet users were more likely to report having seen an e-cigarette and a tobacco product advertisement. Respondents in countries with more comprehensive advertising bans were less likely to self-report exposure to any tobacco advertisements (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.79 to 0.96 for one-unit increase in TCS advertising score), but not e-cigarette advertisements (OR 1.08; 95% CI 0.95 to 1.22). Ten years after ratification of the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, self-reported exposure to tobacco and e-cigarette advertising in the EU is higher in e-cigarette and tobacco users, as well as those with internet access. The implementation of the Tobacco Products Directive may result in significant changes in e-cigarette advertising, therefore improved monitoring of advertising exposure is required in the coming years. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. State of implementation of directive 2013/59/Euratom regarding radon protection in selected member states of the European Union; Stand der Umsetzung der Richtlinie 2013/59/Euratom hinsichtlich des Radonschutzes in ausgewaehlten Mitgliedstaaten der EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, Stephanie [Saechsisches Staatsministerium fuer Umwelt und Landwirtschaft (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Directive 2013/59/Euratom came 6th February 2014 into force. The member states have to implement the directive into national legislation until 6th of February 2018. According to different legal structures in the member states legislation will be comparable with regards to content, but may be implemented in different legal areas. Additionally the different current experience regarding radon regulation as well as different expertise with all aspects of radon protection will affect the implementation. Activities for implementation started in many member states, but at present it is not possible to make a mandatory statement for any member state, which modifications will come until 2018. On the other hand it is assumed that member states who have engaged themselves with radon protection issues since many years will not change their plans basically until 2018. The member states mentioned in the following text are chosen exemplary. A comprehensive compilation of the situation in all member states of the European Union was not possible. The inclusion of Switzerland resulted from the fact, that this European country is basically orientating its radon regulations on the international state of the art and international (also European) legislation.

  6. European and National Identities in EU's Old and New Member States: Ethnic, Civic, Instrumental and Symbolic Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Kandulla

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we empirically test three of the most significant theories about the emergence of a European identity. The three approaches considered here are, respectively: first, a "cultural" theory, which understands identities as being based on ethno-cultural factors generated through a long-term (historical process; second, an "instrumental" theory, which conceives of identities as being based on self-interested calculation (whether economic or political; and a third "civic" theory, which understands identities as being based on agreement over rules for peaceful political co-existence. Our empirical test of these theories exploits Eurobarometer data. In recent years, many researchers have become increasingly dissatisfied with the way these surveys poll attitudes towards the EU. We have contributed to this debate by designing special new questions to measure national and European identities which were included in Eurobarometer 57.2 and are used here for this analysis. Our results provide only partial support for the theories mentioned above. We find that national and European identities are compatible. This is, in part, because while national identities are largely "cultural", European identities are primarily "instrumental". However, we also find that there is a sufficient European common "cultural" ground for a European identity to emerge. We have also confirmed that, because national and European identities are different, the development of a European identity does not necessarily imply the transfer of loyalties from the national to the supranational level. In all the countries analysed here, attachment to the nation remains strong, and certainly greater than attachment to Europe. We also show that it is harder for a European identity to develop in countries with a strong sense of national pride.

  7. Constitutive rules, language, and ontology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindriks, Frank

    It is a commonplace within philosophy that the ontology of institutions can be captured in terms of constitutive rules. What exactly such rules are, however, is not well understood. They are usually contrasted to regulative rules: constitutive rules (such as the rules of chess) make institutional

  8. A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Reis, Martina; Wang, Yongqi; Bono Maurizio Sacchi Bassi, Adalberto

    2013-11-01

    A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures is formulated. The intermolecular interactions among the constituents of the mixture are accounted for through additional freedom degrees to each constituent of the mixture. Balance equations for polar reacting continuum mixtures are accordingly formulated and a proper set of constitutive equations is derived with basis in the Müller-Liu formulation of the second law of thermodynamics. Moreover, the non-equilibrium and equilibrium responses of the reacting mixture are investigated in detail by emphasizing the inner and reactive structures of the medium. From the balance laws and constitutive relations, the effects of molecular structure of constituents upon the fluid flow are studied. It is also demonstrated that the local thermodynamic equilibrium state can be reached without imposing that the set of independent constitutive variables is time independent, neither spatially homogeneous nor null. The resulting constitutive relations presented throughout this work are of relevance to many practical applications, such as swelling of clays, developing of bio and polymeric membranes, and use of electrorheological fluids in industrial processes. The first author acknowledges financial support from National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq) and German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD).

  9. Book Review: The Crisis of the European Union. A Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Bârgăoanu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In his book, Jurgen Habermas explored the options available for the European Union in dealing with the global crisis. The author structured his approach on two essays. The first one, entitled “The Crisis of the European Union in Light of a Constitutionalization of International Law - An Essay on the Constitution for Europe”, emphasizes the fact that while the European decision-makers have focused on solving the currency, banking and debt crises, they omitted the political dimension of the crisis. Moreover, the author considers that in the light of a constitutional treaty for Europe, the transnationalization of the European democracy will be possible if both the public opinion and the politicians can overcome three categories of preconceptions: the dependence of the popular sovereignty to the state sovereignty, the mutually exclusive status of the European citizenship and of the national one, the indivisible nature of the sovereignty. The second essay, entitled “The Concept of Human Dignity and the Realistic Utopia of Human Rights” underlines the imperative nature of the human rights and human dignity interconnected concepts. He states that two conditions must be met in order for the concepts to be valid. Habermas considers that there must be a political community that enacts them and that the two concepts are universally accepted. The Appendix includes three recent political interventions through which Habermas reiterates the uncomfortable and controversial topic of European unification. He concludes that the European Project cannot be allowed to fail because of the raise of German nationalism and the lack of visionary European leadership.

  10. Usage of European Integration Europeanisation from a Sociological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Woll

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of European integration on its member states constitutes the new research agenda within the study of European integration. Marked by the the institutionalist turn of Anglo-Saxon political sciences, the most dominant theories on europeanisation focus on structural arrangements. Institutional incompatibility between the European and the national level, so the hypothesis, creates pressures for change. Actors are often only considered as mediators of these pressures. Consequentially, few approaches try to explain adaptational change initiated by policy actors in the absence of institutional pressures. Using a political sociology approach, the central concern of this paper is to insist on the political discretion of national actors in translation of European requirements. We believe that understanding not only adaptation to but also usage of the process of European integration is important to understanding the transformation of European member states. By insisting on usage , we aim at analysing both the strategic interaction of rational actors with the European institutions and the more sociological effect of usage as daily practice on the interest and identities of the actors.

  11. Usage of European Integration – Europeanisation from a Sociological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Jacquot

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of European integration on its member states constitutes the new research agenda within the study of European integration. Marked by the “the institutionalist turn” of Anglo-Saxon political sciences, the most dominant theories on europeanisation focus on structural arrangements. Institutional incompatibility between the European and the national level, so the hypothesis, creates pressures for change. Actors are often only considered as mediators of these pressures. Consequentially, few approaches try to explain adaptational change initiated by policy actors in the absence of institutional pressures. Using a political sociology approach, the central concern of this paper is to insist on the political discretion of national actors in translation of European requirements. We believe that understanding not only “adaptation to” but also “usage of” the process of European integration is important to understanding the transformation of European member states. By insisting on usage , we aim at analysing both the strategic interaction of rational actors with the European institutions and the more sociological effect of “usage” – as “daily practice” – on the interest and identities of the actors.

  12. Evaluation of the European Union-United States oil and petroleum-based fuels trade potential in the context of the negotiated TTIP agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olkuski Tadeusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article evaluates the European Union-United States oil and petroleum-based fuels trade potential. The planned trade structure and balance according to IEA (International Energy Agency and IHS (IHS CERA www.ihs.com scenarios, the projected volume of imports and exports, and differences in price levels and costs are presented. The projected potential of the trade volume, taking into account the possible impact of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP, is also presented. The analysis has shown that the elimination of trade barriers between the European Union and the United States would be more beneficial to US refineries. Due to the higher import tariffs to the EU, the potential benefits of US exporters are higher than those of the EU exporters to the US. This confirms the fears of European negotiators that some aspects of the agreement will have a negative impact on European businesses. However, in the case of petroleum products the TTIP agreement will have a negligible impact on increasing the export volume.

  13. How does medical device regulation perform in the United States and the European union? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Daniel B; Xu, Shuai; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2012-01-01

    Policymakers and regulators in the United States (US) and the European Union (EU) are weighing reforms to their medical device approval and post-market surveillance systems. Data may be available that identify strengths and weakness of the approaches to medical device regulation in these settings. We performed a systematic review to find empirical studies evaluating medical device regulation in the US or EU. We searched Medline using two nested categories that included medical devices and glossary terms attributable to the US Food and Drug Administration and the EU, following PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews. We supplemented this search with a review of the US Government Accountability Office online database for reports on US Food and Drug Administration device regulation, consultations with local experts in the field, manual reference mining of selected articles, and Google searches using the same key terms used in the Medline search. We found studies of premarket evaluation and timing (n = 9), studies of device recalls (n = 8), and surveys of device manufacturers (n = 3). These studies provide evidence of quality problems in pre-market submissions in the US, provide conflicting views of device safety based largely on recall data, and relay perceptions of some industry leaders from self-surveys. Few studies have quantitatively assessed medical device regulation in either the US or EU. Existing studies of US and EU device approval and post-market evaluation performance suggest that policy reforms are necessary for both systems, including improving classification of devices in the US and promoting transparency and post-market oversight in the EU. Assessment of regulatory performance in both settings is limited by lack of data on post-approval safety outcomes. Changes to these device approval and post-marketing systems must be accompanied by ongoing research to ensure that there is better assessment of what works in either setting.

  14. How does medical device regulation perform in the United States and the European union? A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B Kramer

    Full Text Available Policymakers and regulators in the United States (US and the European Union (EU are weighing reforms to their medical device approval and post-market surveillance systems. Data may be available that identify strengths and weakness of the approaches to medical device regulation in these settings.We performed a systematic review to find empirical studies evaluating medical device regulation in the US or EU. We searched Medline using two nested categories that included medical devices and glossary terms attributable to the US Food and Drug Administration and the EU, following PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews. We supplemented this search with a review of the US Government Accountability Office online database for reports on US Food and Drug Administration device regulation, consultations with local experts in the field, manual reference mining of selected articles, and Google searches using the same key terms used in the Medline search. We found studies of premarket evaluation and timing (n = 9, studies of device recalls (n = 8, and surveys of device manufacturers (n = 3. These studies provide evidence of quality problems in pre-market submissions in the US, provide conflicting views of device safety based largely on recall data, and relay perceptions of some industry leaders from self-surveys.Few studies have quantitatively assessed medical device regulation in either the US or EU. Existing studies of US and EU device approval and post-market evaluation performance suggest that policy reforms are necessary for both systems, including improving classification of devices in the US and promoting transparency and post-market oversight in the EU. Assessment of regulatory performance in both settings is limited by lack of data on post-approval safety outcomes. Changes to these device approval and post-marketing systems must be accompanied by ongoing research to ensure that there is better assessment of what works in either setting.

  15. Access to information on the state of the environment: Harmonization of legislation of the Republic of Serbia with the European directive on environmental information from 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author provides analysis of the provisions of the European Directive on Environmental Information from 2003 presently in force, and provisions for their implementation in the legislation of the Republic of Serbia, in particular the current Environmental Protection Law from 2009. Attention has been paid to the relevant rules of the Aarhus Convention on Environmental Information ratified into law of the Republic of Serbia in 2009. The author finds that majority of provisions of the European Directive on Environmental Information have been implemented into the legislation of the Republic of Serbia, however the author notes that instead of restrictive interpretation of the refusal to provide access to information on the state of the environment, as envisaged by the European Directive, the law of the Republic of Serbia provides for a wide range of reasons for refusing access to information regarding the environment. Further, the article offers analysis of procedures for providing legal protection, especially before the court (state courts or arbitral tribunals in cases of wrongful refusal to provide access to requested information by the competent state organ, both at national and regional level. The author also notes that, contrary to the European Directive which does not require a need to demonstrate legal interest in order to obtain information on the state of the environment, the law of the Republic of Serbia imposes such requirement. Truth be told, the Aarhus Convention on Access to Information in Environmental Matters that has been ratified by the Republic of Serbia, requires applicants to prove or to state the existence of the legal interest.

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF THE SIZE OF THE ECONOMY AND EUROPEAN INTEGRATION ON FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN THE CENTRAL, SOUTHEASTERN AND EASTERN EUROPEAN STATES 1994-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Kurecic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the interdependence of the economy size and foreign direct investments (FDI in the transitional economies of Central, Southeastern and Eastern Europe. In the global capitalist economy, foreign direct investments (FDI represent one of the key determinants of economic growth. Among some transitional economies, in the last 20 years, FDI represented one of factors that increased the economic growth, and in other transitional economies, the influence of FDI was minor or even negligible. In the literature devoted to the influence of FDI on economies, the research about the determinants of geographical pattern of FDI distribution usually focuses on the factors that determine why some states manage to draw FDI in higher levels than some other states. Our research focused on the transitional economies of Central, Southeastern and Eastern Europe, which were for the most part of the last 20 years net receivers of the FDI. Only a couple of these countries in the years of the current economic crisis have experienced FDI net outflow. Among the states studied, we have equally studied the EU members, as well as the non-EU members. We have tried to find similarities and differences between these two groups of states in order to determine the influence of EU membership on FDI per capita and how it correlates with the size of the state’s economy. We have also tried to answer the question of how much the GDP growth rate correlates to the FDI net inflow share in GDP for EU and non-EU members. The methodology is based on the statistical correlation between FDI in current US dollars and GDP per capita in current US dollars (World Bank data for each represented state, through the surveyed period from 1994 until 2013. The statistical correlation matrix (Pearson method determined whether any correlation between the average GDP growth rate (chain index and the average share of FDI in GDP per each state exists for each state surveyed.

  17. Constitutional foundations of the property rights of citizens and organizations for real estate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarina Kamilevna Kondratenko

    2015-09-01

    of national defense and state security. Scientific novelty the article presents the study of the Russian constitutional court and the European court on human rights practices relatedto the issues of property rights of citizens and organizations on real estate. The author discusses the legal positions of the above judicial bodies in order to identify the legal challenges and gaps in the Russian legislation as well as to identify the areas for improvement of the civil legislation. Practical significance the research results can be used for the purposes of lawmaking to improve the standards of domestic constitutional and civil law. Certain provisions may be usedin judicial practice for the consideration and resolution of cases. Research proposals may also find application in the preparation of curricula textbooks and teaching courses on quotCivil lawquot quotLand lawquot quotProprietary rights for real estatequot. nbsp

  18. Biosimilars: impact of biologic product life cycle and European experience on the regulatory trajectory in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Islah; Kaspar, Ben; Sharma, Uma

    2012-02-01

    Biosimilars are defined as biologic products that are highly similar to reference products, notwithstanding minor differences in clinically inactive components, with no clinically meaningful differences between the biologic product and the reference product in terms of safety profile, purity, and potency. Due to the high cost of innovator biologics, as well as an increase in the number of these products reaching patent expiry, the development of a process for approving biosimilar products has become a crucial regulatory issue in the United States. This commentary explores the relationship between structural/biophysical variation and the risk/benefit profile of biosimilars and reference biologics that have undergone process changes in the context of the most recent biophysical, nonclinical, and clinical data available. The search strategy used PubMed, EMBASE, and MEDLINE for the retrieval of documents pertaining to biologic manufacturing, comparative analysis of biosimilars and originator biologics, and relevant review articles on biosimilars. For regulatory documents pertaining to the processes of the approval of biosimilars, biologics, and generics, a search for legislative decisions, briefing summaries, concept papers, guidance, and evaluations of approved and rejected applications for biosimilars published by the World Health Organization, US Food and Drug Administration, European Medicines Agency (EMA), and other national regulatory authorities was conducted. Selected articles from key opinion leaders and manufacturers were also reviewed. These searches were conducted to provide a review of historical and contemporary issues in the consideration of the current status of worldwide biosimilar use and regulation. A total of 18 marketing applications covering 9 development programs were surveyed. Of these, 14 applications were approved and 4 were rejected by the EMA. None of the biosimilars were reported to have evidence of significant clinical variation relative

  19. Towards constitutive equations for the deep Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennett, B. L. N.

    2017-09-01

    A new formulation of constitutive equations for states of high compression is introduced for isotropic media, exploiting a separation between hydrostatic and deviatoric components in strain energy. The strain energy is represented as functions of strain invariants, with one purely volumetric component and the other which vanishes for purely hydrostatic deformation. This approach preserves the form of familiar equations of state through the volumetric component, but allows the addition of volume and pressure dependence of the shear modulus from the deviatoric term. A suitable shear modulus representation to accompany a Keane equation of state is demonstrated.

  20. Constitutional Crowdsourcing to Reconcile Demos with Aristos and Nomos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    After the failed Icelandic experience of constitutional crowdsourcing (2009-2012), some of the country’s legal community, parliamentarians and policymakers affirmed that the constitutional draft proposed by the constitutional council of 25 citizens and approved unanimously on 27 July 2011....... This paper first remarks on how revolutionary and innovative the constitutional crowdsourcing experience was. From Solon, Ephialtes and Cleisthenes that laid out the foundation of democratic Athens, to modern constitutions that have been penned by few people men, regardless of the political system in which...... it is framed, been liberal democracies or authoritarian states. Derrida stated there is a sort of “semantic indeterminacy” at the core of democracy and that constitutional crowdsourcing is a way to intervene in this indeterminacy. The Icelandic example enlightened that there is a way to mediate between...

  1. Analysis on Green Agriculture Policy during the Development of Eco-city in European Countries and United States and Policy Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Li; Qi, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Ecological agriculture is the important industrial foundation for building eco-cities, while green agriculture policy plays an essential role in promoting sustainable development of ecological agriculture. This paper analyzed the relationship between green agriculture policy and developing eco-cities and characteristics of green agriculture policies in European countries and the United States developing ecological cities. Besides, it summarized experience, in hope of providing beneficial refe...

  2. Modeling seismic wave propagation across the European plate: structural models and numerical techniques, state-of-the-art and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Andrea; Danecek, Peter; Molinari, Irene; Postpischl, Luca; Schivardi, Renata; Serretti, Paola; Tondi, Maria Rosaria

    2010-05-01

    Together with the building and maintenance of observational and data banking infrastructures - i.e. an integrated organization of coordinated sensor networks, in conjunction with connected data banks and efficient data retrieval tools - a strategic vision for bolstering the future development of geophysics in Europe should also address the essential issue of improving our current ability to model coherently the propagation of seismic waves across the European plate. This impacts on fundamental matters, such as correctly locating earthquakes, imaging detailed earthquake source properties, modeling ground shaking, inferring geodynamic processes. To this extent, we both need detailed imaging of shallow and deep earth structure, and accurate modeling of seismic waves by numerical methods. Our current abilities appear somewhat limited, but emerging technologies may enable soon a significant leap towards better accuracy and reliability. To contribute to this debate, we present here the state-of-the-art of knowledge of earth structure and numerical wave modeling in the European plate, as the result of a comprehensive study towards the definition of a continental-scale reference model. Our model includes a description of crustal structure (EPcrust) merging information deriving from previous studies - large-scale compilations, seismic prospection, receiver functions, inversion of surface wave dispersion measurements and Green functions from noise correlation. We use a simple description of crustal structure, with laterally-varying sediment and cristalline layers thickness, density, and seismic parameters. This a priori crustal model improves the overall fit to observed Bouguer anomaly maps over CRUST2.0. The new crustal model is then used as a constraint in the inversion for mantle shear wave speed, based on fitting Love and Rayleigh surface wave dispersion. The new mantle model sensibly improves over global S models in the imaging of shallow asthenospheric (slow) anomalies

  3. BANKING SUPERVISION IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela GUȚU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The need for prudential supervision imposed to banks by law arises from the action that banking market’s basic factors have. Therefore, it is about banks’ role in economy. The normal functioning of banks in all their important duties maintains the stability of banking system. Further, the stability of the entire economy depends on the stability of the banking system. Under conditions of imbalance regarding treasury or liquidity, banks are faced with unmanageable crisis and the consequences can be fatal. To ensure long-term stability of the banking system, supervisory regulations were constituted in order to prevent banks focusing on achieving rapidly high profits and protect the interests of depositors. Starting from this point, this paper will carry out a study on existing models of supervision in the European Union’s Member States. A comparison between them will support identifying the advantages and disadvantages of each of them.

  4. The Impact of Total Liberalization of Domestic Air Transport on the Social Welfare and on the Dynamic of Competition: Comparison Between the United States and the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbidi, Karim

    2003-01-01

    Since the lst of April 1997 date of the implementation of the third package of the liberalization, air transport, within the european Union has become totally liberalized. In the United States the deregulation of domestic air traffic was earlier and faster since it took place in October 1978 after the adoption of the only act of deregulation. This paper, in its first part, deals with the liberalization of the industry of air traffic in the european union. After a comparison with US system based on market demand, fare policy and network restrictions, we present our descriptive results coming from treatments on the OAG data. These results present several aspects such as the evolution of the competitive structure of the intra-european routes, the level of airport dominance and the growth of hub structure. The second part of the paper presents models of entry in the airline industry. As profitability" of route flown explains correctly decisions taken by airlines to serve or not a route, the paper focuses on the specification and the estimation of the determinants of city, pair profitability in the european union. Treatments done on the OAG data show a rapid development of leasing space agreement (partial and total) and code sharing practices between 1995 and 2000 in Europe that's why we differentiate first between the two type of competitive strategy of entry(direct entry and leasing space agreement) and second between the competitive strategy of entry and the alliance strategy of code sharing. So the estimation of model will be able to answer the question if the european air transport market is contestable and in case not to see if the decision of entry is more directed by the level of airport dominance (as in the domestic United States market)or essentially by the competitive structure of the routes. We try to explain the nature of entry(directleasing or code sharing) by the different levels of these two determinants.

  5. The New Ukranian Constitution: In Pursuit of a Compromise

    OpenAIRE

    Wolczuk, K

    1997-01-01

    This paper analyses the new 1996 Ukrainian constitution as a product of far-reaching compromise; in particular it looks at the resolution of the ‘national question’, the form of government and the issue of socio-economic guarantees. Constitutions are most often perceived as an instrument of restraining governments and providing a bill of civil rights and freedoms. In new states, however, constitutions purport not only to redefine but often to set up the political and socio-economic structures...

  6. Constitutional orders in multinational firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn

    Multinationals are faced with the problem of how to coordinate different actors and stop `fiefdoms' emerging that inhibits the achievement of transnational cooperation? We identify this as a problem of `constitutional ordering' in the firm. Drawing on Varieties of Capitalism approaches, we explore...... how multinationals from different contexts seek to create constitutional orders. We argue that the models which exist appear to be destructive of coordination. We explore the implications for MNCs....

  7. Constitutive Equations of Rock with Shear Dilatancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    AD-AOll 402 CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS OF ROCK WITH SHEAR DILATANCY Alfred M. Freudenthal George Washington University Prepared for: Army Research...Freudenthal April 1975 U.S. Army Research Office - Durham Grant No. DA-ARO-D-31-124-73-G194 The George Washington University School of Engineering and...diagonalizes the matrix [A]. The Hamilton- Cayley theorem,which states that a symetric matrix satisfies its own characteristic equation, transforms Eq.(2.2

  8. The healthcare system and the provision of oral healthcare in European Union member states. Part 8: Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindi, M; Paganelli, C; Eaton, K A; Widström, E

    2017-05-26

    In Italy healthcare is provided for all Italian citizens and residents and it is delivered mainly by public providers, with some private or private-public entities. Italy's public healthcare system - the Servizio Sanitario Nazionale (SSN) - is organised by the Ministry of Health and administered on a devolved regional basis. It is financed by general taxation that provides universal coverage, largely free of charge at the point of service. The central government establishes the basic national health benefits package, which must be uniformly provided throughout the country, through services guaranteed under the NHS provision called LEA - (Livelli Essenziali di Assistenza [Essential Level of Assistance]) and allocates national funds to the regions. The regions, through their regional health departments, are responsible for organising, administering and delivering primary, secondary and tertiary healthcare services as well as preventive and health promotion services. Regions are allowed a large degree of autonomy in how they perform this role and regarding decisions about the local structure of the system. Complementary and supplementary private health insurance is also available. However, as in most other Mediterranean European countries, in Italy oral healthcare is mainly provided under private arrangements. The public healthcare system provides only 5-8% of oral healthcare services and this percentage varies from region to region. Oral healthcare is included in the Legislation on Essential levels of care (LEAs) for specific populations such as children, vulnerable people (medically compromised and those on low income) and individuals who need oral healthcare in some urgent/emergency cases. For other people, oral healthcare is generally not covered. Apart from the national benefits package, regions may also carry out their own initiatives autonomously, but must finance these themselves. The number of dentists working in Italy has grown rapidly in the last few years

  9. African Customary laws and the new constitution of the post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the state can be seen to be in conflict with values of majority, within the society. In the case of this article, those of the African majority versus various rights of the minorities as guaranteed in the Constitution. Keywords: Constitution, Bill of Rights, Human Rights, Gays, Lesbian, Civil Union Act, homophobia, Social Policy.

  10. Europe-building through private law : Lessons from constitutional theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mak, C.

    2012-01-01

    Questioning the link between private law and the nation-state that is implied by nationalist perceptions of the law, this paper seeks to find support for a transnational (Europeanist,constitutional-patriotist or cosmopolitan) view on private law in constitutional theory. Normative theories of

  11. a selection of constitutional perspectives on human kidney sales

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bonnie

    Common law includes both the private law and the public law rules. 32. Du Plessis v De Klerk ... doctrine of constitutional supremacy.45 Constitutionalism now meant that the government could derive its ..... international community as a whole and in the enforcement of which all states have interest (Dugard International Law.

  12. South Dakota's System of Financing Public Education: Is It Constitutional?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Lee A.

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes the South Dakota system of financing education in light of major cases considering the constitutionality of state finance systems and of the approaches courts have used in determining constitutionality. Examines the particular finance problems that face the school systems of South Dakota. Available from University of South Dakota School…

  13. Crushed-salt constitutive model update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

  14. Constitutive behavior of reconsolidating crushed salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; Mellegard, K.D. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    1998-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe deformation of crushed salt is presented in this paper. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Recently completed creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from shear consolidation tests and a combination of shear and hydrostatic tests produces two sets of material parameter values for the model. Changes in material parameter values from test group to test group indicate the empirical nature of the model but show significant improvement over earlier work. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on fitting statistics and ability of the model to predict test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

  15. Global Survey of National Constitutions: Mapping Constitutional Commitments to Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzarossa, Lucía Berro; Perehudoff, Katrina

    2017-12-01

    General Comment No. 22, issued in 2016 by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR), clarifies states' legal duties to respect, protect, and fulfill the right to sexual and reproductive health (SRH). Our study analyzes domestic constitutions around the world to investigate whether and to what extent the right to sexual and reproductive health is respected, protected, and fulfilled; to what extent these provisions are inclusive and non-discriminatory; and to what degree the interlinkages between this and other human rights are acknowledged. Of the 195 constitutions accessed, 27 enshrine sexual and/or reproductive health, and seven adopt restrictive approaches to this right. In the 27 constitutions, provisions most frequently enshrine respect of one's sexual health and family planning decisions, the protection of sexual health, and the provision of reproductive health care and family planning services (fulfillment). Most of the 27 constitutions fail to adequately respect reproductive health rights; to protect reproductive health, family planning, and abortion services from third-party interference; and to fulfill all dimensions of sexual health and access to abortion. Three of the 27 constitutions enshrine a universal right to SRH, and additional constitutions protect specific vulnerable groups (such as women, children) and/or restrict the scope of rights holders to couples. Among the 27 constitutions, nine explicitly link the right to sexual and reproductive health to the rights to education, science, and/or to make autonomous decisions about sexuality and reproduction. Our results can serve as a baseline measure to track constitutional reforms in pursuit of the realization of sexual and reproductive health and rights, and as building blocks for future lawmakers committed to realizing these rights through domestic legal reform.

  16. 76 FR 58705 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... September 21, 2011 Part V The President Proclamation 8714--Constitution Day and Citizenship Day..., delegates from the States gathered in Philadelphia to build a new framework for our young republic. Our....) [FR Doc. 2011-24438 Filed 9-20-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ...

  17. Global Survey of National Constitutions : Mapping Constitutional Commitments to Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berro Pizzarossa, Lucia; Perehudoff, Katrina

    2017-01-01

    General Comment No. 22, issued in 2016 by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR), clarifies states' legal duties to respect, protect, and fulfill the right to sexual and reproductive health (SRH). Our study analyzes domestic constitutions around the world to investigate

  18. Introduction: European climate leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurzel, R.K.W.; Liefferink, J.D.; Connelly, J.

    2017-01-01

    There is no shortage of would-be leaders in EU climate change politics. The EU institutions (e.g. European Council, Council of the EU, Commission and the European Parliament (EP)), member states and societal actors have all, though to varying degrees and at different time periods, tried to offer

  19. State of play of CME in Europe in 2014: proceedings from the Seventh Annual Meeting of the European CME Forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Pozniak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available European CME Forum is a not-for-profit organisation that was established in 2007 in order to bring together all stakeholder groups with an interest in European CME and promote multi-channel discussion in an independent and neutral environment. This report summarises the presentations and discussions that took place at the 7th Annual Meeting of the European CME Forum in London on 13–14 November 2014. The meeting was held at a time of great uncertainty in European CME and gave attendees opportunity to consider many unanswered questions regarding how CME in Europe will be funded, accredited and regulated in the future. The programme for the forum was developed based on a needs assessment conducted among a variety of CME stakeholders in Europe and beyond. This exercise identified a number of issues that are rarely covered at similar gatherings and which were therefore given prominence during the meeting. Chief among these “hot topics” were how to ensure effective measurement of outcomes in CME programmes and how to encourage and manage the transparency of relationships between industry and healthcare professionals. Other subjects covered in depth during the forum included the future funding of CME, e-learning innovations and potential, and the value, or otherwise, of CME accreditation. The forum made use of a number of interactive meeting formats which ensured the days’ proceedings were characterised by a series of lively discussions and stimulating debates.

  20. Scientometric Approaches to Better Visibility of European Educational Research Publications: A State-of-the-Art-Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botte, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on methodological approaches to evaluate the relevance and quality of educational research publications. In the first section it focuses on the ISI Social Science Citation Index and shows that this standard instrument for bibliometric measurement is insufficient for the representation of European educational research. In the…

  1. Projecting Long-Term Care Expenditure in Four European Union Member States: The Influence of Demographic Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Font, Joan; Wittenberg, Raphael; Patxot, Concepcio; Comas-Herrera, Adelina; Gori, Cristiano; di Maio, Alessandra; Pickard, Linda; Pozzi, Alessandro; Rothgang, Heinz

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the sensitivity of future long-term care demand and expenditure estimates to official demographic projections in four selected European countries: Germany, Spain, Italy and the United Kingdom. It uses standardised methodology in the form of a macro-simulation exercise and finds evidence for significant differences in…

  2. State of selected branches of pork production sector in Poland compared to the main producers in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Knecht

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the situation of selected branches of pork production sector in Poland against the largest pork producers in the European Union. The volume of production and prices of pigs was analysed. Finally, the cost of pig production and the level of profitability in selected member countries of the Community were compared.

  3. State of selected branches of pork production sector in Poland compared to the main producers in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Damian Knecht; Sebastian Środoń

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the situation of selected branches of pork production sector in Poland against the largest pork producers in the European Union. The volume of production and prices of pigs was analysed. Finally, the cost of pig production and the level of profitability in selected member countries of the Community were compared.

  4. Using Patent Development, Education Policy and Research and Development Expenditure Policy to Increase Technological Competitiveness of Small European Union Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferraro Simona

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Belt and Road Initiative will open new trade routes between China and the European Union (EU and increase competition pressures on smaller EU member states. This article ranks where states like Estonia stand internationally in terms of innovativeness (and consequent competitiveness by conducting an econometric study of patent development, education policy and research and development (R&D expenditure policy. The authors claim that small member states such as Estonia should follow the example of countries such as Germany and adopt policies which focus more on increased public spending on R&D and innovation in public universities of science and technology, and raise support for high tech startups with a strong focus on international patenting. Member States must go further and subsidise R&D activities by focusing, inter alia, on filing of foreign patents such as triadic patents.

  5. Health state of the population living at eastern border of the European Union and its conditioning (based on the example of the south-eastern borderland of Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantylej, Wiktoria

    2012-01-01

    The article analyses modern health problems of population at the eastern border of the European Union and the factors that condition the health state of the population in this area. Spatial-temporal reasoning was conducted with regard to such indicators reflecting the health state of population as death rates due to basic reasons: circulatory system diseases, malignant neoplasm, respiratory system diseases, external causes and infant mortality rate. The above-mentioned elements were analysed with division into counties in Podkarpackie and Lubelskie voivodeships in 2002-2009. The article also analyses selected conditions of health state, such as population wealth and healthcare quality. It was noticed that some parameters of health state in the region deteriorated, especially in Lubelskie voivodeship, which results from synergy effects of socio-economic, medical and organizational nature.

  6. Policy responses to viral hepatitis B and C among people who inject drugs in Member States of the WHO European region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spina, Alexander; Eramova, Irina; Lazarus, Jeffrey V

    2014-01-01

    it varies greatly. METHODS: The initial survey included 43 questions covering awareness, data, prevention, and screening and treatment. It was sent in five languages to identified national focal points. This sub-analysis included 11 questions and 53 Member States in the WHO European Region. Descriptive...... to the survey (response rate of 83%). More than three-quarters reported offering publicly-funded treatment for HBV or HCV (82% and 80%, respectively), with a significantly higher proportion of EU/EFTA Member States (P=0.004 and P=0.010, respectively). Half of Member States (53%) reported the existence...... of a national policy for hepatitis prevention and control; however less than one-third (27%) reported having written national strategies. Under half of the responding Member States reported holding events for World Hepatitis Day 2012. One-fifth reported offering hepatitis B and C testing free of charge...

  7. Symbols and Myths in European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet; Manners, Ian James; Søby, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The study of symbols and myths in European integration is crucial to our understanding of both how the European Union (EU) becomes constituted as a political reality and how the integration process itself occurs. By drawing on the study of symbols and myths from political science, humanities...... and cultural studies to the analysis of European integration, this paper will set out a project to provide a better understanding of how symbolic and substantial processes interact in European society....

  8. A PLEADING IN FAVOUR OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL COURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina BĂRBĂŢEANU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the European countries have chosen the centralized system of constitutional review, performed by a unique authority empowered with the competence of removing from the normative ensemble those legal provisions that do not comply with the principles and rules comprised in the Basic Law. This „European model” has proved to be more appropriate than the so-called „American model” in what concerns the compatibility with the European jurisdictional mechanism. Romania has adopted the same European trend and the Constitutional Court has become a very important actor in the Romanian legal landscape. From the very beginning of its activity, it has influenced in a great measure the national normative system. It has been sometimes criticized and accused that it interferes in an excessive way in the legislative process. Due to its competence to regulate the juridical conflicts between the public authorities and its possibility to repeal laws before their promulgation, it has been many times in the centre of heavy attacks, mostly from different political forces, often driven through mass media. Nevertheless, despite of its detractors, the Constitutional Court has proven, over the years, its ability to develop the Romanian normative system. The present paper intends to display the most significant contribution of the Romanian Constitutional Court in improving various legal regulations. In the same time and much more important, using concrete examples from the Court’s case-law, the paper also intends to demonstrate that the Constitutional Court of Romania has been a major factor of improving peoples’ life, removing unconstitutional obstacles set in front of the unimpeded exercise of their fundamental rights and freedoms.

  9. Constitutionalism in Education for Democracy: The Continuing Relevance of Arguments on Constitutional Government of the American Founding Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, John J.

    This paper contends that the issues of constitutional government debated during the founding of the United States should be in the core curriculum of any school that seeks to educate students to become responsible citizens of a constitutional democracy. For purposes of teaching students, the issues debated by founding-era political thinkers can be…

  10. The response of the modern legal systems to domestic violence: Comparative analysis of some of the European countries and New York State, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milivojević Sanja K.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years of XX century domestic violence was in focus of interest in majority of European countries and worldwide. The severity of consequences that this type of violence generates to victims and other members of their families (indirect victims, the development of women's rights movement, large number of research and scholars papers that warn about danger from this violence, led to the criminal prosecution of domes tic violence and establishment of large scale of measures for victims protection, prevention of further victimization, punishment of perpetrators and minimization of negative consequences of violence. The aim of this paper is to compare modern European legislations as well as the legislation of New York State, USA, in order to consider possible further development in fighting this complex social problem in our society and practice.

  11. [Migrants on the periphery: Indigenous Brazilians, European and Japanese immigrants in the state of Paraná during the early decades of the twentieth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prutsch, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the processes of cultural transformation in Brazil resulting from European and Japanese immigrants, who brought cultural patterns and distinct identities and were transformed by interaction with the culture of the host country. Taking the example of the state of Paraná, the article offers a mosaic of cultures in transition through the study of micro-stories. It addresses the clash between Austro-Polish and Austro-Ukrainian immigrants with Botocudos Indians; the discourse of Alberto Frič on persecution against indigenous Brazilian Indians at the 16th International Congress of Americanists in Vienna; the colonization in northern Paraná by Europeans; Japanese immigration as an element of the "exotic other," as well as political conflicts in the pluriethnic colony of Rolândia.

  12. The European Union’s and Poland’s trade relations with the African, Caribbean and Pacific group of states (ACP in the agri-food products in the years 2000-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to examine key trends in the European Union’s trade policy towards the African, Caribbean and Pacific group of states (ACP, as well as to identify main changes in the commodity structure of the European (and Polish agri-food trade. The results showed that for the ACP countries, the European market is perceived as a source of food industry while the EU (including Poland imports from ACP region coffee, tea and cocoa. This confirms a certain specialization of production and trade in ACP countries. Both the European Union and Poland, are net importers of agri- food products from the ACP region.

  13. Non-ETS emission targets for 2030. Indication of emission targets for the Netherlands and other EU Member States under the European Effort Sharing Decision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdonk, M.; Hof, A.

    2013-10-15

    As European Member States are making progress towards their 2020 targets in the Effort Sharing Decision, the attention of policymakers is shifting to a framework beyond 2020. The European Commission launched a discussion with its Green Paper on a possible policy framework for 2030. This PBL Note aims to contribute to that discussion by analysing the effects of various assumptions on Member States' non-ETS emission targets for 2030. The effort sharing of the current European target for 2020 has resulted in an emission target of +20% relative to 2005 levels for the least wealthy Member State and -20% for the three wealthiest Member States. The targets for all other Member States were determined based on per-capita income levels of 2005. For possible non-ETS targets for 2030, we assumed a Europe-wide emission reduction target of 40% for 2030, compared to 1990 levels. This target is considered by the European Commission as the most cost-efficient to achieve a low-carbon economy by 2050. The 2030 target was split into a target for emissions covered by the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS) and one for emissions that are not covered by the ETS (non-ETS). According to our estimations, European non-ETS emissions need to be reduced by around 30% by 2030, compared to 2005 levels. We distributed the non-ETS reduction target of 30% over the Member States by using similar effort sharing principles that are applied in the EU Effort Sharing Decision for 2020, but with different targets assumed for the least wealthy Member State. We also took recent per-capita income levels into account. However, we did not take into account the costs and effects of emission reductions on GDP. This PBL Note analyses two possible scenarios that differ in the target assumed for the least wealthy Member State, in order to assess the effects of differing assumptions on the 2030 non-ETS targets. These scenarios should be considered as 'what if' scenarios and not as political positions

  14. Review Article.n European Identity and Turkey’s Quest for the EU Membership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Engin I.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the post-Single European Act period, debates around European identity have intensified, particularly in the context of EU enlargement. The EU’s move to being a supranational political entity in the past two decades has caused serious concerns in some sections of the elite and people across the EU member states. While French and Dutch rejections of the constitutional treaty set an important milestone, Turkey’s quest for the EU membership has complicated to a great extent controversies on European identity. The reviewed books here contribute to efforts to understand the extent to which European identity and Turkey’s bid for the EU membership has entangled. It is more likely to witness debates around both European identity and Turkey’s candidacy for the Union for many years to come; therefore, these books will more likely remain relevant for the academic and policy circles.

  15. Why European and United States drug regulators are not speaking with one voice on anti-influenza drugs: regulatory review methodologies and the importance of 'deep' product reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulinari, Shai; Davis, Courtney

    2017-11-09

    Relenza represents the first neuraminidase inhibitor (NI), a class of drugs that also includes the drug Tamiflu. Although heralded as breakthrough treatments in influenza, NI efficacy has remained highly controversial. A key unsettled question is why the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved more cautious efficacy statements in labelling than European regulators for both drugs. We conducted a qualitative analysis of United States and European Union regulatory appraisals for Relenza to investigate the reasons for divergent regulatory interpretations, pertaining to Relenza's capacity to alleviate symptoms and reduce frequency of complications of influenza. In Europe, Relenza was evaluated via the so-called national procedure with Sweden as the reference country. We show that FDA reviewers, unlike their European (i.e. Swedish) counterpart, (1) rejected the manufacturer's insistence on pooling efficacy data, (2) remained wary of subgroup analyses, and (3) insisted on stringent statistical analyses. These differences meant that the FDA was less likely to depart from prevailing regulatory and scientific standards in interpreting trial results. We argue that the differences are explained largely by divergent institutionalised review methodologies, i.e. the European regulator's reliance on manufacturer-compiled summaries compared to the FDA's examination of original data and documentation from trials. The FDA's more probing and meticulous evaluative methodology allowed its reviewers to develop 'deep' knowledge concerning the clinical and statistical facets of trials, and more informed opinions regarding suitable methods for analysing trial results. These findings challenge the current emphasis on evaluating regulatory performance mainly in terms of speed of review. We propose that persistent uncertainty and knowledge deficits regarding NIs could have been ameliorated had regulators engaged in the public debates over the drugs' efficacy and

  16. Constitutive description of human femoropopliteal artery aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenskiy, Alexey; Seas, Andreas; Deegan, Paul; Poulson, William; Anttila, Eric; Sim, Sylvie; Desyatova, Anastasia; MacTaggart, Jason

    2017-04-01

    Femoropopliteal artery (FPA) mechanics play a paramount role in pathophysiology and the artery's response to therapeutic interventions, but data on FPA mechanical properties are scarce. Our goal was to characterize human FPAs over a wide population to derive a constitutive description of FPA aging to be used for computational modeling. Fresh human FPA specimens ([Formula: see text]) were obtained from [Formula: see text] predominantly male (80 %) donors 54±15 years old (range 13-82 years). Morphometric characteristics including radius, wall thickness, opening angle, and longitudinal pre-stretch were recorded. Arteries were subjected to multi-ratio planar biaxial extension to determine constitutive parameters for an invariant-based model accounting for the passive contributions of ground substance, elastin, collagen, and smooth muscle. Nonparametric bootstrapping was used to determine unique sets of material parameters that were used to derive age-group-specific characteristics. Physiologic stress-stretch state was calculated to capture changes with aging. Morphometric and constitutive parameters were derived for seven age groups. Vessel radius, wall thickness, and circumferential opening angle increased with aging, while longitudinal pre-stretch decreased ([Formula: see text]). Age-group-specific constitutive parameters portrayed orthotropic FPA stiffening, especially in the longitudinal direction. Structural changes in artery wall elastin were associated with reduction of physiologic longitudinal and circumferential stretches and stresses with age. These data and the constitutive description of FPA aging shed new light on our understanding of peripheral arterial disease pathophysiology and arterial aging. Application of this knowledge might improve patient selection for specific treatment modalities in personalized, precision medicine algorithms and could assist in device development for treatment of peripheral artery disease.

  17. Problems And Prospects Of The European Regional Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Dymova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the last few decades, the system of international relations continues to change. One of the key components of the emerging international order is the European regional order, which currently goes through deep transformations associated with changes of the international system and structural reconstruction of the European communities. The formation of the European regional system is a complex international political process, which is based on various political, social, economic, cultural, historical and other factors. Since the end of the World war II the European Union constitutes a political and institutional basis of relations both between member states and with the rest of the world. However, today the European Union runs through a systemic crisis embodied by ongoing economic and financial downturn as well as a crisis of socio-political structures and models of governance that now threaten the existence of the Union itself. Institutional problems are aggravated against the background of crises in highly sensitive areas such as economy and security, as well as uncertainties in the external international environment. All these factors undermine the ability of the EU to play a decisive role in building a European regional order. The emphasis is shifting towards particular countries, with the greater potential in shaping the international agenda and giving an effective response to modern challenges and threats. Building a stable architecture of the European security system is one of the essential conditions of the European regional order, however contradicting approaches of the parties acknowledge that political and ideological barriers between the East and the West continue to exist. In the context of increasing security threats transatlantic partnership does not lose the relevance though the tough course of the US and its desire to reinforce its leadership in Europe often meets the extreme disapproval on the part of the Europeans. Russian

  18. [Pediatric drug development: ICH harmonized tripartite guideline E11 within the United States of America, the European Union, and Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflieger, M; Bertram, D

    2014-10-01

    To address the lack of appropriate pediatric drugs available on the global market, in 2000 the International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) issued the ICH E11 guideline regarding the Clinical Investigation of Medicinal Products in the Pediatric Population. This guideline considerably changes the environment of drug development for children. It has been written specifically to harmonize, promote, and facilitate high-quality and ethical clinical research for children within the ICH regions, i.e., the United States of America (USA), the European Union (EU), and Japan. This article details the various regulations applicable in each ICH region following the publication of the guideline. The framework of rewards, incentives, and obligations for pharmaceutical companies established for the development of pediatric drugs are compared. It appears that the USA and the EU have both developed specific regulations for pediatric drug development while Japan has not. However, in Japan, pharmaceutical companies (PCs) are encouraged to develop pediatric drugs voluntarily, and they may be granted additional months of market exclusivity or the postponement of the drug re-examination deadline. In both the USA and the EU, regulations aimed to increase the number of clinical studies conducted in children, in order to ensure that the necessary data are generated, determining the conditions in which a drug may be authorized to treat the pediatric population. PCs are encouraged to develop pediatric assessment, including pediatric clinical trials, which is described in a pediatric plan submitted to the relevant authorities. A system of rewards for PCs submitting an application for marketing authorization containing pediatric use information has been put in place to cover the additional investment for testing drugs in children. Subject to conditions, these rewards consist in a 6-month extension of the patent or

  19. The Bargaining Power of Territorially Constituted Institutionalised Coalitions in EU Council Negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilze Ruse

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that negotiations in the European Union Council are not only taking place within the formal EU decision making structures. Member states strive to identify like-minded peers and to exchange information prior to the formal negotiations. Institutionalised intergovernmental coalitions that exist among the member states on a geographical affinity basis, e.g. Benelux and Nordic subgroups facilitate exchange among their members and grant them a bargaining advantage. The knowledge of the effects of territorially constituted institutionalised coalitions is, however, limited. Drawing on rational choice institutionalism, this study argues that territorially constituted institutionalised coalitions enhance the bargaining power through three mechanisms: first, exchange of information, which counterbalances the asymmetries in information distribution at the pre-negotiation stage; second, pooling of expertise that allows the member states to share resources and provide common argumentation for their positions; and, third, through rhetorical action that gives more strength to normative justifications ,which may lead to the normative entrapment of other member states outside the coalition.

  20. Communication from the United Kingdom Presented the French Delegation - Draft Supplementary Agreement Prolonging the Existence of a Coucil of Representatives of European States for Planning an International Laboratory and Organizing Other Forms of Co

    CERN Document Server

    European Council for Nuclear Research

    1953-01-01

    Communication from the United Kingdom Presented the French Delegation - Draft Supplementary Agreement Prolonging the Existence of a Coucil of Representatives of European States for Planning an International Laboratory and Organizing Other Forms of Co

  1. [Richard C. M. Mole: The Baltic states from the Soviet Union to the European Union. Identity, discourse and power in the post-communist transition of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Mole, Richard C. M. The Baltic States from the Soviet Union to the European Union : identity, discourse and power in the post-communist transition of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. London ; New York : Routledge, 2012, 2013

  2. Community incidence of pathogen-specific gastroenteritis: reconstructing the surveillance pyramid for seven pathogens in seven European Union member states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagsma, J. A.; Geenen, P. L.; Ethelberg, S.

    2013-01-01

    By building reconstruction models for a case of gastroenteritis in the general population moving through different steps of the surveillance pyramid we estimated that millions of illnesses occur annually in the European population, leading to thousands of hospitalizations. We used data on the hea......By building reconstruction models for a case of gastroenteritis in the general population moving through different steps of the surveillance pyramid we estimated that millions of illnesses occur annually in the European population, leading to thousands of hospitalizations. We used data......, underreporting and under-diagnosis were estimated to be lowest for Germany and Sweden, followed by Denmark, The Netherlands, UK, Italy and Poland. Across all countries, the incidence rate was highest for Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. Incidence estimates resulting from the pyramid reconstruction approach...

  3. Environment in the European Union 1995

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The update to the 1992 report on the state of the environment in the European Union requested by the European Commission......The update to the 1992 report on the state of the environment in the European Union requested by the European Commission...

  4. The Impact of the Equal Rights Amendment. Part 2. Hearings before the Subcommittee on the Constitution of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First and Second Sessions (June 22, August 7, and September 19, 1984).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    Presented are three congressional hearings on a joint resolution proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States relative to equal rights for women and men. The hearings focus on the impact of the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) on domestic relations or family law; exceptions to the rule of equality contained in the ERA, in particular…

  5. Jonathan's Constitutional Conference in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ian

    2013-10-01

    Oct 1, 2013 ... commitment to work with recommendations of the Conference. The Conference wound up with the remarks by the. Chairman. President Jonathan, like many of the regimes before him, saw the inherent weaknesses and contradictions in the governing constitution, upon which his government had based its ...

  6. Unconstitutional constitutional amendments in Ethiopia: the practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Such constitutional provisions serve to confine the power to amend the constitution within the prescribed legal requirements as well as help to control arbitrary changes to the constitution, which consequently promotes constitutionalism within the country. The FDRE Constitution has been amended twice within these twenty ...

  7. IEA Wind Task 26. Wind Technology, Cost, and Performance Trends in Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, the European Union, and the United States: 2007–2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitina, Aisma [Ea Energy Analyses, Copenhagen (Denmark); Lüers, Silke [Deutsche WindGuard, Varel (Germany); Wallasch, Anna-Kathrin [Deutsche WindGuard, Varel (Germany); Berkhout, Volker [Fraunhofer IWES, Kassel (Germany); Duffy, Aidan [Dublin Inst. of Technology and Dublin Energy Lab. (Ireland); Cleary, Brendan [Dublin Inst. of Technology and Dublin Energy Lab. (Ireland); Husabø, Lief I. [Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE), Oslo (Norway); Weir, David E. [Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE), Oslo (Norway); Lacal-Arántegui, Roberto [European Commission, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Hand, Maureen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Belyeu, Kathy [Belyeu Consulting, Takoma Park, MD (United States); Wiser, Ryan H [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoen, Ben [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The International Energy Agency Implementing Agreement for cooperation in Research, Development, and Deployment of Wind Energy Systems (IEA Wind) Task 26—The Cost of Wind Energy represents an international collaboration dedicated to exploring past, present and future cost of wind energy. This report provides an overview of recent trends in wind plant technology, cost, and performance in those countries that are currently represented by participating organizations in IEA Wind Task 26: Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, and the United States as well as the European Union.

  8. Conferinţa anuală a administratorilor pădurilor de stat din Europa (European State Forest Association – EUSTAFOR – 12-14 iunie, Poiana Brașov [The Annual Conference of State Forest Administration (EUSTAFOR. June 12-14, Poiana Brașov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oprea A.M.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The National Forestry Administration - Romsilva, organized from 12 to 14 June in Poiana Brasov, the Annual Conference of State Forest Administrators from Europe, with members of the European State Forest Association (EUSTAFOR. The theme of the conference was „European Forests - Bridges to a Green Future”, with debates on topics such as European policies on bio-economy and the role of state forest managers from Europe in implementing climate change policies. The conference was attended by 78 guests representing representatives of the European State Forestry Organizations, the European Commission, the Ministry of Waters and Forests, the EUSTAFOR leadership, the Romsilva leadership, as well as researchers and members of the forest academia. The EUSTAFOR Annual Conference covered areas such as bio-economy, mitigation of climate change and environmental and economic social services offering participants the opportunity to discuss the opportunities, challenges and requirements faced by state forest managers today and in the future

  9. Towards an overarching European health information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuuren, Marieke; van Bolhuis, Annemiek; Rosenkötter, Nicole; Tijhuis, Mariken; van Oers, Hans

    2017-10-01

    A European health information system (HIS) supports mutual learning between member states through international comparisons. In addition, it informs international policy agendas. Collaboration between the major stakeholders, most importantly the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO-Euro), the European Commission and OECD, is important for member states, as this will contribute to better and more efficiently produced health intelligence. This paper focuses on this 'supra-international' collaboration. Although progress has been made, most notably in relation to joint data collections on monetary and non-monetary healthcare statistics, there is still room for improvement, both in relation to the harmonization of indicators and their underlying data collections, and the better coordination of reporting and research and development work. The working environment is complex, and differences between the (scope of the) health information activities of the three international organizations must be accepted. Yet there is enough common ground to build on. In addition, important barriers hampering further progress are the current semantic confusion about what constitutes a(n international) HIS, and inadequate coordination of national positions across various technical and political platforms of the international organizations. A pragmatic, bottom-up approach, instead of technically and strategically complex and comprehensive solutions, seems the best way forward. The current momentum created by EU-level developments and networks like the European Health Information Initiative of WHO-Euro provide an opportunity for taking the overarching European HIS to a next level. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  10. Popular perceptions of welfare state consequences: a multi-level, cross-national analysis of 25 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oorschot, W.; Reeskens, T.; Meuleman, B.

    2012-01-01

    The societal effects of the welfare state are a perennial issue in the public debate. Critics accuse the welfare state of having unintended economic and moral consequences rather than producing its intended social goals. Popular perceptions of possible consequences of the welfare state are a crucial

  11. Constitutions as Intergenerational Contracts: Flexible or fixed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Tremmel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Constitutions enshrine the fundamental values of a people and build a framework for a state’s public policy. With regard to intergenerational justice, their endurance gives rise to two concerns: the (forgone welfare concern and the sovereignty concern. In this paper, I outline a procedure for constitution- amending that is intergenerationally just. In its line of reasoning, the paper debates ideas such as perpetual constitutions, sunset constitutions, constitutional reform commissions and constitutional conventions both historically and analytically. It arrives at the conclusion that recurrent constitutional reform commissions in fixed time intervals strike the best balance between the necessary rigidity and the necessary flexibility of constitutions.

  12. CONSTITUTION, CIVIL SOCIETY AND THE FIGHT AGAINST RADICALISM: THE EXPERIENCE OF INDONESIA AND AUSTRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asfa Widiyanto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The German scholar Ernst-Wolfgang Böckenförde (b. 1930 is reported to have said that “the free secular state lives on premises that it cannot itself guarantee”. These premises include the morality, commitment to public order and the like. In this train of thought, we may say that the constitution is in need of strong civil society so as to maintain the well-being of the state. This article employs documents, observation and interviews to highlight the experience of Indonesia and Austria in minimizing radicalism. The first concern of this paper deals with the interplays between constitution and civil society in eradicating radical tendencies within Indonesian and Austrian society, most particularly within the Muslim communities of these respective countries. The second concern of the paper delves in which ways expressions of Islam in Indonesia and Austria contribute to the making of peace in the respective societies. Islam is recognized as religion in both countries. The notions of “European Islam” and “Indonesian Islam” are believed to shape the current-state of eradicating radicalism in the two countries.

  13. The Constitutive Power of Twitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa; Etter, Michael Andreas

    Twitter is an increasingly used new information and communication technology (ICT) in organizational settings. Predominant research, however, tends to adopt functionalist standpoints and investigates new ICTs as platforms of information transmission through which organizations interact...... organizations. The analysis illustrates how specific Twitter interactions, i.e., hashtags, become hypertexts—a type of authoritative texts—which simultaneously constitute an organizational actor or act as a pastiche of it. The study contributes to extant research by illustrating how hypertextuality...... with their constituents. Such focus leaves little knowledge concerning the tensions new ICTs bring to organizational life. For a more nuanced understanding of the constitutive role of new ICTs in organizing, this paper unfolds a communication centered perspective and examines the strategic Twitter use in two...

  14. Engineering and the constitution. Technik und Verfassung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzog, R.

    1988-01-01

    We can see at every turn how instruments once used for the good of mankind become blunt right before our very eyes. They still serve their purpose, but each further step brings about less additional benefit ('residual benefit'). This is a fundamental problem rather than a detail problem, as it is the self-concept, reliability and stability of our public order that is at risk. 'Constitution' in this sense is more than just the legal basis of the state; as used by the author it refers to the laws governing a society's life. (orig./HSCH).

  15. Evaluation of constitutive models for crushed salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hurtado, L.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1996-05-01

    Three constitutive models are recommended as candidates for describing the deformation of crushed salt. These models are generalized to three-dimensional states of stress to include the effects of mean and deviatoric stress and modified to include effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt is used to determine material parameters for the models. To evaluate the capability of the models, parameter values obtained from fitting the complete database are used to predict the individual tests. Finite element calculations of a WIPP shaft with emplaced crushed salt demonstrate the model predictions.

  16. THE CONVENTION, THE DRAFT CONSTITUTION AND EXTERNAL RELATIONS: EFFECTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE EU AND ITS INTERNATIONAL ROLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Duke

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the likely effects and implications of the draft EU Constitution on external relations. One of the most potentially significant reforms is the suggested adoption by the EU of legal personality. This may well open up the possibility of developing an EU wide diplomatic service, beyond that of the current External Service, to assist the EU Foreign Minister. It is argued that more thought is necessary on consistency and coherence in external relations, especially how the various actors should relate to one another. The potential relationship between the EU Foreign Minister and the President of the European Council are of particular relevance. It is also argued that the sections pertaining to defence are likely to be immensely controversial in the forthcoming IGC and should be rethought since the value added of adopting an interim mutual defence commitment is far from evident. It is also less than clear that a solidarity clause for threats emanating from non-state sources, marks a significant advance. Finally, the inclusion of a possible European Armaments, Research and Military Capabilities Agency in the draft constitution is welcome in principle, but it is questioned whether this belongs in the constitution.

  17. LES APPORTS DE LA CONSTITUTION POUR L'EUROPE À LA THÉORIE DU FÉDÉRALISME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Ziller

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the role thatin the medium and long term theTreaty establishing a Constitutionfor Europe will have eventually inthe process of European integration.In spite of the failed resultsof the French and Dutch referendafor its ratification, the Treaty,claims the author, will readopt acentral role in the future of theEuropean Union. From this perspective,the author explores differentaspects and features of theTreaty: he firstly deals with thedebate about the nature of theTreaty itself, that is, whether it isjust a treaty or whether it can beconsidered a constitution; secondly,the discusses about the possiblepolitical directions the Treatysets for Europe: whether it establishesa path for a federation, aconfederation or a third way. Thirdly,the author looks at other centralfeatures of the Treaty such asthe right of secession of the MemberStates, the recognition of nationalinstitutional structures, theestablishment of the EuropeanUnion’s institutions, the regulationof relations between the EuropeanUnion and the Member States,and the primacy principle.

  18. Constitutional transitions in Central and Eastern Europe : [book reviews] / Philipp Kiiver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiiver, Philipp

    2006-01-01

    Arvustus: Sadurski, W. Rights before courts : a study of constitutional courts in postcommunist states of Central and Eastern Europe. Springer, 2005 ; Albi, A. EU enlargement and the constitutions of Central and Eastern Europe. Cambridge University Press, 2005

  19. Comparison of ultraviolet A light protection standards in the United States and European Union through in vitro measurements of commercially available sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Steven Q; Xu, Haoming; Stanfield, Joseph W; Osterwalder, Uli; Herzog, Bernd

    2017-07-01

    The importance of adequate ultraviolet A light (UVA) protection has become apparent in recent years. The United States and Europe have different standards for assessing UVA protection in sunscreen products. We sought to measure the in vitro critical wavelength (CW) and UVA protection factor (PF) of commercially available US sunscreen products and see if they meet standards set by the United States and the European Union. Twenty sunscreen products with sun protection factors ranging from 15 to 100+ were analyzed. Two in vitro UVA protection tests were conducted in accordance with the 2011 US Food and Drug Administration final rule and the 2012 International Organization for Standardization method for sunscreen effectiveness testing. The CW of the tested sunscreens ranged from 367 to 382 nm, and the UVA PF of the products ranged from 6.1 to 32. Nineteen of 20 sunscreens (95%) met the US requirement of CW >370 nm. Eleven of 20 sunscreens (55%) met the EU desired ratio of UVA PF/SPF > 1:3. The study only evaluated a small number of sunscreen products. The majority of tested sunscreens offered adequate UVA protection according to US Food and Drug Administration guidelines for broad-spectrum status, but almost half of the sunscreens tested did not pass standards set in the European Union. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. SCOTLAND AND EUROPE, OR: ROOM AT THE TOP FOR 'CONSTITUTIONAL REGIONS'?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhard Bort

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Scotland, it is sometimes said, is more Euro-friendly than the rest of Britain. And, yes, some opinion polls would support that. Scotland is slightly more favourably disposed towards the Euro. And outright Euro-scepticism is not as thick on the ground as in the southern parts of England. But the differences are pretty marginal. Scotland's love for Europe might be more fiction than fact. And yet, as is often the case with myths, it is an important factor in Scottish politics. But the real issue for Scotland and Europe in the immediate future is its representation and participation in the governance of the European Union. With devolution in the UK, Scotland – with its own Parliament and Executive – has been firmly put on the political map of Europe. Together with similarly powered 'regions', Scotland's Parliament and Executive are making their case for an input of the 'third level' into a multi-level system of European governance. Is there room at the top for Scotland and the 'constitutional regions' of Europe? The answer to this question may play a significant role in determining Scotland's future: either as an integrated part of both the UK and Europe, or as an 'independent' state in the European Union.

  1. Main directions and priorities of Ukraine state migration policy in the context of its european integration changes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    К.V. Shymanska

    2016-01-01

    .... This article is devoted to the study of existing approaches to identification of main directions and priorities of state migration policy for eliminating of external migration negative effects...

  2. Historic, pre-European settlement, and present-day contribution of wild ruminants to enteric methane emissions in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, A N

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this analysis were to estimate historic (pre-European settlement) enteric CH(4) emissions from wild ruminants in the contiguous United States and compare these with present-day CH(4) emissions from farmed ruminants. The analysis included bison, elk (wapiti), and deer (white-tailed and mule). Wild ruminants such as moose, antelope (pronghorn), caribou, and mountain sheep and goat were not included in the analysis because their natural range is mostly outside the contiguous United States or because they have relatively small population sizes. Data for presettlement and present-day population sizes, animal BW, feed intake, and CH(4) emission factors were adopted from various sources. Present-day CH(4) emissions from livestock were from recent United States Environmental Protection Agency estimates. The most important factor determining CH(4) emissions from wild ruminants in the presettlement period was the size of the bison population. Overall, enteric CH(4) emissions from bison, elk, and deer in the presettlement period were about 86% (assuming bison population size of 50 million) of the current CH(4) emissions from farmed ruminants in the United States. Present-day CH(4) emissions from wild ruminants (bison, elk, and deer) were estimated at 0.28 Tg/yr, or 4.3% of the emissions from domestic ruminants. Due to its population size (estimated at 25 million), the white-tailed deer is the most significant present-day wild ruminant contributor to enteric CH(4) emissions in the contiguous United States.

  3. Matched analysis on orphan drug designations and approvals: cross regional analysis in the United States, the European Union, and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Manabu; Narukawa, Mamoru

    2016-04-01

    Orphan drugs have become a key area of focus in drug development for resolving unmet medical needs. The Orphan Drug Act in the USA and similar legislation in Japan, the European Union (EU), and several other countries has been enacted since 1983. This study provides a quantitative review of all orphan drug designations and approvals since the implementation of orphan drug legislation in key three regions. This study also identified and reviewed 'commonly designated' drugs across regions. Out of approximately 5000 designations, approximately 800 designations were common among the USA, EU, and/or Japan. Regional similarities, differences, and trends were identified. It is important to understand these aspects and the crucial role of orphan drug designation in global drug development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The political role of service delivery in state-building: Exploring the relevance of European history for developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven); Z. Scott (Zoë)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractConcerns about failed and fragile states have put state- and nation-building firmly on the academic and policy agenda, but the crucial role of public services in this process has remained underexplored. The 1960s and '70s generated a substantial set of literature that is largely missing

  5. Towards a European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondius, E.H.

    2000-01-01

    I. Introduction. II. Subject-matter of this paper. III. Constitutionality. IV. Codification. V. Is it Feasible?VI. Howto proceed. VII. New problems: finding the Law. VIII. The Netherlands, Belgium and Germany. IX. Common Law and Civil Law. X. East and west. XI. European Community Law. XII.

  6. Sex Education, State Policy and the Principle of Mutual Consent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steutel, Jan; Spiecker, Ben

    2004-01-01

    Constitutive of the prevalent sexual morality in most Western European countries is the liberal principle of mutual consent (PMC). This sociological fact may give rise to the ethical question as to whether or not the state has the right to make sure that its citizens will observe PMC, among other ways by prescribing some form of sex education…

  7. Constitutional moments in governing science and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasanoff, Sheila

    2011-12-01

    Scholars in science and technology studies (STS) have recently been called upon to advise governments on the design of procedures for public engagement. Any such instrumental function should be carried out consistently with STS's interpretive and normative obligations as a social science discipline. This article illustrates how such threefold integration can be achieved by reviewing current US participatory politics against a 70-year backdrop of tacit constitutional developments in governing science and technology. Two broad cycles of constitutional adjustment are discerned: the first enlarging the scope of state action as well as public participation, with liberalized rules of access and sympathetic judicial review; the second cutting back on the role of the state, fostering the rise of an academic-industrial complex for technology transfer, and privatizing value debates through increasing delegation to professional ethicists. New rules for public engagement in the United Sates should take account of these historical developments and seek to counteract some of the anti-democratic tendencies observable in recent decades.

  8. Constitutive Effects of Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahler-Larsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The idea that performance indicators in public management have unintended consequences is almost as old as performance measurement itself. But, is ‘unintended consequences’ an appropriate and insightful idea? The very term rests on an identification of intentions and assumptions about validity...... that are demonstrably problematic. Based on a distinction between trivial and advanced measure fixation, an argument is made for constitutive effects that are based on less problematic assumptions. Through this conceptual move, the political dimension of performance indicators is appreciated. The conceptual dimensions...

  9. European Cyber Security Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Bendiek, Annegret

    2012-01-01

    The gradually developing European cyber security policy tries to establish minimum standards in all EU member states with regard to prevention, resilience and international cooperation. It aims to foster national security without compromising democratic principles or unduly limiting individual liberties. However, it is hard to find a balance between these goals, and the EU’s measures thus inevitably raise questions about the democratic implications of European cyber security policy. Are the i...

  10. Association and exclusion: the paradox of liberal constitutionalism

    OpenAIRE

    H.N. Hirsch

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that a central paradox of liberal constitutionalism can be found by closely examining the freedom of association.  Freedom of association includes the right not to associate; thus a regime of individual rights facilitates the creation of marginalized individuals and groups.  These groups then seek social recognition, which liberal constitutionalism cannot easily grant, unless the state itself becomes complicit in discriminatory action.  The existence and protection ...

  11. Constitutional Model and Rationality in Judicial Decisions from Proportionality Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Feio, Thiago Alves

    2016-01-01

    In the current legal systems, the content of the Constitutions consists of values that serve to limit state action. The department in charge of the control of this system is, usually, the Judiciary. This choice leads to two major problems, the tension between democracy and constitutionalism and the subjectivity that control. One of the solutions to subjectivity is weighting of principles through the proportionality technique, which aims to give rational decisions. This technique doesn’t elimi...

  12. CONSTITUTIONAL ECONOMICS APPROACH TO FISCAL POLICY IMPLEMENTATIONS IN TRANSITION ECONOMIE

    OpenAIRE

    Ünlükaplan, İlter; Volkan YURDADOĞ; AKÇA, Haşim

    2017-01-01

    According to the "Constitutional Economics", which formes the basic point of view of the application of the Public Choice Theory to the economic policy, it is essential to make an economic analysis of the behavior of the actors who take part in the political process in order to determine the constitutional level of the authorities of the state and the limits of the state. The view that dominated until the beginning of the 1970s in economics was that the state would be able to achieve desirabl...

  13. State-Sponsored Homophobia and the Denial of the Right of Assembly in Central and Eastern Europe : The "Boomerang" and the "Ricochet" between European Organizations and Civil Society to Uphold Human Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhacker, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    State-sponsored homophobia emerged in certain Central and Eastern European states in the past decade, with the denial of the right of assembly for gay pride marches. However, more recently there has been progress in the recognition of the fundamental democratic right of assembly. What accounts for

  14. A Communicatively Constituted Online Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara; Romenti, Stefania; Kruckeberg, Dean

    2017-01-01

    This chapter presents a theoretical proposition that could serve as foundation to explain how people become aware, develop an understanding, and create meanings about specific critical situations through social media conversations and how, eventually, these transform critical situations into spec......This chapter presents a theoretical proposition that could serve as foundation to explain how people become aware, develop an understanding, and create meanings about specific critical situations through social media conversations and how, eventually, these transform critical situations...... into specific public crisis perceptions. Drawing from a communicative constitution perspective, the authors argue that if crises are perceptions or experiences of difficult situations that exceed a person’s current resources and coping mechanisms, and if perceptions and experiences in social media are typically...... by offering suggestions on how to study online critical conversations through the lens of a communicative constitution perspective that could inform how critical issues eventually transform and become crises and how crisis perceptions evolve and are discursively shaped by communicative practices occurring...

  15. Essence and constitution in Zubiri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Gómez Fernández

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to expound Zubiri’s concept of essence and to begin a critical discussion and evaluation of his proposal. Before explaining what essence is, it is necessary to observe that, for our author, not all things have an essence: only «reality-things» but not «meaning-things» form part of the «essentiable domain». This distinction between «reality-things» and «meaning-things» supposes a new conception of nature. (Nature is not the opposite of the artificial, as the Greek term physis is.«Reality-things» form a constitutional and «closed» system of non-causal and non-«external» characteristics or traits. These «foundational characteristics» of constitution, then, are precisely the essence. The article discusses critically the assumptions of this doctrine (reality, ontological pluralism, foundation and its possible limits in the light of contemporary science. It can be a useful theory for the philosophy of language.

  16. European communion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on ‘sharing’ or ‘communion......’, provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as ‘integration’ or ‘co-operation’. The concept of ‘European communion’ is defined as the ‘subjective sharing of relationships’, understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing...... relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European...

  17. Theory and reform in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Chryssochoou, Dimitris N.; Tsinisizelis, Michael J.; Stavridis, Stelios; Ifantis, Kostas

    2003-01-01

    This substantially updated and revised edition offers a comprehensive overview of the challenges confronting the political system as well as the international politics of the European Union. It draws from a rich spectrum of regional integration theories to determine what the Union actually is and how it is developing. The book examines constitutional politics of the European Union, from the Single European Act to the Treaty of Nice and beyond. The ongoing debate on the future of Europe links ...

  18. Developing Constitutional Rights of, in, and for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Robert A.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses U.S. Supreme Court decisions dealing with the constitutional rights of children and parents against state interventions on the behalf of children and attempts to generalize about the Court's stance on the permissible scope of state substitute-parenting activities. Available from Law and Contemporary Problems, Duke Station, Durham, North…

  19. CONSTITUTIONAL ECONOMICS APPROACH TO FISCAL POLICY IMPLEMENTATIONS IN TRANSITION ECONOMIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlter ÜNLÜKAPLAN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the "Constitutional Economics", which formes the basic point of view of the application of the Public Choice Theory to the economic policy, it is essential to make an economic analysis of the behavior of the actors who take part in the political process in order to determine the constitutional level of the authorities of the state and the limits of the state. The view that dominated until the beginning of the 1970s in economics was that the state would be able to achieve desirable macroeconomic targets with active demand policies. However, developments that emerged in these years can not be explained by traditional economic theories have brought with it a doubt that they will lead to demandoriented economic policies. The Constitutional Economics Approach, which finds its roots from the Social Contract Theory and Public Choice Theory, argues that the behavior of the units taking part in the political and economic field, questioning the active role of the state, can be transformed into arbitrary applications by acting from the Maximand primacy is regarded as an alternative to active economic policies. In this study, the foundations, assumptions and proposals of the theory of the Constitutional Economics will be examined, then the concept of transition economy will be explained and the role of the state in transition economies will be questioned and the importance of creating a fiscal constitution in this countries will be emphasized

  20. Herbal medicinal products versus botanical-food supplements in the European market: state of art and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilia, Anna Rita

    2015-01-01

    Botanical products marketed in Europe are diverse, classified as herbal medicinal products, dietary supplements, cosmetics, foods and beverages depending on the relevant applicable legislation. Many factors are taken into account in the classification of a botanical product (e.g. intended use, labeling, preparations and dosages) according to how it is placed on the market. Herbal medicinal products (HMPs) can only be sold in pharmacies, under the supervision of a pharmacist, and are marketed after full or simplified registration procedures according to their classification, i.e. as over-the-counter drugs (OTC) available without special restrictions and prescription only medicine (POM), which must be prescribed by a licensed medical practitioner. The dietary supplement segment is also sold in the market in dose form (such as capsules, tablets, ampoules of liquids, drops etc) and represents 15-20% of the botanical market at the European level with high variability among each country (i.e. in Italy it reaches up to 80%). In many cases the distinction between medicinal products and food supplements has generated borderline botanical-sourced products, which generally produce confusion and mislead the consumers. As a consequence, there is an urgent need of consumer education and in addition to collect comprehensive data and make this database systematically available to herbalists, nutritionists and medical specialists for a proper classification and harmonization of the use of botanical ingredients, and, as consequence, a correct use of these products.